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1

Abnormal phosphorylation of Ser409/410 of TDP-43 in FTLD-U and ALS.  

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A monoclonal antibody specific for phosphoserines 409 and 410 of TDP-43 (mAb pS409/410) has been produced. It strongly stained TDP-43-positive inclusions in brain of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but did not stain nuclei, in which normal TDP-43 is localized. It did not recognize TDP-43 rapidly extracted from brains of rats at various developmental stages, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of Ser409/410 is an abnormal event. Analysis of postmortem changes of TDP-43 revealed that the amounts of Sarkosyl-insoluble, urea-soluble full-length TDP-43 and a 35kDa N-terminal fragment increased time-dependently. PMID:18656473

Inukai, Yuki; Nonaka, Takashi; Arai, Tetsuaki; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Beach, Thomas G; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Hasegawa, Masato

2008-08-20

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ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons  

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Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-01

3

Significance and limitation of the pathological classification of TDP-43 proteinopathy.  

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Based on the cerebral tans-activation response DNA protein 43 (TDP-43) immunohistochemistry, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP) is classified into four subtypes: type A has numerous neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and dystrophic neurites (DNs); type B has numerous NCIs with few DNs; type C is characterized by DNs which are often longer and thicker than DNs in type A, with few NCIs; and type D has numerous neuronal intranuclear inclusions and DNs with few NCIs. The relevance of this classification system is supported by clinical, biochemical and genetic correlations, although there is still significant heterogeneity, especially in cases with type A pathology. The subtypes of TDP-43 pathology should be determined in cases with other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, to evaluate the pathological significance of TDP-43 abnormality in them. The results of the biochemical analyses of the diseased brains and the cellular models suggest that different strains of TDP-43 with different conformations may determine the clinicopathological phenotypes of TDP-43 proteinopathy, like prion disease. Clarifying the mechanism of the conformational changes of TDP-43 leading to the formation of multiple abnormal strains may be important for differential diagnosis and developing disease-modifying therapy for TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:25196969

Arai, Tetsuaki

2014-12-01

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ALS and FTLD: two faces of TDP-43 proteinopathy  

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Major discoveries have been made in the recent past in the genetics, biochemistry and neuropathology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), encoded by the TARDBP gene, has been identified as the major pathological protein of FTLD with ubiquitin-immunoreactive (ub-ir) inclusions (FTLD-U) with or without amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and sporadic ALS. Recently, mutations in the TARDBP gene in familial and sporadic ALS have been reported which dem...

Liscic, R. M.; Grinberg, L. T.; Zidar, J.; Gitcho, M. A.; Cairns, N. J.

2008-01-01

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Phosphorylation of S409/410 of TDP-43 is a consistent feature in all sporadic and familial forms of TDP-43 proteinopathies  

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Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated and N-terminally truncated TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is the pathological hallmark lesion in most familial and sporadic forms of FTLD-U and ALS, which can be subsumed as TDP-43 proteinopathies. In order to get more insight into the role of abnormal phosphorylation in the disease process, the identification of specific phosphorylation sites and the generation of phosphorylation-specific antibodies are mandatory. Here, we developed and ch...

Neumann, Manuela; Kwong, Linda K.; Lee, Edward B.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Flatley, Andrew; Xu, Yan; Forman, Mark; Troost, Dirk; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M. -y

2009-01-01

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TDP-43 toxicity: the usefulness of “junk”  

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Loss of the lariat debranching enzyme Dbr1 is found to repress TDP-43 toxicity. The accumulated intronic lariat RNAs, which are normally degraded after splicing, likely act as decoys to sequester TDP-43 away from binding to and disrupting function of other RNAs.

Sun, Shuying; Cleveland, Don W.

2012-01-01

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TDP-43 toxicity: the usefulness of “junk”  

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Loss of the lariat debranching enzyme Dbr1 is found to repress TDP-43 toxicity. The accumulated intronic lariat RNAs, which are normally degraded after splicing, likely act as decoys to sequester TDP-43 away from binding to and disrupting function of other RNAs. PMID:23192178

Sun, Shuying; Cleveland, Don W.

2013-01-01

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Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.  

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Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ?50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

2014-05-01

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Molecular Neuropathology of TDP-43 Proteinopathies  

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Full Text Available The identification of TDP-43 as the major component of the pathologic inclusions in most forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS resolved a long-standing enigma concerning the nature of the ubiquitinated disease protein under these conditions. Anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemistry and the recent development of novel tools, such as phosphorylation-specific TDP-43 antibodies, have increased our knowledge about the spectrum of pathological changes associated with FTLD-U and ALS and moreover, facilitated the neuropathological routine diagnosis of these conditions. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding on the molecular neuropathology and pathobiology of TDP-43 in FTLD and ALS.

Manuela Neumann

2009-01-01

10

Reversible behavioral phenotypes in a conditional mouse model of TDP-43 proteinopathies.  

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Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mislocalization and aggregation are hallmark features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We have previously shown in mice that inducible overexpression of a cytoplasmically localized form of TDP-43 (TDP-43-?NLS) in forebrain neurons evokes neuropathological changes that recapitulate several features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Detailed behavioral phenotyping could provide further validation for its usage as a model for FTD. In the present study, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate motor, cognitive, and social phenotypes in this model. We found that transgene (Tg) induction by doxycycline removal at weaning led to motor abnormalities including hyperlocomotion in the open field test, impaired coordination and balance in the rotarod test, and increased spasticity as shown by a clasping phenotype. Cognitive assessment demonstrated impaired recognition and spatial memory, measured by novel object recognition and Y-maze tests. Remarkably, TDP-43-?NLS mice displayed deficits in social behavior, mimicking a key aspect of FTD. To determine whether these symptoms were reversible, we suppressed Tg expression for 14 d in 1.5-month-old mice showing an established behavioral phenotype but modest neurodegeneration and found that motor and cognitive deficits were ameliorated; however, social performance remained altered. When Tg expression was suppressed in 6.5-month-old mice showing overt neurodegeneration, motor deficits were irreversible. These results indicate that TDP-43-?NLS mice display several core behavioral features of FTD with motor neuron disease, possibly due to functional changes in surviving neurons, and might serve as a valuable tool to unveil the underlying mechanisms of this and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25392493

Alfieri, Julio A; Pino, Natalia S; Igaz, Lionel M

2014-11-12

11

Zinc induces depletion and aggregation of endogenous TDP-43.  

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Ubiquitinated neuronal aggregates containing TDP-43 are pathological hallmarks in the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In affected neurons, TDP-43 undergoes C-terminal fragmentation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination and forms aggregates in the cytoplasm or nucleus. Although in vitro studies have been able to recapitulate these features using transfected cell culture models, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms that underlie pathological changes to endogenous TDP-43. As altered metal ion homeostasis and increased oxidative stress are central features of neurodegeneration, including FTLD and ALS, we sought to determine the affects of these factors on endogenous TDP-43 metabolism in mammalian cells. Treatment of SY5Y neuronal-like cells expressing endogenous TDP-43 with zinc (Zn) induced depletion of TDP-43 expression and formation of inclusions that were TDP-43 positive. TDP-43 was also detected in the cytosol of Zn-affected cells but this was not aggregated. No evidence of C-terminal fragmentation, phosphorylation, or ubiquitination was observed. The depletion and aggregation of TDP-43 were associated with the specific action of Zn but were not seen with copper, iron, or H(2)O(2). These studies describe for the first time specific induction of endogenous TDP-43 aggregation in neuronal-like cells and suggest that specific Zn-associated processes could affect TDP-43 metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20138212

Caragounis, Aphrodite; Price, Katherine Ann; Soon, Cynthia P W; Filiz, Gulay; Masters, Colin L; Li, Qiao-Xin; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

2010-05-01

12

Loss of hnRNPA1 in ALS spinal cord motor neurons with TDP-43-positive inclusions.  

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons and appearance of skein-like inclusions. The inclusions are composed of trans-activation response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family. hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 are hnRNPs that interact with the C-terminus of TDP-43. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the association between TDP-43 and hnRNPA1 in ALS spinal motor neurons. We examined spinal cords of seven ALS cases and six muscular dystrophy cases (used as controls) for the presence of TDP-43 and hnRNPA1 protein. In the control cases, hnRNPA1 immunoreactivity in motor neurons was intense in the nucleus and weak in the cytoplasm where it showed a fine granular appearance. In the ALS cases, hnRNPA1 immunoreactivity in motor neurons was reduced in the nuclei of neurons with skein-like inclusions but was not detected in the skein-like inclusions. The marked loss of hnRNPA1 in motor neurons with concomitant cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 may represent a severe disturbance of mRNA processing, suggesting a key role in progressive neuronal death in ALS. PMID:25338872

Honda, Hiroyuki; Hamasaki, Hideomi; Wakamiya, Tomihiro; Koyama, Sachiko; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Fujii, Naoki; Iwaki, Toru

2015-02-01

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Corticospinal tract degeneration associated with TDP-43 type C pathology and semantic dementia  

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Four subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions have been described (types A–D). Of these four subtypes, motor neuron disease is more commonly associated with type B pathology, but has also been reported with type A pathology. We have noted, however, the unusual occurrence of cases of type C pathology having corticospinal tract degeneration. We aimed to assess the severity of corticospinal tract degeneration in a large cohort of cases with type C (n ...

Josephs, Keith A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Murray, Melissa E.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Graff-radford, Neill R.; Knopman, David S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Rademakers, Rosa; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Dickson, Dennis W.

2013-01-01

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TDP-43 toxicity and the usefulness of junk.  

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A new study shows that loss of the lariat debranching enzyme Dbr1 suppresses TDP-43 toxicity. The accumulated intronic lariat RNAs, which are normally degraded after splicing, likely act as decoys to sequester TDP-43 away from binding to and disrupting functions of other RNAs. PMID:23192178

Sun, Shuying; Cleveland, Don W

2012-12-01

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Does a loss of TDP-43 function cause neurodegeneration?  

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Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 was discovered to be in the intracellular aggregates in the degenerating cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, two fatal neurodegenerative diseases [1,2]. ALS causes motor neuron degeneration leading to paralysis [3,4]. FTLD causes neuronal degeneration in the frontal and temporal cortices leading to personality changes and a loss of executive function [5]. The discovery triggered a flurry of research activity that led to the discovery of TDP-43 mutations in ALS patients and the widespread presence of TDP-43 aggregates in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. A key question regarding the role of TDP-43 is whether it causes neurotoxicity by a gain of function or a loss of function. The gain-of-function hypothesis has received much attention primarily based on the striking neurodegenerative phenotypes in numerous TDP-43-overexpression models. In this review, I will draw attention to the loss-of-function hypothesis, which postulates that mutant TDP-43 causes neurodegeneration by a loss of function, and in addition, by exerting a dominant-negative effect on the wild-type TDP-43 allele. Furthermore, I will discuss how a loss of function can cause neurodegeneration in patients where TDP-43 is not mutated, review the literature in model systems to discuss how the current data support the loss-of-function mechanism and highlight some key questions for testing this hypothesis in the future.

Xu Zuo-Shang

2012-06-01

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Therapeutic modulation of eIF2? phosphorylation rescues TDP-43 toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease models.  

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, late-onset neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting motor neurons. A unifying feature of many proteins associated with ALS, including TDP-43 and ataxin-2, is that they localize to stress granules. Unexpectedly, we found that genes that modulate stress granules are strong modifiers of TDP-43 toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster. eIF2? phosphorylation is upregulated by TDP-43 toxicity in flies, and TDP-43 interacts with a central stress granule component, polyA-binding protein (PABP). In human ALS spinal cord neurons, PABP accumulates abnormally, suggesting that prolonged stress granule dysfunction may contribute to pathogenesis. We investigated the efficacy of a small molecule inhibitor of eIF2? phosphorylation in ALS models. Treatment with this inhibitor mitigated TDP-43 toxicity in flies and mammalian neurons. These findings indicate that the dysfunction induced by prolonged stress granule formation might contribute directly to ALS and that compounds that mitigate this process may represent a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:24336168

Kim, Hyung-Jun; Raphael, Alya R; LaDow, Eva S; McGurk, Leeanne; Weber, Ross A; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Finkbeiner, Steven; Gitler, Aaron D; Bonini, Nancy M

2014-02-01

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Inhibition of RNA lariat debranching enzyme suppresses TDP-43 toxicity in ALS disease models  

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ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting motor neurons. Mutations in TDP-43 cause some forms of the disease, and cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates accumulate in degenerating neurons of most ALS patients. Thus, strategies aimed at targeting the toxicity of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates may be effective. Here we report results from two genome-wide loss-of-function TDP-43 toxicity suppressor screens in yeast. The strongest suppressor of TDP-43 toxicity was deletion of Dbr1,...

Armakola, Maria; Higgins, Matthew J.; Figley, Matthew D.; Barmada, Sami J.; Scarborough, Emily A.; Diaz, Zamia; Fang, Xiaodong; Shorter, James; Krogan, Nevan J.; Finkbeiner, Steven; Farese, Robert V.; Gitler, Aaron D.

2012-01-01

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Prion-like Properties of Pathological TDP-43 Aggregates from Diseased Brains  

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Full Text Available TDP-43 is the major component protein of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Here, we report the characterization of prion-like properties of aggregated TDP-43 prepared from diseased brains. When insoluble TDP-43 from ALS or FTLD-TDP brains was introduced as seeds into SH-SY5Y cells expressing TDP-43, phosphorylated and ubiquitinated TDP-43 was aggregated in a self-templating manner. Immunoblot analyses revealed that the C-terminal fragments of insoluble TDP-43 characteristic of each disease type acted as seeds, inducing seed-dependent aggregation of TDP-43 in these cells. The seeding ability of insoluble TDP-43 was unaffected by proteinase treatment but was abrogated by formic acid. One subtype of TDP-43 aggregate was resistant to boiling treatment. The insoluble fraction from cells harboring TDP-43 aggregates could also trigger intracellular TDP-43 aggregation. These results indicate that insoluble TDP-43 has prion-like properties that may play a role in the progression of TDP-43 proteinopathy.

Takashi Nonaka

2013-07-01

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TDP-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of TDP-43, limits the accumulation of double-stranded RNA.  

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Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deleted for TDP-1, an ortholog of the neurodegeneration-associated RNA-binding protein TDP-43, display only mild phenotypes. Nevertheless, transcriptome sequencing revealed that many RNAs were altered in accumulation and/or processing in the mutant. Analysis of these transcriptional abnormalities demonstrates that a primary function of TDP-1 is to limit formation or stability of double-stranded RNA. Specifically, we found that deletion of tdp-1: (1) preferentially alters the accumulation of RNAs with inherent double-stranded structure (dsRNA); (2) increases the accumulation of nuclear dsRNA foci; (3) enhances the frequency of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing; and (4) dramatically increases the amount of transcripts immunoprecipitable with a dsRNA-specific antibody, including intronic sequences, RNAs with antisense overlap to another transcript, and transposons. We also show that TDP-43 knockdown in human cells results in accumulation of dsRNA, indicating that suppression of dsRNA is a conserved function of TDP-43 in mammals. Altered accumulation of structured RNA may account for some of the previously described molecular phenotypes (e.g., altered splicing) resulting from reduction of TDP-43 function. PMID:25391662

Saldi, Tassa K; Ash, Peter Ea; Wilson, Gavin; Gonzales, Patrick; Garrido-Lecca, Alfonso; Roberts, Christine M; Dostal, Vishantie; Gendron, Tania F; Stein, Lincoln D; Blumenthal, Thomas; Petrucelli, Leonard; Link, Christopher D

2014-12-17

20

Heat-shock protein dysregulation is associated with functional and pathological TDP-43 aggregation  

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Conformational disorders are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major contributors to neurodegenerative disease; however, ROS that affect the structural changes in misfolded disease proteins have yet to be well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the intrinsic propensity of TDP-43 to aggregate drives the assembly of TDP-43-positive stress granules and soluble toxic TDP-43 oligomers in response to a ROS insult via a disulfide crosslinking-independent mechanism. Notably, ROS-induced TDP-43 protein assembly correlates with the dynamics of certain TDP-43-associated chaperones. The heat-shock protein (HSP)-90 inhibitor 17-AAG prevents ROS-induced TDP-43 aggregation, alters the type of TDP-43 multimers and reduces the severity of pathological TDP-43 inclusions. In summary, our study suggests that a common mechanism could be involved in the pathogenesis of conformational diseases that result from HSP dysregulation.

Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Hou, Shin-Chen; Way, Tzong-Der; Wong, Chi-Huey; Wang, I.-Fan

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
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TDP-43 in Familial and Sporadic Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with Ubiquitin Inclusions  

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TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major pathological protein of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U) with or without motor neuron disease (MND). Thus, TDP-43 defines a novel class of neurodegenerative diseases called TDP-43 proteinopathies. We performed ubiquitin and TDP-43 immunohistochemistry on 193 cases of familial and sporadic FTLD with or without MND. On selected cases, immunoelectron microscopy and bioc...

Cairns, Nigel J.; Neumann, Manuela; Bigio, Eileen H.; Holm, Ida E.; Troost, Dirk; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Foong, Chan; White, Charles L.; Schneider, Julie A.; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Carter, Deborah; Taylor-reinwald, Lisa; Paulsmeyer, Katherine; Strider, Jeffrey; Gitcho, Michael

2007-01-01

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Sustained Expression of TDP-43 and FUS in Motor Neurons in Rodent's Lifetime  

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Full Text Available TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43 and fused in sarcoma (FUS are two highly conserved ribonucleoproteins. Pathogenic mutations of the TDP-43 or the FUS gene are all linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS that is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. To better understand the correlation of ALS disease genes with the selectivity of chronic motor neuron degeneration, we examined the longitudinal expression of the TDP-43 and the FUS genes in C57BL6 mice and in Sprague-Dawley rats. TDP-43 and FUS were robustly and ubiquitously expressed in the postnatal mice and rats, but were markedly decreased in the adult rodents. In adulthood, TDP-43 and FUS proteins were even undetectable in peripheral organs including skeletal muscles, liver, and kidney, but were constantly expressed at substantial levels in the central nervous system. Motor neurons expressed the TDP-43 and the FUS genes at robust levels throughout rodent's lifetime. Moreover, TDP-43 and FUS were accumulated in the cytoplasm of motor neurons in aged animals. Our findings suggest that TDP-43 and FUS play an important role in development and that constant and robust expression of the genes in motor neurons may render the neurons vulnerable to pathogenic mutation of the TDP-43 or the FUS gene. To faithfully model the pathology of TDP-43- or FUS gene mutations in rodents, we must replicate the expression patterns of the TDP-43 and the FUS gene in animals.

Cao Huang, Pedro Yuxing Xia, Hongxia Zhou

2010-01-01

23

Neuronal-specific overexpression of a mutant valosin-containing protein associated with IBMPFD promotes aberrant ubiquitin and TDP-43 accumulation and cognitive dysfunction in transgenic mice.  

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Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause a rare, autosomal dominant disease called inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). One-third of patients with IBMPFD develop frontotemporal dementia, characterized by an extensive neurodegeneration in the frontal and temporal lobes. Neuropathologic hallmarks include nuclear and cytosolic inclusions positive to ubiquitin and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in neurons and glial activation in affected regions. However, the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutant VCP triggers neurodegeneration remain unknown. Herein, we generated a mouse model selectively overexpressing a human mutant VCP in neurons to study pathogenic mechanisms of mutant VCP-mediated neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. The overexpression of VCPA232E mutation in forebrain regions produced significant progressive impairments of cognitive function, including deficits in spatial memory, object recognition, and fear conditioning. Although overexpressed or endogenous VCP did not seem to focally aggregate inside neurons, TDP-43 and ubiquitin accumulated with age in transgenic mouse brains. TDP-43 was also found to co-localize with stress granules in the cytosolic compartment. Together with the appearance of high-molecular-weight TDP-43 in cytosolic fractions, these findings demonstrate the mislocalization and accumulation of abnormal TDP-43 in the cytosol of transgenic mice, which likely lead to an increase in cellular stress and cognitive impairment. Taken together, these results highlight an important pathologic link between VCP and cognition. PMID:23747512

Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Hoshino, Hitomi; Cheng, David; Liu-Yescevitz, Liqun; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Wolozin, Benjamin; LaFerla, Frank M; Kitazawa, Masashi

2013-08-01

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Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with TDP-43 Proteinopathy and Chromosome 9p Repeat Expansion in C9ORF72: Clinicopathologic Correlation  

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Mutations in C9ORF72 resulting in expanded hexanucleotide repeats were recently reported to be the underlying genetic abnormality in chromosome 9p-linked frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kD (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). Several subsequent publications described the neuropathology as being similar to that seen in cases of FTLD-TDP and ALS wit...

Bigio, Eileen H.; Weintraub, Sandra; Rademakers, Rosa; Baker, Matt; Ahmadian, Saman S.; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mao, Qinwen; Lee, Kyung-hwa; Mishra, Manjari; Ganti, Rakhee A.; Mesulam, M-marsel

2012-01-01

25

Parkin-mediated reduction of nuclear and soluble TDP-43 reverses behavioral decline in symptomatic mice.  

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The transactivation DNA-binding protein (TDP)-43 binds to thousands of mRNAs, but the functional outcomes of this binding remain largely unknown. TDP-43 binds to Park2 mRNA, which expresses the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin. We previously demonstrated that parkin ubiquitinates TDP-43 and facilitates its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Here we used brain penetrant tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including nilotinib and bosutinib and showed that they reduce the level of nuclear TDP-43, abrogate its effects on neuronal loss, and reverse cognitive and motor decline. Nilotinib decreased soluble and insoluble TDP-43, while bosutinib did not affect the insoluble level. Parkin knockout mice exhibited high levels of endogenous TDP-43, while nilotinib and bosutinib did not alter TDP-43, underscoring an indispensable role for parkin in TDP-43 sub-cellular localization. These data demonstrate a novel functional relationship between parkin and TDP-43 and provide evidence that TKIs are potential therapeutic candidates for TDP-43 pathologies. PMID:24847002

Wenqiang, Chen; Lonskaya, Irina; Hebron, Michaeline L; Ibrahim, Zainab; Olszewski, Rafal T; Neale, Joseph H; Moussa, Charbel E-H

2014-09-15

26

Mimicking Aspects of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Lou Gehrig's Disease in Rats via TDP-43 Overexpression  

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Since the discovery of neuropathological lesions made of TDP-43 and ubiquitin proteins in cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), there is a burst of effort on finding related familial mutations and developing animal models. We used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for human TDP-43 expression targeted to the substantia nigra (SN) of rats. Though TDP-43 was expressed mainly in neuronal nuclei as expected, it was also expressed in the cyt...

Tatom, Jason B.; Wang, David B.; Dayton, Robert D.; Skalli, Omar; Hutton, Michael L.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Klein, Ronald L.

2009-01-01

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Tunicamycin produces TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions in cultured brain organotypic slices  

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The cellular distribution of TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is disrupted in several neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U subtype) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In these conditions, TDP-43 is found in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, with loss of the normal nuclear expression. The mechanisms leading to TDP-43 redistribution and its role in disease pathophysiology remain unknown. We describe an in vitro ...

Leggett, Cadman; Mcgehee, Daniel S.; Mastrianni, James; Yang, Wenbin; Bai, Tao; Brorson, James R.

2012-01-01

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TDP-43 Potentiates Alpha-synuclein Toxicity to Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice  

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TDP-43 and ?-synuclein are two disease proteins involved in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. While TDP-43 proteinopathy is considered a pathologic hallmark of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobe degeneration, ?-synuclein is a major component of Lewy body characteristic of Parkinson's disease. Intriguingly, TDP-43 proteinopathy also coexists with Lewy body and with synucleinopathy in certain disease conditions. Here we reported the effects of ...

Tian Tian, Cao Huang

2011-01-01

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Inhibition of TDP-43 Accumulation by Bis(thiosemicarbazonato)-Copper Complexes  

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal, motor neuron disease with no effective long-term treatment options. Recently, TDP-43 has been identified as a key protein in the pathogenesis of some cases of ALS. Although the role of TDP-43 in motor neuron degeneration is not yet known, TDP-43 has been shown to accumulate in RNA stress granules (SGs) in cell models and in spinal cord tissue from ALS patients. The SG association may be an early pathological change to TDP-43 metabol...

Parker, Sarah J.; Meyerowitz, Jodi; James, Janine L.; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M.; Lim, Sinchun; Paterson, Brett M.; Donnelly, Paul S.; Crouch, Peter J.; White, Anthony R.

2012-01-01

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TDP-43 Potentiates Alpha-synuclein Toxicity to Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice  

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Full Text Available TDP-43 and ?-synuclein are two disease proteins involved in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. While TDP-43 proteinopathy is considered a pathologic hallmark of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobe degeneration, ?-synuclein is a major component of Lewy body characteristic of Parkinson's disease. Intriguingly, TDP-43 proteinopathy also coexists with Lewy body and with synucleinopathy in certain disease conditions. Here we reported the effects of TDP-43 on ?-synuclein neurotoxicity in transgenic mice. Overexpression of mutant TDP-43 (M337V substitution in mice caused early death in transgenic founders, but overexpression of normal TDP-43 only induced a moderate loss of cortical neurons in the transgenic mice at advanced ages. Interestingly, concomitant overexpression of normal TDP-43 and mutant ?-synuclein caused a more severe loss of dopaminergic neurons in the double transgenic mice as compared to single-gene transgenic mice. TDP-43 potentiated ?-synuclein toxicity to dopaminergic neurons in living animals. Our finding provides in vivo evidence suggesting that disease proteins such as TDP-43 and ?-synuclein may play a synergistic role in disease induction in neurodegenerative diseases.

Tian Tian, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Ming Yang, Hongxia Zhou, Xu-Gang Xia

2011-01-01

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Inhibition of RNA lariat debranching enzyme suppresses TDP-43 toxicity in ALS disease models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting motor neurons. Mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 cause some forms of the disease, and cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates accumulate in degenerating neurons of most individuals with ALS. Thus, strategies aimed at targeting the toxicity of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates may be effective. Here, we report results from two genome-wide loss-of-function TDP-43 toxicity suppressor screens in yeast. The strongest suppressor of TDP-43 toxicity was deletion of DBR1, which encodes an RNA lariat debranching enzyme. We show that, in the absence of Dbr1 enzymatic activity, intronic lariats accumulate in the cytoplasm and likely act as decoys to sequester TDP-43, preventing it from interfering with essential cellular RNAs and RNA-binding proteins. Knockdown of Dbr1 in a human neuronal cell line or in primary rat neurons is also sufficient to rescue TDP-43 toxicity. Our findings provide insight into TDP-43-mediated cytotoxicity and suggest that decreasing Dbr1 activity could be a potential therapeutic approach for ALS. PMID:23104007

Armakola, Maria; Higgins, Matthew J; Figley, Matthew D; Barmada, Sami J; Scarborough, Emily A; Diaz, Zamia; Fang, Xiaodong; Shorter, James; Krogan, Nevan J; Finkbeiner, Steven; Farese, Robert V; Gitler, Aaron D

2012-12-01

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Neuroprotection by monocarbonyl dimethoxycurcumin C: ameliorating the toxicity of mutant TDP-43 via HO-1.  

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Mutation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) was detected in familiar and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and pathological TDP-43 was identified in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The neuroprotective functions of curcumin derivatives were assessed in motor neurons transfected with mutant TDP-43. We found that curcumin derivatives reduced the levels of TDP-43 fragments. Furthermore, we evaluated these compounds on the cellular model that the cells were transfected with TDP-25. We found that the expression level and aggregate formation of TDP-25 were significantly reduced by monocarbonyl dimethoxycurcumin C (Compound C). To study on the neuroprotective functions of curcumin derivatives, the neuroblastoma-spinal cord-34 cells transfected with mutant TDP-43 were assessed by the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde bisdimethyl acetal (MDA) that were involved in the oxidative stress. We found that Compound C ameliorated the damage of mutant TDP-43 by reducing the level of MDA and LDH. Furthermore, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was induced by Compound C significantly higher than other compounds. Znpp, which is known an inhibitor of HO-1, dramatically interfered with the function of Compound C. In addition, Compound C was tested in vivo, and HO-1 was significantly upregulated at the hippocampus. These findings suggest that Compound C, which degrades TDP-43 fragment and strengthens the antioxidant ability by HO-1, is a promising agent for TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:23934646

Duan, Weisong; Guo, Yansu; Xiao, Jian; Chen, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhongyao; Han, Huihui; Li, Chunyan

2014-02-01

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The N-terminus of TDP-43 promotes its oligomerization and enhances DNA binding affinity  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N-terminus of TDP-43 contains an independently folded structural domain (NTD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural domains of TDP-43 are arranged in a beads-on-a-string fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD promotes TDP-43 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD may assist nucleic acid-binding activity of TDP-43. -- Abstract: TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with different neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Here, the structural and physical properties of the N-terminus on TDP-43 have been carefully characterized through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence anisotropy studies. We demonstrate for the first time the importance of the N-terminus in promoting TDP-43 oligomerization and enhancing its DNA-binding affinity. An unidentified structural domain in the N-terminus is also disclosed. Our findings provide insights into the N-terminal domain function of TDP-43.

Chang, Chung-ke [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tzong-Huah [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chemical Biology and Molecular Biophysics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Biochemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chu-Ya [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Ming-hui; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Ku-Feng [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yu-heng [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tai-huang, E-mail: bmthh@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse, E-mail: jthuang@chem.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-24

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Redox signalling directly regulates TDP-43 via cysteine oxidation and disulphide cross-linking  

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TDP-43 is a major constituent of inclusions characteristic of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress induces reversible intra- and inter-molecular disulphide bond formation at the second RNA-recognition motif impairing the solubility and the RNA processing function of TDP-43.

Cohen, Todd J.; Hwang, Andrew W.; Unger, Travis; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M. Y.

2012-01-01

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C-Jun N-terminal kinase controls TDP-43 accumulation in stress granules induced by oxidative stress  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background TDP-43 proteinopathies are characterized by loss of nuclear TDP-43 expression and formation of C-terminal TDP-43 fragmentation and accumulation in the cytoplasm. Recent studies have shown that TDP-43 can accumulate in RNA stress granules (SGs in response to cell stresses and this could be associated with subsequent formation of TDP-43 ubiquinated protein aggregates. However, the initial mechanisms controlling endogenous TDP-43 accumulation in SGs during chronic disease are not understood. In this study we investigated the mechanism of TDP-43 processing and accumulation in SGs in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells exposed to chronic oxidative stress. Cell cultures were treated overnight with the mitochondrial inhibitor paraquat and examined for TDP-43 and SG processing. Results We found that mild stress induced by paraquat led to formation of TDP-43 and HuR-positive SGs, a proportion of which were ubiquitinated. The co-localization of TDP-43 with SGs could be fully prevented by inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. JNK inhibition did not prevent formation of HuR-positive SGs and did not prevent diffuse TDP-43 accumulation in the cytosol. In contrast, ERK or p38 inhibition prevented formation of both TDP-43 and HuR-positive SGs. JNK inhibition also inhibited TDP-43 SG localization in cells acutely treated with sodium arsenite and reduced the number of aggregates per cell in cultures transfected with C-terminal TDP-43 162-414 and 219-414 constructs. Conclusions Our studies are the first to demonstrate a critical role for kinase control of TDP-43 accumulation in SGs and may have important implications for development of treatments for FTD and ALS, targeting cell signal pathway control of TDP-43 aggregation.

Masters Colin L

2011-08-01

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TDP-43, an ALS Linked Protein, Regulates Fat Deposition and Glucose Homeostasis  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of proteins which determine fat and lean body mass composition is critical to better understanding and treating human obesity. TDP-43 is a well-conserved RNA-binding protein known to regulate alternative splicing and recently implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While TDP-43 knockout mice show early embryonic lethality, post-natal conditional knockout mice show weight loss, fat depletion, and rapid death, suggesting an important role for TDP-43 in regulating energy metabolism. Here we report, that over-expression of TDP-43 in transgenic mice can result in a phenotype characterized by increased fat deposition and adipocyte hypertrophy. In addition, TDP-43 over-expression in skeletal muscle results in increased steady state levels of Tbc1d1, a RAB-GTPase activating protein involved in Glucose 4 transporter (Glut4) translocation. Skeletal muscle fibers isolated from TDP-43 transgenic mice show altered Glut4 translocation in response to insulin and impaired insulin mediated glucose uptake. These results indicate that levels of TDP-43 regulate body fat composition and glucose homeostasis in vivo. PMID:23967244

Stallings, Nancy R.; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Dowling, Katherine J.; Luther, Christina M.; Burns, Dennis K.; Davis, Kathryn; Elliott, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

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TDP-43 knockdown impairs neurite outgrowth dependent on its target histone deacetylase 6  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans-activation response element (TAR DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43 is causally related to the neurodegenerative diseases frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis being the hallmark protein in the disease-characteristic neuropathological lesions and via genetic linkage. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 is an established target of the RNA-binding protein TDP-43. HDAC6 is an unusual cytosolic deacetylase enzyme, central for a variety of pivotal cellular functions including aggregating protein turnover, microtubular dynamics and filopodia formation. All these functions are important in the context of neurodegenerative proteinopathies involving TDP-43. We have previously shown in a human embryonic kidney cell line that TDP-43 knockdown significantly impairs the removal of a toxic, aggregating polyQ ataxin-3 fusion protein in an HDAC6-dependent manner. Here we investigated the influence of TDP-43 and its target HDAC6 on neurite outgrowth. Results Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with stably silenced TDP-43 showed a significant reduction of neurite outgrowth induced by retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Re-transfection with TDP-43 as well as HDAC6 rescued retinoic acid-induced neurite outgrowth. In addition, we show that silencing of HDAC6 alone is sufficient to reduce neurite outgrowth of in vitro differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Conclusions TDP-43 deficiency leads to impairment of neurite growth in an HDAC6-dependent manner, thereby contributing to neurodegenerative events in TDP-43 diseases.

Weber Stephanie S

2011-08-01

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Phosphorylation of hnRNP K by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 controls cytosolic accumulation of TDP-43.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytosolic accumulation of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major neuropathological feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, the mechanisms involved in TDP-43 accumulation remain largely unknown. Previously, we reported that inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) prevented cytosolic stress granule accumulation of TDP-43, correlating with depletion of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K from stress granules. In the present study, we further investigated the relationship between TDP-43 and hnRNP K and their control by CDKs. Inhibition of CDK2 abrogated the accumulation of TDP-43 into stress granules. Phosphorylated CDK2 co-localized with accumulated TDP-43 and phosphorylated hnRNP K in stress granules. Inhibition of CDK2 phosphorylation blocked phosphorylation of hnRNP K, preventing its incorporation into stress granules. Due to interaction between hnRNP K with TDP-43, the loss of hnRNP K from stress granules prevented accumulation of TDP-43. Mutation of Ser216 and Ser284 phosphorylation sites on hnRNP K inhibited hnRNP K- and TDP-43-positive stress granule formation in transfected cells. The interaction between hnRNP K and TDP-43 was further confirmed by the loss of TDP-43 accumulation following siRNA-mediated inhibition of hnRNP K expression. A substantial decrease of CDK2 and hnRNP K expression in spinal cord motor neurons in ALS patients demonstrates a potential key role for these proteins in ALS and TDP-43 accumulation, indicating that further investigation of the association between hnRNP K and TDP-43 is warranted. Understanding how kinase activity modulates TDP-43 accumulation may provide new pharmacological targets for disease intervention. PMID:25410660

Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L; Yang, Shu; Zhang, Katharine; Duncan, Clare; Moujalled, Donia M; Parker, Sarah J; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Lidgerwood, Grace; Turner, Bradley J; Atkin, Julie D; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Proepper, Christian; Boeckers, Tobias M; Kanninen, Katja M; Blair, Ian; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

2014-11-19

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TDP-43, an ALS Linked Protein, Regulates Fat Deposition and Glucose Homeostasis  

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The identification of proteins which determine fat and lean body mass composition is critical to better understanding and treating human obesity. TDP-43 is a well-conserved RNA-binding protein known to regulate alternative splicing and recently implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While TDP-43 knockout mice show early embryonic lethality, post-natal conditional knockout mice show weight loss, fat depletion, and rapid death, suggesting an important role for TD...

Stallings, Nancy R.; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Dowling, Katherine J.; Luther, Christina M.; Burns, Dennis K.; Davis, Kathryn; Elliott, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

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Understanding the role of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS in ALS and beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Dominant mutation in two DNA/RNA binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, are causes of inherited Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 and FUS/TLS have striking structural and functional similarities, implicating alterations in RNA processing as central in ALS. TDP-43 has binding sites within a third of all mouse and human mRNAs in brain and this binding influences the levels and splicing patterns of at least 20% of those mRNAs. Disease modeling in rodents of the first known cause of inherited ALS – mutation in the ubiquitously expressed superoxide dismutase (SOD1) – has yielded non-cell autonomous fatal motor neuron disease caused by one or more toxic properties acquired by the mutant proteins. In contrast, initial disease modeling for TDP-43 and FUS/TLS has produced highly varied phenotypes. It remains unsettled whether TDP-43 and FUS/TLS mutants provoke disease from a loss of function or gain of toxicity or both. TDP-43 or FUS/TLS misaccumulation seems central not just to ALS (where it is found in almost all instances of disease), but more broadly in neurodegenerative disease, including frontal temporal lobular dementia (FTLD-U) and many examples of Alzheimer’s or Huntington’s disease. (182 words) PMID:21813273

Da Cruz, Sandrine; Cleveland, Don W.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Motor neuron disease clinically limited to the lower motor neuron is a diffuse TDP-43 proteinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motor neuron disease (MND) may present as an isolated lower motor neuron (LMN) disorder. Although the significance of pathological 43 kDa transactive responsive sequence DNA binding protein (TDP-43) for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was appreciated only recently, the topographical distribution of TDP-43 pathology in MND clinically isolated to the LMN versus normal controls (COs) is only incompletely described. Therefore, we performed longitudinal clinical evaluation and retrospective chart review of autopsied patients diagnosed with isolated LMN disease. Cases with a disease duration over 4 years were designated as progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), and those with a more rapid course as MND/LMN. Immunohistochemistry was employed to identify neuronal and glial TDP-43 pathology in the central nervous system (CNS) in patients and COs. We examined 19 subjects including six patients (i.e., four with MND/LMN and two with PMA) and 13 COs. All patients showed significant TDP-43 linked degeneration of LMNs, and five cases showed a lesser degree of motor cortex degeneration. Additional brain areas were affected in varying degrees, ranging from predominantly brainstem pathology to significant involvement of the whole CNS including neocortical and limbic areas. Pathological TDP-43 was present only rarely in the CO group. We conclude that MND limited to the LMN and PMA is part of a disease continuum that includes ALS and FTLD-TDP, all of which are characterized by widespread TDP-43 pathology. Hence, we suggest that the next revision of the El Escorial criteria for the diagnosis of ALS include MND patients with disease clinically limited to the LMN and PMA as variants of ALS, which like classical ALS, are TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:21225272

Geser, Felix; Stein, Beth; Partain, Michael; Elman, Lauren B; McCluskey, Leo F; Xie, Sharon X; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Kwong, Linda K; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

2011-04-01

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Wild Type TDP-43 Induces Neuro-Inflammation and Alters APP Metabolism in Lentiviral Gene Transfer Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The transactivation DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) pathology is associated with Fronto-Temporal Lobar Dementia (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions and some cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Proteolytic fragments of ?-amyloid precursor protein (?APP) are detected in AD as well as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from FTLD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients, suggesting alteration in APP processing. Because of the overlap in TDP-43 pathology between FTLD and AD, we sought to determine whether there is a relationship between TDP-43 and APP metabolism. We generated gene transfer models using lentiviral delivery of human TDP-43 and A?1-42 into the rat primary motor cortex and examined their role 2 weeks post-injection. Expression of TDP-43 and/or A?1-42 increase pro-inflammatory markers, including Interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), glial neurofibrillary proteins (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1). Lentiviral A?1-42 up-regulates endogenous TDP-43 and promotes its phosphorylation, aggregation and cleavage into 35kDa fragments. Inversely, lentiviral TDP-43 expression increases the levels and activity of ?-secretase (BACE), accelerating production of APP C-terminal fragments (C99) and A?1-40. Here we show that TDP-43 up-regulates APP metabolism and suggest a mechanistic link between TDP-43 and BACE. PMID:22402344

Herman, Alexander M.; Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Rebeck, G. William; Moussa, Charbel E-H

2012-01-01

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Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase ?1 mediates mislocalization of TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear RNA-binding protein involved in many cellular pathways. TDP-43-positive inclusions are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The major clinical presentation of ALS is muscle weakness due to the degeneration of motor neurons. Mislocalization of TDP-43 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an early event of ALS. In this study, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43 was accompanied by increased activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in motor neurons of ALS patients. The activation of AMPK in a motor neuron cell line (NSC34) or mouse spinal cords induced the mislocalization of TDP-43, recapitulating this characteristic of ALS. Down-regulation of AMPK-?1 or exogenous expression of a dominant-negative AMPK-?1 mutant reduced TDP-43 mislocalization. Suppression of AMPK activity using cAMP-simulating agents rescued the mislocalization of TDP-43 in NSC34 cells and delayed disease progression in TDP-43 transgenic mice. Our findings demonstrate that activation of AMPK-?1 plays a critical role in TDP-43 mislocalization and the development of ALS; thus, AMPK-?1 may be a potential drug target for this devastating disease. PMID:25256353

Liu, Yu-Ju; Ju, Tz-Chuen; Chen, Hui-Mei; Jang, Yu-Sung; Lee, Li-Ming; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Tai, Hua-Chia; Fang, Jim-Min; Lin, Yun-Lian; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Chern, Yijuang

2015-02-01

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Parkin Ubiquitinates Tar-DNA Binding Protein-43 (TDP-43) and Promotes Its Cytosolic Accumulation via Interaction with Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)*  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of E3 ubiquitin ligases, involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins or promotion of protein-protein interaction, is increasingly recognized in neurodegeneration. TDP-43 is a predominantly nuclear protein, which regulates the transcription of thousands of genes and binds to mRNA of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to regulate its expression. Wild type and mutated TDP-43 are detected in ubiquitinated forms within the cytosol in several neurodegenerative diseases. We elucidated the mechanisms of TDP-43 interaction with Parkin using transgenic A315T mutant TDP-43 (TDP43-Tg) mice, lentiviral wild type TDP-43, and Parkin gene transfer rat models. TDP-43 expression increased Parkin mRNA and protein levels. Lentiviral TDP-43 increased the levels of nuclear and cytosolic protein, whereas Parkin co-expression mediated Lys-48 and Lys-63-linked ubiquitin to TDP-43 and led to cytosolic co-localization of Parkin with ubiquitinated TDP-43. Parkin and TDP-43 formed a multiprotein complex with HDAC6, perhaps to mediate TDP-43 translocation. In conclusion, Parkin ubiquitinates TDP-43 and facilitates its cytosolic accumulation through a multiprotein complex with HDAC6. PMID:23258539

Hebron, Michaeline L.; Lonskaya, Irina; Sharpe, Kaydee; Weerasinghe, Puwakdandawe P. K.; Algarzae, Norah K.; Shekoyan, Ashot R.; Moussa, Charbel E.-H.

2013-01-01

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Scalarane sesterterpenes from Thorectidae sponges as inhibitors of TDP-43 nuclear factor.  

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The analysis of two Thorectidae sponge samples, Hyrtios sp. and Petrosaspongia sp., collected at Fiji Islands, led to the isolation of five new scalarane derivatives along with fifteen known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data. The small library of natural scalarane derivatives was investigated for their ability to modulate the activity of trans-activation response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a key factor in several neurodegenerative conditions and the study resulted in the identification of potent inhibitors of TDP-43 protein. PMID:25251727

Festa, Carmen; Cassiano, Chiara; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Debitus, Cécile; Monti, Maria Chiara; De Marino, Simona

2014-11-21

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TDP-43 toxicity proceeds via calcium dysregulation and necrosis in aging Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons.  

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous disease with either sporadic or genetic origins characterized by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. At the cellular level, ALS neurons show protein misfolding and aggregation phenotypes. Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has recently been shown to be associated with ALS, but the early pathophysiological deficits causing impairment in motor function are unknown. Here we used Caenorhabditis elegans expressing mutant TDP-43(A315T) in motor neurons and explored the potential influences of calcium (Ca(2+)). Using chemical and genetic approaches to manipulate the release of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+)stores, we observed that the reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) rescued age-dependent paralysis and prevented the neurodegeneration of GABAergic motor neurons. Our data implicate elevated [Ca(2+)]i as a driver of TDP-43-mediated neuronal toxicity. Furthermore, we discovered that neuronal degeneration is independent of the executioner caspase CED-3, but instead requires the activity of the Ca(2+)-regulated calpain protease TRA-3, and the aspartyl protease ASP-4. Finally, chemically blocking protease activity protected against mutant TDP-43(A315T)-associated neuronal toxicity. This work both underscores the potential of the C. elegans system to identify key targets for therapeutic intervention and suggests that a focused effort to regulate ER Ca(2+) release and necrosis-like degeneration consequent to neuronal injury may be of clinical importance. PMID:25186754

Aggad, Dina; Vérièpe, Julie; Tauffenberger, Arnaud; Parker, J Alex

2014-09-01

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TDP-43 modification in the hSOD1(G93A) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset disease that produces gradual motor neuron cell death in the spinal cord (SP). Recently, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), a critical component of insoluble ubiquitinated inclusions, has received attention in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and ALS. TDP-43 modifications, including hyperphosphorylation, truncation, and ubiquitination, have been reported in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). However, the pathogenic mechanism of TDP-43 in ALS is unclear. To determine the association between TDP-43 and neurotoxicity in an ALS model, we characterized TDP-43 expression in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice (Tg) as an ALS animal model. TDP-43 was expressed by astrocytes and microglial cells in the SP of hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated and truncated TDP-43 increased in the SP of ALS mice compared with age-matched non-Tg. Furthermore, the serum iron concentration and expression of transferrin, a homeostasis-related iron protein, in the SP were increased relative to non-Tg. The protein expression level of HO-1 related to oxidative stress was increased in the SP of hSOD1(G93A) Tg relative to non-Tg. We show that an increase of TDP-43 modification, including phosphorylation or truncation, associates with dysfunctional iron homeostasis and an increase in oxidative stress in the SP of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) Tg. These findings suggest that modified TDP-43 may be involved in motor neuron death in the SP of a SOD1(G93A)-expressing familial ALS (fALS) animal model. PMID:25213598

Cai, MuDan; Lee, Kang-Woo; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

2015-03-01

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Corticospinal tract degeneration associated with TDP-43 type C pathology and semantic dementia.  

