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Sample records for abnormal tdp-43 immunoreactivity

  1. Staging TDP-43 pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Josephs, Keith A; Murray, Melissa E; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Parisi, Joseph E; Petrucelli, Leonard; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Dickson, Dennis W

    2014-03-01

    TDP-43 immunoreactivity occurs in 19-57 % of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. Two patterns of TDP-43 deposition in AD have been described involving hippocampus (limbic) or hippocampus and neocortex (diffuse), although focal amygdala involvement has been observed. In 195 AD cases with TDP-43, we investigated regional TDP-43 immunoreactivity with the aim of developing a TDP-43 in AD staging scheme. TDP-43 immunoreactivity was assessed in amygdala, entorhinal cortex, subiculum, hippocampal dentate gyrus, occipitotemporal, inferior temporal and frontal cortices, and basal ganglia. Clinical, neuroimaging, genetic and pathological characteristics were assessed across stages. Five stages were identified: stage I showed scant-sparse TDP-43 in the amygdala only (17 %); stage II showed moderate-frequent amygdala TDP-43 with spread into entorhinal and subiculum (25 %); stage III showed further spread into dentate gyrus and occipitotemporal cortex (31 %); stage IV showed further spread into inferior temporal cortex (20 %); and stage V showed involvement of frontal cortex and basal ganglia (7 %). Cognition and medial temporal volumes differed across all stages and progression across stages correlated with worsening cognition and medial temporal volume loss. Compared to 147 AD patients without TDP-43, only the Boston Naming Test showed abnormalities in stage I. The findings demonstrate that TDP-43 deposition in AD progresses in a stereotypic manner that can be divided into five distinct topographic stages which are supported by correlations with clinical and neuroimaging features. Given these findings, we recommend sequential regional TDP-43 screening in AD beginning with the amygdala. PMID:24240737

  2. Staging TDP-43 pathology in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Josephs, Keith A.; Murray, Melissa E; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Parisi, Joseph E.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Jack, Clifford R., Jr.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Dickson, Dennis W

    2013-01-01

    TDP-43 immunoreactivity occurs in 19–57% of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases. Two patterns of TDP-43 deposition in AD have been described involving hippocampus (Limbic) or hippocampus and neocortex (Diffuse), although focal amygdala involvement has been observed. In 195 AD cases with TDP-43, we investigated regional TDP-43 immunoreactivity with the aim of developing a TDP-43 in AD staging scheme. TDP-43 immunoreactivity was assessed in amygdala, entorhinal cortex, subiculum, hippocampal dentate...

  3. Traumatic brain injury causes frontotemporal dementia and TDP-43 proteolysis.

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    Wang, H-K; Lee, Y-C; Huang, C-Y; Liliang, P-C; Lu, K; Chen, H-J; Li, Y-C; Tsai, K-J

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for dementia. Recently, TBI has also been suggested as a risk factor for frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and plasma immunoreactivity to the TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been observed in both patients with acute TBI and long-term survivors of this condition. We used a population-based study to estimate and compare the risk of FTD in individuals with and without TBI. Furthermore, we used a rat model of TBI to show that increased TDP-43 proteolysis following TBI produces FTD-like impairments, including abnormal limb-clasping, and impaired performances in the Morris water maze. We recruited 24,585 patients who received ambulatory or hospital care for TBI and 122,925 patients without TBI for this study. Each individual was investigated for 4years to evaluate FTD development, and data were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard regression. In the TBI rat model, behavior and TDP-43 inclusions were assessed following intracranial administration of a caspase-3 inhibitor or vehicle. FTD was more likely to occur in the TBI group than in the group without TBI (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.43; 95% confidence interval, 3.85-5.10; P<0.001). Rats developed behavioral impairments similar to those in patients with FTD after TBI. Further, the behavioral impairments were likely associated with TDP-43 short fragment mislocalization and accumulation. Our findings suggest that in humans, TBI is associated with a greater occurrence of FTD. Moreover, clinical FTD manifestations may be associated with TDP-43 proteolysis, since impaired behaviors in TBI rats were reminiscent of those in humans with FTD. PMID:25982564

  4. Sarcoplasmic Redistribution of Nuclear TDP-43 in Inclusion Body Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Salajegheh, Mohammad; Pinkus, Jack L; Taylor, J. Paul; Amato, Anthony A; Nazareno, Remedios; Baloh, Robert H.; Greenberg, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    The nucleic acid binding protein TDP-43 was recently identified in normal myonuclei and in the sarcoplasm of inclusion body myositis (IBM) muscle. Here we found TDP-43 sarcoplasmic immunoreactivity in 23% of IBM myofibers, while other reported IBM biomarkers were less frequent, with rimmed vacuoles in 2.8%, fluorescent Congo red material in 0.57%, SMI-31 immunoreactivity in 0.83%, and focal R1282 beta-amyloid immunoreactivity in 0.00% of myofibers. The presence of as little as > 1% of myofibe...

  5. Cytoplasmic Inclusions of TDP-43 in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Potential Role for Caspases

    OpenAIRE

    Rohn, Troy T.

    2009-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) proteinopathies are classified based upon the extent of modified TDP-43 inclusions and include a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin immunoreactive, tau negative inclusions (FTLD-U) and FTLD with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). In addition, TDP-43 inclusions have also been identified in a number of other neurodegenerative diso...

  6. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

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    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  7. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival

  8. Accumulation of TAR DNA Binding Protein-43 (TDP-43) in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

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    Tremblay, Cyntia; St-Amour, Isabelle; Schneider, Julie; Bennett, David A.; Calon, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) plays a central role in the neuropathology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the relationship between TDP-43 abnormalities and Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unclear. To determine whether TDP-43 can serve as a neuropathological marker of AD, we performed biochemical characterization and quantification of TDP-43 in homogenates from parietal neocortex of subjects with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI, n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 12), or AD (n = 12). Immunoblots revealed increased detergent-insoluble TDP-43 in the cortex of 0/12, 3/12 and 6/12 individuals with NCI, MCI or AD, respectively. Detergent-insoluble TDP-43 was positively correlated with the accumulation of soluble A?42, amyloid plaques and paired helical filament tau. In contrast, phospho-TDP-43 was decreased in the cytosolic fraction and detergent-soluble membrane/nuclear fraction from AD patients and correlated with antemortem cognitive function. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that the frequencies of individuals with TPD-43 or phospo-TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were higher in AD than in NCI, with MCI at an intermediate level. These data indicate that abnormalities of TDP-43 occur in an important subset of MCI and AD patients and that they correlate with the clinical and neuropathological features of AD. PMID:21865887

  9. Disease-associated mutations of TDP-43 promote turnover of the protein through the proteasomal pathway.

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    Araki, Wataru; Minegishi, Seiji; Motoki, Kazumi; Kume, Hideaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Araki, Yumiko M; Tamaoka, Akira

    2014-12-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of most ubiquitin-positive neuronal and glial inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). A number of missense mutations in the TARDBP gene have been identified in patients with familial and sporadic ALS, as well as familial FTLD with ALS. In the diseased states, TDP-43 proteins exhibit characteristic alterations, including truncation, abnormal phosphorylation, and altered subcellular distribution. However, the mechanisms by which TDP-43 mutations induce neurodegeneration remain unclear at present. In the current study, we analyzed protein turnover and subcellular distribution of wild-type TDP-43 and two disease-associated mutants (G298S and A382T) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing TDP-43 with a C-terminal tag. Cycloheximide chase experiments revealed more rapid turnover of TDP-43 mutant proteins than their wild-type counterpart. The decrease in the TDP-43 level after cycloheximide treatment was partially recovered upon co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, epoxomicin, but not the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, suggesting involvement of the proteasomal pathway in TDP-43 degradation. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of TDP-43 revealed predominant localization in the nuclear fraction, whereas the relative level in the cytoplasm remained unaltered in cells expressing either mutant protein, compared with wild-type protein. Our results suggest that higher turnover of disease-associated mutant TDP-43 proteins through the ubiquitin proteasome system is pathogenetically relevant and highlight the significance of proteolysis in the pathogenetic mechanism of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:24477737

  10. Molecular Neuropathology of TDP-43 Proteinopathies

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    Manuela Neumann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of TDP-43 as the major component of the pathologic inclusions in most forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS resolved a long-standing enigma concerning the nature of the ubiquitinated disease protein under these conditions. Anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemistry and the recent development of novel tools, such as phosphorylation-specific TDP-43 antibodies, have increased our knowledge about the spectrum of pathological changes associated with FTLD-U and ALS and moreover, facilitated the neuropathological routine diagnosis of these conditions. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding on the molecular neuropathology and pathobiology of TDP-43 in FTLD and ALS.

  11. Rethinking ALS: the FUS about TDP-43

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    Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation in TDP-43, a DNA/RNA binding protein, causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Combination of its mislocalization in most incidences of sporadic ALS (as well as other neurodegenerative disorders) with discovery of ALS-causing mutations in FUS/TLS, another DNA/RNA binding protein, has initiated a paradigm shift in understanding ALS pathogenesis. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS have striking structural and functional similarities, implicating alterations in RNA processing as...

  12. TDP-43 deposition in prospectively followed, cognitively normal elderly individuals: correlation with argyrophilic grains but not other concomitant pathologies.

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    Arnold, Stacy J; Dugger, Brittany N; Beach, Thomas G

    2013-07-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been heavily researched in recent years due to its involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Several studies have also sought to investigate the frequency of TDP-43 deposition in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, but there has been relatively little work focused on the prevalence, distribution and histopathological associations of abnormal TDP-43 deposits in the brains of cognitively normal elderly subjects. We screened thick, free-floating coronal sections of mesial temporal lobe from 110 prospectively followed and autopsied cognitively normal subjects (age range 71-100 years) using an immunohistochemical method for phosphorylated TDP-43. We found a 36.4 % prevalence of pathologic TDP-43, mostly in the form of neurites while perikaryal cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions were uncommon and intranuclear inclusions were rare. With respect to other concomitant pathologies commonly found in elderly individuals, cases with TDP-43 had a greater prevalence of argyrophilic grains (ARG) (40 vs. 18.6 %) and overall ARG density (moderate vs. sparse). There were no additional associations with other concomitant pathologies, including cerebral white matter rarefaction, incidental Lewy bodies, neurofibrillary tangles or amyloid plaques. These results indicate deposition of TDP-43 occurs in a substantial subset of cognitively normal elderly subjects and is more common in those with ARG, supporting some previous studies linking pathological TDP-43 deposition with ARG and other pathological tau protein deposits. PMID:23604587

  13. Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress

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    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L.; Parker, Sarah J; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; NONAKA, TAKASHI; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stre...

  14. [Molecular pathogenesis of ALS in TDP43 era].

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    Onodera, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    To clarify the molecular pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDd (TDP-43), the quality and quantity of TDP-43 take a crucial role. Regarding to the quality of TDP-43, TDP-43 has been reported as an aggregate-prone protein. Especially the C-terminus of the TDP-43 tends to form aggregate and has prion-like domain. Interestingly the mutations in the genes, which produce proteins with prion-like domain, have been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. These results suggest the existence of the common property in the causative proteins for neurodegenerative disorders. For the quantity of TDP-43, the adequate amount of TDP-43 is necessary for maintaining cell function and cell survival. The amount of TDP-43 is tightly regulated by TDP-43. However the mechanism for autoregulation has not been fully elucidated. For the function of TDP-43, TDP-43 locates at stress granule, GEM and associates with the large genes and introns. Thus the alteration of TDP-43 may affect the function of stress granule, GEM and RNA metabolism in several genes. Moreover a U12 type spliceosome, which is matured in GEM, is decreased in ALS. The investigation of whether these dysfunctions explain the selective pathology in ALS provides a new therapeutic strategy for ALS. PMID:24291884

  15. Loss of hnRNPA1 in ALS spinal cord motor neurons with TDP-43-positive inclusions.

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    Honda, Hiroyuki; Hamasaki, Hideomi; Wakamiya, Tomihiro; Koyama, Sachiko; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Fujii, Naoki; Iwaki, Toru

    2015-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons and appearance of skein-like inclusions. The inclusions are composed of trans-activation response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family. hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 are hnRNPs that interact with the C-terminus of TDP-43. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the association between TDP-43 and hnRNPA1 in ALS spinal motor neurons. We examined spinal cords of seven ALS cases and six muscular dystrophy cases (used as controls) for the presence of TDP-43 and hnRNPA1 protein. In the control cases, hnRNPA1 immunoreactivity in motor neurons was intense in the nucleus and weak in the cytoplasm where it showed a fine granular appearance. In the ALS cases, hnRNPA1 immunoreactivity in motor neurons was reduced in the nuclei of neurons with skein-like inclusions but was not detected in the skein-like inclusions. The marked loss of hnRNPA1 in motor neurons with concomitant cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 may represent a severe disturbance of mRNA processing, suggesting a key role in progressive neuronal death in ALS. PMID:25338872

  16. TDP-43 is a component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubiquitin-positive tau-negative neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites are common pathological features in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with or without symptoms of motor neuron disease and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, we have identified a TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a nuclear factor that functions in regulating transcription and alternative splicing, as a component of these structures in FTLD. Furthermore, skein-like inclusions, neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and glial inclusions in the spinal cord of ALS patients are also positive for TDP-43. Dephosphorylation treatment of the sarkosyl insoluble fraction has shown that abnormal phosphorylation takes place in accumulated TDP-43. The common occurrence of intracellular accumulations of TDP-43 supports the hypothesis that these disorders represent a clinicopathological entity of a single disease, and suggests that they can be newly classified as a proteinopathy of TDP-43

  17. Does a loss of TDP-43 function cause neurodegeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zuo-Shang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 was discovered to be in the intracellular aggregates in the degenerating cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, two fatal neurodegenerative diseases [1,2]. ALS causes motor neuron degeneration leading to paralysis [3,4]. FTLD causes neuronal degeneration in the frontal and temporal cortices leading to personality changes and a loss of executive function [5]. The discovery triggered a flurry of research activity that led to the discovery of TDP-43 mutations in ALS patients and the widespread presence of TDP-43 aggregates in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. A key question regarding the role of TDP-43 is whether it causes neurotoxicity by a gain of function or a loss of function. The gain-of-function hypothesis has received much attention primarily based on the striking neurodegenerative phenotypes in numerous TDP-43-overexpression models. In this review, I will draw attention to the loss-of-function hypothesis, which postulates that mutant TDP-43 causes neurodegeneration by a loss of function, and in addition, by exerting a dominant-negative effect on the wild-type TDP-43 allele. Furthermore, I will discuss how a loss of function can cause neurodegeneration in patients where TDP-43 is not mutated, review the literature in model systems to discuss how the current data support the loss-of-function mechanism and highlight some key questions for testing this hypothesis in the future.

  18. A molecular mechanism realizing sequence-specific recognition of nucleic acids by TDP-43.

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    Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoh; Fukuoka, Mami; Nagasawa, Kenichi; Nakagome, Kenta; Shimizu, Hideaki; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Akiyama, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein containing two consecutive RNA recognition motifs (RRM1 and RRM2) in tandem. Functional abnormality of TDP-43 has been proposed to cause neurodegeneration, but it remains obscure how the physiological functions of this protein are regulated. Here, we show distinct roles of RRM1 and RRM2 in the sequence-specific substrate recognition of TDP-43. RRM1 was found to bind a wide spectrum of ssDNA sequences, while no binding was observed between RRM2 and ssDNA. When two RRMs are fused in tandem as in native TDP-43, the fused construct almost exclusively binds ssDNA with a TG-repeat sequence. In contrast, such sequence-specificity was not observed in a simple mixture of RRM1 and RRM2. We thus propose that the spatial arrangement of multiple RRMs in DNA/RNA binding proteins provides steric effects on the substrate-binding site and thereby controls the specificity of its substrate nucleotide sequences. PMID:26838063

  19. Neurocognitive speed associates with frontotemporal lobar degeneration TDP-43 subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela M. Dean; Smith, Glenn E; Parisi, Joseph E.; Dickson, Dennis W; Petersen, Ronald C.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is pathologically heterogeneous with TAR DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy the most common substrate. Previous work has identified atrophy patterns across TDP-43 subtypes with Type A showing greater frontotemporal and parietal atrophy, Type C predominantly anterior temporal, and Type B predominantly posterior frontal. Despite neuroanatomical correlates of involvement, neuropsychological findings have been inconsistent. The current study...

  20. Knockdown of transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) downregulates histone deacetylase 6

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    Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Voigt, Aaron; Weber, Stephanie S.; Van den Haute, Chris; Waldenmaier, Andrea; Görner, Karin; Walter, Michael; Anderson, Marlene L; Kern, Jeannine V; Rasse, Tobias M; Schmidt, Thorsten; Springer, Wolfdieter; Kirchner, Roland; BONIN, MICHAEL; Neumann, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    TDP-43 is an RNA/DNA-binding protein implicated in transcriptional repression and mRNA processing. Inclusions of TDP-43 are hallmarks of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Besides aggregation of TDP-43, loss of nuclear localization is observed in disease. To identify relevant targets of TDP-43, we performed expression profiling. Thereby, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) downregulation was discovered on TDP-43 silencing and confirmed at the mRNA and protein level in human ...

  1. Premature death of TDP-43 (A315T) transgenic mice due to gastrointestinal complications prior to development of full neurological symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Esmaeili, Mohammad A; Panahi, Marzieh; Yadav, Shilpi; Hennings, Leah; Kiaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Transgenic mouse lines overexpressing wild-type or mutant TDP-43 exhibit ALS-like symptom, motor abnormalities and early paralysis followed by death. Reports on lifespan and phenotypic behaviour in Prp-TDP-43 (A315T) vary, and these animals are not fully characterized. Although it has been proposed that the approximate 20% loss of motor neurons at end stage is responsible for the severe weakness and death in TDP-43 mice, this degree of neurologic damage appears insufficient to cause death. Hence we studied these mice to further characterize and determine the reason for the death. Our characterization of TDP-43 transgenic mice showed that these mice develop ALS-like symptoms that later become compounded by gastrointestinal (GI) complications that resulted in death. This is the first report of a set of pathological evidence in the GI track that is strong indicator for the cause of death of Prp-hTDP-43 (A315T) transgenic mice. PMID:23317354

  2. Neurocognitive speed associates with frontotemporal lobar degeneration TDP-43 subtypes.

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    Dean, Pamela M; Smith, Glenn E; Parisi, Joseph E; Dickson, Dennis W; Petersen, Ronald C; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-12-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is pathologically heterogeneous with the TAR DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy the most common substrate. Previous work has identified atrophy patterns across TDP-43 subtypes with Type A showing greater frontotemporal and parietal atrophy, Type C predominantly anterior temporal, and Type B predominantly posterior frontal. Despite neuroanatomical correlates of involvement, neuropsychological findings have been inconsistent. The current study utilized broader neurocognitive domains based on aggregated neuropsychological measures to distinguish between subtypes. We hypothesized that patterns of neurocognitive domain impairments would predict FTLD-TDP subtype. Fifty-one patients, aged 38-87, were identified post mortem with pathologically confirmed FTLD with TDP-43. Participants were classified into subtypes A, B, or C. Patients had completed neuropsychological assessments as part of their clinical evaluation. Six cognitive domains were created: Language; Cognitive Speed; Memory; Learning; Visuoperception; and Fluency. Binary logistic regression was conducted. All but three patients could be classified as FTLD-TDP Types A, B, or C: 26 as Type A; nine as Type B; and 13 as Type C. Cognitive Speed scores were associated with Types A and C (p Test differentiated Types A and C. Worse Boston Naming Test and Logical Memory (Immediate) (p < 0.05) scores also increased the likelihood of Type C phenotype. Findings suggest Cognitive Speed associates with TDP-43 subtypes. Type C also demonstrated language-specific involvement. Differences between TDP-43 subtypes further supports the notion of differences in pathophysiology or topography across these types. PMID:24012243

  3. Updated TDP-43 in Alzheimer's disease staging scheme.

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    Josephs, Keith A; Murray, Melissa E; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Weigand, Stephen D; Petrucelli, Leonard; Liesinger, Amanda M; Petersen, Ronald C; Parisi, Joseph E; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we update the TDP-43 in Alzheimer's disease staging scheme by assessing the topography of TDP-43 in 193 cases of Alzheimer's disease, in 14 different brain regions (eight previously described plus six newly reported) and use conditional probability to model the spread of TDP-43 across the 14 brain regions. We show that in addition to the eight original regions we previously reported [amygdala, entorhinal cortex, subiculum, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, occipitotemporal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, middle frontal cortex and basal ganglia (putamen/globus pallidum)] that TDP-43 is also deposited in the insular cortex, ventral striatum, basal forebrain, substantia nigra, midbrain tectum, and the inferior olive of the medulla oblongata, in Alzheimer's disease. The conditional probability analysis produced six significantly different stages (P amygdala (stage 1), then moves to entorhinal cortex and subiculum (stage 2); to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and occipitotemporal cortex (stage 3); insular cortex, ventral striatum, basal forebrain and inferior temporal cortex (stage 4); substantia nigra, inferior olive and midbrain tectum (stage 5); and finally to basal ganglia and middle frontal cortex (stage 6). This updated staging scheme is superior to our previous staging scheme, classifying 100 % of the cases (versus 94 % in the old scheme), based on criteria provided, and shows clinical significance with some regions and with increasing stage. We discuss the relevance of the updated staging scheme, as well as its impact on the prion-like hypothesis of protein spread in neurodegenerative disease. We also address the issue of whether frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 could be the primary pathology in stage 6. PMID:26810071

  4. Does a loss of TDP-43 function cause neurodegeneration?

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Zuo-Shang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2006, TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) was discovered to be in the intracellular aggregates in the degenerating cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), two fatal neurodegenerative diseases [1,2]. ALS causes motor neuron degeneration leading to paralysis [3,4]. FTLD causes neuronal degeneration in the frontal and temporal cortices leading to personality changes and a loss of executive function [5]. The discovery triggered a ...

  5. The N-terminus of TDP-43 promotes its oligomerization and enhances DNA binding affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chung-ke [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tzong-Huah [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chemical Biology and Molecular Biophysics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Biochemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chu-Ya [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Ming-hui; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Ku-Feng [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yu-heng [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tai-huang, E-mail: bmthh@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse, E-mail: jthuang@chem.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N-terminus of TDP-43 contains an independently folded structural domain (NTD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural domains of TDP-43 are arranged in a beads-on-a-string fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD promotes TDP-43 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD may assist nucleic acid-binding activity of TDP-43. -- Abstract: TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with different neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Here, the structural and physical properties of the N-terminus on TDP-43 have been carefully characterized through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence anisotropy studies. We demonstrate for the first time the importance of the N-terminus in promoting TDP-43 oligomerization and enhancing its DNA-binding affinity. An unidentified structural domain in the N-terminus is also disclosed. Our findings provide insights into the N-terminal domain function of TDP-43.

  6. TDP-43 loss of function increases TFEB activity and blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qin; Wang, Hongfeng; Hao, Zongbing; Fu, Cheng; Hu, Qingsong; Gao, Feng; Ren, Haigang; Chen, Dong; Han, Junhai; Ying, Zheng; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-01-18

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by selective loss of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was identified as a major component of disease pathogenesis in ALS, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and other neurodegenerative disease. Despite the fact that TDP-43 is a multi-functional protein involved in RNA processing and a large number of TDP-43 RNA targets have been discovered, the initial toxic effect and the pathogenic mechanism underlying TDP-43-linked neurodegeneration remain elusive. In this study, we found that loss of TDP-43 strongly induced a nuclear translocation of TFEB, the master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, through targeting the mTORC1 key component raptor. This regulation in turn enhanced global gene expressions in the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) and increased autophagosomal and lysosomal biogenesis. However, loss of TDP-43 also impaired the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes through dynactin 1 downregulation, leading to accumulation of immature autophagic vesicles and overwhelmed ALP function. Importantly, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling by rapamycin treatment aggravated the neurodegenerative phenotype in a TDP-43-depleted Drosophila model, whereas activation of mTORC1 signaling by PA treatment ameliorated the neurodegenerative phenotype. Taken together, our data indicate that impaired mTORC1 signaling and influenced ALP may contribute to TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:26702100

  7. Fragile X protein mitigates TDP-43 toxicity by remodeling RNA granules and restoring translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Alyssa N; Yamada, Shizuka B; Siddegowda, Bhavani Bagevalu; Estes, Patricia S; Zaepfel, Benjamin L; Johannesmeyer, Jeffrey S; Lockwood, Donovan B; Pham, Linh T; Hart, Michael P; Cassel, Joel A; Freibaum, Brian; Boehringer, Ashley V; Taylor, J Paul; Reitz, Allen B; Gitler, Aaron D; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2015-12-15

    RNA dysregulation is a newly recognized disease mechanism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we identify Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (dFMRP) as a robust genetic modifier of TDP-43-dependent toxicity in a Drosophila model of ALS. We find that dFMRP overexpression (dFMRP OE) mitigates TDP-43 dependent locomotor defects and reduced lifespan in Drosophila. TDP-43 and FMRP form a complex in flies and human cells. In motor neurons, TDP-43 expression increases the association of dFMRP with stress granules and colocalizes with polyA binding protein in a variant-dependent manner. Furthermore, dFMRP dosage modulates TDP-43 solubility and molecular mobility with overexpression of dFMRP resulting in a significant reduction of TDP-43 in the aggregate fraction. Polysome fractionation experiments indicate that dFMRP OE also relieves the translation inhibition of futsch mRNA, a TDP-43 target mRNA, which regulates neuromuscular synapse architecture. Restoration of futsch translation by dFMRP OE mitigates Futsch-dependent morphological phenotypes at the neuromuscular junction including synaptic size and presence of satellite boutons. Our data suggest a model whereby dFMRP is neuroprotective by remodeling TDP-43 containing RNA granules, reducing aggregation and restoring the translation of specific mRNAs in motor neurons. PMID:26385636

  8. Functional recovery in new mouse models of ALS/FTLD after clearance of pathological cytoplasmic TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Adam K; Spiller, Krista J; Ge, Guanghui; Zheng, Allen; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Melissa; Tripathy, Kalyan; Kwong, Linda K; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of phosphorylated cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions accompanied by loss of normal nuclear TDP-43 in neurons and glia of the brain and spinal cord are the molecular hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). However, the role of cytoplasmic TDP-43 in the pathogenesis of these neurodegenerative TDP-43 proteinopathies remains unclear, due in part to a lack of valid mouse models. We therefore generated new mice with doxycycline (Dox)-suppressible expression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) harboring a defective nuclear localization signal (?NLS) under the control of the neurofilament heavy chain promoter. Expression of hTDP-43?NLS in these 'regulatable NLS' (rNLS) mice resulted in the accumulation of insoluble, phosphorylated cytoplasmic TDP-43 in brain and spinal cord, loss of endogenous nuclear mouse TDP-43 (mTDP-43), brain atrophy, muscle denervation, dramatic motor neuron loss, and progressive motor impairments leading to death. Notably, suppression of hTDP-43?NLS expression by return of Dox to rNLS mice after disease onset caused a dramatic decrease in phosphorylated TDP-43 pathology, an increase in nuclear mTDP-43 to control levels, and the prevention of further motor neuron loss. rNLS mice back on Dox also showed a significant increase in muscle innervation, a rescue of motor impairments, and a dramatic extension of lifespan. Thus, the rNLS mice are new TDP-43 mouse models that delineate the timeline of pathology development, muscle denervation and neuron loss in ALS/FTLD-TDP. Importantly, even after neurodegeneration and onset of motor dysfunction, removal of cytoplasmic TDP-43 and the concomitant return of nuclear TDP-43 led to neuron preservation, muscle re-innervation and functional recovery. PMID:26197969

  9. Therapeutic modulation of eIF2?-phosphorylation rescues TDP-43 toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease models

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Raphael, Alya R.; LaDow, Eva S.; McGurk, Leeanne; Weber, Ross; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Finkbeiner, Steven; Gitler, Aaron D.; Bonini, Nancy M

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, late-onset neurodegenerative disease primarily impacting motor neurons. A unifying feature of many proteins associated with ALS, including TDP-43 and Ataxin-2, is that they localize to stress granules. Unexpectedly, we found that genes that modulate stress granules are striking modifiers of TDP-43 toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, eIF2? phosphorylation is upregulated by TDP-43 toxicity in flies, and TDP-43 interac...

  10. Degradation of TDP-43 and its pathogenic form by autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoju; Fan, Huadong; Ying, Zheng; Li, Bin; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Guanghui

    2010-01-18

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein functioning in the regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing. TDP-43 is accumulated in ubiquitinated inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseased brains. However, the pathways involved in the clearance of TDP-43 and its pathogenic form (TDP-25), a truncated form of TDP-43, are still not elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the protein levels of TDP-43 and TDP-25 were increased in cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, or an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, whereas, they were decreased in cells treated with an enhancer of autophagy, trehalose. Furthermore, more protein level changes of TDP-25 than TDP-43 were observed in cells treated with above inhibitors or enhancer. Thus, our data suggest that TDP-43 and TDP-25 are degraded by both proteasome and autophagy with TDP-25 being more regulated. PMID:19944744

  11. TDP-43 knockdown impairs neurite outgrowth dependent on its target histone deacetylase 6

    OpenAIRE

    Weber Stephanie S; Schurr Christine; Fiesel Fabienne C; Kahle Philipp J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Trans-activation response element (TAR) DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) is causally related to the neurodegenerative diseases frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis being the hallmark protein in the disease-characteristic neuropathological lesions and via genetic linkage. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an established target of the RNA-binding protein TDP-43. HDAC6 is an unusual cytosolic deacetylase enzyme, central for a variety of pivotal cellul...

  12. HO-1 induction in motor cortex and intestinal dysfunction in TDP-43 A315T transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yansu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Kunxi; An, Ting; Shi, Pengxiao; Li, Zhongyao; Duan, Weisong; Li, Chunyan

    2012-06-15

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been found to be related to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 A315T transgenic mice develop degeneration of specific motor neurons, and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins has been observed in the pyramidal cells of motor cortex of these mice. In this study, we found stress-responsive HO-1 induction and no autophagic alteration in motor cortex of TDP-43 A315T transgenic mice. Glial activation, especially astrocytic proliferation, occurred in cortical layer 5 and sub-meningeal region. Interestingly, we noticed that progressively thinned colon, swollen small intestine and reduced food intake, rather than severe muscle weakness, contributed to the death of TDP-43 A315T transgenic mice. Increased TDP-43 accumulation in the myenteric nerve plexus and increased thickness of muscular layer of colon were related to the intestinal dysfunction. PMID:22578468

  13. On the development of markers for pathological TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geser, F

    2011-12-01

    Pathological 43-kDa transactive response sequence DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) has been recognized as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive, tau and α-synuclein negative inclusions (FTLD-U) and the transitional forms between these multisystem conditions. In order to develop TDP-43 into a successful ALS biomarker, the natural history of TDP-43 pathology needs to be characterized and the underlying pathophysiology established. Here we propose a spatial and temporal "two-axes" model of central nervous system vulnerability for TDP-43 linked degeneration and review recent studies on potential biomarkers related to pathological TDP-43 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and skeletal muscle. The model includes the following two arms: Firstly, a "motor neuron disease" or "spinal cord\\/brainstem to motor cortex" axis (with degeneration possibly ascending from the lower motor neurons to the upper motor neurons); and secondly, a "dementia" or "corticoid\\/allocortex to neocortex" axis (with a probable spread of TDP-43 linked degeneration from the mediotemporal lobe to wider mesocortical and neocortical brain areas). At the cellular level, there is a gradual disappearance of normal TDP-43 in the nucleus in combination with the formation of pathological aggregates in the cell body and cellular processes, which can also be used to identify the stage of the disease process. Moreover, TDP-43 lesions in subpial\\/subependymal or perivascular localizations have been noted, and this might account for increased CSF and blood TDP-43 levels through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated.

  14. TDP-43 Proteinopathy and Motor Neuron Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Ann C.; Gavett, Brandon E; Stern, Robert A.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Cantu, Robert C; Kowall, Neil W.; Perl, Daniel P; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Price, Bruce; Sullivan, Chris; Morin, Peter; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Wulff, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is increased in association with head injury. Repetitive head injury is also associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tauopathy characterized by neurofibrillary tangles throughout the brain in the relative absence of ?-amyloid deposits. We examined 12 cases of CTE and, in 10, found a widespread TAR DNA-binding protein of approximately 43 kd (TDP-43) proteinopathy affecting...

  15. Conjoint pathologic cascades mediated by ALS/FTLD-U linked RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS

    OpenAIRE

    Ito,Daisuke; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    The RNA-binding proteins TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) play central roles in neurodegeneration associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Normally localized in the nucleus, in sites affected by ALS and FTLD-U they are mislocalized to the cytoplasm and form cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 and FUS are transported to the nucleus in a Ran-GTPase-dependent manner via nu...

  16. Distinct TDP-43 pathology in ALS patients with ataxin 2 intermediate-length polyQ expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Michael P.; Brettschneider, Johannes; Lee, Virginia M. Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Gitler, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons, resulting in paralysis and death. A pathological hallmark of the degenerating motor neurons in most ALS patients is the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions containing the protein TDP-43. The morphology and type of TDP-43 pathological inclusions is variable and can range from large round Lewy body-like inclusions to filamentous skein-like inclusions. The cl...

  17. Cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43 is toxic to neurons and enhanced by a mutation associated with familial ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Barmada, Sami J.; Skibinski, Gaia; Korb, Erica; Rao, Elizabeth J.; Wu, Jane Y; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 — the major protein component of neuronal aggregates characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies (FTLDu) — have been linked to familial forms of both disorders. Aggregates of TDP-43 in cortical and spinal motoneurons in ALS, or in neurons of the frontal and temporal cortices in FTLD, are closely linked to neuron loss and atrophy in these areas. However, the mechanism ...

  18. Semi-Automated Digital Image Analysis of Pick's Disease and TDP-43 Proteinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David J; Byrne, Matthew D; McMillan, Corey T; Cooper, Felicia; Arnold, Steven E; Lee, Edward B; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Xie, Sharon X; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowski, John Q

    2016-01-01

    Digital image analysis of histology sections provides reliable, high-throughput methods for neuropathological studies but data is scant in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), which has an added challenge of study due to morphologically diverse pathologies. Here, we describe a novel method of semi-automated digital image analysis in FTLD subtypes including: Pick's disease (PiD, n=11) with tau-positive intracellular inclusions and neuropil threads, and TDP-43 pathology type C (FTLD-TDPC, n=10), defined by TDP-43-positive aggregates predominantly in large dystrophic neurites. To do this, we examined three FTLD-associated cortical regions: mid-frontal gyrus (MFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG) and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) by immunohistochemistry. We used a color deconvolution process to isolate signal from the chromogen and applied both object detection and intensity thresholding algorithms to quantify pathological burden. We found object-detection algorithms had good agreement with gold-standard manual quantification of tau- and TDP-43-positive inclusions. Our sampling method was reliable across three separate investigators and we obtained similar results in a pilot analysis using open-source software. Regional comparisons using these algorithms finds differences in regional anatomic disease burden between PiD and FTLD-TDP not detected using traditional ordinal scale data, suggesting digital image analysis is a powerful tool for clinicopathological studies in morphologically diverse FTLD syndromes. PMID:26538548

  19. Globular Glial Mixed Four Repeat Tau and TDP-43 Proteinopathy with Motor Neuron Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryoko; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Tada, Mari; Tanaka, Hidetomo; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shiga, Atsushi; Miura, Takeshi; Aoki, Kenju; Aikawa, Akane; Ishizawa, Shin; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be accompanied by frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report a case of glial mixed tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies in a Japanese patient diagnosed clinically as having ALS-D. Autopsy revealed loss of lower motor neurons and degeneration of the pyramidal tracts in the spinal cord and brain stem. The brain showed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the most severe neuronal loss and gliosis being evident in the precentral gyrus. Although less severe, such changes were also observed in other brain regions, including the basal ganglia and substantia nigra. AT8 immunostaining revealed that predominant occurrence of astrocytic tau lesions termed globular astrocytic inclusions (GAIs) was a feature of the affected regions. These GAIs were Gallyas-Braak negative. Neuronal and oligodendrocytic tau lesions were comparatively scarce. pS409/410 immunostaining also revealed similar neuronal and glial TDP-43 lesions. Interestingly, occasional co-localization of tau and TDP-43 was evident in the GAIs. Immunoblot analyses revealed band patterns characteristic of a 4-repeat (4R) tauopathy, corticobasal degeneration and a TDP-43 proteinopathy, ALS/FTLD-TDP?Type?B. No mutations were found in the MAPT or TDP-43 genes. We consider that this patient harbored a distinct, sporadic globular glial mixed 4R tau and TDP-43 proteinopathy associated with motor neuron disease and FTD. PMID:25787090

  20. An optimized InCell Western screening technique identifies hexachlorophene as a novel potent TDP43 targeting drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Malathi; Peralta, Diego A; Gibson, Chelsea; Zitnyar, Ashley; Jinwal, Umesh K

    2015-08-10

    TAR DNA binding protein (TDP43) is a DNA- and RNA-binding protein that is implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders termed as "TDP43 proteinopathies" including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobe dementia (FTLD). We have developed an InCell Western (ICW) technique for screening TDP targeting drugs in 96 well plates. We tested 281 compounds and identified a novel compound hexachlorophene (referred to as B10) that showed potent reduction in TDP43 levels. The effect of B10 on TDP protein level was validated in two different cellular models: endogenous TDP43 expressing N9 microglial cells and TDP43-over-expressing HEK293 and HeLa cells. We also analyzed effect of B10 on various pathological forms of TDP such as the C25 cleaved fragment that localizes to the cytosol, insoluble high molecular weight species, and ALS-linked mutants. Our data suggest that B10 effectively reduces all forms of TDP. Overall, our data suggest that B10 could serve as a potential drug molecule for the treatment of AD, ALS and other TDP43 proteinopathies. PMID:25987361

  1. Gain-of-function profilin 1 mutations linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cause seed-dependent intracellular TDP-43 aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Nonaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Genjiro; Kametani, Fuyuki; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-04-01

    Profilin 1 (PFN1) is an actin monomer-binding protein essential for regulating cytoskeletal dynamics in all cell types. Recently, mutations in the PFN1 gene have been identified as a cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The co-aggregation of PFN1 bearing mutations that cause ALS with TDP-43 (a key molecule in both sporadic and some familial forms of ALS), together with the classical TDP-43 pathology detected in post-mortem tissues of patients with autosomal dominant PFN1 mutation, imply that gain-of-toxic-function of PFN1 mutants is associated with the onset of ALS. However, it remains unknown how PFN1 mutants cause ALS. We found mutant PFN1 that causes ALS formed cytoplasmic aggregates positive for ubiquitin and p62, and these aggregates sequestered endogenous TDP-43. In cells harboring PFN1 aggregates, formation of aggresome-like structures was inhibited in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, and conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II was suppressed in the presence of lysosome inhibitor. Further, insoluble TDP-43 was increased in both cases. Co-expression of ALS-linked mutant PFN1 and TDP-43 increased insoluble and phosphorylated TDP-43 levels. The C-terminal region of TDP-43, essential for aggregation of TDP-43, was also indispensable for the interaction with PFN1. Interestingly, insoluble fractions prepared from cells expressing ALS-linked mutant PFN1 functioned as a seed to induce accumulation and phosphorylation of TDP-43, indicating that TDP-43 accumulated in the presence of the PFN1 mutants is converted to prion-like species. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS, suggesting that gain-of-toxic-function PFN1 gene mutation leads to conformational change of TDP-43. PMID:26908597

  2. TDP-43 Proteinopathies: A New Player in Neurodegenerative Diseases with Defective Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Lahut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proteome is the sum of all proteins inside a cell, and proteostasis (protein homeostasis is the stable condition of the proteome. Proteostasis is essential for the cellular and organismal health. Stress, aging and the chronic expression of misfolded proteins challenge the proteostasis machinery and the vitality of the cell. There is increasing evidence that the accumulation of damaged proteins not only has direct consequences on the efficiency and fidelity of cellular processes but, when not corrected, that they initiate a cascade of dysfunction, which in humans is associated with a plethora of diseases of protein conformation, referred to as proteinopathies. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD, Huntington’s Disease (HD, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, cancer and diabetes, whose frequencies have drastically increased in countries with aging populations, are all consequences of misfolded proteins. This paper focuses on TDP-43, which excelled as a key protein in neurodegenerative processes because of its association with different diseases, especially with ALS and Frontotemporal Lobar Dementia (FTLD, the two best studied examples of TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  3. FUS pathology defines the majority of tau- and TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urwin, Hazel; Josephs, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    Through an international consortium, we have collected 37 tau- and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases, and present here the first comprehensive analysis of these cases in terms of neuropathology, genetics, demographics and clinical data. 92% (34/37) had fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein pathology, indicating that FTLD-FUS is an important FTLD subtype. This FTLD-FUS collection specifically focussed on aFTLD-U cases, one of three recently defined subtypes of FTLD-FUS. The aFTLD-U subtype of FTLD-FUS is characterised clinically by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and has a particularly young age of onset with a mean of 41 years. Further, this subtype had a high prevalence of psychotic symptoms (36% of cases) and low prevalence of motor symptoms (3% of cases). We did not find FUS mutations in any aFTLD-U case. To date, the only subtype of cases reported to have ubiquitin-positive but tau-, TDP-43- and FUS-negative pathology, termed FTLD-UPS,is the result of charged multivesicular body protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) mutation. We identified three FTLD-UPS cases, which are negative for CHMP2B mutation, suggesting that the full complement of FTLD pathologies is yet to be elucidated.

  4. Structural analysis of disease-related TDP-43 D169G mutation: linking enhanced stability and caspase cleavage efficiency to protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Hao; Grauffel, Cédric; Wu, Lien-Szu; Kuo, Pan-Hsien; Doudeva, Lyudmila G; Lim, Carmay; Shen, Che-Kun James; Yuan, Hanna S

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein TDP-43 forms intracellular inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While TDP-43 mutations have been identified in ALS patients, how these mutations are linked to ALS remains unclear. Here we examined the biophysical properties of six ALS-linked TDP-43 mutants and found that one of the mutants, D169G, had higher thermal stability than wild-type TDP-43 and that it was cleaved by caspase 3 more efficiently, producing increased levels of the C-terminal 35?kD fragments (TDP-35) in vitro and in neuroblastoma cells. The crystal structure of the TDP-43 RRM1 domain containing the D169G mutation in complex with DNA along with molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the D169G mutation induces a local conformational change in a ? turn and increases the hydrophobic interactions in the RRM1 core, thus enhancing the thermal stability of the RRM1 domain. Our results provide the first crystal structure of TDP-43 containing a disease-linked D169G mutation and a disease-related mechanism showing that D169G mutant is more susceptible to proteolytic cleavage by caspase 3 into the pathogenic C-terminal 35-kD fragments due to its increased stability in the RRM1 domain. Modulation of TDP-43 stability and caspase cleavage efficiency could present an avenue for prevention and treatment of TDP-43-linked neurodegeneration. PMID:26883171

  5. Short-term suppression of A315T mutant human TDP-43 expression improves functional deficits in a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of FTLD-TDP and ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yazi D; van Hummel, Annika; Stevens, Claire H; Gladbach, Amadeus; Ippati, Stefania; Bi, Mian; Lee, Wei S; Krüger, Sarah; van der Hoven, Julia; Volkerling, Alexander; Bongers, Andre; Halliday, Glenda; Haass, Nikolas K; Kiernan, Matthew; Delerue, Fabien; Ittner, Lars M

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) undergoes relocalization to the cytoplasm with formation of cytoplasmic deposits in neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Pathogenic mutations in the TDP-43-encoding TARDBP gene in familial ALS as well as non-mutant human TDP-43 have been utilized to model FTD/ALS in cell culture and animals, including mice. Here, we report novel A315T mutant TDP-43 transgenic mice, iTDP-43(A315T), with controlled neuronal over-expression. Constitutive expression of human TDP-43(A315T) resulted in pronounced early-onset and progressive neurodegeneration, which was associated with compromised motor performance, spatial memory and disinhibition. Muscle atrophy resulted in reduced grip strength. Cortical degeneration presented with pronounced astrocyte activation. Using differential protein extraction from iTDP-43(A315T) brains, we found cytoplasmic localization, fragmentation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination and insolubility of TDP-43. Surprisingly, suppression of human TDP-43(A315T) expression in mice with overt neurodegeneration for only 1 week was sufficient to significantly improve motor and behavioral deficits, and reduce astrogliosis. Our data suggest that functional deficits in iTDP-43(A315T) mice are at least in part a direct and transient effect of the presence of TDP-43(A315T). Furthermore, it illustrates the compensatory capacity of compromised neurons once transgenic TDP-43 is removed, with implications for future treatments. PMID:26437864

  6. High TDP43 expression is required for TRIM16-induced inhibition of cancer cell growth and correlated with good prognosis of neuroblastoma and breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Patrick Y; Tan, Owen; Liu, Bing; Trahair, Toby; Liu, Tao; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B

    2016-05-01

    Tripartite Motif-containing protein 16 (TRIM16) is a member of a large family of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins, that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. However, the mechanism by which TRIM16 acts as a tumour suppressor is currently unknown. We used the versatile yeast two-hybrid assay on a cDNA library from human testes, which has relative high TRIM16 expression, to identify potential TRIM16-binding proteins. We identified transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43) as a novel TRIM16 binding protein. Co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that TDP43 bound TRIM16 in neuroblastoma and breast cancer cells. Enforced over-expression of TRIM16 increased the protein half-life of TDP43, through the inhibition of the proteosomal degradation pathway. High levels of TRIM16 and TDP43 are associated with good prognosis in both human neuroblastoma and breast cancer tissues. Importantly, we found TDP43 expression was required for TRIM16-induced inhibition of neuroblastoma and breast cancer cell growth and the repressive effect of TRIM16 on cell cycle regulatory proteins, E2F1 and pRb. Taken together, our data suggest that TRIM16 and TDP43 are both good prognosis indicators; also we showed that TRIM16 inhibits cancer cell viability by a novel mechanism involving interaction and stabilisation of TDP43 with consequent effects on E2F1 and pRb proteins. PMID:26902425

  7. Mutant superoxide dismutase 1 overexpression in NSC-34 cells: effect of trehalose on aggregation, TDP-43 localization and levels of co-expressed glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Catarina; Escrevente, Cristina; Costa, Júlia

    2010-05-21

    Protein inclusions rich in mutant Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been found in tissues from patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, the mouse motor neuron-like NSC-34 cell line transiently transfected with human SOD1(G93A) fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein exhibited aggregates contrary to cells overexpressing wild-type human SOD1. The aggregates were immunoreactive for ubiquitin but not for the TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) that was found in the nucleus. These characteristics mimicked the pathology of mutant SOD1 associated familial ALS. Aggregate formation and mutant SOD1 detergent insolubility were significantly decreased in the presence of millimolar concentrations of trehalose possibly due to its capacity to induce autophagy or to its properties as chemical chaperone. Mutant SOD1, aggregated and non-aggregated, caused decreased levels of concomitantly expressed secretory (beta-trace protein and erythropoietin) and plasma membrane (L1 cell adhesion molecule) glycoproteins, which were not due to their intracellular accumulation. These cells may be used to study mechanisms of pathogenesis associated with ALS and to test potential therapeutic compounds. PMID:20363292

  8. ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine induces changes in both GSK3 and TDP-43 in human neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Saez, Emma; de Munck, Estefanía; Arahuetes, Rosa M; Solas, M Teresa; Martínez, Ana M; Miguel, Begoña G

    2013-01-01

    ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, which are extensively distributed in different environments all over the world. L-BMAA has been linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. This work aims to analyze the toxicological action of L-BMAA related to alterations observed in different neurodegenerative illness as Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our results demonstrate that neuroblastoma cells treated with L-BMAA show an increase in glycogen synthase kinase 3 ? (GSk3?) and induce accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) truncated forms (C-terminal fragments), phosphorylated  and high molecular weight forms of TDP-43, that appears frequently in some neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23665941

  9. TDP-43 pathology in a case of hereditary spastic paraplegia with a NIPA1/SPG6 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lage, Maria; Molina-Porcel, Laura; Falcone, Dana; McCluskey, Leo; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Trojanowski, John Q

    2012-08-01

    Mutations in NIPA1 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome) have been described as a cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) known as SPG6 (spastic paraplegia-6). We present the first neuropathological description of a patient with a NIPA1 mutation, and clinical phenotype of complicated HSP with motor neuron disease-like syndrome and cognitive decline. Postmortem examination revealed degeneration of lateral corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns with motor neuron loss. TDP-43 immunostaining showed widespread spinal cord and cerebral skein-like and round neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions. We ruled out NIPA1 mutations in 419 additional cases of motor neuron disease. These findings suggest that hereditary spastic paraplegia due to NIPA1 mutations could represent a TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:22302102

  10. Alterations in stress granule dynamics driven by TDP-43 and FUS: a link to pathological inclusions in ALS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulas, Anaïs; Vande Velde, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are RNA-containing cytoplasmic foci formed in response to stress exposure. Since their discovery in 1999, over 120 proteins have been described to be localized to these structures (in 154 publications). Most of these components are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) or are involved in RNA metabolism and translation. SGs have been linked to several pathologies including inflammatory diseases, cancer, viral infection, and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In ALS and FTD, the majority of cases have no known etiology and exposure to external stress is frequently proposed as a contributor to either disease initiation or the rate of disease progression. Of note, both ALS and FTD are characterized by pathological inclusions, where some well-known SG markers localize with the ALS related proteins TDP-43 and FUS. We propose that TDP-43 and FUS serve as an interface between genetic susceptibility and environmental stress exposure in disease pathogenesis. Here, we will discuss the role of TDP-43 and FUS in SG dynamics and how disease-linked mutations affect this process. PMID:26557057

  11. AAV9 supports wide-scale transduction of the CNS and TDP-43 disease modeling in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Klein, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    AAV9 has emerged as an efficient adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype for gene transfer to the central nervous system. We have used this technique to study aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by administering AAV encoding the ALS-related gene transactive response DNA binding protein of 43?kDa (TDP-43) to neonatal rats. However, inducing the expression in adult subjects would be preferable to mimic the adult onset of symptoms in ALS. We expressed either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or TDP-43 in adult rats after an intravenous (i.v.) route of administration to attempt wide-scale transduction of the spinal cord for disease modeling. In order to optimize the gene transfer, we made comparisons of efficiency by age, gender, and across several AAV serotypes (AAV1, AAV8, AAV9, and AAV10). The data indicate more efficient neuronal transduction in neonates, with little evidence of glial transduction at either age, no gender-related differences in transduction, and that AAV9 was efficient in adults relative to the other serotypes tested. Based on these data, AAV9 TDP-43 was expressed at three vector doses in adult female rats yielding highly consistent, dose-dependent motor deficits. AAV9 can be delivered i.v. to adult rats to achieve consistent pathophysiological changes and a relevant adult-onset system for disease modeling. PMID:26445725

  12. Valproate Attenuates 25-kDa C-Terminal Fragment of TDP-43-Induced Neuronal Toxicity via Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Activating Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejing; Ma, Mingming; Teng, Junfang; Che, Xiangqian; Zhang, Wenwen; Feng, Shuman; Zhou, Shuang; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Erxi; Ding, Xuebing

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. To date, there is no any effective pharmacological treatment for improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. Rapidly emerging evidence suggests that C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), including TDP-35 and TDP-25, may play an important role in ALS pathogenesis. Valproate (VPA), a widely used antiepileptic drug, has neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative disorders. As for ALS, preclinical studies also provide encouraging evidence for multiple beneficial effects in ALS mouse models. However, the potential molecular mechanisms have not been explored. Here, we show protective effects of VPA against TDP-43 CTFs-mediated neuronal toxicity and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. Remarkably, TDP-43 CTFs induced neuronal damage via endoplastic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagic self-defense system was activated to reduce TDP-43 CTFs-induced neuronal death. Finally, VPA attenuated TDP-25-induced neuronal toxicity via suppressing ER stress-mediated apoptosis and enhancing autophagy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that VPA exerts neuroprotective effects against TDP-43 CTFs-induced neuronal damage. Thus, we provide new molecular evidence for VPA treatment in patients with ALS and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26078717

  13. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte A.J. Van Zundert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1G93A contains toxic factor(s that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1G93A and ACM-SOD1G86R or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43A315T mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30-60 minutes increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Nav channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine or riluzole prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Nav channel activity.

