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Sample records for abnormal tdp-43 immunoreactivity

  1. [Biochemical abnormality of mutant TDP-43 protein].

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    Yamanaka, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Dominant mutations in the TDP-43 gene are causative for familial ALS, however, the relationship between mutant protein biochemical phenotypes and disease course and their significance to disease pathomechanism are unclarified. We found that longer half-lives of mutant proteins correlated with accelerated disease onset. Increased stability of TDP-43 protein was also observed in ALS/FTLD linked mutations in RNA recognition motif of TDP-43. Based on our findings, we established a cell model in which chronic stabilization of wild-type TDP-43 protein provoked cytotoxicity and recapitulated pathogenic protein cleavage and insolubility to the detergent sarkosyl, TDP-43 properties that have been observed in the lesions of sporadic ALS. Moreover, these cells expressing stabilized TDP-43 showed proteasomal impairment and dysregulation of their own mRNA levels. These results suggest that chronically increased stability of mutant or wild-type TDP-43 proteins results in a gain of toxicity through abnormal proteostasis. PMID:25519967

  2. Molecular dissection of TDP-43 proteinopathies.

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    Hasegawa, Masato; Nonaka, Takashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tamaoka, Akira; Yamashita, Makiko; Kametani, Fuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Arai, Tetsuaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2011-11-01

    TDP-43 has been identified as a major component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative cytoplasmic inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We raised antibodies to phosphopeptides representing 36 out of 64 candidate phosphorylation sites of human TDP-43 and showed that the antibodies to pS379, pS403/404, pS409, pS410 and pS409/410 labeled the inclusions, but not the nuclei. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that the antibodies recognized TDP-43 at ~45 kDa, smearing substances and 18-26 kDa C-terminal fragments. Furthermore, the band patterns of the C-terminal fragments differed between neuropathological subtypes, but were indistinguishable between brain regions and spinal cord in each individual patient. Protease treatment of Sarkosyl-insoluble TDP-43 suggests that the different band patterns of the C-terminal fragments reflect different conformations of abnormal TDP-43 molecules between the diseases. These results suggest that molecular species of abnormal TDP-43 are different between the diseases and that they propagate from affected cells to other cells during disease progression and determine the clinicopathological phenotypes of the diseases. PMID:21678031

  3. Expression of mutant TDP-43 induces neuronal dysfunction in transgenic mice

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    Dickson Dennis W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Researchers have identified 44 mutations in the TARDBP gene that encode TDP-43 as causative for cases of sporadic and familial ALS http://www.molgen.ua.ac.be/FTDMutations/. Certain mutant forms of TDP-43, such as M337V, are associated with increased low molecular weight (LMW fragments compared to wild-type (WT TDP-43 and cause neuronal apoptosis and developmental delay in chick embryos. Such findings support a direct link between altered TDP-43 function and neurodegeneration. Results To explore the pathogenic properties of the M337V mutation, we generated and characterized two mouse lines expressing human TDP-43 (hTDP-43M337V carrying this mutation. hTDP-43M337V was expressed primarily in the nuclei of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and intranuclear and cytoplasmic phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates were frequently detected. The levels of TDP-43 LMW products of ~25 kDa and ~35 kDa species were also increased in the transgenic mice. Moreover, overexpression of hTDP-43M337V dramatically down regulated the levels of mouse TDP-43 (mTDP-43 protein and RNA, indicating TDP-43 levels are tightly controlled in mammalian systems. TDP-43M337V mice displayed reactive gliosis, widespread ubiquitination, chromatolysis, gait abnormalities, and early lethality. Abnormal cytoplasmic mitochondrial aggregates and abnormal phosphorylated tau were also detected in the mice. Conclusion Our novel TDP-43M337V mouse model indicates that overexpression of hTDP-43M337V alone is toxic in vivo. Because overexpression of hTDP-43 in wild-type TDP-43 and TDP-43M337V mouse models produces similar phenotypes, the mechanisms causing pathogenesis in the mutant model remain unknown. However, our results suggest that overexpression of the hTDP-43M337V can cause neuronal dysfunction due to its effect on a number of cell organelles and proteins, such as mitochondria and TDP-43, that are critical for neuronal activity. The mutant model will serve as a valuable tool in the development of future studies designed to uncover pathways associated with TDP-43 neurotoxicity and the precise roles TDP-43 RNA targets play in neurodegeneration.

  4. Sarcoplasmic Redistribution of Nuclear TDP-43 in Inclusion Body Myositis

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    Salajegheh, Mohammad; Pinkus, Jack L; Taylor, J. Paul; Amato, Anthony A; Nazareno, Remedios; Baloh, Robert H.; Greenberg, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    The nucleic acid binding protein TDP-43 was recently identified in normal myonuclei and in the sarcoplasm of inclusion body myositis (IBM) muscle. Here we found TDP-43 sarcoplasmic immunoreactivity in 23% of IBM myofibers, while other reported IBM biomarkers were less frequent, with rimmed vacuoles in 2.8%, fluorescent Congo red material in 0.57%, SMI-31 immunoreactivity in 0.83%, and focal R1282 beta-amyloid immunoreactivity in 0.00% of myofibers. The presence of as little as > 1% of myofibe...

  5. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

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    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  6. Inflammation Induces TDP-43 Mislocalization and Aggregation

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    Correia, Ana Sofia; Patel, Priyanka; Dutta, Kallol; Julien, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component in aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation can promote TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation. In culture, microglia and astrocytes exhibited TDP-43 mislocalization after exposure to LPS. Likewise, treatment of the motoneuron-like NSC-34 cells with TNF-alpha (TNF-?) increased the cytoplasmic levels of TDP-43. In addition, the chronic intraperitoneal injection of LPS at a dose of 1mg/kg in TDP-43A315T transgenic mice exacerbated the pathological TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm of spinal motor neurons and it enhanced the levels of TDP-43 aggregation. These results suggest that inflammation may contribute to development or exacerbation of TDP-43 proteinopathies in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26444430

  7. [Intracellular seeded aggregation of TDP-43].

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    Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato

    2012-01-01

    TAR-DNA binding protein of 43kDa(TDP-43) is the component protein of inclusions in brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we report a seed-dependent TDP-43 aggregation model using SH-SY5Y cells into which detergent-insoluble TDP-43 from diseased brains is introduced to provide seeds for aggregation. When these seeds were introduced into cells expressing HA-tagged TDP-43, round aggregates composed of phosphorylated and ubiquitinated HA-tagged TDP-43 were formed. Biochemical fractionation revealed the presence of Sarkosyl-insoluble phosphorylated full-length TDP-43 as well as its C-terminal fragments. Cells bearing TDP-43 inclusions exhibited increased levels of cell death and proteasome dysfunction. This seeding model reproduces characteristic features of affected neurons in brains with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:23196514

  8. Accelerated disease onset with stabilized familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutant TDP-43 proteins.

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    Watanabe, Shoji; Kaneko, Kumi; Yamanaka, Koji

    2013-02-01

    Abnormal protein accumulation is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, including accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Dominant mutations in the TDP-43 gene are causative for familial ALS; however, the relationship between mutant protein biochemical phenotypes and disease course and their significance to disease pathomechanism are not known. Here, we found that longer half-lives of mutant proteins correlated with accelerated disease onset. Based on our findings, we established a cell model in which chronic stabilization of wild-type TDP-43 protein provoked cytotoxicity and recapitulated pathogenic protein cleavage and insolubility to the detergent Sarkosyl, TDP-43 properties that have been observed in sporadic ALS lesions. Furthermore, these cells showed proteasomal impairment and dysregulation of their own mRNA levels. These results suggest that chronically increased stability of mutant or wild-type TDP-43 proteins results in a gain of toxicity through abnormal proteostasis. PMID:23235148

  9. Disease-associated mutations of TDP-43 promote turnover of the protein through the proteasomal pathway.

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    Araki, Wataru; Minegishi, Seiji; Motoki, Kazumi; Kume, Hideaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Araki, Yumiko M; Tamaoka, Akira

    2014-12-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of most ubiquitin-positive neuronal and glial inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). A number of missense mutations in the TARDBP gene have been identified in patients with familial and sporadic ALS, as well as familial FTLD with ALS. In the diseased states, TDP-43 proteins exhibit characteristic alterations, including truncation, abnormal phosphorylation, and altered subcellular distribution. However, the mechanisms by which TDP-43 mutations induce neurodegeneration remain unclear at present. In the current study, we analyzed protein turnover and subcellular distribution of wild-type TDP-43 and two disease-associated mutants (G298S and A382T) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing TDP-43 with a C-terminal tag. Cycloheximide chase experiments revealed more rapid turnover of TDP-43 mutant proteins than their wild-type counterpart. The decrease in the TDP-43 level after cycloheximide treatment was partially recovered upon co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, epoxomicin, but not the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, suggesting involvement of the proteasomal pathway in TDP-43 degradation. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of TDP-43 revealed predominant localization in the nuclear fraction, whereas the relative level in the cytoplasm remained unaltered in cells expressing either mutant protein, compared with wild-type protein. Our results suggest that higher turnover of disease-associated mutant TDP-43 proteins through the ubiquitin proteasome system is pathogenetically relevant and highlight the significance of proteolysis in the pathogenetic mechanism of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:24477737

  10. Molecular Neuropathology of TDP-43 Proteinopathies

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    Manuela Neumann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of TDP-43 as the major component of the pathologic inclusions in most forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS resolved a long-standing enigma concerning the nature of the ubiquitinated disease protein under these conditions. Anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemistry and the recent development of novel tools, such as phosphorylation-specific TDP-43 antibodies, have increased our knowledge about the spectrum of pathological changes associated with FTLD-U and ALS and moreover, facilitated the neuropathological routine diagnosis of these conditions. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding on the molecular neuropathology and pathobiology of TDP-43 in FTLD and ALS.

  11. Rethinking ALS: the FUS about TDP-43

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    Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation in TDP-43, a DNA/RNA binding protein, causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Combination of its mislocalization in most incidences of sporadic ALS (as well as other neurodegenerative disorders) with discovery of ALS-causing mutations in FUS/TLS, another DNA/RNA binding protein, has initiated a paradigm shift in understanding ALS pathogenesis. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS have striking structural and functional similarities, implicating alterations in RNA processing as...

  12. Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress

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    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L.; Parker, Sarah J.; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M.; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Crouch, Peter J.; White, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stre...

  13. [Molecular pathogenesis of ALS in TDP43 era].

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    Onodera, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    To clarify the molecular pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDd (TDP-43), the quality and quantity of TDP-43 take a crucial role. Regarding to the quality of TDP-43, TDP-43 has been reported as an aggregate-prone protein. Especially the C-terminus of the TDP-43 tends to form aggregate and has prion-like domain. Interestingly the mutations in the genes, which produce proteins with prion-like domain, have been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. These results suggest the existence of the common property in the causative proteins for neurodegenerative disorders. For the quantity of TDP-43, the adequate amount of TDP-43 is necessary for maintaining cell function and cell survival. The amount of TDP-43 is tightly regulated by TDP-43. However the mechanism for autoregulation has not been fully elucidated. For the function of TDP-43, TDP-43 locates at stress granule, GEM and associates with the large genes and introns. Thus the alteration of TDP-43 may affect the function of stress granule, GEM and RNA metabolism in several genes. Moreover a U12 type spliceosome, which is matured in GEM, is decreased in ALS. The investigation of whether these dysfunctions explain the selective pathology in ALS provides a new therapeutic strategy for ALS. PMID:24291884

  14. TDP-43 is a component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Ubiquitin-positive tau-negative neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites are common pathological features in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with or without symptoms of motor neuron disease and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, we have identified a TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a nuclear factor that functions in regulating transcription and alternative splicing, as a component of these structures in FTLD. Furthermore, skein-like inclusions, neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and glial inclusions in the spinal cord of ALS patients are also positive for TDP-43. Dephosphorylation treatment of the sarkosyl insoluble fraction has shown that abnormal phosphorylation takes place in accumulated TDP-43. The common occurrence of intracellular accumulations of TDP-43 supports the hypothesis that these disorders represent a clinicopathological entity of a single disease, and suggests that they can be newly classified as a proteinopathy of TDP-43

  15. Loss of hnRNPA1 in ALS spinal cord motor neurons with TDP-43-positive inclusions.

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    Honda, Hiroyuki; Hamasaki, Hideomi; Wakamiya, Tomihiro; Koyama, Sachiko; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Fujii, Naoki; Iwaki, Toru

    2015-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons and appearance of skein-like inclusions. The inclusions are composed of trans-activation response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family. hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 are hnRNPs that interact with the C-terminus of TDP-43. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the association between TDP-43 and hnRNPA1 in ALS spinal motor neurons. We examined spinal cords of seven ALS cases and six muscular dystrophy cases (used as controls) for the presence of TDP-43 and hnRNPA1 protein. In the control cases, hnRNPA1 immunoreactivity in motor neurons was intense in the nucleus and weak in the cytoplasm where it showed a fine granular appearance. In the ALS cases, hnRNPA1 immunoreactivity in motor neurons was reduced in the nuclei of neurons with skein-like inclusions but was not detected in the skein-like inclusions. The marked loss of hnRNPA1 in motor neurons with concomitant cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 may represent a severe disturbance of mRNA processing, suggesting a key role in progressive neuronal death in ALS. PMID:25338872

  16. Does a loss of TDP-43 function cause neurodegeneration?

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    Xu Zuo-Shang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 was discovered to be in the intracellular aggregates in the degenerating cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, two fatal neurodegenerative diseases [1,2]. ALS causes motor neuron degeneration leading to paralysis [3,4]. FTLD causes neuronal degeneration in the frontal and temporal cortices leading to personality changes and a loss of executive function [5]. The discovery triggered a flurry of research activity that led to the discovery of TDP-43 mutations in ALS patients and the widespread presence of TDP-43 aggregates in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. A key question regarding the role of TDP-43 is whether it causes neurotoxicity by a gain of function or a loss of function. The gain-of-function hypothesis has received much attention primarily based on the striking neurodegenerative phenotypes in numerous TDP-43-overexpression models. In this review, I will draw attention to the loss-of-function hypothesis, which postulates that mutant TDP-43 causes neurodegeneration by a loss of function, and in addition, by exerting a dominant-negative effect on the wild-type TDP-43 allele. Furthermore, I will discuss how a loss of function can cause neurodegeneration in patients where TDP-43 is not mutated, review the literature in model systems to discuss how the current data support the loss-of-function mechanism and highlight some key questions for testing this hypothesis in the future.

  17. Clinical and Pathological Continuum of Multisystem TDP-43 Proteinopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Geser, F.; Martinez-Lage, M; Robinson, J.; Uryu, K.; Neumann, M.; Brandmeir, N J; Xie, S.X.; Kwong, L K; Elman, L.; McCluskey, L; Clark, C M; Malunda, J; Miller, B.L.; Zimmerman, E A.; Qian, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of transactivation response DNA-binding protein with a molecular weight of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology in the central nervous system of patients with clinically and autopsy-confirmed diagnoses of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with and without motor neuron disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Performance of immunohistochemical whole-central nervous system scans for evidence of pathological TDP-43 and retro...

  18. Reversible Behavioral Phenotypes in a Conditional Mouse Model of TDP-43 Proteinopathies

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    Alfieri, Julio A.; Pino, Natalia S.; Igaz, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mislocalization and aggregation are hallmark features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We have previously shown in mice that inducible overexpression of a cytoplasmically localized form of TDP-43 (TDP-43-?NLS) in forebrain neurons evokes neuropathological changes that recapitulate several features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Detailed behavioral phenotyping could provide further validation for its usage as a...

  19. 4-Hydroxynonenal induces persistent insolubilization of TDP-43 and alters its intracellular localization.

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    Kabuta, Chihana; Kono, Kanako; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. TDP-43 has been found to be a major component of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in ALS. Aberrant TDP-43, which is found in inclusions, is phosphorylated and is re-distributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Alterations of TDP-43 protein, particularly insolubilization/aggregation and cytosolic distribution are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. Levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a marker of oxidative stress, have been reported to be elevated in sporadic ALS patients. However, the effects of HNE on TDP-43 are unclear. In this study, we found that HNE treatment of cells causes insolubilization, phosphorylation, and partial cytosolic localization of TDP-43. HNE-induced cytosolic TDP-43 was diffusely localized and only a small proportion of TDP-43 localized to stress granules, which are transient structures. HNE-induced TDP-43 insolubilization and phosphorylation were even observed 24 h after washout of HNE. We also showed that the cysteine residues of TDP-43 are responsible for HNE-induced insolubilization of TDP-43. Our results indicate that HNE can cause biochemical changes of TDP-43, which resemble the aberrant alterations of this protein in ALS, and suggest that upregulation of HNE could be a risk factor for ALS. PMID:25998392

  20. Does a loss of TDP-43 function cause neurodegeneration?

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Zuo-Shang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2006, TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) was discovered to be in the intracellular aggregates in the degenerating cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), two fatal neurodegenerative diseases [1,2]. ALS causes motor neuron degeneration leading to paralysis [3,4]. FTLD causes neuronal degeneration in the frontal and temporal cortices leading to personality changes and a loss of executive function [5]. The discovery triggered a ...

  1. The N-terminus of TDP-43 promotes its oligomerization and enhances DNA binding affinity

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    Chang, Chung-ke [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tzong-Huah [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chemical Biology and Molecular Biophysics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Biochemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chu-Ya [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Ming-hui; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Ku-Feng [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yu-heng [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tai-huang, E-mail: bmthh@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse, E-mail: jthuang@chem.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N-terminus of TDP-43 contains an independently folded structural domain (NTD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural domains of TDP-43 are arranged in a beads-on-a-string fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD promotes TDP-43 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD may assist nucleic acid-binding activity of TDP-43. -- Abstract: TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with different neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Here, the structural and physical properties of the N-terminus on TDP-43 have been carefully characterized through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence anisotropy studies. We demonstrate for the first time the importance of the N-terminus in promoting TDP-43 oligomerization and enhancing its DNA-binding affinity. An unidentified structural domain in the N-terminus is also disclosed. Our findings provide insights into the N-terminal domain function of TDP-43.

  2. Fragile X protein mitigates TDP-43 toxicity by remodeling RNA granules and restoring translation.

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    Coyne, Alyssa N; Yamada, Shizuka B; Siddegowda, Bhavani Bagevalu; Estes, Patricia S; Zaepfel, Benjamin L; Johannesmeyer, Jeffrey S; Lockwood, Donovan B; Pham, Linh T; Hart, Michael P; Cassel, Joel A; Freibaum, Brian; Boehringer, Ashley V; Taylor, J Paul; Reitz, Allen B; Gitler, Aaron D; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2015-12-15

    RNA dysregulation is a newly recognized disease mechanism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we identify Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (dFMRP) as a robust genetic modifier of TDP-43-dependent toxicity in a Drosophila model of ALS. We find that dFMRP overexpression (dFMRP OE) mitigates TDP-43 dependent locomotor defects and reduced lifespan in Drosophila. TDP-43 and FMRP form a complex in flies and human cells. In motor neurons, TDP-43 expression increases the association of dFMRP with stress granules and colocalizes with polyA binding protein in a variant-dependent manner. Furthermore, dFMRP dosage modulates TDP-43 solubility and molecular mobility with overexpression of dFMRP resulting in a significant reduction of TDP-43 in the aggregate fraction. Polysome fractionation experiments indicate that dFMRP OE also relieves the translation inhibition of futsch mRNA, a TDP-43 target mRNA, which regulates neuromuscular synapse architecture. Restoration of futsch translation by dFMRP OE mitigates Futsch-dependent morphological phenotypes at the neuromuscular junction including synaptic size and presence of satellite boutons. Our data suggest a model whereby dFMRP is neuroprotective by remodeling TDP-43 containing RNA granules, reducing aggregation and restoring the translation of specific mRNAs in motor neurons. PMID:26385636

  3. Functional recovery in new mouse models of ALS/FTLD after clearance of pathological cytoplasmic TDP-43.

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    Walker, Adam K; Spiller, Krista J; Ge, Guanghui; Zheng, Allen; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Melissa; Tripathy, Kalyan; Kwong, Linda K; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of phosphorylated cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions accompanied by loss of normal nuclear TDP-43 in neurons and glia of the brain and spinal cord are the molecular hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). However, the role of cytoplasmic TDP-43 in the pathogenesis of these neurodegenerative TDP-43 proteinopathies remains unclear, due in part to a lack of valid mouse models. We therefore generated new mice with doxycycline (Dox)-suppressible expression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) harboring a defective nuclear localization signal (?NLS) under the control of the neurofilament heavy chain promoter. Expression of hTDP-43?NLS in these 'regulatable NLS' (rNLS) mice resulted in the accumulation of insoluble, phosphorylated cytoplasmic TDP-43 in brain and spinal cord, loss of endogenous nuclear mouse TDP-43 (mTDP-43), brain atrophy, muscle denervation, dramatic motor neuron loss, and progressive motor impairments leading to death. Notably, suppression of hTDP-43?NLS expression by return of Dox to rNLS mice after disease onset caused a dramatic decrease in phosphorylated TDP-43 pathology, an increase in nuclear mTDP-43 to control levels, and the prevention of further motor neuron loss. rNLS mice back on Dox also showed a significant increase in muscle innervation, a rescue of motor impairments, and a dramatic extension of lifespan. Thus, the rNLS mice are new TDP-43 mouse models that delineate the timeline of pathology development, muscle denervation and neuron loss in ALS/FTLD-TDP. Importantly, even after neurodegeneration and onset of motor dysfunction, removal of cytoplasmic TDP-43 and the concomitant return of nuclear TDP-43 led to neuron preservation, muscle re-innervation and functional recovery. PMID:26197969

  4. Therapeutic modulation of eIF2?-phosphorylation rescues TDP-43 toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease models

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Raphael, Alya R.; LaDow, Eva S.; McGurk, Leeanne; Weber, Ross; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Finkbeiner, Steven; Gitler, Aaron D.; Bonini, Nancy M

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, late-onset neurodegenerative disease primarily impacting motor neurons. A unifying feature of many proteins associated with ALS, including TDP-43 and Ataxin-2, is that they localize to stress granules. Unexpectedly, we found that genes that modulate stress granules are striking modifiers of TDP-43 toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, eIF2? phosphorylation is upregulated by TDP-43 toxicity in flies, and TDP-43 interac...