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Four subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions have been described (types A-D). Of these four subtypes, motor neuron disease is more commonly associated with type B pathology, but has also been reported with type A pathology. We have noted, however, the unusual occurrence of cases of type C pathology having corticospinal tract degeneration. We aimed to assess the severity of corticospinal tract degeneration in a large cohort of cases with type C (n = 31). Pathological analysis included semi-quantitation of myelin loss of fibres of the corticospinal tract and associated macrophage burden, as well as axonal loss, at the level of the medullary pyramids. We also assessed for motor cortex degeneration and fibre loss of the medial lemniscus/olivocerebellar tract. All cases were subdivided into three groups based on the degree of corticospinal tract degeneration: (i) no corticospinal tract degeneration; (ii) equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration; and (iii) moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration. Clinical, genetic, pathological and imaging comparisons were performed across groups. Eight cases had no corticospinal tract degeneration, and 14 cases had equivocal to mild corticospinal tract degeneration. Nine cases, however, had moderate to very severe corticospinal tract degeneration with myelin and axonal loss. In these nine cases, there was degeneration of the motor cortex without lower motor neuron degeneration or involvement of other brainstem tracts. These cases most commonly presented as semantic dementia, and they had longer disease duration (mean: 15.3 years) compared with the other two groups (10.8 and 9.9 years; P = 0.03). After adjusting for disease duration, severity of corticospinal tract degeneration remained significantly different across groups. Only one case, without corticospinal tract degeneration, was found to have a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. All three groups were associated with anterior temporal lobe atrophy on MRI; however, the cases with moderate to severe corticospinal tract degeneration showed right-sided temporal lobe asymmetry and greater involvement of the right temporal lobe and superior motor cortices than the other groups. In contrast, the cases with no or equivocal corticospinal tract degeneration were more likely to show left-sided temporal lobe asymmetry. For comparison, the corticospinal tract was assessed in 86 type A and B cases, and only two cases showed evidence of corticospinal tract degeneration without lower motor neuron degeneration. These findings confirm that there exists a unique association between frontotemporal lobar degeneration with type C pathology and corticospinal tract degeneration, with this entity showing a predilection to involve the right temporal lobe. PMID:23358603

Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Murray, Melissa E; Parisi, Joseph E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Knopman, David S; Boeve, Bradley F; Senjem, Matthew L; Rademakers, Rosa; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Dickson, Dennis W

2013-02-01

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Alteration of POLDIP3 Splicing Associated with Loss of Function of TDP-43 in Tissues Affected with ALS  

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by selective loss of motor neurons. In the ALS motor neurons, TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is dislocated from the nucleus to cytoplasm and forms inclusions, suggesting that loss of a nuclear function of TDP-43 may underlie the pathogenesis of ALS. TDP-43 functions in RNA metabolism include regulation of transcription, mRNA stability, and alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. However, a function of...

Shiga, Atsushi; Ishihara, Tomohiko; Miyashita, Akinori; Kuwabara, Misaki; Kato, Taisuke; Watanabe, Norihiro; Yamahira, Akie; Kondo, Chigusa; Yokoseki, Akio; Takahashi, Masuhiro; Kuwano, Ryozo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Onodera, Osamu

2012-01-01

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Age-dependent changes in TDP-43 levels in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease are linked to A? oligomers accumulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is the pathological protein found in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive inclusions and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In diseased tissue, TDP-43 translocates from its physiological nuclear location into the cytoplasm, where it accumulates. Additionally, C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 accumulate in affected brain regions and are sufficient to cause TDP-43 mislocalization and cytoplasmic accumulation in vitro. TDP-43 also accumulates in 30% of Alzheimer disease (AD cases, a finding that has been highly reproducible. The role of TDP-43 in AD and its relation with A? and tau pathology, the two neuropathological hallmarks of AD, remains to be elucidated. Results Here we show that levels of TDP-43 and its ~35 kDa C-terminal fragment are significantly increased in the 3×Tg-AD mice, an animal model of AD that develops an age-dependent cognitive decline linked to the accumulation of A? and tau. We also report that the levels of TDP-43 and its C-terminal fragment correlate with the levels of soluble A? oligomers, which play a key role in AD pathogenesis. Notably, genetically reducing A?42 production restores the levels of TDP-43 and its ~35 kDa C-terminal fragment to control levels. Conclusions These data suggest a possible relation between A? oligomers and TDP-43.

Oddo Salvatore

2010-11-01

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Opposing roles of p38 and JNK in a Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathy reveal oxidative stress and innate immunity as pathogenic components of neurodegeneration.  

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Pathological aggregation and mutation of the 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. TDP-43 neurotoxicity has been extensively modeled in mice, zebrafish, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, where selective expression of TDP-43 in motoneurons led to paralysis and premature lethality. Through a genetic screen aimed to identify genetic modifiers of TDP-43, we found that the Drosophila dual leucine kinase Wallenda (Wnd) and its downstream kinases JNK and p38 influenced TDP-43 neurotoxicity. Reducing Wnd gene dosage or overexpressing its antagonist highwire partially rescued TDP-43-associated premature lethality. Downstream of Wnd, the JNK and p38 kinases played opposing roles in TDP-43-associated neurodegeneration. LOF alleles of the p38b gene as well as p38 inhibitors diminished TDP-43-associated premature lethality, whereas p38b GOF caused phenotypic worsening. In stark contrast, disruptive alleles of Basket (Bsk), the Drosophila homologue of JNK, exacerbated longevity shortening, whereas overexpression of Bsk extended lifespan. Among possible mechanisms, we found motoneuron-directed expression of TDP-43 elicited oxidative stress and innate immune gene activation that were exacerbated by p38 GOF and Bsk LOF, respectively. A key pathologic role for innate immunity in TDP-43-associated neurodegeneration was further supported by the finding that genetic suppression of the Toll/Dif and Imd/Relish inflammatory pathways dramatically extended lifespan of TDP-43 transgenic flies. We propose that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are intrinsic components of TDP-43-associated neurodegeneration and that the balance between cytoprotective JNK and cytotoxic p38 signaling dictates phenotypic outcome to TDP-43 expression in Drosophila. PMID:25281658

Zhan, Lihong; Xie, Qijing; Tibbetts, Randal S

2015-02-01

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Hippocampal sclerosis in Lewy body disease is a TDP-43 proteinopathy similar to FTLD-TDP Type A.  

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Hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl) is frequent in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP), but it also occurs in dementia of the elderly with or without accompanying Alzheimer type pathology. HpScl has been hypothesized to be a neurodegenerative process given its association with TDP-43 pathology, but this is still controversial. TDP-43 pathology is found in Lewy body disease (LBD), but no study has focused on the pathologic and genetic characteristics of HpScl in LBD. We found HpScl in 5.2 % of 669 LBD cases (289 transitional and 380 diffuse). Older age, higher Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage, and presence of TDP-43 pathology were associated with HpScl. There was no difference in the frequency of HpScl between transitional and diffuse LBD, suggesting that Lewy-related pathology appears to have no direct association with HpScl. All HpScl cases had TDP-43 pathology consistent with Type A pattern. HpScl cases harbored genetic variation in TMEM106B that has been previously associated with FTLD-TDP. Interestingly, the severity of TDP-43-positive fine neurites in CA1 sector, a possible pathologic precursor of HpScl, was associated with the TMEM106B variant. These results demonstrate HpScl in LBD is a TDP-43 proteinopathy and is similar to FTLD-TDP Type A. Furthermore, a subset of LBD cases without HpScl ("pre-HpScl") had similar pathologic and genetic characteristics to typical HpScl, suggesting that the spectrum of HpScl pathology may be wider than previously thought. Some cases with many extracellular NFTs also had a similar profile. We suggest that HpScl is "masked" in these cases. PMID:25367383

Aoki, Naoya; Murray, Melissa E; Ogaki, Kotaro; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Rutherford, Nicola J; Rademakers, Rosa; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W

2014-11-01

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TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) regulates stress granule dynamics via differential regulation of G3BP and TIA-1.  

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TAR deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a multifunctional protein with roles in transcription, pre-messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) splicing, mRNA stability and transport. TDP-43 interacts with other heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP A2, via its C-terminus and several hnRNP family members are involved in the cellular stress response. This relationship led us to investigate the role of TDP-43 in cellular stress. Our results demonstrate that TDP-43 and hnRNP A2 are localized to stress granules (SGs), following oxidative stress, heat shock and exposure to thapsigargin. TDP-43 contributes to both the assembly and maintenance of SGs in response to oxidative stress and differentially regulates key SGs components, including TIA-1 and G3BP. The controlled aggregation of TIA-1 is disrupted in the absence of TDP-43 resulting in slowed SG formation. In addition, TDP-43 regulates the levels of G3BP mRNA, a SG nucleating factor. The disease-associated mutation TDP-43(R361S) is a loss-of-function mutation with regards to SG formation and confers alterations in levels of G3BP and TIA-1. In contrast, a second mutation TDP-43(D169G) does not impact this pathway. Thus, mutations in TDP-43 are mechanistically divergent. Finally, the cellular function of TDP-43 extends beyond splicing and places TDP-43 as a participant of the central cellular response to stress and an active player in RNA storage. PMID:21257637

McDonald, Karli K; Aulas, Anaïs; Destroismaisons, Laurie; Pickles, Sarah; Beleac, Evghenia; Camu, William; Rouleau, Guy A; Vande Velde, Christine

2011-04-01

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TDP-43 Loss-of-Function Causes Neuronal Loss Due to Defective Steroid Receptor-Mediated Gene Program Switching in Drosophila  

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Full Text Available TDP-43 proteinopathy is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders. Whether TDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a novel toxic gain-of-function mechanism of the aggregates or by a loss of its normal function is unknown. We increased and decreased expression of TDP-43 (dTDP-43 in Drosophila. Although upregulation of dTDP-43 induced neuronal ubiquitin and dTDP-43-positive inclusions, both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 resulted in selective apoptosis of bursicon neurons and highly similar transcriptome alterations at the pupal-adult transition. Gene network analysis and genetic validation showed that both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 directly and dramatically increased the expression of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein Map205, resulting in cytoplasmic accumulations of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR and a failure to switch EcR-dependent gene programs from a pupal to adult pattern. We propose that dTDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a loss of its normal function.

Lies Vanden Broeck

2013-01-01

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Selective Forelimb Impairment in Rats Expressing a Pathological TDP-43 25?kDa C-terminal Fragment to Mimic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

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Pathological inclusions containing transactive response DNA-binding protein 43?kDa (TDP-43) are common in several neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 normally localizes predominantly to the nucleus, but during disease progression, it mislocalizes to the cytoplasm. We expressed TDP-43 in rats by an adeno-associated virus (AAV9) gene transfer method that transduces neurons throughout the central nervous system (CNS). To mimic the aberrant cytoplasmic TDP-43 found in disease, we expressed a form of TDP-43 with mutations in the nuclear localization signal sequence (TDP-NLS). The TDP-NLS was detected in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of transduced neurons. Unlike wild-type TDP-43, expression of TDP-NLS did not induce mortality. However, the TDP-NLS induced disease-relevant motor impairments over 24 weeks. We compared the TDP-NLS to a 25?kDa C-terminal proaggregatory fragment of TDP-43 (TDP-25). The clinical phenotype of forelimb impairment was pronounced with the TDP-25 form, supporting a role of this C-terminal fragment in pathogenesis. The results advance previous rodent models by inducing cytoplasmic expression of TDP-43 in the spinal cord, and the non-lethal phenotype enabled long-term study. Approaching a more relevant disease state in an animal model that more closely mimics underlying mechanisms in human disease could unlock our ability to develop therapeutics. PMID:23689600

Dayton, Robert D; Gitcho, Michael A; Orchard, Elysse A; Wilson, Jon D; Wang, David B; Cain, Cooper D; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mathis, J Michael; Klein, Ronald L

2013-01-01

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TDP-43 loss of cellular function through aggregation requires additional structural determinants beyond its C-terminal Q/N prion-like domain.  

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TDP-43 aggregates are the neurohistological landmark of diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Their role in the pathogenesis of these conditions is not yet clear mainly due to the lack of proper models of aggregation that may allow the study of the mechanism of formation, their interactions with other cellular components and their effect on the cell metabolism. In this work, we have used tandem repeats of the prion like Q/N-rich region of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) fused to additional TDP-43 protein sequences to trigger aggregate formation in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. At the functional level, these aggregates are able to sequester endogenous TDP-43 depleting its nuclear levels and inducing loss of function at the pre-mRNA splicing level. No apparent direct cellular toxicity of the aggregates seems to be present beyond the lack of functional TDP-43. To our knowledge, this is the only system that achieves full functional TDP 43 depletion with effects similar to RNAi depletion or gene deletion. As a result, this model will prove useful to investigate the loss-of-function effects mediated by TDP-43 aggregation within cells without affecting the expression of the endogenous gene. We have identified the N-terminus sequence of TDP-43 as the domain that enhances its interaction with the aggregates and its insolubilization. These data show for the first time that cellular TDP-43 aggregation can lead to total loss of function and to defective splicing of TDP-43-dependent splicing events in endogenous genes. PMID:25122661

Budini, Mauricio; Romano, Valentina; Quadri, Zainuddin; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E

2015-01-01

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TDP-43 N terminus encodes a novel ubiquitin-like fold and its unfolded form in equilibrium that can be shifted by binding to ssDNA.  

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Transactivation response element (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of most forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia-frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), as well as an increasing spectrum of other neurodegenerative diseases. Previous structural and functional studies on TDP-43 have been mostly focused on its recognized domains. Very recently, however, its extreme N terminus was identified to be a double-edged sword indispensable for both physiology and proteinopathy, but thus far its structure remains unknown due to the severe aggregation. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery that protein aggregation can be significantly minimized by reducing salt concentrations, by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy we revealed that the TDP-43 N terminus encodes a well-folded structure in concentration-dependent equilibrium with its unfolded form. Despite previous failure in detecting any sequence homology to ubiquitin, the folded state was determined to adopt a novel ubiquitin-like fold by the CS-Rosetta program with NMR chemical shifts and 78 unambiguous long-range nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) constraints. Remarkably, this ubiquitin-like fold could bind ssDNA, and the binding shifted the conformational equilibrium toward reducing the unfolded population. To the best of our knowledge, the TDP-43 N terminus represents the first ubiquitin-like fold capable of directly binding nucleic acid. Our results provide a molecular mechanism rationalizing the functional dichotomy of TDP-43 and might also shed light on the formation and dynamics of cellular ribonucleoprotein granules, which have been recently linked to ALS pathogenesis. As a consequence, one therapeutic strategy for TDP-43-causing diseases might be to stabilize its ubiquitin-like fold by ssDNA or designed molecules. PMID:25503365

Qin, Haina; Lim, Liang-Zhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Song, Jianxing

2014-12-30

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Long non-coding RNA gadd7 interacts with TDP-43 and regulates Cdk6 mRNA decay.  

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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) transcribed extensively from the genome have been proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in regulation of the cell-cycle G1/S checkpoint following DNA damage, a key step in the maintenance of genomic fidelity. Here we show that growth-arrested DNA damage-inducible gene 7 (gadd7), a DNA damage-inducible lncRNA, regulates the G1/S checkpoint in response to UV irradiation. Interestingly, UV-induced gadd7 directly binds to TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and interferes with the interaction between TDP-43 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) mRNA, resulting in Cdk6 mRNA degradation. These findings demonstrate a role for gadd7 in controlling cell-cycle progression and define a novel mechanism by which lncRNAs modulate mRNA expression at the post-transcriptional level by altering mRNA stability. PMID:23103768

Liu, Xuefeng; Li, Dan; Zhang, Weimin; Guo, Mingzhou; Zhan, Qimin

2012-11-28

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Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortex of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration  

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Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the frontal and temporal neocortex. The single most common pathology underlying FTLD is neuronal degeneration with ubiquitin-positive but tau-negative inclusions consisting of Tar DNA binding proteins (TDP-43). Inclusions containing TDP-43 in neurons are also the most common pathology underlying motor neuron disease (MND). The present study tested the hypothesis that abnormal metabolite patterns within the dorsolateral...

Chawla, Sanjeev; Wang, Sumei; Moore, Peachie; Woo, John H.; Elman, Lauren; Mccluskey, Leo F.; Melhem, Elias R.; Grossman, Murray; Poptani, Harish

2009-01-01

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The RNA-binding Protein TDP-43 Selectively Disrupts MicroRNA-1/206 Incorporation into the RNA-induced Silencing Complex*?  

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MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is regulated by interaction of particular miRNA precursors with specific RNA-binding proteins. Following their biogenesis, mature miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) where they interact with mRNAs to negatively regulate protein production. However, little is known about how mature miRNAs are regulated at the level of their activity. To address this, we screened for proteins differentially bound to the mature form of the miR-1 or miR-133 miRNA families. These muscle-enriched, co-transcribed miRNA pairs cooperate to suppress smooth muscle gene expression in the heart. However, they also have opposing roles, with the miR-1 family, composed of miR-1 and miR-206, promoting myogenic differentiation, whereas miR-133 maintains the progenitor state. Here, we describe a physical interaction between TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein that forms aggregates in the neuromuscular disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the miR-1, but not miR-133, family. Deficiency of the TDP-43 Drosophila ortholog enhanced dmiR-1 activity in vivo. In mammalian cells, TDP-43 limited the activity of both miR-1 and miR-206, but not the miR-133 family, by disrupting their RISC association. Consistent with TDP-43 dampening miR-1/206 activity, protein levels of the miR-1/206 targets, IGF-1 and HDAC4, were elevated in TDP-43 transgenic mouse muscle. This occurred without corresponding Igf-1 or Hdac4 mRNA increases and despite higher miR-1 and miR-206 expression. Our findings reveal that TDP-43 negatively regulates the activity of the miR-1 family of miRNAs by limiting their bioavailability for RISC loading and suggest a processing-independent mechanism for differential regulation of miRNA activity. PMID:24719334

King, Isabelle N.; Yartseva, Valeria; Salas, Donaldo; Kumar, Abhishek; Heidersbach, Amy; Ando, D. Michael; Stallings, Nancy R.; Elliott, Jeffrey L.; Srivastava, Deepak; Ivey, Kathryn N.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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ER-mitochondria associations are regulated by the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and are disrupted by ALS/FTD-associated TDP-43  

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Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) form tight structural associations and these facilitate a number of cellular functions. However, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to mitochondria are not properly known. Understanding these mechanisms is not just important for comprehending fundamental physiological processes but also for understanding pathogenic processes in some disease states. In particular, disruption to ER-mitochondria associations is linked to some neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that the ER-resident protein VAPB interacts with the mitochondrial protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein-51 (PTPIP51) to regulate ER-mitochondria associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that TDP-43, a protein pathologically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal dementia perturbs ER-mitochondria interactions and that this is associated with disruption to the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Finally, we show that overexpression of TDP-43 leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and that GSK-3? regulates the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction. Our results describe a new pathogenic mechanism for TDP-43.

Stoica, Radu; de Vos, Kurt J.; Paillusson, Sébastien; Mueller, Sarah; Sancho, Rosa M.; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lin, Wen-Lang; Xu, Ya-Fei; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Miller, Christopher C. J.

2014-06-01

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FTLD-ALS of TDP-43 type and SCA2 in a family with a full ataxin-2 polyglutamine expansion.  

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Polyglutamine expansions in the ataxin-2 gene (ATXN2) cause autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), but have recently also been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We present clinical and pathological features of a family in which a pathological ATXN2 expansion led to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ALS (FTLD-ALS) in the index case, but typical SCA2 in a son, and compare the neuropathology with a case of typical SCA2. The index case shares the molecular signature of SCA2 with prominent polyglutamine and p62-positive intranuclear neuronal inclusions mainly in the pontine nuclei, while harbouring more pronounced neocortical and spinal TDP-43 pathology. We conclude that ATXN2 mutations can cause not only ALS, but also a neuropathological overlap syndrome of SCA2 and FTLD presenting clinically as pure FTLD-ALS without ataxia. The cause of the phenotypic heterogeneity remains unexplained, but the presence of a CAA-interrupted CAG repeat in the FTLD case in this family suggests that one potential mechanism may be variation in repeat tract composition between members of the same family. PMID:24718895

Bäumer, Dirk; East, Simon Z; Tseu, Bing; Zeman, Adam; Hilton, David; Talbot, Kevin; Ansorge, Olaf

2014-10-01

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Valosin-containing protein immunoreactivity in tauopathies, synucleinopathies, polyglutamine diseases and intranuclear inclusion body disease.  

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Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is associated with multiple cellular functions, including ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. Mutations in VCP are known to cause inclusion body myopathy with Paget's disease and frontotemporal dementia and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS; ALS14), both of which are characterized by trans-activation response DNA protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions. Recently, immunoreactivity for fALS-associated proteins (TDP-43, fused in sarcoma (FUS), optineurin and ubiquilin-2) were reported to be present in cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the extent and frequency of VCP-immunoreactive structures in these neurodegenerative diseases are uncertain. We immunohistochemically examined the brains of 72 cases with neurodegenerative diseases and five control cases. VCP immunoreactivity was present in Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, and neuronal nuclear inclusions in five polyglutamine diseases and intranuclear inclusion body disease, as well as in Marinesco bodies in aged control subjects. However, other neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in tauopathies and TDP-43 proteinopathies were unstained. These findings suggest that VCP may have common mechanisms in the formation or degradation of cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions of neurons, but not of glial cells, in several neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:23782134

Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Sasaki, Hidenao; Yoshida, Mari; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

2013-12-01

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C57BL/6J congenic Prp-TDP43A315T mice develop progressive neurodegeneration in the myenteric plexus of the colon without exhibiting key features of ALS.  

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ALS therapy development has been hindered by the lack of rodent animal models. The discovery of TDP-43, a transcription factor that accumulates in the cytoplasm of motor neurons (MNs) in most cases of ALS, prompted attempts to develop TDP-43-based models of the disease. The current study sought to examine, in extensive detail, the emerging disease phenotype of a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses a mutant human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) gene under mouse prion promoter control. Careful attention was given to ALS-like characteristics to determine the appropriateness of this model for testing therapies for ALS. In light of previous reports that gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is responsible for early death in these mice, gut immunohistochemistry (IHC) and longitudinal gut motility assays were used to identify the onset and the progression of these defects. IHC studies revealed that site-specific overexpression of the hTDP-43 transgene in colonic myenteric plexes resulted in progressive neurodegeneration in this region. This change was associated with progressively reduced GI motility, culminating in frank stasis that was primarily responsible for decreasing longevity in these mice. The disease phenotype was gender- and genetic background-dependent, with congenic C57BL/6J male mice exhibiting the most aggressive form of the disease. Spinal cord IHC revealed ubiquitin-positive inclusions, but not TDP-43 aggregates, in the cytoplasm of MNs. Neither gender exhibited compelling ALS-like neuromuscular deficits, irrespective of age. While this model may be useful for studying GI tract neurodegeneration, in its present state it does not display a phenotype suitable for testing ALS therapeutics. PMID:24141148

Hatzipetros, Theo; Bogdanik, Laurent P; Tassinari, Valerie R; Kidd, Joshua D; Moreno, Andy J; Davis, Crystal; Osborne, Melissa; Austin, Andrew; Vieira, Fernando G; Lutz, Cathleen; Perrin, Steve

2014-10-10

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Poly-A binding protein-1 localization to a subset of TDP-43 inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis occurs more frequently in patients harboring an expansion in C9orf72.  

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease in which the loss of spinal cord motor neurons leads to paralysis and death within a few years of clinical disease onset. In almost all cases of ALS, transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions. A second causative gene for a subset of ALS is fused in sarcoma, an RNA binding protein that also forms cytoplasmic inclusions in spinal cord motor neurons. Poly-A binding protein-1 (PABP-1) is a marker of stress granules (i.e. accumulations of proteins and RNA indicative of translational arrest in cells under stress). We report on the colocalization of PABP-1 to both TDP-43 and fused-in-sarcoma inclusions in 4 patient cohorts: ALS without a mutation, ALS with an intermediate polyglutamine repeat expansion in ATXN2, ALS with a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72, and ALS with basophilic inclusion body disease. Notably, PABP-1 colocalization to TDP-43 was twice as frequent in ALS with C9orf72 expansions compared to ALS with no mutation. This study highlights PABP-1 as a protein that is important to the pathology of ALS and indicates that the proteomic profile of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS may differ depending on the causative genetic mutation. PMID:25111021

McGurk, Leeanne; Lee, Virginia M; Trojanowksi, John Q; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Edward B; Bonini, Nancy M

2014-09-01

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FTLD-TDP with motor neuron disease, visuospatial impairment and a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome: broadening the clinical phenotype of TDP-43 proteinopathies. A report of three cases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin and TDP-43 positive neuronal inclusions represents a novel entity (FTLD-TDP that may be associated with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND; involvement of extrapyramidal and other systems has also been reported. Case presentation We present three cases with similar clinical symptoms, including Parkinsonism, supranuclear gaze palsy, visuospatial impairment and a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, associated with either clinically possible or definite MND. Neuropathological examination revealed hallmarks of FTLD-TDP with major involvement of subcortical and, in particular, mesencephalic structures. These cases differed in onset and progression of clinical manifestations as well as distribution of histopathological changes in the brain and spinal cord. Two cases were sporadic, whereas the third case had a pathological variation in the progranulin gene 102 delC. Conclusions Association of a "progressive supranuclear palsy-like" syndrome with marked visuospatial impairment, motor neuron disease and early behavioral disturbances may represent a clinically distinct phenotype of FTLD-TDP. Our observations further support the concept that TDP-43 proteinopathies represent a spectrum of disorders, where preferential localization of pathogenetic inclusions and neuronal cell loss defines clinical phenotypes ranging from frontotemporal dementia with or without motor neuron disease, to corticobasal syndrome and to a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome.

Holmerová Iva

2011-05-01

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Phosphorylation regulates proteasomal-mediated degradation and solubility of TAR DNA binding protein-43 C-terminal fragments  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Inclusions of TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43 are the defining histopathological feature of several neurodegenerative diseases collectively referred to as TDP-43 proteinopathies. These diseases are characterized by the presence of cellular aggregates composed of abnormally phosphorylated, N-terminally truncated and ubiquitinated TDP-43 in the spinal cord and/or brain. Recent studies indicate that C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 are aggregation-prone and induce cytotoxicity. However, little is known regarding the pathways responsible for the degradation of these fragments and how their phosphorylation contributes to the pathogenesis of disease. Results Herein, we established a human neuroblastoma cell line (M17D3 that conditionally expresses an enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged caspase-cleaved C-terminal TDP-43 fragment (GFP-TDP220-414. We report that expression of this fragment within cells leads to a time-dependent formation of inclusions that are immunoreactive for both ubiquitin and phosphorylated TDP-43, thus recapitulating pathological hallmarks of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Phosphorylation of GFP-TDP220-414 renders it resistant to degradation and enhances its accumulation into insoluble aggregates. Nonetheless, GFP-TDP220-414 inclusions are reversible and can be cleared through the ubiquitin proteasome system. Moreover, both Hsp70 and Hsp90 bind to GFP-TDP220-414 and regulate its degradation. Conclusions Our data indicates that inclusions formed from TDP-43 C-terminal fragments are reversible. Given that TDP-43 inclusions have been shown to confer toxicity, our findings have important therapeutic implications and suggest that modulating the phosphorylation state of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments may be a promising therapeutic strategy to clear TDP-43 inclusions.

Zhang Yong-Jie

2010-08-01

68

Comparison of the diagnostic value of serum pancreatic isoamylase and immunoreactive trypsin measurement in patients with cystic fibrosis.  

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We have measured serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) and serum pancreatic isoamylase (PIA) activities using commercially available kits in 37 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and 46 hospital controls of similar age range. Immunoreactive trypsin was more often abnormal than PIA (26/37 v 18/37 abnormal respectively); IRT will be particularly useful as an additional diagnostic test in older children, in whom interpretation of the sweat test may be difficult, as 14/15 CF patients aged over 10 years h...

Brown, R. C.; Chalmers, D. M.; Rowe, V. L.; Kelleher, J.; Littlewood, J. M.; Losowsky, M. S.

1982-01-01

69

Chromosome Abnormalities  

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Chromosome Abnormalities What are chromosomes? Where are chromosomes found in the body? How many chromosomes do humans ... chromosome abnormalities happen? Glossary of Terms What are chromosomes? Chromosomes are the structures that hold our genes. ...

70

Human uveal melanoma expresses NG2 immunoreactivity  

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Background/aims: NG2 is the rat homologue of the human melanoma proteoglycan (HMP), also known as the high molecular weight melanoma associated antigen. Most cutaneous melanomas, as well as glioblastomas, chondrosarcomas, and some leukaemias express NG2 immunoreactivity, recognised using monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9.2.27. This antibody has also been used for molecular targeting in targeted ? therapy for melanoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of NG2 immunoreactivity...

Li, Y.; Madigan, M. C.; Lai, K.; Conway, R. M.; Billson, F. A.; Crouch, R.; Allen, B. J.

2003-01-01

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Polyamine-like immunoreactivity in rat neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The localization of polyamine (PA) pools in motor, sensory, and autonomic neurons and in the nerve cells of the hypothalamo-hypophysial system of rats was examined by immunocytochemical method using the monoclonal antibody ASPM-29 specific to spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd) fixed in situ. Strong PA immunoreactivity was found in the cytoplasm and dendrites of the large perikaryon of motor neurons in the anterior spinal column, in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, in the pyramidal cells of the cerebrum, in the nerve cells of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus, and in the nerve cells of the spinal and autonomic ganglions. No PA immunoreactivity was seen in the nucleus and nerve terminals of the neurons. The PA immunoreactivities in the motor and sensory neurons were characterized by clustered masses and blocks of immunoreactive cells. Irrespective of location, small and medium-sized neurons were weakly PA-positive. The glia cells, some stellite cells, and Schwann cells were almost completely PA-negative. These results may suggest that in neurons PAs are not transported axonally, but are located in conjunction with Nissl bodies (the rough endoplasmic reticulum), specified as sites for protein synthesis within cells. PMID:9365032

Fujiwara, K; Bai, G; Kitagawa, T

1997-08-29

72

Immunoreactivity of valosin-containing protein in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in a case of its novel mutant.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundMutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene were first found to cause inclusion- body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). Mutations in the VCP gene were later reported to occur in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). But the role of VCP in the neurodegenerative processes that occur in ALS remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the role of VCP in the neurodegeneration seen in sporadic and VCP mutant ALS.ResultsImmunohistochemistry demonstrated that the frequency of distinct VCP-positive nuclei of spinal motor neurons of patients with sporadic ALS (SALS) and the ALS with VCP novel mutation (ALS-VCP, M158V) was increased, compared with that of the control cases. No VCP-positive inclusion bodies were observed in SALS patients, a ALS-VCP patient or in control subjects. Neuropathologic examination of the ALS-VCP case showed loss of motor neurons, the presence of Bunina bodies, and degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. Bunina bodies detected in this case were confirmed to show immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features similar to those previously described. Furthermore, neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions immunopositive for TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), phosphorylated TDP-43, ubiquitin (Ub), p62, and optineurin were identified in the spinal and medullary motoneurons, but not in the neocortex. Gene analysis of this ALS-VCP patient confirmed the de novo mutation of M158V, which was not found in control cases; and bioinformatics using several in silico analyses showed possible damage to the structure of VCP. Immunocytochemical study of cultured cells showed increased cytoplasmic translocation of TDP-43 in cells transfected with several mutant VCP including our patient¿s compared with wild-type VCP.ConclusionThese findings support the idea that VCP is associated with the pathomechanism of SALS and familial ALS with a VCP mutation, presumably acting through a dominant-negative mechanism. PMID:25492614

Ayaki, Takashi; Ito, Hidefumi; Fukushima, Hiroko; Inoue, Takeshi; Kondo, Takayuki; Ikemoto, Akito; Asano, Takeshi; Shodai, Akemi; Fujita, Takuji; Fukui, Satoshi; Morino, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Riki; Kawamata, Jun; Urushitani, Makoto; Kawakami, Hideshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke

2014-12-10

73

TDP-43 pathology in familial frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease without Progranulin mutations  

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Frontotemporal dementia is accompanied by motor neuron disease (FTD + MND) in ?10% of cases. There is accumulating evidence for a clinicopathological overlap between FTD and MND based on observations of familial aggregation and neuropathological findings of ubiquitin-positive neuronal cytoplasmatic inclusions (NCI) in lower motor neurons, hippocampus and neocortex in both conditions. Several familial forms exist with different genetic loci and defects. We investigated the familial aggregati...

Seelaar, H.; Jurgen Schelhaas, H.; Azmani, A.; Ku?sters, B.; Rosso, S. M.; Majoor-krakauer, D. F.; Rijik, M. C.; Rizzu, P.; Brummelhuis, M. Ten; Doorn, P. A.; Kamphorst, W.; Willemsen, R.; Swieten, J. C.

2007-01-01

74

Parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the rat retina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of the Ca2+ binding protein parvalbumin was studied in the rat retina with immunocytochemistry using a mouse monoclonal antibody. Specific parvalbumin immunoreactivity was identified within a subpopulation of ganglion cells and a subpopulation of amacrine cells. The topographical data provided by the present study may serve as a basis for a functional characterization of parvalbumin's role in the nervous system. PMID:2259462

Sanna, P P; Keyser, K T; Battenberg, E; Bloom, F E

1990-10-01

75

DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal neoplasia  

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Giuseppe Gagliardi1, Monica Goswami1, Roberto Passera2, Charles F Bellows11Department of Surgery and Pathology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Division of Nuclear Medicine Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Turin, ItalyIntroduction: Microtubule-associated doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCLK1) is a novel candidate marker for intestinal stem cells. The aim of our study was to assess DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal carcinogenesis and its correlation wit...

Cf, Bellows; Passera R; Goswami M; Gagliardi G

2012-01-01

76

Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the retina.  

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A substance with somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) was found in extracts of goldfish, frog, and cow retina. Dilutions of retinal SLI parallel the standard curve for radioimmunoassay obtained with synthetic somatostatin. Chromatography of goldfish retinal extract on Sephadex G-50 revealed two peaks of SLI, one that coeluted with synthetic somatostatin and one that eluted as a larger molecule. Incubation in 8 M urea did not alter the chromatographic pattern of the extract. SLI was presen...

Yamada, T.; Marshak, D.; Basinger, S.; Walsh, J.; Morley, J.; Stell, W.

1980-01-01

77

Immunoreactivity assay for ?-particle emitting monoclonal antibody constructs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical trials using ?-particle radiolabeled antibodies require a rapid and reproducible assay of the immunoreactivity of drugs. While live cell assays are typically used to determine the immunoreactive drug fraction, a fixed cell assay may replace the traditional live cell assay and offer the advantages of rapidity, easy availability and consistency for qualifying drugs for preclinical or clinical studies. We have identified optimal cell fixation and immunoreactivity assay conditions and have validated them by performing the fixed-cell assay in clinical trials

78

Thyroglobulin immunoreactivity in lymph node histiocytes: a potential diagnostic pitfall  

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Aims—Strong thyroglobulin immunoreactivity within sinus histiocytes in a lymph node draining a papillary thyroid carcinoma was observed in a recent case. This prompted the investigation of whether thyroglobulin immunoreactivity is common in regional lymph nodes in cases of thyroid malignancy.

Venkatraman, L.; Maxwell, P.; Mccluggage, W.

2001-01-01

79

Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions are associated with increased risk for ALS  

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human neurodegenerative disease. The causes of ALS are poorly understood, although the protein TDP-43 has been suggested to play a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Here we show that Ataxin-2, a polyglutamine (polyQ) protein mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), is a potent modifier of TDP-43 toxicity in animal and cellular models. The proteins associate in a complex that depends on RNA. Ataxin-2 is abnormally localized in s...

Elden, Andrew C.; Kim, Hyung-jun; Hart, Michael P.; Chen-plotkin, Alice S.; Johnson, Brian S.; Fang, Xiaodong; Armakola, Maria; Geser, Felix; Greene, Robert; Lu, Min Min; Padmanabhan, Arun; Clay, Dana; Mccluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Juhr, Denise

2010-01-01

80

Topological relationship between corticotropin-releasing factor-immunoreactive cerebellar afferents and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive Purkinje cells in a hereditary ataxic mutant, rolling mouse Nagoya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using immunohistochemistry we examined the distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor-positive cerebellar afferents and the topological relationship between their projections and the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive Purkinje cells in an ataxic mutant, rolling mouse Nagoya. In the mutants, some climbing fibers were more intensely stained for corticotropin-releasing factor, but their zonal distribution remained the same as in non-ataxic littermates (control mice). These climbing fibers arose from the dorsal accessory nucleus, the ventral lamella of principal nucleus, the dorsomedial cell group, the subnucleus A, the beta subnucleus and the ventrolateral protrusion of the inferior olive, since perikarya in these olivary subdivisions were more intensely stained for corticotropin-releasing factor than in controls. Some mossy fiber rosettes in the vermal lobules, the simple lobule, the crus I of ansiform lobule, the copula pyramidis and the flocculus also exhibited corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity and were more densely stained in the mutants than in controls. Double immunostaining for corticotropin-releasing factor and tyrosine hydroxylase in the mutant cerebellum revealed that the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive Purkinje cells corresponded to terminal fields of corticotropin-releasing factor-positive climbing fibers but not corticotropin-releasing factor-positive mossy fibers. This study indicated an increased corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity in some climbing or mossy fibers in the cerebellum of rolling mouse Nagoya. We also found that the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive Purkinje cells corresponded to terminal fields of corticotropin-releasing factor-positive climbing fibers in the mutant cerebellum. As the transcription of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene is facilitated by Ca2+, abnormal tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the mutant Purkinje cells may indicate functional abnormality by alterations in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Therefore, we suggest that an increased level of corticotropin-releasing factor in a specific population of climbing fibers may alter the function of their target Purkinje cells. PMID:11182254

Sawada, K; Sakata-Haga, H; Hisano, S; Fukui, Y

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Immunoreactivity assay for {alpha}-particle emitting monoclonal antibody constructs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clinical trials using {alpha}-particle radiolabeled antibodies require a rapid and reproducible assay of the immunoreactivity of drugs. While live cell assays are typically used to determine the immunoreactive drug fraction, a fixed cell assay may replace the traditional live cell assay and offer the advantages of rapidity, easy availability and consistency for qualifying drugs for preclinical or clinical studies. We have identified optimal cell fixation and immunoreactivity assay conditions and have validated them by performing the fixed-cell assay in clinical trials.

Bonavia, Anthony S. [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Department, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States)]. E-mail: asb2592@yahoo.com; McDevitt, Michael R. [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Department, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Curcio, Michael J. [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Department, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Scheinberg, David A. [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Department, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States)]. E-mail: d-scheinberg@ski.mskcc.org

2006-04-15

82

Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

83

Immunoreactivity and expression of amylin in gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors.  

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Amylin was isolated from human insulinomas, but there has been only preliminary data regarding whether this peptide can also be detected in other types of gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining of 87 gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors demonstrated amylin immunoreactivity in 21.8% of the neoplasmas. Thirteen of 15 insulinomas, three of 21 gastrinomas, two of 29 nonfunctioning tumors, and one of 18 carcinoids were amylin-immunoreactive. ...

Eissele, R.; Neuhaus, C.; Trautmann, M. E.; Funk, A.; Arnold, R.; Ho?fler, H.

1993-01-01

84

Immunoreactive determinants of CA 125 in women with endometriosis.  

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Among 10 patients with endometriosis CA 125 was increased (greater than 35 U/ml) in endometriotic cyst fluid in all the patients, but only two had increased serum concentrations. Gel electrophoresis of serum, endometriotic cyst fluid, and endometriotic tissue resolved the CA 125 immunoreactive fragments from the three sources into bands of similar electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions showed immunoreactive fragments of apparent masses of 55,000...

Mojiminiyi, O. A.; Bramwell, M. E.; Kennedy, S. H.; Shepstone, B. J.; Humm, S. M.; Barlow, D. H.

1989-01-01

85

Temperature-dependent immunoreactive assay to screen for digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s).  

Science.gov (United States)

Endogenous circulating digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) are known to cross-react with antibodies to digoxin and to inhibit Na+/K(+)-transporting ATPase (Na+K+ATPase; EC 3.6.1.37). Moreover, increasing the immunoassay temperature from 4 to 37 degrees C markedly decreases DLIF from human cord serum. We tested several compounds, including hormonal steroids, bile salts, lipids, and methionine-enkephalin, for their ability to cross-react with two commercially available 125I digoxin RIAs, to inhibit porcine Na+K+ATPase, and to see whether they present the same incubation temperature dependence as human cord serum. Except for methionine-enkephalin, all compounds were inhibitors of Na+K+ATPase in the range of 1-10 mmol/L. Progesterone exhibited the highest cross-reactivity in the two RIAs. The apparent digoxin immunoreactivity for the majority of the cross-reacting steroids, bile salts, and linoleic acid was markedly decreased by increasing the incubation temperature from 4 to 37 degrees C, whereas estriol, pregnanediol, and nonspecific compounds (e.g., ethanol, human serum albumin) did not appear to be temperature-sensitive. Both lysophosphatidyl lipids gave an increased apparent digoxin concentration with increasing incubation temperature. Our data suggest that numerous weakly cross-reactive compounds can parallel the response of human cord serum. However, the temperature-dependent effect could be an additional criterion for identifying DLIF. PMID:1718632

Guédeney, X; Chanez, C; Grenier, A; Scherrmann, J M

1991-11-01

86

Protein profiles and immunoreactivities of Acanthamoeba morphological groups and genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan found in a wide variety of habitats. A classification of Acanthamoeba into currently eighteen genotypes (T1-T18) has been established, however, data on differences between genotypes on the protein level are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare protein and immunoreactivity profiles of Acanthamoeba genotypes. Thirteen strains, both clinical and non-clinical, from genotypes T4, T5, T6, T7, T9, T11 and T12, representing three morphological groups, were investigated for their protein profiles and IgG, IgM and IgA immunoreactivities. It was shown that protein and immunoreactivity profiles of Acanthamoeba genotypes T4, T5, T6, T7, T9, T11 and T12 are clearly distinct from each other, but the banding patterns correlate to the morphological groups. Normal human sera revealed anti-Acanthamoeba antibodies against isolates of all investigated genotypes, interestingly, however only very weak IgM and virtually no IgA immunoreactivity with T7 and T9, both representing morphological group I. The strongest IgG, IgM and IgA immunoreactivities were observed for genotypes T4, T5 and T6. Differences of both, protein and immunological patterns, between cytopathic and non-cytopathic strains, particularly within genotype T4, were not at the level of banding patterns, but rather in expression levels. PMID:24858925

Pumidonming, Wilawan; Koehsler, Martina; Leitsch, David; Walochnik, Julia

2014-11-01

87

Mechanism of action of cysteamine in depleting prolactin immunoreactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thiol reagent cysteamine (CSH) depletes anterior pituitary cells of immunoreactive PRL both in vivo and in vitro. The authors examined the hypothesis that CSH affects either the solubility or immunoreactivity of PRL through a mechanism involving thiol-disulfide exchange. Adult female rats were treated with either CSH (300 mg/kg, sc) or an equimolar dose of ethanolamine as a control. Anterior pituitary glands were extracted in 0.1 M sodium borate buffer, pH 9.0. Treatment of pituitary extracts with beta-mercaptoethanol (BME) destroys the immunoreactivity of PRL. However, extraction in the presence of reduced glutathione or CSH of pituitaries of rats treated with CSH restores immunoreactive PRL to control levels. Extracts were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). On gels of pituitary extracts of CSH-treated rats, the band that comigrates with purified PRL is diminished compared to that in ethanolamine-treated controls. However, extraction of the pituitaries in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing buffer followed by chemical reduction with BME restores the PRL band. Therefore, CSH acts on PRL through a thiol-related mechanism to yield a product that is poorly soluble in aqueous buffer at pH 9 and is poorly immunoreactive. Dispersed anterior pituitary cells in tissue culture were incubated with L-[35S]methionine to radiolabel newly synthesized peptides. PAGE followed by autoradiography confirmed the above results obtained in vivo the above results obtained in vivo

88

Identification of immunoreactive proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of a chronic enteritis of ruminants (bovine paratuberculosis-Johne disease) that is associated with enormous worldwide economic losses for the animal production industries. Diagnosis is based on observation of clinical signs, on the detection of antibodies in milk or serum or on evaluation of bacterial culture from feces. The limit of these methods is that they are not able to detect the disease in the subclinical stage and are applicable only when the disease is already in an advanced status. For this reason the main purpose of this study is to use the MAP proteome to detect novel immunoreactive proteins that may be helpful for paratuberculosis diagnoses. 2D electrophoresis and 2D immunoblotting of MAP proteins were performed using sera of control cattle and paratuberculosis infected cattle in order to highlight the specific immunoreactive proteins. Among the assigned identifiers to immunoreactive spots it was found that most of them correspond to surface-located proteins while three of them have never been described before as antigens. The identification of these proteins improves scientific knowledge that could be useful for paratuberculosis diagnoses. The sequence of the identified protein can be used for the synthesis of immunoreactive peptides that could be screened for their immunoreaction against bovine sera infected with MAP. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with identifier PXD001159 and DOI 10.6019/PXD001159. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25404104

Piras, Cristian; Soggiu, Alessio; Bonizzi, Luigi; Greco, Viviana; Ricchi, Matteo; Arrigoni, Norma; Bassols, Anna; Urbani, Andrea; Roncada, Paola

2014-11-18

89

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

Science.gov (United States)

Skeletal limb abnormalities refer to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... Skeletal limb abnormalities are most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are associated with ...