  14. Increased metal content in the TDP-43A315T transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Xin Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43 is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43A315T mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but Zn, Cu and Mn levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43A315T mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43A315T mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43A315T in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43A315T mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive decline.

  15. Increased metal content in the TDP-43(A315T) transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Theresa N T; Lim, Nastasia K H; Grubman, Alexandra; Li, Qiao-Xin; Volitakis, Irene; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43 (A315T) mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but zinc, copper, and manganese levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43 (A315T) mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43 (A315T) mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43 (A315T) in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43 (A315T) mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive decline. PMID:24575040

  16. Rab1-dependent ER-Golgi transport dysfunction is a common pathogenic mechanism in SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS-associated ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Kai Y; Halloran, Mark; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Parakh, Sonam; Toth, Reka P; Southam, Katherine A; McLean, Catriona A; Lock, Peter; King, Anna; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D

    2015-11-01

    Several diverse proteins are linked genetically/pathologically to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS. Using a variety of cellular and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ALS-associated mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 inhibit protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus in neuronal cells. ER-Golgi transport was also inhibited in embryonic cortical and motor neurons obtained from a widely used animal model (SOD1(G93A) mice), validating this mechanism as an early event in disease. Each protein inhibited transport by distinct mechanisms, but each process was dependent on Rab1. Mutant TDP-43 and mutant FUS both inhibited the incorporation of secretory protein cargo into COPII vesicles as they bud from the ER, and inhibited transport from ER to the ER-Golgi intermediate (ERGIC) compartment. TDP-43 was detected on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane, whereas FUS was present within the ER, suggesting that transport is inhibited from the cytoplasm by mutant TDP-43, and from the ER by mutant FUS. In contrast, mutant SOD1 destabilised microtubules and inhibited transport from the ERGIC compartment to Golgi, but not from ER to ERGIC. Rab1 performs multiple roles in ER-Golgi transport, and over-expression of Rab1 restored ER-Golgi transport, and prevented ER stress, mSOD1 inclusion formation and induction of apoptosis, in cells expressing mutant TDP-43, FUS or SOD1. Rab1 also co-localised extensively with mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 in neuronal cells, and Rab1 formed inclusions in motor neurons of spinal cords from sporadic ALS patients, which were positive for ubiquitinated TDP-43, implying that Rab1 is misfolded and dysfunctional in sporadic disease. These results demonstrate that ALS-mutant forms of TDP-43, FUS, and SOD1 all perturb protein transport in the early secretory pathway, between ER and Golgi compartments. These data also imply that restoring Rab1-mediated ER-Golgi transport is a novel therapeutic target in ALS. PMID:26298469

  17. ALS-Causing Mutations Significantly Perturb the Self-Assembly and Interaction with Nucleic Acid of the Intrinsically Disordered Prion-Like Domain of TDP-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Liangzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yimei; Song, Jianxing

    2016-01-01

    TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) C-terminus encodes a prion-like domain widely presented in RNA-binding proteins, which functions to form dynamic oligomers and also, amazingly, hosts most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing mutations. Here, as facilitated by our previous discovery, by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have successfully determined conformations, dynamics, and self-associations of the full-length prion-like domains of the wild type and three ALS-causing mutants (A315E, Q331K, and M337V) in both aqueous solutions and membrane environments. The study decodes the following: (1) The TDP-43 prion-like domain is intrinsically disordered only with some nascent secondary structures in aqueous solutions, but owns the capacity to assemble into dynamic oligomers rich in ?-sheet structures. By contrast, despite having highly similar conformations, three mutants gained the ability to form amyloid oligomers. The wild type and three mutants all formed amyloid fibrils after incubation as imaged by electron microscopy. (2) The interaction with nucleic acid enhances the self-assembly for the wild type but triggers quick aggregation for three mutants. (3) A membrane-interacting subdomain has been identified over residues Met311-Gln343 indispensable for TDP-43 neurotoxicity, which transforms into a well-folded ?-loop-helix structure in membrane environments. Furthermore, despite having very similar membrane-embedded conformations, three mutants will undergo further self-association in the membrane environment. Our study implies that the TDP-43 prion-like domain appears to have an energy landscape, which allows the assembly of the wild-type sequence into dynamic oligomers only under very limited condition sets, and ALS-causing point mutations are sufficient to remodel it to more favor the amyloid formation or irreversible aggregation, thus supporting the emerging view that the pathologic aggregation may occur via the exaggeration of functionally important assemblies. Furthermore, the coupled capacity of TDP-43 in aggregation and membrane interaction may critically account for its high neurotoxicity, and therefore its decoupling may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to treat TDP-43 causing neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26735904

  18. ALS-Associated Ataxin 2 PolyQ Expansions Enhance Stress-Induced Caspase 3 Activation and Increase TDP-43 Pathological Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Michael P.; Gitler, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of motor neurons. The degenerating motor neurons of ALS patients are characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic inclusions containing phosphorylated and truncated forms of the RNA-binding protein TDP-43. Ataxin 2 intermediate-length polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions were recently identified as a risk factor for ALS; however, the mechanism by which they contribute to disease is unknown. Here,...

  19. ER-mitochondria associations are regulated by the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and are disrupted by ALS/FTD-associated TDP-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Radu; de Vos, Kurt J.; Paillusson, Sébastien; Mueller, Sarah; Sancho, Rosa M.; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lin, Wen-Lang; Xu, Ya-Fei; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Miller, Christopher C. J.

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) form tight structural associations and these facilitate a number of cellular functions. However, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to mitochondria are not properly known. Understanding these mechanisms is not just important for comprehending fundamental physiological processes but also for understanding pathogenic processes in some disease states. In particular, disruption to ER-mitochondria associations is linked to some neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that the ER-resident protein VAPB interacts with the mitochondrial protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein-51 (PTPIP51) to regulate ER-mitochondria associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that TDP-43, a protein pathologically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal dementia perturbs ER-mitochondria interactions and that this is associated with disruption to the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Finally, we show that overexpression of TDP-43 leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and that GSK-3? regulates the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction. Our results describe a new pathogenic mechanism for TDP-43.

  20. TDP-43 loss of cellular function through aggregation requires additional structural determinants beyond its C-terminal Q/N prion-like domain

    OpenAIRE

    Budini, Mauricio; Romano, Valentina; Quadri, Zainuddin; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E

    2014-01-01

    TDP-43 aggregates are the neurohistological landmark of diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Their role in the pathogenesis of these conditions is not yet clear mainly due to the lack of proper models of aggregation that may allow the study of the mechanism of formation, their interactions with other cellular components and their effect on the cell metabolism. In this work, we have used tandem repeats of the prion like Q/N-rich region of TAR DNA-binding pro...

  1. Stress granule recruitment and deposition of proteins of the FET family and TDP-43 in ALS and FTD

    OpenAIRE

    Bentmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are defined by progressive and selective loss of neurons. With increasing age the risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease exponentially rises. To date these diseases are untreatable, imposing a significant medical, social and financial burden onto our ageing society. Typical features of neurodegenerative diseases are abnormal aggregation of a disease characteriz...

  2. Altered microRNA expression in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology caused by progranulin mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocerha Jannet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be triggered through genetic or sporadic mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have become a major therapeutic focus as their pervasive expression and powerful regulatory roles in disease pathogenesis become increasingly apparent. Here we examine the role of miRNAs in FTLD patients with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 pathology (FTLD-TDP caused by genetic mutations in the progranulin (PGRN gene. Results Using miRNA array profiling, we identified the 20 miRNAs that showed greatest evidence (unadjusted P PGRN mutations when compared to 32 FTLD-TDP patients with no apparent genetic abnormalities. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses provided technical validation of the differential expression for 9 of the 20 miRNAs in frontal cortex. Additional qRT-PCR analyses showed that 5 out of 9 miRNAs (miR-922, miR-516a-3p, miR-571, miR-548b-5p, and miR-548c-5p were also significantly dysregulated (unadjusted P PGRN mutation carriers, consistent with a systemic reduction in PGRN levels. We developed a list of gene targets for the 5 candidate miRNAs and found 18 genes dysregulated in a reported FTLD mRNA study to exhibit anti-correlated miRNA-mRNA patterns in affected cortex and cerebellar tissue. Among the targets is brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3, which was recently identified as an important player in synapse biology. Conclusions Our study suggests that miRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of FTLD-TDP caused by PGRN mutations and provides new insight into potential future therapeutic options.

  3. FTLD-TDP with motor neuron disease, visuospatial impairment and a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome: broadening the clinical phenotype of TDP-43 proteinopathies. A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmerová Iva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin and TDP-43 positive neuronal inclusions represents a novel entity (FTLD-TDP that may be associated with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND; involvement of extrapyramidal and other systems has also been reported. Case presentation We present three cases with similar clinical symptoms, including Parkinsonism, supranuclear gaze palsy, visuospatial impairment and a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, associated with either clinically possible or definite MND. Neuropathological examination revealed hallmarks of FTLD-TDP with major involvement of subcortical and, in particular, mesencephalic structures. These cases differed in onset and progression of clinical manifestations as well as distribution of histopathological changes in the brain and spinal cord. Two cases were sporadic, whereas the third case had a pathological variation in the progranulin gene 102 delC. Conclusions Association of a "progressive supranuclear palsy-like" syndrome with marked visuospatial impairment, motor neuron disease and early behavioral disturbances may represent a clinically distinct phenotype of FTLD-TDP. Our observations further support the concept that TDP-43 proteinopathies represent a spectrum of disorders, where preferential localization of pathogenetic inclusions and neuronal cell loss defines clinical phenotypes ranging from frontotemporal dementia with or without motor neuron disease, to corticobasal syndrome and to a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome.

  4. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H K; Lo, S T

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (AE1/3, CAM 5.2 and PKK-1) and polyclonal antisera against the cytokeratin proteins were reacted with a range of astrocytic tumours, oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas. Seven of 12 cases (58%) of glioblastoma multiforme, five of eight (63%) anaplastic astrocytomas and two of five (40%) well-differentiated astrocytomas were immunoreactive with AE1/3 but not with the other anti-cytokeratin antibodies. In oligodendrogliomas, AE1/3 stained isolated astrocyte-like cells as well as scattered neoplastic oligodendrocytes in four of eight cases (50%) cases. Four ependymomas were negative for all cytokeratin markers examined. The immunostaining of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas with AE1/3 might represent co-expression of cytokeratin with glial fibrillary acidic protein by gliomas and calls for caution in the use of these antibodies in the differential diagnosis between gliomas and carcinomas. PMID:2472343

  5. Accumulation of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Cyntia; St-Amour, Isabelle; Schneider, Julie; Bennett, David A; Calon, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    Transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) plays a central role in the neuropathology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the relationship between TDP-43 abnormalities and Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unclear. To determine whether TDP-43 can serve as a neuropathologic marker of AD, we performed biochemical characterization and quantification of TDP-43 in homogenates from parietal neocortex of subjects with aclinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI, n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 12), or AD (n = 12). Immunoblots revealed increased detergent-insoluble TDP-43 in the cortex of 0, 3, and 6 of the 12 individuals with NCI, MCI, or AD, respectively. Detergent-insoluble TDP-43 was positively correlated with the accumulation of soluble A?42, amyloid plaques, and paired helical filamenttau. In contrast, phospho-TDP-43 was decreased in the cytosolic fraction and detergent-soluble membrane/nuclear fraction from AD patients and correlated with antemortem cognitive function.Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that the frequencies of individuals with TDP-43 or phospho-TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were higher in AD than in NCI, with MCI at an intermediate level. These data indicate that abnormalities of TDP-43 occur in an important subset of MCI and AD patients and that they correlate with the clinical and neuropathologic features of AD. PMID:21865887

  6. Reduction in brain immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K.; Hattori, T.; Murakami, K.; Suemaru, S.; Kawada, Y.; Kageyama, J.; Ota, Z.

    1985-02-18

    The brain CRF concentration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) was examined by rat CRF radioimmunoassay. Anti-CRF serum was developed by immunizing rabbits with synthetic rat CRF. Synthetic rat CRF was also used as tracer and standard. The displacement of /sup 125/I-rat CRF by serially diluted extracts of male Wistar rats hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and neurointermediate lobe was parallel to the displacement of synthetic rat CRF. In both WKY and SHR the highest levels of CRF immunoreactivity were shown by the hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe, and considerable CRF immunoreactivity was also detected in other brain regions. The CRF immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus, neurointermediate lobe, midbrain, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex was significantly reduced in SHR and it may suggest that CRF abnormality may be implicated in the reported abnormalities in the pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic response and behavior of SHR.

  7. Reduction in brain immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain CRF concentration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) was examined by rat CRF radioimmunoassay. Anti-CRF serum was developed by immunizing rabbits with synthetic rat CRF. Synthetic rat CRF was also used as tracer and standard. The displacement of 125I-rat CRF by serially diluted extracts of male Wistar rats hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and neurointermediate lobe was parallel to the displacement of synthetic rat CRF. In both WKY and SHR the highest levels of CRF immunoreactivity were shown by the hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe, and considerable CRF immunoreactivity was also detected in other brain regions. The CRF immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus, neurointermediate lobe, midbrain, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex was significantly reduced in SHR and it may suggest that CRF abnormality may be implicated in the reported abnormalities in the pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic response and behavior of SHR

  8. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children ...

  9. ?2-MSH immunoreactivity in the human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients undergoing aorto-coronary by-pass surgery, we found a 26% arterial-venous difference of immunoreactive ?2-melanocytostimulating hormone (MSH), a proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived peptide known to possess profound hemodynamic effects. These results prompted an investigation of the presence of ?2-MSH in the human heart. Using a two-step extraction procedure, regions of human hearts were examined by sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays to determine their ?2-MSH content. Mean (± SEM) concentrations of 0.14 ± 0.023 pmol/g and 0.12 ± 0.017 were found in right atrium and right ventricle, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography indicated that 80-90 % of the total immunoreactivity eluted in a single sharp peak in a position identical to that of synthetic ?2-MSH

  10. Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Growth of Leptospire, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: Immunoreactivity and Cell Division

    CERN Document Server

    Triampo, W; Triampo, D; Wong-Ekkabut, J; Tang, I M; Triampo, Wannapong; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Triampo, Darapond; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the exposure of the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola to a constant magnetic field with magnetic flux density from a permanent ferrite magnet = 140 mT were studied. Changes in Leptospira cells after their exposure to the field were determined on the basis of changes in their growth behavior and agglutination immunoreactivity with a homologous antiserum using darkfield microscopy together with visual imaging. The data showed that the exposed Leptospira cells have lower densities and lower agglutination immunoreactivity than the unexposed control group. Interestingly, some of the exposed Leptospira cells showed abnormal morphologies such as large lengths. We discussed some of the possible reasons for these observations.

  11. Methods for concentration of urinary immunoreactive insulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Du, B. H.; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1986-01-01

    Insulin is readily concentrated from 10 to 50 ml of urine with better than 75% recovery using octadecylsilyl (ODS) silica columns (C18Sep-Pak cartridge) and can then be measured by radioimmunoassay. Fractionation on Sephadex G50 gel filtration reveals that the apparent immunoreactivity corresponds for the most part to 6000 dalton insulin. Renal clearance of insulin in 5 normal subjects does not appear to differ in the fasted or fed state and ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 ml/min with an average of ...

  12. A comparative study of leucokinin-immunoreactive neurons in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Veenstra, J A; Davis, N T; Hagedorn, H H

    1994-04-01

    Antisera were raised against leucokinin IV, a member of the leucokinin peptide family. Immunohistochemical localization of leucokinin immunoreactivity in the brain of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea revealed neurosecretory cells in the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis, several bilateral pairs of interneurons in the protocerebrum, and a group of interneurons in the optic lobe. Several immunoreactive interneurons were found in the thoracic ganglia, while the abdominal ganglia contained prominent immunoreactive neurosecretory cells, which projected to the lateral cardiac nerve. The presence of leucokinins in the abdominal nerve cord was confirmed by HPLC combined with ELISA. Leucokinin-immunoreactive neurosecretory cells were also found in the pars intercerebralis of the cricket Acheta domesticus and the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but not in the locust Schistocerca americana or the honey bee Apis mellifera. However, all these species have leucokinin-immunoreactive neurosecretory cells in the abdominal ganglia. The neurohemal organs innervated by abdominal leucokinin-immunoreactive cells were different in each species. PMID:7910521

  13. Tenascin immunoreactivity in normal and pathological bone marrow.

    OpenAIRE

    Soini, Y; Kamel, D; Apaja-Sarkkinen, M.; Virtanen, I.; Lehto, V P

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the distribution of tenascin in normal and pathological bone marrow. METHODS: 48 different bone marrow lesions were studied immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody to tenascin. RESULTS: Tenascin immunoreactivity was found in lesions with increased fibrosis and high numbers of reticular fibres. The strongest immunoreactivity was found in myelofibrosis. Bone marrow from acute and chronic myeloid and lymphatic leukaemias showed weak or moderate immunoreactivity. In h...

  14. Immunoreactivity assay for ?-particle emitting monoclonal antibody constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical trials using ?-particle radiolabeled antibodies require a rapid and reproducible assay of the immunoreactivity of drugs. While live cell assays are typically used to determine the immunoreactive drug fraction, a fixed cell assay may replace the traditional live cell assay and offer the advantages of rapidity, easy availability and consistency for qualifying drugs for preclinical or clinical studies. We have identified optimal cell fixation and immunoreactivity assay conditions and have validated them by performing the fixed-cell assay in clinical trials

  15. Immunoreactive trypsin and neonatalscreening for cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in dried blood spots from 160.822 five-day-old babies as a part of a regionwide neonatal screening program for cystic fibrosis. A second test was performed for 492 babies in whom blood IRT levels were found greater than 900 ?g/l; retesting revealed persistent elevation in 55. Sweat testing confirmed cystic fibrosis in 43 babies, but results were normal in 12. During the course of this study, a total of 51 cystic fibrosis babies were identified: 43 by newborn screening, 6 because they had meconium ileus; so, early diagnosis was achieved in 49 cases out of 51. Two newborn babies did not have elevated IRT and they were missed by the screening test. Our results confirm that elevated blood IRT is characteristic of newborn babies with cystic fibrosis and show that this test has an excellent specificity (99.7%) and a good sensitivity (95%) when used as a neonatal screening test

  16. Regional distribution of immunoreactive endothelin in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimi, H.; Hirata, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Kawano, Y.; Emori, T.; Kuramochi, M.; Omae, T.; Marumo, F. (National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute and Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-07-01

    By use of a specific radioimmunoassay for endothelin (ET), the regional distribution of ET-like immunoreactivity (LI) was studied in rats. The antiserum used cross-reacted equally with synthetic porcine and rat ET. Significant amounts of ET-LI are detectable not only in aorta, but also in kidney, lung, heart, liver and central nervous system. Gel chromatography of the tissue extracts revealed size heterogeneity of ET-LI; one major component eluting close to, but slightly larger than standard rat ET and the other minor component with a larger molecular weight. These data indicate that ET-LI is widely distributed throughout the various rat tissues, suggesting its possible involvement in a variety of organ functions.

  17. Immunoreactivity for interleukin 3 and 5 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor of intestinal mucosa in bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    T lymphocytes and eosinophils are important components of the inflammatory cell infiltrate in bronchial mucosa in asthma. Because activated lymphocytes migrate through the thoracic duct and the general circulation to remote glandular and mucosal sites, we initiated this study to evaluate pathological abnormalities and immunoreactivity for interleukin (IL) 3, IL-5, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) of intestinal mucosa in bronchial asthma. 15 asthmatic patients, 8 n...

  18. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles. The...

  19. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ocular causes of an abnormal head position include cerebral palsy, bony abnormalities, occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any treatments for abnormal head postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures ...

  20. Mapping of neurokinin-like immunoreactivity in the human brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narvaez Jose

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we have studied the distribution of immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies containing neurokinin in the adult human brainstem with no prior history of neurological or psychiatric disease. Results Clusters of immunoreactive cell bodies and high densities of neurokinin-immunoreactive fibers were located in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons and mesencephalon. Moreover, immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the inferior colliculus, the raphe obscurus, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, and in the midline of the anterior medulla oblongata. In general, immunoreactive fibers containing neurokinin were observed throughout the whole brainstem. In addition to the nuclei mentioned above, the highest densities of such immunoreactive fibers were located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the superior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus ambiguus, the gracile nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the medial and superior vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and the interpeduncular nucleus. Conclusion The widespread distribution of immunoreactive structures containing neurokinin in the human brainstem indicates that neurokinin might be involved in several physiological mechanisms, acting as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator.

  1. In vitro digestibility and immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Andrew B; Williams, Kristina; Toomer, Ondulla T

    2016-01-01

    Current models of digestibility solely utilize pepsin stability to assess the safety of allergenic food proteins. However, in vivo complete protein digestion requires acid denaturation and pepsin, trypsin, and/or chymotrypsin cleavage. This study aimed to identify the immunoreactivity and allergenicity of stable bovine milk proteins, using an improved digestibility model to simulate physiological gastric and intestinal conditions in vitro. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis were used to determine protein stability and immunoreactivity, respectively. Immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins, ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) and casein (CN) was greatly diminished with gastric simulation (0-60 min), but some proteins were stable and immunoreactive with simulated intestinal digestive conditions (0-60 min). This study demonstrates the need for improved digestibility models for more accurate assessment of the behavior of food allergens in vivo. PMID:26213013

  2. Effect of electroconvulsive therapy on serum myelin basic protein immunoreactivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, N. R.; Pratt, R T; Thomas, D G

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay that can detect brain damage in cases of head injury and stroke was applied to blood samples from 13 patients before and after they received multiple treatments with electroconvulsive therapy for psychiatric disorder. None of the patients showed a significant increase in serum myelin basic protein immunoreactivity. As increased serum myelin basic protein immunoreactivity may reflect myelin damage it is apparent that in these patients electroconvulsive therapy did ...

  3. Calretinin Immunoreactivity in the Claustrum of the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Druga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The claustrum is a telencephalic structure which consists of dorsal segment adjoining the insular cortex and a ventral segment termed also endopiriform nucleus. The dorsal segment (claustrum is divided into a dorsal and ventral zone, while the endopiriform nucleus is parcellated into dorsal, ventral and intermediate endopiriform nucleus. The claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus consist of glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic local interneurons coexpressing calcium binding proteins. Among neurons expressing calcium binding Proteins, the calretinin – immunoreactive interneurons exert specific functions in neuronal circuits, including disinhibition of excitatory neurons. Previous anatomical data indicate extensive and reciprocally organized claustral projections with cerebral cortex. We asked if the distribution of cells immunoreactive for calretinin delineates anatomical or functional subdivisions in the claustrum and in the endopiriform nucleus. Both segments of the claustrum and all subdivisions of the endopiriform nucleus contained calretinin immunoreactive neurons with varying distribution. The ventral zone of the claustrum exhibited weak labeling with isolated cell bodies and thin fibers and is devoid of immunoreactive puncta. Within the medial margin of the intermediate endopiriform nucleus we noted a group of strongly positive neurons. Cells immunoreactive for calretinin in all subdivisions of the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus were bipolar, multipolar and oval with smooth, beaded aspiny dendrites. Small number of calretinin- immunoreactive neurons displayed thin dendrites which enter to adjoining structures. Penetration of dendrites was reciprocal. These results show an inhomogenity over the claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus in distribution and types of calretinin immunoreactive neurons. The distribution of the calretinin – immunoreactive neurons respects the anatomical but not functional zones of the claustral complex.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Immunoreactive Somatostatin from Fish Pancreatic Islets

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Hideki; Hirsch, Harry J; Gabbay, Kenneth H.; Permutt, Alan

    1980-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay with labeled synthetic tetradecapeptide somatostatin, a large amount of immunoreactive somatostatin was found in the principal pancreatic islet of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctata). The purpose of these experiments was to isolate and characterize the somatostatin-like material. Extracts of islets were chromatographed on a Bio-Gel P-30 column, and over 90% of the immunoreactive somatostatin migrated with proteins at least twice the size of synthetic tetradecapep...

  5. Effect of pulsed light on structure and immunoreactivity of gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Agnese; Manzocco, Lara; Lippe, Giovanna; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The effect of pulsed light (from 1.75 to 26.25Jcm(-2)) on selected properties of wheat gluten powder and aqueous suspension (absorbance, particle size and microstructure, free sulfhydryl content, protein fractions, protein electrophoretic mobility and immunoreactivity) was investigated. Gluten photoreactivity was strongly affected by hydration. While minor photo-induced structure modifications were observed in gluten powder, pulsed light induced the development of browning and promoted partial depolymerisation of hydrated gluten proteins by disulphide exchange. These changes were associated with a significant decrease in immunoreactivity, suggesting that pulsed light could be exploited to efficiently modify structure and thus functionality of gluten. PMID:26471567

  6. Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions are associated with increased risk for ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Elden, Andrew C.; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Hart, Michael P.; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Johnson, Brian S.; Fang, Xiaodong; Armakola, Maria; Geser, Felix; Greene, Robert; Lu, Min Min; Padmanabhan, Arun; Clay, Dana; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Juhr, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human neurodegenerative disease. The causes of ALS are poorly understood, although the protein TDP-43 has been suggested to play a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Here we show that Ataxin-2, a polyglutamine (polyQ) protein mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), is a potent modifier of TDP-43 toxicity in animal and cellular models. The proteins associate in a complex that depends on RNA. Ataxin-2 is abnormally localized in s...

  7. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra ...

  8. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Carraway, R E; Rökaeus, A; Sundler, F

    1981-01-01

    Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity is found in nerve fibers present in all body regions of hydra. The nerve fibers are especially numerous in the ectoderm at the bases of the tentacles and in the ectoderm at a site just above the foot. Radioimmunoassays of acetic-acid extracts of hydra, using vari...

  9. Localization of neuropeptide-immunoreactive neurons in the human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H B; Lam, D M

    1990-07-01

    Light microscopic immunocytochemistry was utilized to localize populations of neurons in the human retina immunoreactive for the following neuroactive peptides: substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) and LANT-6-(H-Lys-Asn-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH), a hexapeptide which is identical to the C-terminal half of neurotensin except for the amino acid substitutions Lys/Arg and Asn/Arg. The majority of SP immunoreactive cells were amacrine cells whose pear-shaped or oval cell bodies (about 8 microns in diameter) were situated in the proximal parts of the inner nuclear layer. A small number of SP-stained somas (about 10-15 microns in diameter) were located in the ganglion cell layer and were designated as those of displaced amacrine cells. The SP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in sublamina 1, 3 and 5 with the most dense plexus being found in sublamina 3 of the inner layer. VIP-positive cell bodies (8-9 microns) were oval or pear-shaped and were situated in the innermost cell rows of inner nuclear layer. The majority of fine VIP-immunoreactive processes extended to sublamina 3 with only a few branches distributing in sublamina 1 of the inner plexiform layer. The SOM-stained cell bodies (10-11 microns) were round and were situated in the innermost cell rows of inner nuclear layer. SOM-positive processes were observed in sublamina 1 and 2 of the inner plexiform layer. The LANT-6 immunoreactive cell bodies (12-22 microns) were either oval-, round- or pyriform-shaped and were situated in ganglion cell layer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1699634

  10. Kinetics of Antibody Response to Ehrlichia canis Immunoreactive Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Jere W.; Corstvet, Richard E.; Gaunt, Steven D.; Boudreaux, Charles; Guedry, Thaya; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia chaffeensis that have been characterized include a family of 28-kDa major outer membrane proteins (p28) and two large antigenically divergent surface glycoprotein orthologs. We previously demonstrated that recombinant E. canis p28 and the 140- and 200-kDa glycoproteins gp140 and gp200, respectively, react strongly with serum antibodies from suspect canine ehrlichiosis cases that were positive for E. canis by immunofluorescent antibody t...

  11. Octopamine Immunoreactivity in the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    MONASTIRIOTI, MARIA; GORCZYCA, MICHAEL; Rapus, Jürgen; ECKERT, MANFRED; White, Kalpana; BUDNIK, VIVIAN

    1995-01-01

    Octopamine has been proposed as a neurotransmitter/modulator/hormone serving a variety of physiological functions in invertebrates. We have initiated a study of octopamine in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which provides an excellent system for genetic and molecular analysis of neuroactive molecules. As a first step, the distribution of octopamine immunoreactivity was studied by means of an octopamine-specific antiserum. We focused on the central nervous system (CNS) and on the innerv...

  12. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996. Results: Of 38,151 pregnant women who had newborn infants without any congenital abnormalities (population control group), 774 (3.4%); of 22,865 case pregnant women who had newbo...

  13. Tooth - abnormal shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence of ...

  14. Eye Movement Deficits Are Consistent with a Staging Model of pTDP-43 Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, Martin; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lulé, Dorothée; Del Tredici, Kelly; Brettschneider, Johannes; Keller, Jürgen; Pfandl, Katharina; Ludolph, Albert C.; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The neuropathological process underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can be traced as a four-stage progression scheme of sequential corticofugal axonal spread. The examination of eye movement control gains deep insights into brain network pathology and provides the opportunity to detect both disturbance of the brainstem oculomotor circuitry as well as executive deficits of oculomotor function associated with higher brain networks. Objective To study systematically oculomotor characteristics in ALS and its underlying network pathology in order to determine whether eye movement deterioration can be categorized within a staging system of oculomotor decline that corresponds to the neuropathological model. Methods Sixty-eight ALS patients and 31 controls underwent video-oculographic, clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Results Oculomotor examinations revealed increased anti- and delayed saccades’ errors, gaze-palsy and a cerebellary type of smooth pursuit disturbance. The oculomotor disturbances occurred in a sequential manner: Stage 1, only executive control of eye movements was affected. Stage 2 indicates disturbed executive control plus ‘genuine’ oculomotor dysfunctions such as gaze-paly. We found high correlations (poculomotor stages and both, the clinical presentation as assessed by the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) score, and cognitive scores from the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS). Conclusions Dysfunction of eye movement control in ALS can be characterized by a two-staged sequential pattern comprising executive deficits in Stage 1 and additional impaired infratentorial oculomotor control pathways in Stage 2. This pattern parallels the neuropathological staging of ALS and may serve as a technical marker of the neuropathological spreading. PMID:26559944

  15. FTLD-ALS of TDP-43 type and SCA2 in a family with a full ataxin-2 polyglutamine expansion.

    OpenAIRE

    Bäumer, D; East, SZ; Tseu, B; Zeman, A.; Hilton, D; Talbot, K.; Ansorge, O.

    2014-01-01

    Polyglutamine expansions in the ataxin-2 gene (ATXN2) cause autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), but have recently also been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We present clinical and pathological features of a family in which a pathological ATXN2 expansion led to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ALS (FTLD-ALS) in the index case, but typical SCA2 in a son, and compare the neuropathology with a case of typical SCA2. The index case shares the molecula...

  16. Expansive Gene Transfer in the Rat CNS Rapidly Produces Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Relevant Sequelae When TDP-43 is Overexpressed

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, David B; Dayton, Robert D.; Henning, Phillip P; Cain, Cooper D.; Zhao, Li Ru; Schrott, Lisa M.; Orchard, Elysse A; Knight, David S.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Improved spread of transduction in the central nervous system (CNS) was achieved from intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AAV9) to neonatal rats. Spinal lower motor neuron transduction efficiency was estimated to be 78% using the highest vector dose tested at a 12-week interval. The widespread expression could aid studying diseases that affect both the spinal cord and brain, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The protein most relevant to neuropathology i...

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  18. Immunoreactivity examination of patients with testicular tumours treated with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanits, K.; Kuhn, E.; Csere, T.

    1985-02-01

    Results of the immunoreactivity study of 72 patients receiving radiotherapy are presented. Tuberculin and DNCB (2,4 dinitrochlorobenzol) reactivity tests were performed before, during and 3 years after the radiation therapy and at the time when metastases appeared. The number of positive reactions decreased slightly in both tuberculin and DNCB groups, though not significantly. Metastatic patients showed a significant decrease of reactivity against DNCB as compared with the results obtained before the treatment. In 5,6% of patients herpes zoster was registered. No other infections occured. It was found that immunosuppression caused by the radiation treatment does not influence the later fate of patients with testicular tumours. 41 refs.

  19. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  20. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  1. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  2. [Immunoreaction and blood transfusion--chairmen's introductory remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Tsutomu; Matsushita, Tadashi

    2013-05-01

    Although blood transfusion is an extremely important therapeutic procedure that usually proceeds without complications, there are some risks associated with donated blood. Investigations into the causes of transfusion reactions and their prevention are important issues for transfusion therapy. In addition to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for infectious diseases and the irradiation of blood to prevent post-transfusion GVHD, prestorage leukocyte reduction and diversion of the first part of the donation of blood were recently introduced into transfusion therapy. This symposium, entitled "Immunoreaction and blood transfusion", reviewed the immune responses associated with blood transfusion, which is probably the most frequent medical procedure performed in allogeneic organ transplantation, with four themes provided by the four featured invited speakers: transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transfusion-transmitted infectious disease surveillance, and transfusion-related immunomodulation. PMID:23947177

  3. MAPK immunoreactivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat testis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yel& #305; z Bozdem& #305; r, Donmez; Gulnur, Kizilay; Yeter, Topcu-Tarladacalisir.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK), in the testes of male rats with experimental diabetes. METHODS: Twenty males Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a [...] control group (n=8) and a diabetes group (administration of 40 mg/kg/day streptozotocin (STZ) for five sequential days, n=12). After six weeks, testicular biopsy samples were obtained for light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) index was significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004) when compared to the control group. Both total (t)-ERK and phosphor (p)-ERK immunoreactivities were significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004, p

  4. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and chemical characteristics of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for routine digoxin determination has been studied with the aim to confirm our previous observation of the presence of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) in serum (plasma) and urine of normal subjects not under digoxin treatment. The sensitivity of the assay was 2.1±0.6 pg/tube and the reproducibility, tested with two different urine pools in terms of digoxin-equivalents (d.e.), was 12.5% (285.6±35.7 pg/ml d.e., n=19) and 20.6% (123.8±25.5 pg/ml d.e., n=19), respectively. The mean DLIS concentration in the blood of 32 normal subjects was 15.6±8.0 pg/ml d.e. (range 0-60 pg/ml d.e.). The mean DLIS concentration in urine of 37 normal subjects (overnight collection) was 160.0±52.3 pg/ml d.e. (range 70-350 pg/ml d.e.), while the mean 24-hour DLIS excretion of 10 normal subjects was 97.3±39.7 ng d.e. Two urine pools were extracted with organic solvents. Good recoveries (80-100%) were obtained with methanol, while poor recoveries were obtained with methylene chloride, hexane and petroleum ether. The present study indicates that DLIS is not a large charged molecule, neither salt, nor fatty acid, which are considered the most frequent non-specific interferences in RIA systems. Urine samples may be more useful for pathophysiological studies on digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids, because of their higher DLIS concentrations (4-10 times the concetration in blood)

  5. Abnormal Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Rohila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing crime rate identification using biometrics has become an important field of research. When it is not possible to take snapshot, to read iris, to take finger prints etc then identification using gait may be proved an effective tool to identify a person. This paper presents a method which distinguishs between normal and abnormal gait. A person having abnormal gait may be categorize as suspicious and alarming actions may be taken. Experiments have been done on real world data and system has been trained for normal walk for real world subjects.

  6. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  7. Chronic 835-MHz radiofrequency exposure to mice hippocampus alters the distribution of calbindin and GFAP immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Dhiraj; Pradhan, Jonu; Aryal, Bijay; Lee, Chang-Min; Choi, In-Young; Park, Ki-Sup; Kim, Seok Bae; Kim, Hyung Gun; Kim, Myeung Ju

    2010-07-30

    Exponential interindividual handling in wireless communication system has raised possible doubts in the biological aspects of radiofrequency (RF) exposure on human brain owing to its close proximity to the mobile phone. In the nervous system, calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a critical role in releasing neurotransmitters, generating action potential and membrane integrity. Alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration trigger aberrant synaptic action or cause neuronal apoptosis, which may exert an influence on the cellular pathology for learning and memory in the hippocampus. Calcium binding proteins like calbindin D28-K (CB) is responsible for the maintaining and controlling Ca(2+) homeostasis. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of RF exposure on rat hippocampus at 835 MHz with low energy (specific absorption rate: SAR=1.6 W/kg) for 3 months by using both CB and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) specific antibodies by immunohistochemical method. Decrease in CB immunoreactivity (IR) was noted in exposed (E1.6) group with loss of interneurons and pyramidal cells in CA1 area and loss of granule cells. Also, an overall increase in GFAP IR was observed in the hippocampus of E1.6. By TUNEL assay, apoptotic cells were detected in the CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, which reflects that chronic RF exposure may affect the cell viability. In addition, the increase of GFAP IR due to RF exposure could be well suited with the feature of reactive astrocytosis, which is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the loss of nearby neurons. Chronic RF exposure to the rat brain suggested that the decrease of CB IR accompanying apoptosis and increase of GFAP IR might be morphological parameters in the hippocampus damages. PMID:20546709

  8. Correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity to bacillus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jing Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity.METHODS:Demodex counting of 68 inpatients was performed based on eight lashes sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: These 68 patients without facialrosacea or blepharitis were age matched(P=0.888and gender matched(P=0.595regarding serum immunoreactivity or ocular Demodex infestation. According to the eyelash, creep mite infection was divided into positive and negative groups, age-matched(P=0.590and sex-matched(P=0.329. There was no significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and Demodex infestation(P=0.925. There were 27 patients with positive serum immunoreactivity in 38 patients with Demodex infestation(71%, and there were 21 patients in 30 patients without Demodex infestation(70%. There was no significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and Demodex counting(P=0.758. CONCLUSION: It is unnecessary to perform serum analysis when Demodex can be found in asymptomatic individuals. But treatment of reducing lashes Demodex infestation is necessary when patient with blepharitis was detected Demodex in eye lashes and positive serum immunoreactivity.

  9. Immunoreactive neuropeptides in the cells of human thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavi? Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to explore the expression of different neuropeptides, viz. vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, bombesin and motilin in the cells of fetal and adult human thymus. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cortical and medullary thymocytes were labeled by all antibodies, except those specific for motilin. Immunoreactive VIP and SP were observed in the solitary epithelial cells located in the subcapsular/subtrabecular cortex, at the corticomedullary junction and in the medulla. The cells within the subcapsular/subtrabecular monolayer, rare solitary cells in the deep cortex and epithelial cell network in the medulla, were labeled with antibodies to CGRP and bombesin. Hassall’s corpuscles were labeled with all antibodies except that specific for SP. The obtained data obtained testify to the expression of different neuropeptides in human thymic lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells and suggest a role for neuroendocrine hormone-mediated mechanisms in the regulation of thymic homeostasis in humans.

  10. Clinical applications of measurement of serum immunoreactive levels of erythropoietin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification of erythropoietin (Ep) in 1977 enabled investigators to more clearly define the role of this hormone in erythropoiesis in man. Radioimmunoassays were rapidly developed. Undoubtedly differences between levels of immunoreactive and biologically active Ep will be found but the resolution of these discrepancies will expand our understanding of the erythron. Recently others described a monoclonal antibody against Ep. Because of this breakthrough, large quantities of pure hormone should soon be available to a larger number of investigators than currently have access to it. The major clinical use of this hormone will probably be in the treatment of the anemia of chronic renal disease. In the relatively few years since the radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed, measurements of the levels of this hormone have been made in several disease states as well as in normal man. Most of the findings to date confirm the predictions that have been made over the years based on studies done using the rather crude bioassay for Ep. In the present study the authors shall review and expand on what is known about subjects with chronic lung and renal disease

  11. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SIE) and hemoglobin levels were measured in 152 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Anemia was present in 18% of asymptomatic patients who tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 50% of patients with a condition related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 75% of patients with AIDS. The mean SIE level for untreated AIDS patients was greater than for patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus or patients with an AIDS-related condition but not outside the normal range for SIE, and the incremental increase in SIE level for a given decline in hemoglobin level was much less in AIDS patients than in patients with uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia. Forty-two patients were treated with zidovudine, and the hemoglobin level fell 10 g/L or more in 48%. The data indicate that SIE level is inappropriately low in anemic AIDS patients. The ability of these patients to produce erythropoietin is intact and can be expressed with zidovudine therapy. However, even very high levels of SIE fail to stimulate erythropoiesis adequately

  12. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in HIV-infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, J.L.; Barnes, D.C.; Fuchs, E.; Quinn, T.C. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1989-06-02

    Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SIE) and hemoglobin levels were measured in 152 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Anemia was present in 18% of asymptomatic patients who tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 50% of patients with a condition related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 75% of patients with AIDS. The mean SIE level for untreated AIDS patients was greater than for patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus or patients with an AIDS-related condition but not outside the normal range for SIE, and the incremental increase in SIE level for a given decline in hemoglobin level was much less in AIDS patients than in patients with uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia. Forty-two patients were treated with zidovudine, and the hemoglobin level fell 10 g/L or more in 48%. The data indicate that SIE level is inappropriately low in anemic AIDS patients. The ability of these patients to produce erythropoietin is intact and can be expressed with zidovudine therapy. However, even very high levels of SIE fail to stimulate erythropoiesis adequately.