  5. Degradation of TDP-43 and its pathogenic form by autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

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    Wang, Xiaoju; Fan, Huadong; Ying, Zheng; Li, Bin; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Guanghui

    2010-01-18

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein functioning in the regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing. TDP-43 is accumulated in ubiquitinated inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseased brains. However, the pathways involved in the clearance of TDP-43 and its pathogenic form (TDP-25), a truncated form of TDP-43, are still not elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the protein levels of TDP-43 and TDP-25 were increased in cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, or an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, whereas, they were decreased in cells treated with an enhancer of autophagy, trehalose. Furthermore, more protein level changes of TDP-25 than TDP-43 were observed in cells treated with above inhibitors or enhancer. Thus, our data suggest that TDP-43 and TDP-25 are degraded by both proteasome and autophagy with TDP-25 being more regulated. PMID:19944744

  6. On the development of markers for pathological TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geser, F

    2011-12-01

    Pathological 43-kDa transactive response sequence DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) has been recognized as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive, tau and ?-synuclein negative inclusions (FTLD-U) and the transitional forms between these multisystem conditions. In order to develop TDP-43 into a successful ALS biomarker, the natural history of TDP-43 pathology needs to be characterized and the underlying pathophysiology established. Here we propose a spatial and temporal "two-axes" model of central nervous system vulnerability for TDP-43 linked degeneration and review recent studies on potential biomarkers related to pathological TDP-43 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and skeletal muscle. The model includes the following two arms: Firstly, a "motor neuron disease" or "spinal cord\\/brainstem to motor cortex" axis (with degeneration possibly ascending from the lower motor neurons to the upper motor neurons); and secondly, a "dementia" or "corticoid\\/allocortex to neocortex" axis (with a probable spread of TDP-43 linked degeneration from the mediotemporal lobe to wider mesocortical and neocortical brain areas). At the cellular level, there is a gradual disappearance of normal TDP-43 in the nucleus in combination with the formation of pathological aggregates in the cell body and cellular processes, which can also be used to identify the stage of the disease process. Moreover, TDP-43 lesions in subpial\\/subependymal or perivascular localizations have been noted, and this might account for increased CSF and blood TDP-43 levels through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated.

  7. TDP-43 modification in the hSOD1(G93A) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, MuDan; Lee, Kang-Woo; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset disease that produces gradual motor neuron cell death in the spinal cord (SP). Recently, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), a critical component of insoluble ubiquitinated inclusions, has received attention in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and ALS. TDP-43 modifications, including hyperphosphorylation, truncation, and ubiquitination, have been reported in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). However, the pathogenic mechanism of TDP-43 in ALS is unclear. To determine the association between TDP-43 and neurotoxicity in an ALS model, we characterized TDP-43 expression in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice (Tg) as an ALS animal model. TDP-43 was expressed by astrocytes and microglial cells in the SP of hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated and truncated TDP-43 increased in the SP of ALS mice compared with age-matched non-Tg. Furthermore, the serum iron concentration and expression of transferrin, a homeostasis-related iron protein, in the SP were increased relative to non-Tg. The protein expression level of HO-1 related to oxidative stress was increased in the SP of hSOD1(G93A) Tg relative to non-Tg. We show that an increase of TDP-43 modification, including phosphorylation or truncation, associates with dysfunctional iron homeostasis and an increase in oxidative stress in the SP of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) Tg. These findings suggest that modified TDP-43 may be involved in motor neuron death in the SP of a SOD1(G93A)-expressing familial ALS (fALS) animal model. PMID:25213598

  8. Conjoint pathologic cascades mediated by ALS/FTLD-U linked RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS

    OpenAIRE

    Ito,Daisuke; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    The RNA-binding proteins TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) play central roles in neurodegeneration associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Normally localized in the nucleus, in sites affected by ALS and FTLD-U they are mislocalized to the cytoplasm and form cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 and FUS are transported to the nucleus in a Ran-GTPase-dependent manner via nu...

  9. Distinct TDP-43 pathology in ALS patients with ataxin 2 intermediate-length polyQ expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Michael P.; Brettschneider, Johannes; Lee, Virginia M. Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Gitler, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons, resulting in paralysis and death. A pathological hallmark of the degenerating motor neurons in most ALS patients is the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions containing the protein TDP-43. The morphology and type of TDP-43 pathological inclusions is variable and can range from large round Lewy body-like inclusions to filamentous skein-like inclusions. The cl...

  10. Cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43 is toxic to neurons and enhanced by a mutation associated with familial ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Barmada, Sami J.; Skibinski, Gaia; Korb, Erica; Rao, Elizabeth J.; Wu, Jane Y; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 — the major protein component of neuronal aggregates characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies (FTLDu) — have been linked to familial forms of both disorders. Aggregates of TDP-43 in cortical and spinal motoneurons in ALS, or in neurons of the frontal and temporal cortices in FTLD, are closely linked to neuron loss and atrophy in these areas. However, the mechanism ...

  11. TDP-43 Proteinopathy and Motor Neuron Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Ann C.; Gavett, Brandon E; Stern, Robert A.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Cantu, Robert C; Kowall, Neil W.; Perl, Daniel P; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Price, Bruce; Sullivan, Chris; Morin, Peter; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Wulff, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is increased in association with head injury. Repetitive head injury is also associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tauopathy characterized by neurofibrillary tangles throughout the brain in the relative absence of ?-amyloid deposits. We examined 12 cases of CTE and, in 10, found a widespread TAR DNA-binding protein of approximately 43 kd (TDP-43) proteinopathy affecting...

  12. Distinct partitioning of ALS associated TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 mutants into cellular inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrawell, Natalie E; Lambert-Smith, Isabella A; Warraich, Sadaf T; Blair, Ian P; Saunders, Darren N; Hatters, Danny M; Yerbury, Justin J

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Most cases are characterized by TDP-43 positive inclusions, while a minority of familial ALS cases are instead FUS and SOD1 positive respectively. Cells can generate inclusions of variable type including previously characterized aggresomes, IPOD or JUNQ structures depending on the misfolded protein. SOD1 invariably forms JUNQ inclusions but it remains unclear whether other ALS protein aggregates arise as one of these previously described inclusion types or form unique structures. Here we show that FUS variably partitioned to IPOD, JUNQ or alternate structures, contain a mobile fraction, were not microtubule dependent and initially did not contain ubiquitin. TDP-43 inclusions formed in a microtubule independent manner, did not contain a mobile fraction but variably colocalized to JUNQ inclusions and another alternate structure. We conclude that the RNA binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS do not consistently fit the currently characterised inclusion models suggesting that cells have a larger repertoire for generating inclusions than currently thought, and imply that toxicity in ALS does not stem from a particular aggregation process or aggregate structure. PMID:26293199

  13. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) regulates stress granule dynamics via differential regulation of G3BP and TIA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Karli K; Aulas, Anaïs; Destroismaisons, Laurie; Pickles, Sarah; Beleac, Evghenia; Camu, William; Rouleau, Guy A; Vande Velde, Christine

    2011-04-01

    TAR deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a multifunctional protein with roles in transcription, pre-messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) splicing, mRNA stability and transport. TDP-43 interacts with other heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP A2, via its C-terminus and several hnRNP family members are involved in the cellular stress response. This relationship led us to investigate the role of TDP-43 in cellular stress. Our results demonstrate that TDP-43 and hnRNP A2 are localized to stress granules (SGs), following oxidative stress, heat shock and exposure to thapsigargin. TDP-43 contributes to both the assembly and maintenance of SGs in response to oxidative stress and differentially regulates key SGs components, including TIA-1 and G3BP. The controlled aggregation of TIA-1 is disrupted in the absence of TDP-43 resulting in slowed SG formation. In addition, TDP-43 regulates the levels of G3BP mRNA, a SG nucleating factor. The disease-associated mutation TDP-43(R361S) is a loss-of-function mutation with regards to SG formation and confers alterations in levels of G3BP and TIA-1. In contrast, a second mutation TDP-43(D169G) does not impact this pathway. Thus, mutations in TDP-43 are mechanistically divergent. Finally, the cellular function of TDP-43 extends beyond splicing and places TDP-43 as a participant of the central cellular response to stress and an active player in RNA storage. PMID:21257637

  14. TDP-43 Loss-of-Function Causes Neuronal Loss Due to Defective Steroid Receptor-Mediated Gene Program Switching in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Vanden Broeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 proteinopathy is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders. Whether TDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a novel toxic gain-of-function mechanism of the aggregates or by a loss of its normal function is unknown. We increased and decreased expression of TDP-43 (dTDP-43 in Drosophila. Although upregulation of dTDP-43 induced neuronal ubiquitin and dTDP-43-positive inclusions, both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 resulted in selective apoptosis of bursicon neurons and highly similar transcriptome alterations at the pupal-adult transition. Gene network analysis and genetic validation showed that both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 directly and dramatically increased the expression of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein Map205, resulting in cytoplasmic accumulations of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR and a failure to switch EcR-dependent gene programs from a pupal to adult pattern. We propose that dTDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a loss of its normal function.

  15. TDP-43 loss-of-function causes neuronal loss due to defective steroid receptor-mediated gene program switching in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Broeck, Lies; Naval-Sánchez, Marina; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Diaper, Danielle; Dourlen, Pierre; Chapuis, Julien; Kleinberger, Gernot; Gistelinck, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Hirth, Frank; Aerts, Stein; Callaerts, Patrick; Dermaut, Bart

    2013-01-31

    TDP-43 proteinopathy is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders. Whether TDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a novel toxic gain-of-function mechanism of the aggregates or by a loss of its normal function is unknown. We increased and decreased expression of TDP-43 (dTDP-43) in Drosophila. Although upregulation of dTDP-43 induced neuronal ubiquitin and dTDP-43-positive inclusions, both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 resulted in selective apoptosis of bursicon neurons and highly similar transcriptome alterations at the pupal-adult transition. Gene network analysis and genetic validation showed that both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 directly and dramatically increased the expression of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein Map205, resulting in cytoplasmic accumulations of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) and a failure to switch EcR-dependent gene programs from a pupal to adult pattern. We propose that dTDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a loss of its normal function. PMID:23333275

  16. The ALS/FTLD-related RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS have common downstream RNA targets in cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiyu Honda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 and FUS are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, and loss of function of either protein contributes to these neurodegenerative conditions. To elucidate the TDP-43- and FUS-regulated pathophysiological RNA metabolism cascades, we assessed the differential gene expression and alternative splicing profiles related to regulation by either TDP-43 or FUS in primary cortical neurons. These profiles overlapped by >25% with respect to gene expression and >9% with respect to alternative splicing. The shared downstream RNA targets of TDP-43 and FUS may form a common pathway in the neurodegenerative processes of ALS/FTLD.

  17. TDP-43 Proteinopathies: A New Player in Neurodegenerative Diseases with Defective Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Lahut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proteome is the sum of all proteins inside a cell, and proteostasis (protein homeostasis is the stable condition of the proteome. Proteostasis is essential for the cellular and organismal health. Stress, aging and the chronic expression of misfolded proteins challenge the proteostasis machinery and the vitality of the cell. There is increasing evidence that the accumulation of damaged proteins not only has direct consequences on the efficiency and fidelity of cellular processes but, when not corrected, that they initiate a cascade of dysfunction, which in humans is associated with a plethora of diseases of protein conformation, referred to as proteinopathies. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD, Huntington’s Disease (HD, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, cancer and diabetes, whose frequencies have drastically increased in countries with aging populations, are all consequences of misfolded proteins. This paper focuses on TDP-43, which excelled as a key protein in neurodegenerative processes because of its association with different diseases, especially with ALS and Frontotemporal Lobar Dementia (FTLD, the two best studied examples of TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  18. FUS pathology defines the majority of tau- and TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urwin, Hazel; Josephs, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    Through an international consortium, we have collected 37 tau- and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases, and present here the first comprehensive analysis of these cases in terms of neuropathology, genetics, demographics and clinical data. 92% (34/37) had fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein pathology, indicating that FTLD-FUS is an important FTLD subtype. This FTLD-FUS collection specifically focussed on aFTLD-U cases, one of three recently defined subtypes of FTLD-FUS. The aFTLD-U subtype of FTLD-FUS is characterised clinically by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and has a particularly young age of onset with a mean of 41 years. Further, this subtype had a high prevalence of psychotic symptoms (36% of cases) and low prevalence of motor symptoms (3% of cases). We did not find FUS mutations in any aFTLD-U case. To date, the only subtype of cases reported to have ubiquitin-positive but tau-, TDP-43- and FUS-negative pathology, termed FTLD-UPS,is the result of charged multivesicular body protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) mutation. We identified three FTLD-UPS cases, which are negative for CHMP2B mutation, suggesting that the full complement of FTLD pathologies is yet to be elucidated.

  19. Short-term suppression of A315T mutant human TDP-43 expression improves functional deficits in a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of FTLD-TDP and ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yazi D; van Hummel, Annika; Stevens, Claire H; Gladbach, Amadeus; Ippati, Stefania; Bi, Mian; Lee, Wei S; Krüger, Sarah; van der Hoven, Julia; Volkerling, Alexander; Bongers, Andre; Halliday, Glenda; Haass, Nikolas K; Kiernan, Matthew; Delerue, Fabien; Ittner, Lars M

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) undergoes relocalization to the cytoplasm with formation of cytoplasmic deposits in neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Pathogenic mutations in the TDP-43-encoding TARDBP gene in familial ALS as well as non-mutant human TDP-43 have been utilized to model FTD/ALS in cell culture and animals, including mice. Here, we report novel A315T mutant TDP-43 transgenic mice, iTDP-43 (A315T) , with controlled neuronal over-expression. Constitutive expression of human TDP-43 (A315T) resulted in pronounced early-onset and progressive neurodegeneration, which was associated with compromised motor performance, spatial memory and disinhibition. Muscle atrophy resulted in reduced grip strength. Cortical degeneration presented with pronounced astrocyte activation. Using differential protein extraction from iTDP-43 (A315T) brains, we found cytoplasmic localization, fragmentation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination and insolubility of TDP-43. Surprisingly, suppression of human TDP-43 (A315T) expression in mice with overt neurodegeneration for only 1 week was sufficient to significantly improve motor and behavioral deficits, and reduce astrogliosis. Our data suggest that functional deficits in iTDP-43 (A315T) mice are at least in part a direct and transient effect of the presence of TDP-43 (A315T) . Furthermore, it illustrates the compensatory capacity of compromised neurons once transgenic TDP-43 is removed, with implications for future treatments. PMID:26437864

  20. Mutant superoxide dismutase 1 overexpression in NSC-34 cells: effect of trehalose on aggregation, TDP-43 localization and levels of co-expressed glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Catarina; Escrevente, Cristina; Costa, Júlia

    2010-05-21

    Protein inclusions rich in mutant Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been found in tissues from patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, the mouse motor neuron-like NSC-34 cell line transiently transfected with human SOD1(G93A) fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein exhibited aggregates contrary to cells overexpressing wild-type human SOD1. The aggregates were immunoreactive for ubiquitin but not for the TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) that was found in the nucleus. These characteristics mimicked the pathology of mutant SOD1 associated familial ALS. Aggregate formation and mutant SOD1 detergent insolubility were significantly decreased in the presence of millimolar concentrations of trehalose possibly due to its capacity to induce autophagy or to its properties as chemical chaperone. Mutant SOD1, aggregated and non-aggregated, caused decreased levels of concomitantly expressed secretory (beta-trace protein and erythropoietin) and plasma membrane (L1 cell adhesion molecule) glycoproteins, which were not due to their intracellular accumulation. These cells may be used to study mechanisms of pathogenesis associated with ALS and to test potential therapeutic compounds. PMID:20363292

  1. Valproate Attenuates 25-kDa C-Terminal Fragment of TDP-43-Induced Neuronal Toxicity via Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Activating Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejing; Ma, Mingming; Teng, Junfang; Che, Xiangqian; Zhang, Wenwen; Feng, Shuman; Zhou, Shuang; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Erxi; Ding, Xuebing

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. To date, there is no any effective pharmacological treatment for improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. Rapidly emerging evidence suggests that C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), including TDP-35 and TDP-25, may play an important role in ALS pathogenesis. Valproate (VPA), a widely used antiepileptic drug, has neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative disorders. As for ALS, preclinical studies also provide encouraging evidence for multiple beneficial effects in ALS mouse models. However, the potential molecular mechanisms have not been explored. Here, we show protective effects of VPA against TDP-43 CTFs-mediated neuronal toxicity and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. Remarkably, TDP-43 CTFs induced neuronal damage via endoplastic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagic self-defense system was activated to reduce TDP-43 CTFs-induced neuronal death. Finally, VPA attenuated TDP-25-induced neuronal toxicity via suppressing ER stress-mediated apoptosis and enhancing autophagy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that VPA exerts neuroprotective effects against TDP-43 CTFs-induced neuronal damage. Thus, we provide new molecular evidence for VPA treatment in patients with ALS and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26078717

  2. Alterations in stress granule dynamics driven by TDP-43 and FUS: a link to pathological inclusions in ALS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulas, Anaïs; Vande Velde, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are RNA-containing cytoplasmic foci formed in response to stress exposure. Since their discovery in 1999, over 120 proteins have been described to be localized to these structures (in 154 publications). Most of these components are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) or are involved in RNA metabolism and translation. SGs have been linked to several pathologies including inflammatory diseases, cancer, viral infection, and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In ALS and FTD, the majority of cases have no known etiology and exposure to external stress is frequently proposed as a contributor to either disease initiation or the rate of disease progression. Of note, both ALS and FTD are characterized by pathological inclusions, where some well-known SG markers localize with the ALS related proteins TDP-43 and FUS. We propose that TDP-43 and FUS serve as an interface between genetic susceptibility and environmental stress exposure in disease pathogenesis. Here, we will discuss the role of TDP-43 and FUS in SG dynamics and how disease-linked mutations affect this process. PMID:26557057

  3. AAV9 supports wide-scale transduction of the CNS and TDP-43 disease modeling in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Klein, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    AAV9 has emerged as an efficient adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype for gene transfer to the central nervous system. We have used this technique to study aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by administering AAV encoding the ALS-related gene transactive response DNA binding protein of 43?kDa (TDP-43) to neonatal rats. However, inducing the expression in adult subjects would be preferable to mimic the adult onset of symptoms in ALS. We expressed either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or TDP-43 in adult rats after an intravenous (i.v.) route of administration to attempt wide-scale transduction of the spinal cord for disease modeling. In order to optimize the gene transfer, we made comparisons of efficiency by age, gender, and across several AAV serotypes (AAV1, AAV8, AAV9, and AAV10). The data indicate more efficient neuronal transduction in neonates, with little evidence of glial transduction at either age, no gender-related differences in transduction, and that AAV9 was efficient in adults relative to the other serotypes tested. Based on these data, AAV9 TDP-43 was expressed at three vector doses in adult female rats yielding highly consistent, dose-dependent motor deficits. AAV9 can be delivered i.v. to adult rats to achieve consistent pathophysiological changes and a relevant adult-onset system for disease modeling. PMID:26445725

  4. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte A.J. Van Zundert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1G93A contains toxic factor(s that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1G93A and ACM-SOD1G86R or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43A315T mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30-60 minutes increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Nav channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine or riluzole prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Nav channel activity.

  5. Increased metal content in the TDP-43A315T transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Xin Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43 is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43A315T mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but Zn, Cu and Mn levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43A315T mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43A315T mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43A315T in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43A315T mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive decline.

  6. Increased metal content in the TDP-43(A315T) transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Theresa N T; Lim, Nastasia K H; Grubman, Alexandra; Li, Qiao-Xin; Volitakis, Irene; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43 (A315T) mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but zinc, copper, and manganese levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43 (A315T) mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43 (A315T) mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43 (A315T) in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43 (A315T) mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive decline. PMID:24575040

  7. Rab1-dependent ER-Golgi transport dysfunction is a common pathogenic mechanism in SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS-associated ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Kai Y; Halloran, Mark; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Parakh, Sonam; Toth, Reka P; Southam, Katherine A; McLean, Catriona A; Lock, Peter; King, Anna; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D

    2015-11-01

    Several diverse proteins are linked genetically/pathologically to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS. Using a variety of cellular and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ALS-associated mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 inhibit protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus in neuronal cells. ER-Golgi transport was also inhibited in embryonic cortical and motor neurons obtained from a widely used animal model (SOD1(G93A) mice), validating this mechanism as an early event in disease. Each protein inhibited transport by distinct mechanisms, but each process was dependent on Rab1. Mutant TDP-43 and mutant FUS both inhibited the incorporation of secretory protein cargo into COPII vesicles as they bud from the ER, and inhibited transport from ER to the ER-Golgi intermediate (ERGIC) compartment. TDP-43 was detected on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane, whereas FUS was present within the ER, suggesting that transport is inhibited from the cytoplasm by mutant TDP-43, and from the ER by mutant FUS. In contrast, mutant SOD1 destabilised microtubules and inhibited transport from the ERGIC compartment to Golgi, but not from ER to ERGIC. Rab1 performs multiple roles in ER-Golgi transport, and over-expression of Rab1 restored ER-Golgi transport, and prevented ER stress, mSOD1 inclusion formation and induction of apoptosis, in cells expressing mutant TDP-43, FUS or SOD1. Rab1 also co-localised extensively with mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 in neuronal cells, and Rab1 formed inclusions in motor neurons of spinal cords from sporadic ALS patients, which were positive for ubiquitinated TDP-43, implying that Rab1 is misfolded and dysfunctional in sporadic disease. These results demonstrate that ALS-mutant forms of TDP-43, FUS, and SOD1 all perturb protein transport in the early secretory pathway, between ER and Golgi compartments. These data also imply that restoring Rab1-mediated ER-Golgi transport is a novel therapeutic target in ALS. PMID:26298469

  8. ApoE and TDP-43 neuropathology in two siblings with familial FTLD-motor neuron disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vossel, Keith A.; Bien-Ly, Nga; Bernardo, Aubrey; RASCOVSKY, KATYA; Karydas, Anna; Rabinovici, Gil D; Sidhu, Manu; Huang, Eric J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Huang, Yadong; Seeley, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND) is characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions containing TDP-43. Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), derived from the apoE ?4 allele, enhances brain atrophy in FTLD through unknown mechanisms. Here, we studied two siblings with C9ORF72-linked familial FTLD-MND, an apoE ?4 homozygote and an apoE ?3 homozygote. The apoE ?4 homozygote had more cognitive-behavioral symptoms, fronto-insulo-temporal atrophy, and apoE fragments and ...

  9. ALS-Associated Ataxin 2 PolyQ Expansions Enhance Stress-Induced Caspase 3 Activation and Increase TDP-43 Pathological Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Michael P.; Gitler, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of motor neurons. The degenerating motor neurons of ALS patients are characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic inclusions containing phosphorylated and truncated forms of the RNA-binding protein TDP-43. Ataxin 2 intermediate-length polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions were recently identified as a risk factor for ALS; however, the mechanism by which they contribute to disease is unknown. Here,...