90

Immunoreactive thyroglobulin-like material derived from saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of an immunoreactive thyroglobulin-like material in saliva from normal subjects and from 35 patients with thyroid carcinoma was detected by radioimmunoassay. The levels of this material in saliva were markedly elevated in patients with extensive metastases. Concentrated saliva samples from normal subjects and from patients with thyroid carcinoma were fractioned on Sepharose-6B and each fraction was assayed from thyroglobulin content by RIA. Several protein peaks of varying molecular size with thyroglublin-like immunoreactivity were observed. The physiological significance of these molecules in saliva remains to be established. PMID:6637333

Shah, D H; Dandekar, S R; Jeevanram, R K; Thakare, U R; Ajaykumar, B S; Ganatra, R D

1983-11-01

91

Cloning and Expression of a Helicobacter bilis Immunoreactive Protein  

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In an effort to identify immunoreactive Helicobacter bilis antigens with potential for serodiagnosis, sera from mice experimentally infected with H. bilis were used to screen an H. bilis genomic DNA expression library. Among 17 immunoreactive clones, several contained sequences that encoded a predicted 167-kDa protein (P167). Five overlapping P167 peptides (P167A to P167E) of approximately 40 kDa each were generated and tested. Immune sera reacted with fragments P167C and P167D at dilutions o...

Feng, Sunlian; Hodzic, Emir; Kendall, Lon V.; Smith, Amy; Freet, Kimberly; Barthold, Stephen W.

2002-01-01

92

TDP-43 Pathology in a Case of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia with a NIPA1/SPG6 Mutation  

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Mutations in NIPA1 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome) have been described as a cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) known as SPG6 (spastic paraplegia-6). We present the first neuropathological description of a patient with a NIPA1 mutation, and clinical phenotype of complicated HSP with motor neuron disease-like syndrome and cognitive decline. Postmortem examination revealed degeneration of lateral corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns with motor ne...

Martinez-lage, Maria; Molina-porcel, Laura; Falcone, Dana; Mccluskey, Leo; Lee, Virginia M. -y; Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.

2012-01-01

93

TDP-43 mediates degeneration in a novel Drosophila model of disease caused by mutations in VCP/p97  

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Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is a dominantly inherited degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP7) gene. VCP (p97 in mouse, TER94 in Drosophila melanogaster, and CDC48 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a highly conserved AAA(+) (ATPases associated with multiple cellular activities) ATPase that regulates a wide array of cellular processes. The mechanism of IBMPFD pathogenesis is unknown...

Ritson, G. P.; Custer, S. K.; Freibaum, B. D.; Guinto, J. B.; Geffel, D.; Moore, J.; Tang, W.; Winton, M. J.; Neumann, M.; Trojanowski, J. Q.; Lee, V. M. Y.; Forman, M. S.; Taylor, J. P.

2010-01-01

94

Pyramidal neurons with ectopic dendrites in storage diseases exhibit increased GM2 ganglioside immunoreactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cortical pyramidal neurons in several types of neuronal storage diseases have been shown by Golgi staining to sprout axon hillock-associated dendritic processes. Based on the relative incidence of this ectopic dendritogenesis, and on quantitative analyses of gangliosides in these same tissues, it has been proposed that abnormal accumulation of a specific metabolic product, GM2 ganglioside, is the pivotal event leading to re-initiation of dendritic sprouting [Siegel D. A. Walkley S.U. (1994) J. Neurochem. 62, 1852-1862]. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody was used to determine the cellular location of this ganglioside within the cerebral cortex of animal models of storage diseases with and without ectopic dendrite growth. Diseases exhibiting ectopic dendritogenesis included inherited and swainsonine-induced (juvenile-onset) alpha-mannosidosis, mucopolysaccharidosis type I, Niemann-Pick disease type C, and GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis. Conditions lacking ectopic dendrite growth included adult-onset swainsonine-induced alpha-mannosidosis, fucosidosis, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten disease) and normal, mature brain. Immunocytochemical staining for GM2 ganglioside indicated that diseases exhibiting new dendritic sprouting with the exception of GM1 gangliosidosis, exhibited abundant GM2-like immunoreactivity within the cortical pyramidal cell population, whereas diseases without dendritic sprouting had GM2-like immunoreactivity limited to glia and/or to non-pyramidal neurons. Cortical tissues from normal animals at comparable ages and processed by similar procedures exhibited occasional glial cell staining but little or no neuronal labelling. Mechanisms by which normal cortical pyramidal regulate dendritic initiation are poorly understood. However, it is known that this event is developmentally restricted, occurring only during early brain development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8544979

Walkley, S U

1995-10-01

95

Urine - abnormal color  

Science.gov (United States)

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

96

Increased immunoreactivity of cdk5 activators in hippocampal sclerosis.  

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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is important in several in-vitro neurodegeneration paradigms. Whether cyclin-dependent kinase 5 contributes to cell death in human neurodegenerative diseases remains uncertain, particularly because post-mortem delay and other extrinsic factors might influence cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity. Here we demonstrate increased immunoreactivity for the activators of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in post-mortem human hippocampi affected by the neurodegenerative condition hipp...

Sen, A.; Thom, M.; Martinian, L.; Yogarajah, M.; Nikolic, M.; Sisodiya, Sm

2007-01-01

97

Parvalbumin-immunoreactive amacrine cells of macaque retina  

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A number of authors have observed amacrine cells containing high levels of immunoreactive parvalbumin in primate retinas. The experiments described here were designed to identify these cells morphologically, to determine their neurotransmitter, to record their light responses, and to describe the other cells that they contact. Macaque retinas were fixed in paraformaldehyde and labeled with antibodies to parvalbumin and one or two other markers, and this double- and triple-labeled material was...

Klump, Kathryn E.; Zhang, Ai-jun; Wu, Samuel M.; Marshak, David W.

2009-01-01

98

Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the amygdala of the pig.  

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The distribution and morphology of neurons containing somatostatin (SOM) was investigated in the amygdala (CA) of the pig. The SOM-immunoreactive (SOM-IR) cell bodies and fibres were present in all subdivisions of the porcine CA, however, their number and density varied depending on the nucleus studied. The highest density of SOM-positive somata was observed in the layer III of the cortical nuclei, in the anterior (magnocellular) part of the basomedial nucleus and in the caudal (large-celled)...

Agnieszka Bossowska; Ma?gorzata Kolenkiewicz; Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska; Anna Robak; Maciej Równiak; Joanna Wojtkiewicz; Cezary Skobowiat; Mariusz Majewski

2008-01-01

99

Immunoreactive dynorphin in mammalian spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia.  

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The distribution of immunoreactive dynorphin (ir-dynorphin) has been determined in dorsal and ventral aspects of spinal cord and in dorsal root ganglia of rabbit and rat. Concentrations are highest in dorsal root, with intermediate levels in ventral cord and low levels in dorsal root ganglia of both species. Levels of ir-dynorphin are relatively uniform over examined segments (vertebrae C2-S3) of rabbit spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Gel permeation chromatography of extracts from rabbit...

Botticelli, L. J.; Cox, B. M.; Goldstein, A.

1981-01-01

100

Immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor in human plasma.  

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Plasma immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor (I-CRF) levels were determined by using a human CRF radioimmunoassay and an immunoaffinity procedure. The basal plasma I-CRF level in normal subjects was 6 +/- 0.5 pg/ml (mean +/- SD). We found that most plasma I-CRF levels were affected by stress, negative feedback, and circadian rhythm. Basal I-CRF levels were high in patients with Addison's disease, Nelson's syndrome, hypopituitarism stemming from pituitary macroadenoma, and CRF- and adr...

Suda, T.; Tomori, N.; Yajima, F.; Sumitomo, T.; Nakagami, Y.; Ushiyama, T.; Demura, H.; Shizume, K.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Kinetics of Antibody Response to Ehrlichia canis Immunoreactive Proteins  

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Immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia chaffeensis that have been characterized include a family of 28-kDa major outer membrane proteins (p28) and two large antigenically divergent surface glycoprotein orthologs. We previously demonstrated that recombinant E. canis p28 and the 140- and 200-kDa glycoproteins gp140 and gp200, respectively, react strongly with serum antibodies from suspect canine ehrlichiosis cases that were positive for E. canis by immunofluorescent antibody t...

Mcbride, Jere W.; Corstvet, Richard E.; Gaunt, Steven D.; Boudreaux, Charles; Guedry, Thaya; Walker, David H.

2003-01-01

102

Distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells in the mouse forebrain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells was studied by immunocytochemistry in the mouse forebrain using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase. Labeled perikarya were found in the dorso-lateral parts of the medial and tuberal hypothalamus. Positive cells filled an area extending between the subincertal nucleus in the dorsal part, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral part, and the internal capsule and the magnocellular nucleus of the lateral hypothalamus in the lateral part. The same distribution was seen in the two strains of mice that were studied (Jackson and Swiss), and the number of immunoreactive perikarya did not seem to be affected by castration or testosterone treatment. No immunoreactivity could be detected in the medial regions of the preoptic area and hypothalamus; these were expected to contain the enzyme based on assays of aromatase activity performed in rats and on indirect autoradiographic evidence in mice. Our data raise questions concerning the distribution of aromatase in the brain and the mode of action of the centrally produced estrogens. PMID:2009554

Balthazart, J; Foidart, A; Surlemont, C; Harada, N

1991-01-01

103

Biomolecular immunoreactivity factor in antibody labelling design for potent radiopharmaceutical  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomolecular factors' importance in optimum immunoconjugate design when high specific labelling is attempted is discussed. High specific labelling allows a small dose to be administered avoiding saturating antigen binding sites and to compensate for loss of bivalency etc. upon fragmentation. Clinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications result in adverse toxicity and poor scintigraphic resolution from the corrupted distribution upon labelling. DTPA is a strong chelator and forms a tight sequestering cryptate structure of small dimensions with the radioactive metals Tc-99m and In-111. Size severely affects permeability with reticuloendothelial accumulation. Compact scaled radiolabels are advantageous as potent payload moieties for radiotherapy as well as imaging. The antibody binding site requires close surface contact with its epitope to effect the specificity of immunoreaction. Binding site exposure to coupling chemistry can be directed via affinity purification methodology. The globular antibody with an amphiphilic structure presents conformed surface chemistry and is relatively inert requiring excess reaction stoichiometry. Radiolabelled antibodies to calcitonin (a 32 aminoacid polypeptide ectopic lung tumor antigen) in a solid phase immunoreactivity assay demonstrate 48 hours for 90% uptake. Site directed radiolabelling is of interest in preservation of immunoreactivity in protein engineering. 19 refs., 8 figs

104

Tooth - abnormal colors  

Science.gov (United States)

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

105

Abnormal Head Position  

Science.gov (United States)

... aligned. Other causes of abnormal head posture from strabismus include Duane’s syndrome, Brown’s syndrome, orbital wall fractures, ... tilt is from an ocular cause such as strabismus, then the tilt should get better when the ...

106

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

107

Abnormal sound detection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

108

Parvalbumin-immunoreactive amacrine cells of macaque retina  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of authors have observed amacrine cells containing high levels of immunoreactive parvalbumin in primate retinas. The experiments described here were designed to identify these cells morphologically, to determine their neurotransmitter, to record their light responses, and to describe the other cells that they contact. Macaque retinas were fixed in paraformaldehyde and labeled with antibodies to parvalbumin and one or two other markers, and this double- and triple-labeled material was analyzed by confocal microscopy. In their morphology and dendritic stratification patterns, the parvalbumin-positive cells closely resembled the knotty type 2 amacrine cells described using the Golgi method in macaques. They contained immunoreactive glycine transporter, but not immunoreactive ?-aminobutyric acid, and therefore, they use glycine as their neurotransmitter. Their spatial density was relatively high, roughly half that of AII amacrine cells. They contacted lobular dendrites of AII cells, and they are expected to be presynaptic to AII cells based on earlier ultrastructural studies. They also made extensive contacts with axon terminals of OFF midget bipolar cells whose polarity cannot be predicted with certainty. A macaque amacrine cell of the same morphological type depolarized at the onset of increments in light intensity, and it was well coupled to other amacrine cells. Previously, we described amacrine cells like these that contacted OFF parasol ganglion cells and OFF starburst amacrine cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that one function of these amacrine cells is to inhibit the transmission of signals from rods to OFF bipolar cells via AII amacrine cells. Another function may be inhibition of the OFF pathway following increments in light intensity. PMID:19435546

Klump, Kathryn E.; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Wu, Samuel M.; Marshak, David W.

2012-01-01

109

Prognostic importance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactivity and mitotic index in malignant mesothelioma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: In this study, proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA immunoreactivity and the mitotix index were searched in human malignant mesothelioma to assess their prognostic value.Material and Methods: PCNA immunoreactivity was investigated in 19 cases. The authors also compared this with mitosis counts.Results: There was no correlation between the percentage of PCNA immunoreactive cells and their mitotic counts. However, the median survival was 16.4 months for patients with less than 25% PCNA immunoreactive cells, 17.8 months for patients with less than 4 mitotic figures 10 high power fields of tumoral tissue, 10.8 months for patients with more than 25 per cent PCNA immunoreactive cells, and 14.2 months for patients with more than 4 mitotic figures in 10 high power fields of tumoral tissue.Conclusion: Our results suggest that PCNA immunoreactivity and mitotic count may have prognostic values in malignant mesothelioma.

I??n SOYUER

2002-09-01

110

Immunoreactivity examination of patients with testicular tumours treated with radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the immunoreactivity study of 72 patients receiving radiotherapy are presented. Tuberculin and DNCB (2,4 dinitrochlorobenzol) reactivity tests were performed before, during and 3 years after the radiation therapy and at the time when metastases appeared. The number of positive reactions decreased slightly in both tuberculin and DNCB groups, though not significantly. Metastatic patients showed a significant decrease of reactivity against DNCB as compared with the results obtained before the treatment. In 5,6% of patients herpes zoster was registered. No other infections occured. It was found that immunosuppression caused by the radiation treatment does not influence the later fate of patients with testicular tumours. (author)

111

Substance P-immunoreactive neurons in hamster retinas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Light-microscopic immunocytochemistry was utilized to localize the different populations of substance P-immunoreactive (SP-IR) neurons in the hamster retina. Based on observation of 2505 SP-IR neurons in transverse sections, 34% were amacrine cells whose pear-shaped or round cell bodies (7-8 ?m) were situated in the inner half of the inner nuclear layer (INL) or in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), while 66% of SP-IR somata (6-20 ?m) were located in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) which were i...

Li, Hb; So, Kf; Cheuk, W.

1999-01-01

112

The value of immunoreactive lipase in acute pancreatitis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have evaluated a new agglutination test for serum immunoreactive lipase in 24 patients with abdominal pain and hyperamylasaemia. On admission all 20 patients with acute pancreatitis had a positive lipase test, 3 of the 4 patients who did not have pancreatitis had a negative lipase test. The sensitivity of the lipase test on day 1 is 100%, the specificity 96% and predictive value of a positive test is 95.2% compared to 83% for amylase. A negative test excludes pancreatitis. In addition, the...

1988-01-01

113

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity during pregnancy and at birth.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. We have measured endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity (EDLI), in mothers and infants, during normal/pathological pregnancies and at birth. 2. During pregnancy, EDLI was measured in 38 maternal-fetal pairs. At the time of fetal sampling, maternal age was 29 (s.d. 6) years and gestational age was 28 (s.d. 6) weeks. EDLI was present in 13 (34%) mothers and in 27 (71%) fetuses. There was no correlation between maternal and fetal concentrations or between maternal or fetal concentrations an...

Lupoglazoff, J. M.; Jacqz-aigrain, E.; Guyot, B.; Chappey, O.; Blot, P.

1993-01-01

114

Inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in healthy rat pancreas.  

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Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by NO synthase (NOS) isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). It is believed that, while nNOS and eNOS are effective in regulation of normal physiological processes, iNOS is expressed at an increasing rate especially in inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of iNOS immunoreactivity (iNOS-IR) and, to compare the iNOS-IR in islet of Langerhans cells (LC), acinar cells (AC), centroacinar cell...

Nurullah Keklikoglu

2008-01-01

115

Distribution of galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the rat nasal mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Galanin-like immunoreactivity was found in nerve fibers beneath and within the epithelium of the rat mucosa by the use of immunohistochemical techniques. Immunoreactive fibers were also noted close to blood vessels and seromucous glands in the lamina propria. Fast blue applied to the nasal mucosa underwent retrograde transport to some immunoreactive neurons of the trigeminal ganglion. Thus, the rat nasal mucosa was shown to be innervated by galanin-containing sensory nerves. PMID:1707721

Matsuda, Y; Inagaki, S; Nakai, Y; Takagi, H

1990-12-17

116

Abnormal Gait Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to increasing crime rate identification using biometrics has become an important field of research. When it is not possible to take snapshot, to read iris, to take finger prints etc then identification using gait may be proved an effective tool to identify a person. This paper presents a method which distinguishs between normal and abnormal gait. A person having abnormal gait may be categorize as suspicious and alarming actions may be taken. Experiments have been done on real world data and system has been trained for normal walk for real world subjects.

Naveen Rohila

2010-08-01

117

Immunoreactivity of anti-gelsolin antibodies: implications for biomarker validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic-based discovery of biomarkers for disease has recently come under scrutiny for a variety of issues; one prominent issue is the lack of orthogonal validation for biomarkers following discovery. Validation by ELISA or Western blot requires the use of antibodies, which for many potential biomarkers are under-characterized and may lead to misleading or inconclusive results. Gelsolin is one such biomarker candidate in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Methods Samples from human (plasma and CSF, monkey (plasma, monocyte-derived macrophage (supernatants, and commercial gelsolin (recombinant and purified were quantitated using Western blot assay and a variety of anti-gelsolin antibodies. Plasma and CSF was used for immunoaffinity purification of gelsolin which was identified in eight bands by tandem mass spectrometry. Results Immunoreactivity of gelsolin within samples and between antibodies varied greatly. In several instances, multiple bands were identified (corresponding to different gelsolin forms by one antibody, but not identified by another. Moreover, in some instances immunoreactivity depended on the source of gelsolin, e.g. plasma or CSF. Additionally, some smaller forms of gelsolin were identified by mass spectrometry but not by any antibody. Recombinant gelsolin was used as reference sample. Conclusions Orthogonal validation using specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies may reject biomarker candidates from further studies based on misleading or even false quantitation of those proteins, which circulate in various forms in body fluids.

Wiederin Jayme

2010-12-01

118

Epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor with PDGFRA activating mutation and immunoreactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a unique case of an intra-abdominal, epithelioid mesenchymal tumor that had an activating mutation of PDGFRA and a strong PDGFRA immunoreactivity but lacked both c-kit mutation and c-kit protein (CD117) expression. IHC study showed that the tumor cells were diffusely and strongly positive for PDGFRA, vimentin, CD34, and Bcl-2 but completely negative for CD117 as well as for muscle, epithelial, endothelial, endocrine, mesothelial, neural, and melanocytic cell markers. Molecular study revealed a mutation at the juxtamembrane domain of exon 12 in PDGFRA gene with GTC to GAC transition at codon 561 (V561D), as shown in the previous mutational studies on gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). This case likely represents an example of GIST with PDGFRA activating mutation and PDGFRA immunoreactivity without CD117 positivity, which has not been documented in the literature. STI 571 (imatinib mesylate [Gleevec]) might be an effective therapy in this case, since Gleevec targets both PDGFRA and c-kit oncoproteins. PMID:15894928

Yi, Eunhee S; Strong, Curtis R; Piao, Zhe; Perucho, Manuel; Weidner, Noel

2005-06-01

119

ALS-associated protein FIG4 is localized in Pick and Lewy bodies, and also neuronal nuclear inclusions, in polyglutamine and intranuclear inclusion body diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

FIG4 is a phosphatase that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking along the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. Mutations of FIG4 lead to the development of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Moreover, ALS-associated proteins (transactivation response DNA protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), optineurin, ubiquilin-2, charged mutivesicular body protein 2b (CHMP2B) and valosin-containing protein) are involved in inclusion body formation in several neurodegenerative diseases. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the brains and spinal cords of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases, including sporadic TDP-43 proteinopathy (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration). TDP-43 proteinopathy demonstrated no FIG4 immunoreactivity in neuronal inclusions. However, FIG4 immunoreactivity was present in Pick bodies in Pick's disease, Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, neuronal nuclear inclusions in polyglutamine and intranuclear inclusion body diseases, and Marinesco and Hirano bodies in aged control subjects. These findings suggest that FIG4 is not incorporated in TDP-43 inclusions and that it may have a common role in the formation or degradation of neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in several neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23888880

Kon, Tomoya; Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Miki, Yasuo; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Yoshida, Mari; Sasaki, Hidenao; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

2014-02-01

120

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

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Abstract Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenit...

Sorge Giovanni; Sorge Anna

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Abnormal heat generating method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns cold fusion reaction and provides an electrolyzing method using an open type electrode, which realizes generation of abnormal heat with a reproducibility based on the finding that a factor which inhibits the reproducibility is deuterium gases. Namely, the present invention provides a method of injecting heavy water to a Pd cathode plate by electrolysis of an aqueous solution comprising heavy water and/or light water. In this method, two kinds of electrolysis at low current density and at high current density are alternately repeated, and deuterium is injected uniformly from both surface and rearface of the Pd cathode having a deuterium gas shielding membrane disposed thereon. With such procedures, deuterium in the Pd metal lattice is concentrated to generate abnormal heat. Pulse electrolysis may be adapted instead of the repeating electrolysis at high and low current densities. Ultrasonic oscillations are preferably applied during electrolysis. A Pd cathode plate prepared by a cold working is preferred. (I.S.)

122

Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

2013-08-01

123

Identification of sperm immunoreactive antigens for immunocontraceptive purposes: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Antisperm antibodies (ASA may be a reason of infertility in some individuals. They may affect pre- as well as post-fertilization stages of the reproductive process. There is ongoing progress in the identification of sperm antigens related to fertilization. The employed methods for this purpose include recombinant DNA technology and the most advanced proteomic analysis. This paper enlists the different approaches undertaken in order to identify and characterize the immunoreactive sperm antigens. We have mainly focused on those, which have been already studied in regard of their immunocontraceptive potential, although it has been impossible to include all published data concerning the topic in a single article. Few novel sperm auto- and isoantigens, discovered recently, have also been reviewed even if their role in fertilization has not been yet established.

Kurpisz Maciej

2004-03-01

124

Immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (Emys orbicularis, Pseudemys scripta elegans, Lacerta agilis et viridis, Gallus domesticus, Columba livia, Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, Taeniopyga punctate). The outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. The results were compared with those obtained in retinal photoreceptors of the same species as well as in the pineal organ of fishes and amphibians (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Rana esculenta). Corresponding to immunoreactive structures seen in the light microscope, we found typical outer segments on a large number of pinealocytes in most of the reptiles and birds studied. The presence of opsin in the numerous well developed pineal outer segments of these reptilian and avian species contradicts the earlier hypothesis on the gradual regression of pineal sensitive structures in the avian line of evolution. PMID:6213109

Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I; Röhlich, P; Aros, B

1982-01-01

125

MAPK immunoreactivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat testis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK), in the testes of male rats with experimental diabetes. METHODS: Twenty males Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a [...] control group (n=8) and a diabetes group (administration of 40 mg/kg/day streptozotocin (STZ) for five sequential days, n=12). After six weeks, testicular biopsy samples were obtained for light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) index was significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004) when compared to the control group. Both total (t)-ERK and phosphor (p)-ERK immunoreactivities were significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004, p

Yel& #305; z Bozdem& #305; r, Donmez; Gulnur, Kizilay; Yeter, Topcu-Tarladacalisir.

2014-10-01

126

Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide in the guinea pig spleen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of immunoreative ANP precursor-like material in the guinea pig spleen is suggested. This is based on the following experimental evidence: An acidic extract of guinea pig spleen analyzed by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration contained 4.6 pmol/g wet tissue immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (IR-ANP), IR-ANP coeluting with 15 kDa synthetic ANP (2-126). Gel filtrated IR-ANP material was further submitted to reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and monitored by radioimmunoassay employing two antisera. One antiserum recognizes the C-terminal of ANP (1-126), the second is directed against the N-terminal sequence. Both antisera revealed material eluting with synthetic ANP (2-126). Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis suggests this ANP-like material to be localized mainly at the periphery of the white pulp of the spleen. These findings link ANP with the immune system

127

Digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and chemical characteristics of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for routine digoxin determination has been studied with the aim to confirm our previous observation of the presence of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) in serum (plasma) and urine of normal subjects not under digoxin treatment. The sensitivity of the assay was 2.1±0.6 pg/tube and the reproducibility, tested with two different urine pools in terms of digoxin-equivalents (d.e.), was 12.5% (285.6±35.7 pg/ml d.e., n=19) and 20.6% (123.8±25.5 pg/ml d.e., n=19), respectively. The mean DLIS concentration in the blood of 32 normal subjects was 15.6±8.0 pg/ml d.e. (range 0-60 pg/ml d.e.). The mean DLIS concentration in urine of 37 normal subjects (overnight collection) was 160.0±52.3 pg/ml d.e. (range 70-350 pg/ml d.e.), while the mean 24-hour DLIS excretion of 10 normal subjects was 97.3±39.7 ng d.e. Two urine pools were extracted with organic solvents. Good recoveries (80-100%) were obtained with methanol, while poor recoveries were obtained with methylene chloride, hexane and petroleum ether. The present study indicates that DLIS is not a large charged molecule, neither salt, nor fatty acid, which are considered the most frequent non-specific interferences in RIA systems. Urine samples may be more useful for pathophysiological studies on digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids, because of their higher DLIS concentrations (4-10 times the concetration in blood)mes the concetration in blood)

128

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

129

Total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) in healthy population, uncomplicated term pregnancies and neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) (DLIF) which may have a homeostatic role, as documented in different physiological conditions, but is generally undetectable in plasma from normal population. Total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) (protein bound and free) can be estimated after plasma is heated. In this study, total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) as measured in plasma in a well defined control population and compared to healthy term pregnant women and neonates, categories known to be associated with increased free digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) concentrations. The mean level of this factor(s) in the control group was 706 +/- 129 pg digoxin equivalent/ml (pg/ml) and was unaffected by age and sex. Significantly increased levels of total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) were found in pregnant women and neonates (928 +/- 127 and 1242 +/- 367 pg/ml, respectively). We conclude that levels of total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) are increased in term pregnancies and neonates, similarly to its free form. However total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) is detected in the normal population as a plasma component, contrary to its free form, which is generally undetectable. PMID:2319115

Krivoy, N; Jakobi, P; Paldi, E; Alroy, G

1990-01-01

130

Abnormal uterine bleeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatrogenic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by exclusion of these causes. In women of childbearing age who are at high risk for endometrial cancer, the initial evaluation includes endometrial biopsy; saline-infusion sonohysterography or diagnostic hysteroscopy is performed if initial studies are inconclusive or the bleeding continues. Women of childbearing age who are at low risk for endometrial cancer may be assessed initially by transvaginal ultrasonography. Postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding should be offered dilatation and curettage; if they are poor candidates for general anesthesia or decline dilatation and curettage, they may be offered transvaginal ultrasonography or saline-infusion sonohysterography with directed endometrial biopsy. Medical management of anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding may include oral contraceptive pills or cyclic progestins. Menorrhagia is managed most effectively with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or the levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive device. Surgical management may include hysterectomy or less invasive, uterus-sparing procedures. PMID:15117012

Albers, Janet R; Hull, Sharon K; Wesley, Robert M

2004-04-15

131

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

Sorge Giovanni

2010-05-01

132

Immunoreactivity for calcium-binding proteins defines subregions of the vestibular nuclear complex of the cat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) is classically divided into four nuclei on the basis of cytoarchitectonics. However, anatomical data on the distribution of afferents to the VNC and the distribution of cells of origin of different efferent pathways suggest a more complex internal organization. Immunoreactivity for calcium-binding proteins has proven useful in many areas of the brain for revealing structure not visible with cell, fiber or Golgi stains. We have looked at the VNC of the cat using immunoreactivity for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin. Immunoreactivity for calretinin revealed a small, intensely stained region of cell bodies and processes just beneath the fourth ventricle in the medial vestibular nucleus. A presumably homologous region has been described in rodents. The calretinin-immunoreactive cells in this region were also immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase. Evidence from other studies suggests that the calretinin region contributes to pathways involved in eye movement modulation but not generation. There were focal dense regions of fibers immunoreactive to calbindin in the medial and inferior nuclei, with an especially dense region of label at the border of the medial nucleus and the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. There is anatomical evidence that suggests that the likely source of these calbindin-immunoreactive fibers is the flocculus of the cerebellum. The distribution of calbindin-immunoreactive fibers in the lateral and superior nuclei was much more uniform. Immunoreactivity to parvalbumin was widespread in fibers distributed throughout the VNC. The results suggest that neurochemical techniques may help to reveal the internal complexity in VNC organization. PMID:15662522

Baizer, Joan S; Baker, James F

2005-07-01

133

Immunoreactive oxytocin and vasopressin in the non-pregnant human uterus and oviductal isthmus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The regional distribution of immunoreactive OT and AVP in the human uterus was investigated. Specimens of non-pregnant human uterus and oviduct were homogenized and extracted. The tissue levels exceeded the plasma concentrations of the peptides. The largest quantities of both peptides were found in the cervix and oviductal isthmus. The amounts found in the uterine fundus and isthmus were, however, not significantly different. Only 23% of immunoreactive OT eluted in the position of standard peptide on high-performance liquid chromatography. All immunoreactive AVP eluted with standard AVP after additional ether extraction of octadecasilyl extracts. We conclude that the human uterus contains materials immunologically and chromatographically identical to oxytocin and vasopressin.

Lundin, S; Forman, Axel

1989-01-01

134

Secretion and clearance of immunoreactive ACTH by fetal lung.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously reported the presence of immunoreactive adrenocorticotropic hormone (irACTH) in fetal and adult ovine lung and secretion of the irACTH into the pulmonary venous blood during surgical stress. The aim of the present experiments was to determine whether the fetal lung secretes irACTH during less stressful conditions. Seven fetal sheep were chronically prepared with systemic, pulmonary arterial, and pulmonary venous catheters. After recovery from surgery, paired samples were obtained from the pulmonary arterial and venous catheters. In 51 pairs of samples, we quantified the arteriovenous (A-V) difference in plasma irACTH concentration. Pulmonary A-V difference in plasma irACTH was significantly related to the arterial plasma concentration of irACTH but not to fetal blood gases, pH, or gestational age. Regression analysis revealed that, at arterial plasma concentrations of irACTH less than approximately 200 pg/ml, the lung releases irACTH into plasma and that, at higher concentrations, the lung clears irACTH from the plasma. We conclude that the lung independently secretes and clears irACTH into and from plasma. PMID:7762636

Cudd, T A; Wood, C E

1995-05-01

135

Islet-1 immunoreactivity in the developing retina of Xenopus laevis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1) has been widely used as a marker of neuronal differentiation in the developing visual system of different classes of vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. In the present study, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of Isl1-immunoreactive cells during Xenopus laevis retinal development and its relation to the formation of the retinal layers, and in combination with different markers of cell differentiation. The earliest Isl1 expression appeared at St29-30 in the cell nuclei of sparse differentiating neuroblasts located in the vitreal surface of the undifferentiated retina. At St35-36, abundant Isl1-positive cells accumulated at the vitreal surface of the neuroepithelium. As development proceeded and through the postmetamorphic juveniles, Isl1 expression was identified in subpopulations of ganglion cells and in subsets of amacrine, bipolar, and horizontal cells. These data together suggest a possible role for Isl1 in the early differentiation and maintenance of different retinal cell types, and Isl1 can serve as a specific molecular marker for the study of retinal cell specification in X. laevis. PMID:24348185

Álvarez-Hernán, Guadalupe; Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Morona, Ruth; González, Agustín; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

2013-01-01

136

Inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in healthy rat pancreas.  

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Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is produced by NO synthase (NOS isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS, endothelial NOS (eNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS. It is believed that, while nNOS and eNOS are effective in regulation of normal physiological processes, iNOS is expressed at an increasing rate especially in inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of iNOS immunoreactivity (iNOS-IR and, to compare the iNOS-IR in islet of Langerhans cells (LC, acinar cells (AC, centroacinar cells (CC and ductal cells (DC by immunohistochemical (IHC method in healthy rat pancreata. This study revealed the presence of iNOS-IR in all cell types except AC. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference (p<0.001 with respect to iNOS-IR in comparison of all cell types. However, binary comparison of cell types revealed no significant differences between LC and DC (p=0.136, significant differences LC and CC, CC and DC (p=0.001 and 0.022, respectively and a highly significant differences LC and AC, AC and DC (P<0.001. The results of this study indicate that iNOS-IR is present in almost all LC. Thus, especially in reseach related to diabetes, it should not be disregarded that iNOS may be constitutively present in pancreatic islets.

Nurullah Keklikoglu

2008-06-01

137

Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in rat occipital cortex after callosotomy  

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Full Text Available Gonadal steroidogenesis can be influenced by direct neural links between the central nervous system and the gonads. It is known that androgen receptor (AR is expressed in many areas of the rat brain involved in neuroendocrine control of reproduction, such as the cerebral cortex. It has been recently shown that the occipital cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on testicular stereoidogenesis by a pituitary-independent neural mechanism. Moreover, the complete transection of the corpus callosum leads to an increase in testosterone (T secretion of hemigonadectomized rats. The present study was undertaken to analyze the possible corticocortical influences regulating male reproductive activities. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: 1 intact animals as control; 2 rats undergoing sham callosotomy; 3 posterior callosotomy; 4 gonadectomy and posterior callosotomy. Western blot analysis showed no remarkable variations in cortical AR expression in any of the groups except in group I where a significant decrease in AR levels was found. Similarly, both immunocytochemical study and cell count estimation showed a lower AR immunoreactivity in occipital cortex of callosotomized rats than in other groups. In addition, there was no difference in serum T and LH concentration between sham-callosotomized and callosotomized rats. In conclusion, our results show that posterior callosotomy led to a reduction in AR in the right occipital cortex suggesting a putative inhibiting effect of the contralateral cortical area.

G Lepore

2009-08-01

138

Clinical applications of measurement of serum immunoreactive levels of erythropoietin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purification of erythropoietin (Ep) in 1977 enabled investigators to more clearly define the role of this hormone in erythropoiesis in man. Radioimmunoassays were rapidly developed. Undoubtedly differences between levels of immunoreactive and biologically active Ep will be found but the resolution of these discrepancies will expand our understanding of the erythron. Recently others described a monoclonal antibody against Ep. Because of this breakthrough, large quantities of pure hormone should soon be available to a larger number of investigators than currently have access to it. The major clinical use of this hormone will probably be in the treatment of the anemia of chronic renal disease. In the relatively few years since the radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed, measurements of the levels of this hormone have been made in several disease states as well as in normal man. Most of the findings to date confirm the predictions that have been made over the years based on studies done using the rather crude bioassay for Ep. In the present study the authors shall review and expand on what is known about subjects with chronic lung and renal disease

139

Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in HIV-infected patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SIE) and hemoglobin levels were measured in 152 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Anemia was present in 18% of asymptomatic patients who tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 50% of patients with a condition related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 75% of patients with AIDS. The mean SIE level for untreated AIDS patients was greater than for patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus or patients with an AIDS-related condition but not outside the normal range for SIE, and the incremental increase in SIE level for a given decline in hemoglobin level was much less in AIDS patients than in patients with uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia. Forty-two patients were treated with zidovudine, and the hemoglobin level fell 10 g/L or more in 48%. The data indicate that SIE level is inappropriately low in anemic AIDS patients. The ability of these patients to produce erythropoietin is intact and can be expressed with zidovudine therapy. However, even very high levels of SIE fail to stimulate erythropoiesis adequately

140

Immunoreactive inhibin concentration in blood tested under variable sampling conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The stability of immunoreactive (i.r.) inhibin in blood samples drawn and handled under different conditions and at different time intervals were studied. Ten serum and plasma samples drawn in 1994 from healthy volunteers were compared to samples collected in 1986 from 10 healthy women admitted for laparoscopic sterilization and analysed 6 years later. All samples were drawn on the twelfth day of the menstrual cycle and handled under identical clinical conditions (22 degrees C). The concentrations in the 1986 samples were similar to the Se-i.r. inhibin levels from 1994. Different clotting temperatures, repetitive freezing and thawing or hemolysis had no effects on the i.r. inhibin values, whereas non-hemolysed samples left at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days were significantly lower, which might be due to a statistical type 2 error. No differences in concentration between serum and plasma i.r. inhibin were demonstrated. In conclusion, i.r. inhibin is a very stable peptide hormone in both serum and plasma if drawn and handled under normal conditions.

Blaakær, Jan; Micic, S

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Deposition of immunoreactants in a cutaneous allergic drug reaction  

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Full Text Available Context: The analysis of allergic drug reaction pathology may be difficult, especially if multiple histological reaction patterns are detected on review of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained sections. In this case, we emphasize the value of adding immunohistochemistry (IHC and multicolor direct immunofluorescence (DIF as tools to improve the diagnosis of these complex disorders. Patient and Methods: Our patient is a twenty-year-old Caucasian female, who presented with a sudden onset of erythematous macules on the skin following administration of amoxicillin. Lesional tissue was examined by H & E and IHC, and perilesional tissue by DIF and IHC. Results: The H&E findings revealed diffuse dermal edema, and a mild, superficial, perivascular dermatitis with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, consistent with an allergic drug eruption. The IHC and DIF studies revealed autoreactivity to sweat glands, nerves and dermal blood vessels, as well as dermal deposits of immune reactants such as fibrinogen and complement around the inflamed areas. Conclusions: Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products have been shown in some cases of allergic disorders; thus, we encourage the effect further testing for these immunoreactants in biopsies from patients with possible allergic drug reactions.

Ana Maria Abreu Velez

2009-09-01

142

Distribution of Neuropeptide F-Like Immunoreactivity in the Eastern Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes  

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The nervous system and gut of worker, soldier and alate castes of the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were examined for immunoreactivity to an antiserum to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Leipidoptera: Noctuidae) MP-I (QAARPRF-NH2), a truncated form of neuropeptide F. More than 145 immunostained axons and cell bodies were seen in the brain and all ganglia of the ventral nerve cord. Immunoreactive axons exiting the brain projected anteriorly t...

Nuss, Andrew B.; Forschler, Brian T.; Crim, Joe W.; Brown, Mark R.

2008-01-01

143

Implications of lipid moiety in oligomerization and immunoreactivities of GPI-anchored proteins  

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Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) enriches GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-AP) in lipid rafts by intimate interaction of its lipid moiety with sphingolipids and cholesterol. In addition to such lipid-lipid interactions, it has been reported that GPI may interact with protein moiety linked to GPI and affect protein conformations because GPI delipidation reduced immunoreactivities of protein. Here, we report that GPI-APs that have not undergone fatty acid remodeling exhibit reduced immunoreactiviti...

Seong, Jihyoun; Wang, Yetao; Kinoshita, Taroh; Maeda, Yusuke

2013-01-01

144

Effect of liver and renal dysfunction on circulating methionine-enkephalin immunoreactivity.  

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Plasma methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) immunoreactivity has been determined in 24 patients with varying degrees of renal impairment and 14 patients with hepatic failure. Plasma Met-Enk immunoreactivity correlated inversely with creatinine clearance (r = -0.71, P less than 0.001) but was not affected by even severe hepatic failure in the absence of renal impairment. In two patients, with renal failure and elevated plasma prolactin, administration of naloxone (16 mg) had no effect on circulatin...

Smith, R.; Grossman, A.; Gimson, Ae; Besser, Gm; Rees, Lh

1985-01-01

145

Substance P-immunoreactive retinal ganglion cells and their central axon terminals in the rabbit  

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Retinal ganglion cells are the projection neurons that link the retina to the brain. Peptide immunoreactive cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of the mammalian retina have been noted but their identity has not been determined1-3. We now report that, in the rabbit, 25–35% of all retinal ganglion cells contain substance P-like (SP) immunoreactivity. They were identified by either retrograde transport of fluorescent tracers injected into the superior colliculus, or by retrograde degenerati...

Brecha, N.; Johnson, D.; Bolz, J.; Sharma, S.; Parnavelas, J. G.; Lieberman, A. R.

1987-01-01

146

Alz-50 immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of the normal and Alzheimer human and the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alz-50 is a monoclonal antibody recognizing a 68 kilodalton protein that is abundant in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but not detectable by immunoblotting methods in normal brains. When used for immunohistochemistry in AD cortex, Alz-50 recognizes large numbers of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neuritic plaques, and some neurons that show no evidence of neurofibrillary degeneration by conventional histopathological staining methods. Alz-50 immunoreactivity is described at the light and electron microscopic levels in the hypothalamus of brains obtained at autopsy from normal and AD subjects. Alz-50 immunoreactivity in the rat hypothalamus is also described. A well-defined population of Alz-50 immunoreactive hypothalamic neurons was identified in both the normal human and rat. At the light microscopic level in the normal human, immunoreactive neurons were most concentrated in the periventricular region, but were also scattered throughout the arcuate nucleus (ARC), lateral hypothalamic area, and tuberal region. Immunoreactive fibers were seen in the periventricular region, dorsal division of the ventromedial nucleus (VMNd), ARC, and external layer of the median eminence (ME). In the rat, reactive neurons were seen only in the periventricular region, and reactive fibers were seen in the periventricular zone, medial preoptic nuclear complex, suprachiasmatic nucleus, VMNd, ARC, and external layer of the ME. Ultrastructurally, all immunoreactivity in the normal human and rat hypothalamus was associated with intraneuronal vesicles. In the AD hypothalamus, Alz-50 identified numerous senile plaques and NFT in addition to the cells and fibers that were stained in the normal brains. Immunoreactive plaques and NFT were most numerous in regions previously reported to undergo neurofibrillary degeneration. At the ultrastructural level, the immunoreactivity in the AD hypothalamus was associated with filaments as well as vesicles. The significance of the selective staining of a specific population of vesicles by Alz-50 is unknown; however, the present results suggest that it is independent of AD pathology. PMID:2071697

Byne, W; Mattiace, L; Kress, Y; Davies, P

1991-04-22

147

Relation of smoking to immunoreactive endothelin in the bronchiolar epithelial cells.  

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BACKGROUND--Endothelin is a potent bronchoconstrictor which appears to be important in asthma. To ascertain whether cigarette smoking is associated with any alteration in the proportion of bronchiolar epithelial cells which express endothelin immunoreactivity, the airways in the lungs of non-smokers and smokers were analysed. Since an increase in immunoreactivity has been found in the bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic subjects, cigarette smokers with and without evidence of airway hyper...

Shokeir, M. O.; Pare?, P.; Wright, J. L.

1994-01-01

148

Distribution of immunoreactive transforming growth factor-alpha in non-neoplastic human salivary glands  

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The distribution of immunoreactive transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-a) was studied in non-neoplastic human major and minor salivary glands using an immunoperoxidase assay in conjuction with an antiserum to human TGF-a. The ductal cell components of all major and minor salivary glands were found to contain significant amounts of TGF-a immunoreactivity. In contrast, acinar and myoepithelial cells consistently lacked immune reaction product in both types ...

Ogbureke, K. U. E.; Macdaiel, R. K.; Jacob, R. S.; Durban, E. M.

1995-01-01

149

Humoral immunoreactivity to gliadin and to tissue transglutaminase is present in some patients with multiple myeloma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a clonal B-cell disorder with many immunological disturbances. The aim of this work was to assess whether some of food antigens contribute to the imbalance of immune response by screening the sera of MM patients for their immunoreactivity to food constituent gliadin, to tissue transglutaminase-2 (tTG-2 and to Ro/SSA antigen. Sera from 61 patients with MM in various stages of disease, before, or after some cycles of conventional therapy were analyzed by commercial Binding Site ELISA tests. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis of data obtained was performed by Mann Whitney Test. Results The higher serum IgA immunoreactivity to gliadin was found in 14/56 patients and in one of control people. The enhanced serum IgG immunoreactivity to gliadin was found in only two of tested patients and in two controls. The enhanced IgA immunoreactivity to tTG-2 was found in 10/49 patients' sera, while 4/45 patients had higher serum IgG immunoreactivity. The enhanced serum IgG immunoreactivity to RoSSÀ antigen was found in 9/47 analyzed MM patients' sera. Statistical analysis of data obtained revealed that only the levels of anti-tTG-2 IgA immunoreactivity in patients with MM were significantly higher than these obtained in healthy controls (P Conclusion Data obtained showed the existence of the enhanced serum immunoreactivity to gliadin, tTG-2 and Ro/SSA antigens in some patients with MM. These at least partially could contribute to the immunological imbalance frequently found in this disease.

Matkovic Suzana

2008-05-01

150

Analysis of metallothionein and vimentin immunoreactivity in pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and its microenvironment  

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Metallothionein (MT) has been shown to have pro-proliferative anti-apoptotic activity and to be involved in microenvironment remodeling. The aim of this study has been to determine whether the changes in MT and vimentin immunoreactivity observed in cancer and its microenvironment are related to the local spread of the disease. The immunoreactivity levels of both MT and vimentin were evaluated together with CD56 and CD57 antigens in 49 tissue samples taken from patients with squamous cell carc...