  13. Deposition of immunoreactants in a cutaneous allergic drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: The analysis of allergic drug reaction pathology may be difficult, especially if multiple histological reaction patterns are detected on review of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained sections. In this case, we emphasize the value of adding immunohistochemistry (IHC and multicolor direct immunofluorescence (DIF as tools to improve the diagnosis of these complex disorders. Patient and Methods: Our patient is a twenty-year-old Caucasian female, who presented with a sudden onset of erythematous macules on the skin following administration of amoxicillin. Lesional tissue was examined by H & E and IHC, and perilesional tissue by DIF and IHC. Results: The H&E findings revealed diffuse dermal edema, and a mild, superficial, perivascular dermatitis with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, consistent with an allergic drug eruption. The IHC and DIF studies revealed autoreactivity to sweat glands, nerves and dermal blood vessels, as well as dermal deposits of immune reactants such as fibrinogen and complement around the inflamed areas. Conclusions: Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products have been shown in some cases of allergic disorders; thus, we encourage the effect further testing for these immunoreactants in biopsies from patients with possible allergic drug reactions.

  14. Immunoreactive inhibin concentration in blood tested under variable sampling conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan; Micic, S

    1996-01-01

    The stability of immunoreactive (i.r.) inhibin in blood samples drawn and handled under different conditions and at different time intervals were studied. Ten serum and plasma samples drawn in 1994 from healthy volunteers were compared to samples collected in 1986 from 10 healthy women admitted for laparoscopic sterilization and analysed 6 years later. All samples were drawn on the twelfth day of the menstrual cycle and handled under identical clinical conditions (22 degrees C). The concentrations in the 1986 samples were similar to the Se-i.r. inhibin levels from 1994. Different clotting temperatures, repetitive freezing and thawing or hemolysis had no effects on the i.r. inhibin values, whereas non-hemolysed samples left at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days were significantly lower, which might be due to a statistical type 2 error. No differences in concentration between serum and plasma i.r. inhibin were demonstrated. In conclusion, i.r. inhibin is a very stable peptide hormone in both serum and plasma if drawn and handled under normal conditions.

  15. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  16. Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic f...

  17. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

  18. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  19. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity in brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri (Cyclostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirikowski, G; Erhart, G

    1984-01-01

    Paraffin sections of brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri were immunostained with an antiserum to FMRF-amide. Immunoreactivity was visible in a large number of neurons in the posterior part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in long neuronal processes extending cranially from the hypothalamus to the olfactory system and caudally to the medulla oblongata. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity was also found in cells of the adenohypophysis. These observations suggest that the hagfish possesses a brain FMRF-amide-like transmitter system and pituitary cells containing FMRF-amide-like material. Antisera to ACTH, alpha-MSH and pancreatic polypeptide gave no immunoreaction in hagfish brain or pituitary.

  20. Immunoreactive oxytocin and vasopressin in the non-pregnant human uterus and oviductal isthmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, S; Forman, Axel

    1989-01-01

    The regional distribution of immunoreactive OT and AVP in the human uterus was investigated. Specimens of non-pregnant human uterus and oviduct were homogenized and extracted. The tissue levels exceeded the plasma concentrations of the peptides. The largest quantities of both peptides were found in the cervix and oviductal isthmus. The amounts found in the uterine fundus and isthmus were, however, not significantly different. Only 23% of immunoreactive OT eluted in the position of standard peptide on high-performance liquid chromatography. All immunoreactive AVP eluted with standard AVP after additional ether extraction of octadecasilyl extracts. We conclude that the human uterus contains materials immunologically and chromatographically identical to oxytocin and vasopressin.

  1. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  2. Comparison of immunoreactive serum trypsinogen and lipase in Cystic Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is 1 in 2,000. Early detection and treatment of CF may necessitate newborn screening with a reliable and cost-effective test. Serum immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) an enzyme produced by the pancreas, is detectable by radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. Recently, it has been shown that IRT is elevated in CF infants for the first few months of life and levels become subnormal as pancreatic insufficiency progresses. Other enzymes produced by the pancreas, such as lipase, are also elevated during this time. The author's earlier work confirmed previous reports of elevated IRT levels in CF infants. The development of a new RIA for lipase (nuclipase) has enabled comparison of these 2 pancreatic enzymes in C.F. Serum IRT and lipase determinations were performed on 2 groups of CF patients; infants under 1 year of age, and children between 1 and 18 years of age. Control populations of the same age groups were included. The results showed that both trypsin (161 +- 92 ng/ml, range 20 to 400) and lipase (167 +- 151 ng/ml, range 29 to 500) are elevated in CF in the majority of infants. Control infants had values of IRT ranging from 20 to 29.5 ng/ml and lipase values ranging from 23 to 34 ng/ml. IRT becomes subnormal in most CF patients by 8 years of age as pancreatic function insufficiency increases. Lipase levels and IRT levels correlate well in infancy, but IRT is a more sensitive indicator of pancreatic insufficiency in older patients with CF

  3. What neurons hide behind calretinin immunoreactivity in the human gut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscher, Nicholas; Jabari, Samir; Strehl, Johanna; Neuhuber, Winfried; Brehmer, Axel

    2014-04-01

    Calretinin (CALR) is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for the histopathological diagnosis of human intestinal neuropathies. However, little is known about its distribution pattern with respect to specific human enteric neuron types. Prior studies revealed CALR in both myenteric and submucosal neurons, most of which colabel with choline acetyl transferase (ChAT). Here, we specified the chemical code of CALR-positive neurons in small and large intestinal wholemounts in a series of 28 patients. Besides other markers, we evaluated the labeling pattern of CALR in combination with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). In colonic submucosa, CALR and VIP were almost completely colocalized in about three-quarters of all submucosal neurons. In the small intestinal submucosa, both the colocalization rate of CALR and VIP as well as the proportion of these neurons were lower (about one-third). In the myenteric plexus of both small intestine and colon, CALR amounted to 11 and 10 %, respectively, whereas VIP to 5 and 4 % of the whole neuron population, respectively. Colocalization of both markers was found in only 2 and 3 % of myenteric neurons, respectively. In section specimens, nerve fibers coreactive for CALR and VIP were found in the mucosa but not in the muscle coat. Summarizing the present and earlier results, CALR was found in at least one submucosal and two myenteric neuron populations. Submucosal CALR+/VIP+/ChAT± neurons innervate mucosal structures. Furthermore, CALR immunoreactivity in the myenteric plexus was observed in morphological type II (supposed primary afferent) and spiny type I (supposed inter- or motor-) neurons. PMID:24203089

  4. FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the medusa Polyorchis penicillatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Spencer, A N

    1984-01-01

    with several antisera to oxytocin/vasopressin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. The morphology and location of most FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Polyorchis coincides with two identified neuronal systems, which have been recently discovered from neurophysiological studies....

  5. Humoral immunoreactivity to gliadin and to tissue transglutaminase is present in some patients with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matkovic Suzana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a clonal B-cell disorder with many immunological disturbances. The aim of this work was to assess whether some of food antigens contribute to the imbalance of immune response by screening the sera of MM patients for their immunoreactivity to food constituent gliadin, to tissue transglutaminase-2 (tTG-2 and to Ro/SSA antigen. Sera from 61 patients with MM in various stages of disease, before, or after some cycles of conventional therapy were analyzed by commercial Binding Site ELISA tests. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis of data obtained was performed by Mann Whitney Test. Results The higher serum IgA immunoreactivity to gliadin was found in 14/56 patients and in one of control people. The enhanced serum IgG immunoreactivity to gliadin was found in only two of tested patients and in two controls. The enhanced IgA immunoreactivity to tTG-2 was found in 10/49 patients' sera, while 4/45 patients had higher serum IgG immunoreactivity. The enhanced serum IgG immunoreactivity to RoSSÀ antigen was found in 9/47 analyzed MM patients' sera. Statistical analysis of data obtained revealed that only the levels of anti-tTG-2 IgA immunoreactivity in patients with MM were significantly higher than these obtained in healthy controls (P Conclusion Data obtained showed the existence of the enhanced serum immunoreactivity to gliadin, tTG-2 and Ro/SSA antigens in some patients with MM. These at least partially could contribute to the immunological imbalance frequently found in this disease.

  6. Diurnal variation of ?-endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of ?-endorphin immunoreactive material. (Author)

  7. Expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity in transmitter-characterized neurons after stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccatelli, S; Villar, M J; Goldstein, M; HÖKFELT, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular injection of the mitosis inhibitor colchicine and of immobilization stress, subcutaneous injection of capsaicin, and intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic salt solution on expression of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity was studied in the rat brain with immunohistochemistry. All the procedures induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, and many of these neurons also contained corticotropin-releasing factor immunore...

  8. Glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity is present in oligodendroglia of various regions of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Eng, L. F.; Gibbs, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase immunoreactive oligodendrocytes were identified in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. They were mostly confined to the gray matter, particularly close to neurons and processes. The white matter showed few immunoreactive oligodendroglia. It was suggested that some type of oligodendrocytes, specially those in perineuronal location, might fulfill a functional role more akin to astrocytes than to the normally myelinating oligodendroglia.

  9. Levels of immunoreactive inhibin-like material in urine during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay, the authors determined levels of inhibinlike material in the urine of eight healthy women with normal menstrual cycle length of 28 +- 4 days. The results revealed a cyclic variation in urinary immunoreactive inhibin levels during the menstrual cycles, with a sharp rise in levels three to four days prior to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks. These levels of immunoreactive inhibin may thus serve as a parameter to detect impending LH surge. (author)

  10. Characteristics of galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity in the rat amygdala complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Laslo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Morphological features and morphometric parameters of galanin (GAL and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive neurons and neuronal fibres were studied in all nuclei of adult male rat amygdala. Material and methods After perfusion and fixation, rat brains were immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against GAL and VIP and then visualized by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. Results and Discussion The greatest number of galanin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the medial part of the central nucleus and in the dorsal part of the medial nucleus. In the first case, most neurons were bipolar (37%, and in the second, they were ovoid (45%. GAL-immunoreactive fibers were identified in the medial nucleus, "bed nucleus" of the accessory olfactory tract, frontal cortical nucleus, amygdalo-hippocampal area and basolateral nucleus. VIP-immunoreactive neurons were diffusely distributed in more nuclei than the previous, mostly in the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nucleus. They were mostly ovoid (40%. VIP-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the lateral part of the central nucleus, while long and radially oriented fibers were present in the frontal and dorsal cortical nucleus. Conclusion By distribution analysis of GAL and VIP immunoreactive neurons and fibers, and according to literature data, it can be assumed that the medial part of the central nucleus receives VIP fibers from other parts of the amygdaloid body, and then sends GAL fibers to the medial nucleus.

  11. Immunoreactivity of calcium binding protein secretagogin in the human hippocampus is restricted to pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attems, Johannes; Quass, Magdalena; Gartner, Wolfgang; Nabokikh, Anastasiya; Wagner, Ludwig; Steurer, Stefan; Arbes, Stefanie; Lintner, Felix; Jellinger, Kurt

    2007-03-01

    Disturbed calcium homeostasis plays a crucial role in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the aging process. We evaluated immunoreactivity of secretagogin, a recently cloned calcium binding protein, in hippocampus and adjacent entorhinal cortex of 30 neuropathologically examined post mortem brains (m:f=12:18; mean age, 79.8+/-15.1 years). The study group consisted of 15 cases fulfilling the criteria for high probability of AD according to the NIA-Reagan Institute Criteria and 15 cases with no to medium probability. Sections were incubated with secretagogin-specific antibodies and the number of immunoreactive neurons as well as staining intensities in both neurons and neuropil were assessed. Both cellular and neuropil immunoreactivity were restricted to subiculum and Ammons horn. Cellular immunoreactivity was further restricted to pyramidal neurons and showed a hierarchical distribution: the mean percentage of immunoreactive neurons was highest in sector CA3 (64.41%), followed by CA2 (44.09%), CA4 (34.38%), CA1 (10.9%), and the subiculum (2.92%; P0.05), while it did not differ significantly between groups with different degrees of AD pathology. The pattern of secretagogin immunoreactivity resembles that of calcium sensor proteins as it is restricted to a subset of neurons and therefore secretagogin could serve highly specialized tasks in neuronal calcium signalling. PMID:17116382

  12. Minicolumnar abnormalities in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph

    2006-09-01

    Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561

  13. Abnormality analyzing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention analyzes a steam generator of a PWR plant easily and accurately. A signal generator sends maximum length sequential signals to an adder, in which M sequence signals having a sufficiently large amplitude than that of noises of correction control signals to provide zero external disturbance in average are added in the adder and outputted. A PI controller receives the signals, conducts PI calculation and sent them as control signals containing disturbance to a feedwater control valve. The feedwater control valve opens/closes depending on the signals and keeps the water level in the same manner as in the case where there is no disturbance, namely, in a case where M sequential signals are not present for long period of time. It stores flow rate signals of a feedwater valve containing external disturbance and water level signals of the steam generator, and calculates a predetermined coefficient of a vector of approximate transmission function of the steam generator. The calculated value and the coefficient of vector of the approximate transmission function during normal operation are compared, and when the difference exceeds a predetermined value, it is determined as abnormal, and abnormal signals are outputted. It is not necessary to obtain detailed transmission function of the steam generator, but analysis can be conducted easily and accurately by the approximate transmission function. (N.H.)

  14. Pretreatment P53 immunoreactivity does not infer radioresistance in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test, in a clinical context, the hypothesis that p53 aberrations, assessed by immunoreactivity, are related to radioresistance as suggested by several experimental studies. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with prostate cancer who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate or biopsy prior to definitive external beam therapy were retrospectively identified. The endpoint in the study was cancer specific survival. The nuclear accumulation of the aberrant p53 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry with the pantropic, monoclonal Ab-6 anti-p53 antibody (clone DO-1) on pretreatment biopsies. Immunoreactivity was related to stage, grade, and cancer-specific survival. Results: There was a correlation between p53 immunoreactivity and low tumor stage (p < 0.001), but no relation between p53 status and grade was found. Moreover, no significant difference was found in cancer-specific survival between the p53 positive tumors (109 months) and the p53 negative tumors (99 months). Conclusions: No disadvantage regarding survival was seen for patients with p53 immunoreactive tumors, implicating that p53 immunoreactivity does not infer radioresistance in prostate cancer. This suggests that the p53 inactivation may be a less important determinant of tumor response to radiotherapy in some human cancers than in the previously studied experimental situations. Thus, other mechanisms may be more important in determining outcome after radiation. However, the series is small and data should be interpreted with caution

  15. Urotensin II-immunoreactive neurons in the caudal neurosecretory system of freshwater and seawater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, K; Kawata, M; Akaji, K; Takagi, A; Moriga, M; Kobayashi, H

    1985-01-01

    Antiserum generated against synthetic urotensin II of the goby, Gillichthys mirabilis, was used to localize urotensin II in the caudal neurosecretory system in six species of freshwater teleosts: Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Salmo gairdneri and Plecoglossus altivelis, and six species of seawater teleosts: Acanthogobius flavimanus, Pagrus major, Parapristipoma trilineatum, Trachurus japonicus, Seriola dumerili and Seriola quinqueradiata. In the carp, urotensin II-immunoreactive perikarya were classified into three groups according to their size and shape. Small cells were located in the spinal cord dorsal to the urophysis, medium-sized cells immediately anterior to the urophysis, and large cells anterior to the medium-sized cells. In each group, a small number of nonreactive cells was found. Urotensin II-immunoreactive nerve fibers extended toward the urophysis and terminated around the blood vessels. Other species of teleosts showed a similar immunoreaction to that observed in the carp. The immunoreaction of the urophysis was stronger in seawater fish than freshwater fish. Urotensin II-immunoreactive elements could not be detected in the brains of the carp, goldfish and goby. PMID:3884162

  16. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  17. FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the medusa Polyorchis penicillatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Spencer, A N

    1984-01-01

    Three different antisera to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide) and two different antisera to the fragment RFamide were used to stain sections or whole mounts of the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis penicillatus. All antisera stained the same neuronal structures. Strong immunoreactivity was found in neurons of the ectodermal nerve nets of the manubrium and tentacles, in neurons of the sensory epithelium, and in neurons at the periphery of the sphincter muscle. Strong immunoreactivity was also present in processes and perikarya of the whole outer nerve ring, in the ocellar nerves, and in nerve cells lying at the periphery of the ocellus. The inner nerve ring contained a moderate number of immunoreactive processes and perikarya, which were distinct from the swimming motor neurons. In contrast to the situation in the hydrozoan polyp Hydra attenuata, no immunoreactivity was found with several antisera to oxytocin/vasopressin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. The morphology and location of most FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Polyorchis coincides with two identified neuronal systems, which have been recently discovered from neurophysiological studies.

  18. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Partata; A.M.R. Krepsky; L.L. Xavier; Marques, M.; Achaval, M

    2003-01-01

    Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anteri...

  19. Somatostatin-28(1-12)-like immunoreactivity is reduced in Alzheimer's disease cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, M F; Benoit, R; Mazurek, M F; Bird, E D; Martin, J B

    1986-03-19

    A deficiency in somatostatin is the most consistently described neurochemical alteration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) attributable to intrinsic cortical neurons. Somatostatin-28 (SOM-28), an N-terminal-extended form of somatostatin, can be cleaved to form somatostatin-28(1-12)(SOM-28(1-12) ) and somatostatin-14 (SOM-14). We have measured concentrations of SOM-28(1-12)-like immunoreactivity in 8 cortical regions from 12 patients with AD and 13 controls. Significant reductions (P less than 0.001) were found in all cortical regions examined with the largest decrease in temporal lobe. Reductions were significantly correlated with decreases in somatostatin-14-like immunoreactivity in the same regions. The similar reductions of two prosomatostatin-derived peptides in AD cerebral cortex supports the contention that decreased somatostatin immunoreactivity in AD is caused by a degeneration of somatostatin cortical neurons and terminals. PMID:2870772

  20. So-called interplexiform cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase or somatostatin in rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, K; Kato, S; Teranishi, T; Kiyama, H; Katayama, Y; Tohyama, M

    1985-10-28

    The morphology of so-called interplexiform (IP) cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or somatostatin (SOM) in the rat retina was described in comparison with those in the carp retina. In frozen cross-sections of the rat retina, many processes of TH-like immunoreactive cells were found to extend toward the outer plexiform layer (OPL), forming a thin layer of network fibers. A few of them further extended into the photoreceptor cell layer; such fibers were never found in the carp retina. Some processes of SOM-like immunoreactive cells in the rat retina were found to travel across the inner nuclear layer and appeared to poorly develop a network at the OPL. In the carp retina, on the other hand, only one exceptional cross-section contained such an ascending process. PMID:2864980

  1. Effects of heat and high-pressure treatments on the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Shuo; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-05-15

    The effects of dry and moist heat, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment on the biochemical characteristics and immunological properties of almond proteins were investigated. Changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins extracted from treated almond flour were evaluated using a total protein assay, indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Almond proteins were stable during dry-heat treatment at temperatures below 250°C. Dry heat at 400°C, boiling, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment in the presence of water at ?500MPa greatly reduced the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein profiles of almond flour samples treated under these conditions also changed significantly. The synergistic effects of heat, pressure and the presence of water contributed to significant changes in solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. PMID:26776044

  2. Brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, C B; Kibbe, M R; Hurley, K M; Spencer, S; Holmes, H R; Leahy, K M; Needleman, P

    1990-12-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a potent dilator of aorta and renal and cerebral arteries and inhibits sympathetic tone in the heart in several mammalian species. We examined the possibility that a molecule related to porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP), which acts at the same receptor sites as atrial natriuretic peptide, might provide an alternative source of natriuretic peptide to the cardiovascular system in the rat. An antiserum against pBNP demonstrated profuse immunoreactive innervation of the heart, cerebrovascular tree, and renal arteries. pBNP-like immunoreactive fibers ran in bundles along the surface of the heart, innervating the atria most heavily and penetrating the ventricular myocardium along the coronary arteries. There was greater density of innervation of the right side of the heart compared with the left, particularly in the ventricles, suggesting a parasympathetic origin. The entire cerebrovascular tree was innervated by immunoreactive pBNP fibers, with the densest concentration of immunoreactive fibers along the surface of the internal carotid, middle cerebral, posterior communicating, and anterior cerebral arteries. The proximal renal arteries were not innervated, but as they approached the kidney, they were invested by bundles of immunoreactive pBNP fibers. These axons followed the major branches of the renal artery into the kidney parenchyma, running along the surface of the arterioles up to their entrance into the renal glomeruli. No immunoreactive innervation of the aorta or proximal brachiocephalic, subclavian, or carotid arteries was seen. A substance related to pBNP may serve as a neuromodulator regulating cardiac output as well as blood flow in certain vascular beds. PMID:1978807

  3. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the human cerebellum: qualitative and quantitative analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Vincenzo; Flace, Paolo; Lorusso, Loredana; Rizzi, Anna; Bosco, Lorenzo; Cagiano, Raffaele; Ambrosi, Glauco

    2009-09-01

    Although autoradiographic, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the cerebellum of various species, immunohistochemistry has never shown immunoreactivity for VIP within cerebellar neuronal bodies and processes. The present study aimed to ascertain whether VIP immunoreactivity really does exist in the human cerebellum by making a systematic analysis of samples removed post-mortem from all of the cerebellar lobes. The study was carried out using light microscopy immunohistochemical techniques based on a set of four different antibodies (three polyclonal and one monoclonal) against VIP, carefully selected on the basis of control tests performed on human colon. All of the antibodies used showed VIP-immunoreactive neuronal bodies and processes distributed in the cerebellar cortex and subjacent white matter of all of the cerebellum lobes, having similar qualitative patterns of distribution. Immunoreactive neurons included subpopulations of the main neuron types of the cortex. Statistical analysis of the quantitative data on the VIP immunoreactivity revealed by the different antibodies in the different cerebellar lobes did not demonstrate any significant differences. In conclusion, using four different anti-VIP antibodies, the first evidence of VIP immunoreactivity is herein supplied in the human post-mortem cerebellum, with similar qualitative/quantitative patterns of distribution among the different cerebellum lobes. Owing to the function performed by VIP as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, it is a candidate for a role in intrinsic and extrinsic (projective) circuits of the cerebellum, in agreement with previous demonstrations of receptors for VIP in the cerebellar cortex and nuclei. As VIP signalling pathways are implicated in the regulation of cognitive and psychic functions, cerebral blood flow and metabolism, processes of histomorphogenesis, differentiation and outgrowth of nervous tissues, the results of this study could be applied to clinical neurology and psychiatry, opening new perspectives for the interpretation of neurodevelopment disorders and development of new therapeutic strategies in cerebellar diseases. PMID:19552726

  4. Morphometric characteristics of Neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cortical amygdaloid nucleus belongs to the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid complex. In this nucleus there are neurons that produce neuropetide Y. This peptide has important roles in sleeping, learning, memory, gastrointestinal regulation, anxiety, epilepsy, alcoholism and depression. Material and methods We investigated morphometric characteristics (numbers of primary dendrites, longer and shorter diameters of cell bodies and maximal radius of dendritic arborization of NPY immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus on 6 male adult human brains, aged 46 to 77 years, by immunohistochemical avidin-biotin technique. Results Our investigation has shown that in this nucleus there is a moderate number of NPY immunoreactive neurons. 67% of found neurons were nonpyramidal, while 33% were pyramidal. Among the nonpyramidal neurons the dominant groups were multipolar neurons (41% - of which 25% were multipolar irregular, and 16% multipolar oval. Among the pyramidal neurons the dominant groups were the neurons with triangular shape of cell body (21%. All found NPY immunoreactive neurons (pyramidal and nonpyramidal altogether had intervals of values of numbers of primary dendrites 2 to 6, longer diameters of cell bodies 13 to 38 µm, shorter diameters of cell bodies 9 to 20 µm and maximal radius of dendritic arborization 50 to 340 µm. More than a half of investigated neurons (57% had 3 primary dendrites. Discussion and conclusion The other researchers did not find such percentage of pyramidal immunoreactive neurons in this amygdaloid nucleus. If we compare our results with the results of the ather researchers we can conclude that all pyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons found in this human amygdaloid nucleus belong to the class I of neurons, and that all nonpyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons belong to the class II of neurons described by other researchers. We suppose that all found pyramidal neurons were projectional.

  5. Evaluation of the immunoreactive fraction of an anti-tumour monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Mantovani, L; Ménard, S.; Mezzanzanica, D.; Miotti, S.; Pupa, S. M.; Colnaghi, M. I.

    1990-01-01

    Over a period of approximately 1 year, the immunoreactivity of the anti-ovary carcinoma MAb MOv18 was evaluated after radiolabelling with 125I on two different ovarian carcinoma cell lines, OvCa432 and IGROV1. A high variability of the immunoreactive values was observed by analysing different preparations of radiolabelled MOv18 (from 12 to 21% on OvCa432 and from 22 to 56% on IGROV1) and by using the same radiolabelled preparation (12% on OvCa432 and 51% on IGROV1). Since the variability coul...

  6. Brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the cerebrovascular system in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, C B; Kibbe, M R; Hurley, K M; Spencer, S

    1990-11-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide is a recently discovered neuropeptide. We used an antiserum against porcine brain natriuretic peptide to identify a system of immunoreactive innervation of the cerebrovascular tree in the rat. The internal carotid artery and the proximal portions of the middle and anterior cerebral and posterior communicating arteries were the most intensely innervated by immunoreactive fibers. The density of innervation decreased distally along the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries and the basilar and vertebral arteries. Brain natriuretic peptide and the related atrial natriuretic peptide are known to cause dilatation of cerebral arteries. Our findings suggest that brain natriuretic peptide may serve as a vasodilatory neuromodulator in the cerebral circulation. PMID:2237976

  7. Immunoreactivity for high-affinity choline transporter colocalises with VAChT in human enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Andrea M; Lee, Margaret; Ong, Sim-Yee; Yong, Eric; Farmer, Pamela; Peck, Cristal J; Chow, Chung W; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2010-07-01

    Cholinergic nerves are identified by labelling molecules in the ACh synthesis, release and destruction pathway. Recently, antibodies against another molecule in this pathway have been developed. Choline reuptake at the synapse occurs via the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1). CHT1 immunoreactivity is present in cholinergic nerve fibres containing vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the human and rat central nervous system and rat enteric nervous system. We have examined whether CHT1 immunoreactivity is present in nerve fibres in human intestine and whether it is colocalised with markers of cholinergic, tachykinergic or nitrergic circuitry. Human ileum and colon were fixed, sectioned and processed for fluorescence immunohistochemistry with antibodies against CHT1, class III beta-tubulin (TUJ1), synaptophysin, common choline acetyl-transferase (cChAT), VAChT, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). CHT1 immunoreactivity was present in many nerve fibres in the circular and longitudinal muscle, myenteric and submucosal ganglia, submucosa and mucosa in human colon and ileum and colocalised with immunoreactivity for TUJ1 and synaptophysin confirming its presence in nerve fibres. In nerve fibres in myenteric ganglia and muscle, CHT1 immunoreactivity colocalised with immunoreactivity for VAChT and cChAT. Some colocalisation occurred with SP immunoreactivity, but little with immunoreactivity for VIP or NOS. In the mucosa, CHT1 immunoreactivity colocalised with that for VIP and SP in nerve fibres and was also present in vascular nerve fibres in the submucosa and on epithelial cells on the luminal border of crypts. The colocalisation of CHT1 immunoreactivity with VAChT immunoreactivity in cholinergic enteric nerves in the human bowel thus suggests that CHT1 represents another marker of cholinergic nerves. PMID:20490865

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment

  9. Leydig cells in the lingual epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, are immunoreactive for serotonin.

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, K; Shimamura, A

    1992-01-01

    The Leydig cells in the lingual epithelium of the axolotl were investigated by immunohistochemistry using serotonin antiserum. Serotonin-immunoreactivity was found in their secretory granules. The physiological role of serotonin in the Leydig cell, a type of exocrine cell, is unknown.

  10. Monoclonal antibody to the rat glucocorticoid receptor. Relationship between the immunoreactive and DNA-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of the glucocorticoid receptor that reacted with a monoclonal antibody (BUGR-1) was identified. In order to identify the immunoreactive region, the rat liver glucocorticoid receptor was subjected to limited proteolysis; immunoreactive fragments were identified by Western blotting. The monoclonal antibody reacted with both the undigested Mr approximately 97,000 receptor subunit and a Mr approximately 45,000 fragment containing the steroid-binding and DNA-binding domains. Digestion by trypsin also produced two steroid-binding fragments of Mr approximately 27,000 and 31,000 which did not react with the antibody and an immunoreactive Mr approximately 16,000 fragment. This Mr approximately 16,000 fragment was shown to bind to DNA-cellulose, indicating that it contained a DNA-binding domain of the receptor. The undigested receptor must have steroid associated with it to undergo activation to a DNA-binding form. However, the Mr approximately 16,000 immunoreactive fragment binds to DNA-cellulose even if it is obtained by digestion of the steroid-free holoreceptor which does not itself bind to DNA

  11. VIP-like immunoreactivity in the intestinal tract of fish with different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, G; de Girolamo, P; Affatato, C; Antonucci, R; Russo, P; Gargiulo, G

    1997-01-01

    We studied the distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactive (VIP-ir) cells and fibres in the intestine of three fish species with different feeding habits: the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), the goldfish (Carassius auratus), and the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus). Each species was divided into two groups: (1) fish fed once a day up until sacrifice and (2) fish fed once a day and then fasted three days before sacrifice. Immunoreactive endocrine cells and fibres were present in all three fish species. The immunoreactive cells were distributed along the entire intestinal mucosa of the carp and goldfish but were found only in the anterior intestine of the sunfish. The immunoreactive fibres were present along the entire intestinal wall, in the myenteric plexus, in the circular muscular layer, and in the connective tissue of the mucosa in all three fish species. No differences were found between the cells and fibres of normally-fed animals and the cells and fibres of fasted animals. The authors hypothesize that the different distributions of VIP-ir cells and fibres are related to the different contents of hard and indigestible matter of the fish food. PMID:9174846

  12. Enkephalin- and somatostatin-like immunoreactivities in human adrenal medulla and pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, J M; Hamberger, B; Schultzberg, M; Hökfelt, T; Granberg, P O; Efendi?, S; Terenius, L; Goldstein, M; Luft, R

    1979-01-01

    By using the Coons indirect immunofluorescence technique, enkephalin-like immunoreactivity with a granular localization was observed in human adrenal medullary gland cells and pheochromocytomas. In two of the tumors and in a few adrenal gland cells, a somatostatin-like peptide could also be identified. Catecholamine cell types were visualized on adjacent sections with antisera to the synthesizing enzymes dopamine-beta-hydroxylase [DBH; dopamine beta-monooxygenase; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine, ascorbate: oxygen oxidoreductase (beta-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.17.1] and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT; noradrenalin N-methyltransferase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.28). In the normal adrenal medulla more DBH- than PNMT-immunoreactive gland cells were observed. In the adrenal pheochromocytoma both DBH- and PNMT-positive cells were seen, whereas the two extra-adrenal tumors contained only DBH. These findings correlated well with plasma catecholamine measurements. Finally, enkephalin immunoreactive fibers and somatostatin immunoreactive cells were observed in a sympathetic ganglion extirpated together with one of the tumors. Images PMID:386355

  13. Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F; Rehfeld, J F

    1980-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry, gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity is found in sensory nerve cells in the ectoderm of the mouth region of hydra and in nerve cells in the endoderm of all body regions of the sea anemone tealia. These results are corroborated by radioimmunoassay: One hydra contains at lea...

  14. TMI abnormal waste project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL for up to 30 years, (d) processing for disposal, and (e) final disposal. Some wastes may be disposable immediately and would be processed and disposed without storage. Potentially, 930 ft3 of cartridge filters, Submerged Demineralizer System filters, sludges, ion-exchange resins, and miscellaneous plant equipment may be classified as abnormal waste. Some wastes may be deleted and others added as cleanup progresses at TMI. The first waste classified as abnormal is Makeup and Purification Demineralizer resin. This report outlines storage plans, procedures, project management, costs, and schedules for placement of those resins

  15. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ... with an SPF of 30 or higher. Abnormally dark skin may continue even after treatment. Experts recommend ...

  16. Oxaliplatin-induced loss of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit neuronal immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Bronwen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin and related chemotherapeutic drugs cause painful chronic peripheral neuropathies in cancer patients. We investigated changes in neuronal size profiles and neurofilament immunoreactivity in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue of adult female Wistar rats after multiple-dose treatment with oxaliplatin, cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Results After treatment with oxaliplatin, phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H immunoreactivity was reduced in neuronal cell bodies, but unchanged in nerve fibres, of the L5 DRG. Morphometric analysis confirmed significant changes in the number (-75%; P P P = 0.82, NF-M (-1%, P = 0.96 or NF-H (0%; P = 0.93 after oxaliplatin treatment, although the sizes of parvalbumin (-29%, P = 0.047, NF-M (-11%, P = 0.038 and NF-H (-28%; P = 0.0033 immunoreactive neurons were reduced. In an independent comparison of different chemotherapeutic agents, the number of pNF-H-immunoreactive neurons was significantly altered by oxaliplatin (-77.2%; P P = 0.03 but not by carboplatin or paclitaxel, and their mean cell body area was significantly changed by oxaliplatin (-31.1%; P = 0.008 but not by cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a specific pattern of loss of pNF-H immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue that corresponds with the relative neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin, cisplatin and carboplatin. Loss of pNF-H may be mechanistically linked to oxaliplatin-induced neuronal atrophy, and serves as a readily measureable endpoint of its neurotoxicity in the rat model.

  17. Changes in RFamide related peptide-1 (RFRP-1)-immunoreactivity during postnatal development and the estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Sara Rubek; Andersen, Mille Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key player in the hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. It has been shown that the mammalian counterpart of the avian gonadotropin inhibitory hormone named RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that innervate and inhibit GnRH neurons. The RFRP precursor is processed into two mature peptides RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. These are characterized by a conserved C-terminal motif Arg-Phe-NH2 but display highly different N-terminals. Even though the two peptides are equally potent in vitro, little is known about their relative distribution and their distinct roles in vivo. In this study, we raised an antiserum selective for RFRP-1 and defined the distribution of RFRP-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Next, we analyzed the level of RFRP-1-immunoreactivity during postnatal development in males and females and investigated changes in RFRP-1-immunoreactivity during the estrous cycle. RFRP-1-ir neuronswere distributed along the third ventricle from the caudal part of the medial anterior hypothalamus throughout the medial tuberal hypothalamus and were localized in, but mostly in between, the dorsomedial hypothalamic, ventromedial hypothalamic, and arcuate nuclei. The number of RFRP-1-ir neurons and the density of cellular immunoreactivity were unchanged from juvenile to adulthood in male rats during the postnatal development. However, both parameters were significantly increased in female rats from peri-puberty to adulthood, demonstrating prominent gender difference in the developmental control of RFRP-1 expression. The percentage of c-Fos positive RFRP-1-ir neurons was significantly higher in diestrus as compared to proestrus and estrus. In conclusion, we found that adult females, as compared to males, have significantly more RFRP-1-immunoreactivity pr cell, and these cells are regulated during the estrous cycle.

  18. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Byna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: AUB is a common but complicated clinical presentation and occurs in 15-20% of women between menarche to menopause and significantly affects the women's health. Women with thyroid dysfunction often have menstrual irregularities, infertility and increased morbidity during pregnancy. The objective of present study is to find the correlation between thyroid disorders and AUB in perimenopausal women attending gynecology OPD. Methods: In the present study, fifty five patients with AUB were included and were evaluated for the cause including thyroid abnormality. Thyroid function tests were done in all patients. Results: Among 55 patients, 12 patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism and 7 as hyperthyroidism, women with AUB 36 (65.4% were euthyroid. Among 19 women with thyroid abnormality, heavy menstrual bleeding was seen in 8 (42% women, 6 (31.57% had polymenorrhagia, 5 (26.31% had oligomenorrhoea. The frequent menstrual abnormality in women with hypothyroidism (12 women was heavy menstrual bleeding in 5 (41.6% women, 3 (25% had oligomennorhoea, 4 (33.3% had polymenorrhagia. Out of 7 women with hyperthyroidism, 2 (28.57% had oligomenorrhoea, 3 (42.8% had heavy menstrual bleeding, 2 (28.57% had polymenorrhagia. In a total of 55 patients with AUB, 11 (20% had structural abnormalities in uterus and ovaries. 5 (9% had adenomyosis, 3 (5.4% had ovarian cysts, 3 (5.4% had fibroids. Conclusions: It is important to screen all women for thyroid abnormality who are presenting with AUB especially with non-structural causes of AUB. Correction of thyroid abnormalities also relieves AUB. This will avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3250-3253

  19. Sporadic Corticobasal Syndrome due to FTLD-TDP

    OpenAIRE

    Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Sidhu, Manu; Laluz, Victor; Racine, Caroline; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Creighton, Kelly; Karydas, Anna; Rademakers, Rosa; Huang, Eric J.; Bruce L. Miller; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Seeley, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Sporadic corticobasal syndrome (CBS) has been associated with diverse pathological substrates, but frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-TDP) has only been linked to CBS among progranulin mutation carriers. We report the clinical, neuropsychological, imaging, genetic, and neuropathological features of GS, a patient with sporadic corticobasal syndrome. Genetic testing revealed no mutations in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) or progranulin (...

  20. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • ...

  1. SPERM ABNORMALITIES AND ITS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajapati Parimal M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The term sperm is derived from the Greek word sperma means "seed" and it refers to the male reproductive cells. In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium. Sperm cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion with egg cells during fertilization, a new organism begins developing, starting as a totipotent zygote. Sperm morphology the size and shape of sperm is checked as part of a standard semen analysis for male infertility. Many different types of sperm abnormalities occur. A common classification scheme is based on the location of the abnormalities. Those that are located in the sperm head are classified as primary. Abnormalities associated with neck, midpiece or tail are classified as secondary abnormalities. Included in the secondary abnormalities is the presence of cytoplasmic droplets.

  2. Increased metal content in the TDP-43A315T transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Theresa N. T.; Lim, Nastasia K. H.; Grubman, Alexandra; Li, Qiao-xin; Volitakis, Irene; White, Anthony R.; Crouch, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo...

  3. Responses of plasma cyclic AMP, serum immunoreactive insulin, C-peptide immunoreactivity and blood sugar levels to glucagon in patients with liver diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimamura,Junnosuke

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Levels of plasma cyclic AMP, serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI, serum c-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR and blood sugar (BS were determined 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after a glucagon injection (0.01 mg per kg body weight in normal controls, patients with acute hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Plasma cyclic AMP responses to glucagon in liver disease patients varied widely in peak value, and only in patients with fulminant hepatitis and decompensated liver cirrhosis with poor prognosis was the response suppressed. The peak response of BS was found significantly later in liver cirrhosis patients than in normal controls. IRI and CPR responses to glucagon were lower in acute hepatitis patients than in normal controls and liver cirrhosis patients. IRI levels and their sum were also lower in acute hepatitis patients, although CPR levels were not significantly different. Thus, the ratio of the sum of CPR from 0 to 60 min to that of IRI was significantly higher in acute hepatitis, indicating impaired pancreatic secretion of insulin to glucagon stimulation as well as increased uptake of insulin by the liver in acute hepatitis.

  4. Different pattern of haemagglutinin immunoreactivity of equine influenza virus strains isolated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwa?nik Ma?gorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunoreactivity of haemagglutinin (HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus was compared among the strains isolated in Poland, using H3 monoclonal antibody. A stronger signal in immunoblot reaction was observed for A/equi/Pulawy/2008 HA polypeptides compared to A/equi/Pulawy/2006, despite the fact that both strains are phylogenetically closely related and belong to Florida clade 2 of American lineage. The strongest signal, observed in the case of A/equi/Pulawy/2008, seemed to be connected with the presence of G135, I213, E379, and/or V530 instead of R135, M213, G379, and I530 present in A/equi/Pulawy/2006 HA sequence. This implies that point mutations within amino acid sequences of HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus may change their immunoreactivity even when they are not located within five basic antigenic sites.

  5. Sodium channel Nav1.8 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 (SNS1/PN3 is expressed by nociceptors and may play a role in pain states. Methods Using specific antibodies for immunohistochemistry, we studied Nav1.8 – immunoreactivity in human dental pulp in relation to the neuronal marker neurofilament. Human tooth pulp was extracted from teeth harvested from a total of twenty-two patients (fourteen without dental pain, eight patients with dental pain. Results Fibres immunoreactive for Nav1.8, were significantly increased on image analysis in the painful group: median (range Nav1.8 to Neurofilament % area ratio, non-painful 0.059 (0.006–0.24, painful 0.265 (0.13–0.5, P = 0.0019. Conclusion Nav1.8 sodium channels may thus represent a therapeutic target in trigeminal nerve pain states.

  6. Mapping of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart larvae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina, Boleli; Zilá Luz, Paulino-Simões.

    Full Text Available Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the central nervous system (CNS) of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 wandering stage larvae. The PAP immunocytochemical method was applied to the entire CNS (whole mounts). About 90 neurons were visualized in the CNS (20 in the brain and 70 in the [...] ventral ganglion). Both somata and axons were strongly stained. These neurons showed a segmental arrangement and bilateral symmetry. All processes presented a basic projection pattern, in which the major fibres travel contralaterally. Comparison of these neurons with serotonergic neurons described in other insects suggests order-specific traits such as cerebral clusters and presence of only one 5-HT immunoreactive neuron in the 8th abdominal neuromere as well.

  7. Estradiol mediates effects of testosterone on vasotocin immunoreactivity in the adult quail brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Panzica, Giancarlo; PLUMARI, Laura; VIGLIETTI, Carla Maria

    2001-01-01

    In adult male quail, the activation of sexual behavior by testosterone (T) is mediated at the cellular level by the interaction of T metabolites with intracellular steroid receptors. In particular, the aromatization of T into an estrogen plays a key limiting role. Nonaromatizable androgens such 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synergize with estradiol (E2) to activate the behavior. Given that the density of vasotocin (VT) immunoreactive structures is increased by T in adult male quail and tha...

  8. Distribution of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in the mouse pancreas during development

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sánchez, F.; Casar, J.; CASTRO, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and time of appearance of 5HT-storing cells were studied in samples from the pancreas of mice embryos from 7 to 19 days of gestation. Additonally, 1- and 15-day-old newborns and adult specimens were also examined. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells appeared for the fist time in the dorsal pancreatic primordium at 10 days of gestation and increased rapidly in number through E15. From this age, the cellular number disminished in the exocrine panc...

  9. Innervation of intestinal arteries by axons with immunoreactivity for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z S; Fox-Threlkeld, J E; Furness, J B

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a cholinergic innervation of arterioles within the gut wall is suggested by pharmacological studies of nerve mediated vasodilatation, but attempts to identify nerve cells that give rise to cholinergic vasodilator fibres have yielded discrepant results. In the present work, antibodies to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein (VAChT) were used to investigate the relationships of immunoreactive nerve fibres to submucosal arterioles. Comparison was made with cerebral arteries, which are known to be cholinergically innervated. Double labelling immunohistochemical techniques revealed separate VAChT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive (IR) fibres innervating all sizes of arteries of the submucosa of the stomach, ileum, proximal colon, distal colon and rectum as well as the cerebral arteries. Arterioles of all digestive tract regions had greater densities of TH-IR innervation than VAChT-IR innervation. In the ileum, double labelling for VAChT-IR and VIP-IR or calretinin-IR showed more VAChT-IR than either VIP-IR or calretinin-IR fibres. Calretinin-IR and VAChT-IR were colocalised in a majority of calretinin-IR axons, but VIP-IR and VAChT-IR were not colocalised. All calretinin-IR nerve cells in submucous ganglia were immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase, but only 1-2% of VIP-IR nerve cells were immunoreactive. Extrinsic denervation of the ileum did not alter the distribution of VAChT-IR fibres, but it eliminated TH-IR fibres. Removal of myenteric ganglia (myectomy) did not alter the distribution of fibres with VAChT or TH-IR. This work thus provides evidence for cholinergic innervation of intrinsic arterioles throughout the digestive tract and indicates that the fibres in the small intestine originate from submucosal nerve cells. PMID:9568566

  10. Expression and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Immunoreactive Surface Protein 2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qiang; Chen, Chuang-fu; Qiang CHEN; Zhang, Li-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease throughout the world. The first HGA cases in China were documented in 2008, and the greatest challenge posed by the disease is rapid and accurate diagnosis during the acute phage of illness. In this study, we successfully cloned and expressed an A. phagocytophilum immunoreactive surface protein (major surface protein 2 [MSP2]) and demonstrated that this recombinant protein ha...

  11. Dietary-induced increase in lactase activity and in immunoreactive lactase in adult rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, T; Bustamante, S; Thornburg, W; Koldovský, O

    1984-07-01

    Adult rats that had been fed on a low-starch high-fat diet for 7 days were force-fed with either the same diet or isoenergetic diets containing 40% of energy as either sucrose or lactose. Within 12h, the increase in jejunal lactase activity in sucrose- and lactose-fed rats was accompanied by a corresponding increase in immunoreactive lactase protein. PMID:6431971

  12. Immunoreactive forms of cationic trypsin in plasma and ascitic fluid of dogs in experimental pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Geokas, M. C.; Largman, C.; Durie, P R; Brodrick, J. W.; Ray, S. B.; O'Rourke, M.; Vollmer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A canine model of bile-induced pancreatitis has been employed to investigate time-dependent changes in the molecular forms of trypsin in blood and ascitic fluid in this disease. The distribution of immunoreactive trypsin as trypsinogen and trypsin bound to plasma inhibitors in ascitic fluid and plasma during the course of the disease has been investigated by means of a radioimmunoassay for canine pancreatic cationic trypsin. In addition, trypsinlike amidase activity was determined in plasma a...