  10. ER-mitochondria associations are regulated by the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and are disrupted by ALS/FTD-associated TDP-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Radu; de Vos, Kurt J.; Paillusson, Sébastien; Mueller, Sarah; Sancho, Rosa M.; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lin, Wen-Lang; Xu, Ya-Fei; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Miller, Christopher C. J.

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) form tight structural associations and these facilitate a number of cellular functions. However, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to mitochondria are not properly known. Understanding these mechanisms is not just important for comprehending fundamental physiological processes but also for understanding pathogenic processes in some disease states. In particular, disruption to ER-mitochondria associations is linked to some neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that the ER-resident protein VAPB interacts with the mitochondrial protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein-51 (PTPIP51) to regulate ER-mitochondria associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that TDP-43, a protein pathologically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal dementia perturbs ER-mitochondria interactions and that this is associated with disruption to the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Finally, we show that overexpression of TDP-43 leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and that GSK-3? regulates the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction. Our results describe a new pathogenic mechanism for TDP-43.

  11. Corticobasal degeneration with olivopontocerebellar atrophy and TDP-43 pathology: an unusual clinicopathologic variant of CBD

    OpenAIRE

    Kouri, Naomi; Oshima, Kenichi; Takahashi, Makio; Murray, Melissa E; Ahmed, Zeshan; Parisi, Joseph E.; Yen, Shu-Hui C; Dickson, Dennis W

    2013-01-01

    CBD is a disorder affecting cognition and movement due to a progressive neurodegeneration associated with distinctive neuropathologic features, including abnormal phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and glia in cortex, basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem, as well as ballooned neurons and astrocytic plaques. We identified three cases of CBD with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (CBD-OPCA) that did not have ?-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions of multiple system atrophy (MSA). ...

  12. TDP-43 loss of cellular function through aggregation requires additional structural determinants beyond its C-terminal Q/N prion-like domain

    OpenAIRE

    Budini, Mauricio; Romano, Valentina; Quadri, Zainuddin; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E

    2014-01-01

    TDP-43 aggregates are the neurohistological landmark of diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Their role in the pathogenesis of these conditions is not yet clear mainly due to the lack of proper models of aggregation that may allow the study of the mechanism of formation, their interactions with other cellular components and their effect on the cell metabolism. In this work, we have used tandem repeats of the prion like Q/N-rich region of TAR DNA-binding pro...

  13. FTLD-TDP with motor neuron disease, visuospatial impairment and a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome: broadening the clinical phenotype of TDP-43 proteinopathies. A report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Holmerová Iva; Ridzo? Petr; Hort Jakub; Fiala Jind?ich; Kovacs Gabor G; Rusina Robert; Ströbel Thomas; Mat?j Radoslav

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin and TDP-43 positive neuronal inclusions represents a novel entity (FTLD-TDP) that may be associated with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND); involvement of extrapyramidal and other systems has also been reported. Case presentation We present three cases with similar clinical symptoms, including Parkinsonism, supranuclear gaze palsy, visuospatial impairment and a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, associated with eit...

  14. Stress granule recruitment and deposition of proteins of the FET family and TDP-43 in ALS and FTD

    OpenAIRE

    Bentmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are defined by progressive and selective loss of neurons. With increasing age the risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease exponentially rises. To date these diseases are untreatable, imposing a significant medical, social and financial burden onto our ageing society. Typical features of neurodegenerative diseases are abnormal aggregation of a disease characteriz...

  15. FTLD-TDP with motor neuron disease, visuospatial impairment and a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome: broadening the clinical phenotype of TDP-43 proteinopathies. A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmerová Iva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin and TDP-43 positive neuronal inclusions represents a novel entity (FTLD-TDP that may be associated with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND; involvement of extrapyramidal and other systems has also been reported. Case presentation We present three cases with similar clinical symptoms, including Parkinsonism, supranuclear gaze palsy, visuospatial impairment and a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, associated with either clinically possible or definite MND. Neuropathological examination revealed hallmarks of FTLD-TDP with major involvement of subcortical and, in particular, mesencephalic structures. These cases differed in onset and progression of clinical manifestations as well as distribution of histopathological changes in the brain and spinal cord. Two cases were sporadic, whereas the third case had a pathological variation in the progranulin gene 102 delC. Conclusions Association of a "progressive supranuclear palsy-like" syndrome with marked visuospatial impairment, motor neuron disease and early behavioral disturbances may represent a clinically distinct phenotype of FTLD-TDP. Our observations further support the concept that TDP-43 proteinopathies represent a spectrum of disorders, where preferential localization of pathogenetic inclusions and neuronal cell loss defines clinical phenotypes ranging from frontotemporal dementia with or without motor neuron disease, to corticobasal syndrome and to a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome.

  16. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H K; Lo, S T

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (AE1/3, CAM 5.2 and PKK-1) and polyclonal antisera against the cytokeratin proteins were reacted with a range of astrocytic tumours, oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas. Seven of 12 cases (58%) of glioblastoma multiforme, five of eight (63%) anaplastic astrocytomas and two of five (40%) well-differentiated astrocytomas were immunoreactive with AE1/3 but not with the other anti-cytokeratin antibodies. In oligodendrogliomas, AE1/3 stained isolated astrocyte-like cells as well as scattered neoplastic oligodendrocytes in four of eight cases (50%) cases. Four ependymomas were negative for all cytokeratin markers examined. The immunostaining of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas with AE1/3 might represent co-expression of cytokeratin with glial fibrillary acidic protein by gliomas and calls for caution in the use of these antibodies in the differential diagnosis between gliomas and carcinomas. PMID:2472343

  17. A Seeding Reaction Recapitulates Intracellular Formation of Sarkosyl-insoluble Transactivation Response Element (TAR) DNA-binding Protein-43 Inclusions*?

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Kumi; Watanabe, Shoji; Yamanaka, Koji; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The transactivation response element (TAR) DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein that normally regulates transcription and splicing. Abnormal accumulation of insoluble inclusions containing TDP-43 has been recently reported in the affected tissues of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Here, we show that intracellular aggregation of TDP-43 can be triggered by transduction of fibrillar aggregates prepared from in vitro functional TDP-43. Sarkosyl is found to be incapab...

  18. A seeding reaction recapitulates intracellular formation of Sarkosyl-insoluble transactivation response element (TAR) DNA-binding protein-43 inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Kumi; Watanabe, Shoji; Yamanaka, Koji; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2011-05-27

    The transactivation response element (TAR) DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein that normally regulates transcription and splicing. Abnormal accumulation of insoluble inclusions containing TDP-43 has been recently reported in the affected tissues of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Here, we show that intracellular aggregation of TDP-43 can be triggered by transduction of fibrillar aggregates prepared from in vitro functional TDP-43. Sarkosyl is found to be incapable of solubilizing those intracellularly seeded aggregates of TDP-43, which is consistent with the observation that TDP-43 inclusions in ALS patients are sarkosyl-insoluble. In addition, intracellular seeding in our cell models reproduces ubiquitination of TDP-43 aggregates, which is another prominent feature of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS patients. Although it has been so far difficult to initiate disease-associated changes of TDP-43 using cultured cell models, we propose that a seeding reaction is a key to construct a model to monitor TDP-43 pathologies. PMID:21454603

  19. Nail abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... lines can occur after illness, injury to the nail, during chemotherapy for cancer, or when you do ...

  20. Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Growth of Leptospire, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: Immunoreactivity and Cell Division

    CERN Document Server

    Triampo, W; Triampo, D; Wong-Ekkabut, J; Tang, I M; Triampo, Wannapong; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Triampo, Darapond; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the exposure of the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola to a constant magnetic field with magnetic flux density from a permanent ferrite magnet = 140 mT were studied. Changes in Leptospira cells after their exposure to the field were determined on the basis of changes in their growth behavior and agglutination immunoreactivity with a homologous antiserum using darkfield microscopy together with visual imaging. The data showed that the exposed Leptospira cells have lower densities and lower agglutination immunoreactivity than the unexposed control group. Interestingly, some of the exposed Leptospira cells showed abnormal morphologies such as large lengths. We discussed some of the possible reasons for these observations.

  1. Methods for concentration of urinary immunoreactive insulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Du, B. H.; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1986-01-01

    Insulin is readily concentrated from 10 to 50 ml of urine with better than 75% recovery using octadecylsilyl (ODS) silica columns (C18Sep-Pak cartridge) and can then be measured by radioimmunoassay. Fractionation on Sephadex G50 gel filtration reveals that the apparent immunoreactivity corresponds for the most part to 6000 dalton insulin. Renal clearance of insulin in 5 normal subjects does not appear to differ in the fasted or fed state and ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 ml/min with an average of ...

  2. Tenascin immunoreactivity in normal and pathological bone marrow.

    OpenAIRE

    Soini, Y; Kamel, D; Apaja-Sarkkinen, M.; Virtanen, I.; Lehto, V P

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the distribution of tenascin in normal and pathological bone marrow. METHODS: 48 different bone marrow lesions were studied immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody to tenascin. RESULTS: Tenascin immunoreactivity was found in lesions with increased fibrosis and high numbers of reticular fibres. The strongest immunoreactivity was found in myelofibrosis. Bone marrow from acute and chronic myeloid and lymphatic leukaemias showed weak or moderate immunoreactivity. In h...

  3. Pericellular Innervation of Neurons Expressing Abnormally Hyperphosphorylated Tau in the Hippocampal Formation of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    LidiaBlazquez-Llorca

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) represent one of the main neuropathological features in the cerebral cortex associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This neurofibrillary lesion involves the accumulation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated or abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau into paired helical filaments (PHF-tau) within neurons. We have used immunocytochemical techniques and confocal microscopy reconstructions to examine the distribution of PHF-tau-immunoreactive (ir)...

  4. Immunoreactive trypsin and neonatalscreening for cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in dried blood spots from 160.822 five-day-old babies as a part of a regionwide neonatal screening program for cystic fibrosis. A second test was performed for 492 babies in whom blood IRT levels were found greater than 900 ?g/l; retesting revealed persistent elevation in 55. Sweat testing confirmed cystic fibrosis in 43 babies, but results were normal in 12. During the course of this study, a total of 51 cystic fibrosis babies were identified: 43 by newborn screening, 6 because they had meconium ileus; so, early diagnosis was achieved in 49 cases out of 51. Two newborn babies did not have elevated IRT and they were missed by the screening test. Our results confirm that elevated blood IRT is characteristic of newborn babies with cystic fibrosis and show that this test has an excellent specificity (99.7%) and a good sensitivity (95%) when used as a neonatal screening test

  5. Frontotemporal Disorders: Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include loss of neurons and abnormal amounts or forms of proteins called tau and TDP-43. These proteins occur naturally in the body and help cells function properly. When the proteins don’t work properly, ...

  6. In vitro digestibility and immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Andrew B; Williams, Kristina; Toomer, Ondulla T

    2016-01-01

    Current models of digestibility solely utilize pepsin stability to assess the safety of allergenic food proteins. However, in vivo complete protein digestion requires acid denaturation and pepsin, trypsin, and/or chymotrypsin cleavage. This study aimed to identify the immunoreactivity and allergenicity of stable bovine milk proteins, using an improved digestibility model to simulate physiological gastric and intestinal conditions in vitro. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis were used to determine protein stability and immunoreactivity, respectively. Immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins, ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) and casein (CN) was greatly diminished with gastric simulation (0-60 min), but some proteins were stable and immunoreactive with simulated intestinal digestive conditions (0-60 min). This study demonstrates the need for improved digestibility models for more accurate assessment of the behavior of food allergens in vivo. PMID:26213013

  7. Calretinin Immunoreactivity in the Claustrum of the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Druga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The claustrum is a telencephalic structure which consists of dorsal segment adjoining the insular cortex and a ventral segment termed also endopiriform nucleus. The dorsal segment (claustrum is divided into a dorsal and ventral zone, while the endopiriform nucleus is parcellated into dorsal, ventral and intermediate endopiriform nucleus. The claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus consist of glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic local interneurons coexpressing calcium binding proteins. Among neurons expressing calcium binding Proteins, the calretinin – immunoreactive interneurons exert specific functions in neuronal circuits, including disinhibition of excitatory neurons. Previous anatomical data indicate extensive and reciprocally organized claustral projections with cerebral cortex. We asked if the distribution of cells immunoreactive for calretinin delineates anatomical or functional subdivisions in the claustrum and in the endopiriform nucleus. Both segments of the claustrum and all subdivisions of the endopiriform nucleus contained calretinin immunoreactive neurons with varying distribution. The ventral zone of the claustrum exhibited weak labeling with isolated cell bodies and thin fibers and is devoid of immunoreactive puncta. Within the medial margin of the intermediate endopiriform nucleus we noted a group of strongly positive neurons. Cells immunoreactive for calretinin in all subdivisions of the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus were bipolar, multipolar and oval with smooth, beaded aspiny dendrites. Small number of calretinin- immunoreactive neurons displayed thin dendrites which enter to adjoining structures. Penetration of dendrites was reciprocal. These results show an inhomogenity over the claustrum and the endopiriform nucleus in distribution and types of calretinin immunoreactive neurons. The distribution of the calretinin – immunoreactive neurons respects the anatomical but not functional zones of the claustral complex.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Immunoreactive Somatostatin from Fish Pancreatic Islets

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Hideki; Hirsch, Harry J; Gabbay, Kenneth H.; Permutt, Alan

    1980-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay with labeled synthetic tetradecapeptide somatostatin, a large amount of immunoreactive somatostatin was found in the principal pancreatic islet of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctata). The purpose of these experiments was to isolate and characterize the somatostatin-like material. Extracts of islets were chromatographed on a Bio-Gel P-30 column, and over 90% of the immunoreactive somatostatin migrated with proteins at least twice the size of synthetic tetradecapep...

  9. DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellows CF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Gagliardi1, Monica Goswami1, Roberto Passera2, Charles F Bellows11Department of Surgery and Pathology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Division of Nuclear Medicine Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Turin, ItalyIntroduction: Microtubule-associated doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCLK1 is a novel candidate marker for intestinal stem cells. The aim of our study was to assess DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal carcinogenesis and its correlation with prognosis.Methods: DCLK1 immunostaining was performed in colorectal tissue from 71 patients, including 18 adenomatous polyps, 40 primary adenocarcinomas, and 14 metastatic lesions. Each case was evaluated by a combined scoring method based on the intensity of staining (score 0–3 and the percentage of tissue staining positive (score 0–3. Immunoexpression for DCLK1 was considered as positive when the combined score was 2–6 and negative with a score of 0–1.Results: Overall, 14/18 (78% of polyps, 30/40 (75% of primary adenocarcinomas, and 7/14 (50% of distant metastases were positive for DCLK1. In adenomatous polyps and primary cancer there was no association between DCLK1 staining score and tumor pathology. However, after curative colorectal cancer resection, patients whose tumor had a high (?5 combined staining score had increased cancer-specific mortality compared to patients with low (0–4 staining score (hazard ratio 5.89; 95% confidence interval: 1.22–28.47; P = 0.027.Conclusion: We found that DCLK1 is frequently expressed in colorectal neoplasia and may be associated with poor prognosis. Further studies are necessary to validate the use of DCLK1 as a prognostic marker.Keywords: DCLK1, DCAMKL-1, gastrointestinal stem cell, cancer stem cell, adenomatous polyps, liver metastasis, immunohistochemistry

  10. TDP-43 pathology in familial frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease without Progranulin mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Seelaar, H.; Jurgen Schelhaas, H.; Azmani, A.; Küsters, B.; Rosso, S.M.; Majoor-Krakauer, D.F.; Rijik, M.C. de; Rizzu, P.; Brummelhuis, M. ten; van Doorn, P A; Kamphorst, W.; Willemsen, R; Swieten, J.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia is accompanied by motor neuron disease (FTD + MND) in ?10% of cases. There is accumulating evidence for a clinicopathological overlap between FTD and MND based on observations of familial aggregation and neuropathological findings of ubiquitin-positive neuronal cytoplasmatic inclusions (NCI) in lower motor neurons, hippocampus and neocortex in both conditions. Several familial forms exist with different genetic loci and defects. We investigated the familial aggregation...

  11. Effect of pulsed light on structure and immunoreactivity of gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Agnese; Manzocco, Lara; Lippe, Giovanna; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The effect of pulsed light (from 1.75 to 26.25Jcm(-2)) on selected properties of wheat gluten powder and aqueous suspension (absorbance, particle size and microstructure, free sulfhydryl content, protein fractions, protein electrophoretic mobility and immunoreactivity) was investigated. Gluten photoreactivity was strongly affected by hydration. While minor photo-induced structure modifications were observed in gluten powder, pulsed light induced the development of browning and promoted partial depolymerisation of hydrated gluten proteins by disulphide exchange. These changes were associated with a significant decrease in immunoreactivity, suggesting that pulsed light could be exploited to efficiently modify structure and thus functionality of gluten. PMID:26471567

  12. Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions are associated with increased risk for ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Elden, Andrew C.; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Hart, Michael P.; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Johnson, Brian S.; Fang, Xiaodong; Armakola, Maria; Geser, Felix; Greene, Robert; Lu, Min Min; Padmanabhan, Arun; Clay, Dana; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Juhr, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human neurodegenerative disease. The causes of ALS are poorly understood, although the protein TDP-43 has been suggested to play a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Here we show that Ataxin-2, a polyglutamine (polyQ) protein mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), is a potent modifier of TDP-43 toxicity in animal and cellular models. The proteins associate in a complex that depends on RNA. Ataxin-2 is abnormally localized in s...

  13. Biomolecular immunoreactivity factor in antibody labelling design for potent radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomolecular factors' importance in optimum immunoconjugate design when high specific labelling is attempted is discussed. High specific labelling allows a small dose to be administered avoiding saturating antigen binding sites and to compensate for loss of bivalency etc. upon fragmentation. Clinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications result in adverse toxicity and poor scintigraphic resolution from the corrupted distribution upon labelling. DTPA is a strong chelator and forms a tight sequestering cryptate structure of small dimensions with the radioactive metals Tc-99m and In-111. Size severely affects permeability with reticuloendothelial accumulation. Compact scaled radiolabels are advantageous as potent payload moieties for radiotherapy as well as imaging. The antibody binding site requires close surface contact with its epitope to effect the specificity of immunoreaction. Binding site exposure to coupling chemistry can be directed via affinity purification methodology. The globular antibody with an amphiphilic structure presents conformed surface chemistry and is relatively inert requiring excess reaction stoichiometry. Radiolabelled antibodies to calcitonin (a 32 aminoacid polypeptide ectopic lung tumor antigen) in a solid phase immunoreactivity assay demonstrate 48 hours for 90% uptake. Site directed radiolabelling is of interest in preservation of immunoreactivity in protein engineering. 19 refs., 8 figs

  14. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996. Results: Of 38,151 pregnant women who had newborn infants without any congenital abnormalities (population control group), 774 (3.4%); of 22,865 case pregnant women who had newbo...

  15. Prion immunoreactivity in brain, tonsil, gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and blood and lymph vessels in lemurian zoo primates with spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, N; Mestre-Frances, N; Guiraud, I; Charnay, Y

    1997-12-01

    We report on two animals of a non-human primate species Eulemur fulvus mayottensis, housed in the local zoo and fed over a number of years with a food containing cattle meat, that developed serious neurological symptoms associated with prion immunoreactivity in brain and various viscera. Microscopy of the brains showed neuronal vacuolation with patchy/perivacuolar immunolabelling with an abnormal isoform of prion protein (IR-PrP), an important characteristic of spongiform encephalopathy. For the first time, we report the presence in the same severely ill animals of IR-PrP in the gastrointestinal tract, detected by immunocytochemistry with mono- and polyclonal antibodies directed against various parts of the PrP. Strong PrP labelling was observed in the epithelial cells lining the pharyngeal and gastrointestinal lumen. The tonsils and the walls of the lymph and blood vessels below the intestinal epithelium were also labelled. There were no such immunoreactions in healthy lemurians killed as controls, i.e. a younger congener of the same species housed under the same conditions, and others belonging to the smaller species Microcebus murinus, reared in the laboratory and never fed on commercial food products containing cattle meat. These results demonstrate a strong PrP accumulation in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and underlying lymphoreticular structures in these primates living in a zoological park and suffering from a spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:9587475

  16. Immunoreactivity examination of patients with testicular tumours treated with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanits, K.; Kuhn, E.; Csere, T.

    1985-02-01

    Results of the immunoreactivity study of 72 patients receiving radiotherapy are presented. Tuberculin and DNCB (2,4 dinitrochlorobenzol) reactivity tests were performed before, during and 3 years after the radiation therapy and at the time when metastases appeared. The number of positive reactions decreased slightly in both tuberculin and DNCB groups, though not significantly. Metastatic patients showed a significant decrease of reactivity against DNCB as compared with the results obtained before the treatment. In 5,6% of patients herpes zoster was registered. No other infections occured. It was found that immunosuppression caused by the radiation treatment does not influence the later fate of patients with testicular tumours. 41 refs.

  17. Enzyme immunoassay of immunoreactive trypsin in serum and blood spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme immunoassay method for the assay of serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) is described. The method is a two site binding assay carried out on microtitre plates as the solid phase. Wells were coated with affinity purified anti-human trypsin and bioinylated anti-trypsin and avidin-?-galactosidase were used as the second antibody and detection system respectively. The assay was sensitive enough to determine IRT concentrations in either serum or dried blood spots. A good correlation was obtained when the method was compared with the Hoechst radioimmunoassay method. (Author)

  18. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  19. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  20. MAPK immunoreactivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat testis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yel& #305; z Bozdem& #305; r, Donmez; Gulnur, Kizilay; Yeter, Topcu-Tarladacalisir.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK), in the testes of male rats with experimental diabetes. METHODS: Twenty males Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a [...] control group (n=8) and a diabetes group (administration of 40 mg/kg/day streptozotocin (STZ) for five sequential days, n=12). After six weeks, testicular biopsy samples were obtained for light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) index was significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004) when compared to the control group. Both total (t)-ERK and phosphor (p)-ERK immunoreactivities were significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004, p

  1. [Immunoreaction and blood transfusion--chairmen's introductory remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Tsutomu; Matsushita, Tadashi

    2013-05-01

    Although blood transfusion is an extremely important therapeutic procedure that usually proceeds without complications, there are some risks associated with donated blood. Investigations into the causes of transfusion reactions and their prevention are important issues for transfusion therapy. In addition to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for infectious diseases and the irradiation of blood to prevent post-transfusion GVHD, prestorage leukocyte reduction and diversion of the first part of the donation of blood were recently introduced into transfusion therapy. This symposium, entitled "Immunoreaction and blood transfusion", reviewed the immune responses associated with blood transfusion, which is probably the most frequent medical procedure performed in allogeneic organ transplantation, with four themes provided by the four featured invited speakers: transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transfusion-transmitted infectious disease surveillance, and transfusion-related immunomodulation. PMID:23947177

  2. Antisense RNA foci in the motor neurons of C9ORF72-ALS patients are associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Higginbottom, Adrian; Stopford, Matthew J.; Highley, J. Robin; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B.; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Kirby, Janine; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Shaw, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    GGGGCC repeat expansions of C9ORF72 represent the most common genetic variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. We and others have proposed that RNA transcribed from the repeat sequence is toxic via sequestration of RNA-binding factors. Both GGGGCC-repeat (sense) and CCCCGG-repeat (antisense) molecules are detectable by fluorescence in situ hybridisation as RNA foci, but their relative expression pattern within the CNS and contribution to disease has not been...