Dutsch-wicherek, Magdalena; Lazar, Agata; Tomaszewska, Romana; Kazmierczak, Wojciech; Wicherek, Lukasz

2013-01-01

151

Characteristics of galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity in the rat amygdala complex  

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Full Text Available Introduction Morphological features and morphometric parameters of galanin (GAL and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive neurons and neuronal fibres were studied in all nuclei of adult male rat amygdala. Material and methods After perfusion and fixation, rat brains were immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against GAL and VIP and then visualized by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. Results and Discussion The greatest number of galanin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the medial part of the central nucleus and in the dorsal part of the medial nucleus. In the first case, most neurons were bipolar (37%, and in the second, they were ovoid (45%. GAL-immunoreactive fibers were identified in the medial nucleus, "bed nucleus" of the accessory olfactory tract, frontal cortical nucleus, amygdalo-hippocampal area and basolateral nucleus. VIP-immunoreactive neurons were diffusely distributed in more nuclei than the previous, mostly in the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nucleus. They were mostly ovoid (40%. VIP-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the lateral part of the central nucleus, while long and radially oriented fibers were present in the frontal and dorsal cortical nucleus. Conclusion By distribution analysis of GAL and VIP immunoreactive neurons and fibers, and according to literature data, it can be assumed that the medial part of the central nucleus receives VIP fibers from other parts of the amygdaloid body, and then sends GAL fibers to the medial nucleus.

Puškaš Laslo

2007-01-01

152

Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.  

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The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-casein, ?-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, ?-lactoglobulin: 94%, ?-casein: 93%, ?-lactalbumin: 82%, ?-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and ?-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems. PMID:25391267

Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

2015-02-01

153

Fetal pulmonary immunoreactive adrenocorticotropin: molecular weight and cellular localization.  

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The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of the sheep fetus plays a critical role in fetal development, responsiveness to stress, and initiation of parturition. We have recently reported that the fetal lung contains and secretes significant amounts of immunoreactive adrenocorticotropin (iACTH). The present study was designed to identify the molecular weight profile and the cellular location of iACTH in this tissue. iACTH extracted from fetal lung was immunoprecipitated, electrophoresed, and immunoblotted. Pulmonary iACTH was found in several molecular forms. The largest peptides appeared as doublets, and had molecular weights similar to POMC (32, 33 kD). Smaller peptides appeared in molecular weights (17, 24, and 27 kD) which were not consistent with the post-translational processing of POMC in fetal pituitary, but which were consistent with known processing of POMC by chromaffin granule aspartyl protease. None of the molecular forms of iACTH were glycosylated. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the iACTH was contained within bronchial epithelium and within groups of cells within the parenchyma of the lung. Both of these types of cells are consistent with pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. The distribution of neuroendocrine cells and apparent concordance with the iACTH-positive cells was confirmed by immunostaining for neuron specific enolase, a marker for neuroendocrine cells within the lung. We conclude that the lung contains unprocessed and partially processed POMC within cells known to contain neuropeptides. We speculate that secretion of the POMC-related peptides from these cells is physiologically important in the late-gestation fetus. PMID:9556082

Wood, C E; Barkoe, D; The, A; Newman, H; Cudd, T A; Purinton, S; Castro, M I

1998-02-27

154

Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the amygdala of the pig.  

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Full Text Available The distribution and morphology of neurons containing somatostatin (SOM was investigated in the amygdala (CA of the pig. The SOM-immunoreactive (SOM-IR cell bodies and fibres were present in all subdivisions of the porcine CA, however, their number and density varied depending on the nucleus studied. The highest density of SOM-positive somata was observed in the layer III of the cortical nuclei, in the anterior (magnocellular part of the basomedial nucleus and in the caudal (large-celled part of the lateral nucleus. Moderate to high numbers of SOM-IR cells were also observed in the medial and basolateral nuclei. Many labeled neurons were also consistently observed in the lateral part of the central nucleus. In the remaining CA regions, the density of SOM-positive cell bodies varied from moderate to low. In any CA region studied SOM-IR neurons formed heterogeneous population consisting of small, rounded or slightly elongated cell bodies, with a few poorly branched smooth dendrites. In general, morphological features of these cells clearly resembled the non-pyramidal Golgi type II interneurons. The routine double-labeling studies with antisera directed against SOM and neuropeptide Y (NPY demonstrated that a large number of SOM-IR cell bodies and fibers in all studied CA areas contained simultaneously NPY. In contrast, co-localization of SOM and cholecystokinin (CCK or SOM and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP was never seen in cell bodies and fibres in any of nuclei studied. In conclusion, SOM-IR neurons of the porcine amygdala form large and heterogeneous subpopulation of, most probably, interneurons that often contain additionally NPY. On the other hand, CCK- and/or VIP-IR neurons belonged to another, discrete subpopulations of porcine CA neurons.

Agnieszka Bossowska

2008-06-01

155

Cardiac abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.  

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Cirrhosis is associated with several circulatory abnormalities. A hyperkinetic circulation characterized by increased cardiac output and decreased arterial pressure and peripheral resistance is typical. Despite this hyperkinetic circulation, some patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have subclinical cardiomyopathy with evidence of abnormal ventricular function unmasked by physiologic or pharmacologic stress. Florid congestive alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops in a small percentage, but the concu...

Lee, S. S.

1989-01-01

156

A novel somatostatin-immunoreactive mossy fiber pathway associated with HSP25-immunoreactive purkinje cell stripes in the mouse cerebellum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatostatin 28 immunoreactivity (Sst28-ir) identifies a specific subset of mossy fiber terminals in the adult mouse cerebellum. By using double-labeling immunohistochemistry, we determined that Sst28-ir is associated with presynaptic mossy fiber terminal rosettes, and not Purkinje cells, Golgi cells, or unipolar brush cells. Sst28-ir mossy fibers are restricted to the central zone (lobules VI/VII) and nodular zone (lobules IX, X) of the vermis, and the paraflocculus and flocculus. Within each transverse zone the mossy fiber terminal fields form a reproducible array of parasagittal stripes. The boundaries of Sst28-ir stripes align with a specific array of Purkinje cell stripes revealed by using immunocytochemistry for the small heat shock protein HSP25. In the cerebellum of the homozygous weaver mouse, in which a subpopulation of HSP25-ir Purkinje cells are located ectopically, the corresponding Sst28-ir mossy fiber projection is also ectopic, suggesting a role for a specific Purkinje cell subset in afferent pattern formation. Likewise, in the scrambler mutant mouse, Sst28-ir mossy fibers show a very close association with HSP25-ir Purkinje cell clusters. HSP25 itself does not appear to be critical for normal patterning, however: in the KJR mouse, which does not express cerebellar HSP25, Sst28 expression appears to be normal. Likewise, the Purkinje cell patterning antigens zebrin II and HSP25 are expressed normally in both Sst- and Sst-receptor knockout mice, suggesting that somatostatinergic transmission is not necessary for Purkinje cell stripe formation. PMID:19795496

Armstrong, C L; Chung, S-H; Armstrong, J N; Hochgeschwender, U; Jeong, Y-G; Hawkes, R

2009-12-01

157

Immunoreactive thromboxane synthase is measurable in ovine fetal hypothalamus as early as 86 days' gestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thromboxane A2 (TxA2) augments hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in both fetal and adult animals. We have proposed that TxA2 acts as a neuromodulator within the brain to stimulate the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the hypophyseal-portal blood. We performed the present experiments to identify immunoreactive thromboxane synthase (TxS) within fetal brain regions and to quantify developmental changes in the TxS immunoreactivity measurable within those regions. We found that immunoreactive TxS was present in fetal hypothalamus, pituitary, brainstem, and lung. In fetal hypothalamus, we found immunoreactive TxS in three identifiable molecular weights, approximately 65, 42, and 35 kD. In fetal pituitary and lung, we found the 65 and 35 kD forms, and in the brainstem we found only the 35 kD form. In fetal pituitary, there was a clear ontogenetic change in TxS immunoreactivity. The 42 kD TxS immunoreactivity was not present in the youngest fetal sheep studied (86-90 days' gestation), but was expressed in the other age groups (125-128, 135-139, 141-term, and postnatal ages). The other molecular weight forms appeared to increase in the older fetuses, but the changes were not significant. In the hypothalamus, all three forms of TxS were measurable at all ages, and there was no significant change in relative abundance. We conclude that immunoreactive TxS is present in the fetal brain throughout the last half of fetal gestation, but that the significance of multiple molecular weight forms is not clear. PMID:9380799

Wood, C E; Purinton, S; Cudd, T A

1997-08-01

158

Plasma immunoreactive neuropeptide Y in congestive heart failure at rest and during exercise.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the study described here was to study plasma immunoreactive Neuropeptide Y (NPY) at rest and during exercise in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and in healthy subjects. Thirty-five patients, mean age 64 years, with CHF in optimal treatment and with a mean ejection fraction of 32%, were studied at rest and during exercise. Twelve age and sex matched healthy subjects were compared for resting values. Another nine healthy subjects were studied at rest and during exercise at a constant low load of 75W and at a high load defined as 80% of their individual maximal capacity. In patients with congestive heart failure mean plasma immunoreactive NPY at rest was 10.3 pmol l-1 and was not significantly different from the control group. No differences between patients with slight and severe CHF were found and there was no correlation between plasma immunoreactive NPY and left ventricular ejection fraction. Mean maximal exercise time was on average 6.3 min. Only three patients exercised more than 10 min. At maximal exercise mean plasma immunoreactive NPY was 10.6 pmol l-1 the same as at rest. Plasma noradrenaline was increased in CHF patients compared to healthy subjects, and rose further during exercise. In healthy subjects plasma immunoreactive NPY rose significantly on both workloads, but more on the high load (p < 0.05), when the rise was first significant after 10 min. Plasma immunoreactive NPY at rest and during exercise was not increased in CHF patients in optimal medical treatment. Consequently plasma immunoreactive NPY is not a useful marker of the severity of CHF in these patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Madsen, B K; Husum, D

1993-01-01

159

Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment

160

Distinct patterns of C4d immunoreactivity in placentas with villitis of unknown etiology, cytomegaloviral placentitis, and infarct.  

Science.gov (United States)

C4d deposition is considered to be evidence of antibody-mediated rejection. This study was conducted to compare C4d immunoreactivity between villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and cytomegaloviral placentitis. C4d immunohistochemistry was performed in cases with VUE (n = 16) and cytomegaloviral placentitis (n = 5). Distinct, linear C4d immunoreactivity along the syncytiotrophoblast was found in all VUE cases. In cytomegaloviral placentitis, the intensity of C4d immunoreactivity along the syncytiotrophoblast was not prominent, but cytoplasmic C4d immunoreactivity of villous cytotrophoblasts was frequently observed. Further screening of the cases with placental infarcts (n = 5) demonstrated prominent C4d immunoreactivity in the chorionic villi adjacent to the infarct. We report the characteristic co-localization of VUE and C4d immunoreactivity. The overall findings in this study strongly suggest that the complement activation is a common mechanism of diverse placental injuries associated with rejection, infection, and ischemia. PMID:23481222

A Lee, K; Kim, Y W; Shim, J Y; Won, H S; Lee, P R; Kim, A; Kim, C J

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Distribution of Glucagon-Like Peptide (GLP)-2-Immunoreactive Cells in the Chicken Small Intestine: Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry  

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An antigen retrieval method for immunohistochemical staining of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2-immunoreactive cells was investigated in the chicken small intestine. GLP-2-immunoreactive cells were observed as open-typed endocrine cells in the villous epithelium and crypts on both antigen retrieval agent-treated and untreated preparations. No obvious differences were detected in morphological features of GLP-2-immunoreactive cells between treated and untreated preparations. The f...

Monir, Mohammad M.; Hiramatsu, Kohzy; Nishimura, Kei; Takemoto, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takafumi

2013-01-01

162

Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury  

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Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anteri...

Partata, W. A.; Krepsky, A. M. R.; Xavier, L. L.; Marques, M.; Achaval, M.

2003-01-01

163

FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the medusa Polyorchis penicillatus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three different antisera to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide) and two different antisera to the fragment RFamide were used to stain sections or whole mounts of the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis penicillatus. All antisera stained the same neuronal structures. Strong immunoreactivity was found in neurons of the ectodermal nerve nets of the manubrium and tentacles, in neurons of the sensory epithelium, and in neurons at the periphery of the sphincter muscle. Strong immunoreactivity was also present in processes and perikarya of the whole outer nerve ring, in the ocellar nerves, and in nerve cells lying at the periphery of the ocellus. The inner nerve ring contained a moderate number of immunoreactive processes and perikarya, which were distinct from the swimming motor neurons. In contrast to the situation in the hydrozoan polyp Hydra attenuata, no immunoreactivity was found with several antisera to oxytocin/vasopressin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. The morphology and location of most FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Polyorchis coincides with two identified neuronal systems, which have been recently discovered from neurophysiological studies.

Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Spencer, A N

1984-01-01

164

Pretreatment P53 immunoreactivity does not infer radioresistance in prostate cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To test, in a clinical context, the hypothesis that p53 aberrations, assessed by immunoreactivity, are related to radioresistance as suggested by several experimental studies. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with prostate cancer who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate or biopsy prior to definitive external beam therapy were retrospectively identified. The endpoint in the study was cancer specific survival. The nuclear accumulation of the aberrant p53 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry with the pantropic, monoclonal Ab-6 anti-p53 antibody (clone DO-1) on pretreatment biopsies. Immunoreactivity was related to stage, grade, and cancer-specific survival. Results: There was a correlation between p53 immunoreactivity and low tumor stage (p < 0.001), but no relation between p53 status and grade was found. Moreover, no significant difference was found in cancer-specific survival between the p53 positive tumors (109 months) and the p53 negative tumors (99 months). Conclusions: No disadvantage regarding survival was seen for patients with p53 immunoreactive tumors, implicating that p53 immunoreactivity does not infer radioresistance in prostate cancer. This suggests that the p53 inactivation may be a less important determinant of tumor response to radiotherapy in some human cancers than in the previously studied experimental situations. Thus, other mechanisms may be more important in determining outcome after radiation. However, the serieutcome after radiation. However, the series is small and data should be interpreted with caution

165

FMRFamide- and adipokinetic hormone-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

Science.gov (United States)

As demonstrated with immunocytochemistry, specific cells and axons in the nervous system of female Aedes aegypti contain antigens immunologically related to FMRFamide (phenylalanine-methionine-arginine-phenylalanine-amide) and locust adipokinetic hormone I (AKH). In the supra-esophageal ganglion, including some medial neurosecretory cells, and in all ganglia of the ventral nerve cord, there are 100-120 cells immunoreactive to a FMRFamide antiserum. The same cells cross-react with a bovine pancreatic polypeptide antiserum, but when the latter antiserum is preabsorbed with FMRFamide, immunoreactivity is lost. However, immunoreactivity is maintained when FMRFamide antiserum is preabsorbed with pancreatic polypeptide, suggesting that the immunoreactive peptide is more closely related to FMRFamide. There are 6-12 cells in the supra- and subesophageal ganglia immunoreactive to an AKH antiserum, and some of the same cells are reactive to the FMRFamide antiserum. As well, unpaired cells in each of the abdominal ganglia are positive for both AKH and FMRFamide. Although the function of the FMRFamide- and AKH-like peptides in mosquitoes is unknown, this study, combined with previous reports on the localization of FMRFamide-like peptides in midgut endocrine cells, supports the concept of a brain-midgut neuroendocrine axis in this insect. PMID:3372750

Brown, M R; Lea, A O

1988-04-22

166

Immunohistochemical localization of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of the newt, Triturus cristatus.  

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The distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) immunoreactivity was investigated in the hypothalamus and preoptic area of the newt by single and double immunocytochemical procedures. CRF immunopositive cell bodies were seen in the preoptic area (from the anterior wall of the preoptic recess to the dorsal parts of the preoptic nucleus) and in the tuberal portions of the posterior hypothalamus. Abundant nerve fibres are seen in the outer zone of the median eminence, while the pars nervosa lacks CRF-immunoreactivity. CRF immunoreactive material is seemingly separated from neurophysins- and somatostatin immunoreactive cell bodies and fibres. PMID:6333654

Fasolo, A; Andreone, C; Vandesande, F

1984-08-24

167

Somatostatin-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and fibers in the medulla oblongata et spinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete serial sectioning of the medulla oblongata in monkey, cat, guinea pig, and japanese dancing mouse and incubation for somatostatin-immunoreaction was carried out. Numerous regions of the medulla oblongata such as the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis, nucleus cuneatus et gracillis, nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus tractus solitarius, nucleus vestibularis, and parts of the oliva contain dense networks of somatostatin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. Cell bodies were seen in the nucleus reticularis medullae oblongatae. In the spinal cord the sections from each segment were analyzed, showing the highest concentrations of somatostatinergic fibers in the substantia gelantinosa of the columna dorsalis. Cell bodies were seen in the zona intermedia centralis, especially in the upper cervical segments. Many positive fibers were also seen in the entire zona intermedia and the columna ventralis. Especially prominent was the immunoreactivity in the zona intermediolateralis of the thoracic segments and the columna ventralis of the lower lumbar and sacral segments. PMID:390039

Forssmann, W G; Burnweit, C; Shehab, T; Triepel, J

1979-10-01

168

Comparative anatomy of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons in isopods: putative homologues in several species.  

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It is now commonly accepted that the arthropod nervous system has evolved only once, and so homologies between crustacean and insect nervous systems can be meaningfully sought. To do this, we have examined the distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)-like immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of four common British isopods. Two species of terrestrial woodlouse, Oniscus asellus and Armadillidium vulgare, the littoral sea slater, Ligia oceanica, and the aquatic water hoglouse, Asellus meridianus, all possess approximately 40 pairs of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons, distributed throughout the CNS in a very similar pattern. Interspecific homology is clearly suggested. Serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons in the first (T1) and fourth (T4) thoracic ganglia are particularly prominent in each of the four species studied. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry shows that the pair of T1 neurons have large dorsolateral cell bodies and prominent neurites that project medially and then anteriorly, whereas the pair of T4 neurons have ventrolateral cell bodies and neurites that bifurcate to form a thin axon projecting anteriorly to terminate in T3 and a thick medial axon that projects posteriorly into the abdominal neuromeres of the terminal ganglion. Intracellular cobalt staining of these neurons reveals more of their arborizations: the T1 neurons send three processes anteriorly, which arborize in the brain and exist from the CNS via peripheral nerves, whereas the T4 neurons contribute considerably to the extensive pattern of serotonin-like immunoreactive fibres in T3-T6 ganglia. The overall pattern of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons in the isopods is similar to that in decapod crustacea, and a number of putative homologies can be assigned. It is more difficult to homologize the isopod serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons with those in the insect CNS, but some stained brain and thoracic neurons share common cell body positions and axon trajectories in isopods, decapods, and insects and may therefore be homologous. PMID:7814675

Thompson, K S; Zeidler, M P; Bacon, J P

1994-09-22

169

Morphometric characteristics of Neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus  

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Full Text Available Introduction Cortical amygdaloid nucleus belongs to the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid complex. In this nucleus there are neurons that produce neuropetide Y. This peptide has important roles in sleeping, learning, memory, gastrointestinal regulation, anxiety, epilepsy, alcoholism and depression. Material and methods We investigated morphometric characteristics (numbers of primary dendrites, longer and shorter diameters of cell bodies and maximal radius of dendritic arborization of NPY immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus on 6 male adult human brains, aged 46 to 77 years, by immunohistochemical avidin-biotin technique. Results Our investigation has shown that in this nucleus there is a moderate number of NPY immunoreactive neurons. 67% of found neurons were nonpyramidal, while 33% were pyramidal. Among the nonpyramidal neurons the dominant groups were multipolar neurons (41% - of which 25% were multipolar irregular, and 16% multipolar oval. Among the pyramidal neurons the dominant groups were the neurons with triangular shape of cell body (21%. All found NPY immunoreactive neurons (pyramidal and nonpyramidal altogether had intervals of values of numbers of primary dendrites 2 to 6, longer diameters of cell bodies 13 to 38 µm, shorter diameters of cell bodies 9 to 20 µm and maximal radius of dendritic arborization 50 to 340 µm. More than a half of investigated neurons (57% had 3 primary dendrites. Discussion and conclusion The other researchers did not find such percentage of pyramidal immunoreactive neurons in this amygdaloid nucleus. If we compare our results with the results of the ather researchers we can conclude that all pyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons found in this human amygdaloid nucleus belong to the class I of neurons, and that all nonpyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons belong to the class II of neurons described by other researchers. We suppose that all found pyramidal neurons were projectional.

Mališ Miloš

2008-01-01

170

Chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity in the human brain: distribution in bulbar medulla and cerebral cortex.  

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Chromogranin A is a glycoprotein stored in secretory granules of a variety of neuroendocrine cells. Among other functions, chromogranin A is a calcium-binding protein, and a precursor of modulatory peptides. Although known to be expressed in mammalian CNS neurons, it was previously believed that antibodies directed against human chromogranin A did not label neurons. A method is reported for the immunohistochemical demonstration of chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity in adult human post-mortem brain, utilizing the previously characterized monoclonal antibody LK2H10. Chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity of human brain could be absorbed with heat-stable protein extract from adrenal medulla, but not from liver, and a similar preparation of human cerebral cortex eliminated the labeling of adrenal medulla by LK2H10. However, unlike adrenal medullary chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity, cerebral chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity was destroyed by embedding the tissue in paraffin or treating frozen sections with methanol during the endogenous peroxidase blocking step, suggesting differences in post-translational processing of these two forms of chromogranin A. In both cerebral regions studied, bulbar medulla and parietal cortex, chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity was widespread in neuronal perikarya, dendrites, and axonic terminals, but restricted to certain neuronal populations. Among other findings it is reported that the main olivary neurons are immunoreactive for chromogranin A; this implies a new co-localization of chromogranin A, with corticotropin-releasing factor. The cerebral neocortex showed a laminar pattern of staining of perikarya in layers III-VI, and of the neuropil in the supragranular layers. In conjunction with the evidence of neuromodulatory action in the periphery, these results raise the possibility of a major neurotransmitter role for chromogranin A in the human brain. PMID:2352642

Munoz, D G; Kobylinski, L; Henry, D D; George, D H

1990-01-01

171

Endogenous progesterone levels and frontotemporal dementia: modulation of TDP-43 and Tau levels in vitro and treatment of the A315T TARDBP mouse model  

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Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is associated with motor neurone disease (FTD-MND), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS). Together, this group of disorders constitutes a major cause of young-onset dementia. One of the three clinical variants of FTD is progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), which is focused on in this study. The steroid hormone progesterone (PROG) is known to have an important role as a neurosteroid with potent neuroprotective and promyel...

Dang, Theresa N. T.; Dobson-stone, Carol; Glaros, Elias N.; Kim, Woojin S.; Hallupp, Marianne; Bartley, Lauren; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Double, Kay L.; Schofield, Peter R.; Crouch, Peter J.; Kwok, John B. J.

2013-01-01

172

Substance P-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using immunocytochemistry we find substance P-like material in nerve cells of hydra. These nerve cells are situated in the ectoderm of the basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of hydra extracts gives dilution curves parallel to that of synthetic substance P, from which it can be calculated that one animal contains at least 0.6 fmol substance P-like immunoreactivity. After chromatography on Biogel P-100, the substance P-like immunoreactivity elutes as a peak in the void volume and a peak at the position of synthetic substance P.

Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Balfe, A

1981-01-01

173

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B transgenic mice develop TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 pathology.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Cytoplasmic ubiquitin-positive inclusions containing TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) within motor neurons are the hallmark pathology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 is a nuclear protein and the mechanisms by which it becomes mislocalized and aggregated in ALS are not properly understood. A mutation in the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B (VAPB) involving a proline to serine substitution at position 56 (VAPBP56S) is the cause of familial ALS type-8. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which VAPBP56S induces disease, we created transgenic mice that express either wild-type VAPB (VAPBwt) or VAPBP56S in the nervous system. Analyses of both sets of mice revealed no overt motor phenotype nor alterations in survival. However, VAPBP56S but not VAPBwt transgenic mice develop cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulations within spinal cord motor neurons that were first detected at 18 months of age. Our results suggest a link between abnormal VAPBP56S function and TDP-43 mislocalization.

Tudor, E L

2010-05-19

174

Electrocardiographic abnormalities in neurological diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with neurologic diseases. METHODS: We studied 161 patients with neurologic disorders by analyzing the 12-lead electrocardiogram during the pathological process. An expert who did not know anything about the patients evaluated the [...] traces. RESULTS: Neurological process included brain tumor (41%), stroke (27.3%), cerebral aneurysm (15.5%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (6.8%), subdural hemorrhage (5%), and head injury (4.4%). Electrocardiograms were normal in 61% of cases, and the most frequent abnormality was ventricular repolarization (23.7%). The presence of T waves (4.6%) and prolonged QT intervals (8.8%) was the most characteristic of brain injuries. CONCLUSION: We observed a lower incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities than that described in the literature.

Rui, Póvoa; Luciano, Cavichio; Ana Lúcia de, Almeida; Danielle, Viotti; Celso, Ferreira; Luciane, Galvão; João, Pimenta.

2003-04-01

175

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-08-01

176

Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

177

Amylin-like immunoreactivity in pancreatic X cells of the black-spotted frog Rana (Pelophylax) nigromaculata.  

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tIn this study, we investigated the presence of ovoid or ellipsoidal amylin-immunoreactive cells of the pancreatic islets of the black-spotted frog Rana (Pelophylax) nigromaculata. Using double immunofluorescent staining, all amylin-immunoreactive cells were shown to be immuno-negative for insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, and they were often observed in peripheral regions of clusters of insulin-immunoreactive cells. Under immunoelectron microscopy, amylin-immunoreactive signals were detected on the secretory granules in a specific type of endocrine cells. From our results, we conclude that the amylin-immunoreactive cells correspond to X cells among the 4 distinct types of endocrine cells (B, A/PP, D, and X) previously identified in the frog. Amylin secreted from X cells may regulate the hormone secretion from A/PP cells and/or B cells through a paracrine mechanism. PMID:25458814

Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

2014-12-01

178

Abnormalities of the external genitalia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormalities of the external genitalia span the spectrum from subtle findings of limited clinical significance to profound anomalies that call into question such essential questions as sex determination. In addition, missing a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a newborn female child with virilized external genitalia can result in near-term mortality, whereas a large inguinal hernia could present rapidly with incarceration if undetected. To that end, this article seeks to present a survey of commonly encountered genital abnormalities while highlighting those scenarios that require multidisciplinary interventions. PMID:25155737

Baldinger, Lauren; Mudegowdar, Abhijith; Shukla, Aseem R

2014-09-01

179

The influence of chronic ?-irradiation in early ontogenesis on immunoreactivity of small rodents  

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The researches were conducted on CBA mice, white mice and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreb.). Influence of chronic irradiation with low dose powers (0.1 and 0.8 c Gy/day) in early ontogenesis on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages has been investigated. Some shifts showing of a modification of the immunoreactivity of the irradiated animals were found out. (author)

180

FMRFamide immunoreactivity is generally occurring in the nervous systems of coelenterates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abundant FMRFamide immunoreactivity has been found in the nervous systems of all hydrozoan, anthozoan, scyphozoan and ctenophoran species that were looked upon. This general and abundant occurrence shows that FMRFamide-like material must play a crucial role in the functioning of primitive nervous systems.

Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Leydig cells in the lingual epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, are immunoreactive for serotonin.  

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The Leydig cells in the lingual epithelium of the axolotl were investigated by immunohistochemistry using serotonin antiserum. Serotonin-immunoreactivity was found in their secretory granules. The physiological role of serotonin in the Leydig cell, a type of exocrine cell, is unknown.

Toyoshima, K.; Shimamura, A.

1992-01-01

182

Immunoreactive intensity of FXPRL amide neuropeptides in response to environmental conditions in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, the diapause hormone-pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide gene, DH-PBAN, is a neuropeptide gene that encodes a polypeptide precursor consisting in five Phe-X-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH(2) (FXPRL) amide (FXPRLa) neuropeptides; DH (diapause hormone), PBAN (pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide) and ?-, ?- and ?-SGNPs (subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides). These neuropeptides are synthesized in DH-PBAN-producing neurosecretory cells contained within three neuromeres, four mandibular cells, six maxillary cells, two labial cells (SLb) and four lateral cells of the subesophageal ganglion. DH is solely responsible, among the FXPRLa peptide family, for embryonic diapause. Functional differentiation has been previously suggested to occur at each neuromere, with the SLb cells releasing DH through brain innervation in order to induce embryonic diapause. We have investigated the immunoreactive intensity of DH in the SLb when thermal (25°C or 15°C) and light (continuous illumination or darkness) conditions are altered and following brain surgery that induces diapause or non-diapause eggs in the progeny. We have also examined the immunoreactivity of the other FXPRLa peptides by using anti-?-SGNP and anti-PBAN antibodies. Pupal SLb somata immunoreactivities seem to be affected by both thermal and light conditions during embryogenesis. Thus, we have been able to identify a close correlation between the immunoreactive intensity of neuropeptides and environmental conditions relating to the determination of embryonic diapause in B. mori. PMID:21103995

Hagino, Ayako; Kitagawa, Norio; Imai, Kunio; Yamashita, Okitsugu; Shiomi, Kunihiro

2010-12-01

183

Increased immunoreactivity of c?Fos in the spinal cord of the aged mouse and dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

Expression of c?Fos in the spinal cord following nociceptive stimulation is considered to be a neurotoxic biomarker. In the present study, the immunoreactivity of c?Fos in the spinal cord was compared between young adult (2?3 years in dogs and 6 months in mice) and aged (10?12 years in dogs and 24 months in mice) Beagle dogs and C57BL/6J mice. In addition, changes to neuronal distribution and damage to the spinal cord were also investigated. There were no significant differences in neuronal loss or degeneration of the spinal neurons observed in either the aged dogs or mice. Weak c?Fos immunoreactivity was observed in the spinal neurons of the young adult animals; however, c?Fos immunoreactivity was markedly increased in the nuclei of spinal neurons in the aged dogs and mice, as compared with that of the young adults. In conclusion, c?Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased without any accompanying neuronal loss in the aged spinal cord of mice and dogs, as compared with the spinal cords of the young adult animals. PMID:25351722

Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Myoung Chul; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Moon, Seung Myung; Ahn, Ji Yun; Ohk, Taek Geun; Lee, Tae Hun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Won, Moo-Ho

2015-02-01

184

Early development of GABA-like immunoreactive cells in the retina of turtle embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the earliest neuroactive substances appearing in the developing central nervous system. The distribution and the time course of the appearance of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the retina of the turtle Emys orbicularis were investigated from embryonic stage 13 to hatching. The first GABA-like immunoreactive cells were observed at stage 14. These cells were located in both the scleral third of the neuroblastic layer and the inner layers of the retina. They were identified as presumptive immature horizontal cells and amacrine cells, respectively. The observation of numerous labelled fibers in the nerve fiber layer suggests that some of the GABA-like immunoreactive cells in the layers were ganglion cells. The development of GABA-like immunoreactive cells followed a gradient of maturation from central to peripheral retina. At hatching, the central retina appeared nearly morphologically mature. In conclusion, GABA is present before the morphofunctional maturation of the retina and this precocious existence supports the idea of its involvement in a neurotrophic role preceding the establishment of synaptic connections and neurotransmitter function. PMID:7697864

Versaux-Botteri, C; Hergueta, S; Pieau, C; Wasowicz, M; Dalil-Thiney, N; Nguyen-Legros, J

1994-11-18

185

[The significance of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) for intensive care medicine].  

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The estimation of serum digoxin is a usual method in intensive care. In a case report the detection of digoxin-like-immunoreactive-factor (DLIF) is shown, which gives false high levels. DLIF is observed in renal damage, high cardiac activity, pregnancy and newborn. PMID:2168132

Simon, H B; Behrendt, W; Stein, T

1990-06-01

186

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors: impact on digoxin measurements and potential physiological implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various laboratories have reported endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) (DLIF) in blood from patients in renal failure or liver failure, from newborn infants, and from third-trimester pregnant women. Similar immunoreactivity has been detected in amniotic fluid, in cord blood, and in urine and serum from normal subjects. The factor(s) giving rise to this immunoreactivity cross react with antibodies used in many currently available immunoassays for digoxin, sometimes causing apparent digoxin concentrations exceeding the therapeutic range obtained for exogenous digoxin, with consequent errors in measurement and in subsequent clinical interpretation of digoxin results. Here, I summarize findings in our laboratory and those of others. DLIF evidently exist in three states in serum: tightly protein-bound, weakly protein-bound, and unbound (free). In normal subjects, greater than 90% of the total DLIF in serum is tightly but reversibly bound to serum proteins and is not readily detectable by direct measurement of digoxin in serum with conventional immunoassays. However, there seems to be a redistribution of the more weakly bound and unbound components in patients with renal failure, pregnant women, and newborns. The increased values detected in these groups are ascribable to increased amounts of weakly bound and unbound DLIF rather than to increased total DLIF. Carrier proteins may play a prominent role in the transport of these factors in blood. I discuss the potential physiological and pharmacological implications of detecting endogenous immunoreactive factors that cross react with antibodies to drugs. PMID:3896570

Valdes, R

1985-09-01

187

Oxaliplatin-induced loss of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit neuronal immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin and related chemotherapeutic drugs cause painful chronic peripheral neuropathies in cancer patients. We investigated changes in neuronal size profiles and neurofilament immunoreactivity in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue of adult female Wistar rats after multiple-dose treatment with oxaliplatin, cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Results After treatment with oxaliplatin, phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H immunoreactivity was reduced in neuronal cell bodies, but unchanged in nerve fibres, of the L5 DRG. Morphometric analysis confirmed significant changes in the number (-75%; P P P = 0.82, NF-M (-1%, P = 0.96 or NF-H (0%; P = 0.93 after oxaliplatin treatment, although the sizes of parvalbumin (-29%, P = 0.047, NF-M (-11%, P = 0.038 and NF-H (-28%; P = 0.0033 immunoreactive neurons were reduced. In an independent comparison of different chemotherapeutic agents, the number of pNF-H-immunoreactive neurons was significantly altered by oxaliplatin (-77.2%; P P = 0.03 but not by carboplatin or paclitaxel, and their mean cell body area was significantly changed by oxaliplatin (-31.1%; P = 0.008 but not by cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a specific pattern of loss of pNF-H immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue that corresponds with the relative neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin, cisplatin and carboplatin. Loss of pNF-H may be mechanistically linked to oxaliplatin-induced neuronal atrophy, and serves as a readily measureable endpoint of its neurotoxicity in the rat model.

Connor Bronwen

2009-11-01

188

Organization of galanin-like immunoreactive neuronal systems in weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunohistochemical procedures were used to investigate the distribution of galanin-like immunoreactive neuronal somata, fiber pathways and apparent termination fields in the gymnotiform brain. Immunoreactive somata were observed only in the hypothalamus and were confined to preoptic, lateral and caudal hypothalamic regions. Within these areas, positive cells tended to be most concentrated in juxtaventricular nuclei. Dense immunoreactive fiber systems originating from hypothalamic regions were seen to project in separate or coalescing fiber bundles to the basal telencephalan, thalamus/tuberal diencephalon, midbrain and brainstem. The density of positive axons and boutons was quite variable, but regions which displayed the most massive network of axons included structures within the hypothalamus itself (anterior periventricular preoptic nucleus, caudal and lateral hypothalamus), ventral telencephalon (superior and ventral subdivisions), thalamic/tuberal areas (central posterior nucleus and tuberal neuropil within the ventral territory of the prepacemaker nucleus) and brainstem nuclei (dorsal reticular nucleus and the medial paralemniscal nucleus). Within these areas axons appeared more randomly distributed and varicose than along fiber tracs, and in counterstained sections were occasionally seen in apposition to unstained neuronal cell bodies and dendrites. In addition, a system of fibers was seen in the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary. It is concluded that galanin-like immunoreactive neurons in the gymnotiform brain have a more restricted distribution than those in mammals, and that the major fiber systems emanating from the hypothalamus resemble the diverse projections of the tuberomammillary nucleus of higher vertebrates. The anatomy of galanin-like immunoreactive systems in the apteronotid brain suggests a role in neuroendocrine regulation and an involvement with anatomical areas controlling aggressive and courtship behaviour. PMID:1376606

Yamamoto, T; Maler, L; Nagy, J I

1992-01-01

189

Lumbar dorsal root ganglia of the cat: a quantitative study of peptide immunoreactivity and cell size.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to quantify the extent to which several peptides and serotonin coexist with substance P or somatostatin in selected lumbar dorsal root ganglia of the cat. The technique for the simultaneous visualization of two antigens by immunofluorescence was used to investigate the coexistence of neuropeptides in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia of colchicine-treated cats. Perikarya immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, leu-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P were visualized in both the lumbar 5 and 6 dorsal root ganglia. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was observed for adipokinetic hormone, bombesin, dynorphin A, met-enkephalin, oxytocin, tyrosine hydroxylase, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or serotonin in either ganglion examined. Substance P coexisted with calcitonin-gene-related peptide, somatostatin, and leu-enkephalin. Somatostatin was colocalized with calcitonin gene-related peptide, leu-enkephalin, and substance P but coexisted with galanin minimally. The cell area of immunoreactive perikarya was also examined. Data concerning the cross-sectional area of immunoreactive cells indicated that somatostatin-immunoreactive perikarya were generally the largest population observed (up to approximately 6,000 microns2). Somatostatin and calcitonin gene-related peptide, as well as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, coexisted in populations of cell bodies that had a smaller size (less than 2,000 microns2). These results suggest that certain peptides which coexist in the dorsal root ganglia may provide histochemical markers for functional groups of primary afferent neurons. PMID:2474001

Garry, M G; Miller, K E; Seybold, V S

1989-06-01

190

Atrial natriuretic factor and digoxin-like immunoreactive factor in diabetic patients: their interrelation and the influence of the autonomic nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In diabetic patients, several factors contribute to volume expansion and have to be counteracted by humoral and neuronal feedback control systems. We investigated N-terminal proatrial natriuretic factor (ANF1-98) and digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), which are two counteracting hormones, and their interrelationship, with additional consideration given to autonomic nervous function in diabetic patients. ANF1-98 and DLIF were measured in 64 diabetic patients. Autonomic nervous function was assessed using nine autonomic nervous function tests. The patients were subdivided into two groups, one with four or more (group 1) and one with less than four abnormal results in autonomic function tests (group 2). Compared with group 2, group 1 demonstrated detectable DLIF levels less often (17.2 vs. 45.7, P = 0.0195) and increased levels of ANF1-98 (mean +/- SEM: 850.0 +/- 108.8 vs. 554.8 +/- 45.9 pmol/L, P = 0.0099). However, the groups did not differ in blood pressure, daily sodium, and daily potassium excretion. The number of abnormal autonomic function tests correlated significantly with ANF1-98 (P = 0.0002). In patients with detectable DLIF, DLIF correlated with ANF1-98 (P = 0.0080). These results demonstrate close interactions between the autonomic nervous system and the two natriuretic hormones. In patients with autonomic nervous dysfunction, higher levels of ANF may possibly compensate for the lack of the natriuretic DLIF to counteract hypertension and chronic volume expansion. PMID:8784101

Straub, R H; Hall, C; Krämer, B K; Elbracht, R; Palitzsch, K D; Lang, B; Schölmerich, J

1996-09-01

191

Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry. PMID:2185921

Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

1990-04-01

192

Increase in Trx2/Prx3 redox system immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and hippocampus of aged dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that no distinct neuronal loss occurred in the aged dog spinal cord, although oxidative stress was increased in the aged dog spinal cord. Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2)/peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) redox system is a major route for removing H(2)O(2) in the central nervous system. In the present study, we compared the distribution and immunoreactivity of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2), Trx2 and Prx3 and their protein levels in the spinal cord and hippocampus between the adult (2-3 years) and aged (10-12 years) dogs. The number of TrxR2-immunoreactive neurons was slightly increased; however, its immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the aged spinal cord compared to that in the adult spinal cord. On the other hand, the number and immunoreactivity of both Trx2- and Prx3-immunoreactive neurons were significantly increased in the spinal cord of the aged dog. Similarly, in the hippocampus of the aged dog, TrxR2, Trx2 and Prx3 immunoreactivity and protein levels were markedly increased compared to those in the adult dog. These results indicate that the increases of TrxR2, Trx2 and Prx3 immunoreactivity and their protein levels in the aged spinal cord and hippocampus may contribute to reducing neuronal damage against oxidative stresses during normal aging. PMID:21871553

Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Jung Hoon; Song, Ju Min; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Jin Sang; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Won, Moo-Ho

2011-11-01

193

Occurrence of calcitonin, somatostatin-like immunoreactivity, and carcinoembryonic antigen in two sisters suffering from familial thyroid medullary carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of calcitonin, somatostatin-like immunoreactivity and carcinoembryonic antigen in tumor tissues (surgically obtained) and identified by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, is reported in two sisters suffering from familial thyroid medullary carcinoma. C-cell hyperplasia occurred in both individuals. Preoperatively, both patients had elevated calcitonin serum levels and carcinoembryonic antigen. No ACTH or thyroglobulin immunoreactivity could be found in the tumor tissue. After thyroidectomy, 131I treatment and percutaneous radiation, somatostatin-like immunoreactivity and carcinoembryonic antigen plasma levels were in the normal range, whereas calcitonin was still elevated. It is proposed that calcitonin, somatostatin, and carcinoembryonic antigen are produced by the thyroid medullary carcinoma. (author)

194

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

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The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution ...

Economopoulos, T.; Economidou, J.; Giannopoulos, G.; Terzoglou, C.; Papageorgiou, E.; Dervenoulas, J.; Arseni, P.; Hadjioannou, J.; Raptis, S.

1985-01-01

195

Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?  

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We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still acc...

Fuzfa, A.; Alimi, J. -m

2006-01-01

196

Abnormal Neural Synchrony in Schizophrenia  

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Schizophrenia has been conceptualized as a failure of cognitive integration, and abnormalities in neural circuitry (particularly inhibitory interneurons) have been proposed as a basis for this disorder. We used measures of phase locking and phase coherence in the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram to examine the synchronization of neural circuits in schizophrenia. Compared with matched control subjects, schizophrenia patients demonstrated: (1) absence of the posterior component of the early ...

Spencer, Kevin M.; Nestor, Paul G.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Salisbury, Dean F.; Shenton, Martha E.; Mccarley, Robert W.

2003-01-01

197

Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using immunocytochemistry, gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity is found in sensory nerve cells in the ectoderm of the mouth region of hydra and in nerve cells in the endoderm of all body regions of the sea anemone tealia. These results are corroborated by radioimmunoassay: One hydra contains at least 5 fmole and one tealia at least 2 nmole gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity. Reactivities towards gastrin and CCK antisera with different specificities suggest that the coelenterate gastrin/CCK-like peptide contains the C-terminal amino-acid sequence common to mammalian gastrin and CCK. In addition the radioimmunochemical data indicate that the coelenterate peptide also contains an amino-acid sequence that resembles the sequence 20-30 of porcine CCK-33, but that no other sequences of gastrin are present. Thus, it is probably more CCK-like than gastrin-like.

Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F

1980-01-01

198

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in rat adrenal tissue is localized in mast cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) has been shown to be present throughout the central nervous system and in several peripheral tissues. In adrenals, TRH immunoreactivity has been reported but not characterized. We show here that two rat pro-TRH-derived peptides, TRH and prepro-TRH[160-169] (Ps4), were detected in extracts of rat adrenal glands by enzyme immunoassay. Endogenous TRH and Ps4 were purified by gel exclusion chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Structural identification of each peptide was achieved by chromatographic comparison with synthetic standards. By using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, TRH-immunoreactive cell bodies were found rather widely scattered outside the adrenal, in the brown adipose tissue in which the gland is embedded. These immunofluorescent cells have the typical appearance of mast cells and are metachromatic after histological staining with acidic Toluidine Blue. Our findings suggest that pro-TRH-derived peptides exist in rat mast cells. PMID:9389765

Montagne, J J; Ladram, A; Grouselle, D; Nicolas, P; Bulant, M

1997-12-01

199

Digoxinlike immunoreactive factor isolated from human pleural fluid is structurally similar to digoxin.  

Science.gov (United States)

To further define the chemical structure of human endogenous digoxinlike immunoreactive factors (DLIF) we used human pleural effusions as a source of the substance. Digoxinlike immunoreactive factor activity was detected by radioimmunoassay in the pleural fluid of each of four patients; average concentration was 0.35 ng/mL. The chemical profile of DLIF was determined by initial extraction and concentration of DLIF by ion exchange chromatography followed by reverse phase-high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) separation and purification. Using high-pressure liquid chromatography cochromatography of DLIF, together with several radioactively marked glycosides, we observed a single peak of DLIF activity that was chromatographically identical to digoxin. The present study further supports the recent finding that DLIF is related structurally to the cardiac glycosides, and for the first time it has been proven that DLIF is present in pleural fluids. PMID:9216437

Weinberg, U; Dolev, S; Shapiro, M S; Shilo, L; Rabinowitz, R; Shenkman, L

1997-07-01

200

Identification of immunoreactive proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from cultured tilapia in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause lethal infections in humans and animals, including aquatic species. Immunoreactive proteins of the S. agalactiae strain, GD201008-001, isolated from cultured tilapia in China, were screened by immunoproteomics using hyperimmune sera, convalescent guinea pig sera and GD201008-001-infected tilapia antisera as primary detection antibodies. A total of 16 different proteins were identified including 13 novel immunoreactive proteins of S. agalactiae. Four proteins, serine-rich repeat glycoprotein 1, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BKD) subunit E2, 5'-nucleotidase family protein and ornithine carbamoyltransferase, were shown to react with the three types of sera and thus were considered to represent novel S. agalactiae vaccine candidate antigens. Our findings represent the basis for vaccine development for piscine S. agalactiae and are necessary for understanding virulence factors and immunogenicity of S. agalactiae with different hosts. PMID:23929656

Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Regional distribution of immunoreactive dynorphin A in the human gastrointestinal tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunoreactive dynorphin A (ir-Dyn A) was detected throughout the human gastrointestinal tract by a validated radioimmunoassay. Moreover, the stability of 125I-Dyn A during extraction procedures was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of ir-Dyn A were higher in the stomach and in the small bowel. In tissue samples separated into the main layers composing the gut wall (muscularis externa, submucosa and mucosa) ir-Dyn A was uniformly distributed. An exception was the colon, where concentrations were higher in the muscular portion. Gel permeation chromatography on samples of mucosa and muscularis externa extracts of ileum and gastric fundus, showed immunoreactive material eluting in several forms of apparently higher molecular weight than Dyn A, while only a minor peak was found to coelute with authentic Dyn A. PMID:2898739

Spampinato, S; Ferri, G L; Candeletti, S; Romualdi, P; Cavicchini, E; Soimero, L; Labò, G; Ferri, S

1988-04-01

202

Insulin immunoreactive sites demonstrated in the Golgi apparatus of pancreatic B cells.  