  13. Effect of electron beam irradiation on immunoreactivity and biochemical properties of peanut allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on allergenicity and biochemical properties of peanut protein were investigated in this study. Peanut protein extracts solution and defatted powder were irradiated at the dose of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to observe the change of molecular weight. Changes in allergenicity of irradiated peanut major allergen (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3) were analyzed by immunoblotting and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). The changes of concentration, turbidity and hydrophobicity of the irradiated protein solution were determined by UV and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Results showed that allergen solution was more sensitive to irradiation than allergen in solid state. When the irradiated dose was lower than 10 kGy, the immunoreactivity of allergen solution became little stronger; and when the dose higher than 10 kGy, the immunoreactivity was reduced. The IC50 was 11 times than the control, after irradiation at the dose of 20 kGy. The concentration and turbidity of the allergen solution increased with the increasing of irradiation dose. Hydrophobicity first went up with increasing irradiation and then decreased when the irradiation dose was above 15 kGy. The biochemical properties of peanut allergen were altered and immunoreactivity was reduced by EB irradiation, the effect of electron beam irradiation on peanut allergen in solid state was more significant. (authors)

  14. Preparation and post-labelling immunoreactivity of anti-human lung cancer monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-human lung cancer monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) were prepared using hybridoma technology. Two McAbs, 2E3 and 6D1, were radioiodinated with Iodogen method and the post-labelling immunoreactivity was evaluated with in vitro cell binding assay. The binding ratios of McAb 2E3 and 6D1 with lung cancer cells were 31.99% and 35.81% respectively. Two important parameters of radioiodinated McAbs, affinity constant and immunoreactive fraction, were calculated. The affinity constants of McAb 2E3 and 6D1 were 4.95 x 109L/mol and 4.23 x 109L/mol respectively and immunoreactive fractions 0.52 and 0.49 respectively. Radioimmunoimaging was performed in nude mice bearing a huamn lung cancer xenograft and 131I-McAb 2E3 and 6D1 can be localized in the xenografts. The results suggest that McAb 2E3 and 6D1 can react specifically with lung cancer cells and will be useful for guiding diagnosis and therapy of lung cancer

  15. Effect of Lamaze childbirth preparation on maternal plasma beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delke, I; Minkoff, H; Grunebaum, A

    1985-10-01

    Previous studies have documented a reduction in plasma beta-endorphin levels with the use of various analgesic techniques in labor, such as segmental epidural anesthesia or intrathecal morphine. The Lamaze method of childbirth preparation, which has been found to reduce the need for medication during childbirth and to decrease the subjective perception of pain during labor and delivery, has not been studied in this regard. In this study plasma beta-endorphin immunoreactivity levels were measured during the active phase of labor in 26 patients who had Lamaze classes and in 28 patients who did not have Lamaze classes. The Lamaze group had significantly lower plasma beta-endorphin immunoreactivity (37.2 vs. 68.5 pg/ml; P less than 0.001) and significantly shorter first stages of labor (8.28 hrs. vs. 9.86 hrs; P less than 0.02). It can be theorized that both lower beta-endorphin immunoreactivity and shorter labor in patients in the Lamaze group were related to the reduction of fear, tension, and the emotional stress of labor. PMID:2932121

  16. Heterogeneity of human plasma insulin: techniques for separating immunoreactive components and their determination by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When human plasma is filtered on Sephadex G-SO fine, insulin immunoreactivity is recovered in two peaks: 'big insulin', the higher molecular weight component and 'little insulin', the lower molecular component, having elution volumes that correspond to those of porcine proinsulin 125I and porcine insulin 125I respectively. The presence of another form of immunoreactive insulin 'big big insulin' was detected from an insuloma suspect and its elution pattern corresponding to serum albumin. The eluates correspondent to 'big' and 'little' insulin as well as 'big big' component were assayed by radioimmunoassay using crystalline human insulin as a standard, porcine insulin 125 tracer and anti insulin serum. The antibody, raised in guinea-pigs, was sensitive and potent being adequate for the assay. The reactivity of insulin and proinsulin was tested against the antibody. The relative proportions of several components of total immunoreactive insulin in plasma were studied in basal conditions in five normal subjects and in the patient JSC with pancreatic insulin-secreting tumor as well as after glucose stimuli in all tolbutamide in JSC. (author)

  17. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (pconfidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p30ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH. PMID:26365482

  18. CT diagnosis of urachal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze CT manifestations of urachal abnormalities and to evaluate its clinical diagnostic value. Methods: CT findings of 23 cases of urachal abnormalities proven by surgery and pathology were retrospectively reviewed, the emphasis was focused on its location, shape, size, enhancement-pattern and radiological features in Retzius space. Results: All urachal abnormalities were located in the median line of Retzius space alone the course of the urachus (n=23). There was no positive CT finding in 1 case of patent urachus (n=1). Simple urachal cyst appeared as a homogeneous fluid-filled cavity with thin wall and no enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast agency (n=2). Five cases of infected urachal cyst manifested as cysts with thickening and enhanced wall (n=5), 3 cases as multi-cyst lesion (n=3) and 2 cases as homogeneous mass (n=2). Some patch and strip appeared in Retzius space surrounding the lesions in these cases (n=10). The urachus neoplasms in 7 cases manifested as irregular soft-tissue masses in the midline of the apex of the bladder,with marked enhancement in 4 cases (n=4), mild enhancement in 2 cases (n=2) and no enhancement in 1 case (n=1). Three cases of urachal diverticulum accompanied with calculus appeared as intramural high-density lesions protruding into the bladder and the Retzius space simultaneously, 1 case with infected urachal cyst below umbilicus. Conclusion: Due to its special anatomic position, urachal abnormalities could be easily identified on CT preoperatively, but urachal cyst might mimic urachal tumor when infected sometimes. Familiarity with the anatomical basis and the CT features of urachal abnormalities would facilitate to establish the preoperative diagnosis correctly. (authors)

  19. Correlation of Cutaneous Immunoreactants in Lesional Skin with the Serological Disorders and Disease Activity of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yi-jin; Tan, Guo-zhen; Yu, Min; Li, Kai-wen; Liu, Yue-yang; GUO, QING; Zeng, Fan-qin; Wang, Liangchun

    2013-01-01

    Detection of immunoreactants including IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) from skin is useful for distinguishing lupus lesions from other skin disorders. Despite their diagnostic value, the type and number of cutaneous immunoreactants as they relate to serological disorders and disease severity has been poorly studied. We examined 36 patients with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) with positive DIF (DIF+) and 28 patients with negative DIF (DIF?) tests performed on lesio...

  20. Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Moscarello, JM; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that food deprivation and food presentation produce different patterns of neuronal activity (as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats. Since the amygdala has been implicated in both motivational and reinforcement processes and has neuronal connections to both the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, it was of interest to assess amygdaloid c-Fos immunoreactivity during similar manipulation...

  1. Comparison of alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in the spinal cord between the adult and aged beagle dog

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Park, Joon-Ha; Yan, Bing-Chun; Kim, In-Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Lee, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Sang; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Won, Moo-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (?-syn) is a presynaptic protein that is richly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals, and it is related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we compared the distribution of the immunoreactivity of ?-syn and its related gliosis in the spinal cord of young adult (2-3 years) and aged (10-12 years) beagle dogs. We discovered that ?-syn immunoreactivity was present in many neurons in th...

  2. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues

  3. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and serotonin immunoreactivity in gut of Liza aurata from natural heavy metal polluted environments: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ferrando

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of natural environment nonlethal heavy metal concentration on cell renewal of Liza aurata intestinal epithelium, was studied by the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling method and anti-PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry, in order to detect, respectively, apoptosis and cell proliferation. In addition, the presence and distribution of the cell renewal regulator, serotonin, was immunohistochemically investigated. In order to reduce variability, only immature specimens were considered. The results indicated that in the control specimens from non-polluted areas, the PCNA immunoreactive nuclei of the proximal intestinal epithelium were only located at the bottom of the intestinal folds, together with a few TUNEL-positive nuclei, and goblet mucous differentiated cells. In the specimens from polluted areas, the number of PCNA immunoreactive cells was greatly enhanced, and they extended along the mid portion of the intestinal folds; the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei was enhanced as well, but they were almost exclusively detected in the third apical portion of the intestinal folds. Serotonin immunoreactive nerve elements were more frequently detected in the intestinal wall of L. aurata specimens from polluted areas, and besides that, some serotonin immunoreactive endocrine cells were also present. Variations in distribution and frequency of TUNEL-positive nuclei, PCNA immunoreactive nuclei, and serotonin immunoreactivity put in evidence an alteration of cell renewal with an enhancement of cell proliferation, probably leading to morphological intestinal fold changes.

  4. Role of neuropsin in parvalbumin immunoreactivity changes in hippocampal basket terminals of mice reared in various environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kogure

    2014-12-01

    PV-immunoreactive fibers surrounding hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons in mice reared in their home cage were decreased in neuropsin-deficient mice, suggesting that neuropsin controls PV immunoreactivity. One- or two-week exposures of wild mice to novel environments, in which they could behave freely and run voluntarily in a wheel resulted in a marked upregulation of both neuropsin mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. To elucidate the functional relevance of the increase in neuropsin during exposure to a rich environment, the intensities of PV-immunoreactive fibers were compared between neuropsin-deficient and wild-type mice under environmental stimuli. When mice were transferred into novel cages (large cages with toys, the intensity of PV-immunoreactive fibers increased in wild-type mice and neuropsin-deficient mice. Therefore, behavioral stimuli control a neuropsin-independent form of PV immunoreactivity. However, the neuropsin-dependent part of the change in PV-immunoreactive fibers may occur in the stimulated hippocampus because increased levels of neuropsin continued during these enriched conditions.

  5. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  6. Imaging of pediatric mesenteric abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative paucity of mesenteric fat seen in the pediatric population can make detection and localization of processes in the mesentery difficult. This pictorial essay reviews pediatric mesenteric disorders and presents criteria that help localize processes to the mesentery. Disorders are categorized by specific patterns of involvement, which can readily be identified by imaging: developmental abnormalities of mesenteric rotation, diffuse mesenteric processes, focal mesenteric masses, and multifocal mesenteric masses. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  8. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  9. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  10. Sensorial abnormalities: Smell and taste

    OpenAIRE

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier; Targino, Mauricio Neres; Peixoto, Victor Soares; Alcântara, Flávia Barata; Jesus, Camila Corrêa de; Araújo, Dalila Costa de; Marçal Filho, Eduardo Flávio de Lacerda

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Taste and smell abnormalities have proven to be an extremely more complex subject than previously regarded. Wide-ranging nosologic entities arise along with smell and taste alterations, and they can be congenital or acquired. Objective: Analyze the main features of smell and taste dysfunctions. Method: Automated databases were used to collect data, by searching keywords like 'alteration', 'smell', and 'taste'. A non-systematic search was also made in scientific printings and med...

  11. Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulos, T.; Economidou, J.; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J.; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J.; Raptis, S.

    1985-01-01

    The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution ...

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B transgenic mice develop TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 pathology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tudor, E L

    2010-05-19

    Cytoplasmic ubiquitin-positive inclusions containing TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) within motor neurons are the hallmark pathology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 is a nuclear protein and the mechanisms by which it becomes mislocalized and aggregated in ALS are not properly understood. A mutation in the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B (VAPB) involving a proline to serine substitution at position 56 (VAPBP56S) is the cause of familial ALS type-8. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which VAPBP56S induces disease, we created transgenic mice that express either wild-type VAPB (VAPBwt) or VAPBP56S in the nervous system. Analyses of both sets of mice revealed no overt motor phenotype nor alterations in survival. However, VAPBP56S but not VAPBwt transgenic mice develop cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulations within spinal cord motor neurons that were first detected at 18 months of age. Our results suggest a link between abnormal VAPBP56S function and TDP-43 mislocalization.

  13. Special report on abnormal climate in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports on abnormal climate in 2010 with impact on the each field. It is comprised of four chapters, which deal with Introduction with purpose of publish and background, current situation and cause of abnormal climate in 2010 on abnormal climate around the world and Korea, Action and impact against abnormal climate in 2010 to agriculture, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, forest, fishery products, environment and health, Evaluation and policy proposal. It also has an appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world in 2010 and media reports on abnormal climate in Korea in 2010.

  14. Curcumin ameliorates experimental autoimmune acute myocarditis in rats as evidenced by decrease in thioredoxin immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M; El Fouhil, A F; Mohamed, R A; Atteya, M; Abdel-Baky, N A; AlRoalle, A H; Aldahmash, A M

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of curcumin on cardiac myosin-induced autoimmune myocarditis in rats and the change in thioredoxin (TRX) immunoreactivity in cardiomyocytes following curcumin treatment. Twenty-four six-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group I received neither curcumin nor myosin. Group II received an oral solution of 1 g/kg/day of curcumin daily, from day 1 to day 21. To induce myocarditis, animals of both group III and group IV were injected by 1 mg of porcine cardiac myosin on days 1 and 8. In addition, animals of group IV received an oral solution of 1 g/kg/day of curcumin daily, from day 1 to day 21. Serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, troponin-T, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were estimated. Hearts were processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Serum biomarkers levels were significantly increased in myocarditis group as compared to other groups. The intake of curcumin significantly reduced the deviation in these markers. Sections of the wall of the heart from myocarditis group were characterised by inflammatory cell infiltration. Most of cardiomyocytes showed pyknotic nuclei and increased sarcoplasmic eosinophilia with strong immunoreactivity for TRX. Sections from myocarditis-curcumin group showed normal architecture with moderate immunoreactivity for TRX. The present study demonstrated that curcumin ameliorates acute myocarditis in rats and encouraged the estimation of serum level of TRX as a relevant indicator for the evaluation of the progress of acute myocarditis. PMID:26339812

  15. Localization of neuropeptide-Y immunoreactivity in estradiol-concentrating cells in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable evidence shows that gonadal steroids exert a facilitatory influence on levels and release of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) from the hypothalamus. However, it is not known whether gonadal steroids act directly on NPY-producing cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus to produce these facilitatory effects on NPY or whether they act on other cells that have a modulatory influence via synapses on ARC NPY cells. We applied the combined method of steroid autoradiography and immunocytochemistry to assess the localization of [3H]estradiol in relation to NPY-producing cells in the hypothalamus. Rats (n = 6) were bilaterally ovariectomized and injected intracerebroventricularly with colchicine. Twenty-four hours later each rat received an iv injection of 17 beta-[2,4,6,7,16,17(-3)H]estradiol (SA, 166 Ci/mmol) at a dose of 5.0 micrograms/kg BW. One hour after the injection of [3H]estradiol, the rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde; brains were removed, frozen in isopentane precooled in liquid nitrogen (-190 C), sectioned, and processed for autoradiography. The autoradiograms were then incubated with specific antibodies for NPY immunostaining by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The results revealed NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex and a few cells in the median eminence. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were also detected in the internal layer of the median eminence. The largest number of neurons showing NPY immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm was detected in the ARC, and only in this nucleus did we observed colocalization of [3H]estradiol and NPY immunoreactivity in neurons. A population of NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC (10-20%) exhibited nuclear [3H]estradiol; the majority of these cells were located in the lateral and ventral portions of the ARC

  16. Advantage of highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoscintigraphy for tumor detection, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoreactivity (IR) is the fraction of a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) preparation capable of binding to an excess of a specific antigen. One of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunoscintigraphy is to use a highly immunoreactive MoAb. To assess the effect of an antibody IR on biodistribution, a fast and simple purification method has been developed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a hydroxylapatite (HA) column. The column was eluted at ambient temperature with 0.12 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). With this system, the F ab fragments from the MoAb 96.5 against the human melanoma associated p97 antigen were separated into two well-resolved peaks at retention times of 6 and 16 min. FEM-XII cells (human skin melanoma cell line) were used in a cell binding assay (CBA) to determine the maximal percent IR and the affinity constant of each HA-HPLC peak. The second peak from an 125I-F ab 96.5 showed approximately two times greater maximal binding than did the first peak, whereas the affinity constant for the two was the same. This indicated that the F ab 96.5 preparations used in this study were a mixture of more active and less active components. Moreover, prior to the HA-HPLC experiments, these preparations were analyzed with a gel filtration HPLC showing a single molecular weight peak. This suggested that the HA-HPLC separation was not based on molecular weight differences although the separation mechanism of HA has not yet been fully understood. Thereby, it is concluded that the HA-HPLC is a powerful tool to purify MoAbs into the higher immunoreactive fraction which has a potential advantage in tumor targeting. (author)

  17. Distribution of estrogen receptor beta immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, P J; Merchenthaler, I

    2001-07-16

    The discovery of estrogen receptor beta (ER beta) and subsequent localization of its mRNA in the rat central nervous system (CNS) has provided new insights about estrogen action in brain. A critical step in understanding the role of ER beta is demonstrating that the mRNA is translated into functional protein. The present study used a new ER beta-specific polyclonal antiserum (Z8P) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) to investigate the distribution of ER beta in the rat CNS. Ovariectomized female rats were perfusion fixed, and free-floating sections were incubated with Z8P. After visualization with a standard ABC method, nuclear immunoreactivity was seen in neurons throughout the brain, including the olfactory nuclei, laminae IV-VI of the cerebral cortex, medial septum, preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, zona incerta, medial and cortical amygdaloid nuclei, cerebellum, nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral tegmental area, and spinal trigeminal nucleus. Moreover, the results of a double-label ICC/ in situ hybridization study revealed that ER beta mRNA and immunoreactivity were colocalized in neurons of the brain, thus confirming the specificity of the antiserum. Through the use of Western blot analysis, Z8P was shown to recognize in vitro translated ER beta, but not ER alpha, as well as a 60-kDa protein from rat granulosa cells and ovary extracts. The results of these studies have demonstrated that (1) ER beta mRNA is translated into immunoreactive protein throughout the rat brain, and (2) ER beta resides in the cell nucleus. Together, these data provide an anatomic foundation for future studies and advance our understanding of estrogen action in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain regions. PMID:11413547

  18. Substance P- and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivities in somatostatin-containing, human submucosal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jakob; Jabari, Samir; Rau, Tilman T; Neuhuber, Winfried; Brehmer, Axel

    2013-08-01

    The submucous layers of human small and large intestines contain at least two separate neuron populations. Besides morphological features, they differ in their immunoreactivities for calretinin (CALR) and somatostatin (SOM), respectively. In this study, submucosal wholemounts of 23 patients or body donors (including all segments of small intestine and colon) were immunohistochemically quadruple stained for CALR and SOM as well as for substance P (SP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). We found that all SOM-positive neurons co-stained for ChAT and the majority for SP [between 50% in the small intestinal external submucosal plexus (ESP) and 75% in the colonic ESP]. In contrast, a majority of CALR-neurons contained ChAT (between 77% in the small intestinal ESP and 92% in the large intestinal ESP) whereas less than 4% of CALR-neurons were co-immunoreactive for SP. Another set of wholemounts was co-stained for peripherin, a marker enabling morphological analysis. Where identifiable, both SOM alone- and SOM/SP-neurons displayed a uniaxonal (supposed pseudouniaxonal) morphology. We suggest that the chemical code of SOM-immunoreactive, human submucosal neurons may be "ChAT+/SOM+/SP±". In additional sections double stained for SOM and SP, we regularly found double-labelled nerve fibres only in the mucosa. In contrast, around submucosal arteries mostly SOM alone- fibres were found and the muscularis propria contained numerous SP-alone fibres. We conclude that the main target of submucosal SOM(/SP)-neurons may be the mucosa. Due to their morpho-chemical similarity to human myenteric type II neurons, we further suggest that one function of human submucosal SOM-neurons may be a primary afferent one. PMID:23361835

  19. Plasma immunoreactive gamma melanotropin in patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, aldosterone-producing adenomas, and essential hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffing, G T; Berelowitz, B; M. Hudson; Salzman, R; Manson, J. A.; Aurrechia, S; Melby, J C; Pedersen, R C; Brownie, A C

    1985-01-01

    A non-ACTH aldosterone-stimulating factor(s) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). Although this factor has not been fully characterized, some evidence suggests that it may be related to a pro-gamma-melanotropin (pro-gamma-MSH), derived from the NH2-terminal region of pro-opiomelanocortin. In the present study, plasma immunoreactive (IR-) gamma-MSH levels at 0800 h in patients with IHA were evaluated (90 +/- 17 fmol/ml; range: 13-173 fmol/ml) and foun...

  20. Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in vasopressin terminals is enhanced by treatment with peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R; Voigt, K H

    When sections through rat neurohypophyses were treated with trypsin prior to incubation with enkephalin antibodies, vasopressin terminals invariably exhibited leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity. Omitting tryptic cleavage the vasopressin terminals of some specimens only were immunostained. The enkephalin-like material was contained in the neurosecretory granules as shown by the protein A gold and the peroxidase anti-peroxidase method. We assume that the leucine-enkephalin sequence in vasopressin endings to some extent is present in a precursor form, possibly as dynorphin or alpha-neo-endorphin, from which the pentapeptide is liberated by enzymatic cleavage. PMID:7154832

  1. Rapid radioimmunoassay for human immunoreactive pancreatic phospholipase A2 and its normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid radioimmunoassay was developed for measuring immunoreactive pancreatic phospholipase A2 (IR-P-PLA2) in human sera. All analytic procedures could be accomplished within 3 hours. The assay was shown to be reproducible, sensitive and specific. The IR-P-PLA2 values were 7.39 ± 2.86 ng/ml in 111 healthy subjects. In the patients with chronic renal failure, the IR-P-PLA2 contents were significantly higher and did not decrease by blood dialysis

  2. Variation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] immunoreactivity during bovine gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulesu, L.; Pfarrer, C.; Romagnoli, R.; Ietta, F.; Callesen, Henrik; Hambruch, N.; Dantzer, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    hemochorial human and mouse placentae. Here we studied the bovine placenta being multiplex, villous and synepitheliochorial with a low degree of invasion, to see if MIF could be involved. Placental tissues sampled from 12 cows at 9 stages of gestation (days 18-250), and endometrial tissues from two non......-pregnant animals were processed for immunohistochemistry. Bovine MIF was detected by Western blot using anti-human MIF monoclonal antibodies. An immunoreactive band of approximately 12kDa confirmed similarities between bovine and human MIFs. Compared to the non-pregnant stage with very faint staining, the...

  3. Influence of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor on late complications in patients with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, R. H.; Elbracht, R; Krämer, Bernhard K; Roth, M.; Palitzsch, K D; Schölmerich, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of typical late complications in diabetic patients (n = 65, 28 type I, 37 type II) who were not on glycoside drugs with low vs. high serum levels of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF: group I, n = 42, DLIF < or = the detection limit of 0.2 ng ml-1; and group II, n = 23, mean +/- SEM: 1.17 +/- 0.31 [0.25-4.96] ng ml-1). For detection of nephropathy, urinary albumin excretion (24 h) and creatinine clearance tests were used. For coronary ...

  4. Vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons and neurohemal systems in cockroaches and mantids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, N T; Hildebrand, J G

    1992-06-15

    Vasopressin-like neuropeptides of insects are of special interest because of their possible function as hormones and neuromodulators. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using whole-mount immunofluorescent staining by two antisera that recognize different types of vasopressin-like immunoreactive groups of neurons in the cockroaches Periplaneta americana, Leucophaea maderae, Nauphoeta cinerea, Diploptera punctata, and Blaberus discoidalis and in the mantids Litaneuria minor and Tenodera aridifolia sinensis. Using an antiserum to Arg/vasopressin, only two cells, the paired ventral paramedian (PVP) neurons, were immunostained in the central nervous system (CNS) of the cockroaches. These cells are located in the subesophageal ganglion, project throughout the CNS, and appear to be neurosecretory. Their varicose collaterals extend into the dorsal (motor) neuropil of the segmental ganglia, and this neuropil may be the principal site of the release of their neurosecretion. The PVP neurons were also stained by an antiserum to Lys/vasopressin; in addition, this antiserum stained several other groups of neurons, most of which appeared to be neurosecretory. Two pairs of Lys/vasopressin-immunoreactive cells are similar to the PVP neurons in that they are located in the subesophageal ganglion, extend through the ventral nerve cord, have collaterals in the dorsal neuropil of the segmental ganglia, and appear to be neurosecretory within the CNS. In addition, midventral and anteroventral clusters of Lys/vasopressin-immunoreactive neurosecretory neurons in the subesophageal ganglion project neurohemal release sites on the corpora allata. Other types of Lys/vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons include median and lateral neurosecretory cells of the protocerebrum and neurosecretory cells in the tritocerebrum, all of which project to the corpora cardiaca. In the abdominal ganglia there are posterolateral clusters of Lys/vasopressin neurosecretory neurons, and these cells extend to neurohemal release sites on the transverse and lateral cardiac nerves. In mantids the anti-Arg/vasopressin and anti-Lys/vasopressin antisera stained most of the same groups of neurons that these antisera recognized in cockroaches. The results of this study suggest that there are two or more vasopressin-like peptides in cockroaches and mantids and that these peptides may be released either as hormones in the blood or as neurosecretions within the CNS. Their function(s) in these insects remains to be determined. PMID:1613132

  5. ?-endorphin-like and ?-MSH-like immunoreactivities in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured with radioimmunoassay the ?-endorphin-like and ?-MSH-like immunoreactivities in milk and plasma of 8 lactating women. Mean ?-endorphin concentrations (± SD) were 16.6 ± 6.7 fmol/ml in milk and 9.9 ± 4.1 fmol/ml in plasma. ?-MSH concentrations were 39.4 ± 15.5 pg/ml in milk and 18.2 ± 8.4 pg/ml in plasma. The concentrations of both peptides in milk were significantly higher than in plasma. No significant correlation between milk and plasma concentrations of these peptides was found

  6. Possible Early Warning of Pregnancy Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by NICHD Science Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives Possible Early Warning of Pregnancy Abnormalities Skip sharing on ... way to detect these abnormalities as early as possible in pregnancy would help women and clinicians, while ...

  7. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-07-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in the 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and, therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses, especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory tension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid, and at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:10957839

  8. Transient abnormal Q waves during exercise electrocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Alameddine, F F; Zafari, A M

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial ischaemia during exercise electrocardiography is usually manifested by ST segment depression or elevation. Transient abnormal Q waves are rare, as Q waves indicate an old myocardial infarction. The case of a patient with exercise induced transient abnormal Q waves is reported. The potential mechanisms involved in the development of such an abnormality and its clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Age-related changes of calbindin D-28k-immunoreactive neurons in the myenteric plexus of gerbil duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Hoon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Chung, Dae Won; Hwang, In Koo; Won, Moo Ho; Seong, Je Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Lee, In Se

    2008-04-01

    We examined the age-related changes of calbindin D-28k (CB)-immunoreactive neurons and overall populations of neurons in the myenteric plexus of gerbil duodenum using whole mount preparations and immunohistochemistry. The circumference of duodenum increased age-dependently. CB-immunoreactive neurons were observed in all groups, and most of them had the Dogiel type II morphology. The fully developed cobweb-like structures were observed in the myenteric plexus of duodenum at postnatal month (PM) 3 to 24. Although the highest numbers of CB-immunoreactive neurons and overall population were observed in PM 1.5, it is related with significant increase of the size of circumference between PM 1.5 to PM 3. CB-immunoreactive neurons were slightly decreased with age between PM 3 to PM 24. We have also found that whole numbers of myenteric neurons were also significantly decreased in PM 24 group. These results suggest that loss of overall numbers of myenteric neurons and CB-immunoreactive neurons may be related with age-related neurodegeneration and functional loss of duodenum in the gerbil. PMID:18460827

  10. Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of estrogen receptors in human meningiomas has long been a controversial issue. This may be explained, in part, by apparent heterogeneity of estrogen binding sites in meningioma tissue. In this study, estrogen receptors were determined in 58 meningiomas with an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against human estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) and with a sensitive radioligand binding assay using 125I-labeled estradiol (125I-estradiol) as radioligand. Low levels of estrophilin immunoreactivity were found in tumors from 62% of patients, whereas radioligand binding activity was demonstrated in about 46% of the meningiomas examined. In eight (14%) tissue samples multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed. The immunoreactive binding sites correspond to the classical, high affinity estrogen receptors: the Kd for 125I-estradiol binding to the receptor was approximately 0.2 nM and the binding was specific for estrogens. The second, low affinity class of binding sites considerably influenced measurement of the classical receptor even at low ligand concentrations. The epidemiological and clinical data from patients with meningiomas, and the existence of specific estrogen receptors confirmed by immunochemical detection, may be important factors in a theory of oncogenesis

  11. GABA and glutamate immunoreactivity in tentacles of the sea anemone Phymactis papillosa (LESSON 1830).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luz M; Couve, Eduardo; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Sea anemones have a structurally simple nervous system that controls behaviors like feeding, locomotion, aggression, and defense. Specific chemical and tactile stimuli are transduced by ectodermal sensory cells and transmitted via a neural network to cnidocytes and epithelio-muscular cells, but the nature of the neurotransmitters operating in these processes is still under discussion. Previous studies demonstrated an important role of peptidergic transmission in cnidarians, but during the last decade the contribution of conventional neurotransmitters became increasingly evident. Here, we used immunohistochemistry on light and electron microscopical preparations to investigate the localization of glutamate and GABA in tentacle cross-sections of the sea anemone Phymactis papillosa. Our results demonstrate strong glutamate immunoreactivity in the nerve plexus, while GABA labeling was most prominent in the underlying epithelio-muscular layer. Immunoreactivity for both molecules was also found in glandular epithelial cells, and putative sensory cells were GABA positive. Under electron microscopy, both glutamate and GABA immunogold labeling was found in putative neural processes within the neural plexus. These data support a function of glutamate and GABA as signaling molecules in the nervous system of sea anemones. PMID:20309875

  12. Depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system by cysteamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective neurotoxins have been of value in providing a means for specifically interfering with the actions of endogenous neurotransmitter candidates. Others have shown cysteamine (CSH) to deplete the gastrointestinal tract and hypothalamus of rats of immunoreactive somatostatin, suggesting a toxic action of that compound directed against somatostatin-containing cells. The present study further defines the actions of cysteamine on somatostatin in the central nervous system. (CNS). Cysteamine hydrochloride administered subcutaneously results in a depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in the retina, brain, and cervical spinal cord of rats. The effect is demonstrable at doses of 30 mg/kg of body weight and above, occurs within 2 to 4 hr of a single injection of the drug, and is largely reversible within 1 week. The mean depletion of SLI observed within the CNS varies from 38% in cerebral cortex to 65% in cervical spinal cord 24 hr following administration of CSH, 300 mg/kg of body weight, s.c. By gel permeation chromatography, all molecular weight forms of SLI are affected, with the largest reductions in those forms that co-chromatograph with synthetic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. These results indicate that CSH has a generalized, rapid, and largely reversible effect in depleting SLI from the rat CNS

  13. Surface plasmon resonance-based trace detection of small molecules by competitive and signal enhancement immunoreaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Hidenobu; Tozuka, Mitsuhiro; Kurosawa, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Koichi; Reddy, Subrayal M; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2007-05-22

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-immunosensor for detection of the low molecular weight compound 2,4-dinitorophenol (DNP) at ultra-low concentration has been developed. The sensor strategy is based on a competitive immunoreaction between DNP and a DNP-protein conjugate, namely DNP-bovine serum albumin conjugate (DNP-BSA). Anti-DNP monoclonal antibody was immobilized on a gold thin-film coated SPR-sensor chip by means of a chemical coupling process. DNP-BSA, on contact with the anti-DNP antibody immobilized SPR-immunosensor chip causes an increase in the resonance angle of the sensor chip. The optimum concentration of immobilized antibody on the SPR-sensor chip is 100 microg mL(-1). The SPR-immunosensor response for free DNP determination using the competitive immunoreaction had a response time of ca. 15 min. Using this method, DNP could be determined in the concentration range 1 ppt to 1 ppb. The SPR signal for ppt levels of DNP was enhanced by a factor of three by subsequently treating immuno-bound DNP-BSA with a secondary anti-DNP antibody. PMID:17481407

  14. Hand images: normal and abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

  15. Chromosomal phenotypes and submicroscopic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devriendt Koen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The finding, during the last decade, that several common, clinically delineated syndromes are caused by submicroscopic deletions or, more rarely, by duplications, has provided a powerful tool in the annotation of the human genome. Since most microdeletion/microduplication syndromes are defined by a common deleted/duplicated region, abnormal dosage of genes located within these regions can explain the phenotypic similarities among individuals with a specific syndrome. As such, they provide a unique resource towards the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes such as congenital heart defects, mental and growth retardation and abnormal behaviour. In addition, the study of phenotypic differences in individuals with the same microdeletion syndrome may also become a treasury for the identification of modifying factors for complex phenotypes. The molecular analysis of these chromosomal anomalies has led to a growing understanding of their mechanisms of origin. Novel tools to uncover additional submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies at a higher resolution and higher speed, as well as the novel tools at hand for deciphering the modifying factors and epistatic interactors, are 'on the doorstep' and will, besides their obvious diagnostic role, play a pivotal role in the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes.

  16. Differentially Expressed and Secreted Major Immunoreactive Protein Orthologs of Ehrlichia canis and E. chaffeensis Elicit Early Antibody Responses to Epitopes on Glycosylated Tandem Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, C. Kuyler; Nethery, Kimberly A.; Popov, Vsevolod. L.; McBride, Jere W.

    2006-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis major immunoreactive proteins of 36 and 19 kDa elicit the earliest detectable antibody responses during the acute phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Genes encoding the major immunoreactive 36-kDa protein of E. canis and the corresponding ortholog of E. chaffeensis (47 kDa) were identified and the proteins characterized. The molecular masses of the strongly immunoreactive recombinant proteins were larger than predicted (26.7 and 32.9 kDa, respectively) but were consistent ...

  17. Particle-assisted abnormal grain growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, E. A.; Hoffmann, T. D.; Rollett, A. D.; Roberts, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal grain growth is observed in systems that are nominally pinned by static particle dispersions. We used mesoscale simulations to examine grain growth in three-dimensional polycrystals containing stable, inert particles located at grain boundaries. In the absence of pinning particles, only normal grain growth occurs. When particles are present, some normal grain growth occurs, until a Zener-Smith pinned state is achieved. However, after a long incubation time, a few grains can thermally fluctuate away from their particle clouds and grow abnormally. The abnormal events are rare and stochastic. The abnormal grains are always among the largest initial grains, but most of the largest initial grains do not grow abnormally.

  18. Effect of simulated gastric and intestinal digestion on temporal stability and immunoreactivity of peanut, almond, and pine nut protein allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomer, Ondulla T; Do, Andrew; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina

    2013-06-19

    Current models of digestibility utilize pepsin stability to assess the safety of allergenic versus nonallergenic food proteins. Dietary protein digestion in vivo, however, requires acid denaturation and protease cleavage by pepsin, trypsin, and/or chymotrypsin. The ability of this approach to identify food protein stability in the mammalian gut may be limited. We determined the temporal stability and immunoreactivity of almond, pine nut, and peanut allergenic proteins under simulated physiologic gastric and intestinal digestive conditions in vitro. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses were used to determine protein stability and immunoreactivity, respectively. Peanut, almond, and pine nut proteins were pepsin- and pancreatin-stable and immunoreactive for up to 1 h after initiation of digestion. Moreover, successive acid denaturation and pepsin and pancreatin cleavage were necessary to hydrolyze these allergenic proteins and reduce their IgG- and IgE-binding capacity, which suggests that digestibility models must be improved for more accurate safety assessment of food allergens. PMID:23742710

  19. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  20. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  1. Plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity and its variations in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the level of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-elir) in the blood plasma of baboons and studies its changes in certain situations. For radioimmunoassay of beta-ELIR in the blood plasma, a standard kit and the appropriate technique were used. The background plasma beta-ELIR level of the baboons, in a state of quiet wakefulness, was 0.0 = 1.0 fmoles/ml. The total level of b-ELIR was 134 plus or minus 24 pg/ml. The data show that elevation of the plasma b-ELIR level accompanies stress formation, including the development of a state of shock in baboons. A definite role in the regulation of the plasma b-endorphin level may be played by the paraventricular-perifornical region of the hypothalamus

  2. Therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin: impact of endogenous and exogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2006-01-01

    Digoxin is a cardioactive drug with a narrow therapeutic range. Therapeutic drug monitoring is essential in clinical practice for efficacy as well as to avoid digoxin toxicity. Immunoassays are commonly used in clinical laboratories for determination of serum or plasma digoxin concentrations. Unfortunately, digoxin immunoassays are affected by both endogenous and exogenous compounds. Endogenous compounds are termed 'digoxin-like immunoreactive substances' (DLIS), which are found in elevated concentrations in volume-expanded patients. Exogenous compounds that interfere with digoxin assays are various drugs such as spironolactone, potassium canrenoate as well as Digibind (Fab fragment of antidigoxin antibody), which is used in treating life-threatening digoxin overdose. Moreover, various Chinese medicines such as Chan Su, Lu-Shen Wan and oleander-containing herbal preparations also interfere with serum digoxin measurements by immunoassays. Monitoring unbound (free) digoxin concentration may under certain circumstances eliminate such interferences. Clinicians should be aware of limitations of therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin using immunoassays. PMID:17288498

  3. Distribution of Gb3 Immunoreactivity in the Mouse Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Obrig

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that neurons in the mouse spinal cord express Gb3. We show in this article that distribution of anti-Gb3-Ab reactivity occurs in many different types of neurons of different areas of the central nervous system (CNS. The immunoreactive neurons are in olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. In several different circumventricular organs where vessels do not have the blood-brain-barrier (BBB structure, anti-Gb3-Ab is not positive for vessel structures, while neurons at these regions are positive. Also, within the ventricular area, ependymal cells in the third ventricle express Gb3, as revealed by anti-Gb3-Ab staining and intensity analysis.

  4. Cogeneration of retrogradely labeled corticocortical projection and GABA-immunoreactive local circuit neurons in cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M W

    1985-12-01

    The times of origin of cortico-cortical projection neurons and local circuit neurons in rat visual cortex were determined. The birthdates of the projection neurons were assessed using a technique that combined retrograde labeling with lectin-bound horseradish peroxidase and tritiated thymidine autoradiography. The birthdates of some cortical local circuit neurons were determined by combining GABA immunocytochemistry with [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Double-labeled neurons (those with retrograde or immunoreactive label in their perikarya and autoradiographic silver grains over their nuclei) were born during the third week of gestation. Projection and local circuit neurons born on gestational day 14, 15, 17, 19 or 20 were located primarily in layer VIb, VIa, V, III or II, respectively. Thus, both populations of neurons are generated by parallel and concurrent inside-to-outside patterns. PMID:3910166

  5. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor is increased in ovine model of endotoxemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bolus of Escherichia coli endotoxin (1.5 ?g/kg) was administered to chronically instrumented sheep. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) was measured in extracted plasma by radioimmunoassay. There was a thirteenfold increase in IR-ANF 2 h after endotoxin administration, and IR-ANF levels remained significantly elevated during the first 6 h. A marked diuresis and natriuresis occurred between 4 and 6 h. ANF not only affects renal function but is also associated with decreased cardiac output, increased peripheral resistance (in sheep), and decreased capillary absorption (in rats). These renal and hemodynamic changes are also characteristic of the early (first 6 h) response to endotoxin. Therefore ANF should be considered as a potential mediator of renal and hemodynamic changes induced by sepsis. It is difficult to determine if ANF elevation is an epiphenomenon or a causative factor, because no antagonist of ANF is currently available

  6. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P

    1993-01-01

    Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected with a......, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells......, thus paralleling the situation observed in the normal differentiated oral mucosa. In four cases, material was available from both a primary tumour and a metastasis. Three of these were positive for TGF-alpha and EGF with the same staining pattern as that of the primary tumours. This investigation...

  7. The first NINDS/NIBIB consensus meeting to define neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C; Cairns, Nigel J; Dickson, Dennis W; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Keene, C Dirk; Litvan, Irene; Perl, Daniel P; Stein, Thor D; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Stewart, William; Tripodis, Yorghos; Crary, John F; Bieniek, Kevin F; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Alvarez, Victor E; Gordon, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegeneration characterized by the abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein within the brain. Like many other neurodegenerative conditions, at present, CTE can only be definitively diagnosed by post-mortem examination of brain tissue. As the first part of a series of consensus panels funded by the NINDS/NIBIB to define the neuropathological criteria for CTE, preliminary neuropathological criteria were used by 7 neuropathologists to blindly evaluate 25 cases of various tauopathies, including CTE, Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, argyrophilic grain disease, corticobasal degeneration, primary age-related tauopathy, and parkinsonism dementia complex of Guam. The results demonstrated that there was good agreement among the neuropathologists who reviewed the cases (Cohen's kappa, 0.67) and even better agreement between reviewers and the diagnosis of CTE (Cohen's kappa, 0.78). Based on these results, the panel defined the pathognomonic lesion of CTE as an accumulation of abnormal hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in neurons and astroglia distributed around small blood vessels at the depths of cortical sulci and in an irregular pattern. The group also defined supportive but non-specific p-tau-immunoreactive features of CTE as: pretangles and NFTs affecting superficial layers (layers II-III) of cerebral cortex; pretangles, NFTs or extracellular tangles in CA2 and pretangles and proximal dendritic swellings in CA4 of the hippocampus; neuronal and astrocytic aggregates in subcortical nuclei; thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glial limitans of the subpial and periventricular regions; and large grain-like and dot-like structures. Supportive non-p-tau pathologies include TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dot-like structures in the hippocampus, anteromedial temporal cortex and amygdala. The panel also recommended a minimum blocking and staining scheme for pathological evaluation and made recommendations for future study. This study provides the first step towards the development of validated neuropathological criteria for CTE and will pave the way towards future clinical and mechanistic studies. PMID:26667418

  8. Effects of Dielectrophoresis on Growth, Viability and Immuno-reactivity of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhunia Arun K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dielectrophoresis (DEP has been regarded as a useful tool for manipulating biological cells prior to the detection of cells. Since DEP uses high AC electrical fields, it is important to examine whether these electrical fields in any way damage cells or affect their characteristics in subsequent analytical procedures. In this study, we investigated the effects of DEP manipulation on the characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes cells, including the immuno-reactivity to several Listeria-specific antibodies, the cell growth profile in liquid medium, and the cell viability on selective agar plates. It was found that a 1-h DEP treatment increased the cell immuno-reactivity to the commercial Listeria species-specific polyclonal antibodies (from KPL by ~31.8% and to the C11E9 monoclonal antibodies by ~82.9%, whereas no significant changes were observed with either anti-InlB or anti-ActA antibodies. A 1-h DEP treatment did not cause any change in the growth profile of Listeria in the low conductive growth medium (LCGM; however, prolonged treatments (4 h or greater caused significant delays in cell growth. The results of plating methods showed that a 4-h DEP treatment (5 MHz, 20 Vpp reduced the viable cell numbers by 56.8–89.7 %. These results indicated that DEP manipulation may or may not affect the final detection signal in immuno-based detection depending on the type of antigen-antibody reaction involved. However, prolonged DEP treatment for manipulating bacterial cells could produce negative effects on the cell detection by growth-based methods. Careful selection of DEP operation conditions could avoid or minimize negative effects on subsequent cell detection performance.

  9. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  10. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1181-1192, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26355705

  11. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schults, Marten A.; Nagle, Peter W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Rensen, Sander S. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Godschalk, Roger W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco [Cancer Risk Factor Branch, ISPO Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Greve, Jan W. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Driessen, Ann [Department of Pathology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Verdam, Froukje J.; Buurman, Wim A. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik J. van [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K., E-mail: r.k.chiu@med.umcg.nl [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M{sub 1}dG adducts. No differences in M{sub 1}dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX). This reduction in {gamma}H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  12. Prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in relation to the incidence of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jan-Håkan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic infections and associated inflammatory markers are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL-1?, is suggested to play a role in the regulation of local inflammatory responses in both CVD and periodontitis. The leukotoxin from the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has recently been shown to cause abundant secretion of IL-1? from macrophages. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in myocardial infarction (MI cases (n = 532 and matched controls (n = 1,000 in a population-based case and referents study in northern Sweden. Methods Capacity to neutralize A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was analyzed in a bioassay with leukocytes, purified leukotoxin, and plasma. Plasma samples that inhibited lactate-dehydrogenase release from leukotoxin-lysed cells by ?50% were classified as positive. Results Neutralizing capacity against A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was detected in 53.3% of the plasma samples. The ability to neutralize leukotoxin was correlated to increasing age in men (n = 1,082 but not in women (n = 450. There was no correlation between presence of systemic leukotoxin-neutralization capacity and the incidence of MI, except for women (n = 146. Women with a low neutralizing capacity had a significantly higher incidence of MI than those who had a high neutralizing capacity. Conclusion Systemic immunoreactivity against A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was found at a high prevalence in the analyzed population of adults from northern Sweden. The results from the present study do not support the hypothesis that systemic leukotoxin-neutralizing capacity can decrease the risk for MI.

  13. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features presenting without GFAP immunoreactivity: implications for differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, Ellen; Popovic, Mara; Preusser, Matthias; Budka, Herbert; Hainfellner, Johannes

    2005-09-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon, usually low-grade, astrocytic tumor. Characteristic histological features include tumor cell pleomorphism and lipidization of tumor cells. Albeit prognosis in PXA is generally good, cases with histological signs of anaplasia have been observed. In these cases, the differential diagnosis needs to exclude other malignancies, for example, glioblastoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Immunocytochemical detection of GFAP may support exclusion of non-glial neoplasms resembling PXA. However, GFAP expression in PXA may be faint or focal, although complete lack of GFAP has not been described. A 43-year-old woman was operated on for a left occipital parasagital tumor attached to the dura. Histopathology showed a pleomorphic tumor with moderate mitotic activity and necrosis, lack of GFAP immunoreactivity and ultrastructural detection of premelanosome-like structures. These features led to the tentative diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma, and the patient was irradiated. Three years later she had local tumor recurrence and underwent another operation. The recurrent tumor showed similar plain histology as the first specimen. In contrast, anti-GFAP immunoreactivity was now detectable in pleomorphic tumor cells. Anti-GFAP staining of the first biopsy was repeated using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in combination with prolonged tissue pretreatment. Focal GFAP staining of tumor cells was now achieved. We conclude that non-standard GFAP staining protocols may enhance sensitivity and thus lead to detection of a low level of GFAP expression in tumor specimens, in which PXA is considered in the differential diagnosis. This may avoid misleading diagnostic considerations that impact on postoperative patient management. PMID:16193842

  14. Protein S100 immunoreactivity in glial cells and neurons of the Japanese quail brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Claudia; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Carlo Panzica, Gian

    2003-03-01

    In mammals, sparse data illustrated the neuronal expression of S100 protein in central and peripheral nervous system. Similar studies have not been performed in other vertebrate species, in particular in birds. We provide here a detailed description of the distribution of the calcium-binding protein S100 in neuronal and glial elements in the central nervous system of an avian species, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) largely used for neuroanatomical and functional studies. The distribution of S100-like immunoreactivity was analyzed by three different antisera: a polyclonal, against S100 protein, and two monoclonals, against the beta-subunit (S100beta) and the alpha-subunit (S100alpha) of this protein. All sera showed glial positive elements, which were more abundant in the brainstem than in the prosencephalon. Moreover, the polyclonal and the monoclonal antibodies against the beta-subunit evidenced a neuronal population with a wide distribution, variable morphology and staining intensity. In the telencephalon and diencephalon a few S100-positive neurons were observed in basal ganglia, nucleus paraventricularis hypothalami, nucleus rotundus and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis. In the mesencephalon and pons a wide S100-immunoreactive neuronal population was detected in several regions, including motor and sensory nuclei of most cranial nerves (i.e. oculomotoris, abducens, trigeminus, cochlearis, trochlearis and vestibularis nuclei). This distribution appears very similar to that previously described in the rat hindbrain by both immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, as well as to sparse observations on different vertebrates. Therefore, our results suggest that the distribution pattern of this protein (both in glial and in neuronal elements) is highly conserved throughout the phylogeny. PMID:12706207

  15. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M1dG adducts. No differences in M1dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX). This reduction in ?H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Advantage of highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoscintigraphy for tumor detection, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is theoretically a potential benefit in using a highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibody. The effect of immunoreactivity (IR) on the antibody biodistribution, however, has not yet been described in detail. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the effect of IR on the biodistribution in an animal model. The hydroxylapatite high performance liquid chromatography (HA-HPLC) system has been tested and confirmed to separate the F ab 96.5, an anti melanoma p97 antigen, into high and low IR fractions. 125I-F ab 96.5 preparations with a different IR were administered to groups of nude mice bearing FEM-XII human skin melanoma xenografts for biodistribution and imaging studies. The biodistribution data showed that the high IR antibody improved tumor targeting by increasing activity ratios of tumor to non tumor tissue; the mechanism for the increased tumor to non tumor ratios was increased tumor activity uptake and prolonged tumor activity retention with associated rapid clearance from the blood and non tumor sites. The imaging study visually supported the results obtained in the biodistribution study; the high IR antibody demonstrated better and earlier tumor delineation and the tumor to non tumor contrast continued to improve with time. In this model system, where the whole body clearance rate was the same for the high IR and low IR preparations, the overall antibody metabolism and excretion were not significantly dependent on IR. Therefore, the effect of IR is to alter the distribution of antibody between tumor and blood, with high IR having increased tumor activity and reduced blood activity (consequently reduced non tumor organ activity). This would also be beneficial for therapeutic use of radiolabeled antibodies, since high IR antibodies can minimize undesirable radiation exposure to normal organs. In conclusion, high IR antibodies are essential for optimal tumor targeting. (author)

  17. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise; Chitty, Lyn S

    2007-01-01

    Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis...