  3. Eye Movement Deficits Are Consistent with a Staging Model of pTDP-43 Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, Martin; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lulé, Dorothée; Del Tredici, Kelly; Brettschneider, Johannes; Keller, Jürgen; Pfandl, Katharina; Ludolph, Albert C.; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The neuropathological process underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can be traced as a four-stage progression scheme of sequential corticofugal axonal spread. The examination of eye movement control gains deep insights into brain network pathology and provides the opportunity to detect both disturbance of the brainstem oculomotor circuitry as well as executive deficits of oculomotor function associated with higher brain networks. Objective To study systematically oculomotor characteristics in ALS and its underlying network pathology in order to determine whether eye movement deterioration can be categorized within a staging system of oculomotor decline that corresponds to the neuropathological model. Methods Sixty-eight ALS patients and 31 controls underwent video-oculographic, clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Results Oculomotor examinations revealed increased anti- and delayed saccades’ errors, gaze-palsy and a cerebellary type of smooth pursuit disturbance. The oculomotor disturbances occurred in a sequential manner: Stage 1, only executive control of eye movements was affected. Stage 2 indicates disturbed executive control plus ‘genuine’ oculomotor dysfunctions such as gaze-paly. We found high correlations (poculomotor stages and both, the clinical presentation as assessed by the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) score, and cognitive scores from the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS). Conclusions Dysfunction of eye movement control in ALS can be characterized by a two-staged sequential pattern comprising executive deficits in Stage 1 and additional impaired infratentorial oculomotor control pathways in Stage 2. This pattern parallels the neuropathological staging of ALS and may serve as a technical marker of the neuropathological spreading. PMID:26559944

  4. FTLD-ALS of TDP-43 type and SCA2 in a family with a full ataxin-2 polyglutamine expansion.

    OpenAIRE

    Bäumer, D; East, SZ; Tseu, B; Zeman, A.; Hilton, D; Talbot, K.; Ansorge, O.

    2014-01-01

    Polyglutamine expansions in the ataxin-2 gene (ATXN2) cause autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), but have recently also been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We present clinical and pathological features of a family in which a pathological ATXN2 expansion led to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ALS (FTLD-ALS) in the index case, but typical SCA2 in a son, and compare the neuropathology with a case of typical SCA2. The index case shares the molecula...

  5. Expansive Gene Transfer in the Rat CNS Rapidly Produces Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Relevant Sequelae When TDP-43 is Overexpressed

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, David B; Dayton, Robert D.; Henning, Phillip P; Cain, Cooper D.; Zhao, Li Ru; Schrott, Lisa M.; Orchard, Elysse A; Knight, David S.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Improved spread of transduction in the central nervous system (CNS) was achieved from intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AAV9) to neonatal rats. Spinal lower motor neuron transduction efficiency was estimated to be 78% using the highest vector dose tested at a 12-week interval. The widespread expression could aid studying diseases that affect both the spinal cord and brain, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The protein most relevant to neuropathology i...

  6. Chronic 835-MHz radiofrequency exposure to mice hippocampus alters the distribution of calbindin and GFAP immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Dhiraj; Pradhan, Jonu; Aryal, Bijay; Lee, Chang-Min; Choi, In-Young; Park, Ki-Sup; Kim, Seok Bae; Kim, Hyung Gun; Kim, Myeung Ju

    2010-07-30

    Exponential interindividual handling in wireless communication system has raised possible doubts in the biological aspects of radiofrequency (RF) exposure on human brain owing to its close proximity to the mobile phone. In the nervous system, calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a critical role in releasing neurotransmitters, generating action potential and membrane integrity. Alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration trigger aberrant synaptic action or cause neuronal apoptosis, which may exert an influence on the cellular pathology for learning and memory in the hippocampus. Calcium binding proteins like calbindin D28-K (CB) is responsible for the maintaining and controlling Ca(2+) homeostasis. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of RF exposure on rat hippocampus at 835 MHz with low energy (specific absorption rate: SAR=1.6 W/kg) for 3 months by using both CB and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) specific antibodies by immunohistochemical method. Decrease in CB immunoreactivity (IR) was noted in exposed (E1.6) group with loss of interneurons and pyramidal cells in CA1 area and loss of granule cells. Also, an overall increase in GFAP IR was observed in the hippocampus of E1.6. By TUNEL assay, apoptotic cells were detected in the CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, which reflects that chronic RF exposure may affect the cell viability. In addition, the increase of GFAP IR due to RF exposure could be well suited with the feature of reactive astrocytosis, which is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the loss of nearby neurons. Chronic RF exposure to the rat brain suggested that the decrease of CB IR accompanying apoptosis and increase of GFAP IR might be morphological parameters in the hippocampus damages. PMID:20546709

  7. Abnormal Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Rohila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing crime rate identification using biometrics has become an important field of research. When it is not possible to take snapshot, to read iris, to take finger prints etc then identification using gait may be proved an effective tool to identify a person. This paper presents a method which distinguishs between normal and abnormal gait. A person having abnormal gait may be categorize as suspicious and alarming actions may be taken. Experiments have been done on real world data and system has been trained for normal walk for real world subjects.

  8. Correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity to bacillus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jing Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity.METHODS:Demodex counting of 68 inpatients was performed based on eight lashes sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: These 68 patients without facialrosacea or blepharitis were age matched(P=0.888and gender matched(P=0.595regarding serum immunoreactivity or ocular Demodex infestation. According to the eyelash, creep mite infection was divided into positive and negative groups, age-matched(P=0.590and sex-matched(P=0.329. There was no significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and Demodex infestation(P=0.925. There were 27 patients with positive serum immunoreactivity in 38 patients with Demodex infestation(71%, and there were 21 patients in 30 patients without Demodex infestation(70%. There was no significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and Demodex counting(P=0.758. CONCLUSION: It is unnecessary to perform serum analysis when Demodex can be found in asymptomatic individuals. But treatment of reducing lashes Demodex infestation is necessary when patient with blepharitis was detected Demodex in eye lashes and positive serum immunoreactivity.

  9. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  10. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity in brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri (Cyclostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirikowski, G; Erhart, G

    1984-01-01

    Paraffin sections of brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri were immunostained with an antiserum to FMRF-amide. Immunoreactivity was visible in a large number of neurons in the posterior part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in long neuronal processes extending cranially from the hypothalamus to the olfactory system and caudally to the medulla oblongata. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity was also found in cells of the adenohypophysis. These observations suggest that the hagfish possesses a brain FMRF-amide-like transmitter system and pituitary cells containing FMRF-amide-like material. Antisera to ACTH, alpha-MSH and pancreatic polypeptide gave no immunoreaction in hagfish brain or pituitary.

  11. Demonstration of substance P immunoreactivity in the nucleus dorsalis of human spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioro, E P; Hughes, J T; Cuello, A C

    1984-09-28

    Substance P immunoreactivity has been detected in varicosities around cell bodies of the nucleus dorsalis (Clarke's column) of the human spinal cord. This immunostaining probably represents neuropeptide immunoreactivity either in the nerve terminals of spinal interneurone, descending projections or in the primary dorsal root afferents which have been shown previously to synapse with the neurones of Clarke's column. The presence of substance P immunoreactivity in the human nucleus dorsalis suggests a role of substance P in the transmission of proprioceptive and exteroceptive information from the lower trunk and limbs to the cerebellum. PMID:6083510

  12. Immunoreactive oxytocin and vasopressin in the non-pregnant human uterus and oviductal isthmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, S; Forman, Axel

    1989-01-01

    The regional distribution of immunoreactive OT and AVP in the human uterus was investigated. Specimens of non-pregnant human uterus and oviduct were homogenized and extracted. The tissue levels exceeded the plasma concentrations of the peptides. The largest quantities of both peptides were found in the cervix and oviductal isthmus. The amounts found in the uterine fundus and isthmus were, however, not significantly different. Only 23% of immunoreactive OT eluted in the position of standard peptide on high-performance liquid chromatography. All immunoreactive AVP eluted with standard AVP after additional ether extraction of octadecasilyl extracts. We conclude that the human uterus contains materials immunologically and chromatographically identical to oxytocin and vasopressin.

  13. Immunoreactive neuropeptides in the cells of human thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavi? Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to explore the expression of different neuropeptides, viz. vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, bombesin and motilin in the cells of fetal and adult human thymus. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cortical and medullary thymocytes were labeled by all antibodies, except those specific for motilin. Immunoreactive VIP and SP were observed in the solitary epithelial cells located in the subcapsular/subtrabecular cortex, at the corticomedullary junction and in the medulla. The cells within the subcapsular/subtrabecular monolayer, rare solitary cells in the deep cortex and epithelial cell network in the medulla, were labeled with antibodies to CGRP and bombesin. Hassall’s corpuscles were labeled with all antibodies except that specific for SP. The obtained data obtained testify to the expression of different neuropeptides in human thymic lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells and suggest a role for neuroendocrine hormone-mediated mechanisms in the regulation of thymic homeostasis in humans.

  14. Deposition of immunoreactants in a cutaneous allergic drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: The analysis of allergic drug reaction pathology may be difficult, especially if multiple histological reaction patterns are detected on review of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained sections. In this case, we emphasize the value of adding immunohistochemistry (IHC and multicolor direct immunofluorescence (DIF as tools to improve the diagnosis of these complex disorders. Patient and Methods: Our patient is a twenty-year-old Caucasian female, who presented with a sudden onset of erythematous macules on the skin following administration of amoxicillin. Lesional tissue was examined by H & E and IHC, and perilesional tissue by DIF and IHC. Results: The H&E findings revealed diffuse dermal edema, and a mild, superficial, perivascular dermatitis with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, consistent with an allergic drug eruption. The IHC and DIF studies revealed autoreactivity to sweat glands, nerves and dermal blood vessels, as well as dermal deposits of immune reactants such as fibrinogen and complement around the inflamed areas. Conclusions: Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products have been shown in some cases of allergic disorders; thus, we encourage the effect further testing for these immunoreactants in biopsies from patients with possible allergic drug reactions.

  15. Immunoreactive inhibin concentration in blood tested under variable sampling conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan; Micic, S

    1996-01-01

    The stability of immunoreactive (i.r.) inhibin in blood samples drawn and handled under different conditions and at different time intervals were studied. Ten serum and plasma samples drawn in 1994 from healthy volunteers were compared to samples collected in 1986 from 10 healthy women admitted for laparoscopic sterilization and analysed 6 years later. All samples were drawn on the twelfth day of the menstrual cycle and handled under identical clinical conditions (22 degrees C). The concentrations in the 1986 samples were similar to the Se-i.r. inhibin levels from 1994. Different clotting temperatures, repetitive freezing and thawing or hemolysis had no effects on the i.r. inhibin values, whereas non-hemolysed samples left at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days were significantly lower, which might be due to a statistical type 2 error. No differences in concentration between serum and plasma i.r. inhibin were demonstrated. In conclusion, i.r. inhibin is a very stable peptide hormone in both serum and plasma if drawn and handled under normal conditions.

  16. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SIE) and hemoglobin levels were measured in 152 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Anemia was present in 18% of asymptomatic patients who tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 50% of patients with a condition related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 75% of patients with AIDS. The mean SIE level for untreated AIDS patients was greater than for patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus or patients with an AIDS-related condition but not outside the normal range for SIE, and the incremental increase in SIE level for a given decline in hemoglobin level was much less in AIDS patients than in patients with uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia. Forty-two patients were treated with zidovudine, and the hemoglobin level fell 10 g/L or more in 48%. The data indicate that SIE level is inappropriately low in anemic AIDS patients. The ability of these patients to produce erythropoietin is intact and can be expressed with zidovudine therapy. However, even very high levels of SIE fail to stimulate erythropoiesis adequately

  17. Prognostic significance of CEA immunoreactivity patterns in large bowel carcinoma tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggers, T; Arends, J.W.; Verstijnen, C.; Moerkerk, P. M.; Bosman, F.T.

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the clinical value of CEA detection in large bowel cancer tissue the patterns rather than the intensity of immunoreactivity of CEA reactive antibodies were analyzed in 312 large bowel cancer patients especially in relation to patient survival. CEA immunoreactivity appeared to be distinguishable into a predominantly apical/cytoplasmic and a predominantly membranous pattern. Twenty-four (7.7%) tumours were found to be CEA negative or only focally positive. Two hundred and ...

  18. Humoral immunoreactivity to gliadin and to tissue transglutaminase is present in some patients with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matkovic Suzana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a clonal B-cell disorder with many immunological disturbances. The aim of this work was to assess whether some of food antigens contribute to the imbalance of immune response by screening the sera of MM patients for their immunoreactivity to food constituent gliadin, to tissue transglutaminase-2 (tTG-2 and to Ro/SSA antigen. Sera from 61 patients with MM in various stages of disease, before, or after some cycles of conventional therapy were analyzed by commercial Binding Site ELISA tests. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis of data obtained was performed by Mann Whitney Test. Results The higher serum IgA immunoreactivity to gliadin was found in 14/56 patients and in one of control people. The enhanced serum IgG immunoreactivity to gliadin was found in only two of tested patients and in two controls. The enhanced IgA immunoreactivity to tTG-2 was found in 10/49 patients' sera, while 4/45 patients had higher serum IgG immunoreactivity. The enhanced serum IgG immunoreactivity to RoSSÀ antigen was found in 9/47 analyzed MM patients' sera. Statistical analysis of data obtained revealed that only the levels of anti-tTG-2 IgA immunoreactivity in patients with MM were significantly higher than these obtained in healthy controls (P Conclusion Data obtained showed the existence of the enhanced serum immunoreactivity to gliadin, tTG-2 and Ro/SSA antigens in some patients with MM. These at least partially could contribute to the immunological imbalance frequently found in this disease.

  19. Diurnal variation of ?-endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of ?-endorphin immunoreactive material. (Author)

  20. Effect of glycation on the gastrointestinal digestibility and immunoreactivity of bovine ?-lactoglobulin

    OpenAIRE

    Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Soria, Ana C.; Belloque, Josefina; Villamiel, Mar; Moreno, F Javier

    2010-01-01

    Immunoreactivity of bovine ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) hydrolysates obtained after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion and previously glycated via Maillard reaction with galactose, tagatose, and dextran of 10 or 20 kDa has been determined, with a view to study the effect of glycation and aggregation degree of ?-Lg on its residual immunoreactivity. High levels of glycation impaired ?-Lg proteolysis and, consequently, increased the IgG- and IgE-reactivities of hydrolysates, regardless of the carb...

  1. Levels of immunoreactive inhibin-like material in urine during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay, the authors determined levels of inhibinlike material in the urine of eight healthy women with normal menstrual cycle length of 28 +- 4 days. The results revealed a cyclic variation in urinary immunoreactive inhibin levels during the menstrual cycles, with a sharp rise in levels three to four days prior to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks. These levels of immunoreactive inhibin may thus serve as a parameter to detect impending LH surge. (author)

  2. Glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity is present in oligodendroglia of various regions of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Eng, L. F.; Gibbs, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase immunoreactive oligodendrocytes were identified in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. They were mostly confined to the gray matter, particularly close to neurons and processes. The white matter showed few immunoreactive oligodendroglia. It was suggested that some type of oligodendrocytes, specially those in perineuronal location, might fulfill a functional role more akin to astrocytes than to the normally myelinating oligodendroglia.

  3. Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic f...

  4. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    OpenAIRE

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Staped...

  5. Induction of Fos protein immunoreactivity by spinal cord contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del-Bel E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify neurons in the central nervous system that respond to spinal contusion injury in the rat by monitoring the expression of the nuclear protein encoded by the c-fos gene, an activity-dependent gene, in spinal cord and brainstem regions. Rats were anesthetized with urethane and the injury was produced by dropping a 5-g weight from 20.0 cm onto the exposed dura at the T10-L1 vertebral level (contusion group. The spinal cord was exposed but not lesioned in anesthetized control animals (laminectomy group; intact animals were also subjected to anesthesia (intact control. Behavioral alterations were analyzed by Tarlov/Bohlman scores, 2 h after the procedures and the animals were then perfused for immunocytochemistry. The patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI which were site-specific, reproducible and correlated with spinal laminae that respond predominantly to noxious stimulation or injury: laminae I-II (outer substantia gelatinosa and X and the nucleus of the intermediolateral cell column. At the brain stem level FLI was detected in the reticular formation, area postrema and solitary tract nucleus of lesioned animals. No Fos staining was detected by immunocytochemistry in the intact control group. However, detection of FLI in the group submitted to anesthesia and surgical procedures, although less intense than in the lesion group, indicated that microtraumas may occur which are not detected by the Tarlov/Bohlman scores. There is both a local and remote effect of a distal contusion on the spinal cord of rats, implicating sensory neurons and centers related to autonomic control in the reaction to this kind of injury.

  6. Comparison of immunoreactive serum trypsinogen and lipase in Cystic Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is 1 in 2,000. Early detection and treatment of CF may necessitate newborn screening with a reliable and cost-effective test. Serum immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) an enzyme produced by the pancreas, is detectable by radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. Recently, it has been shown that IRT is elevated in CF infants for the first few months of life and levels become subnormal as pancreatic insufficiency progresses. Other enzymes produced by the pancreas, such as lipase, are also elevated during this time. The author's earlier work confirmed previous reports of elevated IRT levels in CF infants. The development of a new RIA for lipase (nuclipase) has enabled comparison of these 2 pancreatic enzymes in C.F. Serum IRT and lipase determinations were performed on 2 groups of CF patients; infants under 1 year of age, and children between 1 and 18 years of age. Control populations of the same age groups were included. The results showed that both trypsin (161 +- 92 ng/ml, range 20 to 400) and lipase (167 +- 151 ng/ml, range 29 to 500) are elevated in CF in the majority of infants. Control infants had values of IRT ranging from 20 to 29.5 ng/ml and lipase values ranging from 23 to 34 ng/ml. IRT becomes subnormal in most CF patients by 8 years of age as pancreatic function insufficiency increases. Lipase levels and IRT levels correlate well in infancy, but IRT is a more sensitive indicator of pancreatic insufficiency in older patients with CF

  7. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  8. Characteristics of galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity in the rat amygdala complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Laslo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Morphological features and morphometric parameters of galanin (GAL and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive neurons and neuronal fibres were studied in all nuclei of adult male rat amygdala. Material and methods After perfusion and fixation, rat brains were immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against GAL and VIP and then visualized by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. Results and Discussion The greatest number of galanin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the medial part of the central nucleus and in the dorsal part of the medial nucleus. In the first case, most neurons were bipolar (37%, and in the second, they were ovoid (45%. GAL-immunoreactive fibers were identified in the medial nucleus, "bed nucleus" of the accessory olfactory tract, frontal cortical nucleus, amygdalo-hippocampal area and basolateral nucleus. VIP-immunoreactive neurons were diffusely distributed in more nuclei than the previous, mostly in the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nucleus. They were mostly ovoid (40%. VIP-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the lateral part of the central nucleus, while long and radially oriented fibers were present in the frontal and dorsal cortical nucleus. Conclusion By distribution analysis of GAL and VIP immunoreactive neurons and fibers, and according to literature data, it can be assumed that the medial part of the central nucleus receives VIP fibers from other parts of the amygdaloid body, and then sends GAL fibers to the medial nucleus.

  9. Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication Having two of everything may be ... anomaly of fusion and duplication." What causes vaginal fusion and duplication? Much of the female reproductive system ...

  10. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  11. Abnormality analyzing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention analyzes a steam generator of a PWR plant easily and accurately. A signal generator sends maximum length sequential signals to an adder, in which M sequence signals having a sufficiently large amplitude than that of noises of correction control signals to provide zero external disturbance in average are added in the adder and outputted. A PI controller receives the signals, conducts PI calculation and sent them as control signals containing disturbance to a feedwater control valve. The feedwater control valve opens/closes depending on the signals and keeps the water level in the same manner as in the case where there is no disturbance, namely, in a case where M sequential signals are not present for long period of time. It stores flow rate signals of a feedwater valve containing external disturbance and water level signals of the steam generator, and calculates a predetermined coefficient of a vector of approximate transmission function of the steam generator. The calculated value and the coefficient of vector of the approximate transmission function during normal operation are compared, and when the difference exceeds a predetermined value, it is determined as abnormal, and abnormal signals are outputted. It is not necessary to obtain detailed transmission function of the steam generator, but analysis can be conducted easily and accurately by the approximate transmission function. (N.H.)

  12. Pretreatment P53 immunoreactivity does not infer radioresistance in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test, in a clinical context, the hypothesis that p53 aberrations, assessed by immunoreactivity, are related to radioresistance as suggested by several experimental studies. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with prostate cancer who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate or biopsy prior to definitive external beam therapy were retrospectively identified. The endpoint in the study was cancer specific survival. The nuclear accumulation of the aberrant p53 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry with the pantropic, monoclonal Ab-6 anti-p53 antibody (clone DO-1) on pretreatment biopsies. Immunoreactivity was related to stage, grade, and cancer-specific survival. Results: There was a correlation between p53 immunoreactivity and low tumor stage (p < 0.001), but no relation between p53 status and grade was found. Moreover, no significant difference was found in cancer-specific survival between the p53 positive tumors (109 months) and the p53 negative tumors (99 months). Conclusions: No disadvantage regarding survival was seen for patients with p53 immunoreactive tumors, implicating that p53 immunoreactivity does not infer radioresistance in prostate cancer. This suggests that the p53 inactivation may be a less important determinant of tumor response to radiotherapy in some human cancers than in the previously studied experimental situations. Thus, other mechanisms may be more important in determining outcome after radiation. However, the series is small and data should be interpreted with caution

  13. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  14. FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the medusa Polyorchis penicillatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Spencer, A N

    1984-01-01

    Three different antisera to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide) and two different antisera to the fragment RFamide were used to stain sections or whole mounts of the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis penicillatus. All antisera stained the same neuronal structures. Strong immunoreactivity was found in neurons of the ectodermal nerve nets of the manubrium and tentacles, in neurons of the sensory epithelium, and in neurons at the periphery of the sphincter muscle. Strong immunoreactivity was also present in processes and perikarya of the whole outer nerve ring, in the ocellar nerves, and in nerve cells lying at the periphery of the ocellus. The inner nerve ring contained a moderate number of immunoreactive processes and perikarya, which were distinct from the swimming motor neurons. In contrast to the situation in the hydrozoan polyp Hydra attenuata, no immunoreactivity was found with several antisera to oxytocin/vasopressin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. The morphology and location of most FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Polyorchis coincides with two identified neuronal systems, which have been recently discovered from neurophysiological studies.