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Insulin immunoreactive sites were localized in the Golgi apparatus of pancreatic B cells by light and electron microscopy. Identification of the Golgi apparatus by immunofluorescence required the prior degranulation of B cells with glibenclamide to reduce the insulin immunostaining due to secretory granules. In such cells, insulin immunofluorescence revealed brightly stained, crescent-shaped strands with form and location super-imposable on that of Golgi complexes seen in thin sections of the...

Ravazzola, M.; Perrelet, A.; Roth, J.; Orci, L.

1981-01-01

203

Distribution of galanin immunoreactivity in the respiratory tract of pig, guinea pig, rat, and dog.  

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Galanin, a newly discovered peptide isolated from porcine intestine, is known to cause contraction in rat smooth muscle preparations and to induce hyperglycaemia in dogs. By the use of radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical techniques the concentration and distribution of galanin immunoreactivity were determined in several areas of the respiratory tract of five dogs, five guinea pigs, five rats, and two pigs. Antibodies were raised in rabbits to whole unconjugated natural porcine galanin. T...

Cheung, A.; Polak, J. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Cadieux, A.; Christofides, N. D.; Springall, D. R.; Bloom, S. R.

1985-01-01

204

Distribution of galanin immunoreactivity in the respiratory tract of pig, guinea pig, rat, and dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

Galanin, a newly discovered peptide isolated from porcine intestine, is known to cause contraction in rat smooth muscle preparations and to induce hyperglycaemia in dogs. By the use of radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical techniques the concentration and distribution of galanin immunoreactivity were determined in several areas of the respiratory tract of five dogs, five guinea pigs, five rats, and two pigs. Antibodies were raised in rabbits to whole unconjugated natural porcine galanin. The highest galanin concentrations were found in the bronchus and the trachea of the dog, guinea pig, rat (2 pmol/g in each case), and pig (less than 1 pmol/g). The lowest galanin concentrations were found in the lung parenchyma. Gel chromatographic analysis in the pig showed one molecular form of galanin coeluting with the porcine galanin standard. By means of the indirect immunofluorescence technique on sections of tissues fixed in benzoquinone solution, galanin was found to be confined to nerve fibres in different regions of the respiratory tract. In the nasal mucosa of the pig nerve fibres containing galanin were distributed around seromucous glands and blood vessels and beneath the epithelium. In the trachea, bronchus, and major intrapulmonary airways of the pig, dog, and guinea pig galanin immunoreactive fibres were detected predominantly in smooth muscle, as well as around seromucous glands and in the adventitia of blood vessels. Rarely, galanin immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the lung parenchyma. A few galanin immunoreactive ganglion cells also containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were found in the adventitia of the tracheobronchial wall of the pig and dog. The distribution of galanin suggests that it may have some influence on airway, vascular, and secretory functions in the mammalian respiratory tract. PMID:2420020

Cheung, A; Polak, J M; Bauer, F E; Cadieux, A; Christofides, N D; Springall, D R; Bloom, S R

1985-12-01

205

Increased Neuronal ?-Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Association with Interleukin-1? Immunoreactivity  

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Levels of immunoreactive ?-amyloid precursor protein and interleukin-1? were found to be elevated in surgically resected human temporal lobe tissue from patients with intractable epilepsy compared with postmortem tissue from neurologically unaffected patients (controls). In tissue from epileptics, the levels of the 135-kDa ?-amyloid precursor protein isoform were elevated to fourfold (p < 0.05) those of controls and those of the 130-kDa isoform to threefold (p < 0.05), whereas those of the...

Sheng, Jin G.; Boop, Frederick A.; Mrak, Robert E.; Griffin, W. Sue T.

1994-01-01

206

Orexin (hypocretin)-like immunoreactivity in the cat hypothalamus: a light and electron microscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orexin-A-like immunoreactive (OrA-ir) neurons and terminals in the cat hypothalamus were examined using immunohistochemical techniques. OrA-ir neurons were found principally in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) at the level of the tuberal cinereum and in the dorsal and posterior hypothalamic areas. In the LHA the majority of the neurons were located dorsal and lateral to the fornix; a small number of OrA-ir neurons were also present in other regions of the hypothalamus. OrA-ir fibers with varicose terminals were detected in almost all hypothalamic regions. The high density of fibers was located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the infundibular nucleus (INF), the tuberomamillary nucleus (TM) and the supra- and pre-mamillary nuclei. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that OrA-ir neurons in the LHA receive abundant input from non-immunoreactive terminals. These terminals, which contained many small, clear, round vesicles with a few large, dense core vesicles, made asymmetrical synaptic contacts with OrA-ir dendrites, indicating that the activity of orexin neurons is under excitatory control. On the other hand, the terminals of OrA-ir neurons also made asymmetrical synaptic contact with dendrites in the LHA, the INF and the TM. The dendrites in the LHA were both non-immunoreactive and OrA-ir; conversely, the dendrites in the INF and the TM were non-immunoreactive. In these regions, OrA-ir terminals contained many small, clear, round vesicles with few large, dense core vesicles, suggesting that orexinergic neurons also provide excitatory input to other neurons in these regions. PMID:11204055

Zhang, J H; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

2001-02-01

207

Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and somatostatin immunoreactivity in rat dentate hilar neurons.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), somatostatin (SSN), and parvalbumin (PV) was studied in the rat hippocampus by immunohistochemical methods. The aim was to explore the interrelationship between SSN-immunoreactive (SSN-IR) neurons in the dentate hilus, which have been shown to be vulnerable to a number of pathophysiological insults, and the presence or absence of NOS and/or PV in the same subset of dentate hilar neurons. Small NOS-IR neurons were scattered in the pyramidal, oriens,...

Dun, N. J.; Dun, S. L.; Wong, R. K.; Fo?rstermann, U.

1994-01-01

208

Sodium channel Nav1.8 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp.  

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Background: The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 (SNS1/PN3) is expressed by nociceptors and may play a role in pain states. Methods: Using specific antibodies for immunohistochemistry, we studied Nav1.8 – immunoreactivity in human dental pulp in relation to the neuronal marker neurofilament. Human tooth pulp was extracted from teeth harvested from a total of twenty-two patients (fourteen without ...

Renton, T.; Yiangou, Y.; Plumpton, C.; Tate, S.; Bountra, C.; Anand, P.

2005-01-01

209

Preventing formation of Reticulon 3 Immunoreactive Dystrophic Neurites improves cognitive function in mice  

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Neuritic dystrophy is one of the important pathological features associated with amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and age-dependent neuronal dysfunctions. We have previously reported that reticulon-3 (RTN3) immunoreactive dystrophic neurites (RIDNs) are abundantly present in the hippocampus of AD patients, in AD mouse models and in aged wild-type mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing the human RTN3 transgene spontaneously develop RIDNs in their hippocampi and the formation of RIDN...

Shi, Qi; Prior, Marguerite; Zhou, Xiangdong; Tang, Xiaoying; He, Wanxia; Hu, Xiangyou; Yan, Riqiang

2013-01-01

210

The lateral hypothalamic parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV1) nucleus in rodents  

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In the lateral hypothalamus, groups of functionally related cells tend to be widely scattered rather than confined to discrete, anatomically distinct units. However, using parvalbumin (PV)-specific antibodies, a solitary, compact cord of PV-immunoreactive cells (the PV1-nucleus) has been identified in the ventrolateral tuberal hypothalamus in various species. Here we describe the topography, the chemo-, cyto- and myeloarchitectonics as well as the ultrastructure of this PV1-nucleus in rodents...

Me?sza?r, Zolta?n; Girard, Franck; Saper, Clifford B.; Celio, Marco R.

2011-01-01

211

Anion exchanger immunoreactivity in human salivary glands in health and Sjögren's syndrome  

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Salivary gland ducts play a relevant role in saliva secretion through transport processes. Na(+)-independent chloride-bicarbonate anion exchangers (AE) may be involved in these processes by generating ion fluxes into the salivary secretion. In Sjögren's syndrome, a disorder with gland dysfunction, there might be an impaired expression of AE proteins. Here we study AE immunoreactivities in human salivary glands, both in health and in Sjögren's syndrome. Immunohistochemistry was carried out o...

Vazquez, J. J.; Vazquez, M.; Idoate, M. A.; Montuenga, L. M.; Martinez-anso, E.; Castillo, J.; Garcia, N.; Medina, J. F.; Prieto, J.

1995-01-01

212

Genetic and Antigenic Diversities of Major Immunoreactive Proteins in Globally Distributed Ehrlichia canis Strains?  

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The extent of knowledge regarding the diversity of globally distributed Ehrlichia canis strains has been limited to information gained from a few evolutionarily conserved genes. In this study, E. canis strains from the United States (strain Jake [US]), Brazil (strain São Paulo [BR]), and Israel (strain 611 [IS] and Ranana [IS-R]) were used to examine the antigenic and genetic diversities of four well-characterized major immunoreactive protein genes/proteins. gp36 and gp200 were the most dive...

Zhang, Xiaofeng; Luo, Tian; Keysary, Avi; Baneth, Gad; Miyashiro, Simone; Strenger, Carmela; Waner, Trevor; Mcbride, Jere W.

2008-01-01

213

Humoral immunoreactivity to gliadin and to tissue transglutaminase is present in some patients with multiple myeloma  

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Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal B-cell disorder with many immunological disturbances. The aim of this work was to assess whether some of food antigens contribute to the imbalance of immune response by screening the sera of MM patients for their immunoreactivity to food constituent gliadin, to tissue transglutaminase-2 (tTG-2) and to Ro/SSA antigen. Sera from 61 patients with MM in various stages of disease, before, or after some cycles of conventi...

Matkovic Suzana; Stankovic Ivan; Mihaljevic Biljana; Jelic Svetislav; Konic-Ristic Aleksandra; Radic Jelena; Juranic Zorica; Besu Irina; Gavrilovi? Dušica

2008-01-01

214

Calcium-binding Protein Calretinin Immunoreactivity in the Dog Superior Colliculus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied calretinin-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and cells in the canine superior colliculus (SC) and studied the distribution and effect of enucleation on the distribution of this protein. Localization of calretinin was immunocytochemically observed. A dense plexus of anti-­calretinin-IR fibers was found within the upper part of the superficial gray layer (SGL). Almost all of the labeled fibers were small in diameter with few varicosities. The intermediate and deep layers contained many cal...

Lee, Jea-young; Choi, Jae-sik; Ahn, Chang-hyun; Kim, In-suk; Ha, Ji-hong; Jeon, Chang-jin

2006-01-01

215

Changes in parvalbumin immunoreactivity with aging in the central auditory system of the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the levels of calcium binding proteins are known to occur in different parts of the brain during aging. In our study we attempted to define the effect that aging has on the parvalbumin-expressing system of neurons in the higher parts of the central auditory system. Age-related changes in parvalbumin immunoreactivity were investigated in the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate body (MGB) and auditory cortex (AC) in two rat strains, normally aging Long-Evans (LE) and fast aging Fischer 344 (F344). The results demonstrate that the changes in PV-immunoreactivity are strain-dependent with an increase in the number of PV-immunoreactive (PV-ir) neurons occurring in the inferior colliculus of old LE rats and a pronounced decline in the number of PV-ir neurons appearing in the auditory cortex of aged F344 animals. In some parts of the AC of old F344 animals no PV-ir neurons were present at all. The number of PV-ir neurons in the MGB in all examined animals was very low independent of the strain and age. The loss of PV-ir neurons in the auditory cortex of Fischer 344 rats with aging may contribute to the substantial deterioration of hearing function in this strain. PMID:18486384

Ouda, Ladislav; Druga, Rastislav; Syka, Josef

2008-08-01

216

Somatostatin-28 like immunoreactivity in normal and tumour tissue from duodenum and pancreas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay using labelled somatostatin-14 revealed that components of somatostatin-28 antisera cross-reactive to somatostatin-14 were removed by absorption of somatostatin-28 antisera with sepharose 4B-somatostatin-14. Indirect immunofluorescence techniques using specific antisera against somatostatin-28 were carried out in normal pancreas, duodenum, a somatostatinoma in the duodenum, and pancreatic tumour cells containing somatostatin-14 positive cells, in order to establish if somatostatin-28 is present in normal and pathological tissues. Somatostatin-28 like immunoreactivity was present in pancreatic islets cells and in the epithelial cells of the duodenum as well as in the duodenal somatostatinoma and in pancreatic tumour cells. Furthermore, cells reacting with specific antisera against somatostatin-28 were identical to those with somatostatin-14 antisera in normal and pathological tissues. The findings suggested that somatostatin-28 like immunoreactivity may be constantly present in the tissues where somastostatin like immunoreactivity was detected using somatostatin-14 antisera. However, further studies are necessary to clarify whether somatostatin-28 and somatostatin-14 were independently present in these tissues, in other words, whether somatostatin-14 may be produced from somatostatin-28 or not, since somatostatin-14 antisera had cross-reactivities to somatostatin-28. (authors)

217

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactive vagal sensory neurons innervating the gastrointestinal tract of the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have determined whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactive (BDNF-ir) neurons in the vagal ganglia innervate the gastrointestinal tract. Many BDNF-ir neurons were medium in size and located throughout the jugular and nodose ganglia. When Fluorogold was injected into the wall of the cervical esophagus, many retrogradely Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found in both the jugular ganglion and the nodose ganglion. When Fluorogold was injected into the body of the stomach or applied to the cut end of the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve, numerous Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found mostly in the nodose ganglion. Double-labeling combining immunohistochemistry for BDNF and retrograde tracing with Fluorogold showed that more than 90% of the neurons in the jugular ganglion and the nodose ganglion projecting to the cervical esophagus contained BDNF-like immunoreactivity. In the cases of both Fluorogold injection into the stomach and Fluorogold application to the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve, almost all Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the nodose ganglion contained BDNF-like immunoreactivity. These results indicated that almost all vagal sensory neurons located in either the jugular ganglion or the nodose ganglion that innervate the gastrointestinal tract are BDNF-ir neurons. PMID:25128629

Hayakawa, Tetsu; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto

2014-11-01

218

The Characteristics of Immunoreactivity of Alpha-fetoprotein Producing Gastric Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alphafetoprotein (AFP producing gastric cancer (AFP-GC is very malignant and highly metastatic compared with common gastric cancer. We encountered six patients with AFP-GC. The purpose of this study was to characterize the immunoreactivity of alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric cancer, using a panel of hepatocytic markers, including alpha-fetoprotein, hepatocyte antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CD10. Five of 6 cases showed cytoplasmic reactivity for alpha-fetoprotein. Immunoreactivity with a cytoplasmic, membranous, or canalicular pattern, or a mixed pattern was found for polyclonal CEA. Positive immunostaining for hepatocyte antigen was noted in only 2 of 6 cases. Negative immunostaining was found in all 6 patients for CD10. This study demonstrated that most AFP producing gastric cancer, hepatoid or non-hepatoid, were immunoreactive for AFP and p-CEA, but non-reactive for CD10. Therefore, CD-10 might be helpful to distinguish primary hepatocellular carcinoma from AFP-GC when it metastasizes to the liver. In this small series of patients with gastric cancer, AFP production indicated the poor prognosis, regardless hepatoid or non-hepatoid.

Swei H Tsung

2012-11-01

219

Criteria for identifying endogenous compounds as digoxin-like immunoreactive factors in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) are factors in plasma that interact with anti-digoxin antibodies. In this report we propose specific empirical criteria that must be satisfied by any group of endogenous compounds purported to account for DLIF activity in human plasma. These criteria include immunoreactive potency relative to existing physiologic concentrations as well as the biochemical and protein binding properties of these compounds. Recent studies have identified several congeners of fatty acids and phospholipids, hydrocortisone, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate as compounds likely to account for DLIF activity in plasma. Using the above criteria we demonstrate that the highest reported plasma concentrations of these compounds combined account for less than 25% of DLIF reported in healthy adult subjects, less than 11% in newborns, less than 27% in pregnant women, and less than 39% in patients with renal failure. Human serum albumin at a concentration of 40 g/l completely abolished any detectable interaction of these compounds with both anti-digoxin antibodies or canine kidney Na/K-ATPase. The immunoreactive and physical properties of these compounds are also not consistent with those reported for DLIF. We conclude that these compounds do not account for the plasma DLIF concentrations measured in human subjects nor are they likely to play a role as specific endogenous regulators of Na/K-ATPase. PMID:2844442

Lau, B W; Valdes, R

1988-06-30

220

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D immunoreactivity is present in islet amyloid in type 2 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous apolipoproteins associate with amyloid plaques. A minor high-density lipoprotein-associated protein, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD), has recently been described by the authors and others. Since GPI-PLD is synthesized by, and secreted from, pancreatic islet beta cells, the present study examined the hypothesis that GPI-PLD associates with islet amyloid. GPI-PLD immunoreactivity was examined in pancreatic tissues from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic humans. GPI-PLD binding to heparan sulphate proteoglycan was determined in the absence or presence of heparan sulphate or heparin. Fibril formation from human islet amyloid polypeptide was determined in the absence or presence of GPI-PLD. In non-diabetics, GPI-PLD immunoreactivity was present and co-localized with insulin, as opposed to co-localizing with amyloid in diabetics. No immunoreactivity for apolipoprotein A-I was present in islet cells or islet amyloid. Heparan sulphate proteoglycan, which is commonly present in most amyloid, bound GPI-PLD in vitro. GPI-PLD inhibited the formation of amyloid fibrils from synthetic islet amyloid polypeptide in vitro. GPI-PLD is therefore present in islet amyloid and appears to derive from local production from islets. This localization likely derives from interaction between GPI-PLD and heparan sulphate proteoglycan. Since GPI-PLD also inhibited islet amyloid polypeptide fibril formation in vitro, it is concluded that GPI-PLD may play a role in islet amyloid formation in type 2 diabetes. PMID:15259000

Larson, D M; Kennedy, M A; Bowen, R F; Verchere, C B; Deeg, M A

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Pronounced cellular diversity and extrasynaptic location of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit immunoreactivities in the chicken pretectum.  

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The diversity of nicotinic ACh receptor (AChR) expression in the chick lateral spiriform nucleus (SpL) was assessed using subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and laser scanning confocal microscopy. The late embryonic SpL was immunoreactive for mAbs against the alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 7, alpha 8, and beta 2 AChR subunits. Distinct neuronal cell classes were determined using pair-wise staining of mAbs. Approximately 90% of the neurons in the SpL contained both alpha 5-like immunoreactivity (LI) and beta 2-LI, with no neurons having only one of these subunit-LIs. Approximately 70% of the neurons contained alpha 2-LI. All alpha 2-LI neurons contained alpha 5/beta 2-LI; thus, neurons having alpha 2-LI are a subset of those having alpha 5- and beta 2-LI. Fewer neurons, approximately 20%, contained alpha 7-LI. A subset of alpha 7-positive neurons were immunoreactive for other subunits; for example, some alpha 7-positive neurons also contained alpha 2-LI. Fewer than 15% of the neurons contained alpha 8-LI. Some of the alpha 8-LI-containing neurons contained alpha 7-LI. The 14 week post-hatch SpL resembles the late embryonic nucleus in the percentage of neurons immunoreactive for alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 7, alpha 8, and beta 2 AChR subunits, and in the presence of multiple classes based on AChR subunit immunoreactivity. In addition, alpha 4-LI was found in about 20% of the 14 week SpL neurons. Double-label immunofluorescence experiments with mAbs to AChRs and to synaptic vesicle antigens showed that most clusters of alpha 5-LI and beta 2-LI are extrasynaptic. The pronounced diversity of AChR subunit expression and the extrasynaptic location of AChR-LI suggest that AChR-like molecules in the SpL do not function solely to respond to transmitter focally released from presynaptic terminals. PMID:7472457

Ullian, E M; Sargent, P B

1995-11-01

222

Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

Gallagher, Patrick G

2013-12-01

223

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil

224

Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues

225

Time-course changes in immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in the gerbil hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia.  

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Glucose is a main energy source for normal brain functions. Glucokinase (GK) plays an important role in glucose metabolism as a glucose sensor, and GK activity is modulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). In this study, we examined the changes of GK and GKRP immunoreactivities in the gerbil hippocampus after 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia. In the sham-operated-group, GK and GKRP immunoreactivities were easily detected in the pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus. GK and GKRP immunoreactivities in the pyramidal neurons were distinctively decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA), not CA2/3, 3 days after ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). Five days after I-R, GK and GKRP immunoreactivities were hardly detected in the CA1, not CA2/3, pyramidal neurons; however, at this point in time, GK and GKRP immunoreactivities were newly expressed in astrocytes, not microglia, in the ischemic CA1. In brief, GK and GKRP immunoreactivities are changed in pyramidal neurons and newly expressed in astrocytes in the ischemic CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. These indicate that changes of GK and GKRP expression may be related to the ischemia-induced neuronal damage/death. PMID:24146201

Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Choong Hyun; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Yan, Bing Chun; Lee, Jae-Chul; Lee, Tae Hun; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il-Jun

2013-12-01

226

Hand images: normal and abnormal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

227

Somatostatin- and neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in the dentate area, hippocampus, and subiculum of the domestic pig.  

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With the principal aim of providing baseline observations for future experimental studies, the distribution of somatostatin-like and neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivities is described in the dentate area, hippocampus, and subiculum of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) and compared with the distribution described in other mammals. Intensely stained somatostatin-like immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were present throughout the region, with highest densities in the dentate hilus, stratum radiatum and stratum oriens of the hippocampal regio inferior, stratum oriens of the hippocampal regio superior, and in the subicular cell layer. Somatostatin-like immunoreactive terminals were represented by both stained fibers and stained puncta. Scattered somatostatin-like immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen in most areas, but regular fiber plexuses were present in the dentate molecular layer and dentate hilus, stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, and in the subicular plexiform layer. Somatostatin-like immunoreactive puncta were seen in the dentate molecular layer, stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, and in the subicular plexiform layer. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were less numerous than somatostatin-like immunoreactive ones. They were mainly seen in the dentate granule cell layer and dentate hilus, stratum radiatum and stratum oriens of the hippocampus, and in the subicular cell layer. Intensely stained neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive fibers were numerous, and present in all areas examined. They formed fiber plexuses in the dentate molecular layer and dentate hilus, stratum moleculare of the hippocampal regio superior, and in the subicular plexiform layer. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive puncta were present in the dentate molecular layer, stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, and in the subicular plexiform layer. Consistent and very characteristic variation in the distribution of somatostatin-like and neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity was found along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus. The distribution of somatostatin-like and neuropeptide Y-like neurons and terminals in the domestic pig displayed striking similarities with the basic pattern of organization of these neuropeptides in other species, although more subtle species-specific characteristics were also observed in the pig. PMID:1355497

Holm, I E; Geneser, F A; Zimmer, J

1992-08-15

228

Distribution of CGRP-, VIP-, D beta H-, SP-, and NPY-immunoreactive nerves in the periosteum of the rat.  

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In light of the possible role peripheral nerves may play in bone metabolism, the morphology of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-, substance P (SP)-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (D beta H)-immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined in whole-mount preparations of periosteum of membranous bones (calvaria, mandible) and long bones (tibia) from the rat. Periosteum from animals treated to remove selectively either the sympathetic or fine-caliber primary afferent nerves was also examined to determine the origin of the nerve fibers. We found a consistent and often dense innervation of the periosteum. The innervation patterns of the calvaria and mandible were similar, with networks of nerves spread across the surface of the bone. Nerves in the tibial periosteum were oriented in the longitudinal axis and were more numerous at the epiphyses than in the mid-shaft region. CGRP-immunoreactive fibers were widely and densely distributed. The presence of populations of CGRP-immunoreactive fibers of differing calibers and perivascular arrangements suggests that such nerves in bone tissues may serve different functions. SP-immunoreactivity was present in a fine network of varicose fibers in the superficial layers of the periosteum. CGRP- and SP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were dramatically reduced in periosteum of capsaicin-treated animals as compared to controls, indicating the sensory origin of these nerves. VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were distributed in the periosteum of mandible and calvaria as small networks and individual fine varicose fibers. In tibial periosteum, larger networks of these fibers were visible. VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the periosteum were associated with both vascular and nonvascular elements within the layers of cells closest to the bone, suggesting that VIP may serve more than one function in periosteal tissues. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were largely confined to vascular elements; occasional fibers were observed among the bone-lining cells. D beta H-immunoreactivity was associated only with blood vessels. VIP-, NPY-, and D beta H-immunoreactivities were dramatically reduced in the periosteum of guanethidine-treated animals, indicating the sympathetic origin of these nerves. PMID:1714353

Hill, E L; Elde, R

1991-06-01

229

Congenital Abnormalities and Multiple Sclerosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS. One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS. Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary.

Orton Sarah-Michelle

2010-11-01

230

Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?  

CERN Document Server

We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still accounting for the present tests of general relativity. This explanation allows to build dark energy models (i) without violation of the strong energy condition $p<-\\rho c^2/3$ (ii) with non-negligible direct couplings to gravitation and (iii) natural convergence mechanism toward general relativity.

Füzfa, A

2006-01-01

231

Selective axonal and glial distribution of monoacylglycerol lipase immunoreactivity in the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rodents.  

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The importance of 2-AG-mediated endogenous cannabinoid signaling in spinal pain control has recently been well substantiated. Although the degradation of 2-AG seems to be essential in cannabinoid-mediated spinal nociceptive information processing, no experimental data are available about the cellular distribution of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the main degrading enzyme of 2-AG in the spinal dorsal horn. Thus, here we investigated the cellular distribution of MGL in laminae I-II of the spinal gray matter with immunocytochemical methods and revealed an abundant immunoreactivity for MGL in the rodent superficial spinal dorsal horn. We addressed the co-localization of MGL with markers of peptidergic and non-peptidergic primary afferents, axon terminals of putative glutamatergic and GABAergic spinal neurons, as well as astrocytic and microglial profiles, and we found that nearly 17 % of the peptidergic (immunoreactive for CGRP), a bit more than 10 % of the axon terminals of putative glutamatergic spinal neurons (immunoreactive for VGLUT2), and approximately 20 % of the astrocytic (immunoreactive for GFAP) profiles were immunolabeled for MGL. On the other hand, however, axon terminals of non-peptidergic (binding isolectin-B4) nociceptive primary afferents and putative inhibitory spinal neurons (immunoreactive for VGAT) as well as microglial (immunoreactive for CD11b) profiles showed negligible immunostaining for MGL. The results suggest that only nociceptive inputs arriving through a population of CGRP immunoreactive fibers are modulated by the spinal DGL?-MGL pathway. We also postulate that the DGL?-MGL signaling pathway may modulate spinal excitatory but not inhibitory neural circuits. PMID:24942136

Dócs, Klaudia; Hegyi, Zoltán; Holló, Krisztina; Kis, Gréta; Heged?s, Krisztina; Antal, Miklós

2014-06-19

232

Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

2014-11-19

233

Substance P- and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivities in somatostatin-containing, human submucosal neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The submucous layers of human small and large intestines contain at least two separate neuron populations. Besides morphological features, they differ in their immunoreactivities for calretinin (CALR) and somatostatin (SOM), respectively. In this study, submucosal wholemounts of 23 patients or body donors (including all segments of small intestine and colon) were immunohistochemically quadruple stained for CALR and SOM as well as for substance P (SP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). We found that all SOM-positive neurons co-stained for ChAT and the majority for SP [between 50% in the small intestinal external submucosal plexus (ESP) and 75% in the colonic ESP]. In contrast, a majority of CALR-neurons contained ChAT (between 77% in the small intestinal ESP and 92% in the large intestinal ESP) whereas less than 4% of CALR-neurons were co-immunoreactive for SP. Another set of wholemounts was co-stained for peripherin, a marker enabling morphological analysis. Where identifiable, both SOM alone- and SOM/SP-neurons displayed a uniaxonal (supposed pseudouniaxonal) morphology. We suggest that the chemical code of SOM-immunoreactive, human submucosal neurons may be "ChAT+/SOM+/SP±". In additional sections double stained for SOM and SP, we regularly found double-labelled nerve fibres only in the mucosa. In contrast, around submucosal arteries mostly SOM alone- fibres were found and the muscularis propria contained numerous SP-alone fibres. We conclude that the main target of submucosal SOM(/SP)-neurons may be the mucosa. Due to their morpho-chemical similarity to human myenteric type II neurons, we further suggest that one function of human submucosal SOM-neurons may be a primary afferent one. PMID:23361835

Beyer, Jakob; Jabari, Samir; Rau, Tilman T; Neuhuber, Winfried; Brehmer, Axel

2013-08-01

234

Melatonin-like immunoreactivity in the pineal gland of the cow: an immunohistochemical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

With a view to checking the presence of melatonin in the pineal gland of the cow, in the present work we used six adult animals, ranging in age from one to six years, which were sacrificed at dawn. Sections of 6 micro m thickness of Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pineal glands were incubated in an anti-melatonin serum, which was provided by the Institute for Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Gunma University, Maebshi, Japan. After incubation and successive washings in PBS, some of the sections were treated with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) technique using antisera from Sigma, and developed with the method of Graham and Karnovsky (which employs 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and H2O2 as developer). Other sections were incubated in a goat-anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) bound to fluorochrome Cy5 for immunofluorescence studies. An intense reaction for melatonin was observed in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus of melatonin secreting pinealocytes located in peripheral and intermediate zones of the pineal gland. Immunoabsorption of the antimelatonin primary antibody with melatonin at a dilution of 10 mM per 0.1 ml of serum prevented the reaction, as happened when any of the antisera used in the procedure were used. Immunoabsorption of anti-melatonin serum with different amounts of bovine albumin (ranging between 1/5 to 1/50) failed to inhibit the immunoreactivity. When a bovine anti-albumin antibody was employed, working with the above methods, no immunoreaction was detected. Our data suggest that the pinealocytes of cows sacrificed at dawn contain immunoreactive melatonin. PMID:15375761

Carvajal, J C; Gómez-Esteban, M B; Carbajo, S; Muñoz-Barragán, L

2004-10-01

235

Tail pinch induces fos immunoreactivity within several regions of the male rat brain: effects of age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brief, intermittent stressors, such as low-level foot shock or tail pinch, induce a general excitement and autonomic arousal in rats that increases their sensitivity to external incentives. Such stimulation can facilitate a variety of behaviors, including feeding, aggression, sexual activity, parental behavior, and drug taking if the appropriate stimuli exist in the environment. However, the ability of tail pinch to induce general arousal and incentive motivation appears to diminish with age. Here we report on the ability of tail pinch to induce Fos immunoreactivity within several brain regions as a function of age. Young (2-3 months) and middle-aged (12-13 months) male rats were administered either five tail pinches (one every 2 min), one tail pinch, or zero (sham) tail pinches (n = 4 per stimulation condition). Rats were sacrificed 75 min following the onset of stimulation, and their brains were prepared for immunocytochemical detection of Fos protein. Fos immunoreactivity was induced by one and five tail pinches in several brain regions, including the anterior medial preoptic area (mPOA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PV-Thal), medial amygdala (MEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), lateral habenula (LHab), and ventral tegmental area (VTA), of young rats compared with those that received zero tail pinches. In contrast to young rats, middle-aged rats had significantly less Fos induced by one and five tail pinches in the mPOA, PVN, MEA, BLA, and VTA, but an equivalent amount induced in the LHab. Fos immunoreactivity was not found within the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum, lateral septum, or locus coeruleus in either young or old rats. Tail pinch appears to activate regions of the brain known to be involved in behavioral responses to both incentive cues and stressors. The lower level of cellular reactivity to tail pinch in middle-aged rats suggests a diminished neural responsiveness to incentives and stressors. PMID:9145942

Smith, W J; Stewart, J; Pfaus, J G

1997-05-01

236

Pedal sole immunoreactive axons in terrestrial pulmonates: Limax, Arion, and Helix.  

Science.gov (United States)

A century ago histological techniques such as formic acid-gold chloride showed the nerve morphology of the pedal sole in Limax and Helix. There have been no similar descriptions since then of the central nervous system relevant to locomotory pedal waves in the foot of slugs and snails. Topical application of 5-HT affects locomotory waves, but the innervation of the pedal sole with 5-HT axons is not known. Three-dimensional morphology of pedal axons in terrestrial pulmonate embryos is shown herein with modern histological techniques using antibodies and the confocal microscope. In Limax maximus, pedal ganglia are shown with Tritonia pedal peptide (TPep) antibodies. Ladder-like cross bridges in the pedal sole are shown with antibodies to both TPep and 5-HT. In Arion ater, pedal ganglia neurons and their axons that form a plexus in the pedal sole are shown with 5-HT antibodies. In Helix aspersa, 5-HT immunoreactive pedal ganglia neurons and a developing pedal sole axon plexus are seen as in A. ater. Axons in this plexus that grow across the pedal sole can be seen growing into pre-existing nerves. No peripheral 5-HT neurons were identified in these three species. This immunoreactive plexus to 5-HT antibodies in A. ater and H. aspersa spreads over the pedal sole epithelium. Axons immunoreactive to 5-HT antibodies in A. ater and H. aspersa extend the length of the foot, primarily in the rim, so that activity in these axons cannot provide local patterned input to produce locomotory waves, but may provide modulatory input to pedal sole muscles. PMID:24648204

Longley, Roger D

2014-02-01

237

Distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive afferents to the cerebellum differs between species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The indirect antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique was used to determine the laminar and lobular distribution of catecholaminergic afferents in the adult mouse, opossum, and cat cerebellum. A monoclonal antibody to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) revealed a plexus of thin varicose fibers that exhibited a different density and distribution pattern for each species. In the cat, TH-immunoreactive fibers were sparsely distributed to all laminae, lobules, and nuclei of the cat cerebellum except for an area of elevated density in the ventral folia of lobules V and VI. In the opossum, TH-positive fibers were uniformly and densely distributed in the granule and Purkinje cell layers; they were more abundant in vermal lobules V-VI than in more anterior and posterior lobules, particularly I and X. Numerous TH-immunoreactive fibers were found in all four cerebellar nuclei of the opossum. In the mouse, TH-positive fibers formed a dense plexus within all cerebellar lobules, laminae, and nuclei. The mouse also exhibited numerous TH-immunoreactive Purkinje cells that were localized predominantly within vermal lobules VI-X, the paraflocculus, and flocculus. In addition to the interspecies differences in the distribution of catecholaminergic fibers within the cerebellum, comparison of this plexus to that previously described for serotonin in these species reveals that the relative densities and distribution patterns of catecholaminergic and serotoninergic fibers also vary between species. It is thus hypothesized that in each species a given monoamine has a unique net effect on cerebellar output that is determined by its effects on different neuronal populations within the cerebellum. PMID:9067835

Nelson, T E; King, J S; Bishop, G A

1997-03-17

238

Localization of neuropeptide-Y immunoreactivity in estradiol-concentrating cells in the hypothalamus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable evidence shows that gonadal steroids exert a facilitatory influence on levels and release of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) from the hypothalamus. However, it is not known whether gonadal steroids act directly on NPY-producing cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus to produce these facilitatory effects on NPY or whether they act on other cells that have a modulatory influence via synapses on ARC NPY cells. We applied the combined method of steroid autoradiography and immunocytochemistry to assess the localization of [3H]estradiol in relation to NPY-producing cells in the hypothalamus. Rats (n = 6) were bilaterally ovariectomized and injected intracerebroventricularly with colchicine. Twenty-four hours later each rat received an iv injection of 17 beta-[2,4,6,7,16,17(-3)H]estradiol (SA, 166 Ci/mmol) at a dose of 5.0 micrograms/kg BW. One hour after the injection of [3H]estradiol, the rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde; brains were removed, frozen in isopentane precooled in liquid nitrogen (-190 C), sectioned, and processed for autoradiography. The autoradiograms were then incubated with specific antibodies for NPY immunostaining by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The results revealed NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex and a few cells in the median eminence. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were also detected in the internal layer of the median eminence. The largest number of neurons showinence. The largest number of neurons showing NPY immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm was detected in the ARC, and only in this nucleus did we observed colocalization of [3H]estradiol and NPY immunoreactivity in neurons. A population of NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC (10-20%) exhibited nuclear [3H]estradiol; the majority of these cells were located in the lateral and ventral portions of the ARC

239

Advantage of highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoscintigraphy for tumor detection, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunoreactivity (IR) is the fraction of a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) preparation capable of binding to an excess of a specific antigen. One of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunoscintigraphy is to use a highly immunoreactive MoAb. To assess the effect of an antibody IR on biodistribution, a fast and simple purification method has been developed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a hydroxylapatite (HA) column. The column was eluted at ambient temperature with 0.12 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). With this system, the F ab fragments from the MoAb 96.5 against the human melanoma associated p97 antigen were separated into two well-resolved peaks at retention times of 6 and 16 min. FEM-XII cells (human skin melanoma cell line) were used in a cell binding assay (CBA) to determine the maximal percent IR and the affinity constant of each HA-HPLC peak. The second peak from an 125I-F ab 96.5 showed approximately two times greater maximal binding than did the first peak, whereas the affinity constant for the two was the same. This indicated that the F ab 96.5 preparations used in this study were a mixture of more active and less active components. Moreover, prior to the HA-HPLC experiments, these preparations were analyzed with a gel filtration HPLC showing a single molecular weight peak. This suggested that the HA-HPLC separation was not based on molecular weight differences although the separation might differences although the separation mechanism of HA has not yet been fully understood. Thereby, it is concluded that the HA-HPLC is a powerful tool to purify MoAbs into the higher immunoreactive fraction which has a potential advantage in tumor targeting. (author)

240

Interference from digitoxin-like immunoreactive factors reduced in a new monoclonal chemiluminescent digitoxin assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) can interfere with some digoxin immunoassays. We looked for similar interference, called digitoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DTLIF) in two digitoxin immunoassays: A new chemiluminescent assay (CLIA), processed on the automated random access immunoassay system ACS:180, and a fluorescent polarization assay (FPIA), processed on the semiautomated TDx batch analyzer. One hundred thirty-seven samples of sera were tested from nondigitalized pregnant women, patients with liver or kidney diseases, and cord blood. The CLIA digitoxin assay uses a murine monoclonal antibody and requires no sample pretreatment; the FPIA digitoxin assay uses a polyclonal rabbit antibody and requires sample precipitation. Both assays have a similar dynamic range and sensitivity and give comparable results with commercial controls and external quality control survey samples. Although the CLIA detected no digitoxin in any sample tested, the FPIA showed apparent digitoxin concentrations of more than 2.0 ng/ml for 100% and 44% among cord blood and liver disease specimens, respectively. The highest DTLIF concentration was found in serum from a patient with liver disease (18.1 ng/ml). When spiked with 32 ng/ml digitoxin, six of the samples containing DTLIF generated FPIA digitoxin values of 6% to 27.5% more than the expected digitoxin levels. Two specimens with no detectable DTLIF activity were run as controls, and when spiked with digitoxin, showed target digitoxin concentrations in the FPIA. The CLIA recovered near the target digitoxin values (32 ng/ml) in all spiked samples. It was concluded that the polyclonal FPIA digitoxin assay may give discordant digitoxin concentrations in some patient groups because of interference from digitoxin-like immunoreactive factors. The CLIA digitoxin assay is not affected by DTLIF interference. PMID:9853984

Datta, P; Dasgupta, A

1998-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Immunohistochemical double-labeling study of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive cells and oxytocin-immunoreactive cells in the preoptic area of the dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the preoptic area (POA) of the dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia, was immunohistochemically studied. These neurons form cell columns on both sides of the common ventricle, and their axons project to the pituitary gland by forming distinct bundles. Also examined was the distribution of isotocin (IST) cells in the POA by using an anti-oxytocin (OXT) serum which has been proven to crossreact with IST. These two kinds of immunoreactive cells were distributed quite similarly in the POA. However, by using an immunofluorescence double-labeling method on thinner sections we found that a population of small IST cells in the ventral POA were also immunoreactive to GnRH, but that large IST cells in the dorsal POA were not immunoreactive to GnRH, and small GnRH-ir cells in the most ventral POA were not immunoreactive to the OXT antiserum. In the pituitary gland, GnRH-ir fibers were found in both the neurohypophysis and proximal pars distalis, but IST fibers were found only in the neurohypophysis. PMID:7808702

Maejima, K; Oka, Y; Park, M K; Kawashima, S

1994-08-01

242

Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals site-specific changes in GFAP and NDRG2 phosphorylation in frontotemporal lobar degeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by behavioral abnormalities, personality changes, language dysfunction, and can co-occur with the development of motor neuron disease. One major pathological form of FTLD is characterized by intracellular deposition of ubiquitinated and phosphorylated TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), suggesting that dysregulation in phosphorylation events may contribute to disease progression. However, to dat...

Herskowitz, Jeremy H.; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Duong, Duc M.; Xia, Qiangwei; Rees, Howard D.; Gearing, Marla; Peng, Junmin; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.

2010-01-01

243

Clinicopathologic features of autosomal recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with optineurin mutation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed clinicopathological analyses of two amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with homozygous Q398X optineurin (OPTN) mutation. Clinically, both patients presented signs of upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, but only Patient 1 showed gradual frontal dysfunction and extrapyramidal signs, and temporal lobe and motor cortex atrophy. Neuropathological examination of Patient 1 revealed extensive cortical and spinal motor neuron degeneration and widespread degeneration of the basal ganglia. Bilateral corticospinal tracts exhibited degeneration. Loss of spinal anterior horn cells (AHCs) and gliosis were observed, whereas posterior columns, Clarke's columns, intermediate lateral columns, and the Onuf's nucleus were spared. In the brainstem, moderate neuronal loss and gliosis were noted in the hypoglossal and facial motor nuclei. No Bunina bodies were found in the surviving spinal and brainstem motor neurons. Transactivation response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions were observed throughout the central nervous system. The Golgi apparatus in motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord was often fragmented. Immunoreactivity for OPTN was not observed in the brain and spinal cord, consistent with nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of OPTN. The TDP-43 pathology of Q398X was similar to that of an autosomal dominant E478G mutation. This result suggests that the loss-of-function, but not the proteinopathy itself, of OPTN results in TDP-43 deposits in neuronal and glial cytoplasm and Golgi apparatus fragmentation, leading to multisystem neurodegeneration. PMID:23889540

Kamada, Masaki; Izumi, Yuishin; Ayaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Masataka; Kagawa, Seiko; Kudo, Eiji; Sako, Wataru; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Kawakami, Hideshi; Ito, Hidefumi; Kaji, Ryuji

2014-02-01

244

Immunoreactive trypsin in acute pancreatitis: elevated levels do not correlate with hyperamylasaemia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in the serum of patients presenting with acute pancreatitis (AP) and compared to serum amylase levels. Both were elevated beyond the normal range at presentation (mean IRT 557 +/- 252 micrograms/l, range 181-1000 micrograms/l, mean control IRT 42 +/- 14 micrograms/l, range 15-82 micrograms/l; mean amylase 4500 +/- 3200 IU/l, range 600-10,500 IU/l, control amylase mean 175 +/- 43 IU/l, range 48-320 IU/l). There was minimal correlation between IRT and a...

Poston, G. J.; Adamson, A. S.; Heeley, A. F.; Heeley, M. E.; Hughes, E.; Benjamin, I. S.

1987-01-01

245

Circuitry and role of substance P-immunoreactive neurons in the primate retina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we extend our previous light microscopic (LM) study of substance P (SP)-containing amacrine and ganglion cell types of the human retina (Cuenca et al. [1995] J. Comp. Neurol. 356:491–504) to an electron microscopic (EM) and confocal-imaging study in order to reveal synaptic circuitry and putative input and output neurons. SP-immunoreactive (-IR) amacrine cells in primate retina are typically wide-field cells with large cell bodies occurring in normal or displaced positions re...

Cuenca Navarro, Nicola?s; Kolb, Helga

1998-01-01

246

Correlation between Ocular Demodex Infestation and Serum Immunoreactivity to Bacillus Proteins in Patients with Facial Rosacea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose—To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum. Design—A prospective study to correlate clinical findings with laboratory data. Participants—We consecutively enrolled 59 patients: 34 men and 25 women with a mean age of 60.4±17.6 years (range, 17–93). Methods—Demodex counting was performed based on lash sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis. ...

Li, Jianjing; O Reilly, Niamh; Sheha, Hosam; Katz, Raananah; Raju, Vadrevu K.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Scheffer, C. G. Tseng

2010-01-01

247

Rapid radioimmunoassay for human immunoreactive pancreatic phospholipase A2 and its normal values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid radioimmunoassay was developed for measuring immunoreactive pancreatic phospholipase A2 (IR-P-PLA2) in human sera. All analytic procedures could be accomplished within 3 hours. The assay was shown to be reproducible, sensitive and specific. The IR-P-PLA2 values were 7.39 ± 2.86 ng/ml in 111 healthy subjects. In the patients with chronic renal failure, the IR-P-PLA2 contents were significantly higher and did not decrease by blood dialysis

248

The Occurrence of Aging Dependent Reticulon 3 Immunoreactive Dystrophic Neurites Decreases Cognitive Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reticulon 3 (RTN3) has been shown to mark a distinct and abundant population of dystrophic neurites named RTN3 immunoreactive dystrophic neurites (RIDNs) in patients’ brains of Alzheimer disease (AD). Transgenic mice expressing RTN3 (Tg-RTN3) also spontaneously develop RIDNs. To determine whether RIDNs formed in Tg-RTN3 mice would ever naturally occur in the non-transgenic mouse brain, we targeted our examination to elderly mouse brains on the basis that AD is an age-dependent neurodegenera...