  18. Auditory abnormalities in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Bo Wang; Bing-Xin Shi; Shu-Ping Jiang; Chun-Yan Xi; Ying-Hua Tan; Lin. Wang

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the characteristics of auditory abnormalities present in cases of autism. One hundred and fifty six children with autism and 141matched controls with language delay were investigated via direct observations combined with parent/caregiver reports. All of the autistic individuals demonstrated auditory abnormalities especially in the domain of hyposensitivity, compared with 33.3% of children with language delay. The auditory abnormalities in autism primarily c...

  19. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  20. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  1. Coagulation abnormalities following thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David R; Namias, Nicholas; Andrews, David M

    2010-10-01

    Changes in coagulation may have a profound impact on outcomes following severe burns and the coagulation abnormalities after thermal injury are incompletely described. We postulated that thermal injury induces a systemic hypercoagulable state. With Institutional Review Board approval, five patients were consented for enrollment in this case series. After obtaining informed consent, blood was drawn on hospital days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 or until discharge if discharge was in less than 7 days. Standard coagulation testing was performed, as well as a battery of sophisticated specialized coagulation assays. Other data collected includes fluid resuscitation volumes, pharmacologic interventions, and general physiologic information. Results (n = 5) demonstrate that burns less than 6% total body surface area appear to have little effect on coagulation. Burns greater than 6% appear to induce a systemic hypercoagulable state with a phase and magnitude relationship proportional to total body surface area burned. Severe burns greater than 40% appear to induce a consumptive coagulopathy. Prothrombin fragment 1.2 may represent a useful screening test for a burn-induced hypercoagulable state. PMID:20689402

  2. Report on abnormal climate in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports of impact on abnormal climate in 2011. It has Introduction with purpose and background of publish and summary of this report. The cause and current state on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011, Measurement and impact against abnormal climate in 2011 to agriculture, land and maritime, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, environment and health, assessment and advice on the policy. It lists the appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011 and media report data.

  3. Changes in the immunoreactivity of the organism at combined action of radiostrontium and phosphorus-organic pesticide /agria - 1060/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the immunoreactivity of the organism at independent and combined application of the radiation and chemical factors have been studied. It has been found that the combination of two factors damages much more the immune system of the organism than their separate application

  4. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Partata

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

  5. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  6. Extraspinal abnormalities identified on lumbar spine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrospective review of 1517 lumbar CT examinations revealed extraspinal pathology in 22 (1.45%). Retroperitoneal tumors and lymphadenopathy as well as vascular, urinary tract and gynecologic abnormalities were identified. This study demonstrates the need to carefully evaluate the visualized portions of the abdomen and pelvis on all lumbar spine CT examinations even when the patient's symptomatology is suggestive of spinal abnormalities. (orig.)

  7. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    OpenAIRE

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual an...

  8. Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news/Secondhand_Smoke_090215.html Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality HealthDay News Video - September 3, 2015 ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoke_090215.html Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality HealthDay News Video - September 3, 2015 To use ... JavaScript. Play video: Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  10. RARE CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Schanz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q, -7/del(7q, +8, complex karyotypes, or –Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R considers also some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q, isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression, of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable, -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis, or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  11. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or -Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process. PMID:25960862

  12. Analysis of the brain ACTH-immunoreactive peptide spectrum in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice of the BALB/c (C) and C57BL/6 (B6) strains, characterized by high and low emotionality respectively in open field tests, have been shown to differ considerably in both the initial level and the time course of changes in the plasma ACTH concentration after exposure to stress in an open field and after administration of a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. The ACTH concentration in the pituitary gland of animals of these lines also differs. The ACTH molecule is known to contain regions with neurotropic activity. It can therefore be postulated that differences in the level of this hormone and the products of its bioconversion in the brain are an essential factor in the mechanisms of formation of the hereditary features of emotional behavior. In this first stage of this investigation, represented in this paper and undertaken to test this hypothesis, spectra of ACTH-immunoreactive peptides were studied in chromatographic fractions of an acid brain extract as well as in the blood plasma of mice belonging to B6 and C lines and their hybrids. The peptides were determined by radioimmunoassay

  13. Enteric nervous system ?-synuclein immunoreactivity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Fabienne S.; Stefanova, Nadia; Gelpi, Ellen; Seppi, Klaus; Navarro-Otano, Judith; Offner, Felix; Vilas, Dolores; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Pont-Sunyer, Claustre; Aldecoa, Iban; Gaig, Carles; Gines, Angels; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Högl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Iranzo, Alex; Wenning, Gregor K.; Vogel, Wolfgang; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of ?-synuclein in colonic biopsies of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and address if ?-synuclein immunostaining of tissue obtained via colonic biopsies holds promise as a diagnostic biomarker for prodromal Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Patients with iRBD, patients with PD, and healthy controls were prospectively recruited to undergo colonic biopsies for comparison of ?-synuclein immunoreactivity patterns between the groups by using 2 different antibodies. Results: There was no difference in colonic mucosal and submucosal immunostaining between groups using the 15G7 ?-synuclein antibody, which was found in almost all participants enrolled in this study. By contrast, immunostaining for serine 129-phosphorylated ?-synuclein (pSyn) in submucosal nerve fibers or ganglia was found in none of 14 controls but was observed in 4 of 17 participants with iRBD and 1 out of 19 patients with PD. Conclusions: The present findings of pSyn immunostaining of colonic biopsies in a substantial proportion of iRBD participants raise the possibility that this tissue marker may be a suitable candidate to study further as a prodromal PD marker in at-risk cohorts. PMID:26475692

  14. Distribution of immunoreactive dynorphin in the central nervous system of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamir, N.; Palkovits, M.; Brownstein, M.J. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1983-11-28

    A widespread distribution of immunoreactive dynorphin (ir-Dyn) in rat brain and spinal cord was demonstrated by means of a highly specific radioimmunoassay. The highest concentrations of ir-Dyn (> 399 pg/mg protein) were found in hypothalamic nuclei, i.e. the premamillary, anterior hypothalamic and dorsomedial nuclei and median eminence. Relatively high concentrations of ir-Dyn (between 320 and 399 pg/mg protein) were found in other hypothalamic nuclei such as the medial and lateral preoptic, perifornical, suprachiasmatic, ventromedial nuclei and in the medulla oblongata in the area postrema and in the nucleus of the solitary tract (commissural part). Moderate levels of ir-Dyn (between 140 and 320 pg/mg protein) were found in most diencephalic areas other than the hypothalamic nuclei and further nuclei in the medulla oblongata, in the mesencephalon, pons and spinal cord. Low to moderate levels of ir-Dyn were found in the telencephalon, with lowest levels (less than 140 pg/mg protein) found in the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, dorsal septal nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, caudate-putamen, superior collicle, cerebellum and certain areas of the reticular formation.

  15. Distribution of immunoreactive dynorphin in the central nervous system of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A widespread distribution of immunoreactive dynorphin (ir-Dyn) in rat brain and spinal cord was demonstrated by means of a highly specific radioimmunoassay. The highest concentrations of ir-Dyn (> 399 pg/mg protein) were found in hypothalamic nuclei, i.e. the premamillary, anterior hypothalamic and dorsomedial nuclei and median eminence. Relatively high concentrations of ir-Dyn (between 320 and 399 pg/mg protein) were found in other hypothalamic nuclei such as the medial and lateral preoptic, perifornical, suprachiasmatic, ventromedial nuclei and in the medulla oblongata in the area postrema and in the nucleus of the solitary tract (commissural part). Moderate levels of ir-Dyn (between 140 and 320 pg/mg protein) were found in most diencephalic areas other than the hypothalamic nuclei and further nuclei in the medulla oblongata, in the mesencephalon, pons and spinal cord. Low to moderate levels of ir-Dyn were found in the telencephalon, with lowest levels (less than 140 pg/mg protein) found in the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, dorsal septal nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, caudate-putamen, superior collicle, cerebellum and certain areas of the reticular formation. (Auth.)

  16. Effect of age on the myosin-V immunoreactive myenteric neurons of rats ileum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Paulo, Ferreira Schoffen; Maria Raquel, Marçal Natali.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the gastrointestinal neuromuscular function related to age have been demonstrated in human and animal models. This study analyzes the effects of the aging process on the area of the neuronal cell bodies of the myenteric plexus in the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the ilea [...] l circumference of Wistar, 12 month-old in comparison 3 month-old animals. The ileum was removed and whole-mount preparations immunostained by the antibody anti-myosin-V were processed. The morphometric analyses were performed using a computerized image analysis system, with a subsequent distribution of neurons by size in intervals of 100 ?m². The cellular body morphometry revealed a significant increase in the size of the myosin-V- immunoreactive myenteric neurons from 12 month -old animals when compared with 3 month-old animals. However, significant differences between the regions were not observed; these observations were not age-dependent. The implications of these results in relation to the increase of the body weight, size of the small intestine, general organization of the myenteric plexus, staining method of neurons and the possible factors involved in the regulation and/or control of the volume of neronal cells due to aging, are discussed.

  17. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 ?g/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis. PMID:24530039

  18. Ionizing radiation alters beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in brain but not blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous behavioral and pharmacological studies have implicated endorphins in radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse. However, the endogenous opiate(s) responsible for this behavioral change have not been identified. The present study measured beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) in brain, blood, and combined brain and pituitary samples from irradiated and sham-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. After radiation exposure, levels of beta-END-LI decreased significantly in the brain. A similar, but not statistically significant, decline was measured in combined brain and pituitary samples. Concentrations of blood beta-END-LI were not changed by irradiation. These radiogenic changes in beta-END-LI are in some ways similar to those observed after other stresses. However, radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity may be mediated more by alterations of beta-END-LI in the brain than in the periphery. Other endogenous opiate systems may also contribute to this behavioral change in the C57BL/6J mouse

  19. Predictive value of bcl-2 immunoreactivity in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Recent experimental evidence suggests that overexpression of bcl-2, a protein functioning by blocking apoptosis, may influence the treatment outcome in human tumours, including prostate cancer. To test the clinical implications of this hypothesis, tumours from patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy were investigated for bcl-2 immunoreactivity (IR) and correlated with prognosis and treatment outcome. Materials and methods: Bcl-2 IR was evaluated in archival tumour specimens obtained through transurethral resection from 42 patients with localized prostate cancer (T0-T4, N0 and M0). Bcl-2 IR expression was related to stage, grade and cancer-specific survival. Specimens were obtained prior to administrating routine radiotherapy for all patients. Results: Bcl-2 IR was present in 19/42 (45%) tumours. The bcl-2-positive patients had a significantly longer cancer-specific survival than the bcl-2-negative patients (10.3 versus 3.4 years, P<0.04). At follow-up (7-19 years), nine patients were still alive, 26 patients had died of prostate cancer and seven patients had died of other causes. Conclusions: This study indicates that pre-treatment bcl-2 overexpression is related to a favourable outcome in prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. Low bcl-2 along with a high stage may be a predictor of poor prognosis and these patients might benefit from additional treatment. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Impact of adolescent sucrose access on cognitive control, recognition memory, and parvalbumin immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C; Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D; Morris, Margaret J; Westbrook, R Fred

    2015-04-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral control and high-order cognitive processes. Of particular concern is the fact that sugar intake is greatest in adolescence, an important neurodevelopmental period. We provided sucrose to rats when they were progressing through puberty and adolescence. Cognitive performance was assessed in adulthood on a task related to executive function, a rodent analog of the Stroop task. We found that sucrose-exposed rats failed to show context-appropriate responding during incongruent stimulus compounds presented at test, indicative of impairments in prefrontal cortex function. Sucrose exposed rats also showed deficits in an on object-in-place recognition memory task, indicating that both prefrontal and hippocampal function was impaired. Analysis of brains showed a reduction in expression of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, indicating that sucrose consumption during adolescence induced long-term pathology, potentially underpinning the cognitive deficits observed. These results suggest that consumption of high levels of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents may also impair neurocognitive functions affecting decision-making and memory, potentially rendering them at risk for developing mental health disorders. PMID:25776039

  1. Calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity in the mice thoracic spinal cord after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porseva, Valentina V.; Shilkin, Valentin V.; Krasnov, Igor B.; Masliukov, Petr M.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the work was to analyse changes in the location and morphological characteristics of calbindin (CB)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons of the thoracic spinal cord of C57BL/6N male mice after completion of a 30-day space flight on board the BION-M1 biosatellite (Russia, 2013). Space flight induced multidirectional changes of the number and morphological parameters of CB-positive neurons. The number of IR neurons increased in laminae I (from 10 to 17 neurons per section), II (from 42 to 67 cells per section) and IX (from two neurons per segment to two neurons per section), but CB disappeared in neurons of lamina VIII. Weightlessness did not affect the number of CB-IR neurons in laminae III-V and VII, including preganglionic sympathetic neurons. The cross-sectional area of CB-IR neurons decreased in lamina II and VII (group of partition cells) and increased in laminae III-V and IX. After a space flight, few very large neurons with long dendrites appeared in lamina IV. The results obtained give evidence about substantial changes in the calcium buffer system and imbalance of different groups of CB-IR neurons due to reduction of afferent information under microgravity.

  2. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity, endogeneous cardiac glycoside-like factors (s) and natriuretic hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endogenous factors crossreacting with antidigoxin antibodies (digoxin-like immunoreactive substances=DLIS) have been found in several tissues and body fluids of animals and humans, using commercially avaiable digoxin RIA or EIA methods. Detectable DLIS concentration were found in blood and urine extracts of adults (normal healthy controls, hypertensive patients and salt loaded healthy subjects), while higher levels were generally observed in plasma samples of pregnant women, newborns and patients with renal insufficiency. The chemical characteristics of this endogenous factor are, at present, unknown, although it has been suggested that DLIS could be a substance with low molecular weight. Experimental studies and theoretical consideration suggest that DLIS, in addition to reacting with antibodies, might also bind to the specific cellular receptor of the cardiac glycosides and thus inhibit the membrane Na+/K+ ATPase (sodium pump). Therefore, it has been suggested that DLSI is an endogeneous modulator of the membrane sodium-potassium pump and it could play a role in the regulation of fluid and electrolytes muscular tone of myocardial and also in pathogenesis of hypertension

  3. Alzheimer's-associated A? oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-?1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A? oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A? species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A? antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A?-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  4. Protein Misdirection Inside and Outside Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): A Possible Clue for Therapeutic Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Akemi Ido; Makoto Urushitani; Hidenao Fukuyama

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS...

  5. Chromosome abnormalities and season of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbech, P; Nielsen, J

    1984-01-01

    A study of seasonality has been made of birth of individuals with chromosome abnormalities registered in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register before January 1, 1981. Significant seasonal variation in birth was found for males with Klinefelter's syndrome born before 1946, but not for those born later, and not for any other sex chromosome abnormality. No significant monthly variation was found for any autosomal abnormality, except a significant increase in the frequency of conceptions for Down's syndrome during the first 4 months of the year, using a chi square with 2 degrees of freedom.

  6. Neuroanatomy of pars intercerebralis neurons with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuyama, Kouji; Hase, Hiroaki; Shiga, Sakiko

    2015-10-01

    Input regions of pars intercerebralis (PI) neurons are examined by confocal and electron microscopies with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae. PI neurons are a prerequisite for ovarian development under long-day conditions. Backfills from the cardiac recurrent nerve after severance of the posterior lateral tracts labeled thin fibers derived from the PI neurons in the superior medial protocerebrum. These PI fibers were mainly synapsin-negative and postsynaptic to unknown varicose profiles containing dense-core vesicles. Backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils, derived from the PI neurons or neurons with somata in the subesophageal zone, were varicose and some were synapsin-positive. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites in backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils. Many PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were found in the superior medial and lateral protocerebrum and double-labeling showed that 60-88 % of PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were also synapsin-immunoreactive. Double-labeling with the backfills and PDF immunocytochemistry showed that the PI fibers and PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were located close to each other in the superior medial protocerebrum. Results of triple-labeling of PI neurons, PDF-immunoreactive neurons and synapsin-immunoreactive terminals demonstrated that the synapsin-positive PDF-immunoreactive varicosities contacted the PI fibers. These data suggest that PI neurons receive synaptic contacts from PDF-immunoreactive fibers, which are derived from circadian clock neurons, of small ventral lateral neurons (previously called OL2) or posterior dorsal (PD) neurons with somata in the pars lateralis. PMID:25971932

  7. Sex-related differences in the concentration of Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of an insect, Schistocerca gregaria, revealed by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay has been used to measure Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in tissue from male and female locusts, Schistocerca gregaria. The pattern of distribution within the two sexes was similar with about equal amounts present in the suboesophageal and 3 thoracic ganglia and a lower concentration in the cerebral ganglion. Female nervous tissue contained more than twice the amount of Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity than did that of males. No consistent immunoreactivity could be detected in the abdominal ganglia or non-neural tissues. The results are discussed in relation to recent evidence that peptides related or identical to enkephalins are present in vertebrates as well as higher organisms. (Auth.)

  8. Amphibian abnormalities on National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet outlines a study done to 1 find the percentage of abnormal frogs and toads on the nations National Wildlife Refuges and 2 determine how the...

  9. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  10. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labor and Timing Problems Premature Rupture of the Membranes (PROM) Preterm Labor Postterm Pregnancy and Postmaturity Labor That Progresses Too Slowly Fetus or Newborn Problems During Delivery Fetal Distress Breathing Problems Abnormal Position and Presentation of ...

  11. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2014-12-01

    abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved.

  12. Abnormal condition detector of a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To readily and accurately detect abnormality and abnormal point of a lining applied on the inside of a concrete wall within a container in a sodium cooled fast breeder. Structure: A dual lining made of steel is disposed internally of a room surrounded by concrete to house cooling equipment and piping therein. A space formed between the dual lining is divided into a plurality of spacers by partitioning plates. Each space is formed with an opening, which is connected to a pipe, and connected to a blower in an annulus exhaust system through a respective opening and closing valve in the midst thereof. A leak detector is provided in the midst thereof. The space in the lining is always maintained at negative pressure. When the abnormality is detected, the aforesaid valves are all closed and subsequently these valves are opened one by one. This operation can tell which divided space has abnormality. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality URL of ... page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Secondhand_Smoke_090215.html Secondhand Smoke and Heart ...

  14. Release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity from the perfused canine thyroid. Selective stimulatory effect of calcium ions.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Laurberg; Orskov, H

    1981-01-01

    It is well accepted that the C cells of the thyroid contain somatostatin, but the role in local endocrine function has not yet been firmly established in this organ, and it has not been proved that thyroidal somatostatin is released into the circulation. We have measured the contents of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the effluent of canine thyroid glands perfused without recirculation with a synthetic buffer medium. During basal conditions a definite release was consistently found in t...

  15. Cross-Immunoreactivity between Bacterial Aquaporin-Z and Human Aquaporin-4: Potential Relevance to Neuromyelitis Optica

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yan; Duan, Tao; Patel, Jilpa; Liggett, Thomas; Loda, Eileah; Brahma, Sarang; Goswami, Rajendra; Grouse, Carrie; Byrne, Richard; Stefoski, Dusan; Javed, Adil; MILLER, STEPHEN D.; Balabanov, Roumen

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS that is mediated, in part, by a self-reactive Ab against the astrocyte aquaporin-4 protein. In the current study, we examined the possibility and the biological significance of cross-immunoreactivity between bacterial aquaporin-Z and human aquaporin-4 proteins. Sequence-alignment analysis of these proteins revealed several regions of significant structural homology. Some of the homologous regions were also found to overla...

  16. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may therefore play an essential role in the progression of a malignant tumour. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate TIMP-1 protein immunoreactivity in tissue from primary ovarian cancer patients and associate these findings with the course of the disease including response to treatment in the individual patient. TIMP-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (in tissue micro arrays) in a total of 163 ovarian cancer specimens obtained from primary debulking surgery during 1991-1994 as part of a randomized clinical protocol. Positive TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was found in 12.3% of the tumours. The median survival time for the 143 patients with TIMP-1 negative tumours was 23.7 months [19.0-29.4] 95% CI, while the median survival time for the 20 patients with TIMP-1 positive tumours was 15.9 months [12.3-27.4] 95% CI. Although a difference of 7.8 months in median overall survival in favor of the TIMP-1 tumour negative patients was found, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.28, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test). Moreover, TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was not associated with CA125 response (p = 0.53) or response at second look surgery (p = 0.72). TIMP-1 immunoreactivity in tumour tissue from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer did not correlate with patient survival or response to combination platinum/cyclophosphamide therapy

  17. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the cephalopod mollusc, Idiosepius notoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Loesel, R; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of cephalopods with respect to their neurotransmitter phenotypes. This study presents preliminary results on the distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons within the CNS of the pygmy squid I...

  18. Reduced cerebral cortical but elevated striatal concentration of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kish, S J; Robitaille, Y; el-Awar, M; Schut, L; DiStefano, L; Ball, M. J.; Mazurek, M F

    1993-01-01

    Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) was measured in the brains of nine patients with dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), who all had a marked deficit of the cholinergic marker choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Mean concentrations of SLI in OPCA were significantly reduced by 42-58% in parietal and occipital cortices and frontal cortical eye fields, but were normal in other cortical areas, including two subdivisions of the temporal ...

  19. Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Growth of Leptospire, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: Immunoreactivity and Cell Division

    OpenAIRE

    Triampo, Wannapong; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Triampo, Darapond; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak; Tang, I-Ming

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the exposure of the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola to a constant magnetic field with magnetic flux density from a permanent ferrite magnet = 140 mT were studied. Changes in Leptospira cells after their exposure to the field were determined on the basis of changes in their growth behavior and agglutination immunoreactivity with a homologous antiserum using darkfield microscopy together with visual imaging. The data showed that the exposed Le...

  20. Muscarinic receptor modulation of release of [Met5]enkephalin immunoreactive material and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, B A; Hexum, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor modulation of secretion from the adrenal medulla was studied using retrogradely perfused bovine tissue. Atropine, at a dose not affecting 1,1 dimethyl-4-phenylpiperizinium (DMPP)-stimulated release, inhibited the acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated release of noradrenaline and [Met5]enkephalin-immunoreactive material (ME-IRM). DMPP-stimulated release of catecholamines and ME-IRM was potentiated by the addition of methacholine. Pilocarpine significantly potentiated the release o...

  1. Infantile autism and associated autosomal chromosome abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, M; Mors, O; Mortensen, P B; Ewald, H

    1999-01-01

    Infantile autism is a heterogenous disorder with unknown aetiology. Evidence from the relatively few family and twin studies suggests a genetic component. Co-occurrence or cosegregation between infantile autism and chromosomal abnormalities may identify candidate regions, which could be tested in linkage or association studies. The purpose of this study was to use the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register in order to detect autosomal chromosome abnormalities associated with infantile autism, and t...

  2. Valproic acid-induced abnormal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nagalakshmi, Nanjangud Chandrashekar; Ramesh, Madhan; Parthasarathi, Gurumurthy; Harugeri, Anand; Christy, Mary Sam; Keshava, Belur Seshachala

    2010-01-01

    A 12-year-old female was admitted to hospital with complaints of abnormal behavior. She was on valproic acid 200mg twice daily and clobazam 5mg at night for the past 13 weeks for her complex partial seizures with secondary generalized seizures. On day 60 of the treatment with valproic acid she developed behavioral disturbances and initiated treatment with tablet chlorpromazine, olanzapine and risperidone. During the present hospitalization, as there was no improvement in abnormal behavior, an...

  3. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anupamasuresh Y; Suresh YV; Prachi Jain

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common problem for the patients and the gynecologists. It adversely effects on the quality of life and psychology of women. It is of special concern in developing country as it adds to the causes of anemia. Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is not complete without tissue diagnosis especially in perimenopausal and post-menopausal women. Histological characteristics of endometrial biopsy material as assessed by light mic...

  4. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Noval; Mar González-Manrique; José María Rodríguez-Del Valle; José María Rodríguez-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or ta...

  5. Pupil abnormality in amyloidosis with autonomic neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, D; Smith, S.

    1999-01-01

    Darkness pupil diameters, light reflexes, and redilatation times have been recorded with infrared TV pupillometry in 12 consecutive patients with systemic amyloidosis associated with sensory motor and autonomic neuropathy. Nine of the patients had AL amyloidosis, two had familial amyloidosis associated with a transthyretin abnormality, and one was untyped. The pupils were abnormal in all 12 patients. On the basis of redilatation lag without pupillotonia, six patients had bil...

  6. Extraspinal abnormalities identified on lumbar spine CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frager, D.H.; Elkin, C.M.; Kansler, F.; Mendelsohn, S.L.; Leeds, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Retrospective review of 1517 lumbar CT examinations revealed extraspinal pathology in 22 (1.45%). Retroperitoneal tumors and lymphadenopathy as well as vascular, urinary tract and gynecologic abnormalities were identified. This study demonstrates the need to carefully evaluate the visualized portions of the abdomen and pelvis on all lumbar spine CT examinations even when the patient's symptomatology is suggestive of spinal abnormalities. (orig.).

  7. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  8. Diagnosing of chromosome abnormalities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Videbech, P

    1984-01-01

    A survey of how frequent chromosome abnormalities are diagnosed in Denmark prenatally as well as postnatally compared with the expected incidence in an 11-year period 1970-1980 has been made from the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register. Ten percent of the expected number of Klinefelter's syndrome, 41% of Turner's syndrome and 10% of other sex chromosome abnormalities in children born between 1970 and 1980 have been diagnosed until January 1, 1983. The total frequency of diagnosed cases with sex ...

  9. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  10. Protein Misdirection Inside and Outside Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS: A Possible Clue for Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Ido

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43 are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS, respectively. The commonalities of the two proteins include a propensity to aggregate and acquire detrimental conformations through oligomerization, fragmentation, or post-translational modification that may drive abnormal subcellular localizations. Although SOD1 is a major cytosolic protein, mutated SOD1 has been localized to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and even the extracellular space. The nuclear exclusion of TDP-43 is a pathological hallmark for ALS, although the pathogenic priority remains elusive. Nevertheless, these abnormal behaviors based on the protein misfolding are believed to induce diverse intracellular and extracellular events that may be tightly linked to non-cell-autonomous motor neuron death. The generation of mutant- or misfolded protein-specific antibodies would help to uncover the distribution and propagation of the ALS-linked proteins, and to design a therapeutic strategy to clear such species. Herein we review the literature regarding the mislocalization of ALS-linked proteins, especially mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 species, and discuss the rationale of molecular targeting strategies including immunotherapy.

  11. Correlative Analysis of Immunoreactivity in Confocal Laser-Scanning Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Focused Ion Beam Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Sonomura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional reconstruction of ultrastructure of rat brain with minimal effort has recently been realized by scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam milling (FIB-SEM. Because application of immunohistochemical staining to electron microscopy has a great advantage in that molecules of interest are specifically localized in ultrastructures, we here tried to apply immunocytochemistry to FIB-SEM and correlate immunoreactivity in confocal laser-scanning microcopy (CF-LSM with that in FIB-SEM. The dendrites of medium-sized spiny neurons in rat neostriatum were visualized with a recombinant viral vector, which labeled the infected neurons with membrane-targeted GFP in a Golgi stain-like fashion, and thalamostriatal afferent terminals were immunolabeled with Cy5 fluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2. After detecting the sites of terminals apposed to the dendrites in CF-LSM, GFP and VGluT2 immunoreactivities were further developed for electron microscopy by the immunogold/silver enhancement and immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine (DAB methods, respectively. In the contrast-inverted FIB-SEM images, silver precipitation and DAB deposits were observed as fine dark grains and diffuse dense profiles, respectively, indicating that these immunoreactivities were easily recognizable as in the images of transmission electron microscopy. In the sites of interest, some appositions were revealed to display synaptic specialization of asymmetric type. The present method is thus useful in the three-dimensional analysis of immunocytochemically differentiated synaptic connection in the central neural circuit.

  12. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    1996-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing development, gradually disappeared from these cells and became restricted to insulin-producing beta cells. Throughout development FA1 was not detected in endocrine glucagon, somatostatin or pancreatic polypeptide cells. Moreover, developing insulin cells that coexpressed glucagon were negative for FA1. Thus, there was a negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon both in tumours and during development. These results, together with FA1/dlk's similarity with homeotic proteins, point to a role of FA1 in islet cell differentiation. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Dec

  13. Activity-dependent changes in synaptophysin immunoreactivity in hippocampus, piriform cortex, and entorhinal cortex of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Reinprecht, I; Fahnestock, M; Racine, R J

    2002-01-01

    Synaptophysin, an integral membrane glycoprotein of synaptic vesicles, has been widely used to investigate synaptogenesis in both animal models and human patients. Kindling is an experimental model of complex partial seizures with secondary generalization, and a useful model for studying activation-induced neural growth in adult systems. Many studies using Timm staining have shown that kindling promotes sprouting in the mossy fiber pathway of the dentate gyrus. In the present study, we used synaptophysin immunohistochemistry to demonstrate activation-induced neural sprouting in non-mossy fiber cortical pathways in the adult rat. We found a significant kindling-induced increase in synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the stratum radiatum of CA1 and stratum lucidum/radiatum of CA3, the hilus, the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, and layer II/III of the piriform cortex, but no significant change in layer II/III of the entorhinal cortex, 4 weeks after the last kindling stimulation. We also found that synaptophysin immunoreactivity was lowest in CA3 near the hilus and increased with increasing distance from the hilus, a reverse pattern to that seen with Timm stains in stratum oriens following kindling. Furthermore, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was lowest in dorsal and greatest in ventral sections of both CA3 and dentate gyrus in both kindled and non-kindled animals. This demonstrates that different populations of sprouting axons are labeled by these two techniques, and suggests that activation-induced sprouting extends well beyond the hippocampal mossy fiber system. PMID:12453493

  14. Diagnosing of chromosome abnormalities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Videbech, P

    1984-01-01

    A survey of how frequent chromosome abnormalities are diagnosed in Denmark prenatally as well as postnatally compared with the expected incidence in an 11-year period 1970-1980 has been made from the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register. Ten percent of the expected number of Klinefelter's syndrome, 41% of Turner's syndrome and 10% of other sex chromosome abnormalities in children born between 1970 and 1980 have been diagnosed until January 1, 1983. The total frequency of diagnosed cases with sex chromosome abnormalities is 13% of the expected number. Induced abortion was made in 62% of the cases with sex chromosome abnormalities diagnosed prenatally. Ninety percent of all cases with Down's syndrome were diagnosed by chromosome examination, and 10% were diagnosed prenatally and aborted. During the last part of the period from 1977-1980 this had increased to 20%. Thirty-seven percent of cases with other chromosome abnormalities were diagnosed. Among the expected 4,396 children with chromosome abnormalities to beborn between 1970 and 1980, a total of 39% were diagnosed postnatally until January 1, 1983, and 10% were diagnosed prenatally. It is concluded that there is a great need for training consultants in clinical genetics, expansion and further decentralization of cytogenetic service with more cytogenetic laboratories and employment of clinical geneticists in all 14 Danish counties.

  15. Housing Complexity Alters GFAP-Immunoreactive Astrocyte Morphology in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Salois, Garrick; Jeffrey S. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Rats used in research are typically housed singly in cages with limited sensory stimulation. There is substantial evidence that housing rats in these conditions lead to numerous neuroanatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Alternatively, rats can be housed in an enriched environment in which rats are housed in groups and given room for exercise and exploration. Enriched environments result in considerable neuroplasticity in the rodent brain. In the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, enriched ...

  16. Astroglial distribution of neurokinin-2 receptor immunoreactivity in the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerari, F; Karpitskiy, V; Krause, J; Descarries, L; Couture, R

    1998-06-01

    Two mouse monoclonal antibodies, 11H9.1 and 1G7.10, raised against the COOH-terminus peptide (359-390) of the rat neurokinin-2 receptor, were used to visualize by light and electron microscope immunocytochemistry the distribution of this receptor in adult rat spinal cord. At all spinal levels, immunoreactivity was mainly observed in two narrow crescentic zones bordering the gray matter of the dorsal and ventral horns, and around the central canal. In the light microscope, this labelling was the densest within the outer part of lamina I facing the dorsal column, where it took the form of minute dots and streaks scattered in the neuropil. In the electron microscope, such a localization was exclusively astrocytic and essentially involved astrocytic leaflets, as indicated by the size and irregular shape of the immunostained processes, their location between and around neuronal profiles, and their occasional display of glial filaments. The diaminobenzidine reaction product showed some predilection for the plasma membrane and was occasionally seen at gap junctions of these labelled processes. Many labelled astrocytic leaflets were observed in the immediate vicinity of axon terminals containing large dense-cored vesicles, and around fibres morphologically identifiable as primary afferent, unmyelinated C-fibres. These observations suggest that astrocytic neurokinin-2 receptors could define the effective sphere of neurokinin A neuromodulation in rat spinal cord, via alterations in the regulation of the extracellular environment and glutamate uptake by astrocytes and/or the release of putative astroglial mediators. The astrocyte neurokinin-2 receptors, activated by extrasynaptic neurokinin A, might thus co-operate with neurokinin-1 and neurokinin-3 neuronal receptors in the modulation of nociceptive information. PMID:9578409

  17. Effects of avian infectious bronchitis virus antigen on eggshell formation and immunoreaction in hen oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Takahiro; Isobe, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism by which the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) affects eggshell formation. Attenuated IBV (aIBV group) or vehicle (control group) was injected into the oviductal magnum lumen of White Leghorn laying hens. The changes in the expression of genes related to eggshell formation (collagen types I and V, and CaBP-D28K), densities of cytotoxic cells (CD8(+) and TCR-??(+) T cells), and gene expression of molecules related to cytotoxic immunoreaction (B-NK, perforin, granzyme, and IL-2) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and IFN-?) were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry in the isthmus and uterus. Gene expression of IL-1? and IL-6receptors in the tubular gland cells of the isthmus and uterus was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression of collagen type I, but not collagen type V, in the isthmus and CaBP-D28K in the uterus was decreased in the aIBV group compared with that in the control. The frequencies of CD8(+) cells and TCR-??(+) T cells in the isthmus and uterus were significantly higher in the aIBV group than in the control group. The expression of cytotoxic molecular and proinflammatory cytokines was also higher in the aIBV group than in the control. The expression of IL-6 receptor, but not IL-1? receptor, was identified in the tubular gland cells in the isthmus and uterus. These results suggest that IBV infection causes disorder of eggshell formation by disturbing gene expression of collagen type I in the isthmus and CaBP-D28K in the uterus, probably via the effects of substances from cytotoxic cells and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:24612789

  18. Relation of CD117 immunoreactivity and microvascular density in invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M Amin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In breast cancer, the expression of CD117 represents a highly controversial subject but the majority of studies have found decreased c-kit expression in malignant breast epithelium. A number of studies have reported that increased intratumoral microvessel density (MVD is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. The aim of the study was to assess the relation of CD117 and MVD with other clinicopathological parameters in invasive breast carcinomas using the tissue microarray technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 126 cases of invasive breast carcinoma of different histological types and grades were collected from files of a pathology department during 2010. Clinicopathological and histological parameters were evaluated. Sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues microarray blocks were immunostained with CD117 and CD34. Statistical analysis of data was done using SPSS, version 16.0. Results: About 29% of invasive breast carcinomas were CD117 positive. There were significant differences between expression of CD117 in the tumor epithelial cells and age of the patient; tumor grade; tumor size, and LN metastasis. Also, there was significant relation between expression of CD117 in the tumor epithelial cells and MVD, expression of estrogen, and progesterone receptors. On multivariate analysis, the most important predictors of negativity of CD117 were tumor size and positive lymph node involvement. Conclusion: Lack of CD117 immunoreactivity in invasive breast carcinoma was associated with features of more aggressive tumor behavior as higher microvessel density, larger size, higher tumor grade, more lymph node metastasis, and negative estrogen and progesterone receptors.

  19. Association between immunoreactivity to Anisakis spp. antigens and high-risk pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Israel; Vericimo, Mauricio; Terra, Luciana; Ferreira, Taylane; São Clemente, Sergio Carmona; Teixeira, Gerlinde

    2015-12-01

    Numerous factors contribute to perinatal risk, many of which remain undefined. This study sought to determine the frequency of fish intake in postpartum women, and to establish a relationship between the rates of immunoreactivity for antigens from Anisakis spp. and high-risk pregnancy. In this prospective noninterventional study, a structured questionnaire was administered and serum was collected from postpartum women at two perinatal centers (a high-risk birth unit [HRBU] and a low-risk birth unit [LRBU]) in the Niteroi municipality of Brazil. Anisakis species-specific IgG and IgE were measured by ELISA. The chisquared test was performed, and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. The t-test or Mann-Whitney test was applied to continuous, normally distributed variables. In total, 309 women (170 from HRBU, 139 from LRBU) between 24.8 and 26.7 years old with a median of 6 to 8 prenatal visits were enrolled. Women in the two units exhibited differences in some variables, including prenatal care (p = 0.01), maternal and fetal risk (p = 0.00; OR = 6.17), and gestational age (p = 0.00), but no differences in fish consumption (p = 0.29), frequency of fish intake (p = 0.40), allergic symptoms (p = 0.51), or frequency of anti-Anisakis reactivity (p = 0.22). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only age was independently associated with postpartum anti-Anisakis reactivity. This study confirmed a low prevalence of fish intake and suggested that Anisakis spp. had no impact on high-risk pregnancies among this postpartum study population. PMID:26408579

  20. Induction patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the forebrain as predictors of atypical antipsychotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G S; Matsumura, H; Fibiger, H C

    1994-11-01

    Clozapine and haloperidol produce different induction patterns of c-fos expression in the forebrain, with haloperidol increasing Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, lateral septal nucleus and clozapine producing such effects in the nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex and lateral septal nucleus. Accordingly, it was deemed possible that this approach may be useful in characterizing compounds with known or suggested antipsychotic actions. We therefore examined the effects of 17 compounds considered to be either typical, or atypical, antipsychotics on FLI in the prefrontal cortex, medial and dorsolateral striatum, nucleus accumbens and the lateral septal nucleus. Consistent with the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex may be a target for some antipsychotic actions, FLI was elevated in this structure by clozapine, ICI 204,636, fluperlapine, RMI-81,582, remoxipride, molindone, melperone and tiospirone. Likewise, the ability of all of the compounds, except for risperidone, to enhance FLI in the lateral septal nucleus suggests that this limbic region also may be an important locus of antipsychotic action. All of the compounds examined elevated FLI in the nucleus accumbens and medial striatum, indicating that potential antipsychotic activity is predicted most consistently on this basis. Neuroleptics with a clearly documented liability for producing extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) such as chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, loxapine, metoclopramide and molindone elevated FLI in the dorsolateral striatum. In contrast, compounds unlikely to produce EPS such as clozapine, thioridazine, risperidone, remoxipride, fluperlapine, sulpiride, melperone and RMI-81,582 either failed to increase or produced minor elevations in FLI in the dorsolateral striatum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7965768

  1. Identification, bioinformatics analyses, and expression of immunoreactive antigens of Mycoplasma haemofelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Santos, Andrea P

    2011-08-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis infection frequently causes anemia in cats. Despite an intense immune response and/or antibiotic treatment, cats often remain asymptomatic carriers following infection. Our hypothesis is that detection of antibodies to M. haemofelis is a sensitive approach for identifying infected cats, particularly carriers. To date, no immunoassay has been developed. This is due largely to the inability to culture M. haemofelis in vitro; hence, a source of antigen is not readily available. The objective of this study was to identify, express, and purify immunogenic proteins of M. haemofelis. To accomplish this, two whole-genomic expression libraries were created in the Lambda ZapII vector and immunoscreened with preimmune plasma, plasma from specific-pathogen-free cats, and pooled acute- and convalescent-phase plasma from experimentally infected cats. The inserts from 21 immunoreactive clones were sequenced, resulting in the identification of 60 genes coding for putative proteins necessary for diverse cellular functions, along with several novel genes of M. haemofelis. Fragments of selected genes based on bioinformatic analyses were PCR amplified, cloned into a high-level protein expression system, and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli as a His(6)-fusion protein. The recombinant fusion proteins of M. haemofelis were purified and evaluated as an antigen in a Western blot to verify the findings of previous immunoscreening. Together with bioinformatics analyses of individual genes, this approach provided several putative candidate antigens. Five antigens of M. haemofelis were reactive by Western blotting against the immune plasma and negative against nonimmune plasma; these antigens might be useful serologic or even vaccine targets. PMID:21653748

  2. Identification, Bioinformatics Analyses, and Expression of Immunoreactive Antigens of Mycoplasma haemofelis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B.; Santos, Andrea P.

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis infection frequently causes anemia in cats. Despite an intense immune response and/or antibiotic treatment, cats often remain asymptomatic carriers following infection. Our hypothesis is that detection of antibodies to M. haemofelis is a sensitive approach for identifying infected cats, particularly carriers. To date, no immunoassay has been developed. This is due largely to the inability to culture M. haemofelis in vitro; hence, a source of antigen is not readily available. The objective of this study was to identify, express, and purify immunogenic proteins of M. haemofelis. To accomplish this, two whole-genomic expression libraries were created in the Lambda ZapII vector and immunoscreened with preimmune plasma, plasma from specific-pathogen-free cats, and pooled acute- and convalescent-phase plasma from experimentally infected cats. The inserts from 21 immunoreactive clones were sequenced, resulting in the identification of 60 genes coding for putative proteins necessary for diverse cellular functions, along with several novel genes of M. haemofelis. Fragments of selected genes based on bioinformatic analyses were PCR amplified, cloned into a high-level protein expression system, and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli as a His6-fusion protein. The recombinant fusion proteins of M. haemofelis were purified and evaluated as an antigen in a Western blot to verify the findings of previous immunoscreening. Together with bioinformatics analyses of individual genes, this approach provided several putative candidate antigens. Five antigens of M. haemofelis were reactive by Western blotting against the immune plasma and negative against nonimmune plasma; these antigens might be useful serologic or even vaccine targets. PMID:21653748

  3. Loss of Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 Immunoreactivity Linked to Dendritic Spine Loss in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shelton, Micah A; Newman, Jason T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) is a neuronal protein that plays a role in maintaining dendritic structure through its interaction with microtubules. In schizophrenia (Sz), numerous studies have revealed that the typically robust immunoreactivity (IR) of MAP2 is significantly reduced across several cortical regions. The relationship between MAP2-IR reduction and lower dendritic spine density, which is frequently reported in Sz, has not been explored in previous studies, and MAP2-IR loss has not been investigated in the primary auditory cortex (Brodmann area 41), a site of conserved pathology in Sz. METHODS: Using quantitative spinning disk confocal microscopy in two cohorts of subjects with Sz and matched control subjects (Sz subjects, n = 20; control subjects, n = 20), we measured MAP2-IR and dendritic spine density and spine number in deep layer 3 of BA41. RESULTS: Subjects with Sz exhibited a significant reduction in MAP2-IR. The reductions in MAP2-IR were not associated with neuron loss, loss of MAP2 protein, clinical confounders, or technical factors. Dendritic spine density and number also were reduced in Sz and correlated with MAP2-IR. In 12 (60%) subjects with Sz, MAP2-IR values were lower than the lowest values in control subjects; only in this group were spine density and number significantly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that MAP2-IR loss is closely linked to dendritic spine pathology in Sz. Because MAP2 shares substantial sequence, regulatory, and functional homology with MAP tau, the wealth of knowledge regarding tau biology and the rapidly expanding field of tau therapeutics provide resources for identifying how MAP2 is altered in Sz and possible leads to novel therapeutics.

  4. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  5. Lack of TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity predicts effect of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients (n=647) with primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoe, Gro L.; Hertel, Pernille Bræmer; Bartels, Annette; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva; Rasmussen, Birgitte B.; Mouridsen, H T; Ejlertsen, Bent Laursen; Brunner, Nils

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: A number of prospective studies have shown that adjuvant CEF significantly improves disease-free and overall survival as compared to CMF in breast cancer patients. Our aim was to determine whether the benefit of epirubicin versus methotrexate differs according to TIMP-1 tumour cell immun...... immunoreactivity seems to predict a favourable effect of epirubicin-containing adjuvant therapy in primary breast cancer. However, an independent study is awaited to validate the potential predictive value of TIMP-1 immunoreactivity...

  6. Stereologic estimates of total spinophilin-immunoreactive spine number in area 9 and the CA1 field: relationship with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Afia; Christoffel, Daniel; Rocher, Anne B.; Bouras, Constantin; Kövari, Enikö; Perl, Daniel P; Morrison, John H.; Herrmann, François R.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Hof, Patrick R

    2007-01-01

    The loss of presynaptic markers is thought to represent a strong pathologic correlate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Spinophilin is a postsynaptic marker mainly located to the heads of dendritic spines. We assessed total numbers of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 and CA3 fields of hippocampus and area 9 in 18 elderly individuals with various degrees of cognitive decline. The decrease in spinophilin-immunoreactivity was significantly related to both Braak neurof...

  7. OPHTHALMOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  8. Adolescents' drawings of their cardiac abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, QiFeng; Hay, Margaret; Clarke, David; Menahem, Samuel

    2011-10-01

    Following advances in overall management and improved outcomes, an increasing number of adolescents with cardiac disease are reaching adult age. Patients in general, including adolescents, seem to have a poor knowledge of their illness, which may further reflect in a less optimal quality of life. As a guide to their knowledge of their cardiac condition, adolescents were asked to draw a diagram of their cardiac abnormality. Relatively well adolescents aged 12-20 years with a cardiac abnormality were consecutively recruited from an ambulatory setting. All were asked to draw a picture of their cardiac abnormality and describe their condition. A total of 120 patients were recruited and had conditions varying from a hyperplastic right ventricle to a small ventricular septal defect. Only 60 (50%) of the patients completed a drawing, of which one-third did so at the time of attendance. Nevertheless, there was no difference between the accuracy of the adolescents' drawings completed at home or at the clinic. Only three patients drew an accurate diagram of their congenital cardiac abnormality. A further nine patients drew a reasonably correct diagram, 13 patients a partially correct diagram, whereas 35 patients submitted incorrect diagrams. Adolescents with congenital cardiac disease, many having been cared for since infancy with regular cardiological reviews, had a poor anatomical knowledge of their cardiac lesion, as reflected by their inability to correctly draw their abnormality. These findings suggest the need for improved strategies in developing appropriate education programmes for this patient population. PMID:21554829

  9. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  10. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  11. Osseous temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was compared with hypocycloidal tomography in 30 joints of 15 adults with rheumatic disease. CT included 1.5 mm thick axial scans (at 1.0 mm intervals) with reformatted oblique sagittal and oblique coronal sections. Multisection (at 2.0 mm intervals) tomography included oblique sagittal and occasionally, oblique coronal sections. CT demonstrated bone abnormalities in 21 and tomography in 20 joints, indicating high agreement between the imaging modalities regarding number of abnormal TMJs. Bone structures were, however, better visualized by multiplanar CT due to superior contrast and spatial resolution particularly in the most lateral and medial parts of the joint, indicating superiority of CT for depicting subtle bony TMJ abnormalities in patients with rheumatic disease. (orig.)