  15. A rare stapes abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  16. Somatostatin-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and fibers in the medulla oblongata et spinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssmann, W G; Burnweit, C; Shehab, T; Triepel, J

    1979-10-01

    Complete serial sectioning of the medulla oblongata in monkey, cat, guinea pig, and japanese dancing mouse and incubation for somatostatin-immunoreaction was carried out. Numerous regions of the medulla oblongata such as the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis, nucleus cuneatus et gracillis, nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus tractus solitarius, nucleus vestibularis, and parts of the oliva contain dense networks of somatostatin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. Cell bodies were seen in the nucleus reticularis medullae oblongatae. In the spinal cord the sections from each segment were analyzed, showing the highest concentrations of somatostatinergic fibers in the substantia gelantinosa of the columna dorsalis. Cell bodies were seen in the zona intermedia centralis, especially in the upper cervical segments. Many positive fibers were also seen in the entire zona intermedia and the columna ventralis. Especially prominent was the immunoreactivity in the zona intermediolateralis of the thoracic segments and the columna ventralis of the lower lumbar and sacral segments. PMID:390039

  17. Brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, C B; Kibbe, M R; Hurley, K M; Spencer, S; Holmes, H R; Leahy, K M; Needleman, P

    1990-12-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a potent dilator of aorta and renal and cerebral arteries and inhibits sympathetic tone in the heart in several mammalian species. We examined the possibility that a molecule related to porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP), which acts at the same receptor sites as atrial natriuretic peptide, might provide an alternative source of natriuretic peptide to the cardiovascular system in the rat. An antiserum against pBNP demonstrated profuse immunoreactive innervation of the heart, cerebrovascular tree, and renal arteries. pBNP-like immunoreactive fibers ran in bundles along the surface of the heart, innervating the atria most heavily and penetrating the ventricular myocardium along the coronary arteries. There was greater density of innervation of the right side of the heart compared with the left, particularly in the ventricles, suggesting a parasympathetic origin. The entire cerebrovascular tree was innervated by immunoreactive pBNP fibers, with the densest concentration of immunoreactive fibers along the surface of the internal carotid, middle cerebral, posterior communicating, and anterior cerebral arteries. The proximal renal arteries were not innervated, but as they approached the kidney, they were invested by bundles of immunoreactive pBNP fibers. These axons followed the major branches of the renal artery into the kidney parenchyma, running along the surface of the arterioles up to their entrance into the renal glomeruli. No immunoreactive innervation of the aorta or proximal brachiocephalic, subclavian, or carotid arteries was seen. A substance related to pBNP may serve as a neuromodulator regulating cardiac output as well as blood flow in certain vascular beds. PMID:1978807

  18. Morphometric characteristics of Neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cortical amygdaloid nucleus belongs to the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid complex. In this nucleus there are neurons that produce neuropetide Y. This peptide has important roles in sleeping, learning, memory, gastrointestinal regulation, anxiety, epilepsy, alcoholism and depression. Material and methods We investigated morphometric characteristics (numbers of primary dendrites, longer and shorter diameters of cell bodies and maximal radius of dendritic arborization of NPY immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus on 6 male adult human brains, aged 46 to 77 years, by immunohistochemical avidin-biotin technique. Results Our investigation has shown that in this nucleus there is a moderate number of NPY immunoreactive neurons. 67% of found neurons were nonpyramidal, while 33% were pyramidal. Among the nonpyramidal neurons the dominant groups were multipolar neurons (41% - of which 25% were multipolar irregular, and 16% multipolar oval. Among the pyramidal neurons the dominant groups were the neurons with triangular shape of cell body (21%. All found NPY immunoreactive neurons (pyramidal and nonpyramidal altogether had intervals of values of numbers of primary dendrites 2 to 6, longer diameters of cell bodies 13 to 38 µm, shorter diameters of cell bodies 9 to 20 µm and maximal radius of dendritic arborization 50 to 340 µm. More than a half of investigated neurons (57% had 3 primary dendrites. Discussion and conclusion The other researchers did not find such percentage of pyramidal immunoreactive neurons in this amygdaloid nucleus. If we compare our results with the results of the ather researchers we can conclude that all pyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons found in this human amygdaloid nucleus belong to the class I of neurons, and that all nonpyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons belong to the class II of neurons described by other researchers. We suppose that all found pyramidal neurons were projectional.

  19. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the human cerebellum: qualitative and quantitative analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Vincenzo; Flace, Paolo; Lorusso, Loredana; Rizzi, Anna; Bosco, Lorenzo; Cagiano, Raffaele; Ambrosi, Glauco

    2009-09-01

    Although autoradiographic, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the cerebellum of various species, immunohistochemistry has never shown immunoreactivity for VIP within cerebellar neuronal bodies and processes. The present study aimed to ascertain whether VIP immunoreactivity really does exist in the human cerebellum by making a systematic analysis of samples removed post-mortem from all of the cerebellar lobes. The study was carried out using light microscopy immunohistochemical techniques based on a set of four different antibodies (three polyclonal and one monoclonal) against VIP, carefully selected on the basis of control tests performed on human colon. All of the antibodies used showed VIP-immunoreactive neuronal bodies and processes distributed in the cerebellar cortex and subjacent white matter of all of the cerebellum lobes, having similar qualitative patterns of distribution. Immunoreactive neurons included subpopulations of the main neuron types of the cortex. Statistical analysis of the quantitative data on the VIP immunoreactivity revealed by the different antibodies in the different cerebellar lobes did not demonstrate any significant differences. In conclusion, using four different anti-VIP antibodies, the first evidence of VIP immunoreactivity is herein supplied in the human post-mortem cerebellum, with similar qualitative/quantitative patterns of distribution among the different cerebellum lobes. Owing to the function performed by VIP as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, it is a candidate for a role in intrinsic and extrinsic (projective) circuits of the cerebellum, in agreement with previous demonstrations of receptors for VIP in the cerebellar cortex and nuclei. As VIP signalling pathways are implicated in the regulation of cognitive and psychic functions, cerebral blood flow and metabolism, processes of histomorphogenesis, differentiation and outgrowth of nervous tissues, the results of this study could be applied to clinical neurology and psychiatry, opening new perspectives for the interpretation of neurodevelopment disorders and development of new therapeutic strategies in cerebellar diseases. PMID:19552726

  20. Brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the cerebrovascular system in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, C B; Kibbe, M R; Hurley, K M; Spencer, S

    1990-11-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide is a recently discovered neuropeptide. We used an antiserum against porcine brain natriuretic peptide to identify a system of immunoreactive innervation of the cerebrovascular tree in the rat. The internal carotid artery and the proximal portions of the middle and anterior cerebral and posterior communicating arteries were the most intensely innervated by immunoreactive fibers. The density of innervation decreased distally along the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries and the basilar and vertebral arteries. Brain natriuretic peptide and the related atrial natriuretic peptide are known to cause dilatation of cerebral arteries. Our findings suggest that brain natriuretic peptide may serve as a vasodilatory neuromodulator in the cerebral circulation. PMID:2237976

  1. Immunoreactivity for high-affinity choline transporter colocalises with VAChT in human enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Andrea M; Lee, Margaret; Ong, Sim-Yee; Yong, Eric; Farmer, Pamela; Peck, Cristal J; Chow, Chung W; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2010-07-01

    Cholinergic nerves are identified by labelling molecules in the ACh synthesis, release and destruction pathway. Recently, antibodies against another molecule in this pathway have been developed. Choline reuptake at the synapse occurs via the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1). CHT1 immunoreactivity is present in cholinergic nerve fibres containing vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the human and rat central nervous system and rat enteric nervous system. We have examined whether CHT1 immunoreactivity is present in nerve fibres in human intestine and whether it is colocalised with markers of cholinergic, tachykinergic or nitrergic circuitry. Human ileum and colon were fixed, sectioned and processed for fluorescence immunohistochemistry with antibodies against CHT1, class III beta-tubulin (TUJ1), synaptophysin, common choline acetyl-transferase (cChAT), VAChT, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). CHT1 immunoreactivity was present in many nerve fibres in the circular and longitudinal muscle, myenteric and submucosal ganglia, submucosa and mucosa in human colon and ileum and colocalised with immunoreactivity for TUJ1 and synaptophysin confirming its presence in nerve fibres. In nerve fibres in myenteric ganglia and muscle, CHT1 immunoreactivity colocalised with immunoreactivity for VAChT and cChAT. Some colocalisation occurred with SP immunoreactivity, but little with immunoreactivity for VIP or NOS. In the mucosa, CHT1 immunoreactivity colocalised with that for VIP and SP in nerve fibres and was also present in vascular nerve fibres in the submucosa and on epithelial cells on the luminal border of crypts. The colocalisation of CHT1 immunoreactivity with VAChT immunoreactivity in cholinergic enteric nerves in the human bowel thus suggests that CHT1 represents another marker of cholinergic nerves. PMID:20490865

  2. Abnormalities of the globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although much has been published in the radiology literature on the multitudinous conditions affecting the bony orbit, there has been relatively little on diseases confined to the globe itself. As current cross-sectional imaging techniques evolve, the globes can be visualized in ever greater detail, facilitating the recognition of even fairly subtle disease entities in this region. Indeed, the fact that high-resolution detailed images of this area are achievable without significant time or radiation penalty when evaluating surrounding structures means that incidental disease is not infrequently encountered. As such, common disease entities in this region are of interest to the general radiologist and the diagnosis of globe disease need not be the remit of experienced observers in specialist centres. At our institutions we have recently encountered a number of cases covering a broad spectrum of diagnoses including traumatic, neoplastic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and infective aetiologies. The purpose of this review is to briefly revise the pertinent anatomical and physiological properties of the globe and to familiarize the reader with the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of a number of these disease states. The collection of abnormalities included is not intended to be exhaustive, merely representative, with the emphasis towards those more commonly encountered.

  3. Leydig cells in the lingual epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, are immunoreactive for serotonin.

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, K; Shimamura, A

    1992-01-01

    The Leydig cells in the lingual epithelium of the axolotl were investigated by immunohistochemistry using serotonin antiserum. Serotonin-immunoreactivity was found in their secretory granules. The physiological role of serotonin in the Leydig cell, a type of exocrine cell, is unknown.

  4. Changes in RFamide related peptide-1 (RFRP-1)-immunoreactivity during postnatal development and the estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Sara Rubek; Andersen, Mille Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key player in the hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. It has been shown that the mammalian counterpart of the avian gonadotropin inhibitory hormone named RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that innervate and inhibit GnRH neurons. The RFRP precursor is processed into two mature peptides RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. These are characterized by a conserved C-terminal motif Arg-Phe-NH2 but display highly different N-terminals. Even though the two peptides are equally potent in vitro, little is known about their relative distribution and their distinct roles in vivo. In this study, we raised an antiserum selective for RFRP-1 and defined the distribution of RFRP-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Next, we analyzed the level of RFRP-1-immunoreactivity during postnatal development in males and females and investigated changes in RFRP-1-immunoreactivity during the estrous cycle. RFRP-1-ir neuronswere distributed along the third ventricle from the caudal part of the medial anterior hypothalamus throughout the medial tuberal hypothalamus and were localized in, but mostly in between, the dorsomedial hypothalamic, ventromedial hypothalamic, and arcuate nuclei. The number of RFRP-1-ir neurons and the density of cellular immunoreactivity were unchanged from juvenile to adulthood in male rats during the postnatal development. However, both parameters were significantly increased in female rats from peri-puberty to adulthood, demonstrating prominent gender difference in the developmental control of RFRP-1 expression. The percentage of c-Fos positive RFRP-1-ir neurons was significantly higher in diestrus as compared to proestrus and estrus. In conclusion, we found that adult females, as compared to males, have significantly more RFRP-1-immunoreactivity pr cell, and these cells are regulated during the estrous cycle.

  5. Oxaliplatin-induced loss of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit neuronal immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Bronwen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin and related chemotherapeutic drugs cause painful chronic peripheral neuropathies in cancer patients. We investigated changes in neuronal size profiles and neurofilament immunoreactivity in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue of adult female Wistar rats after multiple-dose treatment with oxaliplatin, cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Results After treatment with oxaliplatin, phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H immunoreactivity was reduced in neuronal cell bodies, but unchanged in nerve fibres, of the L5 DRG. Morphometric analysis confirmed significant changes in the number (-75%; P P P = 0.82, NF-M (-1%, P = 0.96 or NF-H (0%; P = 0.93 after oxaliplatin treatment, although the sizes of parvalbumin (-29%, P = 0.047, NF-M (-11%, P = 0.038 and NF-H (-28%; P = 0.0033 immunoreactive neurons were reduced. In an independent comparison of different chemotherapeutic agents, the number of pNF-H-immunoreactive neurons was significantly altered by oxaliplatin (-77.2%; P P = 0.03 but not by carboplatin or paclitaxel, and their mean cell body area was significantly changed by oxaliplatin (-31.1%; P = 0.008 but not by cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a specific pattern of loss of pNF-H immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue that corresponds with the relative neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin, cisplatin and carboplatin. Loss of pNF-H may be mechanistically linked to oxaliplatin-induced neuronal atrophy, and serves as a readily measureable endpoint of its neurotoxicity in the rat model.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment

  7. TMI abnormal waste project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL for up to 30 years, (d) processing for disposal, and (e) final disposal. Some wastes may be disposable immediately and would be processed and disposed without storage. Potentially, 930 ft3 of cartridge filters, Submerged Demineralizer System filters, sludges, ion-exchange resins, and miscellaneous plant equipment may be classified as abnormal waste. Some wastes may be deleted and others added as cleanup progresses at TMI. The first waste classified as abnormal is Makeup and Purification Demineralizer resin. This report outlines storage plans, procedures, project management, costs, and schedules for placement of those resins

  8. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Shashi K.; V.Muthu; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the managem...

  9. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  10. Sodium channel Nav1.8 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 (SNS1/PN3 is expressed by nociceptors and may play a role in pain states. Methods Using specific antibodies for immunohistochemistry, we studied Nav1.8 – immunoreactivity in human dental pulp in relation to the neuronal marker neurofilament. Human tooth pulp was extracted from teeth harvested from a total of twenty-two patients (fourteen without dental pain, eight patients with dental pain. Results Fibres immunoreactive for Nav1.8, were significantly increased on image analysis in the painful group: median (range Nav1.8 to Neurofilament % area ratio, non-painful 0.059 (0.006–0.24, painful 0.265 (0.13–0.5, P = 0.0019. Conclusion Nav1.8 sodium channels may thus represent a therapeutic target in trigeminal nerve pain states.

  11. Mapping of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart larvae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina, Boleli; Zilá Luz, Paulino-Simões.

    Full Text Available Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the central nervous system (CNS) of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 wandering stage larvae. The PAP immunocytochemical method was applied to the entire CNS (whole mounts). About 90 neurons were visualized in the CNS (20 in the brain and 70 in the [...] ventral ganglion). Both somata and axons were strongly stained. These neurons showed a segmental arrangement and bilateral symmetry. All processes presented a basic projection pattern, in which the major fibres travel contralaterally. Comparison of these neurons with serotonergic neurons described in other insects suggests order-specific traits such as cerebral clusters and presence of only one 5-HT immunoreactive neuron in the 8th abdominal neuromere as well.

  12. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Byna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: AUB is a common but complicated clinical presentation and occurs in 15-20% of women between menarche to menopause and significantly affects the women's health. Women with thyroid dysfunction often have menstrual irregularities, infertility and increased morbidity during pregnancy. The objective of present study is to find the correlation between thyroid disorders and AUB in perimenopausal women attending gynecology OPD. Methods: In the present study, fifty five patients with AUB were included and were evaluated for the cause including thyroid abnormality. Thyroid function tests were done in all patients. Results: Among 55 patients, 12 patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism and 7 as hyperthyroidism, women with AUB 36 (65.4% were euthyroid. Among 19 women with thyroid abnormality, heavy menstrual bleeding was seen in 8 (42% women, 6 (31.57% had polymenorrhagia, 5 (26.31% had oligomenorrhoea. The frequent menstrual abnormality in women with hypothyroidism (12 women was heavy menstrual bleeding in 5 (41.6% women, 3 (25% had oligomennorhoea, 4 (33.3% had polymenorrhagia. Out of 7 women with hyperthyroidism, 2 (28.57% had oligomenorrhoea, 3 (42.8% had heavy menstrual bleeding, 2 (28.57% had polymenorrhagia. In a total of 55 patients with AUB, 11 (20% had structural abnormalities in uterus and ovaries. 5 (9% had adenomyosis, 3 (5.4% had ovarian cysts, 3 (5.4% had fibroids. Conclusions: It is important to screen all women for thyroid abnormality who are presenting with AUB especially with non-structural causes of AUB. Correction of thyroid abnormalities also relieves AUB. This will avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3250-3253

  13. Estradiol mediates effects of testosterone on vasotocin immunoreactivity in the adult quail brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Panzica, Giancarlo; PLUMARI, Laura; VIGLIETTI, Carla Maria

    2001-01-01

    In adult male quail, the activation of sexual behavior by testosterone (T) is mediated at the cellular level by the interaction of T metabolites with intracellular steroid receptors. In particular, the aromatization of T into an estrogen plays a key limiting role. Nonaromatizable androgens such 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synergize with estradiol (E2) to activate the behavior. Given that the density of vasotocin (VT) immunoreactive structures is increased by T in adult male quail and tha...

  14. Distribution of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in the mouse pancreas during development

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sánchez, F.; Casar, J.; CASTRO, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and time of appearance of 5HT-storing cells were studied in samples from the pancreas of mice embryos from 7 to 19 days of gestation. Additonally, 1- and 15-day-old newborns and adult specimens were also examined. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells appeared for the fist time in the dorsal pancreatic primordium at 10 days of gestation and increased rapidly in number through E15. From this age, the cellular number disminished in the exocrine panc...

  15. Expression and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Immunoreactive Surface Protein 2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qiang; Chen, Chuang-fu; Qiang CHEN; Zhang, Li-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease throughout the world. The first HGA cases in China were documented in 2008, and the greatest challenge posed by the disease is rapid and accurate diagnosis during the acute phage of illness. In this study, we successfully cloned and expressed an A. phagocytophilum immunoreactive surface protein (major surface protein 2 [MSP2]) and demonstrated that this recombinant protein ha...

  16. Innervation of intestinal arteries by axons with immunoreactivity for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z S; Fox-Threlkeld, J E; Furness, J B

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a cholinergic innervation of arterioles within the gut wall is suggested by pharmacological studies of nerve mediated vasodilatation, but attempts to identify nerve cells that give rise to cholinergic vasodilator fibres have yielded discrepant results. In the present work, antibodies to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein (VAChT) were used to investigate the relationships of immunoreactive nerve fibres to submucosal arterioles. Comparison was made with cerebral arteries, which are known to be cholinergically innervated. Double labelling immunohistochemical techniques revealed separate VAChT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive (IR) fibres innervating all sizes of arteries of the submucosa of the stomach, ileum, proximal colon, distal colon and rectum as well as the cerebral arteries. Arterioles of all digestive tract regions had greater densities of TH-IR innervation than VAChT-IR innervation. In the ileum, double labelling for VAChT-IR and VIP-IR or calretinin-IR showed more VAChT-IR than either VIP-IR or calretinin-IR fibres. Calretinin-IR and VAChT-IR were colocalised in a majority of calretinin-IR axons, but VIP-IR and VAChT-IR were not colocalised. All calretinin-IR nerve cells in submucous ganglia were immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase, but only 1-2% of VIP-IR nerve cells were immunoreactive. Extrinsic denervation of the ileum did not alter the distribution of VAChT-IR fibres, but it eliminated TH-IR fibres. Removal of myenteric ganglia (myectomy) did not alter the distribution of fibres with VAChT or TH-IR. This work thus provides evidence for cholinergic innervation of intrinsic arterioles throughout the digestive tract and indicates that the fibres in the small intestine originate from submucosal nerve cells. PMID:9568566

  17. Immunoreactive forms of cationic trypsin in plasma and ascitic fluid of dogs in experimental pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Geokas, M. C.; Largman, C.; Durie, P R; Brodrick, J. W.; Ray, S. B.; O'Rourke, M.; Vollmer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A canine model of bile-induced pancreatitis has been employed to investigate time-dependent changes in the molecular forms of trypsin in blood and ascitic fluid in this disease. The distribution of immunoreactive trypsin as trypsinogen and trypsin bound to plasma inhibitors in ascitic fluid and plasma during the course of the disease has been investigated by means of a radioimmunoassay for canine pancreatic cationic trypsin. In addition, trypsinlike amidase activity was determined in plasma a...

  18. SPERM ABNORMALITIES AND ITS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajapati Parimal M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The term sperm is derived from the Greek word sperma means "seed" and it refers to the male reproductive cells. In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium. Sperm cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion with egg cells during fertilization, a new organism begins developing, starting as a totipotent zygote. Sperm morphology the size and shape of sperm is checked as part of a standard semen analysis for male infertility. Many different types of sperm abnormalities occur. A common classification scheme is based on the location of the abnormalities. Those that are located in the sperm head are classified as primary. Abnormalities associated with neck, midpiece or tail are classified as secondary abnormalities. Included in the secondary abnormalities is the presence of cytoplasmic droplets.