Shi, Qi; Hu, Xiangyou; Prior, Marguerite; Yan, Riqiang

2009-01-01

249

Marked digoxin-like immunoreactive factor interference with an enzyme immunoassay.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case in which digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) interfered with an enzyme immunoassay in a patient with renal insufficiency is reported. A 79-year-old woman was found to have a serum digoxin concentration (SDC) determined by enzyme immunoassay of 5.0 ng/ml. Although all subsequent SDC determined by the enzyme immunoassay system were elevated, identical samples run on a fluorescence polarization immunoassay revealed SDC within the therapeutic range. Marked DLIF-related assay interference has been reported to occur with some digoxin assays; however, the enzyme immunoassay methods have never been reported to cross-react to the magnitude seen in this case. PMID:3063480

Karboski, J A; Godley, P J; Frohna, P A; Horton, M W; Reitmeyer, W J

1988-09-01

250

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity in follicular fluid and in vitro fertilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) has been detected in various pathophysiological conditions associated with volume expansion. In this study, using radioimmunoassay, we confirmed the existence of high levels of DLIF in the stimulated follicular fluid, a rapidly volume-expanding biological model. The concentration of the various fractions of DLIF in follicular fluid was 2-9 times higher than in plasma, suggesting local concentration or production. No difference in concentration was observed between follicles containing fertilized oocytes and follicles with unfertilized oocytes. The role of DLIF in follicular homeostasis remains to be further investigated. PMID:1663910

Jakobi, P; Krivoy, N; Eibschitz, I; Ziskind, G

1991-01-01

251

Influence of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor on late complications in patients with diabetes mellitus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of typical late complications in diabetic patients (n = 65, 28 type I, 37 type II) who were not on glycoside drugs with low vs. high serum levels of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF: group I, n = 42, DLIF < or = the detection limit of 0.2 ng ml-1; and group II, n = 23, mean +/- SEM: 1.17 +/- 0.31 [0.25-4.96] ng ml-1). For detection of nephropathy, urinary albumin excretion (24 h) and creatinine clearance tests were used. For coronary ...

Straub, R. H.; Elbracht, R.; Kra?mer, Bernhard K.; Roth, M.; Palitzsch, K. D.; Scho?lmerich, J.

1994-01-01

252

[Immunoreactive trypsin in the serum of normal children and children with gastrointestinal diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in cord blood and blood specimens of 156 healthy children of different age. These results were compared with the IRT of children with gastrointestinal disease. While IRT from newborn is significantly elevated, mean trypsin levels form older children do not differ from those found in adults. In acute pancreatitis too, as in renal failure, trypsin is elevated. Low trypsin values were estimated in acute hepatitis and Crohn's disease. In cystic fibrosis (CF) serum trypsin levels depend on the exocrine function of the pancreas. The IRT assay on dried blood-spots, seems to become a reliable and convenient neonatal screening test for CF in newborns. PMID:6482880

Dockter, G; Steyns, M; Biro, G; Sitzmann, F C

1984-08-01

253

Odontodysplasia, gingival manifestations, and accompanying abnormalities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional odontodysplasia is an uncommon developmental dental disorder that may occasionally be accompanied by other abnormalities. A case is described in which the chief report was of a gingival enlargement arising in a female patient who also had dolichocephaly, thin calvarium, clinodactyly and transverse grooving of her fingernails, and a history of abnormal hair. Previously suggested etiologic factors and cases reported in association with other abnormalities are reviewed. PMID:8850490

Fanibunda, K B; Soames, J V

1996-01-01

254

Immunohistochemical detection of ganglia in the rat stomach serosa, containing neurons immunoreactive for gastrin-releasing peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ganglia, not previously described, were identified in the rat stomach serosa along the minor curvature. The ganglia consisted of varying number of cell bodies lying in clusters along or within nerve bundles. The ganglia were shown to contain GRP and VIP immunoreactive nerve fibers and cell bodies and also some NPY immunoreactive fibers, whereas they were devoid of somatostatin immunoreactivity. Nerve ligation experiments indicated that the ganglia are intrinsic to the stomach.

Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

1987-01-01

255

Differentially Expressed and Secreted Major Immunoreactive Protein Orthologs of Ehrlichia canis and E. chaffeensis Elicit Early Antibody Responses to Epitopes on Glycosylated Tandem Repeats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ehrlichia canis major immunoreactive proteins of 36 and 19 kDa elicit the earliest detectable antibody responses during the acute phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Genes encoding the major immunoreactive 36-kDa protein of E. canis and the corresponding ortholog of E. chaffeensis (47 kDa) were identified and the proteins characterized. The molecular masses of the strongly immunoreactive recombinant proteins were larger than predicted (26.7 and 32.9 kDa, respectively) but were consistent ...

Doyle, C. Kuyler; Nethery, Kimberly A.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Mcbride, Jere W.

2006-01-01

256

Gestational 30% and 40% fat diets increase brain GLUT2 and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in neonatal Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse maternal nutrition induces developmental programming in progeny thereby predisposing them to metabolic disease. The aim of the study was to determine whether maternal diets, with varying fat percentages as energy, alter the expression of factors associated with brain glucose sensing (glucose transporter 2 and glucokinase) and the feeding response (neuropeptide Y and leptin). Pregnant dams were maintained on diets of 10% (control), 20% (20F), 30% (30F) and 40% (40F) fat as energy throughout gestation. In 1-day-old neonatal offspring, anthropometric measurements were recorded. Whole neonatal brain was rapidly excised, weighed and either snap-frozen at -80°C for quantitative RT-PCR or fixed in formalin for immunohistochemical analysis. Brain glucose transporter 2, glucokinase, neuropeptide Y and leptin mRNA expression and immunoreactivity were determined in neonates. In the 20F neonates increases in body weight, head circumference and crown to rump length concomitant with reduced glucokinase immunoreactivity were found. The 30F neonates displayed increases in body weight, head length, head width, crown to rump length and immunoreactivity for both glucose transporter 2 and neuropeptide Y. The 40F neonates also demonstrated increased glucose transporter 2 and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity. Fetal exposure to a gestational diet with 30% or 40% fat as energy results in increased immunoreactivity for brain glucose transporter 2 and neuropeptide Y, suggesting a programming effect of these diets that may represent an early event of obesity. PMID:20633633

Cerf, Marlon E; Williams, Keith; van Rooyen, Jacques; Esterhuyse, Adriaan J; Muller, Christo J; Louw, Johan

2010-11-01

257

Distribution of neurons expressing immunoreactivity for the 5HT3 receptor subtype in the rat brain and spinal cord.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cellular distribution of the type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) in the rat brain was established immunocytochemically by using a polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide from the deduced amino-acid sequence of the cloned 5HT3R. The 5HT3R-immunoreactive neurons were found in the forebrain, brainstem, and spinal cord, but within each region, the intensity of the immunoreactivity differed considerably. Within the forebrain, intensely immunoreactive cells were found in layers II-III of the neocortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, hippocampal formation, and amygdala. A few strongly immunoreactive neurons were consistently observed in the caudate putamen, and moderately or weakly labeled neurons were occasionally found in the nucleus accumbens. Within the brainstem, intensely labeled neurons were found in the trigeminal motor (V) and facial (VII) nuclei. Immunostained neurons were detected in the dorsal and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. These results reveal that the 5HT3R-immunoreactive neurons are broadly distributed throughout the rat brain and spinal cord, and suggest that this receptor can subserve significant participation in central nervous system neurotransmission. PMID:9853906

Morales, M; Battenberg, E; Bloom, F E

1998-12-21

258

Distribution of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2-immunoreactive cells in the chicken small intestine: antigen retrieval immunohistochemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An antigen retrieval method for immunohistochemical staining of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2-immunoreactive cells was investigated in the chicken small intestine. GLP-2-immunoreactive cells were observed as open-typed endocrine cells in the villous epithelium and crypts on both antigen retrieval agent-treated and untreated preparations. No obvious differences were detected in morphological features of GLP-2-immunoreactive cells between treated and untreated preparations. The frequencies of occurrence of GLP-2-immunoreactive cells, however, were significantly different in treated and untreated preparations: in the proximal and distal regions of jejunum and ileum obtained from untreated preparations, the frequencies of occurrence were 0.5 ± 0.2, 0.7 ± 0.1, 0.9 ± 0.2 and 1.5 ± 0.3, respectively (cell numbers per mucosal area: cells/mm(2), mean ± SD), whereas those from treated sections were 14.7 ± 2.3, 19.8 ± 2.3, 23.5 ± 4.7 and 34.6 ± 4.9 cells/mm(2), respectively. These data indicate that this antigen retrieval method is able to make immunoreactive GLP-2 available for detection and that GLP-2 may act as one of the common hormones secreted by L cells in the chicken small intestine. PMID:24334814

Monir, Mohammad M; Hiramatsu, Kohzy; Nishimura, Kei; Takemoto, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takafumi

2014-04-01

259

Neuropeptide Y influences acute food intake and energy status affects NPY immunoreactivity in the female musk shrew (Suncus murinus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding, depresses sexual behavior, and its expression in the brain is modulated by energetic status. We examined the role of NPY in female musk shrews, a species with high energetic and reproductive demands; they store little fat, and small changes in energy can rapidly diminish or enhance sexual receptivity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPY enhanced acute food intake in shrews; however, NPY had little affect on sexual receptivity. The distribution of NPY immunoreactivity in the female musk shrew brain was unremarkable, but energy status differentially affected NPY immunoreactivity in several regions. Similar to what has been noted in other species, NPY immunoreactivity was less dense in brains of ad libitum shrews and greater in shrews subjected to food restriction. In two midbrain regions, both of which contain high levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone II (GnRH II), which has anorexigenic actions in shrews, NPY immunoreactivity was more sensitive to changes in food intake. In these regions, acute re-feeding (90-180 min) after food restriction reduced NPY immunoreactivity to levels noted in ad libitum shrews. We hypothesize that interactions between NPY and GnRH II maintain energy homeostasis and reproduction in the musk shrew. PMID:18191134

Bojkowska, Karolina; Hamczyk, Magdalena M; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Riggan, Anna; Rissman, Emilie F

2008-02-01

260

Comparison of FaRP immunoreactivity in free-living nematodes and in the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The family of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) is widely distributed among invertebrates, where the peptides serve as neuromodulators. Published reports indicate that numerous FaRP sequences exist in free-living and animal parasitic nematodes. Using a FMRFamide ELISA, FaRP immunoreactivity was detected in extracts of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in both sexes and at all developmental stages. HPLC-ELISA results revealed a number of immunoreactive components in H. glycines preparations, and a comparison with extracts of the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus redivivus showed significant qualitative differences in FaRP immunoreactivity between the plant parasite and the two free-living nematodes. Total and specific immunoreactivities varied during H. glycines development, with the highest specific activity in juveniles and males, and the highest total activity in mature females. Total female immunoreactivity was located primarily within the mature eggs. A significant portion, however, was associated with the female body, perhaps with egg laying. PMID:10676453

Masler, E P; Kovaleva, E S; Sardanelli, S

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Tyrosinase immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary and metastatic melanoma: frequency and distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monoclonal antibody T311 specifically detects tyrosinase protein expression. Tyrosinase-derived peptides are recognized by CD8+ T-cells and applied in immunotherapy. We examined formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of 50 melanoma (primary n=31, metastatic n=19) and 41 control cases (junctional, dermal, compound, Spitz, Reed, balloon-cell nevi) by immunochemistry using the alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method after antigen retrieval. Staining with mAb T311 showed a sensitivity of 94% for melanoma with a very high specificity for melanocytic cells. Immunopositivity (94% of melanomas overall) correlated inversely with clinical stage: clinical stage I and stage II showed 100%, stage III and stage IV 86% immunoreactivity each. Staining changed from an exclusively homogeneous pattern in early stages to a more heterogeneous pattern in later stages. Melanocytic control tissue like nevi of different subtypes all showed weak to moderate, homogeneous immunoreactivity with polarity towards the epidermis. RT-PCR ELISA analysis of short-term melanoma cell cultures displayed mRNA expression in only half of the originally immunopositive tumors only, suggesting rapid mRNA expression loss in culture. mAb T311 allows detection of melanoma-associated tyrosinase protein expression and thus profiling of melanomas using routine archival tissue suited for immunotherapy approaches involving tyrosinase derived epitopes. PMID:9609139

Hofbauer, G F; Kamarashev, J; Geertsen, R; Böni, R; Dummer, R

1998-04-01

262

Reduced microglial immunoreactivity for endogenous NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid in the hippocampus of schizophrenia patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postmortem and positron emission tomography studies have indicated the pathophysiological involvement of microglial cells in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that the microglial production of quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) agonist, may be linked to the previously described glutamatergic deficits in the hippocampus of schizophrenia patients. We performed a semi-quantitative assessment of QUIN-immunoreactive microglial cells in schizophrenia patients and matched controls in the CA1, CA2/3, and dentate gyrus (DG) area of the posterior hippocampal formation. Complementary immunostaining of the commonly used microglial surface marker HLA-DR was performed in adjacent histological sections. Fewer QUIN-immunoreactive microglial cells were observed in the CA1 hippocampal subregion of schizophrenia patients compared to controls (left p=0.028, right p=0.018). No significant diagnosis-dependent changes were observed in the CA2/3 and DG regions. These results were controlled for potential confounds by age, duration of disease, autolysis time, psychotropic medication, and hippocampal volume. No diagnosis-related differences were observed for the overall density of microglial cells (HLA-DR expression). Our findings suggest that reduced microglial QUIN content in the hippocampal CA1 region is associated with schizophrenia. We hypothesize that this association may contribute to impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus of schizophrenia patients. PMID:24886967

Gos, Tomasz; Myint, Aye-Mu; Schiltz, Kolja; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Busse, Stefan; Müller, Ulf J; Mawrin, Christian; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Steiner, Johann

2014-10-01

263

Calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity characterizes the auditory system of Gekko gecko.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geckos use vocalizations for intraspecific communication, but little is known about the organization of their central auditory system. We therefore used antibodies against the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV), and calbindin-D28k (CB) to characterize the gecko auditory system. We also examined expression of both glutamic acid decarboxlase (GAD) and synaptic vesicle protein (SV2). Western blots showed that these antibodies are specific to gecko brain. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in the auditory nerve, and CR immunoreactivity labeled the first-order nuclei and delineated the terminal fields associated with the ascending projections from the first-order auditory nuclei. PV expression characterized the superior olivary nuclei, whereas GAD immunoreactivity characterized many neurons in the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and some neurons in the torus semicircularis. In the auditory midbrain, the distribution of CR, PV, and CB characterized divisions within the central nucleus of the torus semicircularis. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in nucleus medialis of the thalamus. These expression patterns are similar to those described for other vertebrates. PMID:20589907

Yan, Kai; Tang, Ye-Zhong; Carr, Catherine E

2010-09-01

264

Light microscopic image analysis system to quantify immunoreactive terminal area apposed to nerve cells  

Science.gov (United States)

The present report describes a desktop computer-based method for the quantitative assessment of the area occupied by immunoreactive terminals in close apposition to nerve cells in relation to the perimeter of the cell soma. This method is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines incorporated in NIH-Image public domain software. Pyramidal cells of layer V of the somatosensory cortex outlined by GABA immunolabeled terminals were chosen for our analysis. A Leitz Diaplan light microscope was employed for the visualization of the sections. A Sierra Scientific Model 4030 CCD camera was used to capture the images into a Macintosh Centris 650 computer. After preprocessing, filtering was performed on the power spectrum in the frequency domain produced by the FFT operation. An inverse FFT with filter procedure was employed to restore the images to the spatial domain. Pasting of the original image to the transformed one using a Boolean logic operation called 'AND'ing produced an image with the terminals enhanced. This procedure allowed the creation of a binary image using a well-defined threshold of 128. Thus, the terminal area appears in black against a white background. This methodology provides an objective means of measurement of area by counting the total number of pixels occupied by immunoreactive terminals in light microscopic sections in which the difficulties of labeling intensity, size, shape and numerical density of terminals are avoided.

Wu, L. C.; D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Polyakov, I.; Daunton, N. G.

1997-01-01

265

HNK-1 immunoreactivity during early morphogenesis of the head region in a nonmodel vertebrate, crocodile embryo  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines HNK-1 immunoidentification of a population of the neural crest (NC) during early head morphogenesis in the nonmodel vertebrate, the crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus) embryos. Although HNK-1 is not an exclusive NC marker among vertebrates, temporospatial immunoreactive patterns found in the crocodile are almost consistent with NC patterns derived from gene expression studies known in birds (the closest living relatives of crocodiles) and mammals. In contrast to birds, the HNK-1 epitope is immunoreactive in NC cells at the neural fold level in crocodile embryos and therefore provides sufficient base to assess early migratory events of the cephalic NC. I found that crocodile NC forms three classic migratory pathways in the head: mandibular, hyoid, and branchial. Further, I demonstrate that, besides this classic phenotype, there is also a forebrain-derived migratory population, which consolidates into a premandibular stream in the crocodile. In contrast to the closely related chick model, crocodilian premandibular and mandibular NC cells arise from the open neural tube suggesting that species-specific heterochronic behavior of NC may be involved in the formation of different vertebrate facial phenotypes.

Kundrát, Martin

2008-11-01

266

Calretinin immunoreactivity in normal and carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is a potent hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic chemical. Little, however, is known about the association of CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity and calretinin. We hypothesized that calretinin might be localized in the proximal tubule cells and play a role against CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity, since the target of CCl(4) is the brush border-bearing tubule cells. CCl(4) (1 ml/kg) was administrated by oral gavage to 8-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats once a week for 4 weeks. A significant increase in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine was confirmed by serum analysis. Calretinin immunolocalization was compared with the calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in normal and CCl(4)-treated kidneys. Calretinin was clearly immunolocalized in the apical surface of proximal convoluted tubule in the deeper cortex of normal kidney and blurred after CCl(4) administration, with only minor changes of calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, irrelevant to the CCl(4) treatment. These findings might have significance since decreased immunolocalization of calretinin with CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity may contribute to the toxicity-related decrease in calcium transport or calcium buffering activity in the kidney. PMID:20947139

Kang, Ki Young; Kim, Jin Nam; Chang, In Youb; Park, Sung Ho; Yoon, Sang Pil

2011-11-01

267

Depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system by cysteamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selective neurotoxins have been of value in providing a means for specifically interfering with the actions of endogenous neurotransmitter candidates. Others have shown cysteamine (CSH) to deplete the gastrointestinal tract and hypothalamus of rats of immunoreactive somatostatin, suggesting a toxic action of that compound directed against somatostatin-containing cells. The present study further defines the actions of cysteamine on somatostatin in the central nervous system. (CNS). Cysteamine hydrochloride administered subcutaneously results in a depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in the retina, brain, and cervical spinal cord of rats. The effect is demonstrable at doses of 30 mg/kg of body weight and above, occurs within 2 to 4 hr of a single injection of the drug, and is largely reversible within 1 week. The mean depletion of SLI observed within the CNS varies from 38% in cerebral cortex to 65% in cervical spinal cord 24 hr following administration of CSH, 300 mg/kg of body weight, s.c. By gel permeation chromatography, all molecular weight forms of SLI are affected, with the largest reductions in those forms that co-chromatograph with synthetic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. These results indicate that CSH has a generalized, rapid, and largely reversible effect in depleting SLI from the rat CNS

268

[Extrinsic cells, immunoreactive to Ca-binding protein, as sources of thalamic visual centres in tortoises].  

Science.gov (United States)

Extrinsic sources of calcium-binding proteins involved in immunoreactive innervation of the visual thalamic nuclei Rot and GLd in turtles (Testudo horsfieldi and Emys orbicularis) were studied using HRP tracing method and immunohistochemistry. In 1.5-4.5 months after monocular enucleation calbindin (Calb)-, parvalbumin (Parv)- and calretinin (Calr)-labeling was found in fragments of degenerated retinal fibers in the contralateral optic tract and in some retinorecipient structures (optic tectum, GLd and GLv). Changes in GLd were detected in its neuropil part. in 2.0-3.5 months after unilateral ablation of tectum and pretectum, the densities of Parv-, Calb- and Aclr-immunoreactivity terminals and fibers were diminisched in the ipsilateral n. Rot, with the maximum effect seen in Parv. Following HRP injection into the visual thalamus (Rot and GLd), retrogradely labeled cells with Parv label only, were revealed in the ventrothalamic nucleus Enta, pretectal nucleus Ptv, and in all types of Ca-binding proteins (CaBPr) in separately labeled cells of the optic tectum. Thus, it has been shown that thalamic visual centers in turtles have multiple extrinsic cells, which serve as sources of CaBPr projections. The present data suggest that organization of CaBPr inputs to visual thalamus in reptiles (turtle) and higher amniotes are fundamentally similar. PMID:16706155

Minakova, M N; Kenigfest, N B; Belekhova, M G

2005-01-01

269

Immunoreaction-triggered DNA assembly for one-step sensitive ratiometric electrochemical biosensing of protein biomarker.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive ratiometric electrochemical readout was designed with an immunoreaction-triggered DNA assembly for one-step, fast and flexible assay of protein biomarker. The sensing interface was prepared by immobilizing a ferrocene (Fc)-labeled hairpin DNA on a gold electrode. In the presence of DNA2-antibody2 (Ab2) and methylene blue (MB)-labeled DNA1-Ab1 probes, the addition of target protein could induce the sandwich immunoreaction among two probes and the protein to trigger the hybridization of DNA1 and DNA2, which subsequently unfolded the hairpin DNA to form a three-arm DNA structure on the sensing interface. The DNA assembly caused the departure of Fc from the electrode and the approach of MB to the electrode, which led to the signal decrease and increase of Fc and MB respectively for ratiometric readout. Using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a model target, the ratiometric electrochemical assay showed a linear detection range from 0.01 to 200ng/mL with a detection limit of 4.3pg/mL (the mean signal of blank measures+3?). By changing the affinity probe pairs this method could be easily expanded for other protein analytes, showing promising potential for point-of-care testing and extensive applications in bioanalysis. PMID:25460904

Ren, Kewei; Wu, Jie; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Yue; Ju, Huangxian

2015-04-15

270

Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of estrogen receptors in human meningiomas has long been a controversial issue. This may be explained, in part, by apparent heterogeneity of estrogen binding sites in meningioma tissue. In this study, estrogen receptors were determined in 58 meningiomas with an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against human estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) and with a sensitive radioligand binding assay using 125I-labeled estradiol (125I-estradiol) as radioligand. Low levels of estrophilin immunoreactivity were found in tumors from 62% of patients, whereas radioligand binding activity was demonstrated in about 46% of the meningiomas examined. In eight (14%) tissue samples multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed. The immunoreactive binding sites correspond to the classical, high affinity estrogen receptors: the Kd for 125I-estradiol binding to the receptor was approximately 0.2 nM and the binding was specific for estrogens. The second, low affinity class of binding sites considerably influenced measurement of the classical receptor even at low ligand concentrations. The epidemiological and clinical data from patients with meningiomas, and the existence of specific estrogen receptors confirmed by immunochemical detection, may be important factors in a theory of oncogenesis

271

Purification and characterization of endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors in chicken blood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have been performed to determine whether an endogenous material capable of binding to digoxin antibodies is present in the chicken plasma. In the blood of 12 chickens without feed control, endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) binding of digoxin antibodies in enzyme immunoassays amounted to 866 / 302 pg digoxin equivalents/mL of plasma (mean +/- SEM). Immunoreactivity of DLIF increased to 1848***331 pg/mL with a double value of control after boiling and acid pretreating the plasma. The major purification steps employed in this report were gel filtration column chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). Using HPLC for the separation, at least 10 chicken DLIFs with different molecular weight (MW) have been found. The MW of the smallest is 300 daltons (Da) while the largest is 100 kDa. The value of the isoelectric point of the most abundant type of DLIF from untreated chicken plasma is 6.3 as determined by IEF. The partially purified DLIF inhibits Na+, K(+)-ATPase from a porcine cerebral cortex as well as three human red blood cell membrane preparations in a dose-response fashion. PMID:8913327

Wei, J S; Cheng, H C; Tsai, K J; Liu, D H; Lee, H H; Chiu, D T; Liu, T Z

1996-01-01

272

Distribution of the creatine transporter throughout the human brain reveals a spectrum of creatine transporter immunoreactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Creatine is a molecule that supports energy metabolism in cells. It is carried across the plasma membrane by the creatine transporter. There has been recent interest in creatine for its neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a therapeutic agent. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the distribution of the creatine transporter in the human brain. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to map out its location and the intensity of staining. The transporter was found to be strongly expressed, especially in the large projection neurons of the brain and spinal cord. These include the pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, and motor neurons of the somatic motor and visceromotor cranial nerve nuclei and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Many other neurons in the brain also had some degree of creatine transporter immunoreactivity. By contrast, the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and the catecholaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, showed a very low to almost absent level of immunoreactivity for the transporter. We propose that the distribution may reflect the energy consumption by different cell types and that the extent of creatine transporter expression is proportional to the cell's energy requirements. Furthermore, the distribution indicates that supplemented creatine would be widely taken up by brain cells, although possibly less by those cells that degenerate in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:699-725, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25159005

Lowe, Matthew T J; Faull, Richard L M; Christie, David L; Waldvogel, Henry J

2015-04-01

273

The XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants.Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency.That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. PMID:13969480

BARR, M L; CARR, D H; POZSONYI, J; WILSON, R A; DUNN, H G; JACOBSON, T S; MILLER, J R; LEWIS, M; CHOWN, B

1962-10-27

274

Biochemical abnormalities in multiple myeloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monoclonal gammopathies can either be benign or more commonly malignant. The commonest disease associated with it is multiple myeloma. Over the seven-year period 1984-1990, two hundred and thirty-four monoclonal gammopathies were seen at the University Hospital, Jamaica. Multiple myeloma was diagnosed in one hundred and fifty-six cases (84 males and 72 females). The diagnoses of most of the others were not known as the samples came from other institutions. Of the patients with myeloma, the most common immunoglobulin type was IgG followed by IgA and then pure light chain disease. Only in about half of the cases where urine was analysed was Bence-Jones protein found. The majority of the cases had abnormal total serum protein, albumin and total globulin concentrations. Most of the cases also were in renal failure. Hypercalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, gammaglutamyl transferase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred in about one-third of them. These results were not much different from those reported in other countries. PMID:1785196

Choo-Kang, E; Campbell, M

1991-12-01

275

Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

Kendal YALÇIN

2009-06-01

276

Do men with prostate abnormalities (prostatitis/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostate cancer) develop immunity to spermatozoa or seminal plasma?  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate is an immunocompetent and not an immunoprivileged organ. It has an active immunologic armamentarium. There are three major prostate abnormalities namely, prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. In all these abnormalities, infection/inflammation has been implicated. As infection/inflammation of the male genital tract can also be involved in induction of antisperm antibodies (ASA), this study was conducted to examine if these prostate abnormalities lead to the formation of ASA. Sera were obtained from normal healthy men (n = 20), men with chronic prostatitis (n = 20), men with BPH (n = 25), men with prostate cancer (n = 25) and immunoinfertile men (n = 10). The presence of antisperm antibodies against lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-solubilized human sperm extract (HSE), seminal plasma and synthetic peptides based upon sperm-specific antigens namely fertilization antigen (FA-1) and YLP(12), were analysed using the sperm immobilization technique (SIT), tray agglutination technique (TAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunobead binding technique (IBT). All the sera from normal men and men with prostate abnormalities (chronic prostatitis/BPH/prostate cancer) were found to be negative in SIT and TAT. In ELISA, a few sera from men having prostate abnormalities (4-24%) showed a weak positive immunoreactivity (2-3 SD units) with some of the spermatozoa/seminal plasma antigens. Majority of the samples did not show any immunoreactivity (antibodies in these sera. In all these assays, the sera from immunoinfertile men were positive. Our findings indicate that chronic prostatitis, BPH and prostate cancer do not induce antibodies to spermatozoa, sperm-specific antigens and seminal plasma components. Although prostate is an immunologically competent organ, and its abnormalities cause a rise in circulating prostate-specific antigen (PSA), it appears that there is no concomitant induction of immunity to spermatozoa/seminal components including sperm-specific fertility-related antigens, thus not causing ASA-induced immunoinfertlity. This is the first study to our knowledge reporting the absence of ASA in men with BPH and prostate cancer. PMID:22321000

Hoover, P; Naz, R K

2012-08-01

277

Immunoreactive nerve fibers in the nasal mucosa. An experimental study on neuropeptides Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide and galanin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of immunoreactive nervous fibers in the respiratory nasal mucosa of rats and guinea pigs was studied by means of a modified peroxidase antiperoxidase technique for whole mounting. The fibers with neuropeptide Y (NPY) always appeared in the walls of blood vessels, while the fibers immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were found in nerve tracts near the vessels and the acini of seromucous glands as thick networks located in the subepithelial layers. Immunoreactivity (IR) for galanin was found in the mucosa studied. The findings after surgical and chemical denervation of the trigeminal and superior cervical ganglia may support the theory that the fibers with NPY are of a sympathetic nature with the superior cervical ganglion their site of origin, while the CGRP-IR fibers may have a sensory nature. PMID:1722679

Amores, A E; Sprekelsen, C; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M

1991-01-01

278

Nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 like immunoreactivity in the olfactory system, brain and pituitary of frog, Microhyla ornata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorectic protein derived from the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). While nesfatin-1 has been widely studied in mammals, and goldfish, there are no reports of nesfatin-1 in amphibians. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, this study assessed the distribution of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the brain of frog Microhyla ornata. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 like immunoreactivity was found in the olfactory receptor neurons, Bowman's glands and in the olfactory epithelium of medial diverticulum. In the brain, immunoreactive perikarya were seen in the anterior preoptic area, magnocellular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior thalamic nucleus, nucleus infundibularis ventralis and dorsalis, and the cerebellar nucleus. NUCB2/nesfatin-1like immunoreactivity was also detected in the pineal and pituitary glands of frog. The presence of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the key brain regions suggest possible roles for this protein in the regulation of physiological processes in frogs. PMID:24768694

Senejani, A G; Gaupale, Tekchand C; Unniappan, Suraj; Bhargava, Shobha

2014-06-01

279

Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases  

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Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral s...

Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

2010-01-01

280

Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, a...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment  

Science.gov (United States)

A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

White, Geoffry D.

1977-01-01

282

Occupational exposures during abnormal radiological events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This present work shows the Cuban experience in the medical personnel dosimetry evaluation in the scope of the abnormal radiological events, in the last 10 years. The main results of this work have demonstrated that greater part of abnormal occupational exposures were obtained by industrial radiography and nuclear medicine procedures

283

Increased transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) immunoreactivity is independently associated with chronic injury in both consequential and primary radiation enteropathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Radiation enteropathy is characterized by sustained increase in transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) immunoreactivity and connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) hyperplasia that may be responsible for progressive fibrosis and lead to clinical complications. We examined to what extent these chronic molecular and cellular phenomena are associated with acute mucosal breakdown (consequential injury) and/or direct (primary) radiation injury in late-responding compartments. Methods and Materials: Rat small intestine was exposed to 50.4 Gy x-irradiation given either over 18 days (2.8 Gy daily or 5.6 Gy every other day) or 9 days (2.8 Gy twice daily or 5.6 Gy daily). Intestinal complications were recorded and groups of animals were euthanized at 2 and 26 weeks to assess subacute and chronic injury. Histopathologic changes were assessed with a radiation injury scoring system (RIS), total TGF-? immunoreactivity was quantified with computerized image analysis, and CTMC hyperplasia was assessed in toluidine blue-stained sections. Results: TGF-? immunoreactivity and CTMC hyperplasia colocalized in areas of injury and were highly significantly correlated. Increased fraction size and decreased overall treatment time were associated with increased RIS (p < 0.01 and p < 0.00001), increased TGF-? immunoreactivity (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001), and degree of CTMC hyperplasia (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001). Postradiation CTMC numbers increased across treatment groups from 2 to 26 weeks (preatment groups from 2 to 26 weeks (p < 0.01). TGF-? immunoreactivity was independently associated with chronic intestinal wall fibrosis (p = 0.003). Conclusion: This in vivo study supports in vitro evidence linking increased TGF-? immunoreactivity and mast cell hyperplasia and strongly suggests their involvement in the molecular pathogenesis of both primary and consequential radiation enteropathy

284

Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

285

[Localization of substance P- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the atrium of the snail Achatina fulica].  

Science.gov (United States)

By immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical methods localization of Substanse P (SP) and FMRFamide in the atrium of the snail Achatina fulica was investigated. Nerve fibers innervating the snail atrium contact tightly with the granular cells (GC) situated between muscle and endocardial cells, forming neuroendocrine units. Both neuromediators were found in the cells of the neuroendocrine units. By immunohistochemistry SP- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive material was revealed in the granules of the atrial GC. Elecrtonmicroscopical immunocytochemistry has confirmed the presence of SP- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive material in the granules of the GC and shown their presence in the neurosecretory granules of the nerve endings contacting both the atrial GC and cardiomyocytes. PMID:18683584

Shabel'nikov, S V; Bystrova, O A; Martynova, M G

2008-01-01

286

Isolation of digoxin-like immunoreactive factors from mammalian adrenal cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIF) are present in serum and tissues of humans and animals. To date, a tissue source for these factors has not been rigorously defined nor have these factors been isolated to identifiable homogeneity. In this study, we define the distribution of DLIF in mammalian tissues, demonstrate the adrenal cortex to be the principal source of this factor in bovine, and isolate DLIF to chromatographic homogeneity using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DLIF concentrations in tissue extracts from rats measured as follows: adrenal glands, 44.3; serum, 6.3; liver, 5.2; kidney, 1.2; heart, brain, or lungs, less than 1.4 ng of digoxin-equivalent per g of protein. Human tissues showed similar results. In dogs, the ratio of the DLIF concentration in lumbar vein serum to that in infrarenal inferior vena cava serum was 3.3 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- S.E., n = 4). Bovine adrenal cortex contained 7 times more DLIF per g of tissue than the adrenal medulla. 70 +/- 4% (n = 7) of the total bovine cortical DLIF activity (6,159 pg of digoxin-equivalent) applied to a reverse phase HPLC column eluted as one definitive fraction. 60% of the digoxin-like immunoreactivity extracted from bovine serum also co-eluted with DLIF from adrenal. None of the 14 steroid molecules or 7 cardiac glycoside congeners co-eluted with the major DLIF activity. Our data indicate that 947 pmol of DLIF is equivalent to 1 pmol of digoxin-equivalent immunoreactivity. Preliminary mass spectral analysis suggests that purified DLIF has a molecular mass of 780 daltons comprised of one 390-dalton aglycone component plus several sugar moieties. This study establishes a definitive link between DLIF in serum and the adrenal cortex as a source tissue. We also demonstrate a method for purifying DLIF to chromatographic homogeneity with an extraction capacity of 1.2 nmol of DLIF per g of adrenal cortex. PMID:1856201

Shaikh, I M; Lau, B W; Siegfried, B A; Valdes, R

1991-07-25

287

Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the seminal plasma and human semen parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-like substance has been detected in human seminal plasma by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a highly specific anti-LH-RH antiserum. The seminal samples - not only the plasma itself but also the sample extracted by an acid/alcohol method - showed satisfactory displacement curves in our RIA system. The relationship between fertility and the LH-RH values in the seminal plasma was studied by comparing the peptide levels with sperm concentration and motility. By these two parameters, 103 samples were divided into four groups. In the low-concentration groups (oligozoospermic patients), the hormonal concentrations differed significantly between those specimens demonstrating good and poor motility. These data suggest that this immunoreactive LH-RH may play a role in human spermatogenesis

288

Hypothalamic orexin A-immunoreactive neurons project to the rat dorsal medulla.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retrograde tract tracing combined with immunohistochemical techniques were used to identify the origin of orexin A-immunoreactive (OrA-ir) fibers in the rat medulla. One to 5 days following injection of the fluorescent dye Fluorogold into the dorsal medulla, labeled neurons were found in the lateral half of the lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular, perifornical, dorsomedial, dorsal and posterior hypothalamic nuclei. Labeling the same sections with OrA antisera revealed a concentration of OrA-ir neurons in the perifornical and dorsomedial regions of the tuberal hypothalamus. A maximum of 10% of Fluorogold-labeled hypothalamic neurons were OrA-ir and 15% of OrA-ir hypothalamic neurons contained Fluorogold. Our results demonstrate that a fraction of OrA-ir neurons in the tuberal hypothalamus project to areas of the medulla that are involved in autonomic functions. PMID:10505641

Harrison, T A; Chen, C T; Dun, N J; Chang, J K

1999-09-24

289

Presence of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide in follicular fluid, ovary and ovarian perfusates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ir-ANP) was measured in the follicular fluid of pig ovarian follicle, and rabbit ovarian homogenates and perfusates using a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serial dilution curves made with the extracts of follicular fluid, ovarian homogenates and perfusates using Sep-Pak C18 cartridges were parallel with the RIA standard curve. On gel filtration chromatography and reverse phase HPLC, all extracted materials showed high and low molecular weight forms of ir-ANP. The amount of ir-ANP in rabbit ovary was 40.7±0.39 pg/mg and that in follicular fluid of pig ovarian follicle was 18.88±2.49 pg/ml

290

Presence of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide in follicular fluid, ovary and ovarian perfusates  

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Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ir-ANP) was measured in the follicular fluid of pig ovarian follicle, and rabbit ovarian homogenates and perfusates using a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serial dilution curves made with the extracts of follicular fluid, ovarian homogenates and perfusates using Sep-Pak C18 cartridges were parallel with the RIA standard curve. On gel filtration chromatography and reverse phase HPLC, all extracted materials showed high and low molecular weight forms of ir-ANP. The amount of ir-ANP in rabbit ovary was 40.7{plus minus}0.39 pg/mg and that in follicular fluid of pig ovarian follicle was 18.88{plus minus}2.49 pg/ml.

Kim, Suhn Hee; Cho, Kyung Woo; Seul, Kyung Hwan; Ryu, Hoon; Koh, Gou Young (University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea))

1989-01-01

291

Cogeneration of retrogradely labeled corticocortical projection and GABA-immunoreactive local circuit neurons in cerebral cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The times of origin of cortico-cortical projection neurons and local circuit neurons in rat visual cortex were determined. The birthdates of the projection neurons were assessed using a technique that combined retrograde labeling with lectin-bound horseradish peroxidase and tritiated thymidine autoradiography. The birthdates of some cortical local circuit neurons were determined by combining GABA immunocytochemistry with [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Double-labeled neurons (those with retrograde or immunoreactive label in their perikarya and autoradiographic silver grains over their nuclei) were born during the third week of gestation. Projection and local circuit neurons born on gestational day 14, 15, 17, 19 or 20 were located primarily in layer VIb, VIa, V, III or II, respectively. Thus, both populations of neurons are generated by parallel and concurrent inside-to-outside patterns. PMID:3910166

Miller, M W

1985-12-01

292

[Distribution of GABA-immunoreactive elements in the reptile amygdaloid complex].  

Science.gov (United States)

GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-I) elements (neuronal somata and neuropile) are detected in turtle Emys orbicularis and lizard Ophysaurus spodus in all structures of ventral and dorsal parts of amygdaloid complex (AC) considered as phylogenetic more ancient and younger, respectively by means of the immunohistochemical method. Their maximal quantity in the ventral section of AC is found in the lateral region, lesser--in the ventral, central and medial regions. Besides in lizards a specialized laminar distribution of GABA-I elements in n. sphaericus is observed. GABA-I neurons are also detected in structures of dorsal part in turtles and lizards against the background of the immunopositive neuropile of a moderate density. It is supposed that GABA-ergic innervation of AC is liable to considerable variations in connection with taxonomic, ecological and other factors. PMID:1584309

Belekhova, M G; Chkheidze, D D; Veselkin, N P; Kenigfest, N B; Kratskin, I L; P'err, Zh; Reperan, Zh

1992-01-01

293

Digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) in human gonadotropin stimulated follicular fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) (DLIF) have been reported in various pathophysiological conditions associated with volume expansion and linked to the regulation of blood volume and pressure. We hypothesized that DLIF might be present in rapidly expanding gonadotropin-stimulated ovarian follicles. The mean total and free DLIF concentrations in the follicles (n = 9) studied were 4925 nmol/L and 1885 nmol/L, respectively. These concentrations were substantially higher than the plasma total and free DLIF levels in these women: 1216 nmol/L and 158 nmol/L, respectively (p less than 0.0001). The plasma DLIF levels in the gonadotropin-treated women were comparable to those in term pregnant women, which are known to be higher than those in non-pregnant women. The ovary thus may be a source of DLIF in the plasma of gonadotropin-treated women, and DLIF may have a role in ovarian follicular fluid homeostasis. PMID:2499591

Jakobi, P; Krivoy, N; Eibschitz, I; Ziskind, G; Barzilai, D; Paldi, E

1989-07-01

294

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factor is elevated in advanced chronic respiratory failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) is an endogenous substance with natriuretic and diuretic activity. Elevated plasma levels of DLIF are found in various clinical states characterized by water and sodium retention. Chronic respiratory failure, particularly of an advanced stage, also is frequently associated with water and sodium retention. In order to determine whether elevated plasma levels of DLIF are present in chronic respiratory failure, we measured plasma DLIF levels in seven patients (four with COPD [two of whom had associated sleep apnea disturbance] and three with kyphoscoliosis) suffering from advanced chronic respiratory failure with severe hypoxemia and hypercapnia. We found that in these patients plasma levels of DLIF were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects. We conclude that patients with advanced chronic respiratory failure respond with increased levels of DLIF. This may represent an attempt at homeostasis of water and sodium metabolism which is frequently deranged in this clinical condition. PMID:1309496

Varsano, S; Shilo, L; Bruderman, I; Dolev, S; Shenkman, L

1992-01-01

295

FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stouti (Myxinoidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was investigated in the brain of a myxinoid, the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stouti, by means of immunocytochemistry. In the forebrain, labelled cell bodies occurred in the infundibular nucleus of the hypothalamus and some closely adjacent nuclei. Labelled fibers formed a diffuse network in the forebrain, but there was no evidence for the presence of intracerebral ganglionic cells of the terminal nerve or a central projection of the terminal nerve. In the hindbrain, a group of labelled cells was found in the trigeminal sensory nucleus. A distinct terminal arborization occurred in the ventrally adjacent nucleus A of Kusunoki and around the nuclei of the branchial motor column. These findings suggest that FMRFamide may play a role in the central control of branchiomotor activity. PMID:1486598

Wicht, H; Northcutt, R G

1992-12-01

296

Insulin-like immunoreactivity in the brain of two hagfishes, Eptatretus stouti and Myxine glutinosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunocytochemical investigation of the brains of hagfish Myxine glutinosa and Eptatretus stouti with antisera raised against salmon insulin revealed the presence of groups of immunoreactive cells discretely localized in the mid- and hindbrain of both species. Subpopulations of these cells reacted weakly with antisera against Myxine islet insulin and equivocally with anti-bovine insulin serum. Extracts prepared from Myxine brain were subject to gel filtration and were found by radioimmunoassay to contain two forms of insulin-like material, one of large molecular weight (less than 66 kDa) and another smaller molecule (6 kDa). The relationship of these molecules to the insulin-related growth factor family of neurohormonal peptides is discussed and their potential function assessed in terms of a possible homology with Muller-type cells and involvement in axonal regeneration phenomena. PMID:2684739

Thorndyke, M C; Purvis, D; Plisetskaya, E M

1989-12-01

297

Tau immunoreactivity detected in human plasma, but no obvious increase in dementia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tau proteins are central to the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease and tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid are elevated in affected individuals. In this study, we investigated the presence of tau in plasma from subjects with Alzheimer's disease (n = 16), frontotemporal dementia (n = 10), vascular dementia (n = 16) and from healthy controls (n = 15). By using an ELISA with monoclonal tau antibodies, tau immunoreactivity was detected in approximately 20% of the subjects. However, no difference between the disease and control groups was seen. After gel filtration of tau immunopositive plasma, the peak reactivity was found in the 160-kD fraction, indicating the source to be tau-like molecules of high-molecular-weight or polymers of low-molecular-weight tau isoforms. We conclude that measurements of tau in plasma cannot be utilized diagnostically for Alzheimer's disease or for the other dementias investigated. Copyrightz1999S.KargerAG,Basel

Ingelson, M; Blomberg, M

1999-01-01

298

Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor is increased in ovine model of endotoxemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A bolus of Escherichia coli endotoxin (1.5 ?g/kg) was administered to chronically instrumented sheep. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) was measured in extracted plasma by radioimmunoassay. There was a thirteenfold increase in IR-ANF 2 h after endotoxin administration, and IR-ANF levels remained significantly elevated during the first 6 h. A marked diuresis and natriuresis occurred between 4 and 6 h. ANF not only affects renal function but is also associated with decreased cardiac output, increased peripheral resistance (in sheep), and decreased capillary absorption (in rats). These renal and hemodynamic changes are also characteristic of the early (first 6 h) response to endotoxin. Therefore ANF should be considered as a potential mediator of renal and hemodynamic changes induced by sepsis. It is difficult to determine if ANF elevation is an epiphenomenon or a causative factor, because no antagonist of ANF is currently available

299

Abnormal dermatoglyphics in absence of thumb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermatoglyphics of six patients with absence of thumb are described. Two specific abnormal configurations were seen in the palmar area. In the first, there was no axial triradius and the course of the ridges in the proximal part of the palm was transversal. In the second, a peculiar distal loop on the radial border was present with a palmar triradius. These abnormal patterns are probably due to the absence of a thenar volar pad or the presence of an abnormal one when the ridges are formed. PMID:7170953

Borbolla, L

1982-01-01

300

Chromosome abnormalities and season of birth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A study of seasonality has been made of birth of individuals with chromosome abnormalities registered in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register before January 1, 1981. Significant seasonal variation in birth was found for males with Klinefelter's syndrome born before 1946, but not for those born later, and not for any other sex chromosome abnormality. No significant monthly variation was found for any autosomal abnormality, except a significant increase in the frequency of conceptions for Down's syndrome during the first 4 months of the year, using a chi square with 2 degrees of freedom.