  12. Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

  13. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  14. [Pathogenetical aspects of complicated abnormal renal mobility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatevosian, A S; Tonian, A G; Khalafian, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the search for topographic and anatomical factors of abnormal renal mobility that affects renal hemodynamics and determines complicated course of nephroptosis. Comparative evaluation of hemodynamics in patients with chronic pyelonephritis and symptomatic hypertension in abnormal renal mobility depending on the distribution on the degree of rotation and skeletotopic omission of kidney was performed. According to the data of frequency analysis and correspondence analysis of Statistics 6.0 program, it was determined that kidney rotated in three dimensions, and mainly in II degree descent kidney in study group. It was found that consistent multiple view scanning of patients with abnormal renal mobility allows to accurately assess the violations of tissue blood flow, which determine severity of complications of the disease, and to choose an adequate conservative and surgical treatment in each case. PMID:23789359

  15. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients diagnosed as primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) using conventional karyotyping. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Clinical Laboratory, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January 2006 - June 2012. Methodology: Patients of all ages and either gender who fulfilled WHO criteria for MDS were included. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted at the time of diagnosis. Patients who had secondary MDS were excluded from analysis. Chromosome identification and karyotype description was done according to the International System for Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN, 1995) and described as frequency percentage. Results: Out of the 122 cases of MDS, 71 patients had their karyotype done at the time of diagnosis, including 42 males (59.2%) and 29 females (40.8%) with median age of 60 years. Forty one (57.7%) showed normal karyotype and 30 (42.3%) showed clonal karyotypic abnormalities at diagnosis. Out of which 14 (19.7%) had single, 11 (15.5%) had complex and 6 (8.5%) had double cytogenetic abnormalities. The common abnormalities found were: trisomy 8 in 7 cases (9.9%), -7/del (7q) in 3 cases (4.2%), -Y and complex 5q in 2 cases (2.8%) each, complex trisomy 8, del 11q , inversion 9, trisomy 19 and del 20q were found in 1 case (1.4%) each. Other abnormalities were found in 11 cases (15.5%). Conclusion: Trisomy 8 was the most common disorder/abnormality found in this study population followed by the complex cytogenetics. (author)

  16. [Abnormal hemoglobins and thalassemias in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Reyes, G

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of abnormal hemoglobins in Mexico is derived from surveys and from the study of patients with hemolytic anemia. In aboriginal populations, more than 3,000 individuals have been studied: structural abnormal hemoglobins are virtually absent in Mexican Indians and the sporadic finding of hemoglobin S among them is due to admixture with Africans brought as slaves during the Spanish domination; two new variants of hemoglobin (Mexico and Chiapas) were found in aborigines. The surveys in hybrid groups in selected areas of the country show that in some West and East Coast communities there are different frequencies of Hb S heterozygous, and that a high prevalence of Hb S trait has been found in some communities similar to that in some African areas. In a group of 200 subjects of a town located along the Gulf of Mexico Coast, 6% of Hb S and 15% of thalassemia beta heterozygous is observed. In hospital surveys in two cities (Guadalajara and Puebla) several abnormalities of hemoglobin have been identified (C, SC, Riyadh, Baltimore, Tarrant, Fannin-Lubbock and Mexico). In the study of isolated cases, mainly of patients with hemolytic anemia, hemoglobins I-Philadelphia, G-San Jose and D-Los Angeles are seen. The thalassemias are the more frequent hemoglobin abnormalities in selected populations of our country. In a community of Italian ancestry a frequency of 1.3% of beta thalassemia trait is found. In our laboratory, 76% of the abnormalities are cases of beta thalassemia trait. Patients with Hb H disease, beta thalassemia (homozygous and heterozygous) and combinations of these abnormalities with hemoglobins S, Hb S + hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and Hb E as well as families with delta-beta thalassemia, HPFH and Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston have been also detected. PMID:9658939

  17. Distribution of serotonin-immunoreactivity in the brain of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet, E; Miceli, D; Pierre, J; Repérant, J; Masicotte, G; Herbin, M; Vesselkin, N P

    1996-03-01

    The distribution of serotonin (5-HT)-containing perikarya, fibers and terminals in the brain of the pigeon (Columba livia) was investigated, using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence methods combined with retrograde axonal transport. Twenty-one different groups of 5-HT immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified, 2 of which were localized at the hypothalamic level (periventricular organ, infundibular recess) and 19 at the tegmental-mesencephalic and rhombencephalic levels. Ten of the cell groups were situated within the region of the midline from the isthmic to the posterior rhombencephalic level and constituted the raphe system (nucleus annularis, decussatio brachium conjunctivum, area ventralis, external border of the nucleus interpeduncularis, zona peri-nervus oculomotorius, zona perifasciculus longitudinalis medialis, zona inter-flm, nucleus linearis caudalis, nucleus raphe superior pars ventralis, nucleus raphe inferior). The 9 other cell populations belonged to the lateral group and extended from the posterior mesencephalic tegmentum to the caudal rhombencephalon [formatio reticularis mesencephali, nucleus ventrolateralis tegmenti, ectopic area (Ec) of the nucleus isthmo-opticus (NIO), nucleus subceruleus, nucleus ceruleus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, nucleus vestibularis medialis, nucleus reticularis parvocellularis and nucleus reticularis magnocellularis]. Combining the retrograde axonal transport of rhodamine beta-isothiocyanate (RITC) after intraocular injection and immunohistofluorescence (fluoresceine isothiocyanate: FITC/5-HT) showed the centrifugal neurons (NIO, Ec) to be immunonegative. Serotonin-IR fibers and terminals were found to be very broadly distributed within the brain and were particularly prominent in several structures of the telencephalon (archistriatum pars dorsalis, nucleus taeniae, area parahippocampalis, septum), diencephalon (nuclei preopticus medianus, magnocellularis, nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis, nucleus triangularis, nucleus pretectalis), mesencephalon-rhombencephalon (superficial layers of the optic tectum, nucleus ectomamillaris, nucleus isthmo-opticus and in most of the cranial nerve nuclei). Comparing the present results with those of previous studies in birds suggests some major serotonin-containing pathways in the avian brain and clarifies the possible origin of the serotonin innervation of some parts of the brain. Moreover, comparing our results in birds with those obtained in other vertebrate species shows that the organization of the serotoninergic system in many regions of the avian brain is much like that found in reptiles and mammals. PMID:8881471

  18. Behavioral alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIANA LE, SUEUR-MALUF; MILENA B., VIANA; MÁRCIA R., NAGAOKA; ANA LAURA B., AMORIM; AMANDA N., CARDOSO; BRUNA C., RODRIGUES; NATÁLIA F., MENDES; JACKSON C., BITTENCOURT; ISABEL C., CÉSPEDES.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Encefalopatia hepática (HE) engloba uma variedade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, incluindo ansiedade e disfunção psicomotora. Embora seja uma complicação frequente da cirrose hepática, os substratos neurobiológicos responsáveis por suas manifestações clínicas são em grande parte desconhecidos. No [...] presente estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico de ligação e secção do ducto biliar (BDL; bile-duct ligation), para indução da cirrose hepática e, no 21º dia após a cirurgia, submetidos aos testes comportamentais no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e campo aberto para avaliação da ansiedade e atividade locomotora. A análise da imunorreatividade à proteína Fos (Fos-ir) foi utilizada para melhor compreender as alterações neurobiológicas presentes nos animais do grupo BDL. Foi realizada a quantificação da concentração de amônia plasmática e análise histopatológica dos fígados. Os ratos do grupo BDL mostraram diminuição significativa na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos do LCE, caracterizando efeito ansiogênico. Estes animais também apresentaram redução significativa na Fos-ir no núcleo septal lateral e núcleo medial da amígdala. A concentração plasmática de amônia foi significativamente mais elevada que a do grupo sham e o diagnóstico de cirrose foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. Estes resultados indicam que o modelo de HE induzido por BDL induz efeito ansiogênico possivelmente relacionado à ativação de circuitos mediadores da ansiedade e à hiperamonemia. Abstract in english Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction. Although HE is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, the neurobiological substrates responsible for its clinical manifestations are largely unclear. In the present stu [...] dy, male Wistar rats were bile duct-ligated (BDL), a procedure which induces liver cirrhosis, and on the 21st day after surgery tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in an open field for anxiety and locomotor activity measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to better understand the neurobiological alterations present in BDL animals. Plasma levels of ammonia were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed. BDL rats showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the EPM, an anxiogenic effect. These animals also presented significant decreases in Fos-ir in the lateral septal nucleus and medial amygdalar nucleus. Their ammonia plasma levels were significantly higher when compared to the sham group and the diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that the BDL model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

  19. Behavioral alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIANA LE, SUEUR-MALUF; MILENA B., VIANA; MÁRCIA R., NAGAOKA; ANA LAURA B., AMORIM; AMANDA N., CARDOSO; BRUNA C., RODRIGUES; NATÁLIA F., MENDES; JACKSON C., BITTENCOURT; ISABEL C., CÉSPEDES.

    Full Text Available A Encefalopatia hepática (HE) engloba uma variedade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, incluindo ansiedade e disfunção psicomotora. Embora seja uma complicação frequente da cirrose hepática, os substratos neurobiológicos responsáveis por suas manifestações clínicas são em grande parte desconhecidos. No [...] presente estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico de ligação e secção do ducto biliar (BDL; bile-duct ligation), para indução da cirrose hepática e, no 21º dia após a cirurgia, submetidos aos testes comportamentais no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e campo aberto para avaliação da ansiedade e atividade locomotora. A análise da imunorreatividade à proteína Fos (Fos-ir) foi utilizada para melhor compreender as alterações neurobiológicas presentes nos animais do grupo BDL. Foi realizada a quantificação da concentração de amônia plasmática e análise histopatológica dos fígados. Os ratos do grupo BDL mostraram diminuição significativa na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos do LCE, caracterizando efeito ansiogênico. Estes animais também apresentaram redução significativa na Fos-ir no núcleo septal lateral e núcleo medial da amígdala. A concentração plasmática de amônia foi significativamente mais elevada que a do grupo sham e o diagnóstico de cirrose foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. Estes resultados indicam que o modelo de HE induzido por BDL induz efeito ansiogênico possivelmente relacionado à ativação de circuitos mediadores da ansiedade e à hiperamonemia. Abstract in english Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction. Although HE is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, the neurobiological substrates responsible for its clinical manifestations are largely unclear. In the present stu [...] dy, male Wistar rats were bile duct-ligated (BDL), a procedure which induces liver cirrhosis, and on the 21st day after surgery tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in an open field for anxiety and locomotor activity measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to better understand the neurobiological alterations present in BDL animals. Plasma levels of ammonia were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed. BDL rats showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the EPM, an anxiogenic effect. These animals also presented significant decreases in Fos-ir in the lateral septal nucleus and medial amygdalar nucleus. Their ammonia plasma levels were significantly higher when compared to the sham group and the diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that the BDL model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

  20. Calcium-binding Protein Calretinin Immunoreactivity in the Dog Superior Colliculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied calretinin-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and cells in the canine superior colliculus (SC) and studied the distribution and effect of enucleation on the distribution of this protein. Localization of calretinin was immunocytochemically observed. A dense plexus of anti-calretinin-IR fibers was found within the upper part of the superficial gray layer (SGL). Almost all of the labeled fibers were small in diameter with few varicosities. The intermediate and deep layers contained many calretinin-IR neurons. Labeled neurons within the intermediate gray layer (IGL) formed clusters in many sections. By contrast, labeled neurons in the deep gray layer (DGL) did not form clusters. Calretinin-IR neurons in the IGL and DGL varied in morphology and included round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, and horizontal neurons. Neurons with varicose dendrites were also labeled in the IGL. Most of the labeled neurons were small to medium in size. Monocular enucleation produced an almost complete reduction of calretinin-IR fibers in the SC contralateral to the enucleation. However, many calretinin-IR cells appeared in the contralateral superficial SC. Enucleation appeared to have no effect on the distribution of calretinin-IR neurons in the contralateral intermediate and deep layers of the SC. The calretinin-IR neurons in the superficial dog SC were heterogeneous small- to medium-sized neurons including round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, pyriform, and horizontal in shape. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that no cells in the dog SC expressed both calretinin and GABA. Many horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled retinal ganglion cells were seen after injections into the superficial layers. The vast majority of the double-labeled cells (HRP and calretinin) were small cells. The present results indicate that antibody to calretinin labels subpopulations of neurons in the dog SC, which do not express GABA. The results also suggest that the calretinin-IR afferents in the superficial layers of the dog SC originate from small class retinal ganglion cells. The expression of calretinin might be changed by the cellular activity of selective superficial collicular neurons. These results are valuable in delineating the basic neurochemical architecture of the dog visual system

  1. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature is...... found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness....

  2. RARE CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Schanz; Friederike Braulke; Detlef Haase

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or –Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R considers also some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 1...

  3. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or ?Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 1...

  4. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  5. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Rygaard, Carsten; Hallas, Jesper; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil...

  6. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  7. Localisation of NG2 immunoreactive neuroglia cells in the rat locus coeruleus and their plasticity in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobus Van Der Want

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus (LC nucleus modulates adaptive behavioural responses to stress and dysregulation of LC neuronal activity is implicated in stress-induced mental illnesses. The LC is composed primarily of noradrenergic neurons together with various glial populations. A neuroglia cell-type largely unexplored within the LC is the NG2 cell. NG2 cells serve primarily as oligodendrocyte precursor cells throughout the brain. However, some NG2 cells are in synaptic contact with neurons suggesting a role in information processing. The aim of this study was to neurochemically and anatomically characterise NG2 cells within the rat LC. Furthermore, since NG2 cells have been shown to proliferate in response to traumatic brain injury, we investigated whether such NG2 cells plasticity also occurs in response to emotive insults such as stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that NG2 cells were enriched within the pontine region occupied by the LC. Close inspection revealed that a sub-population of NG2 cells were located within unique indentations of LC noradrenergic somata and were immunoreactive for the neuronal marker NeuN whilst NG2 cell processes formed close appositions with clusters immunoreactive for the inhibitory synaptic marker proteins gephyrin and the GABA-A receptor alpha3-subunit, on noradrenergic dendrites. In addition, LC NG2 cell processes were decorated with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 immunoreactive puncta. Finally, ten days of repeated restraint stress significantly increased the density of NG2 cells within the LC. The study demonstrates that NG2 IR cells are integral components of the LC cellular network and they exhibit plasticity as a result of emotive challenges.

  8. Distribution and densitometry mapping of L1-CAM Immunoreactivity in the adult mouse brain – light microscopic observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki Hironobu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in mouse brain might provide a basis for understanding its role in the brain. Results We examined the overall distribution of L1 in the adult mouse brain by immunohistochemistry using two polyclonal antibodies against different epitopes for L1. Immunoreactive L1 was widely but unevenly distributed from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical cord. The accumulation of immunoreactive L1 was greatest in a non-neuronal element of the major fibre bundles, i.e. the lateral olfactory tract, olfactory and temporal limb of the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, stria terminalis, globus pallidus, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, solitary tract, and spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. High to highest levels of non-neuronal and neuronal L1 were found in the grey matter; i.e. the piriform and entorhinal cortices, hypothalamus, reticular part of the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, trigeminal spinal nucleus etc. High to moderate density of neuronal L1 was found in the olfactory bulb, layer V of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, pontine grey, superior colliculi, cerebellar cortex, solitary tract nucleus etc. Only low to lowest levels of neuronal L1 were found in the hippocampus, grey matter in the caudate-putamen, thalamus, cerebellar nuclei etc. Conclusion L1 is widely and unevenly distributed in the matured mouse brain, where immunoreactivity was present not only in neuronal elements; axons, synapses and cell soma, but also in non-neuronal elements.

  9. Serotonin immunoreactive interneurons in the brain of the Remipedia: new insights into the phylogenetic affinities of an enigmatic crustacean taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stemme Torben

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remipedia, a group of homonomously segmented, cave-dwelling, eyeless arthropods have been regarded as basal crustaceans in most early morphological and taxonomic studies. However, molecular sequence information together with the discovery of a highly differentiated brain led to a reconsideration of their phylogenetic position. Various conflicting hypotheses have been proposed including the claim for a basal position of Remipedia up to a close relationship with Malacostraca or Hexapoda. To provide new morphological characters that may allow phylogenetic insights, we have analyzed the architecture of the remipede brain in more detail using immunocytochemistry (serotonin, acetylated α-tubulin, synapsin combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. This approach allows for a comprehensive neuroanatomical comparison with other crustacean and hexapod taxa. Results The dominant structures of the brain are the deutocerebral olfactory neuropils, which are linked by the olfactory globular tracts to the protocerebral hemiellipsoid bodies. The olfactory globular tracts form a characteristic chiasm in the center of the brain. In Speleonectes tulumensis, each brain hemisphere contains about 120 serotonin immunoreactive neurons, which are distributed in distinct cell groups supplying fine, profusely branching neurites to 16 neuropilar domains. The olfactory neuropil comprises more than 300 spherical olfactory glomeruli arranged in sublobes. Eight serotonin immunoreactive neurons homogeneously innervate the olfactory glomeruli. In the protocerebrum, serotonin immunoreactivity revealed several structures, which, based on their position and connectivity resemble a central complex comprising a central body, a protocerebral bridge, W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts, and lateral accessory lobes. Conclusions The brain of Remipedia shows several plesiomorphic features shared with other Mandibulata, such as deutocerebral olfactory neuropils with a glomerular organization, innervations by serotonin immunoreactive interneurons, and connections to protocerebral neuropils. Also, we provided tentative evidence for W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts in the remipedian central complex like in the brain of Malacostraca, and Hexapoda. Furthermore, Remipedia display several synapomorphies with Malacostraca supporting a sister group relationship between both taxa. These homologies include a chiasm of the olfactory globular tract, which connects the olfactory neuropils with the lateral protocerebrum and the presence of hemiellipsoid bodies. Even though a growing number of molecular investigations unites Remipedia and Cephalocarida, our neuroanatomical comparison does not provide support for such a sister group relationship.

  10. Immunoreactive inhibin-like material in serum and gastric juice of patients with benign and malignant diseases of the stomach.

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, S. A.; Sheth, A. R.; Nanivadekar, S. A.; Sheth, N. A.

    1985-01-01

    Immunoreactive inhibin-like material (ILM) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and gastric juice samples of 23 fasting normal men, 27 men with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), and 21 men with carcinoma of stomach (5 for gastric analysis). Serum ILM levels in carcinoma of stomach patients (367 +/- 55.5 ng ml-1) were significantly higher than in normal men (15.4 +/- 2.6 ng ml-1; P less than 0.01) and in patients with CSG (109.8 +/- 17.7 ng ml-1; P less than 0.05). Sixty two per ...

  11. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  12. An abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abnormal secretion of plasma human growth hormore (hGH) and insulin in 67 acromegalic patients had been previously treated by external pituitary radiation were studied. All subjects, following an overnight fast, a standard 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, were performed and venous blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. They were measured for blood glucose, plasma insulin and hGH. The results of this study have shown that, of the 67 subjects, 23 cases had an abnormal glucose tolerance(34.32%). Diabetes was detected in 17 cases (23.37%) and 6 patients had decreased glucose tolerance(8.69%). In all, hGH levels were consistantly above 5 ng/ml and were not suppressed after an oral glucose load. In these patients, however, about one-third had abnormal glucose tolerance. Low plasma insulin response to glucose and that of the releasing were evident in them than the normal glucose tolerance and a healthy control group. In addition, the mechanism of the abnormal secretion of hGH and insulin were disscussed

  13. Abnormal Events for Emergency Trip in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Guk Hun; Choi, M. J.; Park, S. I.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, S. J.; Park, J. H.; Kwon, I. C

    2006-12-15

    This report gathers abnormal events related to emergency trip of HANARO that happened during its operation over 10 years since the first criticality on February 1995. The collected examples will be utilized to the HANARO's operators as a useful guide.

  14. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  15. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  16. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  17. Reversible splenial abnormality in hypoglycemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesions involving the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have been rarely reported in cases of hypoglycemic brain injury. We identified signal abnormalities in the SCC in three adult patients with hypoglycemic encephalopathy by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 1.5-T MR scanner. Repeat DWI was performed in all patients following a marked clinical improvement, and MR angiography and routine MRI were also performed. We examined each patient's detailed medical history and blood laboratory tests in order to exclude other conditions causing similar SCC abnormalities. Initial DWI was performed during which each patient showed altered mental status that was attributed to profound hypoglycemia. We observed an identical pattern of DWI abnormality characterized by high signals in the SCC with apparent diffusion coefficient reductions that were reversed completely within several days following appropriate correction of hypoglycemia. T2-weighted or FLAIR images also showed no residual lesion in the SCC and MR angiography was normal in all patients. These case reports suggest that the SCC should be added to the list of selective vulnerability to hypoglycemia and that hypoglycemia, in turn, be included in the differential diagnosis of reversible SCC abnormalities. (orig.)

  18. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  19. Abnormal Lobulation in a Dogs Right Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Serbest

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an abnormal lobulation of right lung, observed in a 3-4 years old, female Kangal dog was reported. The cranial lobe was found to be in two parts by means of an accessory fissure.

  20. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav BjØrn; David, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis and outcome were reviewed. Results: Of the 370 cases identified, 31.6% were associated with spinabifida (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I-cell disease, Muenke craniosynostosis and two with an as yet undefined craniosynostosis syndrome. Overall, 16.5 % had an underlying genetic syndrome. Conclusions: Abnormal fetal head shape may be a normal variant, but is commonly associated with a wide variety of underlying pathologies. In view of the high incidence of genetic syndromes, in the absence of a clear diagnosis, referral to a tertiary centre and genetic input is advised as detection of subtle sonographic features may aid diagnosis, allowing for targeted molecular analysis. An algorithm for management will be proposed.

  1. Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  2. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES. METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%. Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%, abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%, prominent occiput (52%, posteriorly rotated (46% and low set ears (44%, and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%. Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%, orofacial clefts (12%, preauricular tags (10%, facial palsy (4%, encephalocele (4%, absence of external auditory canal (2% and asymmetric face (2%. One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature.

  3. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise; Chitty, Lyn S

    2007-01-01

    , I-cell disease, Muenke craniosynostosis and two with an as yet undefined craniosynostosis syndrome. Overall, 16.5 % had an underlying genetic syndrome. Conclusions: Abnormal fetal head shape may be a normal variant, but is commonly associated with a wide variety of underlying pathologies. In view of...

  4. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  5. Reversible splenial abnormality in hypoglycemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Choi, Jeong Yoon; Koh, Seong-Beom [Korea University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Younghen [Korea University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Ansan City (Korea)

    2007-03-15

    Lesions involving the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have been rarely reported in cases of hypoglycemic brain injury. We identified signal abnormalities in the SCC in three adult patients with hypoglycemic encephalopathy by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 1.5-T MR scanner. Repeat DWI was performed in all patients following a marked clinical improvement, and MR angiography and routine MRI were also performed. We examined each patient's detailed medical history and blood laboratory tests in order to exclude other conditions causing similar SCC abnormalities. Initial DWI was performed during which each patient showed altered mental status that was attributed to profound hypoglycemia. We observed an identical pattern of DWI abnormality characterized by high signals in the SCC with apparent diffusion coefficient reductions that were reversed completely within several days following appropriate correction of hypoglycemia. T2-weighted or FLAIR images also showed no residual lesion in the SCC and MR angiography was normal in all patients. These case reports suggest that the SCC should be added to the list of selective vulnerability to hypoglycemia and that hypoglycemia, in turn, be included in the differential diagnosis of reversible SCC abnormalities. (orig.)

  6. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  7. Transdifferentiation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells into Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactive Cells Associated with Angiogenesis in Parkinsonian Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Haji Ghasem Kashani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is an attempt to examine the transdifferentiation of bone marrowstromal cells (BMSCs into tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells in parkinsonian ratsassociated with angiogenesis.Materials and Methods: In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral stereotaxicinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA into the left corpus striatum and then weredivided into two groups. One group, the negative control, received only medium while theother group was treated with BMSCs. BMSCs were harvested from femur bones, labeledwith bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and then transplanted into parkinsonian rats, where a behavioralstudy and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the treatment.Results: The results showed statistically significant improvement in rotational behavior.Anti-BrdU antibody showed engraftment of the transplanted cells at the transplantationsite. Additionally, double immunolabeling confirmed that these cells were positive for neurofilament-200 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH.Conclusion: It may be concluded that BMSCs transplants could engraft and differentiateinto TH immunoreactive cells which may cause recovery from motor deficits. Also, BMSCsmay contribute to angiogenesis at the transplantation site.

  8. Proliferative enteropathy (PE: Induced changes in galanin-like immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system of the porcine distal colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonkowski S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of galanin (GAL like immonoreactivity in the porcine descending colon during proliferative entheropathy (PE. Accordingly, the distribution pattern of GAL - like immunoreactive (GAL-LI nerve structures was studied by the immunofluorescence technique in the circular muscle layer, myenteric (MP, outer submucous (OSP and inner submucous plexuses (ISP, as well as in the mucosal layer of the porcine descending colon under physiological conditions and during PE. In control animals GAL-LI perikarya have been shown to constitute 4.03 ± 0.1%, 6.67 ± 0.3% and 11.20 ± 0.5% in MP, OSP and ISP, respectively. PE caused changes in the GAL - like immunoreactivity, which differed in particular parts of the studied bowel segment. During PE the number of GAL-LI perikarya amounted to 2.90±0.5%, 8.42±1.0% and 21.72±1,4% within the MP, OSP and ISP, respectively. Moreover PE caused an increase in the number of GAL-LI nerve fibers in the colonic circular muscle and mucosal layers, as well as in all intramural plexuses, especially in ISP, where nearly every ganglion contained a very dense meshwork of the GAL-positive nerve fibers under the studied pathological factor. This study for the first time reports on changes in GAL-LI nerve structures of the porcine descending colon during Lawsonia intracellularis infection.

  9. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of Crustacea: a character to study aspects of arthropod phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzsch, S; Waloszek, D

    2000-01-01

    The number of serotonin-expressing neurons in the nervous system of Euarthropoda is small and their neurites have a characteristic branching pattern. They can be identified individually, which provides a character well suited for phylogenetic analyses. In order to gain data that may be useful in the ongoing discussion on insect-crustacean relationships, we documented the pattern of serotonin immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of four crustacean species: the phyllocarid malacostracan Nebalia bipes Fabricius, 1780 (Phyllocarida, Leptostraca) and the entomostracans Artemia salina Linnaeus, 1758 (Branchiopoda, Anostraca, Sarsostraca), Triops cancriformis Bosc, 1801 (Branchiopoda, Phyllopoda, Calmanostraca, Notostraca), and Leptestheria dahalacensis Rüppell, 1837 (Branchiopoda, Phyllopoda, Diplostraca, Conchostraca, Spinicaudata). In the entomostracan taxa investigated, the pattern of serotonergic cells in the thoracic hemiganglia comprises an anterior and a posterior bilateral pair of neurons with ipsi- and/or contralateral neurites. Comparing these data to existing information on serotonin-immunoreactivity in the ventral nerve cord of other malacostracan and entomostracan groups enabled us to determine several features of these thoracic neurons being part of the ground pattern of these taxa. Our data demonstrate that studying individually identifiable neurons in Arthropoda can be used to analyse the phylogeny of this taxon. PMID:18088936

  10. Development of paraventricular nucleus (PVN associated with immuno-reactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the second half of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babovi? Siniša S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this stady was to shed more light on the developmental characteristics of human paraventricular nucleus (PVN and hypothalamus in general, using modern immunohistochemical techniques to detect the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the synthesis of catecholamine (CA. Fetal brains were examined at 12, 16, 20 and 23 weeks gestation. Immunohistochemical staining used for sections is a qualitative method for detection and distribution of the chosen protein. The amplification of positive signals was cared out using AVIDIN/BIOTIN technique. The first positive results were obtained at 16th week of gestation and immunoreactivity grew with the advancement of gestation and that there was no homogenisation of immunoreactivity in some parts of the nucleus. The PVN showed to be an oval formation, nearly parallel with the lateral wall of the 3 rd cerebral ventricle, where the upper apex of the nucleus is situated closer to the ependymal ventricular layer. There was an ascendant dorsal movement of the nucleus in the embryonic phase of hypothalamus development.

  11. Fibrinogen Excretion in the Urine and Immunoreactivity in the Kidney Serves as a Translational Biomarker for Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dana; Bijol, Vanesa; Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Gonzalez, Victoria R.; Frendl, Gyorgy; Zhang, Qin; Goering, Peter L.; Brown, Ronald P.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Vaidya, Vishal S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrinogen (Fg) is significantly up-regulated in the kidney after acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated the performance of Fg as a biomarker for early detection of AKI. In rats and mice with kidney tubular damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or cisplatin administration, respectively; kidney tissue and urinary Fg increased significantly and correlated with histopathological injury, urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG) corresponding to the progression and regression of injury temporally. In a longitudinal follow-up of 31 patients who underwent surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, urinary Fg increased earlier than SCr in patients who developed postoperative AKI (AUC-ROC = 0.72). Furthermore, in a cohort of patients with biopsy-proven AKI (n = 53), Fg immunoreactivity in the tubules and interstitium increased remarkably and was able to distinguish patients with AKI from those without AKI (n = 59). These results suggest that immunoreactivity of Fg in the kidney, as well as urinary excretion of Fg, serves as a sensitive and early diagnostic translational biomarker for detection of AKI. PMID:22819533

  12. Immunoreactivity of monoclonal anti-melanoma antibodies in relation to the amount of radioactive iodine substituted to the antibody molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzku, S.; Kirchgessner, H.; Dippold, W.G.; Brueggen, J.

    1985-11-01

    The damage to monoclonal anti-melanoma antibodies caused by iodination was investigated by comparing the results obtained using the chloramine-T method and the 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3..cap alpha..,6..cap alpha..-diphenyl-glycoluril (IODOGEN) method at different levels of iodine substitution to the molecule. The level of substitution at which losses in immunoreactivity occurred were evaluated in each monoclonal antibody (MAb) studied. This phenomenon was not dependent on the method of substitution, provided that mild conditions of reaction were used. Lineweaver-Burk plots and - in cases of alterations in binding affinity - Scatchard plots were found to provide an adequate description of the binding behaviour of individual MAbs after labelling. Immunoreactivity was shown to be determined not only by the proportion of bona fide reactive MAb molecules, but also by a substitution-dependent decrease in affinity constants. The practical consequences of altered binding parameters were demonstrated by quantitating specific antibodyaccumulation in melanoma transplants in vivo.

  13. Abnormal grain growth in TD-nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the coarse grain transformation occurring in TD-nickel 1 in. bar under certain conditions of deformation and annealing were examined. The transformation exhibits Avrami-type kinetics, with an activation energy of 250 kcal per mole. Characteristics of untransformed regions are like those of the as-received state. The transformed grain size increases with increasing deformation and decreasing annealing temperature. The coarse grain transformation is significantly different from primary recrystallization in pure nickel. Its characteristics cannot be rationalized in terms of primary recrystallization concepts, but may be explained in terms of an abnormal grain growth description. The coarse grain transformation in TD-nickel is abnormal grain growth rather than primary recrystallization. The analysis suggests an explanation for the effect of thermomechanical history on the deformation and annealing behavior of TD-nickel.

  14. Embalse NGS: Abnormal event procedures development lifecycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present used philosophy in Canada and in Atucha Nuclear Generating Station (Argentina) it was decided to develop the Abnormal Event Procedures (EOP's) in a logical diagram format. The EOP's have in general two parts: the diagnosis and the operative action to mitigate the event. Some serious incidents can be resolved by the EOP's, but the philosophy is first, to satisfy the EOP's requirements. Taking into account the operating experience, the Final Safety Report and the results of simulations done by appropriate codes, it was possible to obtain the corresponding sequence for each abnormal event. With the information available in the Control Room (windows, alarms, trends, etc) for each part of the EOP's was associated the instrumentation that the operator must observe. 3 figs

  15. Trace element abnormalities in chronic uremia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the elemental composition of autopsy tissue samples to characterize the trace element changes induced in various human tissues by uremia. Samples from the United States and Australia, including those from 120 uremic patients who had been on dialysis, 29 uremic patients who had not been on dialysis, and 64 control subjects, were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence. Tissues analyzed were aorta, bone, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and spleen; elements measured included potassium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, bromine, rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin, and uranium. Uremic abnormalities that were statistically very significant were found, including increases of calcium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, and tin and decreases of potassium and rubidium. The distribution of iron, copper, and zinc are altered. We conclude that these abnormalities are primarily the result of the uremia and that, generally, they are neither greatly moderated nor exacerbated by the dialysis procedure

  16. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Rygaard, Carsten; Hallas, Jesper; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National...... cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...

  17. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Rygaard, Carsten; Hallas, Jesper; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...... the "before" to the "after" period. This increase was significantly higher for exposed than non-exposed women regarding contacts to GP, admissions to hospitals, and drug use. CONCLUSION: Women with abnormal cytology results constitute a selected group with a higher health care use than other women...

  18. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. [Major risk factors of glucose metabolism abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnikova, I V; Dreval', A V; Barsukov, I A; Dzebisashvili, T G

    2011-01-01

    Using the data of population base study of adult residents of 2 districts of Moscow Region (2638 persons), prevalence is studied and influence on occurrence of glucose metabolism abnormalities of major risk factors is estimated. Influence of risk factors was estimated with Cox regression analyses. High prevalence undiagnosed glucose metabolism abnormalities among persons (24,9%) is taped; it is established that relative risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 significantly raised at persons is more than 50 years of age independently of BMI, at the same time first-degree obesity increased relative risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 in 4,3 times and third-degree obesity--in 9,0 times independently of age. PMID:22232886

  1. MRI appearances of Muellerian duct abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerian duct abnormalities are a well-documented cause of sub-fertility, and in some cases can be successfully treated in order to preserve fertility and prevent complications. In this paper we review the various types of anomaly and present their appearances as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI provides an excellent, non-invasive method of differentiating between the different types of anomaly and defining their suitability for surgical treatment

  2. Abnormal right ventricular relaxation in pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Murch, Stuart D.; La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J.; Prior, David L; MacIsaac, Andrew I.; Burns, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected P...

  3. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The cent...

  4. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  5. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip join can be measured by means of computed tomography. (Auth.)

  6. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  7. Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    POWELL, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to an...

  8. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnorma...

  9. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  10. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr V. Popovych; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIn the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation fo...

  11. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr V. Popovych; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brai...

  12. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Aaron J. Kaye; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate the...

  13. Abnormal Selective Attention in Psychopathic Female Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Vitale, Jennifer E.; Brinkley, Chad A.; Hiatt, Kristina D.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Research on psychopathy in women has generated equivocal laboratory findings. This study examined the performance of psychopathic women in 2 laboratory tasks designed to assess abnormal selective attention associated with response modulation deficits: a computerized picture–word (PW) task, and a picture–word Stroop (PW Stroop) task. Consistent with data from psychopathic men, women receiving high scores on the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (Hare, 1991) displayed reduced Stroop interference on...

  14. Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

  15. Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21111574

  16. Thalamic shape abnormalities in antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Danivas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia states abnormal pruning as one of the pathogenetic mechanism in schizophrenia. Though thalamic volume abnormalities have been documented, the shape differences of thalamus in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia in comparison with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers need validation. Materials and Methods: We examined antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia patients ( n=60 and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers ( n=44. The thalamic shape abnormalities were analyzed from their coded structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using three-dimensional automated image analysis software, FMRIB?s (Oxford Center for the functional MRI of the brain tools-FIRST (FMRIB?s Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool by creating deformable mesh model. Correlation with the psychopathology scores was carried out using F-statistics. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed significant inward deformations in the regions corresponding to anterior, ventromedial, mediodorsal, and pulvinar nuclei. There was a direct correlation between negative syndrome score and the deformation in the right mediodorsal and right pulvinar nuclei. Conclusion: The inward deformations of thalamus in antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients correspond to those nuclei which have reciprocal connections with frontal, superior temporal, and anterior cingulate regions and support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  17. Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, W -X

    2013-01-01

    We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. We further investigate the dynamics of volatility, trading volume, average trade size and turnover around the transactions associated with the abnormal motifs for large, medium and small trades. It is found that these variables peak at the abnormal events and exhibit a power-law accumulation in the pre-event time period and a power-law relaxation in the post-event period. We also find that the cumulative excess returns are significantly positive after buyer-initiated suspicious trades and exhibit a mild price reversal afte...

  18. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2010-02-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neurone function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation in both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  19. [Hematologic abnormalities in infantile visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchene, S; Braham, N; Bouatay, A; Hizem, S; Berriri, S; Eljemai, A; Boughamoura, L; Kortas, M

    2015-11-01

    The clinical and biological manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis are often confusing, most particularly because it can mimic and lead to a variety of hematological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the hematologic abnormalities observed in infantile visceral leishmaniasis from January 2000 and December 2013. The study included 35 children with a mean age of 3.5 years. Clinical manifestations were dominated by splenomegaly, fever, and paleness, defining the classic triad in 16% of our patients. Anemia was present in all patients. Leukopenia was found in 51% of the cases. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 48% of our patients and 36% had pancytopenia. All cases were confirmed by the presence of Leishman bodies (amastigotes) in the bone marrow smears. Quantitative and qualitative megakaryocyte abnormalities were found. Similarly, dysgranulopoiesis was observed in 31% of the cases, eosinophilia was present in 6%, erythroid hypoplasia in 3%, and erythroid hyperplasia in 34%. Different features of dyserythropoiesis were revealed in 71% of the patients with images of hemophagocytosis in 6% and multiple dysplasias in 9%. The knowledge of these hematological abnormalities associated with infantile visceral leishmaniasis can assist us in searching for Leishman bodies in the bone marrow smears to provide a diagnosis more quickly without necessarily resorting to more sophisticated tests. PMID:26433577

  20. Detecting Abnormal Behaviors in Crowded Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin P. Popoola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational awareness is a basic function of the human visual system, which is attracting a lot of research attention in machine vision and related research communities. There is an increasing demand for smarter video surveillance of public and private space using intelligent vision systems which can distinguish what is semantically meaningful to the human observer as ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behaviors. In this study we propose a novel robust behavior descriptor for encoding the intrinsic local and global behavior signatures in crowded scenes. Crowd scenes transitioning from normal to abnormal behaviors such as “rush”, “scatter” and “herding” were modeled and detected. The descriptor uses features that encode both local and global signatures of crowd interactions. Bayesian topic modeling is used to capture the intrinsic structure of atomic activity in the video frames and used to detect the transition from normal to abnormal behavior. Experimental results and analysis of the proposed framework on two publicly available crowd behavior datasets show the effectiveness of this method compared to other methods for anomaly detection in crowds with a very good detection accuracy rates.

  1. Abnormality monitoring method and device for equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present invention, abnormalities of equipments to be monitored are detected at high accuracy by recurring analysis of a plurality of measuring signals. A calculated monitoring parameter is used as a reference for judgement irrespective of the operation state of equipments to be monitored and the entire plant, and the difference of the response characteristics of each of measuring signals. Namely, when there is any difference of the response characteristics between each of the measured signals, the recurring analysis is conducted after compensating the difference. The recurring coefficient is judged to be significant or not based on the calculated correlation coefficient. The recurring coefficient only when it is judged to be significant is used as a monitoring parameter. The monitoring parameter is judged as to whether in a predetermine normal range not. When it is not in the range, it is judged that abnormality is occurred in the equipment. According to the method of the present invention, the judgement for the occurrence of abnormality can be expressed by a single numeral as a monitoring parameter. Accordingly, there is not always necessary for relying upon operator's subjecting judgement. (I.S.)

  2. Follicular growth of a thyroid carcinoma cell line (KAT-4) with abnormal E-cadherin and impaired epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmark, Johanna; Heldin, Nils-Erik; Nilsson, Mikael

    2002-09-01

    Loss of the epithelial phenotype is a well-established phenomenon during progression of carcinomas to a more malignant state. In the present study, we describe a human thyroid tumor cell line (KAT-4), established from a poorly differentiated carcinoma, which displays exceptional features. In culture, the KAT-4 cells had a fast proliferation rate that was not restricted by high cell density, resulting in multilayered growth. Unexpectedly, the cells expressed normal levels of epithelial markers, e.g., cytokeratin, occludin, and E-cadherin, showed apical-basolateral polarization of the plasma membrane including microvilli and junction complexes, and formed intercellular lumens resembling thyroid follicles. Yet, when grown on filter, the cells were unable to establish a tight paracellular barrier. Moreover, E-cadherin expressed at the cell surface consisted of two peptides with abnormal size (135 and 95 kd, respectively) as compared to mature E-cadherin (120 kd) in nonneoplastic thyrocytes. Northern blot analysis and examination of immunoreactivity, glycosylation, and catenin binding suggested that E-cadherin was aberrant because of altered posttranscriptional processing. Thus, the KAT-4 thyroid carcinoma cell line has a unique phenotype, with maintained epithelial morphology despite dysfunctioning tight junctions, abnormal E-cadherin, and loss of contact-inhibited growth, that is not previously identified in other wild-type tumor cell lines. PMID:12481943

  3. Abnormal cross-talk between mutant presenilin 1 (I143T, G384A) and glycosphingolipid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Tatsuro; Kawamura, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Shima, Sayuri; Miyashita, Tadayuki; Ito, Shinji; Asakura, Kunihiko; Araki, Wataru; Cazzaniga, Emanuela; Muto, Eri; Masserini, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene are associated with early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In this study, we found that the expression of mutant-PS1 in stable transfectants of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells results in a reduction of the biosynthesis and steady-state levels of glucosylceramide. As an in vivo corroboration of these data, there was a significant reduction of brain glucosylceramide and gangliosides in an animal model of FAD. In mutant-PS1-transfectants (I143T, G384A), immunocytochemistry disclosed a remarkable reduction of glucosylceramide synthase (GlcT-1)-like immunoreactivity in the cells when compared with those of mock- and wild-PS1 transfectants. Immunoprecipitation of GlcT-1 protein from mutant-PS1 transfectants demonstrated a marked reduction in GlcT-1 protein, but there was no reduction in the levels of GlcT-1 mRNA. Both coprecipitation and ?-secretase inhibition experiments suggest that mutant-PS1 seems to form a complex with GlcT-1 protein and to be involved in GlcT-1 degradation, which was never found in other cell types. Thus, mutations in the PS1 gene result in profound glycosphingolipids abnormalities by abnormal molecular interaction with GlcT-1. PMID:22508690

  4. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial appearances. Facial deformity caused by trauma, congenital disabilities, and postsurgical sequelae present with significant adverse functional consequences. Facial deformities have a significant negative effect on perceptions of social functionality, including employability, honesty, and trustworthiness. Adverse perceptions of patients with facial deformities occur regardless of sex, educational level, and age of evaluator. PMID:12794453

  5. Changes in oxytocin immunoreactivity and mRNA expression in the sheep brain during pregnancy, parturition and lactation and in response to oestrogen and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, K D; Kendrick, K M; Sirinathsinghji, D J; Keverne, E B

    1993-08-01

    The effects of pregnancy, parturition and lactation and exogenous treatments with oestradiol and progesterone on oxytocin (OXY) immunoreactivity and gene expression in the sheep brain were investigated. Immunocytochemistry was used to demonstrate that increased OXY-immunoreactivity occurred in cells of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the anterior commissural nuclei (ACN) and the periventricular part of the medial preoptic area (PvMP). Oxytocin immunoreactive terminals were also seen in the accessory olfactory nucleus, the glomerular and peri-glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb, the lateral septum, the zona incerta and the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. Compared to ovariectomized and late pregnant animals, the intensity of immunoreactivity was increased in all of these oxytocinergic elements at parturition, during lactation and following exogenous treatment with oestradiol. The OXY-immunoreactivity was also more intense in late pregnant animals compared to ovariectomized ones. Quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry showed that cells in the PVN, SON, BNST and PvMP all showed significantly increased expression of OXY mRNA in animals at parturition and during lactation compared to late pregnant or ovariectomized animals. Expression levels in late pregnant animals were also significantly higher than in ovariectomized ones. Progesterone treatment significantly increased OXY mRNA in the PVN, SON, BNST and PvMP whereas oestradiol treatment was only effective in the PVN, BNST and PvMP. Combined treatment with these steroids did not significantly increase OXY mRNA levels in comparison with their administration alone. These results show that OXY-immunoreactivity and mRNA expression are at their highest in the sheep brain when maternal behaviour is induced. The increased synthesis/storage of the peptide at parturition may be due to changes in circulating concentrations of both progesterone and oestradiol during late pregnancy. PMID:8401567

  6. FMRFamide-like immunoreactive nervus terminalis innervation to the pituitary in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.): demonstration by lesion and immunocytochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, N. S.; Subhedar, N.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    Certain thick FMRFamide-like immunoreactive fibers arising from the ganglion cells of nervus terminalis in the olfactory bulb of Clarias batrachus can be traced centripetally through the medial olfactory tract, telencephalon, lateral preoptic area, tuberal area, and hypothalamohypophysial tract to the pituitary. Following 6 days of bilateral olfactory tract transection, the immunoreactivity in the thick fibers, caudal to the lesion site, was partially eliminated, whereas after 10 and 14 days, it was totally abolished in the processes en route to the pituitary. The results indicate a direct innervation of the pituitary gland by the FMRFamide-like peptide containing fibers of the nervus terminalis.

  7. Disorganization of honey-comb immunoreactive pattern of desmin and plectin in rat atrophic soleus muscle fiber induced by hindlimb suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, S.; Hachisuka, K.; Furukawa, H.; Doi, Y.; Kudo, H.; Fujimoto, S.

    2002-01-01

    Immunoreactivity for desmin, plectin and a- actinin was inve s t i gated in rat atrophic soleus muscle fibers induced by hindlimb suspension between 1 and 4 weeks (hindlimb suspension group, HSG), and compared with that of the control group (CG). Some of the HSG for 4 weeks were allowed unrestricted cage activity for 2 weeks as the recovery group (RG). In the cross-sectioned muscle fibers of the CG, desmin and plectin show e d h o n ey-comb immunoreactive patte...