  19. Effect of electron beam irradiation on immunoreactivity and biochemical properties of peanut allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on allergenicity and biochemical properties of peanut protein were investigated in this study. Peanut protein extracts solution and defatted powder were irradiated at the dose of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to observe the change of molecular weight. Changes in allergenicity of irradiated peanut major allergen (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3) were analyzed by immunoblotting and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). The changes of concentration, turbidity and hydrophobicity of the irradiated protein solution were determined by UV and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Results showed that allergen solution was more sensitive to irradiation than allergen in solid state. When the irradiated dose was lower than 10 kGy, the immunoreactivity of allergen solution became little stronger; and when the dose higher than 10 kGy, the immunoreactivity was reduced. The IC50 was 11 times than the control, after irradiation at the dose of 20 kGy. The concentration and turbidity of the allergen solution increased with the increasing of irradiation dose. Hydrophobicity first went up with increasing irradiation and then decreased when the irradiation dose was above 15 kGy. The biochemical properties of peanut allergen were altered and immunoreactivity was reduced by EB irradiation, the effect of electron beam irradiation on peanut allergen in solid state was more significant. (authors)

  20. Heterogeneity of human plasma insulin: techniques for separating immunoreactive components and their determination by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When human plasma is filtered on Sephadex G-SO fine, insulin immunoreactivity is recovered in two peaks: 'big insulin', the higher molecular weight component and 'little insulin', the lower molecular component, having elution volumes that correspond to those of porcine proinsulin 125I and porcine insulin 125I respectively. The presence of another form of immunoreactive insulin 'big big insulin' was detected from an insuloma suspect and its elution pattern corresponding to serum albumin. The eluates correspondent to 'big' and 'little' insulin as well as 'big big' component were assayed by radioimmunoassay using crystalline human insulin as a standard, porcine insulin 125 tracer and anti insulin serum. The antibody, raised in guinea-pigs, was sensitive and potent being adequate for the assay. The reactivity of insulin and proinsulin was tested against the antibody. The relative proportions of several components of total immunoreactive insulin in plasma were studied in basal conditions in five normal subjects and in the patient JSC with pancreatic insulin-secreting tumor as well as after glucose stimuli in all tolbutamide in JSC. (author)

  1. Correlation of Cutaneous Immunoreactants in Lesional Skin with the Serological Disorders and Disease Activity of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yi-jin; Tan, Guo-zhen; Yu, Min; Li, Kai-wen; Liu, Yue-yang; GUO, QING; Zeng, Fan-qin; Wang, Liangchun

    2013-01-01

    Detection of immunoreactants including IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) from skin is useful for distinguishing lupus lesions from other skin disorders. Despite their diagnostic value, the type and number of cutaneous immunoreactants as they relate to serological disorders and disease severity has been poorly studied. We examined 36 patients with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) with positive DIF (DIF+) and 28 patients with negative DIF (DIF?) tests performed on lesio...

  2. Comparison of alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in the spinal cord between the adult and aged beagle dog

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Park, Joon-Ha; Yan, Bing-Chun; Kim, In-Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Lee, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Sang; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Won, Moo-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (?-syn) is a presynaptic protein that is richly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals, and it is related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we compared the distribution of the immunoreactivity of ?-syn and its related gliosis in the spinal cord of young adult (2-3 years) and aged (10-12 years) beagle dogs. We discovered that ?-syn immunoreactivity was present in many neurons in th...

  3. Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Moscarello, JM; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that food deprivation and food presentation produce different patterns of neuronal activity (as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats. Since the amygdala has been implicated in both motivational and reinforcement processes and has neuronal connections to both the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, it was of interest to assess amygdaloid c-Fos immunoreactivity during similar manipulation...

  4. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues

  5. Role of neuropsin in parvalbumin immunoreactivity changes in hippocampal basket terminals of mice reared in various environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kogure

    2014-12-01

    PV-immunoreactive fibers surrounding hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons in mice reared in their home cage were decreased in neuropsin-deficient mice, suggesting that neuropsin controls PV immunoreactivity. One- or two-week exposures of wild mice to novel environments, in which they could behave freely and run voluntarily in a wheel resulted in a marked upregulation of both neuropsin mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. To elucidate the functional relevance of the increase in neuropsin during exposure to a rich environment, the intensities of PV-immunoreactive fibers were compared between neuropsin-deficient and wild-type mice under environmental stimuli. When mice were transferred into novel cages (large cages with toys, the intensity of PV-immunoreactive fibers increased in wild-type mice and neuropsin-deficient mice. Therefore, behavioral stimuli control a neuropsin-independent form of PV immunoreactivity. However, the neuropsin-dependent part of the change in PV-immunoreactive fibers may occur in the stimulated hippocampus because increased levels of neuropsin continued during these enriched conditions.

  6. Sperm abnormalities in exposed humans.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Rubeš, J.

    Cambridge : Issue in Toxicology, Royal Society of Chemistry Publ.,, 2007, s. 247-258. ISBN 978-0-85404-847-2 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution exposure * sperm abnormalities * male reproductive health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  7. Postural Abnormalities: An Individualized Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…

  8. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (pconfidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p30ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH. PMID:26365482

  9. CT diagnosis of urachal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze CT manifestations of urachal abnormalities and to evaluate its clinical diagnostic value. Methods: CT findings of 23 cases of urachal abnormalities proven by surgery and pathology were retrospectively reviewed, the emphasis was focused on its location, shape, size, enhancement-pattern and radiological features in Retzius space. Results: All urachal abnormalities were located in the median line of Retzius space alone the course of the urachus (n=23). There was no positive CT finding in 1 case of patent urachus (n=1). Simple urachal cyst appeared as a homogeneous fluid-filled cavity with thin wall and no enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast agency (n=2). Five cases of infected urachal cyst manifested as cysts with thickening and enhanced wall (n=5), 3 cases as multi-cyst lesion (n=3) and 2 cases as homogeneous mass (n=2). Some patch and strip appeared in Retzius space surrounding the lesions in these cases (n=10). The urachus neoplasms in 7 cases manifested as irregular soft-tissue masses in the midline of the apex of the bladder,with marked enhancement in 4 cases (n=4), mild enhancement in 2 cases (n=2) and no enhancement in 1 case (n=1). Three cases of urachal diverticulum accompanied with calculus appeared as intramural high-density lesions protruding into the bladder and the Retzius space simultaneously, 1 case with infected urachal cyst below umbilicus. Conclusion: Due to its special anatomic position, urachal abnormalities could be easily identified on CT preoperatively, but urachal cyst might mimic urachal tumor when infected sometimes. Familiarity with the anatomical basis and the CT features of urachal abnormalities would facilitate to establish the preoperative diagnosis correctly. (authors)

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B transgenic mice develop TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 pathology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tudor, E L

    2010-05-19

    Cytoplasmic ubiquitin-positive inclusions containing TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) within motor neurons are the hallmark pathology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 is a nuclear protein and the mechanisms by which it becomes mislocalized and aggregated in ALS are not properly understood. A mutation in the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B (VAPB) involving a proline to serine substitution at position 56 (VAPBP56S) is the cause of familial ALS type-8. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which VAPBP56S induces disease, we created transgenic mice that express either wild-type VAPB (VAPBwt) or VAPBP56S in the nervous system. Analyses of both sets of mice revealed no overt motor phenotype nor alterations in survival. However, VAPBP56S but not VAPBwt transgenic mice develop cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulations within spinal cord motor neurons that were first detected at 18 months of age. Our results suggest a link between abnormal VAPBP56S function and TDP-43 mislocalization.

  11. Curcumin ameliorates experimental autoimmune acute myocarditis in rats as evidenced by decrease in thioredoxin immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M; El Fouhil, A F; Mohamed, R A; Atteya, M; Abdel-Baky, N A; AlRoalle, A H; Aldahmash, A M

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of curcumin on cardiac myosin-induced autoimmune myocarditis in rats and the change in thioredoxin (TRX) immunoreactivity in cardiomyocytes following curcumin treatment. Twenty-four six-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group I received neither curcumin nor myosin. Group II received an oral solution of 1 g/kg/day of curcumin daily, from day 1 to day 21. To induce myocarditis, animals of both group III and group IV were injected by 1 mg of porcine cardiac myosin on days 1 and 8. In addition, animals of group IV received an oral solution of 1 g/kg/day of curcumin daily, from day 1 to day 21. Serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, troponin-T, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were estimated. Hearts were processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Serum biomarkers levels were significantly increased in myocarditis group as compared to other groups. The intake of curcumin significantly reduced the deviation in these markers. Sections of the wall of the heart from myocarditis group were characterised by inflammatory cell infiltration. Most of cardiomyocytes showed pyknotic nuclei and increased sarcoplasmic eosinophilia with strong immunoreactivity for TRX. Sections from myocarditis-curcumin group showed normal architecture with moderate immunoreactivity for TRX. The present study demonstrated that curcumin ameliorates acute myocarditis in rats and encouraged the estimation of serum level of TRX as a relevant indicator for the evaluation of the progress of acute myocarditis. PMID:26339812

  12. Localization of neuropeptide-Y immunoreactivity in estradiol-concentrating cells in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable evidence shows that gonadal steroids exert a facilitatory influence on levels and release of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) from the hypothalamus. However, it is not known whether gonadal steroids act directly on NPY-producing cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus to produce these facilitatory effects on NPY or whether they act on other cells that have a modulatory influence via synapses on ARC NPY cells. We applied the combined method of steroid autoradiography and immunocytochemistry to assess the localization of [3H]estradiol in relation to NPY-producing cells in the hypothalamus. Rats (n = 6) were bilaterally ovariectomized and injected intracerebroventricularly with colchicine. Twenty-four hours later each rat received an iv injection of 17 beta-[2,4,6,7,16,17(-3)H]estradiol (SA, 166 Ci/mmol) at a dose of 5.0 micrograms/kg BW. One hour after the injection of [3H]estradiol, the rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde; brains were removed, frozen in isopentane precooled in liquid nitrogen (-190 C), sectioned, and processed for autoradiography. The autoradiograms were then incubated with specific antibodies for NPY immunostaining by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The results revealed NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex and a few cells in the median eminence. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were also detected in the internal layer of the median eminence. The largest number of neurons showing NPY immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm was detected in the ARC, and only in this nucleus did we observed colocalization of [3H]estradiol and NPY immunoreactivity in neurons. A population of NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC (10-20%) exhibited nuclear [3H]estradiol; the majority of these cells were located in the lateral and ventral portions of the ARC

  13. Advantage of highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoscintigraphy for tumor detection, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoreactivity (IR) is the fraction of a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) preparation capable of binding to an excess of a specific antigen. One of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunoscintigraphy is to use a highly immunoreactive MoAb. To assess the effect of an antibody IR on biodistribution, a fast and simple purification method has been developed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a hydroxylapatite (HA) column. The column was eluted at ambient temperature with 0.12 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). With this system, the F ab fragments from the MoAb 96.5 against the human melanoma associated p97 antigen were separated into two well-resolved peaks at retention times of 6 and 16 min. FEM-XII cells (human skin melanoma cell line) were used in a cell binding assay (CBA) to determine the maximal percent IR and the affinity constant of each HA-HPLC peak. The second peak from an 125I-F ab 96.5 showed approximately two times greater maximal binding than did the first peak, whereas the affinity constant for the two was the same. This indicated that the F ab 96.5 preparations used in this study were a mixture of more active and less active components. Moreover, prior to the HA-HPLC experiments, these preparations were analyzed with a gel filtration HPLC showing a single molecular weight peak. This suggested that the HA-HPLC separation was not based on molecular weight differences although the separation mechanism of HA has not yet been fully understood. Thereby, it is concluded that the HA-HPLC is a powerful tool to purify MoAbs into the higher immunoreactive fraction which has a potential advantage in tumor targeting. (author)

  14. Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in vasopressin terminals is enhanced by treatment with peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R; Voigt, K H

    When sections through rat neurohypophyses were treated with trypsin prior to incubation with enkephalin antibodies, vasopressin terminals invariably exhibited leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity. Omitting tryptic cleavage the vasopressin terminals of some specimens only were immunostained. The enkephalin-like material was contained in the neurosecretory granules as shown by the protein A gold and the peroxidase anti-peroxidase method. We assume that the leucine-enkephalin sequence in vasopressin endings to some extent is present in a precursor form, possibly as dynorphin or alpha-neo-endorphin, from which the pentapeptide is liberated by enzymatic cleavage. PMID:7154832

  15. Plasma immunoreactive gamma melanotropin in patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, aldosterone-producing adenomas, and essential hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffing, G T; Berelowitz, B; M. Hudson; Salzman, R; Manson, J. A.; Aurrechia, S; Melby, J C; Pedersen, R C; Brownie, A C

    1985-01-01

    A non-ACTH aldosterone-stimulating factor(s) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). Although this factor has not been fully characterized, some evidence suggests that it may be related to a pro-gamma-melanotropin (pro-gamma-MSH), derived from the NH2-terminal region of pro-opiomelanocortin. In the present study, plasma immunoreactive (IR-) gamma-MSH levels at 0800 h in patients with IHA were evaluated (90 +/- 17 fmol/ml; range: 13-173 fmol/ml) and foun...

  16. Correlation between Ocular Demodex Infestation and Serum Immunoreactivity to Bacillus Proteins in Patients with Facial Rosacea

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianjing; O'Reilly, Niamh; Sheha, Hosam; Katz, Raananah; Raju, Vadrevu K.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Scheffer, C. G. Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose—To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum. Design—A prospective study to correlate clinical findings with laboratory data. Participants—We consecutively enrolled 59 patients: 34 men and 25 women with a mean age of 60.4±17.6 years (range, 17–93). Methods—Demodex counting was performed based on lash sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis. Facial ro...

  17. Influence of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor on late complications in patients with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, R. H.; Elbracht, R; Krämer, Bernhard K; Roth, M.; Palitzsch, K D; Schölmerich, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of typical late complications in diabetic patients (n = 65, 28 type I, 37 type II) who were not on glycoside drugs with low vs. high serum levels of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF: group I, n = 42, DLIF < or = the detection limit of 0.2 ng ml-1; and group II, n = 23, mean +/- SEM: 1.17 +/- 0.31 [0.25-4.96] ng ml-1). For detection of nephropathy, urinary albumin excretion (24 h) and creatinine clearance tests were used. For coronary ...

  18. ?-endorphin-like and ?-MSH-like immunoreactivities in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured with radioimmunoassay the ?-endorphin-like and ?-MSH-like immunoreactivities in milk and plasma of 8 lactating women. Mean ?-endorphin concentrations (± SD) were 16.6 ± 6.7 fmol/ml in milk and 9.9 ± 4.1 fmol/ml in plasma. ?-MSH concentrations were 39.4 ± 15.5 pg/ml in milk and 18.2 ± 8.4 pg/ml in plasma. The concentrations of both peptides in milk were significantly higher than in plasma. No significant correlation between milk and plasma concentrations of these peptides was found

  19. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  20. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  1. Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbanc...

  2. Abnormal Iron Homeostasis and Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    RubenVidal; BarryBMuhoberac

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbance...

  3. Heterogeneous Immunoreactivity of Emerin, a Nuclear Envelope LEM-domain Protein, in Normal Thyroid Follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerin is a LEM domain-containing integral membrane protein of the vertebrate nuclear envelope. Recently it has been reported that emerin regulates tissue-specific gene/protein expression. We studied the relationship between emerin expression and follicle function in normal and hyperplastic human thyroid tissues using immunohistochemistry and statistical methods. Emerin immunoreactivity was heterogeneous among follicular cells and follicles in normal thyroid tissue. It tended to be strong in the nuclei of tall follicular cells of small follicles and weak or negative in the nuclei of flat follicular cells of large follicles. Follicles with strong expression of emerin were also strongly positive for thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroxine (T4) in follicular cells and colloid substance, suggesting active functioning follicles. In contrast, large follicles with weak expression of emerin were also weak or negative for Tg and T4. Emerin immunoreactivity was strong in almost all nuclei of hyperplastic follicular cells in Graves’ disease tissues. These findings suggest that emerin expression may be related with follicular function and may contribute to the understanding of hormonogenesis in normal thyroid follicles

  4. Heterogeneous Immunoreactivity of Emerin, a Nuclear Envelope LEM-domain Protein, in Normal Thyroid Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieying, Wang; Kondo, Tetsuo; Yamane, Tetsu; Nakazawa, Tadao; Oishi, Naoki; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Mochizuki, Kunio; Dongfeng, Niu; Katoh, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    Emerin is a LEM domain-containing integral membrane protein of the vertebrate nuclear envelope. Recently it has been reported that emerin regulates tissue-specific gene/protein expression. We studied the relationship between emerin expression and follicle function in normal and hyperplastic human thyroid tissues using immunohistochemistry and statistical methods. Emerin immunoreactivity was heterogeneous among follicular cells and follicles in normal thyroid tissue. It tended to be strong in the nuclei of tall follicular cells of small follicles and weak or negative in the nuclei of flat follicular cells of large follicles. Follicles with strong expression of emerin were also strongly positive for thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroxine (T4) in follicular cells and colloid substance, suggesting active functioning follicles. In contrast, large follicles with weak expression of emerin were also weak or negative for Tg and T4. Emerin immunoreactivity was strong in almost all nuclei of hyperplastic follicular cells in Graves' disease tissues. These findings suggest that emerin expression may be related with follicular function and may contribute to the understanding of hormonogenesis in normal thyroid follicles. PMID:25859062

  5. Depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system by cysteamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective neurotoxins have been of value in providing a means for specifically interfering with the actions of endogenous neurotransmitter candidates. Others have shown cysteamine (CSH) to deplete the gastrointestinal tract and hypothalamus of rats of immunoreactive somatostatin, suggesting a toxic action of that compound directed against somatostatin-containing cells. The present study further defines the actions of cysteamine on somatostatin in the central nervous system. (CNS). Cysteamine hydrochloride administered subcutaneously results in a depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in the retina, brain, and cervical spinal cord of rats. The effect is demonstrable at doses of 30 mg/kg of body weight and above, occurs within 2 to 4 hr of a single injection of the drug, and is largely reversible within 1 week. The mean depletion of SLI observed within the CNS varies from 38% in cerebral cortex to 65% in cervical spinal cord 24 hr following administration of CSH, 300 mg/kg of body weight, s.c. By gel permeation chromatography, all molecular weight forms of SLI are affected, with the largest reductions in those forms that co-chromatograph with synthetic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. These results indicate that CSH has a generalized, rapid, and largely reversible effect in depleting SLI from the rat CNS

  6. Surface plasmon resonance-based trace detection of small molecules by competitive and signal enhancement immunoreaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Hidenobu; Tozuka, Mitsuhiro; Kurosawa, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Koichi; Reddy, Subrayal M; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2007-05-22

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-immunosensor for detection of the low molecular weight compound 2,4-dinitorophenol (DNP) at ultra-low concentration has been developed. The sensor strategy is based on a competitive immunoreaction between DNP and a DNP-protein conjugate, namely DNP-bovine serum albumin conjugate (DNP-BSA). Anti-DNP monoclonal antibody was immobilized on a gold thin-film coated SPR-sensor chip by means of a chemical coupling process. DNP-BSA, on contact with the anti-DNP antibody immobilized SPR-immunosensor chip causes an increase in the resonance angle of the sensor chip. The optimum concentration of immobilized antibody on the SPR-sensor chip is 100 microg mL(-1). The SPR-immunosensor response for free DNP determination using the competitive immunoreaction had a response time of ca. 15 min. Using this method, DNP could be determined in the concentration range 1 ppt to 1 ppb. The SPR signal for ppt levels of DNP was enhanced by a factor of three by subsequently treating immuno-bound DNP-BSA with a secondary anti-DNP antibody. PMID:17481407

  7. Transient abnormal Q waves during exercise electrocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Alameddine, F F; Zafari, A M

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial ischaemia during exercise electrocardiography is usually manifested by ST segment depression or elevation. Transient abnormal Q waves are rare, as Q waves indicate an old myocardial infarction. The case of a patient with exercise induced transient abnormal Q waves is reported. The potential mechanisms involved in the development of such an abnormality and its clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Increased metal content in the TDP-43A315T transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Theresa N. T.; Lim, Nastasia K. H.; Grubman, Alexandra; Li, Qiao-xin; Volitakis, Irene; White, Anthony R.; Crouch, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo...

  9. Coexisting adult polyglucosan body disease with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with transactivation response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43)-positive neuronal inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Jill G.; Crain, Barbara J.; Harris, Brent T; Turner, R Scott

    2012-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) is one of the most common pathologic findings associated with the clinical FTLD syndromes. However, molecular characterization with genetic sequencing and protein expression techniques are recognizing many new subtypes for FTLDs. FTLDs are diverse, and new nomenclature schemes have been proposed based on the molecular defects that are being discovered (Mackenzie, 2010). Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is a ve...

  10. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-07-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in the 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and, therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses, especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory tension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid, and at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:10957839

  11. Comparative analysis of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity reveals genuine differences in the hypothalamic Kiss1 systems between rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Kiss1 mRNA and its corresponding peptide products, kisspeptins, are expressed in two restricted brain areas of rodents, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The concentration of mature kisspeptins may not directly correlate with Kiss1 mRNA levels, because mRNA translation and/or posttranslational modification, degradation, transportation and release of kisspeptins could be regulated independently of gene expression, and there may thus be differences in kisspeptin expression even in species with similar Kiss1 mRNA profiles. We measured and compared kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in both nuclei and both sexes of rats and mice and quantified kisspeptin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. We also determined Kiss1 mRNA levels and measured kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in colchicine pretreated rats. Overall, we find higher levels of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the mouse compared to the rat, independently of brain region and gender. In the female mouse AVPV high numbers of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons were present, while in the rat, the female AVPV displays a similar number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons compared to the level of Kiss1 mRNA expressing cells, only after axonal transport inhibition. Interestingly, the density of kisspeptin innervation in the anterior periventricular area was higher in female compared to male in both species. Species differences in the ARC were evident, with the mouse ARC containing dense fibers, while the rat ARC contains clearly discernable cells. In addition, we show a marked sex difference in the ARC, with higher kisspeptin levels in females. These findings show that the translation of Kiss1 mRNA and/or the degradation/transportation/release of kisspeptins are different in mice and rats.

  12. Hand images: normal and abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

  13. Chromosomal phenotypes and submicroscopic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devriendt Koen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The finding, during the last decade, that several common, clinically delineated syndromes are caused by submicroscopic deletions or, more rarely, by duplications, has provided a powerful tool in the annotation of the human genome. Since most microdeletion/microduplication syndromes are defined by a common deleted/duplicated region, abnormal dosage of genes located within these regions can explain the phenotypic similarities among individuals with a specific syndrome. As such, they provide a unique resource towards the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes such as congenital heart defects, mental and growth retardation and abnormal behaviour. In addition, the study of phenotypic differences in individuals with the same microdeletion syndrome may also become a treasury for the identification of modifying factors for complex phenotypes. The molecular analysis of these chromosomal anomalies has led to a growing understanding of their mechanisms of origin. Novel tools to uncover additional submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies at a higher resolution and higher speed, as well as the novel tools at hand for deciphering the modifying factors and epistatic interactors, are 'on the doorstep' and will, besides their obvious diagnostic role, play a pivotal role in the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes.