Videbech, P; Nielsen, J

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

Yiangou Yiangos

2010-06-01

302

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features presenting without GFAP immunoreactivity: implications for differential diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon, usually low-grade, astrocytic tumor. Characteristic histological features include tumor cell pleomorphism and lipidization of tumor cells. Albeit prognosis in PXA is generally good, cases with histological signs of anaplasia have been observed. In these cases, the differential diagnosis needs to exclude other malignancies, for example, glioblastoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Immunocytochemical detection of GFAP may support exclusion of non-glial neoplasms resembling PXA. However, GFAP expression in PXA may be faint or focal, although complete lack of GFAP has not been described. A 43-year-old woman was operated on for a left occipital parasagital tumor attached to the dura. Histopathology showed a pleomorphic tumor with moderate mitotic activity and necrosis, lack of GFAP immunoreactivity and ultrastructural detection of premelanosome-like structures. These features led to the tentative diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma, and the patient was irradiated. Three years later she had local tumor recurrence and underwent another operation. The recurrent tumor showed similar plain histology as the first specimen. In contrast, anti-GFAP immunoreactivity was now detectable in pleomorphic tumor cells. Anti-GFAP staining of the first biopsy was repeated using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in combination with prolonged tissue pretreatment. Focal GFAP staining of tumor cells was now achieved. We conclude that non-standard GFAP staining protocols may enhance sensitivity and thus lead to detection of a low level of GFAP expression in tumor specimens, in which PXA is considered in the differential diagnosis. This may avoid misleading diagnostic considerations that impact on postoperative patient management. PMID:16193842

Gelpi, Ellen; Popovic, Mara; Preusser, Matthias; Budka, Herbert; Hainfellner, Johannes

2005-09-01

303

Immunoreactivity of ATF-2 and Fra-2 in human dental follicle.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is asserted that epithelial rests in dental follicle (DF existing around the impacted teeth in adults are effective in cyst formation. In this study, it is intended for determining and comparing the immunoreactivity (IR ratio of ATF-2 and Fra-2 proteins, the members of Activator Protein-1 (AP-1 family which regulates important cellular activities such as growth, proliferation and differentiation, in DF epithelial cells (EC and connective tissue cells (CC. In this study, ATF-2 and Fra-2 immunoreactivity (ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR in EC and CC in DF tissues obtained from 30 patients were analyzed by using immunohistochemical method. Ratios of ATF-2-IR positive cells were found 17.36+/-9.55% in EC, 27.27+/-14.86% in CC and ratios of Fra-2-IR positive cells were found 20.04+/-11.47% in EC, 16.71+/-9.05% in CC. In the statistically comparison performed; significant differences were found between EC and CC in terms of both ATF-2-IR (p<0.001 and Fra-2-IR (p<0.05. In EC, no significant difference was found between ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR (p>0.05, whereas significant difference was found between ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR in CC (p<0.001. According to these data, it can be suggested that Fra-2 protein may be more effective than ATF-2 protein in cyst formation originated from EC of DF. Besides, finding that ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR are different in CC although similar in EC shows that AP-1 members can be expressed at different ratios in same tissues.

Nurullah Keklikoglu

2010-08-01

304

Evidence for thyrotropin receptor immunoreactivity in pretibial connective tissue from patients with thyroid-associated dermopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pretibial myxedema (PTM), mainly characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, is an extrathyroidal manifestation of autoimmune Graves' disease (GD), almost always associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) has been proposed as the common target antigen in GD, GO and PTM, with evidence for receptor transcripts and/or protein in these locations. The aim of this study has been to investigate whether receptor protein is present in the pretibial tissues. Skin biopsies were obtained from two patients with PTM and two normal subjects without thyroid disease. A portion of each sample was fixed to produce semi-thin sections for Toluidine Blue or Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The remainder was snap frozen to generate cryostat sections for immunohistochemical analysis using three monoclonal antibodies against TSH-R. In the skin from the two patients suffering from PTM, the dermis was infiltrated by inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, B cells, macrophages, mast cells) and adipocytes. The collagen fibers were dissociated by edema and by the accumulation of a PAS-positive material. Immunodetection of TSH-R produced positive staining on cells localized in the dermis, beneath the epidermis or close to the hypodermis. These cells were elongated and resembled fibroblasts. No immunoreactivity was observed in the dermis from control patients without thyroid disease. In conclusion, we have evidence for TSH-R immunoreactivity in the pretibium of patients with GD, GO and PTM. Further studies are needed to unambiguously identify the positive cells and determine whether the reactivity is due to the receptor itself or to a cross-reacting protein. PMID:11751064

Daumerie, C; Ludgate, M; Costagliola, S; Many, M C

2002-01-01

305

Effects of monosodium glutamate treatment on calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in hippocampus of postnatal rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calretinin (CR) is a protein, which is present in GABAergic neurons and belongs to the calcium-binding proteins family. It may reduce the excitotoxicity phenomenon through its Ca2+ buffering properties. This phenomenon is due to the increase of calcium ions levels caused by the excess of glutamate - the main excitatory neurotransmitter. The aim of the study was to investigate alterations of calretinin-immunoreactivity in neurons of hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus with hilus in 10 day-old rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG). Ten 7 day-old Wistar rats were used. The MSG-group consisted of 5 MSG-treated rats at a dose of 4 g/kg b.w. for 3 consecutive days and the second group consisted of 5 control animals. After euthanasia the brains containing hippocampus were dissected and embedded in paraffin blocks. The immunohistochemical peroxidase-antiperoxydase reaction was performed on tissue sections. The morphometric analyses of CR-immunopositive neurons: density, percentage ratio to the density of all cells and an assessement of digital immunostaining intensity were performed. The distribution of the CR-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus was irregular. In the MSG-group there were single cells, which were more intensly stained than in control animals. Some of cells contained processes of different length. The density of CR-immunopositive cells and their percentage ratio to the density of all cells did not change significantly after MSG treatment. However, there was a statistically significant increase in the staining intensity of CR-immunopositive cells. The obtained : results indicate that CR-positive cells in P7-P10 rats are only slightly affected by MSG in CA1 region and dentate gyrus with hilus of the hippocampus. PMID:25401763

Rycerz, Karol; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Jaworska-Adamu, Jadwiga; Krawczyk-Marc, Izabela

2014-11-17

306

Plasma endothelin-1 immunoreactivity in normal dogs and dogs with acquired heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sought to measure plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations in normal dogs and to compare them with those measured in dogs with acquired heart disease with or without pulmonary edema. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was validated and used to measure ET-1 immunoreactivity in plasma samples obtained from 32 normal dogs and 46 dogs with either dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 27) or degenerative valvular disease (CDVD, n = 19) with (n = 30) or without (n = 16) overt congestive heart failure (CHF). Plasma ET-1 concentrations (geometric mean, 95% confidence interval of geometric mean) were 1.17 (1.04-1.32) fmol/mL in the 32 normal control dogs, 1.25 (0.981-1.60) fmol/mL in 16 dogs with DCM (n = 9) or CDVD (n = 7) without CHF, and 2.51 (2.10-3.01) fmol/mL in 30 dogs with DCM (n = 18) and CDVD (n = 12) with CHE Plasma immunoreactivity of ET-1 was significantly higher in dogs with CHF in comparison with normal dogs (P dogs with heart disease without CHF (P dogs and dogs with heart disease but without CHF (P > .05). Significant correlations were between plasma ET-I concentrations and left atrial:aortic ratio (P < .0001, r2 = .39), left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole indexed to aortic diameter (P < .0001, r2 = .30) or body surface area (BSA) (P = .0071, r2 = .10), and left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole indexed to aortic diameter (P = .0003, r- = .17) or BSA (P = .0008, r2 = .15). PMID:15638267

Prosek, Robert; Sisson, D David; Oyama, Mark A; Biondo, Alexander W; Solter, Philip F

2004-01-01

307

Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity  

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Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M{sub 1}dG adducts. No differences in M{sub 1}dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX). This reduction in {gamma}H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Schults, Marten A.; Nagle, Peter W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Rensen, Sander S. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Godschalk, Roger W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco [Cancer Risk Factor Branch, ISPO Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Greve, Jan W. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Driessen, Ann [Department of Pathology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Verdam, Froukje J.; Buurman, Wim A. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik J. van [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K., E-mail: r.k.chiu@med.umcg.nl [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

2012-08-01

308

Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n=17) or steatosis alone (n=18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M(1)dG adducts. No differences in M(1)dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX). This reduction in ?H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:22100520

Schults, Marten A; Nagle, Peter W; Rensen, Sander S; Godschalk, Roger W; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco; Claessen, Sandra M; Greve, Jan W; Driessen, Ann; Verdam, Froukje J; Buurman, Wim A; van Schooten, Frederik J; Chiu, Roland K

2012-08-01

309

Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M1dG adducts. No differences in M1dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX). This reduction in ?H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreon in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

310

Identification of initially appearing glycine-immunoreactive neurons in the embryonic zebrafish brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Here, we report the initial development of glycine-immunoreactive (Gly-ir) neurons and fibers in zebrafish. The earliest Gly-ir cells were found in the hindbrain and rostral spinal cord by 20 h post-fertilization (hpf). Gly-ir cells in rhombomeres 5 and 6 that also expressed glycine transporter 2 (glyt2) mRNA were highly stereotyped; they were bilaterally located and their axons ran across the midline and gradually turned caudally, joining the medial longitudinal fascicles in the spinal cord by 24 hpf. Gly-ir neurons in rhombomere 5 were uniquely identified, since there was one per hemisegment, whereas the number of Gly-ir neurons in rhombomere 6 were variable from one to three per hemisegment. Labeling of these neurons by single-cell electroporation and tracing them until the larval stage revealed that they became MiD2cm and MiD3cm, respectively. The retrograde labeling of reticulo-spinal neurons in Tg(glyt2:gfp) larva, which express GFP in Gly-ir cells, and a genetic mosaic analysis with glyt2:gfp DNA construct also supported this notion. Gly-ir cells were also distributed widely in the anterior brain by 27 hpf, whereas glyt2 was hardly expressed. Double staining with anti-glycine and anti-GABA antibodies demonstrated distinct distributions of Gly-ir and GABA-ir cells, as well as the presence of doubly immunoreactive cells in the brain and placodes. These results provide evidence of identifiable glycinergic (Gly-ir/glyt2-positive) neurons in vertebrate embryos, and they can be used in further studies of the neurons' development and function at the single-cell level. PMID:24318965

Moly, Pricila Khan; Ikenaga, Takanori; Kamihagi, Chihiro; Islam, A F M Tariqul; Hatta, Kohei

2014-06-01

311

Development of histamine-immunoreactivity in the Central nervous system of the two locust species Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Locusts are attractive model preparations for cellular investigations of neurodevelopment. In this study, we investigate the immunocytochemical localization of histamine in the developing ventral nerve cord of two locust species, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. Histamine is the fast neurotransmitter of photoreceptor neurons in the compound eye of insects, but it is also synthesized in interneurons of the central nervous system. In the locust ventral nerve cord, the pattern of histamine-immunoreactive neurons follows a relatively simple bauplan. The histaminergic system comprises a set of single, ascending projection neurons that are segmentally arranged in almost every neuromere. The neurons send out their axons anteriorly, forming branches and varicosities throughout the adjacent ganglia. In the suboesophageal ganglion, the cell bodies lie in a posteriolateral position. The prothoracic ganglion lacks histaminergic neurons. In the posterior ganglia of the ventral nerve cord, the somata of the histaminergic neurons are ventromedially positioned. Histamine-immunoreactivity starts around 50% of embryonic development in interneurons of the brain. Subsequently, the neurons of the more posterior ganglia of the ventral nerve cord become immunoreactive. From 60% embryonic development, the pattern of soma staining in the nerve cord appears mature. Around 65% of embryonic development, the photoreceptor cells show histamine-immunoreactivity. The histaminergic innervation of the neuropile develops from the central branches toward the periphery of the ganglia and is completed right before hatching. PMID:21484940

Pätschke, Arne; Bicker, Gerd

2011-10-01

312

Profiling of human acquired immunity against the salivary proteins of Phlebotomus papatasi reveals clusters of differential immunoreactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies are among the primary vectors of Leishmania major parasites from Morocco to the Indian subcontinent and from southern Europe to central and eastern Africa. Antibody-based immunity to sand fly salivary gland proteins in human populations remains a complex contextual problem that is not yet fully understood. We profiled the immunoreactivities of plasma antibodies to sand fly salivary gland sonicates (SGSs) from 229 human blood donors residing in different regions of sand fly endemicity throughout Jordan and Egypt as well as 69 US military personnel, who were differentially exposed to P. papatasi bites and L. major infections in Iraq. Compared with plasma from control region donors, antibodies were significantly immunoreactive to five salivary proteins (12, 26, 30, 38, and 44 kDa) among Jordanian and Egyptian donors, with immunoglobulin G4 being the dominant anti-SGS isotype. US personnel were significantly immunoreactive to only two salivary proteins (38 and 14 kDa). Using k-means clustering, donors were segregated into four clusters distinguished by unique immunoreactivity profiles to varying combinations of the significantly immunogenic salivary proteins. SGS-induced cellular proliferation was diminished among donors residing in sand fly-endemic regions. These data provide a clearer picture of human immune responses to sand fly vector salivary constituents. PMID:24615125

Geraci, Nicholas S; Mukbel, Rami M; Kemp, Michael T; Wadsworth, Mariha N; Lesho, Emil; Stayback, Gwen M; Champion, Matthew M; Bernard, Megan A; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Fawaz, Emadeldin Y; El-Hossary, Shabaan S; Wortmann, Glenn; Hoel, David F; McDowell, Mary Ann

2014-05-01

313

Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury  

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Full Text Available Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

Partata W.A.

2003-01-01

314

Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of [...] the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

W.A., Partata; A.M.R., Krepsky; L.L., Xavier; M., Marques; M., Achaval.

2003-04-01

315

Cholecystokinin-, enkephalin-, and substance P-like immunoreactivity in the dentate area, hippocampus, and subiculum of the domestic pig.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of cholecystokinin-like, enkephalin-like, and substance P-like immunoreactivities is described in the dentate area, hippocampus, and subiculum of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) as a baseline for future experimental studies. The distributions in the pig are compared with previous observations in other species. Cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were intensely stained and present in large numbers in all subfields studied. Cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive terminals appeared as stained puncta, whereas fibers were only rarely encountered. The puncta were mainly seen in the dentate molecular layer and dentate granule cell layer, the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal regio inferior, stratum moleculare of the hippocampal regio superior, and in the subiculum. Enkephalin-like immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were faintly stained and generally present in very small numbers, except for some pyramidal cells in the subicular cell layer. Enkephalin-like immunoreactive fibers were few in number, whereas stained puncta appeared with variable densities. Puncta of particularly high densities were found in the dentate molecular layer, whereas they appeared of moderate density in the dentate hilus, stratum moleculare of the hippocampal regio superior, and in the subiculum. Substance P-like immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were few and very faintly stained. They primarily occurred in the dentate hilus, stratum oriens of the hippocampus, and in the subicular cell layer. Stained fibers were few in number, whereas stained puncta were present in abundant numbers corresponding to the mossy fiber projection in the dentate hilus and the layer of mossy fibers of the hippocampal regio inferior, and in moderate numbers in stratum moleculare of the hippocampal regio superior and in the subiculum. For all three neuropeptides there were consistent and very characteristic variations in the distribution of immunoreactivity along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus. When viewed in a comparative perspective the distribution of enkephalin-like and substance P-like terminals in the domestic pig displayed striking differences from the basic pattern observed in other species. This contrasted with the distribution of cholecystokinin-like neurons and terminals, which resembled more closely these species. PMID:7685777

Holm, I E; Geneser, F A; Zimmer, J

1993-05-15

316

Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus  

Science.gov (United States)

... Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Shoulder Dystocia Multiple Births Prolapsed Umbilical Cord Nuchal Cord Problems ... Back to Top Previous: Breathing Problems Next: Shoulder Dystocia Audio Figures Photographs Pronunciations Sidebar Tables Videos Copyright © ...

317

Model for quantifying absorption through abnormal skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques are available for quantitatively studying factors governing absorption through normal skin (in vivo and in vitro) but relatively little is known about the permeability of abnormal skin. We have designed and evaluated an in vivo model for quantifying absorption through abnormal skin. Absorption of [3H]mannitol and [14C]octyl benzoate was studied through altered rat skin. [3H]Mannitol penetrated normal skin much more slowly than did [14C]octyl benzoate. Abnormal skin was more permeable to [3H]mannitol and [14C]octyl benzoate, absorption was greater than 100X and greater than 2X greater, respectively, than normal. The in vivo model has been successfully used to quantify absorption through abnormal skin

318

Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

319

Abnormal uterine bleeding: the role of ultrasound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormal uterine bleeding is an important clinical concern and accounts for much medical intervention. This article presents an ultrasound-based approach to help exclude endometrial carcinoma and identify the source of bleeding for better clinical management. Saline infusion sonohysterography can help to triage patients to (1) no anatomic pathology, (2) globally thickened anatomic pathology that may be evaluated with blind endometrial sampling, or (3) focal abnormalities that must be evaluated under direct vision. PMID:17147992

Goldstein, Steven R

2006-11-01

320

Abnormalities of gut vessels in Turner's syndrome.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a 57-year-old patient with Turner's syndrome, iron deficiency anaemia and intestinal vascular abnormalities. Colonoscopy revealed 2 widely dilated, tortuous veins in the terminal ileum and several smaller ectatic veins and haemangioma-like malformations throughout the colon. Laparotomy for herniotomy showed only minimal vascular abnormalities of the serosal surface. Patients with Turner's syndrome and anaemia should be checked for these lesions by endoscopy, and conversely, in pat...

Reinhart, W. H.; Mordasini, C.; Sta?ubli, M.; Scheurer, U.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common problem for the patients and the gynecologists. It adversely effects on the quality of life and psychology of women. It is of special concern in developing country as it adds to the causes of anemia. Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is not complete without tissue diagnosis especially in perimenopausal and post-menopausal women. Histological characteristics of endometrial biopsy material as assessed by light mic...

Anupamasuresh Y; Yv, Suresh; Prachi Jain

2014-01-01

322

Uninformed abnormal event detection on audio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although abnormal events in an audio stream are by their nature hard to define, a continuous monitoring of audio surveillance data can detect crucial information in, e.g., train engines that might require critical maintenance. Our method detects abnormal events without being trained on a certain situation, by building a model of the expected sound environment given a continuously adapting history of past audio material within a limited time interval. We evaluate the precision of this method o...

Bardeli, Rolf; Stein, Daniel

2012-01-01

323

Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

324

Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

2014-05-15

325

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescent Girls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abnormal menstrual bleeding is one of the most common reasons of gynecologic consultation in adolescent girls. During the first two years after menarche. Most of cycles are anovulatory. Despite this, they are somewhat regular with a range of approximately 21-40 days. Cycles longer than 42 days or shorter than 21 days and bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days particularly 2 years after menarche are considered abnormal. Since the variability in cycle length is greater in adolescence than in ad...

Eslamian, L.

2000-01-01

326

Visual field abnormalities in multiple sclerosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual fields were examined with a tangent screen in 54 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or optic neuritis (ON). Visual fields were abnormal in all patients with definite MS, 94% with probable MS and 81% with possible MS. Three-quarters of the MS patients with no history of visual symptoms had abnormal fields. The commonest defect found was an arcuate scotoma. As a diagnostic test of visual pathway involvement in MS, tangent screen examination compares favourably with more sophisticated ...

Patterson, V. H.; Heron, J. R.

1980-01-01

327

Determination of the immunoreactive fraction of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies by linear extrapolation to binding at infinite antigen excess  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conjugates of monoclonal antibodies with radioactive isotopes, drugs or toxins have great potential for specific radiolocalization and inactivation of tumor cells. Because the conjugation procedure may adversely alter the antibody, quality control procedures must be applied to determine important characteristics of the conjugated antibody. One such property is how much of the conjugated antibody is able to bind to the relevant antigen. Based on theoretical considerations, we have developed a binding assay for radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in which the fraction of immunoreactive antibody is determined by linear extrapolation to conditions representing infinite antigen excess. This ensures that the true value of the immunoreactive fraction is obtained, as opposed to the apparent immunoreactive fraction determined under conditions of limited antigen excess. The described assay is based on a double-inverse plot of the binding data which may be considered a modification of the Lineweaver-Burk plot. We established the method using 125I- and 111In-labeling of the 2 monoclonal antibodies T101 and 9.2.27 which currently are undergoing radioimaging trials at the National Cancer Institute. For properly performed conjugation procedures, immunoreactive fractions of about 0.9 were obtained, but a prolonged chloramine-T reaction for 125I-labeling resulted in an immunoreactive fraction of only 0.6. Due to its principle of determining binding at i its principle of determining binding at infinite antigen excess, the present method is quite insensitive to variation in the actual amounts of cells and antibody used, as well as the incubation time. (Auth.)

328

Association of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) immunoreactivity with specific histopathologic lesions in subacute and chronic experimental radiation enteropathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiated intestine consistently exhibits increased immunoreactivity of transforming growth factor ?-1 (TGF-?1). It is not known whether this increase occurs secondary to mucosal barrier disruption (consequential injury) or to injury in late-responding tissue compartments (primary radiation enteropathy). This study therefore assessed the association between TGF-? immunoreactivity and specific consequential and primary histopathologic alterations. A small bowel loop was fixed inside the scrotum in male rats and subsequently exposed to either 18 daily fractions of 2.8 Gy or nine daily fractions of 5.6 Gy orthovoltage X-radiation. Radiation-induced intestinal complications were recorded and groups of animals were euthanized 2 and 26 weeks post-irradiation. Radiation injury was assessed with a histopathologic radiation injury score (RIS). Total TGF-? was detected immunohistochemically and measured with interactive computerized image analysis. The image analysis technique yielded highly reproducible quantitation data. The 2.8-Gy group maintained mucosal integrity and had fewer intestinal complications, lower RIS and lower TGF-? levels than the 5.6-Gy group. There was highly significant correlation between TGF-? immunoreactivity and radiation injury at both observation times (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001). At 2 weeks, TGF-? immunoreactivity correlated with mucosal ulceration (P = 0.002), epithelial atypia (P = 0.005), and serosal thickening (P = 0.0004). At 26 weeks, TGening (P = 0.0004). At 26 weeks, TGF-? levels correlated significantly with six of seven histopathologic parameters, most strikingly with vascular sclerosis (P = 0.0003). We conclude that mucosal barrier breakdown is closely associated with increased TGF-? immunoreactivity in consequential radiation enteropathy. The highly significant correlation between TGF-? expression levels and alterations in late-responding tissue compartments also suggest a role for TGF-? in primary radiation enteropathy

329

Neuronal HIF-1 alpha protein and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in functionally related motor areas following a focal M1 infarct.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical and experimental data support a role for the intact cortex in recovery of function after stroke, particularly ipsilesional areas interconnected to the infarct. There is, however, little understanding of molecular events in the intact cortex, as most studies focus on the infarct and peri-infarct regions. This study investigated neuronal immunoreactivity for hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in remote cortical areas 3 days after a focal ischemic infarct, as both HIF-1alpha and VEGFR-2 have been implicated in peri-infarct neuroprotection. For this study, intracortical microstimulation techniques defined primary motor (M1) and premotor areas in squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri). An infarct was induced in the M1 hand representation, and immunohistochemical techniques identified neurons, HIF-1alpha and VEGFR-2. Stereologic techniques quantified the total neuronal populations and the neurons immunoreactive for HIF-1alpha or VEGFR-2. The results indicate that HIF-1alpha upregulation is confined to the infarct and peri-infarct regions. Increases in VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity occurred; however, in two remote regions: the ventral premotor hand representation and the M1 hindlimb representation. Neurons in these representations were previously shown to undergo significant increases in VEGF protein immunoreactivity, and comparison of the two data sets showed a significant correlation between levels of VEGF and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity. Thus, while remote areas undergo a molecular response to the infarct, we hypothesize that there is a delay in the initiation of the response, which ultimately may increase the 'window of opportunity' for neuroprotective interventions in the intact cortex. PMID:17895908

Stowe, Ann M; Plautz, Erik J; Nguyen, Phuong; Frost, Shawn B; Eisner-Janowicz, Ines; Barbay, Scott; Dancause, Numa; Sensarma, Anirban; Taylor, Michael D; Zoubina, Elena V; Nudo, Randolph J

2008-03-01

330

Immunoreactivity of a new generation of horse F(ab')2 preparations against European viper venoms and the tetanus toxin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immunoreactivity of the current and the new more purified, pasteurized preparations of horse F(ab')2 against the tetanus toxin and Vipera aspis venom was investigated with a biosensor based on technology using the optical phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance. Immunoreactivity data were compared with seroneutralization titres to investigate immunoreactivity-immunoprotection efficacy relationships. The association-dissociation rate and affinity constants of the current and the new tetanus toxin-specific F(ab')2 preparations were similar, at about 10(4) M-1 sec-1, 10(-4) sec-1 and 10(8) M-1, respectively. Similar values were found using a solid immunoradiometric assay. To assess the immunoreactivity of V. aspis venom-specific horse F(ab')2, the mol. wt and percentage of the antigenic fractions of V. aspis venom were determined. Western blotting of electrophoresis gels showed four antigenic fractions of V. aspis venom (mol. wts 17,500, 28,500, 32,000 and 60,000), which represented 6, 3.4, 17.7 and 5% of total venom, respectively. Association and dissociation rate constants were in the same range as those of the tetanus toxin-F(ab')2 interactions for each of the four antigenic fractions. Seroneutralization of both tetanus toxin and V. aspis by the corresponding specific F(ab')2 showed that the LD50 mg-1 protein was 1.76-fold and 1.51-fold higher with the new than with the current preparations, respectively. These improvements in efficacy were in close agreement with the higher immunoreactive fraction ratios, which were 2-fold and 1.8-fold higher with the new preparations. These results demonstrate that the removal of non-IgGT immunoglobulins and the pasteurization treatment have no overall influence on F(ab')2 affinity but improve the specific activity of these new antitoxin horse F(ab')2. PMID:9080596

Pépin-Covatta, S; Lutsch, C; Grandgeorge, M; Scherrmann, J M

1997-03-01

331

Chromosome abnormalities in newborn children. Physical aspects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A chromosome examination was made on 11,148 consecutively live-born children: 93 had a chromosome abnormality and 192 a chromosome variant. The physical aspects of the children with chromosome abnormalities and variants were compared with those of the children with normal karyotypes. Children with aneuploid or unbalanced chromosome abnormalities were more immature or not fully developed at birth than those with normal karyotypes. Birth weight was lower in children with all types of chromosome abnormalities, including reciprocal translocations and chromosome variants. The low birth weight in children with chromosome variants was mainly due to the low birth weight of children with G variants. These children were also subject to a higher frequency of special delivery treatment. Heart disorders were increased in children with aneuploid or unbalanced chromosome abnormalities. The frequency of foetal erythroblastosis was increased in children with short Y as well as in children with acentric fragments. Neonatal mortality was higher in children with aneuploid or unbalanced chromosome abnormalities than in children with normal karyotypes.

Nielsen, J; Hansen, K B

1981-01-01

332

c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in the CNS of the adult rat: basal and transynaptically induced expression of an immediate-early gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

An immunocytochemical study of dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord and medulla oblongata was performed with antisera against the c-jun proto-oncogene encoded protein. The c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was restricted to the cell nucleus. In the CNS of untreated rats a basal c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was present in the nuclei of two types of neurons: motor and autonomic. Labelled nuclei could be seen in many motoneurons of the ventral horn of the entire length of spinal cord and the lower medulla oblongata, as well as in the area of the nucleus hypoglossus, the dorsal motor nucleus of nucleus vagus, nucleus ambiguus, nucleus facialis, nucleus abducens and motor nucleus of nucleus trigeminus. Additionally, labelled nuclei were found in the preganglionic sympathetic and preganglionic parasympathetic cells of the nucleus intermediolateralis and nucleus intercalatus in the spinal cord. In the medulla oblongata we found a cluster of cells with c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in an area between the dorsomedial part of the oral nucleus spinalis trigeminalis and the lateral border of the knee of facial nerve. Additionally, a second cluster of c-JUN-like immunoreactivity cells was visible between the ventromedial part of the oral nucleus spinalis trigeminalis and the lateral border of the rostral nucleus facialis. Examination of the characteristics of all cell groups with a basal c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and lower brainstem revealed an overlapping distribution with cholinergic cell groups. Basal c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was also seen in the dorsal root ganglion cells. We examined the factors which can effect the expression of the c-JUN protein. Maximal expression of c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was observed after electrical stimulation of primary afferents. Stimulation of sciatic nerve at a strength sufficient to recruit A delta- and C-fibres produced c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in many nuclei of the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was first detectable at 30 min following the end of stimulation, reached a maximum after 1 h, remained unchanged for another 1 h and declined to the basal level after 16 h. The distribution of c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in the lumbar cord coincided with the region of termination of sciatic nociceptive afferents. Contralateral c-JUN-like immunoreactivity appeared after 4 h. After noxious mechanical stimulation of the plantar hindpaw c-JUN-like immunoreactivity occurred in the spinal area of termination of nociceptive afferents of the tibial nerve. Noxious stimulation did not provoke additional c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1908067

Herdegen, T; Leah, J D; Manisali, A; Bravo, R; Zimmermann, M

1991-01-01

333

Enrichment of glutamate-like immunoreactivity in the retinotectal terminals of the viper Vipera aspis: an electron microscope quantitative immunogold study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A post-embedding immunogold study was carried out to estimate the immunoreactivity to glutamate in retinal terminals, P axon terminals and dendrites containing synaptic vesicles in the superficial layers of the optic tectum of Vipera. Retinal terminals, identified following either intraocular injection of tritiated proline, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or short-term survivals after retinal ablation, were observed to be highly glutamate-immunoreactive. A detailed quantitative analysis showed that about 50% of glutamate immunoreactivity was localized over the synaptic vesicles, 35.8% over mitochondria and 14.2% over the axoplasmic matrix. The close association of immunoreactivity with the synaptic vesicles could indicate that Vipera retino-tectal terminals may use glutamate as their neurotransmitter. P axon terminals and dendrites containing synaptic vesicles, strongly gamma-aminobutyric (GABA)-immunoreactive, were shown to be also moderately glutamate-immunoreactive, but two to three times less than retinal terminals. Moreover, in P axon terminals, the glutamate immunoreactivity was denser over mitochondria than over synaptic vesicles, possibly reflecting the 'metabolic' pool of glutamate, which serves as a precursor in the formation of GABA. PMID:9243346

Repérant, J; Rio, J P; Ward, R; Wasowicz, M; Miceli, D; Medina, M; Pierre, J

1997-05-01

334

Distribution of GABA immunoreactivity in the retino-recipient layer of the viper optic tectum. A light and electron microscope quantitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of GABA-immunoreactivity was investigated in the principal retino-recipient layer of the optic tectum in the snake Vipera aspis. This layer, the stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale, contained an important proportion (approximately 50%) of small GABA-immunoreactive interneurons, characterized by a voluminous invaginated nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm poor in organelles and occasionally showing pleiomorphic synaptic vesicles, which could also be observed in some of the dendrites that contained synaptic vesicles. In the neuropile, the GABA-immunoreactive profiles containing synaptic vesicles could be subdivided into dendrites containing synaptic vesicles and axon terminals with pleiomorphic synaptic vesicles. The dendrites containing synaptic vesicles (23.4% of all profiles containing synaptic vesicles) were postsynaptic either to optic terminals (39.2%), GABA-immunoreactive axon terminals with pleiomorphic synaptic vesicles (48.2%) or to immunonegative (S1) boutons with round synaptic vesicles (12.6%). These dendrites were presynaptic to GABA-immunoreactive (18%) neurons or immunonegative (82%) neurons. The axon terminals with pleiomorphic synaptic vesicles, which represented 47.4% of all profiles, were predominantly (99%) GABA-immunoreactive and four types could be distinguished according to cytological criteria. These axon terminals made synaptic contacts for the most part (78%) with immunonegative profiles, and more rarely (22%) with immunoreactive neurons. These data are compared to those previously obtained in the homologous structure of other vertebrate species, birds and mammals in particular. PMID:7771688

Rio, J P; Repérant, J; Herbin, M; Miceli, D

1995-03-01

335

Deglycosylated products of endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factor in mammalian tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) from adrenal cortex is an endogenous molecule with structural features remarkably similar to those of digoxin, a plant-derived cardiac glycoside (Shaikh, I. M., Lau, B. W. C., Siegfried, B. A., and Valdes, R., Jr. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 13672-13678). Two characteristic structural and functional features of digoxin are a lactone ring and three digitoxose sugars attached to a steroid nucleus. Digoxin is known to undergo deglycosylation during metabolism in humans. We now demonstrate the existence of several naturally occurring deglycosylated components of DLIF in human serum. The components are identified as DLIF-genin, DLIF-mono, and DLIF-bis, corresponding to the aglycone, and the aglycone with one and two sugars, respectively. Similar components are produced by acid-induced deglycosylation of DLIF isolated from bovine adrenal cortex. The elution pattern and sequence of DLIF-deglycosylation was identical to that of digoxin suggesting identical sugar stoichiometry. However, analysis of these newly discovered congeners by reverse-phase chromatography, spectrophotometry, antibody reactivity, and kinetics of deglycosylation, demonstrates that subtle structural and physical differences do exist when compared to digoxin. DLIF was chromatographically distinct from digoxin, and interestingly, the mobility of the DLIF-genin was shifted toward increased polarity relative to digoxigenin. DLIF and DLIF-bis, -mono, and -genin congeners have absorbance maxima at 216 nm, whereas digoxin and its congeners absorb at 220 nm. Reaction with specific antibodies directed at the lactone portion of these molecules shows DLIF and its deglycosylated congeners to be 10(3)-fold less reactive than digoxin. Kinetics of sugar removal suggests that DLIF is 8-fold more susceptible to deglycosylation than is digoxin. Two less polar DLIF components produced from the DLIF-genin have lambdamax at 196 nm and are 4-fold less immunoreactive than DLIF. Our data suggest that subtle structural differences exist between DLIF and digoxin at or near the lactone ring as well as in the nature of the sugars. The presence of deglycosylated congeners of DLIF in human serum, including the less polar components, suggests in vivo deglycosylation of these factors. This is the first demonstration of the existence of naturally occurring deglycosylated derivatives of DLIF and establishes the likelihood of active metabolism of DLIF in mammals. PMID:8621507

Qazzaz, H M; Goudy, S L; Valdes, R

1996-04-12

336

Comparative distribution of neuropeptide-immunoreactive systems in the brain of the green molly, Poecilia latipinna.  

Science.gov (United States)

The comparative distribution of peptidergic neural systems in the brain of the euryhaline, viviparous teleost Poecilia latipinna (green molly) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Topographically distinct, but often overlapping, systems of neurons and fibres displaying immunoreactivity (ir) related to a range of neuropeptides were found in most brain areas. Neurosecretory and hypophysiotrophic hormones were localized to specific groups of neurons mostly within the preoptic and tuberal hypothalamus, giving fibre projections to the neurohypophysis, ventral telencephalon, thalamus, and brain stem. Separate vasotocin (AVT)-ir and isotocin (IST)-ir cells were located in the nucleus preopticus (nPO), but many AVT-ir nPO neurons also displayed growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF)-like-ir, and in some animals corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-like-ir. The main group of CRF-ir neurons was located in the nucleus recessus anterioris, where coexistence with galanin (GAL) was observed in some cells. Enkephalin (ENK)-like-ir was occasionally present in a few IST-ir cells of the nPO and was also found in small neurons in the posterior tuberal hypothalamus and in a cluster of large cells in the dorsal midbrain tegmentum. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH)-ir cells were found near the rostromedial tip of the nucleus recessus lateralis. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-ir cells were present in the nucleus olfactoretinalis, ventral telencephalon, preoptic area, and dorsal midbrain tegmentum. Molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide (FMRF-amide)-ir was colocalized with GnRH-ir in the ganglion cells and central projections of the nervus terminalis. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-ir neurons were restricted to the tuberal hypothalamus, mostly within the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars lateralis, and somatostatin (SRIF)-ir neurons were numerous throughout the periventricular areas of the diencephalon. A further group of SRIF-ir neurons extending from the ventral telencephalon into the dorsal telencephalon pars centralis also contained neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, peptide YY (PYY)-, and NPY flanking peptide (PSW)-like-ir. These immunoreactivities were, however, also observed in non-SRIF-ir cells and fibres, particularly in the mesencephalon. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like-ir had a characteristic distribution in cells grouped in the isthmal region and fibre tracts running forward into the hypothalamus, most strikingly into the inferior lobes. Antisera to cholecystokinin (CCK) and neurokinin A (NK) or substance P (SP) stained very extensive, separate systems throughout the brain, with cells most consistently seen in the ventral telencephalon and periventricular hypothalamus. Broadly similar, but much more restricted, distributions of cells and fibres were seen with antisera to neurotensin (NT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2081820

Batten, T F; Cambre, M L; Moons, L; Vandesande, F

1990-12-22

337

Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research.

Claes Peter

2012-02-01

338

Carbamazepine for acute psychosis with eeg abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the efficacy of carbamazepine as adjuvant drug therapy in acute paranoid psychosis with associated EEG abnormalities, compared to sole antipsychotic treatment. Methods. Eleven medication-naive patients diagnosed with acute paranoid psychosis with associated EEG abnormalities were divided into two treatment groups: sole fluphenazine group, with flexible dosing of 5-10 mg/day (n=6, and carbamazepine group (n=5 with the addition of carbamazepine (600 mg/day to fluphenazine treatment. Clinical Global Impression (CGI, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and EEG were assessed on the baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. Paired and two-tailed t-tests were used for statistical significance. Results. All the patients showed significant improvement of mental state after 6 weeks of treatment with no significant differences in CGI, BPRS, and total SANS scores in relation to the therapy with carbamazepine. Nevertheless, after 6 weeks of the treatment, EEG findings were significantly better in carbamazepine group, in relation to the findings from the onset of the treatment, as well as in comparison to sole fluphenazine group. Conclusion. Although carbamazepine stabilized abnormal brain electrical activities it seemed that the associated EEG abnormalities were not significant for acute psychosis observed. These preliminary results suggested that there was no convincing evidence that carbamazepine was efficient as the augmentation of antipsychotic treatment for patients with both acute paranoid psychosis and EEG abnormalities.

Ivkovi? Maja

2004-01-01

339

Immunoreactivity for Taurine Characterizes Subsets of Glia, GABAergic and non-GABAergic Neurons in the Neo- and Archicortex of the Rat, Cat and Rhesus Monkey: Comparison with Immunoreactivity for Homocysteic Acid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cerebral cortex is an area rich in taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), but only limited information exists regarding its cellular distribution. We therefore examined taurine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of the rat, cat and macaque monkey using antiserum directed against glutaraldehyde-conjugated taurine. Immunostaining was assessed at the light and electron microscopic level, and patterns obtained in light microscopic studies were compared to those produced with antiser...

Kritzer, Mf; Cowey, A.; Ottersen, Op; Streit, P.; Somogyi, P.

1992-01-01

340

Right ventricular abnormalities in ventricular tachycardia of right ventricular origin: relation to electrophysiological abnormalities.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with right ventricular tachycardia may have adverse electrophysiological abnormalities linked to disturbed right ventricular structure. Seventeen patients who presented with right ventricular tachycardia without coronary artery disease or gross abnormalities of left ventricular function were studied. Patients had the ventricular tachycardia characterised at electrophysiological study and most underwent radionuclide and contrast angiography. At echocardiography specific attention was ...

Foale, R. A.; Nihoyannopoulos, P.; Ribeiro, P.; Mckenna, W. J.; Oakley, C. M.; Krikler, D. M.; Rowland, E.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Abnormal vibration induced illusion of movement in essential tremor: evidence for abnormal muscle spindle afferent function  

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Objectives: Vibration induced illusion of movement (VIIM) is abnormal in patients with idiopathic focal dystonia, an abnormality which corrects with fatigue of the vibrated muscle. Since dystonia and essential tremor sometimes coexist in families, we investigated the perception of VIIM and the effect of fatigue on VIIM in patients with essential tremor.

Frima, N.; Grunewald, R.

2005-01-01

342

Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

343

Angiographic evaluation of the abnormal endoscopic pancreatogram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of 1,269 pancreatograms, 122 were abnormal. Angiography was performed in these patients. Fifty-five were found to have pancreatic carcinoma. In the remaining 67 patients a false positive angiographic diagnosis of either chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer was made in 11%. In one patient a hemangioma was diagnosed as a pancreatic cyst. The remaining 58 patients all had normal pancreatic angiograms in spite of gross ductal abnormality on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All these patients were followed for an average of 19 months and showed no clinical evidence of pancreatic disease. It is suggested that angiography should be considered a complementary examination to ERCP and is particularly useful to exclude carcinoma when the pancreatogram is abnormal. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO

344

Endocrine abnormalities in Townes-Brocks syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Townes-Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes-Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes-Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes-Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

2013-09-01

345

Chromosomal Abnormalities in Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients diagnosed as primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) using conventional karyotyping. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Clinical Laboratory, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January 2006 - June 2012. Methodology: Patients of all ages and either gender who fulfilled WHO criteria for MDS were included. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted at the time of diagnosis. Patients who had secondary MDS were excluded from analysis. Chromosome identification and karyotype description was done according to the International System for Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN, 1995) and described as frequency percentage. Results: Out of the 122 cases of MDS, 71 patients had their karyotype done at the time of diagnosis, including 42 males (59.2%) and 29 females (40.8%) with median age of 60 years. Forty one (57.7%) showed normal karyotype and 30 (42.3%) showed clonal karyotypic abnormalities at diagnosis. Out of which 14 (19.7%) had single, 11 (15.5%) had complex and 6 (8.5%) had double cytogenetic abnormalities. The common abnormalities found were: trisomy 8 in 7 cases (9.9%), -7/del (7q) in 3 cases (4.2%), -Y and complex 5q in 2 cases (2.8%) each, complex trisomy 8, del 11q , inversion 9, trisomy 19 and del 20q were found in 1 case (1.4%) each. Other abnormalities were found in 11 cases (15.5%). Conclusion: Trisomy 8 was the most common disorder/abnormality found in this study population followed by the complex cytogenetics. (author)

346

Density distribution of guinea pig myenteric plexus nerve endings containing immunoreactive substance P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was performed to investigate how myenteric plexus nerve endings containing substance P are distributed in sucrose density gradients in relation to nerve endings capable of taking up 3H-acetylcholine or 14C-noradrenaline. The peak of substance P-immunoreactivity (ISP) was found at a density of 1.157 +/- 0.001 g X ml-1, that of 3H-radioactivity at 1.160 +/- 0.002 and that of 14C-radioactivity at 1.162 +/- 0.002 g X ml-1 (mean +/- SEM, N = 6); there was considerable overlap. In a second set of experiments, the resuspended P2-pellet was layered upon a discontinuous density gradient consisting of 0.6, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 M sucrose. Nine fractions were recovered. There was a 2.5-3.4-fold increase in the relative specific activity of ISP in the 1.2 M fraction (density = 1.154 g X ml-1) and the adjoining interfaces. Conventional electron microscopy showed that synaptosomal elements were present in the transmitter-enriched fractions. It is concluded that the substance P-containing nerve endings of the guinea pig myenteric plexus co-distribute (and may be co-purified with) nerve endings utilizing noradrenaline or acetylcholine on sucrose density gradients

347

Rapid lymphocyte immunoreactivity test utilizing [3H]uridine in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A microculture assay utilizing [3H]uridine incorporation was developed to test murine spleen lymphocyte immunoreactivity in vitro. Parameters of the culture technique which included cell density, doses of LPS, Con A, PHA, [3H]uridine levels, and length of culture time were investigated. Responses were detectable at 4 h for all 3 mitogens, with labelling ranging up to 180% of the control value. By 8 h there was a 200-350% increase in mitogen-induced incorporation of radioactivity. Similar increases were observed in a serum-free system. The responses were the result of increased incorporation of label by stimulated cultures rather than decreased labeling of non-mitogen treated cultures over time. The [3H]uridine incorporation was demonstrated to be the selective response of T or B cell populations when stimulated with appropriate lectins. This assay detects early RNA synthesis, as supported by experimental observations in which accumulation of radioactivity in stimulated lymphocytes was TCA precipitable, resistant to SDS treatment, and inhibited by actinomycin D. (Auth.)

348

Immunoreactivity and two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis characterization of Egyptian cobra venom proteome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first and second (two) dimensional gel electrophoresis has a broad protein resolution power. It was used to separate and identify cobra venom proteome. The importance of characterizing venom proteins contents from the Egyptian elapidae, specifically neurotoxins, is based on the need to produce effective anti-venom. About 30-55distinct protein spots were identified on silver stained two-dimensional gels. Around two-thirds of the venom proteins displayed low a molecular weight and a migration into hydrophobic side. The venoms from Naja haja and Naja nigricollus showed 45-55 spots, while Walternnesia aegyptia had less (31-37) spots. The commercial prepared polyclonal antivenom had a strong signal for anionic and cationic venom protein spots with molecular weight 20-115 kDa. However, it showed weak or non immunoreactivity toward anionic low molecular weight spots (2.5-15kDa). These results suggest the need to change the immunization schedule to include low molecular weight toxin-proteomes as separate dose or sequester injection. PMID:25553707

Almehdar, Hussein Abduelrahman; Adel-Sadek, Mahmoud Abass; Redwan, Elrashdy Moustafa

2015-01-01

349

Loss of immunoreactivity of I-131 labeled monoclonal antibody with storage is related to radiation damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to use a single preparation of I-131 monoclonal antibody on more than one day, it is important to determine the shelf life of these compounds. Fifteen I-131 (.128 to 15 mCi/ml) preparations of IgG or Fab fragments of antimelanoma antibody (96.5 or 48.7) were stored at 0-40C in pharmaceutical vials. Daily aliquots were tested for total immunoreactivity (IR) (JNM 24:123,1983), TCA precipitability and fractions using size exclusion HPLC. Loss of IR ranges from 0-54% during the first 24 hours to 0-92% over 6 days. Loss of IR occurred with both Fab and IgG. The rate of loss of IR correlated with the initial specific concentration (r = .8,p 0C. and high concentration solutions (>5 mCi/ml.) must be used within 24 hours of labeling to assure an active preparation. The inhibition of IR loss by dilution or by addition of radioprotectors suggests that the process is due to radiation effects on the rocess is due to radiation effects on the antibody

350

In vitro release of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide from the rat atria.  