  8. NACP/alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Osamu; Terada, Seishi; Ishizu, Hideki; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Kitamura, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Kenji; Uéda, Kenji; Kuroda, Shigetoshi

    2002-10-01

    Diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC) is a rare tangle-predominant dementia, as well as one of the tauopathies lacking Abeta deposition. It is characterized by temporo-frontal lobar atrophy, Fahr-type calcification and, histopathologically, numerous neurofibrillary tangles in the limbic system and neocortex. Recently, accumulation of alpha-synuclein (alphaS), the precursor of the non-beta amyloid component (NAC) of Alzheimer's disease, has been shown in diverse neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, multiple system atrophy and parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam. To clarify whether alphaS accumulates in other neurodegenerative disorders, we investigated eight DNTC brains using immunohistochemistry and demonstrated remarkable alphaS deposition in the neurons and astrocytes in many anatomical regions. Abundant Lewy bodies were observed in the amygdala (seven cases) and hippocampus (seven cases), and, to a lesser degree, in the substantia nigra (six cases) and dorsal vagal nucleus (five cases). In the hippocampus, many Lewy neurites were distributed in the stratum oriens and stratum pyramidale in the CA2-3 and the subiculum. Furthermore, numerous NAC-positive astrocytes were detected in the hippocampus and temporal cortex. This investigation reveals that neurons and astrocytes are extensively involved in remarkable alphaS pathology in the DNTC brain, and that the alphaS pathology compounds the cardinal pathological features of tau pathology. These findings suggest that (1) DNTC shares a common pathophysiological background with Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy in which abnormal alphaS aggregation is observed, and (2) there is an interaction between alphaS and tau pathology that does not involve amyloid in DNTC. PMID:12200618

  9. Essential tremor and cerebellar dysfunction: abnormal ballistic movements

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, B.; Deuschl, G; Lauk, M.; Timmer, J; Guschlbauer, B; Lucking, C

    2002-01-01

    Background: Clinical characteristics reminiscent of cerebellar tremor occur in patients with advanced essential tremor. Ballistic movements are known to be abnormal in cerebellar disease. The hypothesis was proposed that ballistic movements are abnormal in essential tremor, reflecting cerebellar dysfunction.

  10. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of ?-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  11. Immunoreactive somatostatin and. beta. -endorphin content in the brain of mature rats after neonatal exposure to propylthiouacil. [Propylthiouracil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, N.; Sundmark, V.C.; Van Middlesworth, L.; Havlicek, V.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The contents of immunoreactive somatostatin (IR-SRIF) and ..beta..-endorphin (IR-..beta..-EP) in 12 brain regions were examined in rats exposed neonatally to propylthiouracil (PTU) through the mother's milk. Since the dose of PTU used in this study is lower than the usual dose employed to induce hypothyroidism, a milder form of neonatal hypothyroidism resulted. This conclusion is supported by the only mild subnormal growth of rats to adulthood and serum T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ concentrations in the normal range. Adult rats treated with PTU neonatally had significantly higher IR-SRIF contents in several brain regions compared to controls, whereas IR-..beta..-EP levels were not significantly different in most regions. The results indicate that even mild hypothyroidism during early postnatal development causes permanent impairment of brain function, which manifests itself in part by an altered brain content of IR-SRIF.

  12. Immunoreactive somatostatin and. beta. -endorphin content in the brain of mature rats after neonatal exposure to propylthiouracil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, N. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada); Sundmark, V.C.; Van Middlesworth, L.; Havlicek, V.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-06-01

    The contents of immunoreactive somatostatin (IR-SRIF) and ..beta..-endorphin (IR-..beta..-EP) in 12 brain regions were examined in rats exposed neonatally to propylthiouracil (PTU) through the mother's milk. Since the dose of PTU used in the study is lower than the usual dose employed to induce hypothyroidism, a milder form of neonatal hypothyroidism resulted. This conclusion is supported by the only mild subnormal growth of rats to adulthood and serum T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ concentrations in the normal range. Adult rats treated with PTU neonatally had significantly higher IR-SRIF contents in several brain regions compared to controls, whereas IR-..beta..-EP levels were not significantly different (significant increase only in the thalamus) in most regions. The results indicate that even mild hypothyroidism during early postnatal development causes permanent impairment of brain function, which manifests itself in part by an altered brain content of IR-SRIF.

  13. Origin of porcine brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the middle cerebral artery in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S E; Kibbe, M R; Hurley, K M; Needleman, P; Saper, C B

    1991-07-22

    We recently demonstrated that porcine brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive (pBNPir) fibers innervate parts of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries comprising the circle of Willis. To determine the origin of this innervation, we used the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue dye combined with pBNP immunocytochemistry. Cells which project to the middle cerebral artery and were also pBNPir were found in the trigeminal, pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia bilaterally but not in the geniculate or otic ganglia. The majority of these double-labelled cells were found in the ipsilateral trigeminal (46%) and superior cervical ganglia (34%). A pBNP-like substance may be a natural vasodilator in sympathetic, sensory and to a lesser extent parasympathetic neurons innervating the cerebrovascular system. PMID:1834966

  14. Radioimmunoassay of digoxin in serum using monoclonal antibodies and assessment of interference by digoxin-like immunoreactive substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucari-Yiannakou, E.; Yiannakou, L.; Souvatzoglou, A.; Diamandis, E.P. (Alexandra General Hospital, Athens (Greece))

    1990-03-01

    We used 7 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and one polyclonal antibody to develop radioimmunoassays (RIAs) for digoxin in serum or plasma. These RIAs were tested for measuring apparent digoxin concentrations in serum from patients receiving the drug, from normal individuals, and in cord blood plasma. We found that two MoAbs cross-reacted significantly with substances in cord blood. The magnitude of cross-reactivity was dependent on the incubation time and temperature. Under equilibrium conditions, one antibody gave apparent digoxin values in cord blood plasma averaging 2.15 ng/ml. We suggest that this cross-reactivity is partially due to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone in cord blood plasma. The antibody that shows high cross-reactivity with digoxin-like immunoreactive substances may prove a useful tool for studies dealing with characterization of the cross-reacting compounds.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of digoxin in serum using monoclonal antibodies and assessment of interference by digoxin-like immunoreactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used 7 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and one polyclonal antibody to develop radioimmunoassays (RIAs) for digoxin in serum or plasma. These RIAs were tested for measuring apparent digoxin concentrations in serum from patients receiving the drug, from normal individuals, and in cord blood plasma. We found that two MoAbs cross-reacted significantly with substances in cord blood. The magnitude of cross-reactivity was dependent on the incubation time and temperature. Under equilibrium conditions, one antibody gave apparent digoxin values in cord blood plasma averaging 2.15 ng/ml. We suggest that this cross-reactivity is partially due to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone in cord blood plasma. The antibody that shows high cross-reactivity with digoxin-like immunoreactive substances may prove a useful tool for studies dealing with characterization of the cross-reacting compounds

  16. Somatostatin Immunoreactive Pancreatico-Duodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Twenty-three cases evaluated according to the WHO 2010 Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Monrad, N; Binderup, Tina; Thøgersen, Christina Charlotte Boisen; Hilsted, Linda; Jensen, Claus Verner; Federspiel, Birgitte; Knigge, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological, and...... biochemical features as well as treatment and prognosis. DESIGN: Twenty-three patients with p-dSOM (9 duodenal, 12 pancreatic, 2 unknown primary tumour) were identified from our prospective neuroendocrine tumour (NET) database, and data according to the study aims were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 9 patients...... m/f ratio was 2/12. One male had MEN-1. Five had stage 1A-2B and nine had stage 4. The Ki-67 index was 1-40% (median 7%). Plasma somatostatin was elevated in seven patients. Patients reported symptoms related to the somatostatinoma syndrome, but none fulfilled the criteria for a full syndrome...

  17. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  18. Abnormal grain growth in iron-silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tricia A.

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) was studied in an Fe-1%Si alloy using automated Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) to determine the driving force for this phenomenon. Experiments were performed with the knowledge that there are several possible driving forces and, the intent to determine the true driving force by elimination of the other potential candidates. These potential candidates include surface energy anisotropy, anisotropic grain boundary properties and the stored energy of deformation. In this work, surface energy and grain boundary anisotropies as well as the stored energy of deformation were investigated as the possible driving forces for AGG. Accordingly, industrially processed samples that were temper rolled to 1.5% and 8% were annealed in air for various times followed by quenching in water. The results obtained were compared to those from heat treatments performed in wet 15%H2-85%N2 at a US Steel facility. In addition, for a more complete study of the effect of surface energy anisotropies on AGG, the 1.5% temper-rolled material was heat-treated in other atmospheres such as 5%H2-95%Ar, 98%H2-2%He, 98%H2-2%H 2S, and 98%H2-2%N2 for 1 hour followed by quenching in water. The character of the grain boundaries in the materials was also examined for each set of experiments conducted, while the influence of stored energy was evaluated by examining intragranular orientation gradients. AGG occurred regardless of annealing atmosphere though the most rapid progression was observed in samples annealed in air. In general, grains of varying orientations grew abnormally. One consistently observed trend in all the detailed studies was that the matrix grains remained essentially static and either did not grow or only grew very slowly. On the other hand, the abnormally large grains (ALG), on average, were approximately 10 times the size of the matrix. Analysis of the grain boundary character of the interfaces between abnormal grains and the matrix showed no significant variation from the overall population of boundaries. This suggested that grain boundary character was not a factor in controlling AGG. When the effect of stored energy differences was considered, it was observed that grains that experienced AGG had low orientation gradients. Based on these results and cross comparison of all classes of experiments performed, it was determined that stored energy differences were the main driving force for AGG in this Fe-1%Si alloy.

  19. Thyroid abnormality secondary to tortuous carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 59-year-old man was referred to the nuclear medicine service for a thyroid scan, as his neck was thick and the thyroid was not palpable. In the past the patient had undergone head and neck irradiation for acne. A 123I-thyroid scan was interpreted as a ''cold'' nodule in the lower pole of the right lobe, but thyroid ultrasound showed no thyroid abnormality. Repeat ultrasound examination eventually showed a tortuous carotid artery behind the lower pole of the right lobe of the thyroid that corresponded to the ''cold'' defect. (orig.)

  20. Gallbladder and biliary abnormalities in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 1 1/2 years, biliary abnormalities have been detected on US in seven patients with AIDS. All had gallbladder wall thickening, and two patients had dilated bile ducts. Only five patients had symptoms and signs, while all had elevated blood chemistries. Gallbladder walls measured between 0.4 and 1.5 cm in thickness. Sequential imaging demonstrated changed in wall thickness that did not necessarily correlate with clinical status. Three patients had pericholcystic fluid; none had gallstones. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare was recovered from the gallbladder wall at cholecystectomy in one patient. Crptosporidium was recovered from duodenal aspirates of the two patients with dilated bile ducts

  1. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haymon, M.L. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Willis, R.B. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics; Ehlayel, M.S. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics; Lacassie, Y. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics]|[Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1997-05-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi.

  2. TRANSIENT ABNORMAL MYELOPOIESIS IN A NEONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM is a unique di sorder of newborns associated intimately with Down’s syndrome, present ing with clinical and morphological features indistinguishable from acute myeloid leuka emia (AML. We report a case in a neonate, presenting with severe perinatal asphyxia and cyanosis ; complicated by metabolic acidosis. The hemogram revealed leucocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The peripheral smear showed marked left shift and 55% circulating myeloblasts. Additio nal findings included a hepatomegaly and mild dysmorphic features. The child eventually succu mbed to pulmonary hemorrhage on day one itself. TAM has to be differentiated from conge nital leukemia which portends a poor prognosis

  3. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 201/2-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi

  4. Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Aman; Sachdeva Ravinder; Wanchu Ajay; Dikshit Byomakesh; Das Reena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron stu...

  5. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  6. Chronic upregulation of activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 and nerve growth factor following diffuse axonal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzaszcz MaryAnn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of axonal injury following TBI, and have linked cognitive disability in these patients to white matter signal changes. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of this white matter injury, and the role of microglial activation in this process. It is increasingly recognized that microglia constitute a heterogeneous population with diverse roles following injury. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that following diffuse axonal injury involving the corpus callosum, there is upregulation of a subpopulation of microglia that express the lectin galectin-3/Mac-2 and are involved in myelin phagocytosis. Methods Adult mice were subject to midline closed skull injury or sham operation and were sacrificed 1, 8, 14 or 28 days later. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques were used to analyze patterns of labelling within the corpus callosum qualitatively and quantitatively. Results Activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 were most abundant 1 day following injury. Their levels were attenuated at later time points after TBI but still were significantly elevated compared to sham animals. Furthermore, the majority of galectin-3/Mac-2+ microglia were immunoreactive for nerve growth factor in both sham and injured animals. Conclusions Our results suggest that galectin-3/Mac-2+ microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of diffuse axonal injury both acutely and chronically and that they mediate their effects, at least in part by releasing nerve growth factor.

  7. Identification and characterization of nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity in endocrine cell types of the rat gastric oxyntic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Yakubov, Iskandar; Wang, Lixin; Witcher, Derrick; Coskun, Tamer; Taché, Yvette; Sachs, George; Lambrecht, Nils W G

    2009-01-01

    Hypothalamic nesfatin-1, derived from the nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) precursor, inhibits nocturnal food intake and body weight gain in rats. Nesfatin-1 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier, suggesting a peripheral source of nesfatin-1. Many centrally acting food intake regulatory neuropeptides are also produced in the periphery, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we investigated the gene expression of NUCB2 and distribution of nesfatin-1-immunoreactive cells in the stomach. Microarray mRNA expression profiles in purified small endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa substantiated by quantitative RT-PCR showed significantly higher NUCB2 mRNA expression compared with brain and heart. Western blot confirmed the expression of NUCB2 protein and its transport into a secretory soluble fraction of gastric mucosal endocrine cell homogenates. Immunohistochemical colabeling for nesfatin-1 and ghrelin, histidine decarboxylase, or somatostatin revealed two subtypes of nesfatin-1-positive endocrine cells. Cells in the midportion of the glands coexpressed nesfatin-1 and ghrelin, whereas few cells in the glandular base coexpressed nesfatin-1 and somatostatin or histidine decarboxylase. High-resolution three-dimensional volume imaging revealed two separate populations of intracytoplasmic vesicles in these cells, one containing nesfatin-1 and the other ghrelin immunoreactivity. Microarray rat genome expression data of NUCB2 in small gastric endocrine cells confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed significant down-regulation of NUCB2 after 24 h fasting. In summary, NUCB2 mRNA expression as well as protein content is present in a specific subset of gastric endocrine cells, most of which coexpress ghrelin. NUCB2 gene expression is significantly regulated by nutritional status, suggesting a regulatory role of peripheral nesfatin-1 in energy homeostasis. PMID:18818289

  8. Factors affecting immunoreactivity in long-term storage of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Federica; Pigozzi, Simona; Ceriolo, Paola; Calamaro, Paola; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Antigen decay in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections for immunohistochemistry is a well-known phenomenon which may have repercussions on translational and research studies and length of storage time appears fundamental. The aim of this study was to evaluate all possible factors which may lead to antigen decay on a prospective standardized collection of human tissues with a panel of 14 routinely used antibodies. Serial slide sections from FFPE control tissues were stored using different methods (routine storage at room temperature, Parafilm(®) protected, paraffin coated and cold stored at 4 °C) and for different time periods: 1, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 36 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed at each time cutoff simultaneously on stored sections and on freshly cut sections using a panel of 14 antibodies. Immunoreactivity was compared with immunoreactions performed at time zero. Reduction in immunostaining was observed for a subset of antibodies (CD3, CD 31, CD117, estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki67, p53, TTF-1, vimentin) while for others (smooth muscle actin, keratins 7, 20, AE1/AE3, 34?E12), no antigen decay was observed. Loss of antigenicity was proportional to tissue section age and was dependent on mode of storage with cold storage slides being the least affected. All antigens with reductions in immunosignal were nuclear or membranous, and they all required heat pre-treatment for antigen retrieval. In contrast to results from other studies, when pre-analytical factors are strictly controlled and standardized, antigen decay seems to be restricted to nuclear or membrane antigens which require heat antigen retrieval. PMID:25757745

  9. Changes in RFamide-Related Peptide-1 (RFRP-1)-Immunoreactivity During Postnatal Development and the Estrous Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Sara R; Andersen, Mille D

    2014-01-01

    GnRH is a key player in the hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. It has been shown that the mammalian counterpart of the avian gonadotropin inhibitory hormone named RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that innervate and inhibit GnRH neurons. The RFRP precursor is processed into 2 mature peptides, RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. These are characterized by a conserved C-terminal motif RF-NH2 but display highly different N termini. Even though the 2 peptides are equally potent in vitro, little is known about their relative distribution and their distinct roles in vivo. In this study, we raised an antiserum selective for RFRP-1 and defined the distribution of RFRP-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Next, we analyzed the level of RFRP-1-ir during postnatal development in males and females and investigated changes in RFRP-1-ir during the estrous cycle. RFRP-1-ir neurons were distributed along the third ventricle from the caudal part of the medial anterior hypothalamus throughout the medial tuberal hypothalamus and were localized in, but mostly in between, the dorsomedial hypothalamic, ventromedial hypothalamic, and arcuate nuclei. The number of RFRP-1-ir neurons and the density of cellular immunoreactivity were unchanged from juvenile to adulthood in male rats during the postnatal development. However, both parameters were significantly increased in female rats from peripuberty to adulthood, demonstrating prominent gender difference in the developmental control of RFRP-1 expression. The percentage of c-Fos-positive RFRP-1-ir neurons was significantly higher in diestrus as compared with proestrus and estrus. In conclusion, we found that adult females, as compared with males, have significantly more RFRP-1-ir per cell, and these cells are regulated during the estrous cycle.

  10. Sequential activation of microglia and astrocyte cytokine expression precedes increased iba-1 or GFAP immunoreactivity following systemic immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Diana M; Trojanowski, Paige J; Villanueva, Emmanuel; Navarro, Elisa; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2016-02-01

    Activation of the peripheral immune system elicits a coordinated response from the central nervous system. Key to this immune to brain communication is that glia, microglia, and astrocytes, interpret and propagate inflammatory signals in the brain that influence physiological and behavioral responses. One issue in glial biology is that morphological analysis alone is used to report on glial activation state. Therefore, our objective was to compare behavioral responses after in vivo immune (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) challenge to glial specific mRNA and morphological profiles. Here, LPS challenge induced an immediate but transient sickness response with decreased locomotion and social interaction. Corresponding with active sickness behavior (2-12 h), inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression was elevated in enriched microglia and astrocytes. Although proinflammatory cytokine expression in microglia peaked 2-4 h after LPS, astrocyte cytokine, and chemokine induction was delayed and peaked at 12 h. Morphological alterations in microglia (Iba-1(+) ) and astrocytes (GFAP(+) ), however, were undetected during this 2-12 h timeframe. Increased Iba-1 immunoreactivity and de-ramified microglia were evident 24 and 48 h after LPS but corresponded to the resolution phase of activation. Morphological alterations in astrocytes were undetected after LPS. Additionally, glial cytokine expression did not correlate with morphology after four repeated LPS injections. In fact, repeated LPS challenge was associated with immune and behavioral tolerance and a less inflammatory microglial profile compared with acute LPS challenge. Overall, induction of glial cytokine expression was sequential, aligned with active sickness behavior, and preceded increased Iba-1 or GFAP immunoreactivity after LPS challenge. GLIA 2016;64:300-316. PMID:26470014

  11. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, E.M. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Faculty of Medicine; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Inst. for Cancer Res.; Kvinnsland, S. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Oncology; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Inst. for Cancer Res.

    1999-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  12. Calcitonin-like immunoreactivity and calcitonin gene expression in the placenta and in the mammary gland of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the presence of monomeric CT in plasma and milk was reported by others in a lactating woman surgically thyroidectomized. Similarly, the placenta was thought to be a possible source of CT. Since such findings were based exclusively on immunological arguments, we have investigated the CT gene expression in these rat tissues. CT mRNAs were detected by dot-blot hybridization of total RNAs extracted from rat tissues with a 32P-labelled human CT cDNa probe. Subcellular fractions of each tissue were screened for CT-like immunoreactivity using two different antibodies. With one antibody, extracts of the mammary gland and placenta both produced full displacement of labelled human CT from the antiserum and serial dilutions of the extracts gave displacement curves parallel to that of synthetic human CT, which suggests immunological similarity. However, dilution curves were not parallel for the second antibody, and for both antisera, CT-like immunoreactivity was found in all subsellular fractions from nuclei to cytosols. Immunoprecipitation of translation products from poly (A)+RNAs of placenta showed two major bands around 30 kD. Under stringent conditions, the weak hybridization of placental RNAs seen by dot-blot under less stringent conditions disappeared. Northern analyses of total RNAs from the placenta failed to detect mRNA of 1 k base size like in thyroid glands, but hybridization under weak stringent conditions occurred with larger mRNAs (around 4.4 and 2.4 k bases). Immunoprecipitation of translation products from mRNAs of rat mammary glands showed three major bands around 46, 30 and 20 kD. Our results suggest that the CT gene is not expressed in the rat placenta and in rat mammary gland, since CT mRNAs were not detected in either tissues. (EB)

  13. Reduced density of glutamine synthetase immunoreactive astrocytes in different cortical areas in major depression but not in bipolar I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Gert Bernstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for disturbances within the glutamate system in patients with affective disorders, which involve disruptions of the glutamate-glutamine- cycle. The mainly astroglia-located enzyme glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a central role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. However, glutamine synthetase is also expressed in numerous oligodendrocytes, another class of glial cells implicated in mood disorder pathology. To learn more about the role of glia-associated glutamine synthetase in mental illnesses, we decided to find out if numerical densities of glial cells immunostained for the enzyme protein differ between subjects with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and psychically healthy control cases. Counting of glutamine synthetase expressing astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in eight cortical and two subcortical brain regions of subjects with mood disorder (N=14, bipolar disorder (N=15 and controls (N=16 revealed that in major depression the densities of astrocytes were significantly reduced in some cortical but not subcortical gray matter areas, whereas no changes were found for oligodendrocytes. In bipolar disorder no alterations of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive glia were found. From our findings we conclude that (1 glutamine synthetase expressing astrocytes are prominently involved in glutamate-related disturbances in major depression, but not in bipolar disorder and (2 glutamine synthetase expressing oligodendrocytes, though being present in significant numbers in prefrontal cortical areas, play a minor (if any role in mood disorder pathology. The latter assumption is supported by findings of others showing that - at least in the mouse brain cortex - glutamine synthetase immunoreactive oligodendroglial cells are unable to contribute to the glutamate-glutamine cycle due to the complete lack of amino acid transporters (Takasaki et al.

  14. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in the porcine arteries of vascular subovarian plexus (VSP during the estrous cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andronowska

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important angiogenic factor in the female reproductive tract. It binds to cell surface through ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase receptors, the most important being VEGFR-1 (flt-1 and VEGFR-2 (flk-1. The broad ligament of the uterus is a dynamic organ consisting of specialized complexes of blood vessels connected functionally to the uterus, oviduct and ovary. Endothelial cells form an inner coating of the vessel walls and thus they stay under the influence of various modulators circulating in blood including ovarian steriods involved in developmental changes in the female reproductive system. The aim of the present study was to immunolocalize VEGF and its two receptors: VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in the broad ligament of the uterus in the area of vascular subovarian plexus during different phases of the estrous cycle in pig and to determine the correlation between immunoreactivity of the investigated factors and phases of the estrous cycle. The study was performed on cryostat sections of vascular subovarian plexus stained immunohistochemically by ABC method. Specific polyclonal antibodies: anti-VEGF, anti-VEGFR-1 and anti-VEGFR-2 were used. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Our study revealed the presence of VEGF and its receptors in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of VSP arteries. All agents displayed phase-related differences in immunoreactivity suggesting the modulatory effect of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on the arteries of the VSP in the porcine broad ligament of the uterus.

  15. Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum days 6-8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of sterile water or olanzapine (1.0, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg, sc). Maternal behavior was tested 2h later, after which rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected. Ten brain regions that were either implicated in the action of antipsychotic drugs and/or in the regulation of maternal behavior were examined for c-Fos immunoreactivity. Acute olanzapine treatment dose-dependently disrupted various components of maternal behavior (e.g., pup retrieval, pup licking, nest building, crouching) and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens shell and core (NAs and NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLSt), ventral lateral septum (LSv), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), important brain areas generally implicated in the incentive motivation and reward processing. In contrast, olanzapine treatment did not alter c-Fos in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBST) and medial amygdala (MeA), the core brain areas directly involved in the mediation of rat maternal behavior. These findings suggest that olanzapine disrupts rat maternal behavior primarily by suppressing incentive motivation and reward processing via its action on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems, other limbic and striatal areas, but not by disrupting the core processes involved in the mediation of maternal behavior in particular. PMID:22960130

  16. Inducing effect of skeletal muscle extracts on the appearance of calbindin-immunoreactive dorsal root ganglion cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, I; Droz, B

    1989-01-01

    Calbindin D-28k is a calcium-binding protein which is not expressed by dorsal root ganglion cells cultured from 6-day-old (E6) chick embryos. When soluble muscle extracts from embryos at E11, E18 or chickens 2 weeks after hatching were added immediately after seeding, dorsal root ganglia cells grown at E6 displayed neuronal subpopulations expressing calbindin immunoreactivity with time; the effect of muscle extract on the percentage of calbindin-immunoreactive dorsal root ganglia cells followed a dose-response curve. When muscle extract was added to cultures after a 3 day delay, the percentage of calbindin-expressing neurons was unchanged. The effect produced by muscle extract and, to a lesser degree, skin extract on the appearance of calbindin-positive neurons was not reproduced by brain or liver extracts while all four exerted a trophic action on cultured neurons. Hence it is assumed that muscle extract contains a factor which produces an inductive effect on the initiation of calbindin-expression by uncommitted subpopulations of sensory neurons rather than a trophic influence on the selective survival of covertly committed neuronal subpopulations. The fact that muscle extract promoted calbindin expression by dorsal root ganglia cells in neuron-enriched as well as in mixed dorsal root ganglion cell cultures indicates that the factor would act directly on sensory neurons rather than indirectly through mediation of non-neuronal cells. Since the active muscular factor was non-dialysable, heat-inactivated, trypsin-sensitive and retained by molecular filters with a cut-off of 30 K, this factor is probably a protein. PMID:2761694

  17. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and calcium binding proteins immunoreactivity in the subicular complex of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Barbara; Najdzion, Janusz; Równiak, Maciej; Bogus-Nowakowska, Krystyna; Hermanowicz, Beata; Kolenkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; ?akowski, Witold; Robak, Anna

    2016-03-01

    In this study we present the distribution and colocalization pattern of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins: calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the subicular complex (SC) of the guinea pig. The subiculum (S) and presubiculum (PrS) showed higher CART-immunoreactivity (-IR) than the parasubiculum (PaS) as far as the perikarya and neuropil were concerned. CART- IR cells were mainly observed in the pyramidal layer and occasionally in the molecular layer of the S. In the PrS and PaS, single CART-IR perikarya were dispersed, however with a tendency to be found only in superficial layers. CART-IR fibers were observed throughout the entire guinea pig subicular neuropil. Double-labeling immunofluorescence showed that CART-IR perikarya, as well as fibers, did not stain positively for any of the three CaBPs. CART-IR fibers were only located near the CB-, CR-, PV-IR perikarya, whereas CART-IR fibers occasionally intersected fibers containing one of the three CaBPs. The distribution pattern of CART was more similar to that of CB and CR than to that of PV. In the PrS, the CART, CB and CR immunoreactivity showed a laminar distribution pattern. In the case of the PV, this distribution pattern in the PrS was much less prominent than that of CART, CB and CR. We conclude that a heterogeneous distribution of the CART and CaBPs in the guinea pig SC is in keeping with findings from other mammals, however species specific differences have been observed. PMID:26617160

  18. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  19. The Spacing Principle for Unlearning Abnormal Neuronal Synchrony

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr V. Popovych; Xenakis, Markos N.; Tass, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Desynchronizing stimulation techniques were developed to specifically counteract abnormal neuronal synchronization relevant to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The goal of our approach is to achieve an anti-kindling, where the affected neural networks unlearn abnormal synaptic connectivity and, hence, abnormal neuronal synchrony, by means of desynchronizing stimulation, in particular, Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation. As known from neuroscience, psychology and education, lear...

  20. Seizure increases electroencephalographic abnormalities in children with tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan

    2016-01-01

    The EEG pattern in children with TBM varies, and EEG abnormalities were more frequently localized in the frontotemporal region. Seizures were associated with EEG abnormalities in children with TBM. EEG abnormalities occurring simultaneously with seizures may predict the occurrence of seizures.

  1. Autosomal Chromosome Abnormality: A Cause of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Diane

    Intended for parents and professionals, the book explains chromosome abnormalities in lay terms and discusses the relationship of specific conditions to birth defects. Chromosomal abnormalities are defined and factors in diagnosis and recurrence are discussed. Normal chromosome reproduction processes are covered while such numerical abnormalities

  2. Forensic significance of skull development abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilija Vladimir I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In the course of bone tissue development some genetic disorders such as exostoses and enostoses, may occur. Exostoses and enostoses represent bone tissue hyperplasia that can develop at any part of skeleton. Neurotrauma can cause fatal biological consequences, which is directly associated with skull development abnormalities. Case report This is a case report of a male cadaver 36 years of age. The autopsy revealed massive hemorrhage on the left side of the neck and the right side of the lower jaw. A major fissure of the arterial wall was found on the basilar artery. A bony, wart-like excrescence was found on the clivus of the occipital bone. Discussion Coinciding ruptures and consequential bleeding from basilar artery with presence of development abnormalities in the clivus region, suggest that one has to clearly distinguish the result of the injury from anomalies already existing in the skull. The position of the attacker can be determined by concise and objective investigation. Conclusion This is a case report of an anomaly in bone development: a bony, wart-like excrescence on the right side of the clivus. Due to neurotrauma and consequential sliding of brain structures, the damage of basilar artery and of the bony excrescence occurred, which led to bleeding and fatal outcome.

  3. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  4. Control of abnormal synchronization in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  5. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  6. First trimester ultrasound screening of chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnini?-Pjevi? Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A retrocervical subcutaneous collection of fluid at 11-14 weeks of gestation, can be visualized by ultrasound as nuchal translucency (NT. Objective. To examine the distribution of fetal nuchal translucency in low risk population, to determine the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in the population of interest based on maternal age and NT measurement. Method. Screening for chromosomal defects, advocated by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF, was performed in 1,341 pregnancies in the period January 2000 - April 2004. Initial risk for chromosomal defects (based on maternal and gestational age and corrected risk, after the NT measurement, were calculated. Complete data were collected from 1,048 patients. Results. Out of 1,048 pregnancies followed, 8 cases of Down’s syndrome were observed, 7 were detected antenatally and 6 out of 7 were detected due to screening that combines maternal age and NT measurement. According to our results, sensitivity of the screening for aneuploidies based on maternal age alone was 12.5% and false positive rate 13.1%, showing that screening based on NT measurement is of great importance. Screening by a combination of maternal age and NT, and selecting a screening-positive group for invasive testing enabled detection of 75% of fetuses with trisomy 21. Conclusion. In screening for chromosomal abnormalities, an approach which combines maternal age and NT is effective and increases the detection rate compared to the use of any single test. .

  7. Abnormality diagnosis device for plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abnormality diagnosis device for plant equipments of the present invention comprises an input device for inputting process signals of an objective plant equipment, a processing device for receiving and converting the signals, a memory device for storing knowledges on the objective plant equipment, a diagnosis device, and an output device for outputting the cause estimated by the diagnosis device and determined countermeasures. The process signals of the plant equipment to be measured are electrically inputted and converted to signals in a computer and sent to the diagnosis device. Knowledges for diagnosis on the plant to be measured are preliminarily inputted to the memory device, where signals from the input device and the processing device are received, to monitor the plant, estimate the causes of abnormalities and determine the countermeasures by using knowledges on the plant equipments extracted from the memory device. Further, the output device receives signals of the diagnosis device, and outputs and displays the estimated cause and determined countermeasures. (N.H.)

  8. Aggrecan and chondroitin-6-sulfate abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a postmortem study on the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, H; Markota, M; Jaquet, F; Ghosh, D; Wallin, A; Santos, A; Caterson, B; Berretta, S

    2015-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix aggregates surrounding distinct neuronal populations and regulating synaptic functions and plasticity. Previous findings showed robust PNN decreases in amygdala, entorhinal cortex and prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia (SZ), but not bipolar disorder (BD). These studies were carried out using a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) lectin marker. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the CSPG aggrecan, and 6-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS-6) chains highly represented in aggrecan, may contribute to these abnormalities. Antibodies against aggrecan and CS-6 (3B3 and CS56) were used in the amygdala of healthy control, SZ and BD subjects. In controls, aggrecan immunoreactivity (IR) was observed in PNNs and glial cells. Antibody 3B3, but not CS56, also labeled PNNs in the amygdala. In addition, dense clusters of CS56 and 3B3 IR encompassed CS56- and 3B3-IR glia, respectively. In SZ, numbers of aggrecan- and 3B3-IR PNNs were decreased, together with marked reductions of aggrecan-IR glial cells and CS-6 (3B3 and CS56)-IR 'clusters'. In BD, numbers of 3B3-IR PNNs and CS56-IR clusters were reduced. Our findings show disruption of multiple PNN populations in the amygdala of SZ and, more modestly, BD. Decreases of aggrecan-IR glia and CS-6-IR glial 'clusters', in sharp contrast to increases of CSPG/lectin-positive glia previously observed, indicate that CSPG abnormalities may affect distinct glial cell populations and suggest a potential mechanism for PNN decreases. Together, these abnormalities may contribute to a destabilization of synaptic connectivity and regulation of neuronal functions in the amygdala of subjects with major psychoses. PMID:25603412

  9. Involvement of the brain region containing pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive neurons in the photoperiodic response of the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Numata, Hideharu; Goto, Shin G; Shiga, Sakiko

    2014-02-01

    The concept of insect photoperiodism based on a circadian clock has been supported by many studies demonstrating that the behavioural circadian rhythm and the photoperiodic response are driven by the same circadian clock genes. However, the neuronal mechanism of the circadian clock underlying photoperiodism is poorly understood. To examine whether circadian rhythm and photoperiodism share a neuronal mechanism, we focused on the neurons that express neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris. PDF has been identified as an important regulator of the insect circadian rhythm and is expressed in circadian clock neurons of various insect species. In R. pedestris, PDF immunoreactivity was detected in some clusters of cells and their fibres in the optic lobe and the protocerebrum. cDNA encoding a PDF precursor protein was highly conserved between R. pedestris and many other insects. Differences between day and night were not observed in the immunolabelling intensity in cell bodies of PDF-immunoreactive neurons and pdf mRNA expression levels in the head. Surgical removal of the region containing PDF-immunoreactive cell bodies at the medulla disrupted the photoperiodic regulation of diapause. However, gene suppression of pdf by RNA interference did not affect the photoperiodic response. These results suggest that the region containing PDF-immunoreactive somata is important for the photoperiodic response in R. pedestris, but pdf mRNA expression is probably not required for the response. PMID:24198258

  10. Localization of S1- and S2-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the brittle star Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje 1828).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bremaeker, N; Deheyn, D; Thorndyke, M C; Baguet, F; Mallefet, J

    1997-05-22

    The recent isolation and characterization of the SALMFanide neuropeptides S1 GFNSALMFamide; and S2 (SGPYSFNSGLTFamide) from the sea stars. Asterias rubens and Asterias forbesi have initiated numerous studies on their morphological localization and distribution within the phylum Echinodermata. It has been shown by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay that these peptides are widely distributed in the nervous system of some asteroids, echinoids and ophiuroids. A physiological approach has also shown that S1 and S2 potentiate the luminescence of the small ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata. In the present study. S1- and S2-like immunoreactivity have been localized in A. squamata by immunocytochemistry on both wholemount preparation and histological sections. The results reveal a widespread neuronal distribution of S1-like immunoreactivity in the circumoral ring, radial nerve cord, and tube feet. S1-like immunoreactivity was found to be associated with axons and cell bodies in both the ectoneural and hyponeural components of the nervous. S2-like immunoreactivity was detected only in the ectoneural plenus of the circumoral ring and radial nerve cord. PMID:9178539

  11. Report to congress on abnormal occurrences: January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1992. The abnormal occurrences involving medical therapy misadministrations at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant, and none were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  12. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1992. There are two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants and six abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministration (all therapeutic) at NRC-licensed facilities discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating three previously reported abnormal occurrences

  13. Real-time Multiple Abnormality Detection in Video Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Simon Hartmann; Ren, Huamin

    2013-01-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in video sequences has recently gained an increasing attention within the research community. Although progress has been seen, there are still some limitations in current research. While most systems are designed at detecting specific abnormality, others which are capable of detecting more than two types of abnormalities rely on heavy computation. Therefore, we provide a framework for detecting abnormalities in video surveillance by using multiple features and cascade classifiers, yet achieve above real-time processing speed. Experimental results on two datasets show that the proposed framework can reliably detect abnormalities in the video sequence, outperforming the current state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupamasuresh Y

    2014-06-01

    Methods: In our prospective study of 359 Patients of the age between 46 and 73 years, clinical characteristics and the pattern of endometrial histopathology and their association in women, who present with abnormal uterine bleeding, are categorised into six groups. Results: In our study, a significant correlation of histopathology and BMI was observed with endometrial hyperplasia and malignancy in obese patient i.e. 37 out 96 and 13 out of 23 respectively. The incidence of malignancy has been increasing with the age being 1.6% in 46-50 years to 60% in 70-75 years. In our study 116 (32.3% had hypertension, 33 patients (9.2% had diabetes mellitus, 40 patients (11.1% had hypothyroidism. Conclusions: We found a maximum incidence of AUB in multiparous women. Clinicohistopathological analysis of AUB revealed endometrial hyperplasia in majority of patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 656-661

  15. Equipment abnormality monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present invention, it is judged whether the operation state of equipments used in a plant are normal or not by using learning performances. That is, a plurality of monitoring parameters are measured for an equipment. Previously determined monitoring parameters are extracted. A leaning mode or a monitoring mode is selected. In the leaning mode, based on the values of previously determined monitoring parameters, values of other monitoring parameters during normal states are learned. In the monitoring mode, based on the values of the previously determined monitoring parameters, typical values of other leaned monitoring parameters are outputted. The typical values of other normal monitoring parameters after learning and the values of other parameters at the present time are compared. If the values of the other parameters at the present time are out of normal range, it is judged as abnormal, and the result is alarmed and displayed. (I.S.)

  16. MR imaging of the abnormal thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the MR images and CT studies of 25 patients with thymic lesions including lymphoma (n = 12), thymoma (n = 6), thymic hyperplasia (n = 2), thymic cyst, leukemia, seminoma, teratoma, and lymphangioma. T1-weighted spin-echo sequences were better for demonstrating tumor extent, and T2-weighted sequences were better for distinguishing cystic from solid thymic masses. Cyst formation and/or hemorrhage appeared as high signal intensity (grater than that of fat) on T2-weighted images. Focal areas of decreased signal intensity (less than that of muscle) corresponded pathologically to areas of fibrosis, capsule or septa formation, air, or calcification. MR imaging provided information comparable with that from CT with respect to lesion size, extent, and associated lymphadenopathy. MR imaging was superior to CT in assessing vascular compression or displacement but overestimated airway compression. The authors believe that MR imaging represents an excellent alternative examination to CT in the evaluation of suspected thymic abnormality

  17. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    not clear. Structural changes are not related to cognitive decline, but a link to an increased risk of stroke, especially in patients with aura, cannot be ruled out. SUMMARY: Migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. It is not yet clear how factors such as migraine sub......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances in......-type, attack frequency, and sex affects this association. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to address these issues. Brain structure changes in migraine could potentially serve as disease biomarkers or as a mean of identifying sub-groups of patients with specific therapeutic needs and prognoses....

  18. Abnormal neuronal migration: radiologic-clinic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our experience in 18 pediatric patients with abnormal neuronal migration. Seven cases of heterotopia of the gray matter, 7 agyria-pachygyria complexes, 1 case of polymicrogyria, 2 cases of schizencephaly and 1 case of hemimegalencephaly were diagnosed by means of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. The clinical picture was reviewed in each case, with special attention to the occurrence of convulsions, psycho motor development and visual changes. In general, the greater the morphological change, the greater the neurological involvement in these patients. However, the two cases of schizencephaly presented mild clinical expression. Magnetic resonance increases the diagnostic yield in neuronal migration disorders. Nevertheless, either ultrasonography or, especially, computed tomography is useful as a first diagnostic approach in these malformative disorders. (Author)

  19. Hemoglobinas anormais e dificuldade diagnóstica Abnormal hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinas humanas, com padrão de herança definido geneticamente, apresentam variações polimórficas características dentro de nossa população, na dependência dos grupos raciais que formam cada região. Aparecem sob a forma de variantes de hemoglobinas ou talassemias, sendo mais freqüentes, no Brasil, os tipos variantes S e C e as talassemias alfa e beta, todas na forma heterozigota. Durante o ano de 1999, amostras de sangue de 506 indivíduos com anemia a esclarecer ou que já passaram por alguma triagem de hemoglobinopatias foram encaminhadas ao Centro de Referência de Hemoglobinas da UNESP, para confirmação diagnóstica e submetidas a procedimentos eletroforéticos, análises bioquímicas e citológicas, para caracterização das hemoglobinas anormais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar quais tipos de hemoglobinas anormais apresentam maior dificuldade diagnóstica. As amostras foram provenientes de 24 cidades de doze estados. Os resultados mostraram que 354 indivíduos (69,96% apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais, sendo 30 Hb AS (5,93%, 5 Hb AC (0,98%, 76 sugestivos de talassemia alfa heterozigota (15,02%, 134 sugestivos de talassemia beta heterozigota (26,48% e 109 com outras formas de hemoglobinas anormais (21,54%, que incluem variantes raras e interações de diferentes formas de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes. Concluiu-se que, apesar da melhoria técnica oferecida atualmente e a constante formação de recursos humanos capacitados, as talassemias em sua forma heterozigota (210 indivíduos -- 41,50% são responsáveis pela maior dificuldade diagnóstica, seguido da caracterização de variantes raras e formas interativas de hemoglobinopatias (109 indivíduos -- 21,54%, sugerindo que se deve aumentar a capacidade de formação de pessoal e as informações a respeito destas alterações genéticas em nossa população.The human hemoglobins, with genetically defined inheritance patterns, have shown characteristic polymorphic variation within the Brazilian population, depending on the racial groups of each region. They have appeared under the form of hemoglobin variants or thalassemias, the variant types S and C and the alpha and beta thalassemias being more common, all of them in heterozygote form. During the year of 1999, blood samples from 506 individuals, with suspected anemia or that had already passed through hemoglobinopathies screening, were sent to the Hemoglobin Reference Center -- UNESP for diagnostic confirmation and submitted to electrophoresis proceedings, biochemical and cytological analyses in order to characterize the type of abnormal hemoglobins. The goal of the present study was to verify which abnormal hemoglobin types show greater diagnostic difficulty. The samples came from 24 cities in twelve states. The results showed that 354 (69.96% individuals presented abnormal hemoglobins, 30 (5.93% being Hb AS, 5 (0.98% being Hb AC, 76 (15.02% suggestive of heterozygote alpha thalassemia, 134 (26.48% suggestive of heterozygote beta thalassemia and 109 (21.54% with other forms of abnormal hemoglobin, including rare variants and different forms of thalassemias and variant hemoglobin interactions. It has been concluded that, despite the improved techniques currently available and a constant influx of capacitated personnel, the heterozygote form of thalassemias (210 individuals -- 41.50% is challenging to diagnose, followed in difficulty by rare variant characterization and interactive forms of hemoglobinopathies (109 individuals -- 21,54%, suggesting that the capacity for production of qualified professionals and information about these genetic changes in our population should be increased.

  20. Hemoglobinas anormais e dificuldade diagnóstica / Abnormal hemoglobins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme G., Leoneli; Rodrigo E., Imperial; Daniela P., Marchi-Salvador; Paulo C., Naoum; Cláudia R., Bonini-Domingos.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinas humanas, com padrão de herança definido geneticamente, apresentam variações polimórficas características dentro de nossa população, na dependência dos grupos raciais que formam cada região. Aparecem sob a forma de variantes de hemoglobinas ou talassemias, sendo mais freqüentes, no Br [...] asil, os tipos variantes S e C e as talassemias alfa e beta, todas na forma heterozigota. Durante o ano de 1999, amostras de sangue de 506 indivíduos com anemia a esclarecer ou que já passaram por alguma triagem de hemoglobinopatias foram encaminhadas ao Centro de Referência de Hemoglobinas da UNESP, para confirmação diagnóstica e submetidas a procedimentos eletroforéticos, análises bioquímicas e citológicas, para caracterização das hemoglobinas anormais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar quais tipos de hemoglobinas anormais apresentam maior dificuldade diagnóstica. As amostras foram provenientes de 24 cidades de doze estados. Os resultados mostraram que 354 indivíduos (69,96%) apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais, sendo 30 Hb AS (5,93%), 5 Hb AC (0,98%), 76 sugestivos de talassemia alfa heterozigota (15,02%), 134 sugestivos de talassemia beta heterozigota (26,48%) e 109 com outras formas de hemoglobinas anormais (21,54%), que incluem variantes raras e interações de diferentes formas de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes. Concluiu-se que, apesar da melhoria técnica oferecida atualmente e a constante formação de recursos humanos capacitados, as talassemias em sua forma heterozigota (210 indivíduos -- 41,50%) são responsáveis pela maior dificuldade diagnóstica, seguido da caracterização de variantes raras e formas interativas de hemoglobinopatias (109 indivíduos -- 21,54%), sugerindo que se deve aumentar a capacidade de formação de pessoal e as informações a respeito destas alterações genéticas em nossa população. Abstract in english The human hemoglobins, with genetically defined inheritance patterns, have shown characteristic polymorphic variation within the Brazilian population, depending on the racial groups of each region. They have appeared under the form of hemoglobin variants or thalassemias, the variant types S and C an [...] d the alpha and beta thalassemias being more common, all of them in heterozygote form. During the year of 1999, blood samples from 506 individuals, with suspected anemia or that had already passed through hemoglobinopathies screening, were sent to the Hemoglobin Reference Center -- UNESP for diagnostic confirmation and submitted to electrophoresis proceedings, biochemical and cytological analyses in order to characterize the type of abnormal hemoglobins. The goal of the present study was to verify which abnormal hemoglobin types show greater diagnostic difficulty. The samples came from 24 cities in twelve states. The results showed that 354 (69.96%) individuals presented abnormal hemoglobins, 30 (5.93%) being Hb AS, 5 (0.98%) being Hb AC, 76 (15.02%) suggestive of heterozygote alpha thalassemia, 134 (26.48%) suggestive of heterozygote beta thalassemia and 109 (21.54%) with other forms of abnormal hemoglobin, including rare variants and different forms of thalassemias and variant hemoglobin interactions. It has been concluded that, despite the improved techniques currently available and a constant influx of capacitated personnel, the heterozygote form of thalassemias (210 individuals -- 41.50%) is challenging to diagnose, followed in difficulty by rare variant characterization and interactive forms of hemoglobinopathies (109 individuals -- 21,54%), suggesting that the capacity for production of qualified professionals and information about these genetic changes in our population should be increased.