  14. Plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity and its variations in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the level of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-elir) in the blood plasma of baboons and studies its changes in certain situations. For radioimmunoassay of beta-ELIR in the blood plasma, a standard kit and the appropriate technique were used. The background plasma beta-ELIR level of the baboons, in a state of quiet wakefulness, was 0.0 = 1.0 fmoles/ml. The total level of b-ELIR was 134 plus or minus 24 pg/ml. The data show that elevation of the plasma b-ELIR level accompanies stress formation, including the development of a state of shock in baboons. A definite role in the regulation of the plasma b-endorphin level may be played by the paraventricular-perifornical region of the hypothalamus

  15. Cogeneration of retrogradely labeled corticocortical projection and GABA-immunoreactive local circuit neurons in cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M W

    1985-12-01

    The times of origin of cortico-cortical projection neurons and local circuit neurons in rat visual cortex were determined. The birthdates of the projection neurons were assessed using a technique that combined retrograde labeling with lectin-bound horseradish peroxidase and tritiated thymidine autoradiography. The birthdates of some cortical local circuit neurons were determined by combining GABA immunocytochemistry with [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Double-labeled neurons (those with retrograde or immunoreactive label in their perikarya and autoradiographic silver grains over their nuclei) were born during the third week of gestation. Projection and local circuit neurons born on gestational day 14, 15, 17, 19 or 20 were located primarily in layer VIb, VIa, V, III or II, respectively. Thus, both populations of neurons are generated by parallel and concurrent inside-to-outside patterns. PMID:3910166

  16. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor is increased in ovine model of endotoxemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bolus of Escherichia coli endotoxin (1.5 ?g/kg) was administered to chronically instrumented sheep. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) was measured in extracted plasma by radioimmunoassay. There was a thirteenfold increase in IR-ANF 2 h after endotoxin administration, and IR-ANF levels remained significantly elevated during the first 6 h. A marked diuresis and natriuresis occurred between 4 and 6 h. ANF not only affects renal function but is also associated with decreased cardiac output, increased peripheral resistance (in sheep), and decreased capillary absorption (in rats). These renal and hemodynamic changes are also characteristic of the early (first 6 h) response to endotoxin. Therefore ANF should be considered as a potential mediator of renal and hemodynamic changes induced by sepsis. It is difficult to determine if ANF elevation is an epiphenomenon or a causative factor, because no antagonist of ANF is currently available

  17. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M1dG adducts. No differences in M1dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX). This reduction in ?H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Effects of Dielectrophoresis on Growth, Viability and Immuno-reactivity of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhunia Arun K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dielectrophoresis (DEP has been regarded as a useful tool for manipulating biological cells prior to the detection of cells. Since DEP uses high AC electrical fields, it is important to examine whether these electrical fields in any way damage cells or affect their characteristics in subsequent analytical procedures. In this study, we investigated the effects of DEP manipulation on the characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes cells, including the immuno-reactivity to several Listeria-specific antibodies, the cell growth profile in liquid medium, and the cell viability on selective agar plates. It was found that a 1-h DEP treatment increased the cell immuno-reactivity to the commercial Listeria species-specific polyclonal antibodies (from KPL by ~31.8% and to the C11E9 monoclonal antibodies by ~82.9%, whereas no significant changes were observed with either anti-InlB or anti-ActA antibodies. A 1-h DEP treatment did not cause any change in the growth profile of Listeria in the low conductive growth medium (LCGM; however, prolonged treatments (4 h or greater caused significant delays in cell growth. The results of plating methods showed that a 4-h DEP treatment (5 MHz, 20 Vpp reduced the viable cell numbers by 56.8–89.7 %. These results indicated that DEP manipulation may or may not affect the final detection signal in immuno-based detection depending on the type of antigen-antibody reaction involved. However, prolonged DEP treatment for manipulating bacterial cells could produce negative effects on the cell detection by growth-based methods. Careful selection of DEP operation conditions could avoid or minimize negative effects on subsequent cell detection performance.

  19. Production of the recombinant single chain anti-B cell lymphoma antibody and evaluation of immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant ScFv lym-1 was produced, using pET vector system for large scale production. ScFv lym-1 gene inserted pET-22b (+) vector, was expressed in E. coli BL-21 strain. ScFv lym-1 antibody extracted from periplasm, was purified with His-Taq column. To evaluated immunoreactivity with Raji cell, ScFv lym-1 was labeled with I-125 and I-125 ScFv lym-1 was purified with desalting column. Raji cell was injected into the C57BR/cdJ SCID mice. Gamma camera imaging were taken time point at 1, 8, 24 and 48 hr with 8 mm pinhole collimator. An active scFv lym-1 could be produced in E. coli with soluble from using pET vector system. Immunoreactivity and affinity constant of lgG lym-1 were 54% and 1.83 x 109 M-1, respectively, and those of scFv lym-1 were 53.7% and 1.46 x 109 M-1, respectively. Biodistribution of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance in blood, spleen, kidney and than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. Gamma camera image of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance and tumor targeting liver than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. In vitro properties of scFv lym-1 were similar to those of lgG lym-1. ScFv lym-1 showed faster blood clearance than lgG lym-1. These results suggest that scFv lym-1 antibody can be useful for tumor imaging agent

  20. Protein S100 immunoreactivity in glial cells and neurons of the Japanese quail brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Claudia; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Carlo Panzica, Gian

    2003-03-01

    In mammals, sparse data illustrated the neuronal expression of S100 protein in central and peripheral nervous system. Similar studies have not been performed in other vertebrate species, in particular in birds. We provide here a detailed description of the distribution of the calcium-binding protein S100 in neuronal and glial elements in the central nervous system of an avian species, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) largely used for neuroanatomical and functional studies. The distribution of S100-like immunoreactivity was analyzed by three different antisera: a polyclonal, against S100 protein, and two monoclonals, against the beta-subunit (S100beta) and the alpha-subunit (S100alpha) of this protein. All sera showed glial positive elements, which were more abundant in the brainstem than in the prosencephalon. Moreover, the polyclonal and the monoclonal antibodies against the beta-subunit evidenced a neuronal population with a wide distribution, variable morphology and staining intensity. In the telencephalon and diencephalon a few S100-positive neurons were observed in basal ganglia, nucleus paraventricularis hypothalami, nucleus rotundus and nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis. In the mesencephalon and pons a wide S100-immunoreactive neuronal population was detected in several regions, including motor and sensory nuclei of most cranial nerves (i.e. oculomotoris, abducens, trigeminus, cochlearis, trochlearis and vestibularis nuclei). This distribution appears very similar to that previously described in the rat hindbrain by both immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, as well as to sparse observations on different vertebrates. Therefore, our results suggest that the distribution pattern of this protein (both in glial and in neuronal elements) is highly conserved throughout the phylogeny. PMID:12706207

  1. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schults, Marten A.; Nagle, Peter W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Rensen, Sander S. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Godschalk, Roger W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco [Cancer Risk Factor Branch, ISPO Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Greve, Jan W. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Driessen, Ann [Department of Pathology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Verdam, Froukje J.; Buurman, Wim A. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik J. van [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K., E-mail: r.k.chiu@med.umcg.nl [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M{sub 1}dG adducts. No differences in M{sub 1}dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX). This reduction in {gamma}H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  2. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  3. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  4. Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoberac, Barry B; Vidal, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

  5. Abnormal Iron Homeostasis and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry B Muhoberac

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs, and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1 a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2 a gain of a toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration.

  6. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Partata

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

  7. Changes in the immunoreactivity of the organism at combined action of radiostrontium and phosphorus-organic pesticide /agria - 1060/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the immunoreactivity of the organism at independent and combined application of the radiation and chemical factors have been studied. It has been found that the combination of two factors damages much more the immune system of the organism than their separate application

  8. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise; Chitty, Lyn S

    2007-01-01

    Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis...

  9. Auditory abnormalities in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Bo Wang; Bing-Xin Shi; Shu-Ping Jiang; Chun-Yan Xi; Ying-Hua Tan; Lin. Wang

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the characteristics of auditory abnormalities present in cases of autism. One hundred and fifty six children with autism and 141matched controls with language delay were investigated via direct observations combined with parent/caregiver reports. All of the autistic individuals demonstrated auditory abnormalities especially in the domain of hyposensitivity, compared with 33.3% of children with language delay. The auditory abnormalities in autism primarily c...

  10. Lithium treatment and thyroid abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocchetta Alberto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the interactions between lithium treatment and thyroid function have long been recognised, their clinical relevance is still controversial. This paper sets out a review of the literature to date, considering that lithium still represents the gold standard among prophylactic treatments of manic-depression several decades after its introduction. Method PubMed database was used to search for English-language articles relating to lithium treatment and thyroid function. As the amount of relevant papers totalled several hundreds, this review refers to previous reviews, especially with regard to older literature. Moreover, the authors particularly refer to a series of studies of thyroid function performed in a cohort of patients at different stages of lithium treatment, who were followed up by their group from 1989 onwards. Results The main findings from this review included: a lithium definitely affects thyroid function as repeatedly shown by studies on cell cultures, experimental animals, volunteers, and patients; b inhibition of thyroid hormone release is the critical mechanism in the development of hypothyroidism, goitre, and, perhaps, changes in the texture of the gland which are detected by ultrasonic scanning; c compensatory mechanisms operate and prevent the development of hypothyroidism in the majority of patients; d when additional risk factors are present, either environmental (such as iodine deficiency or intrinsic (immunogenetic background, compensatory potential may be reduced and clinically relevant consequences may derive; e hypothyroidism may develop in particular during the first years of lithium treatment, in middle-aged women, and in the presence of thyroid autoimmunity; f thyroid autoimmunity is found in excess among patients suffering from affective disorders, irrespective of lithium exposure; g in patients who have been on lithium for several years, the outcome of hypothyroidism, goitre, and thyroid autoimmunity do not much differ from those observed in the general population; h hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer are observed rarely during lithium treatment. Recommendations Thyroid function tests (TSH, free thyroid hormones, specific antibodies, and ultrasonic scanning should be performed prior to starting lithium prophylaxis. A similar panel should be repeated at one year. Thereafter, annual measurements of TSH may be sufficient to prevent overt hypothyroidism. In the presence of raised TSH or thyroid autoimmunity, shorter intervals between assessments are advisable (4–6 months. Measurement of antibodies and ultrasonic scanning may be repeated at 2-to-3-year intervals. The patient must be referred to the endocrinologist if TSH concentrations are repeatedly abnormal, and/or goitre or nodules are detected. Thyroid function abnormalities should not constitute an outright contraindication to lithium treatment, and lithium should not be stopped if a patient develops thyroid abnormalities. Decisions should be made taking into account the evidence that lithium treatment is perhaps the only efficient means of reducing the excessive mortality which is otherwise associated with affective disorders.

  11. Coagulation abnormalities following thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David R; Namias, Nicholas; Andrews, David M

    2010-10-01

    Changes in coagulation may have a profound impact on outcomes following severe burns and the coagulation abnormalities after thermal injury are incompletely described. We postulated that thermal injury induces a systemic hypercoagulable state. With Institutional Review Board approval, five patients were consented for enrollment in this case series. After obtaining informed consent, blood was drawn on hospital days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 or until discharge if discharge was in less than 7 days. Standard coagulation testing was performed, as well as a battery of sophisticated specialized coagulation assays. Other data collected includes fluid resuscitation volumes, pharmacologic interventions, and general physiologic information. Results (n = 5) demonstrate that burns less than 6% total body surface area appear to have little effect on coagulation. Burns greater than 6% appear to induce a systemic hypercoagulable state with a phase and magnitude relationship proportional to total body surface area burned. Severe burns greater than 40% appear to induce a consumptive coagulopathy. Prothrombin fragment 1.2 may represent a useful screening test for a burn-induced hypercoagulable state. PMID:20689402

  12. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  13. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  14. Extraspinal abnormalities identified on lumbar spine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrospective review of 1517 lumbar CT examinations revealed extraspinal pathology in 22 (1.45%). Retroperitoneal tumors and lymphadenopathy as well as vascular, urinary tract and gynecologic abnormalities were identified. This study demonstrates the need to carefully evaluate the visualized portions of the abdomen and pelvis on all lumbar spine CT examinations even when the patient's symptomatology is suggestive of spinal abnormalities. (orig.)

  15. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  16. Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news/Secondhand_Smoke_090215.html Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality HealthDay News Video - September 3, 2015 ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  17. Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality

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    Full Text Available ... Smoke_090215.html Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality HealthDay News Video - September 3, 2015 To use ... JavaScript. Play video: Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  18. Neuroanatomy of pars intercerebralis neurons with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuyama, Kouji; Hase, Hiroaki; Shiga, Sakiko

    2015-10-01

    Input regions of pars intercerebralis (PI) neurons are examined by confocal and electron microscopies with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae. PI neurons are a prerequisite for ovarian development under long-day conditions. Backfills from the cardiac recurrent nerve after severance of the posterior lateral tracts labeled thin fibers derived from the PI neurons in the superior medial protocerebrum. These PI fibers were mainly synapsin-negative and postsynaptic to unknown varicose profiles containing dense-core vesicles. Backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils, derived from the PI neurons or neurons with somata in the subesophageal zone, were varicose and some were synapsin-positive. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites in backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils. Many PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were found in the superior medial and lateral protocerebrum and double-labeling showed that 60-88 % of PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were also synapsin-immunoreactive. Double-labeling with the backfills and PDF immunocytochemistry showed that the PI fibers and PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were located close to each other in the superior medial protocerebrum. Results of triple-labeling of PI neurons, PDF-immunoreactive neurons and synapsin-immunoreactive terminals demonstrated that the synapsin-positive PDF-immunoreactive varicosities contacted the PI fibers. These data suggest that PI neurons receive synaptic contacts from PDF-immunoreactive fibers, which are derived from circadian clock neurons, of small ventral lateral neurons (previously called OL2) or posterior dorsal (PD) neurons with somata in the pars lateralis. PMID:25971932

  19. Platelet enzyme abnormalities in leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate platelet enzyme activity in cases of leukemia. Materials and Methods: Platelet enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, pyruvate kinase (PK and hexokinase (HK were studied in 47 patients of acute and chronic leukemia patients, 16 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML(13 relapse, three in remission, 12 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL (five in relapse, seven in remission, 19 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Results: The platelet G6PD activity was significantly low in cases of AML, ALL and also in CML. G6PD activity was normalized during AML remission. G6PD activity, although persistently low during ALL remission, increased significantly to near-normal during remission (P < 0.05 as compared with relapse (P < 0.01. Platelet PK activity was high during AML relapse (P < 0.05, which was normalized during remission. Platelet HK however was found to be decreased during all remission (P < 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between G6PD and PK in cases of AML (P < 0.001 but not in ALL and CML. G6PD activity did not correlate with HK activity in any of the leukemic groups. A significant positive correlation was however seen between PK and HK activity in cases of ALL remission (P < 0.01 and CML (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Both red cell and platelet enzymes were studied in 36 leukemic patients and there was no statistically significant correlation between red cell and platelet enzymes. Platelet enzyme defect in leukemias suggests the inherent abnormality in megakaryopoiesis and would explain the functional platelet defects in leukemias.

  20. Protein Misdirection Inside and Outside Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): A Possible Clue for Therapeutic Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Akemi Ido; Makoto Urushitani; Hidenao Fukuyama

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS...

  1. Sex-related differences in the concentration of Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of an insect, Schistocerca gregaria, revealed by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay has been used to measure Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in tissue from male and female locusts, Schistocerca gregaria. The pattern of distribution within the two sexes was similar with about equal amounts present in the suboesophageal and 3 thoracic ganglia and a lower concentration in the cerebral ganglion. Female nervous tissue contained more than twice the amount of Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity than did that of males. No consistent immunoreactivity could be detected in the abdominal ganglia or non-neural tissues. The results are discussed in relation to recent evidence that peptides related or identical to enkephalins are present in vertebrates as well as higher organisms. (Auth.)

  2. Immunoreactivity for Taurine Characterizes Subsets of Glia, GABAergic and non-GABAergic Neurons in the Neo- and Archicortex of the Rat, Cat and Rhesus Monkey: Comparison with Immunoreactivity for Homocysteic Acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzer, MF; Cowey, A.; Ottersen, OP; Streit, P.; Somogyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is an area rich in taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), but only limited information exists regarding its cellular distribution. We therefore examined taurine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of the rat, cat and macaque monkey using antiserum directed against glutaraldehyde-conjugated taurine. Immunostaining was assessed at the light and electron microscopic level, and patterns obtained in light microscopic studies were compared to those produced with antiser...

  3. Ionizing radiation alters beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in brain but not blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous behavioral and pharmacological studies have implicated endorphins in radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse. However, the endogenous opiate(s) responsible for this behavioral change have not been identified. The present study measured beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) in brain, blood, and combined brain and pituitary samples from irradiated and sham-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. After radiation exposure, levels of beta-END-LI decreased significantly in the brain. A similar, but not statistically significant, decline was measured in combined brain and pituitary samples. Concentrations of blood beta-END-LI were not changed by irradiation. These radiogenic changes in beta-END-LI are in some ways similar to those observed after other stresses. However, radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity may be mediated more by alterations of beta-END-LI in the brain than in the periphery. Other endogenous opiate systems may also contribute to this behavioral change in the C57BL/6J mouse

  4. Alzheimer's-associated A? oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-?1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A? oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A? species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A? antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A?-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  5. Immunoreactive neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is expressed in testicular carcinoma-in-situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, J L; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    1996-01-01

    Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a well-known marker of tumours that have neuroendocrine origin. High levels of NSE have also been described in various types of testicular germ cell neoplasms, particularly in seminomas. To evaluate the presence of NSE in testicular carcinoma-in situ (CIS), a preinvasive stage of testicular germ cell tumours, a panel of CIS tissue specimens was examined. Fifteen of 18 (83 per cent) CIS samples showed immunohistochemical staining with anti-NSE monoclonal antibody. Immunoreactivity has also been found in overt testicular germ cell tumours, including seminomas, non-seminomas, and a mixed germ cell tumour. As the co-existence of high NSE production and gene amplification of N-myc has been reported in some tumours, including germ cell tumours, the expression of the protein product of N-myc was also examined in this study, but only sporadic cases showed N-myc staining. These results are evidence against a relationship between NSE and N-myc in testicular germ cell tumours. The high expression of NSE in CIS and overt germ cell tumours may be due to the increased gene dosage effect associated with the overrepresentation of isochromosome 12p.

  6. Astatine-211 labeling of a monoclonal antibody and its Fab fragment: synthesis, immunoreactivity and experimental therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An antigastric cancer monoclonal antibody, 3H11 and its Fab fragment, were labelled with ?-emitter 211At using p-(211At)-astatobenzoic acid (pAtBA) intermediate, in the yields of more than 30%. The astatinated antibodies were stable in vitro, and had specific immunoreactivity to human gastric cancer cell M85. The therapeutic effect of the astatinated antibodies for subcutaneous xenografts of human gastric cancer were investigated in nude mice by i.p. injection, once every 5 days for 3 times successively, with 1.48 x 104 and 2.22 x 104Bq/g of 211Ay-3H11 and 211At-3H11 Fab per injection, respectively. It was shown that the volume and weight of xenografts in all tested groups were much smaller and lighter than that of control groups (PBS) from 12.5 days post first injection. The most evident inhibition was observed in the groups with 211At-3H11 Fab, with tumor inhibility of 67.5-69.5% at 15 days and 70.7-72.3% at 20 days, respectively. (author)

  7. Effect of age on the myosin-V immunoreactive myenteric neurons of rats ileum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Paulo, Ferreira Schoffen; Maria Raquel, Marçal Natali.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the gastrointestinal neuromuscular function related to age have been demonstrated in human and animal models. This study analyzes the effects of the aging process on the area of the neuronal cell bodies of the myenteric plexus in the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the ilea [...] l circumference of Wistar, 12 month-old in comparison 3 month-old animals. The ileum was removed and whole-mount preparations immunostained by the antibody anti-myosin-V were processed. The morphometric analyses were performed using a computerized image analysis system, with a subsequent distribution of neurons by size in intervals of 100 ?m². The cellular body morphometry revealed a significant increase in the size of the myosin-V- immunoreactive myenteric neurons from 12 month -old animals when compared with 3 month-old animals. However, significant differences between the regions were not observed; these observations were not age-dependent. The implications of these results in relation to the increase of the body weight, size of the small intestine, general organization of the myenteric plexus, staining method of neurons and the possible factors involved in the regulation and/or control of the volume of neronal cells due to aging, are discussed.

  8. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity, endogeneous cardiac glycoside-like factors (s) and natriuretic hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endogenous factors crossreacting with antidigoxin antibodies (digoxin-like immunoreactive substances=DLIS) have been found in several tissues and body fluids of animals and humans, using commercially avaiable digoxin RIA or EIA methods. Detectable DLIS concentration were found in blood and urine extracts of adults (normal healthy controls, hypertensive patients and salt loaded healthy subjects), while higher levels were generally observed in plasma samples of pregnant women, newborns and patients with renal insufficiency. The chemical characteristics of this endogenous factor are, at present, unknown, although it has been suggested that DLIS could be a substance with low molecular weight. Experimental studies and theoretical consideration suggest that DLIS, in addition to reacting with antibodies, might also bind to the specific cellular receptor of the cardiac glycosides and thus inhibit the membrane Na+/K+ ATPase (sodium pump). Therefore, it has been suggested that DLSI is an endogeneous modulator of the membrane sodium-potassium pump and it could play a role in the regulation of fluid and electrolytes muscular tone of myocardial and also in pathogenesis of hypertension

  9. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 ?g/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis. PMID:24530039

  10. Calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity in the mice thoracic spinal cord after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porseva, Valentina V.; Shilkin, Valentin V.; Krasnov, Igor B.; Masliukov, Petr M.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the work was to analyse changes in the location and morphological characteristics of calbindin (CB)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons of the thoracic spinal cord of C57BL/6N male mice after completion of a 30-day space flight on board the BION-M1 biosatellite (Russia, 2013). Space flight induced multidirectional changes of the number and morphological parameters of CB-positive neurons. The number of IR neurons increased in laminae I (from 10 to 17 neurons per section), II (from 42 to 67 cells per section) and IX (from two neurons per segment to two neurons per section), but CB disappeared in neurons of lamina VIII. Weightlessness did not affect the number of CB-IR neurons in laminae III-V and VII, including preganglionic sympathetic neurons. The cross-sectional area of CB-IR neurons decreased in lamina II and VII (group of partition cells) and increased in laminae III-V and IX. After a space flight, few very large neurons with long dendrites appeared in lamina IV. The results obtained give evidence about substantial changes in the calcium buffer system and imbalance of different groups of CB-IR neurons due to reduction of afferent information under microgravity.