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Full Text Available In vitro release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from atria was examined by ANP radioimmunoassay. Isolated right rat atria were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, and test substances were added to the incubation medium. The fluid was assayed for rat ANP by a radioimmunoassay method recently developed in our laboratory. We produced an antiserum to human ANP(99-216 (alpha-hANP(1-28 which showed a good cross-reactivity of 63% with rat ANP(99-126 (alpha-rANP(1-28 and was useful for measuring rat ANP concentrations of the medium. Application of the medium to a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system resulted in a single peak of immunoreactive rat ANP corresponding to a small molecular weight synthetic rat ANP of 28 amino acid residues. Catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and isoproterenol reduced the basal secretion of ANP, whereas acetylcholine stimulated the release of ANP. Forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not affect the release of ANP. These results suggest the possibility that the regulation of ANP release may be partially associated with adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms.

Inoue,Hiroshi

1988-04-01

351

Chronic corticosterone administration facilitates aversive memory retrieval and increases GR/NOS immunoreactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucocorticoids are stress hormones that mediate the organism's reaction to stress. It has been previously proposed that the facilitation of emotional aversive conditioning induced by these hormones may involve nitric oxide-pathways. The purpose of the present study was to address this question. For that, male Wistar rats were surgically implanted with slow-release corticosterone (CORT) pellets (21 days) and tested in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Additional groups of animals were also submitted to the same treatment conditions and on the 21st day of treatment assayed for GR (glucocorticoid receptors)-nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) immunoreactivity (GRi-nNOSi) or measurements of plasma CORT. Results showed that CORT treatment induced facilitation of step-down inhibitory avoidance. This same treatment also significantly increased CORT plasma levels and GRi in the medial, basolateral and basomedial amygdala, in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), in the ventral and dorsal dentate gyrus, in the ventral CA1 region and in the dorsal CA1 and CA3 regions. Furthermore, nNOSi and GRi-nNOSi were significantly increased by CORT treatment in the medial amygdala and basolateral amygdaloid complex, in the PVN, subiculum, in the dorsal CA3 region and in the ventral CA1 and CA3 regions. These results indicate that the facilitation of aversive conditioning induced by CORT involves GR-nNOS pathways activation, what may be of relevance for a better understanding of stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:24662151

Santos, Thays B; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

2014-07-01

352

ATF-2 immunoreactivity in post-mitotic and terminally differentiated human odontoblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2/CRE-BP1; cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1) is a member of nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) family. AP-1 regulates cellular processes including growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, biological relationship of cellular process to each member of the AP-1 family is not clear yet. The objective of the present study was to compare the ATF-2 immunoreactivity in the post-mitotic and terminally differentiated odontoblasts and in the pulpal fibroblasts which can be divided by mitosis when required. Fibroblasts at various stages of differentiation co-exist in the human dental pulp. ATF-2 was investigated immunohistochemically in 20 permanent human teeth. According to the findings obtained, the mean percentage of ATF-2 positive cells was 68.5 ± 19.2 % in the odontoblasts and 22.8 ± 13.7 % in the pulpal fibroblasts. The comparison of ATF-2 positivity revealed a statistically significant difference between odontoblasts and pulpal fibroblasts. These findings have suggested that ATF-2 is more associated with cell survival rather than cell proliferation, and revealed much of effectiveness in maintaining terminal differentiation than the various differentiation stages of the cells. PMID:25417007

Keklikoglu, Nurullah; Akinci, Sevtap

2014-11-23

353

Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells occur also in the endoderm of foot, gastric region and hypostome. By using a technique for simultaneous visualisation of nerve cells reacting with antisera to oxytocin and vasopressin, it can be shown that these nerve cells belong to a single population. In agreement with this, the staining of the nerve cells can be abolished by absorbing each antiserum with either oxytocin, vasopressin, [Lys8]vasopressin, vasotocin, mesotocin or isotocin, indicating that the antigenic determinant of hydra cross-reacts with those antibody subpopulations, which recognize common portions (sequence 1-2, 5-7, 9) of the oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides. With radioimmunoassays that are specific for either oxytocin or vasopressin, only very low amounts of immunoreactivity were measured. In addition, the dilution curves in these assays were not parallel to the standards, indicating that the antigenic determinant of hydra is not oxytocin or vasopressin. The presence of oxytocin/vasopressin-like material in coelenterates, shows that this family of peptides is of great antiquity.

Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K

1982-01-01

354

Neuropeptides and septo-hippocampal neurons: electrophysiological effects and distributions of immunoreactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The septo-hippocampal neurons (SHNs), located in the medial septum, project to the hippocampal formation. The population of SHNs, as shown by single unit recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats, is heterogeneous, both in terms of patterns of spontaneous activity (a significant proportion of the SHNs display a characteristic rhythmically bursting activity at about 4 Hz) and of conduction velocity. Their average rate of spontaneous discharge is quite high (20 impulses per second). They are excited by the iontophoretic application of acetylcholine and various cholinergic agonists. They are also excited by some peptides such as substance P and TRH. Parallel studies in aged animals show that the physiological properties of the SHNs are altered, while their pharmacological properties seem to be unchanged. Immunohistochemical investigations using antibodies against various peptides and a monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) show that SHNs retrogradely-labeled from the hippocampus often contain ChAT, less frequently galanin-like immunoreactivity and in a few cases enkephalin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, or calcitonin gene-related peptide. In contrast, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, somatostatin, dynorphin-B and neurotensin, although present in some medial septal neurons, were never observed in neurons projecting to the hippocampus. PMID:2470066

Lamour, Y; Senut, M C; Dutar, P; Bassant, M H

1988-01-01

355

Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected with a monoclonal mouse antibody and EGF with polyclonal rabbit antiserum. Thirty-five of the tumours were positive for TGF-alpha and 26 of the tumours for EGF. None of the poorly differentiated tumours was positive for EGF, but they all were for TGF-alpha. In sections including normal differentiated oral mucosa, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus paralleling the situation observed in the normal differentiated oral mucosa. In four cases, material was available from both a primary tumour and a metastasis. Three of these were positive for TGF-alpha and EGF with the same staining pattern as that of the primary tumours. This investigation together with our previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases.

Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

1993-01-01

356

Effect of age on the myosin-V immunoreactive myenteric neurons of rats ileum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Alterations in the gastrointestinal neuromuscular function related to age have been demonstrated in human and animal models. This study analyzes the effects of the aging process on the area of the neuronal cell bodies of the myenteric plexus in the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the ilea [...] l circumference of Wistar, 12 month-old in comparison 3 month-old animals. The ileum was removed and whole-mount preparations immunostained by the antibody anti-myosin-V were processed. The morphometric analyses were performed using a computerized image analysis system, with a subsequent distribution of neurons by size in intervals of 100 ?m². The cellular body morphometry revealed a significant increase in the size of the myosin-V- immunoreactive myenteric neurons from 12 month -old animals when compared with 3 month-old animals. However, significant differences between the regions were not observed; these observations were not age-dependent. The implications of these results in relation to the increase of the body weight, size of the small intestine, general organization of the myenteric plexus, staining method of neurons and the possible factors involved in the regulation and/or control of the volume of neronal cells due to aging, are discussed.

João Paulo, Ferreira Schoffen; Maria Raquel, Marçal Natali.

2007-04-01

357

Claudin 3 and 4 Immunoreactivity in Malign Mesothelioma and Lung Adenocarcinoma  

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Full Text Available Objective: The differential diagnosis of malignant pleural mesotheliomas and lung adenocarcinomas is problematic for pathologists especially in small biopsy materials. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the immunohistochemically determined Claudin 3 and Claudin 4 immunoreactivities are useful in the differential diagnosis between malignant pleural mesotheliomas and lung adenocarcinomas.Material and Method: Using the epitope-specific rabbit antibody Claudin 3 and Claudin 4, 32 cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma (25 epithelioid, 7 biphasic and 14 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were studied immunohistochemicallyResults: None of the cases of malignant pleural mesotheliomas expressed Claudin 4, whereas all lung carcinomas were immunopositive. Claudin 3 expression was immunonegative in 29 (90.6% cases and immunopositive in 3 (9.3% cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma. With Claudin 3, 11/14 (78.9% lung adenocarcinomas and 3/32 (9.4% malignant pleural mesotheliomas were immunopositive (p=0.000.Conclusion: In conclusion, Claudin 4 antibody was found to be a highly sensitive and specific marker for distinguishing between malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma.

?ule EK?Z

2009-06-01

358

Influence of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor on late complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of typical late complications in diabetic patients (n = 65, 28 type I, 37 type II) who were not on glycoside drugs with low vs. high serum levels of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF: group I, n = 42, DLIF DLIF levels showed better test results in vibratory perception (95.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 82.8 +/- 3.8%, normal finding = 100%, 2p = 0.016), had better percentile localizations concerning maximal pupillary area in darkness (28.4 +/- 6.6 vs. 8.1 +/- 1.8%, 2p = 0.0004), contraction velocity at 1 s (21.5 +/- 5.8 vs. 8.0 +/- 2.2%, 2p = 0.012), and dilation velocity at 6 s (23.0 +/- 6.8 vs. 10.5 +/- 2.5%, 2p = 0.041), had less retinopathy (with retinopathy: 26.1% vs. 64.3%, 2p = 0.0028), and better percentile localizations in the respiratory sinus arrhythmia test (68.4 +/- 7.3 vs. 44.1 +/- 4.9%, 2p = 0.0064). There was no difference concerning nephropathy, blood pressure, coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. Separate analysis according to the type of diabetes confirmed the results in each group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7957506

Straub, R H; Elbracht, R; Krämer, B K; Roth, M; Palitzsch, K D; Schölmerich, J

1994-07-01

359

A new digoxin immunoassay substantially free of interference by digoxin immunoreactive factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have evaluated the new Roche digoxin "On Line" procedure for use in a pediatric population with particular interest in the potential for interference by digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF). An initial study comparing digoxin values obtained with the new Roche procedure with determinations on an Abbott TDx, American Dade Stratus, and COBAS-FARA using Microgenics Cedia reagents, found good correlations with these established methods. The Roche method was suitably precise and utilized either serum or plasma. Interference by DLIF was assessed by analyzing specimens from patients not receiving digoxin but likely to contain DLIF, with the argument that non-zero values represent cross-reactivity of anti-digoxin antibodies with DLIF endogenous to these specimens. When specimens from neonates, women with second/third trimester pregnancies, and patients with renal and liver failure were assayed with the Roche, Stratus, and TDx methods, all three methods measured DLIF in some specimens, but the Roche method possessed the lowest overall DLIF interference. The modest extent of DLIF interference and the requirement of a small amount of specimen make the Roche method superior in monitoring digoxin in a pediatric population. PMID:7624908

Jiang, F; Wilhite, T R; Smith, C H; Landt, M

1995-04-01

360

Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity in blood is increased during prolonged strenuous exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLIFs) in serum may represent endogenous cardiotropic agents. We determined if blood levels of these endogenous factors changed during prolonged strenuous exercise. Total and loosely protein-bound (LPB) DLIF were measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of nine healthy subjects during prolonged exercise to exhaustion. Mean total and LPB serum levels of DLIF increased by 72% (580 to 945 pg/mL) and 63% (53 to 91 pg/mL) over baseline values in digoxin equivalents (p less than 0.01), respectively, after three hours of exercise at 70% of VO2max. The prevalent serum nonesterified fatty acids (arachidonic, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids) as well as hydrocortisone did not account for the observed elevations in DLIF. Percent left ventricular fractional shortening (%FS) and mean velocity of left ventricular circumferential fiber shortening (mVCF) measured echocardiographically were lower (-18.0% and -16.4%, respectively, p less than 0.05) after exercise as compared to prior to exercise. Cardiac left ventricular dysfunction as measured by %FS did correlate with blood levels of DLIF (r = -0.680, p less than 0.02). These observations may suggest a relationship between serum levels of DLIF and cardiac fatigue. PMID:3336270

Valdes, R; Hagberg, J M; Vaughan, T E; Lau, B W; Seals, D R; Ehsani, A A

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Serum digoxin-like immunoreactive factor in children and its relation to sodium metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), an endogenous substance that cross-reacts with antidigoxin antibodies, was assessed (fluorescence polarization immunoassay) in children (n = 134) aged 5-16 y, who had never been treated with cardiac glycosides. DLIF was found in 50% of serum samples at a mean concentration of 0.16 +/- 0.06 ng/ml (range 0.03-0.35 ng/ml). Although the study population as a whole was apparently homogeneous with regard to serum sodium content, and none had clinical signs of sodium imbalance, children with DLIF showed significantly lower natraemia (p = 0.0002), higher urinary concentration (p = 0.001) and fractional excretion (p = 0.001) of sodium, and increased systolic blood pressure (p = 0.009) compared with children without DLIF. Inverse correlations were found between DLIF concentration and serum sodium (p DLIF, since this material seems to be released preferably in subjects who show a trend towards negative sodium balance. Such an association suggests that DLIF may be a physiologically relevant material involved in sodium homeostasis. PMID:9641729

Garbagnati, E

1998-05-01

362

Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 ?g/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis. PMID:24530039

Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

2014-03-14

363

Novel myelin penta- and hexa-acetyl-galactosyl-ceramides: structural characterization and immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast migrating cerebrosides (FMC) are derivatives of galactosylceramide (GalCer). The structures of the most hydrophobic FMC-5, FMC-6, and FMC-7 were determined by electrospray ionization linear ion-trap mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy complementing previous NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine-GalCer derivatives with galactose O-acetyl modifications. FMC-5 and FMC-6 are 3-O-acetyl-sphingosine-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-GalCer with nonhydroxy and hydroxy-N-fatty-acids, while FMC-7 has an additional O-acetylation of the 2-hydroxy-fatty acid. The immuno-reactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to these acetylated glycolipids was examined in central nervous system (CNS) infectious disease, noninflammatory disorders, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Screening for lipid binding in MS and other neurological disease groups revealed that the greatest anti-hydrophobic FMC reactivity was observed in the inflammatory CNS diseases (meningitis, meningo-encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Some MS patients had increased reactivity with the hydrophobic FMCs and with glycoglycerophospholipid MfGL-II from Mycoplasma fermentans. The cross-reactivity of highly acetylated GalCer with microbial acyl-glycolipid raises the possibility that myelin-O-acetyl-cerebrosides, bacterial infection, and neurological disease are linked. PMID:20154333

Podbielska, Maria; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Levery, Steven B; Tourtellotte, Wallace W; Annuk, Heidi; Moran, Anthony P; Hogan, Edward L

2010-06-01

364

Plasma marinobufagenin-like and ouabain-like immunoreactivity in adrenocorticotropin-treated rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, an endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) was shown to be stimulated in corticotropin (ACTH) hypertension in the rat. We have shown that mammalian plasma contains a vasoconstrictor Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, which cross-reacts with an antibody to amphibian EDLF, marinobufagenin. In the present experiment, the effect of 8 days of intramuscular ACTH treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day) of male Fisher 344 x NB rats on blood pressure, plasma ouabain-like and marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity, and on the activity of Na,K-ATPase in aortic sarcolemma were studied. The ACTH treatment for 8 days resulted in increased systolic blood pressure (151 +/- 12.4 v 121 +/- 4.0 mm Hg, P dissociation enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA), serial dilutions of plasma from ACTH-treated rats extracted with 25% and 80% acetonitrile, respectively, demonstrated parallelism to the calibration curves of ouabain and marinobufagenin. These findings suggest that an endogenous bufodienolide Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, rather than an endogenous ouabain-like compound, is increased after 8 days of treatment of rats with ACTH. PMID:9683040

Fedorova, O V; Anderson, D E; Bagrov, A Y

1998-07-01

365

Localization of Diploptera punctata allatostatin-like immunoreactivity in helminths: an immunocytochemical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nervous systems of helminths are predominantly peptidergic in nature, although it is likely that the full range of regulatory peptides used by these organisms has yet to be elucidated. Attempts to identify novel helminth neuropeptides are being made using immunocytochemistry with antisera raised against peptides isolated originally from insects. One of these antisera was raised against allatostatin III, a peptide isolated originally from the cockroach, Diploptera punctata, and a member of a family of related peptides found in insects. Allatostatin immunoreactivity was found throughout the nervous systems of Mesocestoides corti tetrathyridia, and adult Moniezia expansa, Diclidophora merlangi, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris suum and Panagrellus redivivus. Immunostaining was observed in the nerve cords and anterior ganglia of all the helminths. It was also apparent in the subtegumental nerves and around the reproductive apparatus of the flatworms, in neurones in the pharynx of D. merlangi, F. hepatica, A. suum and P. redivivus, and in fibres innervating the anterior sense organs in the nematodes. Immunostaining in all species was both reproducible and specific in that it could be abolished by pre-absorption of the antiserum with allatostatins I-IV. These results suggest that molecules related to the D. punctata allatostatins are important components in the nervous systems of a number of helminth parasites, and a free-living nematode. Their distribution within the nervous system suggests they function as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators with roles in locomotion, feeding, reproduction and sensory perception. PMID:7845717

Smart, D; Johnston, C F; Maule, A G; Halton, D W; Hrcková, G; Shaw, C; Buchanan, K D

1995-01-01

366

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

367

Occult intraspinal abnormalities and congenital scoliosis  

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Full Text Available

BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis occurs because of either the failure of formation or the failure of segmentation or both. Evaluation of the incidence and the types of occult intraspinal abnormalities in congenital scoliosis is the subject of this study.

METHODS: During a period of 29 years, 103 patients with congenital scoliosis were studied. MRI was used in 46 patients, myelography or CT myelography was used in 64 patients and both MRI and myelography or CT myelography were used in 7 patients for intraspinal abnormalities.

RESULTS: In the MRI group, among the 46 patients, 19 patients (41.3% had intraspinal abnormalities consisting syringomyelia in 9 (19.5% diastematomyelia in 8 (17.4%, tethered cord syndrome in 6 (13%, low conus in 5 (10.8% and diplomyelia in 3 (6.5% of the patients. In the myelography group, among the 64 patients, 17 (26.5% had intraspinal abnormalities and diastematomyelia was the most common one found in 14 (21.8% patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Intraspinal abnormalities are frequent in congenital scoliosis. Syringomyelia may be associated with congenital scoliosis. In congenital scoliosis, rib fusion may be an indicator of intraspinal abnormalities in MRI. A significant difference between clinical findings and intraspinal anomalies (P<0.05 was noted. Moreover, we believe that total spinal MRI with coronal, sagittal and axial views is a valuable tool in determining the intraspinal abnormalities in congenital scoliosis. This method is highly recommended for detection and neurosurgical intervention before corrective surgeries.

KEY WORDS: Congenital scoliosis, intraspinal abnormalities, diastematomyelia.

Mohammad Ali Erfani

2007-06-01

368

Urinary excretion of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor and arginine-vasopressin in rats after several osmotic loads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and other urinary parameters were investigated under normal conditions and after the i.p. injection of the following solutions: distilled water, isotonic and hypertonic NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl and urea, at a rate of 3 ml/100 g body weight. The measurement of digoxin-like immunoreactivity by two different radioimmunoassays showed that DLIF was stimulated by all volume loads regardless of the presence or absence of osmolar compounds. This dissociation between DLIF and urinary sodium excretion suggests that DLIF may not constitute the natriuretic hormone. Moreover, a dissociation between DLIF and AVP excretion also were found, which speaks against the hypothesis of a common mechanism of stimulation for both substances. PMID:1865755

Vargas, F; Andrade, J L; Jódar, E; Castillo, M A; Luna, J D; Haro, J M

1991-01-01

369

Significance of negative hysteroscopic view in abnormal uterine bleeding.  

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Ninety six cases of abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated by both panoramic hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage. The indications for hysteroscopy included postmenopausal bleeding, infertility with abnormal bleeding, abnormal bleeding and suspected leiomyoma with bleeding. Twenty three patients had abnormal hysteroscopy findings. Hysteroscopy diagnosed endometrial polyp and submucus leiomyoma with 100% accuracy. In 17 cases, the results of hysteroscopy and curettage were in agr...

Parasnis H; Parulekar S

1992-01-01

370

Morphology and synaptic input of substance P receptor-immunoreactive interneurons in control and epileptic human hippocampus  

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Substance P (SP) is known to be a peptide that facilitates epileptic activity of principal cells in the hippocampus. Paradoxically, in other models, it was found to be protective against seizures by activating substance P receptor (SPR)-expressing interneurons. Thus, these cells appear to play an important role in the generation and regulation of epileptic seizures. The number, distribution, morphological features and input characteristics of SPR-immunoreactive cells were analysed in surgical...

To?th, Kinga; Wittner, Lucia; Urba?n, Zolta?n; Doyle, Werner K.; Buzsa?ki, Gyo?rgy; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Freund, Tama?s F.; Maglo?czky, Zso?fia

2006-01-01

371

MAGE-3 immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary and metastatic melanoma: frequency and distribution.  

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Monoclonal antibody 57B specifically detects MAGE-3 gene protein expression. MAGE-derived peptides are recognized by CD8+ T cells and applied in immunotherapy. We examined formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of 61 melanoma (primary, n = 40; metastatic, n = 21) and 46 control cases (junctional, dermal, compound, Spitz, Reed, and balloon-cell nevi) by immunohistochemistry using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method after antigen retrieval. Immunoreactivity was rated pos...

Hofbauer, G. F.; Schaefer, C.; Noppen, C.; Bo?ni, R.; Kamarashev, J.; Nestle, F. O.; Spagnoli, G. C.; Dummer, R.

1997-01-01

372

Release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity from the perfused canine thyroid. Selective stimulatory effect of calcium ions.  

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It is well accepted that the C cells of the thyroid contain somatostatin, but the role in local endocrine function has not yet been firmly established in this organ, and it has not been proved that thyroidal somatostatin is released into the circulation. We have measured the contents of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the effluent of canine thyroid glands perfused without recirculation with a synthetic buffer medium. During basal conditions a definite release was consistently found in t...

Laurberg, P.; Orskov, H.

1981-01-01

373

Specific patterns of immunoreactivity in neuronal elements of the anterior major pelvic ganglion of the male guinea-pig.  

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The anterior major pelvic ganglion (AMPG) of the male guinea-pig has been found to consist of three principal components. The presence of a cholinergic component was determined by the demonstration of cytoplasmic and nerve fibre acetylcholinesterase activity. A noradrenergic component was demonstrated by immunoreactivity (IR) of the catecholamine-synthesising enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) in neuronal perikarya. The AMPG also had a peptidergic component ...

Dhami, D.; Mitchell, B. S.

1991-01-01

374

Olfactory sensory deprivation increases the number of proBDNF-immunoreactive mitral cells in the olfactory bulb of mice  

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In the olfactory bulb, apoptotic cell-death induced by sensory deprivation is restricted to interneurons in the glomerular and granule cell layers, and to a lesser extent in the external plexiform layer, whereas mitral cells do not typically undergo apoptosis. With the goal to understand whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates mitral cell survival, we performed unilateral-naris occlusion on mice at postnatal day one (P1) and examined the subsequent BDNF immunoreactive (BDNF-...

Biju, K. C.; Mast, Thomas Gerald; Fadool, Debra Ann

2008-01-01

375

Increased proportion of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive neurons in rat ileal myenteric ganglia after severe acute pancreatitis  

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Abstract Background Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains a potentially life-threatening disease. Gastrointestinal motility disturbance such as intestinal ileus is seen in every case. By now, the mechanisms of pancreatitis-induced ileus are largely unknown. The main purpose of the present study was to observe changes of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive (NOS-IR) neurons in ileal myenteric ganglia in SAP rats with gastrointestinal dysmotility, trying to explore underlying...

Lin Zhong; Liu Ying; Zheng Qinghua; Hu Qinghua

2011-01-01

376

Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity is transiently associated with the subplate neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex  

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Nerve growth factor and its receptor (NGFR) are known to be present in diverse embryonic and neonatal central nervous system tissues, including the cerebral cortex. However, the identity of the cortical cells expressing NGFR immunoreactivity has not been established. We have used immunolabeling coupled with [3H]thymidine autoradiography to identify such cells in ferret and cat brain. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a conserved amino acid sequence of the NGFR were used for this purpose. Western (immunologic) blot analyses show that these antibodies specifically recognize NGFR and precursor proteins. In both species, NGFR immunoreactivity is primarily associated with the early generated and transient subplate neuron population of the developing neocortex, as indicated by the following evidence: the immunoreactive cells (i) are located directly beneath the developing cortical plate, (ii) frequently have the inverted pyramid shape characteristic of subplate neurons, and (iii) can be labeled by an injection of [3H]thymidine on embryonic day (E) 28, a time when only subplate neurons are being generated. Intense NGFR immunostaining is seen on the cell bodies of these neurons as early as E30, several days after their last round of cell division, and this immunostaining remains strong for approximately 3 weeks. The NGFR immunoreactivity begins to decline around E52 and has disappeared from the region altogether by E60, at which time suregion altogether by E60, at which time subplate neurons begin to die. The cellular localization and timing of expression suggest that the NGFR may play a role in the maintenance of subplate neurons and in the maturation of the cerebral cortex

377

Morphological and laminar distribution of cholescystokinine - immunoreactive neurons in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule and their clinical significance  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Cholecystocinine is a neuropeptide whose function in the cortex has not yet been clarified, although its relation with some psychic disorders has been noticed. Previous studies have not provided detailed data about types, or arrangement of neurons that contain those neuropeptide in the cortex of human inferior parietal lobe. The aim of this study was to examine precisely the morphology and typography of neurons containing cholecytocinine in the human cortex of inferior parietal lobule. Material and methods. There were five human brains on which we did the immunocystochemical research of the shape and laminar distribution of cholecystocinine immunoreactive neurons on serial sections of supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus. The morphological analysis of cholecystocinine-immunoreactive neurons was done on frozen sections using avidin-biotin technique, by antibody to cholecystocinine diluted in the proportion 1:6000 using diamine-benzedine. Results. Cholecystocinine immunorective neurons were found in the first three layers of the cortex of inferior parietal lobule, and their densest concentration was in the 2nd and 3rd layer. The following types of neurons were found: bipolar neurons, then its fusiform subtype, Cajal-Retzius neurons (in the 1st layer, reverse pyramidal (triangular and unipolar neurons. The diameters of some types of neurons were from 15 to 35 µm, and the diameters of dendritic arborization were from 85-207 µm. A special emphasis is put on the finding of Cajal-Retzius neurons that are immunoreactive to cholecystocinine, which demands further research. Conclusion. Bearing in mind numerous clinical studies pointing out the role of cholecystokinine in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, the presence of a great number of cholecystokinine immunoreactive neurons in the cortex of inferior parietal lobule suggests their role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

Puškaš Laslo

2008-01-01

378

Use of the India ink immuno-reaction for the rapid detection of enteric pathogens in two area of Nigeria.  

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The India-ink Immuno-reaction (IIR) was used as a simple, convenient procedure for the detection of carriers of enteric organisms in an unselected sample of patients attending a mission clinic at Kubacha in a remote area of Kaduna State, northern Nigeria. To assess the reliability of this procedure in difficult working conditions a similar population from the same clinic was subsequently examined by routine bacteriological culture techniques. Because of a temporary shortage of suitable anti-s...

Ternak, G.; Wolff, M.; Britt, D. P.

1981-01-01

379

Proliferative enteropathy (PE): Induced changes in galanin-like immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system of the porcine distal colon  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of galanin (GAL) like immonoreactivity in the porcine descending colon during proliferative entheropathy (PE). Accordingly, the distribution pattern of GAL - like immunoreactive (GAL-LI) nerve structures was studied by the immunofluorescence technique in the circular muscle layer, myenteric (MP), outer submucous (OSP) and inner submucous plexuses (ISP), as well as in the mucosal layer of the porcine descending colon under physiological cond...

Gonkowski S.; Burlinski P.; Calka J.

2009-01-01

380

Neuronal HIF-1? protein and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in functionally related motor areas following a focal M1 infarct  

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Clinical and experimental data support a role for the intact cortex in recovery of function after stroke, particularly ipsilesional areas interconnected to the infarct. There is, however, little understanding of molecular events in the intact cortex, as most studies focus on the infarct and peri-infarct regions. This study investigated neuronal immunoreactivity for hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in remote cortical area...

Stowe, Ann M.; Plautz, Erik J.; Nguyen, Phuong; Frost, Shawn B.; Eisner-janowicz, Ines; Barbay, Scott; Dancause, Numa; Sensarma, Anirban; Taylor, Michael D.; Zoubina, Elena V.; Nudo, Randolph J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Allopregnanolone Reinstates Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactive Neurons and Motor Performance in an MPTP-Lesioned Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease  

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Restorative/protective therapies to restore dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are greatly needed to effectively change the debilitating course of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we tested the therapeutic potential of a neurogenic neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, in the restoration of the components of the nigrostriatal pathway in MPTP-lesioned mice by measuring striatal dopamine levels, total and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neuron numbers and BrdU-positi...

Adeosun, Samuel O.; Hou, Xu; Jiao, Yun; Zheng, Baoying; Henry, Sherry; Hill, Rosanne; He, Zhi; Pani, Amar; Kyle, Patrick; Ou, Xiaoming; Mosley, Thomas; Farley, Jerry M.; Stockmeier, Craig; Paul, Ian; Bigler, Steven

2012-01-01

382

Correlative Analysis of Immunoreactivity in Confocal Laser-Scanning Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Focused Ion Beam Milling  

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Full Text Available Three-dimensional reconstruction of ultrastructure of rat brain with minimal effort has recently been realized by scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam milling (FIB-SEM. Because application of immunohistochemical staining to electron microscopy has a great advantage in that molecules of interest are specifically localized in ultrastructures, we here tried to apply immunocytochemistry to FIB-SEM and correlate immunoreactivity in confocal laser-scanning microcopy (CF-LSM with that in FIB-SEM. The dendrites of medium-sized spiny neurons in rat neostriatum were visualized with a recombinant viral vector, which labeled the infected neurons with membrane-targeted GFP in a Golgi stain-like fashion, and thalamostriatal afferent terminals were immunolabeled with Cy5 fluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2. After detecting the sites of terminals apposed to the dendrites in CF-LSM, GFP and VGluT2 immunoreactivities were further developed for electron microscopy by the immunogold/silver enhancement and immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine (DAB methods, respectively. In the contrast-inverted FIB-SEM images, silver precipitation and DAB deposits were observed as fine dark grains and diffuse dense profiles, respectively, indicating that these immunoreactivities were easily recognizable as in the images of transmission electron microscopy. In the sites of interest, some appositions were revealed to display synaptic specialization of asymmetric type. The present method is thus useful in the three-dimensional analysis of immunocytochemically differentiated synaptic connection in the central neural circuit.

TakahiroFuruta

2013-02-01

383

Gestational high-fat programming impairs insulin release and reduces Pdx-1 and glucokinase immunoreactivity in neonatal Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperglycemia and compromised beta-cell development were demonstrated in neonatal rats programmed with a gestational high-fat diet. The aim of this study was to determine whether these changes were attributed to impaired insulin release and altered immunoreactivity of Pdx-1, glucokinase (GK), and glucose transporter (GLUT)-2 in high-fat-programmed neonates. Fetuses were maintained, via maternal nutrition, on either a standard laboratory diet (control) or a high-fat diet throughout gestation (HFG). Pancreata from 1-day-old neonates were excised for islet isolation and the subsequent measurement of insulin release at 2.8, 6.5, 13, and 22 mmol/L glucose. Other pancreata were either snap frozen for quantitative polymerase chain reaction or formalin fixed for immunohistochemistry followed by image analysis. The HFG neonates had reduced insulin release at 13- and 22-mmol/L glucose concentrations. No significant differences were found in Pdx-1, GK, or GLUT-2 messenger RNA expression. In HFG neonates, immunoreactivity of both Pdx-1 and GK was significantly reduced, with a nonsignificant reduction in GLUT-2. Gestational high-fat programming impairs insulin release and reduces Pdx-1 and GK immunoreactivity. PMID:19604517

Cerf, Marlon E; Chapman, Charna S; Muller, Christo J; Louw, Johan

2009-12-01

384

Amacrine cells with neurotensin- and somatostatin-like immunoreactivities in three species of teleosts with different color vision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurotensin- and somatostatin-like immunoreactivities were localized by pre-embedding techniques in retinal whole-mounts and radial sections of a monochromatic glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis), a dichromatic cichlid species (Aequidens pulcher), and the tetrachromatic roach (Rutilus rutilus). Both neuropeptides were observed in perikarya and processes of amacrine cells. For a precise identification of cell types, tangential and radial views were correlated with Golgi-impregnated material. The dendritic pattern defining the morphological subtype of amacrine cells was determined by the given neuropeptide or by the species-specific degrees of complexity of retinal structure and function. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity was localized in amacrine cells of intermediate size, radial symmetry and dendrites with numerous varicosities; they were monostratified in sublayer 3 of the inner plexiform layer. This cell type was common to all three species. In the mono- and dichromatic retinas, a single type of amacrine cell with somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was found with radially oriented, varicose dendrites in sublayer 5. In the tetrachromatic roach retina, two somatostatin-positive amacrine cell types were found with very different patterns of ramification; furthermore, both of these types occurred in more than one sublayer. Possible functional implications for color vision of neuropeptide-specific amacrine cells with uniform morphology in all three species and those with a more varied morphology in the tetrachromatic roach are discussed. PMID:2886225

Wagner, H J; Zeutzius, I

1987-06-01

385

Simultaneous isolation of endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive factor, ouabain-like factor, and deglycosylated congeners from mammalian tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

DLIF (digoxin-like immunoreactive factor) and OLF (ouabain-like factor) are endogenous steroid-like ligands (approximately 781 and 595 Da, respectively) with molecular and structural properties similar to the plant-derived cardiac glycosides, digoxin and ouabain. We developed a purification method with a sufficiently wide range of extraction solubility to separate compounds with polarities spanning those of ouabain and digoxin. This technique provides a rapid, reliable, and efficient method for simultaneously isolating DLIF, OLF, and several naturally existing deglycosylated congeners, including three deglycosylated species of DLIF (DLIF-genin, DLIF-mono, and DLIF-bis) and one deglycosylated species of OLF (OLF-genin). Separation is achieved using acid extraction, C-18 reverse-phase HPLC chromatography, and signal detection using two antibodies, one specific for digoxin and one for ouabain. The average extraction efficiency is 400 pmol digoxin equivalent (range 300-500) and 42 pmol ouabain equivalent (range 37-50) per gram of adrenal cortex for DLIF and OLF, respectively. The relative molar immunoreactivity of DLIF is 10(3)-fold less than that of digoxin, whereas that of OLF is unity compared to ouabain, suggesting that OLF is structurally more similar to ouabain than DLIF is to digoxin. Of interest is the presence of a compound reacting with both digoxin and ouabain antibodies. This unique immunoreactive species is liekly to have structural similarity to both digoxin and ouabain and thus may represent a metabolic link between DLIF and OLF. PMID:8638930

Qazzaz, H M; Valdes, R

1996-04-01

386

Evidence for presence of a reduced form of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (dihydro-DLIF) in mammalian tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) from adrenal glands is an endogenous ligand structurally related to the plant-derived cardiac glycoside digoxin. Cardiac glycosides regulate the activity of the sodium pump and thus play key roles in disease processes involving regulation of ion transport. We now report the discovery of an endogenous dihydro-DLIF analogous to dihydrodigoxin. We used HPLC, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and cross-reactivity with two antibodies, one specific for digoxin and one for dihydrodigoxin, to support the hypothesis that dihydro-DLIF contains a chemically reduced lactone ring. The spectral absorbance maximum for dihydro-DLIF is at 196 nm, identical to dihydrodigoxin. DLIF and dihydro-DLIF are 975- and 2588-fold less immunoreactive than digoxin and dihydrodigoxin for their respective antibodies. The molar ratio of dihydro-DLIF to DLIF is approximately 5.3 in bovine adrenocortical tissue and approximately 0.38 in human serum. Dihydrodigoxin (reduced lactone ring) added to microsomes isolated from bovine adrenal cortex produced a 4.5-fold increase in digoxin-like immunoreactivity (oxidized lactone ring) after 3 h of incubation. The biotransformation is likely mediated by a cytochrome P-450 NADPH-dependent process. Our findings demonstrate the presence of a dihydro-DLIF in mammals and suggest a metabolic route for synthesis of endogenous DLIF in mammalian tissue. PMID:8674194

Qazzaz, H M; Jortani, S A; Poole, J M; Valdes, R

1996-07-01

387

Distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in the brain of the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stouti (Craniata: Myxinoidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like immunoreactivity in the brain of a myxinoid, the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti), was investigated via immunohistochemistry, including the use of six different antisera. In the diencephalon, immunoreactive cell bodies were found in two systems: the infundibular hypothalamus, a neuromodulatory nucleus with diffuse projections of varicose fibers to most areas of the brain, and a primarily preoptic system of putatively hypophysiotropic neurons that projects to the neurohypophysis. Some potential neurovascular and CSF contacts were also identified. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies in other craniates and suggest that a preoptic hypophysiotropic system may be present in all craniates. We therefore tentatively accept the homology of this system in hagfish and vertebrates. The homology of the distributed hypothalamic system is more dubious. It may be homologous to a caudal GnRH system of modulatory neurons found in many vertebrates. Antiserum PBL-49 displays a differential affinity for the two systems, indicating that the two systems differ in the amount or identity of the immunoreactive substance. We suggest that the two systems have distinct functions in hagfish. The primitive function of GnRH-like molecules in craniates may have thus been both neuromodulatory and hypophysiotropic. These findings also indicate that the brain-pituitary axis of hagfish is more similar to that of vertebrates than has been previously suggested. PMID:7751443

Braun, C B; Wicht, H; Northcutt, R G

1995-03-13

388

Distribution of GABA-like immunoreactive cell bodies in the brains of two amphibians, Rana catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is not well understood for non-mammalian vertebrates. We thus used immunocytochemistry to locate putative GABAergic cells in the brains of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). GABA-immunoreactive cell bodies were broadly distributed throughout the brains of both species with similar general patterns. In both, the greatest numbers of GABA-positive cells were found in the olfactory bulb, thalamus, and optic tectum, but virtually no major brain region lacked GABAergic cells. Species differences were also apparent. The density of GABA-immunoreactive cells was substantially higher in many areas of the bullfrog brain, compared to Xenopus. Bullfrogs possessed extensive cell populations in the medial pallium, preoptic area, optic tectum, torus semicircularis and tegmentum but cells were fewer in these locations in Xenopus. In the bullfrog hindbrain, GABA-immunoreactive cell bodies were restricted to very narrow and distinct populations. In Xenopus, however, cells in a similar position were fewer and spread more extensively. The distribution of GABA cells in the brain of these two species supports the hypotheses that GABA is involved in control of olfaction, audition, vision and vocalization. However, differences in the distribution of GABA between the bullfrog and Xenopus suggest that the extent of the GABAergic influence might vary between species. PMID:15627724

Hollis, David M; Boyd, Sunny K

2005-01-01

389

Density and distribution of white matter neurons in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: no evidence for abnormalities of neuronal migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that this disorder may result from a disruption of normal brain development. While widely cited, neuropathological evidence for this is far from conclusive. Alterations in the density and position of white matter neurons have been previously described in the frontal and temporal lobes and have led to suggestions that abnormal neuronal migration may play a role in the aetiology of schizophrenia. However, these findings have not been replicated. Furthermore, developmental abnormalities may not be specific to schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the density and spatial pattern distribution of white matter neurons in psychiatric and control subjects using sophisticated computerised image analysis techniques. White matter neurons immunoreactive for microtubule associated protein-2 were quantified in the frontal lobe in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and matched controls (each group n = 15). Analysis showed that the density and spatial distribution of white matter neurons did not differ significantly between the control and psychiatric groups. This study cannot replicate the earlier findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia and finds no evidence for abnormal brain development in any of the disorders studied. PMID:12140779

Beasley, C L; Cotter, D R; Everall, I P

2002-01-01

390

Reversible splenial abnormality in hypoglycemic encephalopathy  

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Lesions involving the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have been rarely reported in cases of hypoglycemic brain injury. We identified signal abnormalities in the SCC in three adult patients with hypoglycemic encephalopathy by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 1.5-T MR scanner. Repeat DWI was performed in all patients following a marked clinical improvement, and MR angiography and routine MRI were also performed. We examined each patient's detailed medical history and blood laboratory tests in order to exclude other conditions causing similar SCC abnormalities. Initial DWI was performed during which each patient showed altered mental status that was attributed to profound hypoglycemia. We observed an identical pattern of DWI abnormality characterized by high signals in the SCC with apparent diffusion coefficient reductions that were reversed completely within several days following appropriate correction of hypoglycemia. T2-weighted or FLAIR images also showed no residual lesion in the SCC and MR angiography was normal in all patients. These case reports suggest that the SCC should be added to the list of selective vulnerability to hypoglycemia and that hypoglycemia, in turn, be included in the differential diagnosis of reversible SCC abnormalities. (orig.)

Kim, Ji Hyun; Choi, Jeong Yoon; Koh, Seong-Beom [Korea University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Younghen [Korea University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Ansan City (Korea)

2007-03-15

391

Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis and outcome were reviewed. Results: Of the 370 cases identified, 31.6% were associated with spinabifida (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I-cell disease, Muenke craniosynostosis and two with an as yet undefined craniosynostosis syndrome. Overall, 16.5 % had an underlying genetic syndrome. Conclusions: Abnormal fetal head shape may be a normal variant, but is commonly associated with a wide variety of underlying pathologies. In view of the high incidence of genetic syndromes, in the absence of a clear diagnosis, referral to a tertiary centre and genetic input is advised as detection of subtle sonographic features may aid diagnosis, allowing for targeted molecular analysis. An algorithm for management will be proposed.

Petersen, Olav BjØrn; David, Anna

2007-01-01

392

Reversible splenial abnormality in hypoglycemic encephalopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lesions involving the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have been rarely reported in cases of hypoglycemic brain injury. We identified signal abnormalities in the SCC in three adult patients with hypoglycemic encephalopathy by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 1.5-T MR scanner. Repeat DWI was performed in all patients following a marked clinical improvement, and MR angiography and routine MRI were also performed. We examined each patient's detailed medical history and blood laboratory tests in order to exclude other conditions causing similar SCC abnormalities. Initial DWI was performed during which each patient showed altered mental status that was attributed to profound hypoglycemia. We observed an identical pattern of DWI abnormality characterized by high signals in the SCC with apparent diffusion coefficient reductions that were reversed completely within several days following appropriate correction of hypoglycemia. T2-weighted or FLAIR images also showed no residual lesion in the SCC and MR angiography was normal in all patients. These case reports suggest that the SCC should be added to the list of selective vulnerability to hypoglycemia and that hypoglycemia, in turn, be included in the differential diagnosis of reversible SCC abnormalities. (orig.)

393

Abnormality detector for pressure tube type reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an abnormality detector for a pressure tube type reactor, means are disposed at two positions of a flow channel for measuring a physical amount of coolant flow rate. That is, a means is disposed to a lower shielding plug for measuring the momentum by utilizing mechanical deformation caused by increase/decrease of flow rate, and a signal line from the measuring means is led out of the pressure tube. The rate of coolants is measured based on the pressure difference between the two points of the flow channel, and a difference between a measured value and a preset reference value is calculated to judge the presence or absence of an abnormal event, then the position where the event occurs is detected and the kind of the abnormal event is judged. Further, a monitor is disposed for displaying the occurrence, position, and kind of the event. When the occurrence of the abnormal event is judged, a reactor is automatically controlled depending on the position and the kind of the event. When coolants in a subcooling state upon starting of the operation begin to continuously boil in the pressure tube, the result of the analysis how to change the coolant flow rate at the inlet is provided as a base. (N.H.)

394

Abnormal uterine bleeding. Diagnostic value of hysteroscopy.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hysteroscopy was more sensitive than curettage in detecting endometrial polyps and submucous fibroids, but less sensitive than curettage in detecting endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Hysteroscopy should be carried out in conjunction with curettage for evaluating women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Office hysteroscopy with directed biopsies could be carried out, to reduce hospital diagnostic dilatation and curettage.

S. M. Madan

2001-02-01

395

Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

Wahl, Otto F.

1989-01-01

396

Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

Brewster, JoAnne

1996-01-01

397

Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

Rapport, Zachary

2011-01-01

398

Comparison of immunoreactivity to serotonin, FMRFamide and SCPb in the gut and visceral nervous system of larvae, pupae and adults of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti  

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In all life stages, the gut of the mosquito is innervated by a small number (typically 4) of central neurons immunoreactive to serotonin (SI). The serotonergic system appears to pass through metamorphosis largely intact, despite extensive remodeling of the gut. Axons immunoreactive to antibodies raised against molluscan FMRFamide (RF-I) constitute peptidergic innervation that anatomically parallels the serotonergic system. In the larva, two clusters of 3 neurons project to the anterior region...

Moffett, Stacia B.; Moffett, David F.

2005-01-01