  1. Developmental disruptions underlying brain abnormalities in ciliopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiami; Higginbotham, Holden; Li, Jingjun; Nichols, Jackie; Hirt, Josua; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Anton, E S

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential conveyors of signals underlying major cell functions. Cerebral cortical progenitors and neurons have a primary cilium. The significance of cilia function for brain development and function is evident in the plethora of developmental brain disorders associated with human ciliopathies. Nevertheless, the role of primary cilia function in corticogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we delineate the functions of primary cilia in the construction of cerebral cortex and their relevance to ciliopathies, using an shRNA library targeting ciliopathy genes known to cause brain disorders, but whose roles in brain development are unclear. We used the library to query how ciliopathy genes affect distinct stages of mouse cortical development, in particular neural progenitor development, neuronal migration, neuronal differentiation and early neuronal connectivity. Our results define the developmental functions of ciliopathy genes and delineate disrupted developmental events that are integrally related to the emergence of brain abnormalities in ciliopathies. PMID:26206566

  2. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Malhany Nadia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition.

  3. Cardiac abnormalities and sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Joanna; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Many factors have been implicated in SIDS cases including environmental influences such as sleeping arrangements and smoking. Most recently, cardiac abnormalities have been hypothesised to play a role in some cases, particularly the primary genetic arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). Both post-mortem and clinical studies of SIDS cases have provided supporting evidence for the involvement of cardiac genetic disorders in SIDS. This review provides a summary of this evidence focussing particularly on the primary hypothesis related to underlying familial LQTS. In addition, the current literature relating to other cardiac genetic conditions such as Brugada syndrome (BrS) and structural heart diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is briefly presented. Finally, the implications of a possible cardiac genetic cause of SIDS is discussed with reference to the need for genetic testing in SIDS cases and subsequent clinical and genetic testing in family members. PMID:25301030

  4. Abnormal right ventricular relaxation in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Stuart D; La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J; Prior, David L; MacIsaac, Andrew I; Burns, Andrew T

    2015-06-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected PHT were studied. In addition to standard measurements, RV pressure was sampled with a high-fidelity micromanometer, and RV pressure/time curves were analyzed. Patients were divided into a PHT group and a non-PHT group on the basis of a derived mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 25 mmHg. Eleven patients were classified to the PHT group. This group had significantly higher RV minimum diastolic pressure ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] mmHg, [Formula: see text]) and RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP; [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] mmHg, [Formula: see text]), and RV ? was significantly prolonged ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] ms, [Formula: see text]). There were strong correlations between RV ? and RV minimum diastolic pressure ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and between RV ? and RVEDP ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). There was a trend toward increased RV contractility (end-systolic elastance) in the PHT group ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] mmHg/mL, [Formula: see text]) and a correlation between RV systolic pressure and first derivative of maximum pressure change ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Stroke volumes were similar. Invasive measures of RV early relaxation are abnormal in patients with PHT, whereas measured contractility is static or increasing, which suggests that diastolic dysfunction may precede systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, there is a strong association between measures of RV relaxation and RV filling pressures. PMID:26064464

  5. The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies was evaluated. Pelvic MRI was carried out on 29 cases suspected of abnormal pregnancy by ultrasonography and clinical examinations. The abnormal pregnancies were classified into three categories: (1) maternal abnormalities, (2) fetal abnormalities and (3) placental abnormalities. MRI was of great value for the diagnosis of maternal abnormalities, particularly in cases of coexistent pelvic tumor. MRI allowed diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and dermoid cyst through its excellent tissue characterization and broad range of vision. MRI was useful in making diagnoses of fetal central nervous anomalies and fetal death, since the lack of fetal movement and the lesions were clear enough to be detected by MRI. However, anomalies in the fetal trunk or extremities could only be demonstrated, but not diagnosed, by MRI owing to its inferior spatial and time resolution. MRI showed placenta accreta and placental hematoma. Although accurate diagnosis was difficult because of their rarity, MRI revealed the hemorrhagic component of the lesions, which was not shown by ultrasonography. The author believes MRI has potential usefulness in making diagnoses of placental abnormalities through its tissue characterization. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the soft tissue characterization, field of view, while MRI was inferior in time and spatial resolution. In summary, MRI hould be used in case of abnormal pregnancies such as pelvic tumors, fetal nervous anomalies and placental hemorrhagic lesions. MRI will become useful for the diagnosis of other abnormalities as its spatial resolution and fast scan technology advances. (author)

  6. The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The clinical usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies was evaluated. Pelvic MRI was carried out on 29 cases suspected of abnormal pregnancy by ultrasonography and clinical examinations. The abnormal pregnancies were classified into three categories: (1) maternal abnormalities, (2) fetal abnormalities and (3) placental abnormalities. MRI was of great value for the diagnosis of maternal abnormalities, particularly in cases of coexistent pelvic tumor. MRI allowed diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and dermoid cyst through its excellent tissue characterization and broad range of vision. MRI was useful in making diagnoses of fetal central nervous anomalies and fetal death, since the lack of fetal movement and the lesions were clear enough to be detected by MRI. However, anomalies in the fetal trunk or extremities could only be demonstrated, but not diagnosed, by MRI owing to its inferior spatial and time resolution. MRI showed placenta accreta and placental hematoma. Although accurate diagnosis was difficult because of their rarity, MRI revealed the hemorrhagic component of the lesions, which was not shown by ultrasonography. The author believes MRI has potential usefulness in making diagnoses of placental abnormalities through its tissue characterization. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the soft tissue characterization, field of view, while MRI was inferior in time and spatial resolution. In summary, MRI hould be used in case of abnormal pregnancies such as pelvic tumors, fetal nervous anomalies and placental hemorrhagic lesions. MRI will become useful for the diagnosis of other abnormalities as its spatial resolution and fast scan technology advances. (author).

  7. Increased proportion of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive neurons in rat ileal myenteric ganglia after severe acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP remains a potentially life-threatening disease. Gastrointestinal motility disturbance such as intestinal ileus is seen in every case. By now, the mechanisms of pancreatitis-induced ileus are largely unknown. The main purpose of the present study was to observe changes of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive (NOS-IR neurons in ileal myenteric ganglia in SAP rats with gastrointestinal dysmotility, trying to explore underlying nervous mechanisms of pancreatitis-induced ileus. Methods Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operated group and SAP group. SAP was induced by retrograde cholangiopancreatic duct injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. Abdominal X-ray and intestinal transit were performed to detect the existence of paralytic ileus and intestinal dysmotility. Pathological damage of pancreas was evaluated. Double-immunolabeling was employed for the whole-mount preparations of ileal myenteric ganglia. The morphology of NOS-IR neurons were observed and the percentage of NOS-IR neurons was calculated based on the total Hu-immunoreactive neurons. Total RNA of ileum was extracted according to Trizol reagent protocol. Neuronal NOS (nNOS mRNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Results The small intestinal transit index in the SAP group was significantly lower compared with the sham operated group (29.21 ± 3.68% vs 52.48 ± 6.76%, P 0.01. The percentage of NOS-IR neurons in ileal myenteric ganglia in the SAP group was significantly higher than that in the sham operated group (37.5 ± 12.28% vs 26.32 ± 16.15%, P 0.01. nNOS mRNA expression in ileum of SAP group was significantly higher than that in the sham operated group (1.02 ± 0.10 vs 0.70 ± 0.06, P Conclusions The increased quantity of NOS-IR neurons in ileal myenteric ganglia and increased nNOS mRNA expression may suggest nNOS over expression as one of the nervous mechanisms of gastrointestinal dysmotility in SAP rat.

  8. A comparative analysis of the distribution of immunoreactive orexin A and B in the brains of nocturnal and diurnal rodents

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    Nixon Joshua P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orexins (hypocretins are a family of peptides found primarily in neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Although the orexinergic system is generally thought to be the same across species, the orexins are involved in behaviors which show considerable interspecific variability. There are few direct cross-species comparisons of the distributions of cells and fibers containing these peptides. Here, we addressed the possibility that there might be important species differences by systematically examining and directly comparing the distribution of orexinergic neurons and fibers within the forebrains of species with very different patterns of sleep-wake behavior. Methods We compared the distribution of orexin-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in two nocturnal species (the lab rat, Rattus norvegicus and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus and two diurnal species (the Nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus and the degu, Octodon degus. For each species, tissue from the olfactory bulbs through the brainstem was processed for immunoreactivity for orexin A and orexin B (hypocretin-1 and -2. The distribution of orexin-positive cells was noted for each species. Orexin fiber distribution and density was recorded and analyzed using a principal components factor analysis to aid in evaluating potential species differences. Results Orexin-positive cells were observed in the lateral hypothalamic area of each species, though there were differences with respect to distribution within this region. In addition, cells positive for orexin A but not orexin B were observed in the paraventricular nucleus of the lab rat and grass rat, and in the supraoptic nucleus of the lab rat, grass rat and hamster. Although the overall distributions of orexin A and B fibers were similar in the four species, some striking differences were noted, especially in the lateral mammillary nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and flocculus. Conclusion The orexin cell and fiber distributions observed in this study were largely consistent with those described in previous studies. However, the present study shows significant species differences in the distribution of orexin cell bodies and in the density of orexin-IR fibers in some regions. Finally, we note previously undescribed populations of orexin-positive neurons outside the lateral hypothalamus in three of the four species examined.

  9. Abnormal grain growth in undoped strontium and barium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal grain growth is a commonly observed phenomenon in perovskite materials. In order to study this phenomenon, grain growth experiments were conducted over a temperature range from 1425 to 1600 deg. C for the model system SrTiO3 to analyse the nucleation of abnormal grains and to identify the growth mechanism involved for normal and abnormal grains. Grain boundaries of normal and abnormal grains were investigated in quenched samples by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and by energy-dispersive spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope. No amorphous film was observed at the grain boundaries for either normal or abnormal grains. Non-stoichiometry at the grain boundaries was identified as a possible reason for the differences in growth speed. The results are compared to the nucleation and growth of abnormal grains in BaTiO3.

  10. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  11. An increased frequency of human sperm chromosomal abnormalities after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13 cancer patients were studied before radiotherapy (RT) and at regular intervals after RT to determine the effect of RT on chromosomal abnormalities in sperm. Before RT, the frequency of abnormal sperm chromosome complements was 0%. After RT, the majority of men were azoospermic but complements could be analysed from 4 men. In the first 12 months the frequency of abnormalities was 13% and at 24 months it was 13%. By 36 months after RT, most men had recovered sperm production and the frequency of abnormalities in 8 men was 21%, which is significantly higher than the rate in control donors. For individual men the range was 6-67%, and there was a significant correlation between testicular radiation dose and the frequency of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequencies of both numerical and structural abnormalities were significantly increased after RT. (Auth.)

  12. An Abnormal Speech Detection Algorithm Based on GMM-UBM

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    Jun He

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the defects of common used algorithms based on model for abnormal speech recognition, which existed insufficient training data and difficult to fit each type of abnormal characters, an abnormal speech detection method based on GMM-UBM was proposed in this paper. For compensating the defects of methods based on model which difficult to deal with the diversification speech. Firstly, many normal utterances and unknowing type abnormal utterances came from different speaker, were used to train the GMM-UBM for normal speech and abnormal speech, respectively; secondly, the GMM-UBM obtained by training normal speech and abnormal speech were used to s core for these testing utterances. From the results show that compared with GMM and GMM-SVM methods under 24 Gaussians and the ratio of training speech and testing is 6:4, the correct classification ratio of this proposed have 6.1% and 4.4% improvement, respectively

  13. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  14. Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA and immunoreactivity in the rat heart and human atrial appendage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization of mRNA encoding preproatrial natriuretic peptide was investigated in tissue sections and cultures of rat heart and in sections of human right atrial appendage using the technique of in situ hybridization with 32P- and 35S-labeled RNA probes. Rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) transcripts were demonstrated in numerous atrial myocytes and, to a lesser extent, in ventricular myocytes in both tissue sections and newborn rat heart cultures. These findings are consistent with those obtained by RNA blot analysis of rat heart total RNA, indicating that a single prepro-ANP transcript of ? 900 nucleotides was present in the ventricles as well as the atria. Using a 35S-labeled RNA probe for human ANP mRNA, ANP transcripts were also localized to the majority of myocytes in the human right atrial appendage. Only background levels of autoradiographic labeling were obtained when RNA probes identical to the coding sequence of rat or human ANP mRNA were used. A close correlation was found between the distribution of ANP immunoreactivity and prepro-ANP mRNA in these preparations. These results provide unequivocal evidence for the expression of the ANP gene in the rat ventricles, as well as the atria, because myocytes in these tissues have been established as the sites of both ANP localization and precursor biosynthesis. The combined use of cardiac cultures and in situ hybridization may be of value in future studies investigating the regulation of ANP synthesis in cardiac myocytes

  15. Platelet met-enkephalin immunoreactivity and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations in migraine patients: effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan, amitriptyline and chlorimipramine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiardi, A; Picotti, G B; Di Giulio, A M; Bussone, G; Galva, M D; La Mantia, L; Mantegazza, P

    1984-06-01

    In thirty patients with common migraine the platelet concentrations of met-enkephalin immunoreactivity (ME) (76 +/- 9 pg/mg protein) were similar to those in 23 healthy volunteers (77 +/- 5), suggesting that there is no alteration in the ME pool in this biochemical compartment in migraine. Chronic treatment (4 weeks) with drugs that interfere with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis or uptake induced the expected changes in platelet 5-HT levels, i.e. a rise following administration of the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (daily dose: 300-500 mg, n = 9) and a decrease after amine uptake inhibition by amitryptyline (30-75 mg, n = 7) and even more by chlorimipramine (30-50 mg, n = 9). Platelet ME concentrations rose by up to approximately 90% over the basal values after either 5-hydroxytryptophan (significantly from week 2) or amitriptyline (at week 2) and were unchanged after chlorimipramine, indicating that 5-HT and ME concentrations in platelets can vary independently. The high platelet ME levels following 5-hydroxytryptophan and amitriptyline cannot be explained at present. They might be due either to increased ME synthesis, possibly in the megakaryocyte, or to decreased utilization by platelets or both. PMID:6610476

  16. Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.E.S., Hermel; G.S., Severino; A.L., Cecconello; F.M., Pereira; G.L., Sanvitto; A.B., Lucion.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the [...] long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control) and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life). At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-µm sections at 120-µm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 ± 206, N = 6; 1020 ± 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively), paraventricular (584 ± 85, N = 8; 682 ± 62, N = 9) or periventricular (743 ± 118, N = 7; 990 ± 158, N = 7) nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.

  17. Streptozocin diabetes alters immunoreactive beta-endorphin levels and pain perception after 8 wk in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, L J; Estilow, S; Lewis, M; Vasilenko, P

    1986-12-01

    Plasma, pituitary, and hypothalamic levels of the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin were measured by radioimmunoassay and column chromatography in female rats 8 wk after the induction of diabetes with streptozocin (STZ) and in control female rats. In addition, pain perception was determined by measuring the latency to paw lick or jump after being placed on a hot plate. Plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin (IR-BE) were significantly reduced in STZ-induced diabetic female rats, as were the content and concentration of IR-BE in the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary (NIL) and the content of IR-BE in the hypothalamus. The concentration but not the content of IR-BE in the anterior pituitary (AP) of the STZ-induced diabetic rats was increased significantly. Streptozocin-induced diabetes also resulted in a significant reduction in the total protein content of the AP, NIL, and hypothalamus. Column chromatography indicated that the decrease in IR-BE in the plasma, NIL, and hypothalamus represented a decrease in beta-endorphin, whereas the increase in IR-BE in the AP represented an increase in both beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. Diabetic animals consistently showed decreased latencies to paw lick or jump when subjected to hot-plate testing after 7 wk. These findings suggest that in female rats, central and peripheral endogenous opiate levels and tolerance to nociceptive thermal stimulation were diminished by 8 wk of chemically induced diabetes. PMID:2945745

  18. Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermel E.E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life. At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-µm sections at 120-µm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 ± 206, N = 6; 1020 ± 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively, paraventricular (584 ± 85, N = 8; 682 ± 62, N = 9 or periventricular (743 ± 118, N = 7; 990 ± 158, N = 7 nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.

  19. Immunoreactive hepatic stellate cells in biopsy material in children with chronic hepatitis B. The first report in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?otowska, J M; Lebensztejn, D M

    2015-12-01

    The research objective was to identify and quantify the immunohistochemically (IHC) stained hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), including staging (S), location in the hepatic lobule, and correlation with hepatocyte count. Retrospective morphological analysis was based on liver biopsies obtained from 70 CHB children before antiviral treatment. To determine fibrosis stage, the Batts and Ludwig scoring system was applied. Immunohistochemical examinations used monoclonal antibodies against ?-SMA. IHC observations in CHB children revealed a significant positive correlation between the mean number of ?-SMA immunopositive HSCs within the hepatic lobule (r = 0.518; p power field) in 4 study groups, i.e. with S-0, S-1, S-2, S-3, were 5.00; 5.98; 9.80; 12.19, respectively. Interestingly, in most groups the highest count of immunoreactive HSCs/100 hepatocytes was in the intermediate zone, indicating its high metabolic activity in liver fibrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and statistical investigations of HSCs in children with CHB showed a close positive correlation of cell count with fibrosis intensity, which may have prognostic implications in this pathology. PMID:26619100

  20. Prognostic Significance of Immunoreactive Neutrophil Elastase in Human Breast Cancer: Long-Term Follow-Up Results in 313 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Akizuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We have measured the concentration of immunoreactive neutrophil elastase (ir-NE in the tumor extracts of 313 primary human breast cancers. Sufficient time has elapsed, and we are now ready to analyze its prognostic value in human breast cancer. METHODS: ir-NE concentration in tumor extracts was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that enables a rapid measurement of both free-form ir-NE and the ?1-protease inhibitor-complexed form of ir-NE. We analyzed the prognostic value of this enzyme in human breast cancer in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Patients with breast cancer tissue containing a high concentration of ir-NE had poor survival compared to those with a low concentration of ir-NE at the cutoff point of 9.0 µg/100 mg protein (P = .0012, which had been previously determined in another group of 49 patients. Multivariate stepwise analysis selected lymph node status (P= .0004; relative risk = 1.46 and ir-NE concentration (P= .0013; relative risk = 1.43 as independent prognostic factors for recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor ir-NE concentration is an independent prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer who undergo curative surgery. This enzyme may play an active role in tumor progression that leads to metastasis in human breast cancer.

  1. In vivo and in vitro effects of bradykinin on the release of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, M; Ohura, M; Shimizu, I; Yamonoi, A; Iwasaki, A; Saito, S

    1985-08-01

    The effect of bradykinin (BK) on the release of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-EpLI) in rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of BK at 5 micrograms/100 g body weight resulted in significant increase in the plasma beta-EpLI level after 15 min. BK at concentrations of 10(-12)-10(-7) M also caused dose-dependent stimulation of beta-EpLI release from dispersed cells of rat anterior pituitary. On gel chromatography, the beta-EpLI released by incubation of the cells with 10(-7) M BK separated into two components, eluted in the same positions as human beta-lipotropin and human beta-endorphin, respectively. BK did not stimulate beta-EpLI release in Ca++-free medium. Addition of 10(-3) M verapamil or 10(-6) M dexamethasone to the incubation medium inhibited BK-induced beta-EpLI release from the cells. Quabain (10(-5) M) also stimulated beta-EpLI release, but its effect was not additive with that of BK. These results indicate that BK stimulates beta-EpLI release and that calcium ion is involved in the mechanism of this effect. PMID:2931612

  2. Ex vivo measurement of calpain activation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin degradation.

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    Jacek M Witkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited proteolysis of multiple intracellular proteins by endogenous Ca-dependent cysteine proteases--calpains--is an important regulatory mechanism for cell proliferation, apoptosis etc. Its importance for cellular functions is stressed by existence of endogenous calpain inhibitors--calpastatins. The calpain-calpastatin system within living cells is in a fragile balance, which depends on both partners. The interdependence of calpain--a protease--and calpastatin--an endogenous inhibitor and at the same time a substrate for this enzyme makes any assessment of actual activity of this enzyme in the cells very difficult. In this work we made an attempt to estimate and compare the activity of calpain in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by assessing the levels of limited proteolysis of calpastatin in these cells by western blot, while at the same time the levels of calpain protein inside these cells was measured by flow cytometry. Our results indicate that it is possible to compare (semi-quantitatively the activities of calpain in peripheral blood CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes from various donors that way. Preliminary results showed that calpain activity is increased in the CD4+ T cells isolated from peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to control lymphocytes. Extremely high intrinsic activity of calpain was detected in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CD19+ cells. All this confirms the detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin as a good maker of endogenous calpain activity.

  3. MPTP-induced increase in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like immunoreactivity in the monkey cerebellum

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    D Necchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been described to be overexpressed following many pathological stimuli, but whether they are required for neurodegeneration or neuroprotection is still open. In the present report, we analyzed the role of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in Purkinje cell degeneration caused by the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in the monkey cerebellum, and determined the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant drug a-dihydroergocryptine (DHEC, whose prior and simultaneous administration reduced the MPTP-induced neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. Immunocytochemistry for c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins showed persistent increased staining in Purkinje cells of MPTP-treated monkeys. The staining was greatly reduced in animals receiving DHEC. Similar results were observed in white matter glial cells after immunoreaction for c-Fos. The results suggest that, at least as far as the cerebellum is concerned, the increase in c-Fos and c-Jun expression correlate with cell damage, rather than with preservation.

  4. Distribution of vasotocin- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity in the brain of blue tit (Cyanistes coeruleus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, Catherine M; Székely, Tamás; Csillag, András; Zachar, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus) are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT) and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping. The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species. PMID:26236200

  5. Distribution of Vasotocin- and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-like Immunoreactivity in the Brain of Blue Tit (Cyanistes coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Szekely

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping. The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species.

  6. Noise Effects on the Complex Patterns of Abnormal Heartbeats

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Frohlinde, V; Glass, L; Goldberger, A L; Stanley, H E; Plamen, C I; Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Glass, Plamen Ch. Ivanov Leon; Goldberger, Ary L.

    2001-01-01

    We show that complex patterns of certain abnormal heartbeats in the normal heart rhythm can be described by a model of two independent oscillators with stochastic elements. We find that this model successfully reproduces key statistical properties of the abnormal beats within a 12-hour heartbeat record, and demonstrate how the noise accounts for the emergence of the patterns of normal and abnormal heartbeats. We observe a best agreement with the data when an `optimal' level of noise is introduced.

  7. Augmentin treatment during pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik T; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the human teratogenic potential of augmentin (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid) treatment during pregnancy. Materials and methods: Pair analysis of cases with different congenital abnormalities and their matched controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, between 1991 and 1996. Results: The case group included 6935 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities, while the control group consisted o...

  8. Incidence of malignancy and clonal chromosomal abnormalities in Fanconi anemia

    OpenAIRE

    B R Vundinti; S Korgaonkar; Ghosh, K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive, cancer susceptibility disorder characterized by diverse clinical features, such as short stature, skeletal or skin abnormalities, progressive bone marrow (BM) failure, and increased risk of malignancies. Clonal chromosomal abnormalities are frequently reported in FA patients transformed to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Aim: To study the incidence of malignancy and clonal chromosomal abnormalities in ...

  9. Hypertension-related eye abnormalities and the risk of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Amanda D.; Bruce, Beau B; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that hypertensive ocular funduscopic abnormalities are clearly related to stroke, even after controlling for level of blood pressure and other vascular risk factors. Retinal abnormalities indicative of a breakdown of the blood-retina barrier confer a greater increase in risk for stroke than sclerotic retinal changes. Similar retinal changes also have a positive relationship with stroke mortality. Hypertensive ocular fundus abnormalities are also reported to be associat...

  10. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    OpenAIRE

    BUCKLEY, PETER F.

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by ...

  11. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei, E-mail: feiwang1973@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan Yunyun, E-mail: duanyun2003@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  12. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  13. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  14. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  15. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  16. Abnormality diagnosis device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention rapidly detects leakage of primary coolants due to rupture of heat transfer pipes in a steam generator of a PWR type reactor. That is, a neutron detector is disposed, as a dose rate measuring system, to a secondary main steam system, a secondary main steam pipeline, or a turbine. A calculation processing system compares the data obtained therefrom and a normal state, to judge the presence of an abnormal symptom due to leakage and calculate radioactivity concentration in the main steams at a measuring point based on the dose rate. With such procedures, if a heat transfer pipe in the steam generator should be ruptured, radioactive materials in the primary coolants reach the position of the neutron detector in several seconds. Based on the result, progress of the leakage is forecast, to estimate the scale of the ruptured portion with lapse of time. Since neutrons are an object of the measurement in the device of the present invention, the device does not undergo influence of gamma rays released from a radiation source nuclide present in natural radiation rays and the primary system. (I.S.)

  17. Abnormal cortisol levels affect zebrafish early embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinushan Nesan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR signaling in the stress response has been well studied in adult vertebrates. In general, the stress response is activated after hatching in fishes, and in late stage fetal development in mammals. However, until recently, the function of GR in early development was unknown. Our prior research detailed a critical role for the glucocorticoid receptor in initial embryogenesis using zebrafish (Danio rerio as a model. We have shown that levels of cortisol, the primary GR ligand in teleosts and most mammals, decrease temporally after initial maternal hormone deposition and prior to hatching (Alsop and Vijayan, 2008. We hypothesized that this pre-hatch time period represents a phase of tightly regulated cortisol signaling and that low cortisol levels maintain the proper developmental patterns mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor. To test this, we microinjected cortisol (32pg/egg into the yolk of one-cell zebrafish embryos and observed morphological changes during embryogenesis. We observed accelerated growth over the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf, as measured by developmental staging and the development of somites from 12-15 hpf. In addition, a significant percentage of 48 hpf embryos develop heart defects, with some embryos exhibiting cardiac edema and others developing without a heart. Overall, abnormal cortisol levels during early development lead to growth and cardiac defects in zebrafish.

  18. Abnormal visual phenomena in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Gorgoraptis, Nikos; Kaski, Diego; Ryan, Natalie; Husain, Masud; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) report a host of unusual and poorly explained visual disturbances. This preliminary report describes a single patient (CRO), and documents and investigates abnormally prolonged colour afterimages (concurrent and prolonged perception of colours complimentary to the colour of an observed stimulus), perceived motion of static stimuli, and better reading of small than large letters. We also evaluate CRO's visual and vestibular functions in an effort to understand the origin of her experience of room tilt illusion, a disturbing phenomenon not previously observed in individuals with cortical degenerative disease. These visual symptoms are set in the context of a 4-year longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigation of CRO's visual and other cognitive skills. We hypothesise that prolonged colour after-images are attributable to relative sparing of V1 inhibitory interneurons; perceived motion of static stimuli reflects weak magnocellular function; better reading of small than large letters indicates a reduced effective field of vision; and room tilt illusion effects are caused by disordered integration of visual and vestibular information. This study contributes to the growing characterisation of PCA whose atypical early visual symptoms are often heterogeneous and frequently under-recognised. PMID:20818540

  19. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 ?m) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  20. Abnormal feeling in swallowing: a complication of cervical spondylopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between abnormal feeling in swallowing and cervical spondylopathy and improve the understanding of cervical spondylopathy complicated by abnormal feeling in swallowing. Method: The study group included 11 patients who were clinically diagnosed as cervical spondylopathy in our hospital from 1996 to 2002. On Toshiba 500 mA KXO-15C radiography system, patient swallowing dense barium was examined in several projections. Results: Hyperostosis of vertebral body resulted in local compression of the laryngopharynx and the posterior wall of upper esophageal tube, causing abnormal feeling in swallowing. Conclusion: Abnormal feeling in swallowing could be one of the clinical symptoms of cervical spondylopathy

  1. Dynamic upper respiratory abnormalities in Thoroughbred racehorses in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier E., Mirazo; Patrick, Page; Luis, Rubio-Martinez; Hendrick J., Marais.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper airway endoscopy at rest has been the diagnostic method of choice for equine upper respiratory tract (URT) conditions. Development of high-speed treadmill endoscopy improved the sensitivity of URT endoscopy by allowing observation of the horse's nasopharynx and larynx during exercise. However, [...] treadmill exercise may not always accurately represent the horse's normal exercise as track surface, rider, tack and environmental variables are altered. Recently, the development of dynamic overground endoscopy (DOE) has addressed some of these shortcomings. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the URT abnormalities detected during DOE in racehorses presenting with poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Patient records of Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing DOE from November 2011 to August 2012 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, primary complaint, distance exercised, maximum speed and dynamic airway abnormalities detected. Fifty-two horses underwent DOE for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. The main abnormalities detected included axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (40%), vocal cord collapse (35%), abnormal arytenoid function (33%) and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (25%). A total of 40 horses were diagnosed with one or more abnormalities of the URT (77%). Fifteen horses (29%) had a single abnormality and 25 horses (48%) had multiple abnormalities. This study showed that DOE is a useful technique for investigating dynamic disorders of the URT in racehorses in South Africa. The total number and type of dynamic pathological conditions were comparable with those identified in similar populations in other geographical locations.

  2. Mathematical Function Development For Abnormalities Of Kidney Using Spectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA KUMAR SANT, PROF. M.P.PARSAI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the quantitative measure the various types of carcinogenic abnormalities in specific part of body.in this paper we have developed the mathematical function of MRI images normal and abnormal human kidney. The Abnormalities have been discussed in Frequency domain. There is a crystal clear demarcation in abnormal area in stem graph of normal MRI image and its Fourier transform image of stem graph. These Mathematical functions can lead to quantitative method for evaluating and hence providing therapy.

  3. Aortic pulmonary window: normal and abnormal CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief description of the normal anatomy of the aortic-pulmonary window (APW), 75 cases with APW abnormality are studied. The most frequent abnormalities of the walls of the APW are aortic and pulmonary aneurysms and aortic dissections which are well demonstrated by CT. The most frequent content abnormalities of the APW are large lymph nodes and lung carcinomas. Many other abnormalities of the APW have been described. CT provides a good study of the APW and facilitates the diagnosis of filling of the APW on chest X-rays

  4. Distribution of Abnormal Q Waves on Body Surface in Relation to Left Ventricular Wall Motion Abnormalities in Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Haruki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Takami, Kazuhide; Uematsu, Haruyoshi; Ishikawa, Tomihisa; Sotobata, Iwao

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the possible one-to-one relationship between each site of asynergy of the left ventricle and the body surface area to which ensuing abnormal electrical phenomena are reflected. In 140 post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients, distribution of abnormal Q waves on the body surface was correlated with the abnormal segments of LV wall motion identified by left ventriculography (LVG). Unipolar lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded from 87 lead points ov...

  5. Increase of annexin 1 immunoreactivity in spinal cord of newborn opossum (Monodelphis domestica) at the time when regeneration after injury stops being possible

    OpenAIRE

    Mladinic, M; Del Bel, E.; Nicholls, J

    2007-01-01

    Annexins constitute a family of proteins that associate reversibly with cell membranes in a calcium dependent manner. We have studied the distribution of annexin 1, which is known to mediate anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids, and which is upregulated after spinal cord injury, in newborn and adult South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) spinal cord. We show the increase in the annexin 1 immunoreactivity in spinal cords of neonatal opossums over the ...

  6. Simultaneous release by bradykinin of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivities from capsaicin-sensitive structures in guinea-pig heart.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Geppetti; Maggi, C A; Perretti, F; Frilli, S.; Manzini, S.

    1988-01-01

    Both bradykinin and capsaicin infusion evoked a marked increase in the outflow of substance P- (SP-LI) and calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI) from guinea-pig isolated, perfused heart. After acute exposure to capsaicin in vitro, or in hearts taken from animals pretreated in vivo with capsaicin, bradykinin failed to induce any release. The positive chronotropic effect of bradykinin was reduced after acute capsaicin administration. The effect of bradykinin in the gui...

  7. Folic acid deficiency increases delayed neuronal death, DNA damage, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity, and gliosis in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Suh, Hong-Won; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Kwon, Young-Guen; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-07-01

    Folic acid deficiency increases stroke risk. In the present study, we examined whether folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage and gliosis via oxidative stress in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 5 min. Exposure to an FAD increased plasma homocysteine levels by five- to eightfold compared with those of animals fed with a control diet (CD). In CD-treated animals, most neurons were dead in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas, in FAD-treated animals, this occurred 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was performed to examine DNA damage in CA1 neurons in both groups after ischemia, and it was found that 8-OHdG immunoreactivity in both FAD and CD groups peaked at 12 hr after reperfusion, although the immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much greater than that in the CD group. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; a final mediator of neutrophil transendothelial migration) immunoreactivity in both groups increased with time after ischemia/reperfusion: Its immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much higher than that in the CD group 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, reactive gliosis in the ischemic CA1 region increased with time after ischemia in both groups, but astrocytosis and microgliosis in the FAD group were more severe than in the CD group at all times after ischemia. Our results suggest that folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage induced by ischemia. PMID:18335523

  8. An Immunoreactive 38-Kilodalton Protein of Ehrlichia canis Shares Structural Homology and Iron-Binding Capacity with the Ferric Ion-Binding Protein Family

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, C. Kuyler; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Popov, Vsevolod. L.; McBride, Jere W.

    2005-01-01

    Ehrlichiae are tick-transmitted, gram-negative, obligately intracellular bacteria that live and replicate in cytoplasmic vacuoles, but little is known about iron acquisition mechanisms necessary for their survival. In this study, a genus-conserved immunoreactive ferric ion-binding protein (Fbp) of Ehrlichia canis was identified and its iron-binding capability was investigated. E. canis Fbp was homologous to a family of periplasmic Fbp's involved in iron acquisition and transport in gram-negat...

  9. Localisation of immunoreactive factor VIII, nitric oxide synthase, substance P, endothelin-1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine in human postmortem middle cerebral artery.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorelova, E; Loesch, A.; Bodin, P.; CHADWICK, L; Hamlyn, P J; Burnstock, G

    1996-01-01

    This pre-embedding electron-immunocytochemical study investigated the localisation of endothelial (type III) and neuronal (type I) isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, substance P, endothelin-1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the human middle cerebral artery taken up to 40 h postmortem. To ¿recover' from the anoxic period some of the vessels were incubated in oxygenated Krebs solution prior to the immunoprocedure. At this long postmortem time, immunoreactivity to type III and type I nitric oxide syn...

  10. Oxidatively altered IgG with increased immunoreactivity to ?2-glycoprotein I and its peptide clusters influence human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artenjak, A; Omersel, J; Ahlin Grabnar, P; Mlinari?-Raš?an, I; Shoenfeld, Y; Sodin-Semrl, S; Boži?, B; ?u?nik, S

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play a role in modifying antibodies in favor of higher auto-immunoreactivity. We studied the immunoreactivity of oxidized IgG (oxIgG) to ?2-glycoprotein I (?2GPI), six peptide sequences corresponding to amino acid clusters on its different domains, to determine their effects on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Human IgG was purified from seven donors, electro-oxidized and checked for immunoreactivity and avidity to ?2GPI and to peptides by ELISA. Conformational stability and antibody-antigen complex formation of oxIgG was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Resting and activated sub-confluent HCAEC were stimulated with oxIgG or IgG. Secreted cytokines were measured by ELISA. Immunoreactivity of seven oxIgG samples increased to 7.5-fold against ?2GPI and to 3.8-fold against six peptides as compared to IgG. oxIgG showed low avidity "properties." Conformational changes and exposure of protein hydrophobic regions were confirmed by an elevation in fluorescence (2.4- to 5.0-fold) on bis-ANS dye binding to oxIgG. oxIgG significantly elevated the release of GRO? and IL-8 in resting and activated states of HCAEC. Oxidation alters IgG in favor of autoreactivity toward whole ?2GPI and corresponding peptides on different domains of ?2GPI and could lead to dysfunction of arterial endothelium by upregulation of chemokines. PMID:25801888

  11. Increasing proportions of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive interneurons colocalize with choline acetyltransferase or vasoactive intestinal peptide in the developing rat cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Asmus, Stephen E.; Cocanougher, Benjamin T.; Allen, Donald L.; Boone, John B.; Brooks, Elizabeth A.; Hawkins, Sarah M.; Hench, Laura A.; Ijaz, Talha; Mayfield, Meredith N.

    2011-01-01

    Cortical interneurons are critical for information processing, and their dysfunction has been implicated in neurological disorders. One subset of this diverse cell population expresses tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) during postnatal rat development. Cortical TH-immunoreactive neurons appear at postnatal day (P) 16. The number of TH cells sharply increases between P16 and P20 and subsequently decreases to adult values. The absence of apoptotic markers in these cells suggests that the reduction in c...

  12. p27 and Skp2 immunoreactivity and its clinical significance with endocrine and chemo-endocrine treatments in node-negative early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaioli, A; Monti, F; Regan, M M; Maffini, F; Mastropasqua, M G; Spataro, V; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Panzini, I; Gianni, L.; GOLDHIRSCH, A; A. Coates; Price, K N; Gusterson, B. A.; Viale, G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low p27 and high Skp2 immunoreactivity are associated with a poor prognosis and other poor prognostic features including resistant phenotypes and antiestrogen drug resistance. We investigated these proteins in two International Breast Cancer Study Group trials studying node-negative early breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trial VIII compared chemotherapy followed by goserelin with either modality alone in premenopausal patients. Trial IX compared chemotherapy followed by tamoxi...

  13. Biosynthesis and release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in rat pancreatic islets in organ culture. Effects of age, glucose, and streptozotocin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolva, L O; Welinder, B S; Hanssen, K F; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1983-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity (TRH-IR) was measured in isolated islets and in medium from rat pancreatic islets maintained in organ culture. TRH-IR in methanol extracts of both islets and culture medium was eluted in the same position as synthetic TRH by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and exhibited dilution curves parallel with synthetic TRH in radioimmunoassay. [3H]Histidine was incorporated into a component that reacted with TRH antiserum and had the same retention time a...

  14. Stability in aromatase immunoreactivity of steroid-producing cells during early development of XX gonads of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: an organ culture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Fumie; Kobayashi, Tohru; Matsuda, Masaru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2008-03-01

    The organ culture system is a useful tool to study the effects of various factors on the development of undifferentiated gonads. In this study, we first established an organ culture system for gonads of all genetic male and female Nile tilapia at 5-122 days after hatching (dah). This short-term (3 days) organ culture system was then used to examine the stability of the immunoreactivity of aromatase (the enzyme which converts androgen to estrogen, thus playing a crucial role in ovarian differentiation) in steroid-producing cells (SPCs). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that aromatase-positive cells could be initially detected in the vicinity of blood vessels in the XX gonads at 7 dah. These SPCs completely lost their immunoreactivity after 3 days in culture, indicating the instability of SPCs during early ovarian differentiation. In contrast, the immunoreactivity of the SPCs was maintained to some extent even after 3 days in culture, if the gonads were from 15-23 dah. In XX gonads collected at 122 dah, there were two major populations of SPCs: one in the vicinity of the blood vessel and the other near the oocyte. The aromatase immunoreactivity was maintained in SPCs located around the oocytes, but not in those in the vicinity of the blood vessel, after 3 days in culture. These results suggest that the SPCs originate from the cells in the vicinity of the blood vessels prior to the initial ovarian differentiation in tilapia and that the degree of differentiation of SPCs is dependent on their location in the ovary. PMID:18393572

  15. Lack of TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity predicts effect of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients (n=647) with primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoe, Gro L.; Hertel, Pernille Bræmer; Bartels, Annette; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva; Rasmussen, Birgitte B.; Mouridsen, H T; Ejlertsen, Bent Laursen; Brunner, Nils

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: A number of prospective studies have shown that adjuvant CEF significantly improves disease-free and overall survival as compared to CMF in breast cancer patients. Our aim was to determine whether the benefit of epirubicin versus methotrexate differs according to TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tissue micro arrays from 647 patients randomly assigned to CMF or CEF in DBCG trial 89D were included. The primary end-point was invasive disease-free survival (IDFS). A...

  16. Is the presence of abnormal prion protein in the renal glomeruli of feline species presenting with FSE authentic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencsik Anna A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a recent paper written by Hilbe et al (BMC vet res, 2009, the nature and specificity of the prion protein deposition in the kidney of feline species affected with feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE were clearly considered doubtful. This article was brought to our attention because we published several years ago an immunodetection of abnormal prion protein in the kidney of a cheetah affected with FSE. At this time we were convinced of its specificity but without having all the possibilities to demonstrate it. As previously published by another group, the presence of abnormal prion protein in some renal glomeruli in domestic cats affected with FSE is indeed generally considered as doubtful mainly because of low intensity detected in this organ and because control kidneys from safe animals present also a weak prion immunolabelling. Here we come back on these studies and thought it would be helpful to relay our last data to the readers of BMC Vet res for future reference on this subject. Here we come back on our material as it is possible to study and demonstrate the specificity of prion immunodetection using the PET-Blot method (Paraffin Embedded Tissue - Blot. It is admitted that this method allows detecting the Proteinase K (PK resistant form of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres without any confusion with unspecific immunoreaction. We re-analysed the kidney tissue versus adrenal gland and brain samples from the same cheetah affected with TSE using this PET-Blot method. The PET-Blot analysis revealed specific PrPres detection within the brain, adrenal gland and some glomeruli of the kidney, with a complete identicalness compared to our previous detection using immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, these new data enable us to confirm with assurance the presence of specific abnormal prion protein in the adrenal gland and in the kidney of the cheetah affected with FSE. It also emphasizes the usefulness for the re-examination of any available tissue blocks with the PET-Blot method as a sensitive complementary tool in case of doubtful PrP IHC results.

  17. An analysis of epilepsy with chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Hideo; Imataka, George; Nakagawa, Eiji; Nitta, Akihisa; Suzuki, Naomitsu; Hirao, Jun-ichi; Hirano, Jun-ichi; Suzumura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Arisaka, Osamu; Eguchi, Mitsuoki

    2005-08-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of neonates with chromosomal abnormalities and epilepsy who had been admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and followed up at the outpatient clinic of Dokkyo University School of Medicine. Chromosomal anomalies were diagnosed in 128 of 5789 patients admitted from 1978 through 2001. Seventy-one neonates had trisomy 21, 29 had trisomy 18, 8 had trisomy 13, and 20 had other chromosomal anomalies. Seizures occurred in five patients with trisomy 21 and in one patient each with trisomy 18, 6q-, 13q-, 21q-, and mosaicism trisomy 13. Two patients with 4p- [Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome] were admitted to the NICU, but were not followed up at our outpatient clinic. The boy with 6q- (46,XY,-6, +der(6)t(6;11)(q25.1;q23.3)mat) had agenesis of the corpus callosum and multiple congenital anomalies as well as intractable epilepsy. The girl with 13q- (46, XX, t(2,4)(q24.2;p14), del (13)(q21.2q31.2)) had infantile spasms at 12 months, which were well controlled with nitrazepam and vitamin B6. The girl with mosaic trisomy 8q; (46, XX, der(8) (qter-->q11.2::p23.3-->qter)/46, XX), was not born at our hospital, but showed unique clinical features. She had intractable epilepsy characterized by episodes of vomiting and staring with astatic seizures. Computed tomography of the brain revealed bilateral calcification in the globus pallidus, associated with bursts of high-amplitude slow waves on electroencephalography. One of the two patients with del(15)(q12)[Angelman syndrome] had giant-amplitude visual evoked potential, suggesting hyperexcitability of the visual cortex. PMID:16023555

  18. [Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, V; Hamm, H

    2014-12-01

    Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

  19. Management of roads with abnormal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several asphalt concrete (AC) roads in Taoyuan County of Taiwan were found radioactively abnormal in 1994. Atomic Energy Council (AEC), the regulatory agency, was asked to take the samples, to perform the radiochemical analysis and dose evaluation as well as to investigate the source of contamination. The cause of high radiation was due to high uranium and thorium concentration slag used in the AC. The dose rate was approximately 1 ?Sv/hr at the road surface. The maximum annual dose received by pedestrians was estimated at 0.13 mSv (2.5% of annual dose limit of 5 mSv for the public), or approximately 1/15 of the value of annual natural background radiation in the Taiwan area. Consequently, the AEC suggested that there was no need to implement engineering remedy measures to remove the AC surface of the roads. However, upon consideration of socioeconomic condition and public opinion, the local government still decided to remove the contaminated surface of these roads. The AEC helped to formulate the operational procedures for removal and disposal of the AC including the radiation protection program and the disposal site. To date, all the contaminated AC surface of the roads was removed and properly disposed. The contaminated AC roads are a typical example of improper disposal of wastes containing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). A new regulation was promulgated by AEC recently to limit the use of slag, coal ash or any other industrial wastes unless its radiation or activity level is below the limit. (author)

  20. Intracranial CT abnormality associated with childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We showed three abnormal CT findings of childhood leukemia. Case 1: A 3-year-old boy was found to have acute lymphocytic leukemia in January, 1980. Following prophylactic skull irradiation totaling 2,300 rad and 30 mg of intrathecal methotrexate, he was treated with oral and intravenous methotrexate (10-15 mg once weekly, totaling 2,035 mg). CT taken 2 years and 3 months after the onset showed fine, high-density spots in the left frontal, temporal, and bilateral parietal subcortical regions, without any contrast enhancement. The high-density spots were diagnosed as parenchymal calcification induced by the irradiation and methotrexate therapy. Case 2: A 5-year-old boy complaining of anemia and fever was diagnosed as having acute myelocytic leukemia and was treated with VAMP and DCVP. In March, 1982, he complained of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting 4.5 years after his onset. There were no neurological deficits nor any nuchal stiffness. A lumbar puncture showed increasing pressure of CSF over 250 mm H2O and a pleocytosis of the myeloblasts. CT showed an enhanced high-density mass in the pineal region and hydrocephalus. He improved and showed a normal CT after treatment with skull irradiation of 2,400 rad and four intraventricular injections of 15 mg methotrexate, 30 mg cytosine arabinoside, and 15 mg hydrocortisone via Ommaya's reservoir. Case 3: A 14-year-old boy who had suffered from acute lymphocytic leukemia, associated with meningeal infiltration, for 2 years and 10 months, complained of headache, disturbance of consciousness, and focal convulsion of the left upper limb in December, 1982. CT demonstrated multiple, round, high-density areas in the cerebral hemispheres. Those high-density areas were diagnosed as intracerebral leukemic masses and/or hemorrhages. After 1400 rad of skull irradiation and steroid therapy, the patient rallied shortly, but then expired. An autopsy was refused. (J.P.N.)