  11. Impact of adolescent sucrose access on cognitive control, recognition memory, and parvalbumin immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C; Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D; Morris, Margaret J; Westbrook, R Fred

    2015-04-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral control and high-order cognitive processes. Of particular concern is the fact that sugar intake is greatest in adolescence, an important neurodevelopmental period. We provided sucrose to rats when they were progressing through puberty and adolescence. Cognitive performance was assessed in adulthood on a task related to executive function, a rodent analog of the Stroop task. We found that sucrose-exposed rats failed to show context-appropriate responding during incongruent stimulus compounds presented at test, indicative of impairments in prefrontal cortex function. Sucrose exposed rats also showed deficits in an on object-in-place recognition memory task, indicating that both prefrontal and hippocampal function was impaired. Analysis of brains showed a reduction in expression of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, indicating that sucrose consumption during adolescence induced long-term pathology, potentially underpinning the cognitive deficits observed. These results suggest that consumption of high levels of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents may also impair neurocognitive functions affecting decision-making and memory, potentially rendering them at risk for developing mental health disorders. PMID:25776039

  12. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the cephalopod mollusc, Idiosepius notoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Loesel, R; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of cephalopods with respect to their neurotransmitter phenotypes. This study presents preliminary results on the distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons within the CNS of the pygmy squid I...

  13. Release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity from the perfused canine thyroid. Selective stimulatory effect of calcium ions.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Laurberg; Orskov, H

    1981-01-01

    It is well accepted that the C cells of the thyroid contain somatostatin, but the role in local endocrine function has not yet been firmly established in this organ, and it has not been proved that thyroidal somatostatin is released into the circulation. We have measured the contents of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the effluent of canine thyroid glands perfused without recirculation with a synthetic buffer medium. During basal conditions a definite release was consistently found in t...

  14. Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Growth of Leptospire, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: Immunoreactivity and Cell Division

    OpenAIRE

    Triampo, Wannapong; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Triampo, Darapond; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak; Tang, I-Ming

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the exposure of the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola to a constant magnetic field with magnetic flux density from a permanent ferrite magnet = 140 mT were studied. Changes in Leptospira cells after their exposure to the field were determined on the basis of changes in their growth behavior and agglutination immunoreactivity with a homologous antiserum using darkfield microscopy together with visual imaging. The data showed that the exposed Le...

  15. Cross-Immunoreactivity between Bacterial Aquaporin-Z and Human Aquaporin-4: Potential Relevance to Neuromyelitis Optica

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yan; Duan, Tao; Patel, Jilpa; Liggett, Thomas; Loda, Eileah; Brahma, Sarang; Goswami, Rajendra; Grouse, Carrie; Byrne, Richard; Stefoski, Dusan; Javed, Adil; MILLER, STEPHEN D.; Balabanov, Roumen

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS that is mediated, in part, by a self-reactive Ab against the astrocyte aquaporin-4 protein. In the current study, we examined the possibility and the biological significance of cross-immunoreactivity between bacterial aquaporin-Z and human aquaporin-4 proteins. Sequence-alignment analysis of these proteins revealed several regions of significant structural homology. Some of the homologous regions were also found to overla...

  16. Morphological and laminar distribution of cholescystokinine - immunoreactive neurons in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Laslo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cholecystocinine is a neuropeptide whose function in the cortex has not yet been clarified, although its relation with some psychic disorders has been noticed. Previous studies have not provided detailed data about types, or arrangement of neurons that contain those neuropeptide in the cortex of human inferior parietal lobe. The aim of this study was to examine precisely the morphology and typography of neurons containing cholecytocinine in the human cortex of inferior parietal lobule. Material and methods. There were five human brains on which we did the immunocystochemical research of the shape and laminar distribution of cholecystocinine immunoreactive neurons on serial sections of supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus. The morphological analysis of cholecystocinine-immunoreactive neurons was done on frozen sections using avidin-biotin technique, by antibody to cholecystocinine diluted in the proportion 1:6000 using diamine-benzedine. Results. Cholecystocinine immunorective neurons were found in the first three layers of the cortex of inferior parietal lobule, and their densest concentration was in the 2nd and 3rd layer. The following types of neurons were found: bipolar neurons, then its fusiform subtype, Cajal-Retzius neurons (in the 1st layer, reverse pyramidal (triangular and unipolar neurons. The diameters of some types of neurons were from 15 to 35 µm, and the diameters of dendritic arborization were from 85-207 µm. A special emphasis is put on the finding of Cajal-Retzius neurons that are immunoreactive to cholecystocinine, which demands further research. Conclusion. Bearing in mind numerous clinical studies pointing out the role of cholecystokinine in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, the presence of a great number of cholecystokinine immunoreactive neurons in the cortex of inferior parietal lobule suggests their role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  17. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may therefore play an essential role in the progression of a malignant tumour. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate TIMP-1 protein immunoreactivity in tissue from primary ovarian cancer patients and associate these findings with the course of the disease including response to treatment in the individual patient. TIMP-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (in tissue micro arrays) in a total of 163 ovarian cancer specimens obtained from primary debulking surgery during 1991-1994 as part of a randomized clinical protocol. Positive TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was found in 12.3% of the tumours. The median survival time for the 143 patients with TIMP-1 negative tumours was 23.7 months [19.0-29.4] 95% CI, while the median survival time for the 20 patients with TIMP-1 positive tumours was 15.9 months [12.3-27.4] 95% CI. Although a difference of 7.8 months in median overall survival in favor of the TIMP-1 tumour negative patients was found, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.28, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test). Moreover, TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was not associated with CA125 response (p = 0.53) or response at second look surgery (p = 0.72). TIMP-1 immunoreactivity in tumour tissue from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer did not correlate with patient survival or response to combination platinum/cyclophosphamide therapy

  18. Reduced cerebral cortical but elevated striatal concentration of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kish, S J; Robitaille, Y; el-Awar, M; Schut, L; DiStefano, L; Ball, M. J.; Mazurek, M F

    1993-01-01

    Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) was measured in the brains of nine patients with dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), who all had a marked deficit of the cholinergic marker choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Mean concentrations of SLI in OPCA were significantly reduced by 42-58% in parietal and occipital cortices and frontal cortical eye fields, but were normal in other cortical areas, including two subdivisions of the temporal ...

  19. Muscarinic receptor modulation of release of [Met5]enkephalin immunoreactive material and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, B A; Hexum, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor modulation of secretion from the adrenal medulla was studied using retrogradely perfused bovine tissue. Atropine, at a dose not affecting 1,1 dimethyl-4-phenylpiperizinium (DMPP)-stimulated release, inhibited the acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated release of noradrenaline and [Met5]enkephalin-immunoreactive material (ME-IRM). DMPP-stimulated release of catecholamines and ME-IRM was potentiated by the addition of methacholine. Pilocarpine significantly potentiated the release o...

  20. Chromosome abnormalities and season of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbech, P; Nielsen, J

    1984-01-01

    A study of seasonality has been made of birth of individuals with chromosome abnormalities registered in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register before January 1, 1981. Significant seasonal variation in birth was found for males with Klinefelter's syndrome born before 1946, but not for those born later, and not for any other sex chromosome abnormality. No significant monthly variation was found for any autosomal abnormality, except a significant increase in the frequency of conceptions for Down's syndrome during the first 4 months of the year, using a chi square with 2 degrees of freedom.

  1. Protein Misdirection Inside and Outside Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS: A Possible Clue for Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Ido

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43 are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS, respectively. The commonalities of the two proteins include a propensity to aggregate and acquire detrimental conformations through oligomerization, fragmentation, or post-translational modification that may drive abnormal subcellular localizations. Although SOD1 is a major cytosolic protein, mutated SOD1 has been localized to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and even the extracellular space. The nuclear exclusion of TDP-43 is a pathological hallmark for ALS, although the pathogenic priority remains elusive. Nevertheless, these abnormal behaviors based on the protein misfolding are believed to induce diverse intracellular and extracellular events that may be tightly linked to non-cell-autonomous motor neuron death. The generation of mutant- or misfolded protein-specific antibodies would help to uncover the distribution and propagation of the ALS-linked proteins, and to design a therapeutic strategy to clear such species. Herein we review the literature regarding the mislocalization of ALS-linked proteins, especially mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 species, and discuss the rationale of molecular targeting strategies including immunotherapy.

  2. Correlative Analysis of Immunoreactivity in Confocal Laser-Scanning Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Focused Ion Beam Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Sonomura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional reconstruction of ultrastructure of rat brain with minimal effort has recently been realized by scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam milling (FIB-SEM. Because application of immunohistochemical staining to electron microscopy has a great advantage in that molecules of interest are specifically localized in ultrastructures, we here tried to apply immunocytochemistry to FIB-SEM and correlate immunoreactivity in confocal laser-scanning microcopy (CF-LSM with that in FIB-SEM. The dendrites of medium-sized spiny neurons in rat neostriatum were visualized with a recombinant viral vector, which labeled the infected neurons with membrane-targeted GFP in a Golgi stain-like fashion, and thalamostriatal afferent terminals were immunolabeled with Cy5 fluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2. After detecting the sites of terminals apposed to the dendrites in CF-LSM, GFP and VGluT2 immunoreactivities were further developed for electron microscopy by the immunogold/silver enhancement and immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine (DAB methods, respectively. In the contrast-inverted FIB-SEM images, silver precipitation and DAB deposits were observed as fine dark grains and diffuse dense profiles, respectively, indicating that these immunoreactivities were easily recognizable as in the images of transmission electron microscopy. In the sites of interest, some appositions were revealed to display synaptic specialization of asymmetric type. The present method is thus useful in the three-dimensional analysis of immunocytochemically differentiated synaptic connection in the central neural circuit.

  3. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    1996-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing development, gradually disappeared from these cells and became restricted to insulin-producing beta cells. Throughout development FA1 was not detected in endocrine glucagon, somatostatin or pancreatic polypeptide cells. Moreover, developing insulin cells that coexpressed glucagon were negative for FA1. Thus, there was a negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon both in tumours and during development. These results, together with FA1/dlk's similarity with homeotic proteins, point to a role of FA1 in islet cell differentiation. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Dec

  4. Activity-dependent changes in synaptophysin immunoreactivity in hippocampus, piriform cortex, and entorhinal cortex of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Reinprecht, I; Fahnestock, M; Racine, R J

    2002-01-01

    Synaptophysin, an integral membrane glycoprotein of synaptic vesicles, has been widely used to investigate synaptogenesis in both animal models and human patients. Kindling is an experimental model of complex partial seizures with secondary generalization, and a useful model for studying activation-induced neural growth in adult systems. Many studies using Timm staining have shown that kindling promotes sprouting in the mossy fiber pathway of the dentate gyrus. In the present study, we used synaptophysin immunohistochemistry to demonstrate activation-induced neural sprouting in non-mossy fiber cortical pathways in the adult rat. We found a significant kindling-induced increase in synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the stratum radiatum of CA1 and stratum lucidum/radiatum of CA3, the hilus, the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, and layer II/III of the piriform cortex, but no significant change in layer II/III of the entorhinal cortex, 4 weeks after the last kindling stimulation. We also found that synaptophysin immunoreactivity was lowest in CA3 near the hilus and increased with increasing distance from the hilus, a reverse pattern to that seen with Timm stains in stratum oriens following kindling. Furthermore, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was lowest in dorsal and greatest in ventral sections of both CA3 and dentate gyrus in both kindled and non-kindled animals. This demonstrates that different populations of sprouting axons are labeled by these two techniques, and suggests that activation-induced sprouting extends well beyond the hippocampal mossy fiber system. PMID:12453493

  5. Stereologic estimates of total spinophilin-immunoreactive spine number in area 9 and the CA1 field: relationship with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Afia; Christoffel, Daniel; Rocher, Anne B.; Bouras, Constantin; Kövari, Enikö; Perl, Daniel P; Morrison, John H.; Herrmann, François R.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Hof, Patrick R

    2007-01-01

    The loss of presynaptic markers is thought to represent a strong pathologic correlate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Spinophilin is a postsynaptic marker mainly located to the heads of dendritic spines. We assessed total numbers of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 and CA3 fields of hippocampus and area 9 in 18 elderly individuals with various degrees of cognitive decline. The decrease in spinophilin-immunoreactivity was significantly related to both Braak neurof...

  6. Leu 7 immunoreactivity in fetal olfactory epithelium and dysplastic or neoplastic olfactory lesions induced in Syrian golden hamsters by N-nitrosodiethylamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, J M

    1986-01-01

    The biotinylated monoclonal IgM antibody, anti-Leu 7 (HNK-1) was used to localize, by 2-step avidin-biotin immunocytochemistry, an antigen that appears in olfactory nasal epithelium of male Syrian Golden hamsters during N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) carcinogenesis. In normal young adult and adult hamsters, Leu 7 was not immunoreactive with nasal olfactory epithelium. In hamsters that had been given multiple doses of DEN, Leu 7 immunoreactivity was found throughout the olfactory epithelium. The ...

  7. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2014-12-01

    abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved.

  8. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  9. Amphibian abnormalities on National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet outlines a study done to 1 find the percentage of abnormal frogs and toads on the nations National Wildlife Refuges and 2 determine how the...

  10. Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality URL of ... page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Secondhand_Smoke_090215.html Secondhand Smoke and Heart ...

  11. Valproic acid-induced abnormal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nagalakshmi, Nanjangud Chandrashekar; Ramesh, Madhan; Parthasarathi, Gurumurthy; Harugeri, Anand; Christy, Mary Sam; Keshava, Belur Seshachala

    2010-01-01

    A 12-year-old female was admitted to hospital with complaints of abnormal behavior. She was on valproic acid 200mg twice daily and clobazam 5mg at night for the past 13 weeks for her complex partial seizures with secondary generalized seizures. On day 60 of the treatment with valproic acid she developed behavioral disturbances and initiated treatment with tablet chlorpromazine, olanzapine and risperidone. During the present hospitalization, as there was no improvement in abnormal behavior, an...

  12. Diagnosing of chromosome abnormalities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Videbech, P

    1984-01-01

    A survey of how frequent chromosome abnormalities are diagnosed in Denmark prenatally as well as postnatally compared with the expected incidence in an 11-year period 1970-1980 has been made from the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register. Ten percent of the expected number of Klinefelter's syndrome, 41% of Turner's syndrome and 10% of other sex chromosome abnormalities in children born between 1970 and 1980 have been diagnosed until January 1, 1983. The total frequency of diagnosed cases with sex ...

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anupamasuresh Y; Suresh YV; Prachi Jain

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common problem for the patients and the gynecologists. It adversely effects on the quality of life and psychology of women. It is of special concern in developing country as it adds to the causes of anemia. Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is not complete without tissue diagnosis especially in perimenopausal and post-menopausal women. Histological characteristics of endometrial biopsy material as assessed by light mic...

  14. Infantile autism and associated autosomal chromosome abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, M; Mors, O; Mortensen, P B; Ewald, H

    1999-01-01

    Infantile autism is a heterogenous disorder with unknown aetiology. Evidence from the relatively few family and twin studies suggests a genetic component. Co-occurrence or cosegregation between infantile autism and chromosomal abnormalities may identify candidate regions, which could be tested in linkage or association studies. The purpose of this study was to use the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register in order to detect autosomal chromosome abnormalities associated with infantile autism, and t...

  15. Extraspinal abnormalities identified on lumbar spine CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frager, D.H.; Elkin, C.M.; Kansler, F.; Mendelsohn, S.L.; Leeds, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Retrospective review of 1517 lumbar CT examinations revealed extraspinal pathology in 22 (1.45%). Retroperitoneal tumors and lymphadenopathy as well as vascular, urinary tract and gynecologic abnormalities were identified. This study demonstrates the need to carefully evaluate the visualized portions of the abdomen and pelvis on all lumbar spine CT examinations even when the patient's symptomatology is suggestive of spinal abnormalities. (orig.).

  16. Pupil abnormality in amyloidosis with autonomic neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, D; Smith, S.

    1999-01-01

    Darkness pupil diameters, light reflexes, and redilatation times have been recorded with infrared TV pupillometry in 12 consecutive patients with systemic amyloidosis associated with sensory motor and autonomic neuropathy. Nine of the patients had AL amyloidosis, two had familial amyloidosis associated with a transthyretin abnormality, and one was untyped. The pupils were abnormal in all 12 patients. On the basis of redilatation lag without pupillotonia, six patients had bil...

  17. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Noval; Mar González-Manrique; José María Rodríguez-Del Valle; José María Rodríguez-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or ta...

  18. Osteopoikilosis Patient with Abnormal Bone Scan

    OpenAIRE

    Alev Gürgan; Gonca Deniz; Yasemin Turan; Serpil Bal

    2008-01-01

    Osteopoikilosis a condition mimicking a variety of bone pathology is a rare osteosclerotic displasia. The diagnosis is usually done according to radiographs which are performed incidentally. Although bone scan is usually normal, especially in young patients abnormal tracer uptake can be seen. We report a 25 year-old female osteopoikilosis patient with abnormal bone scan and characteristic radiographic findings who had been diagnosed and treated inappropriately. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:6...

  19. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  20. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln's sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Kendra B; Dankoski, Elyse C; Sockman, Keith W

    2010-08-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer's condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa, social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment, we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to 1 week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity, and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects' AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate sociosexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS), and the preoptic area. We found that high-quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low-quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment. PMID:20399213

  1. Variation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] immunoreactivity during bovine gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulesu, L.; Pfarrer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in several aspects of the immune response. MIF appears to play important roles in materno-fetal immuno-tolerance during placental establishment, modulation and growth as studied in epitheliochorial porcine and hemochorial human and mouse placentae. Here we studied the bovine placenta being multiplex, villous and synepitheliochorial with a low degree of invasion, to see if MIF could be involved. Placental tissues sampled from 12 cows at 9 stages of gestation (days 18-250), and endometrial tissues from two non-pregnant animals were processed for immunohistochemistry. Bovine MIF was detected by Western blot using anti-human MIF monoclonal antibodies. An immunoreactive band of approximately 12kDa confirmed similarities between bovine and human MIFs. Compared to the non-pregnant stage with very faint staining, the caruncular epithelium during pregnancy showed stronger staining for MIF. The intercaruncular epithelium in non-pregnantendometrium showed some reaction apically with increasing intensity at uterine gland openings; in contrast, at day 18 of gestation this staining was markedly increased. During gestation both caruncular and trophoblast epithelium of the placentomes were positive with different intensity in relation to the gestational stage. In the uterine glands, some strongly stained cells were present. The mature binucleated trophoblast giant cells were negative throughout pregnancy. During reestablishment of vascularisation, the vasculature in the caruncular area showed MIF reactivity. While supporting involvement of MIF in different placental types, the spatio-temporal variation in the bovine placenta suggests a regulatory role for MIF mainly in the interhemal barrier and during vascular development.

  2. Quick radioimmunoassay for plasma immunoreactive gastrin. Application for localizing occult gastrinoma(s) during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method for determining gastrin, quick gastrin, has been developed. Separation/washing procedure has been improved and can be completed within three minutes. It required only 48 minutes for the assay of 22 blood samples. Quick gastrin is a RIA that uses magnetic particles. On magnetic particles, a goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody is bound covalently. An anti-human gastrin rabbit antibody is bound to an anti-rabbit IgG antibody. Assay is started by adding the magnetic particles to a mixture of sample and 125I-gastrin. Following 30 minute incubation at 37degC, the particles are sedimented in a magnetic field and washed. The gastrin content of the sample is then quantitated by counting radioactivity of the particles. Incomplete equilibration of antigen-antibody reaction is corrected using standard solution prepared from charcoal treated plasma. The immunoreactive gastrin values by quick gastrin correlated well with those by a commercial assay kit (Gammadab RIA kit; y=1.01x+4.3, r=0.99). When compared to a reported conventional rapid assay, quick gastrin is easier and more accurate. Quick gastrin is sensitive enough to use for intra-operative determination of gastrin. We applied quick gastrin to the samples obtained from intra-operative secretin test in a gastrinoma patient. Twofold increase in gastrin after injection of secretin clearly indicated the existence of occult gastrinomas in her pancreas. When gastrin was assayed with the conventional rapid method, the increase in gastrin was less and did not reach the criteria for existence of gastrinoma. (author)

  3. Effects of avian infectious bronchitis virus antigen on eggshell formation and immunoreaction in hen oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Takahiro; Isobe, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism by which the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) affects eggshell formation. Attenuated IBV (aIBV group) or vehicle (control group) was injected into the oviductal magnum lumen of White Leghorn laying hens. The changes in the expression of genes related to eggshell formation (collagen types I and V, and CaBP-D28K), densities of cytotoxic cells (CD8(+) and TCR-??(+) T cells), and gene expression of molecules related to cytotoxic immunoreaction (B-NK, perforin, granzyme, and IL-2) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and IFN-?) were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry in the isthmus and uterus. Gene expression of IL-1? and IL-6receptors in the tubular gland cells of the isthmus and uterus was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression of collagen type I, but not collagen type V, in the isthmus and CaBP-D28K in the uterus was decreased in the aIBV group compared with that in the control. The frequencies of CD8(+) cells and TCR-??(+) T cells in the isthmus and uterus were significantly higher in the aIBV group than in the control group. The expression of cytotoxic molecular and proinflammatory cytokines was also higher in the aIBV group than in the control. The expression of IL-6 receptor, but not IL-1? receptor, was identified in the tubular gland cells in the isthmus and uterus. These results suggest that IBV infection causes disorder of eggshell formation by disturbing gene expression of collagen type I in the isthmus and CaBP-D28K in the uterus, probably via the effects of substances from cytotoxic cells and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:24612789

  4. Association between immunoreactivity to Anisakis spp. antigens and high-risk pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Israel; Vericimo, Mauricio; Terra, Luciana; Ferreira, Taylane; São Clemente, Sergio Carmona; Teixeira, Gerlinde

    2015-12-01

    Numerous factors contribute to perinatal risk, many of which remain undefined. This study sought to determine the frequency of fish intake in postpartum women, and to establish a relationship between the rates of immunoreactivity for antigens from Anisakis spp. and high-risk pregnancy. In this prospective noninterventional study, a structured questionnaire was administered and serum was collected from postpartum women at two perinatal centers (a high-risk birth unit [HRBU] and a low-risk birth unit [LRBU]) in the Niteroi municipality of Brazil. Anisakis species-specific IgG and IgE were measured by ELISA. The chisquared test was performed, and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. The t-test or Mann-Whitney test was applied to continuous, normally distributed variables. In total, 309 women (170 from HRBU, 139 from LRBU) between 24.8 and 26.7 years old with a median of 6 to 8 prenatal visits were enrolled. Women in the two units exhibited differences in some variables, including prenatal care (p = 0.01), maternal and fetal risk (p = 0.00; OR = 6.17), and gestational age (p = 0.00), but no differences in fish consumption (p = 0.29), frequency of fish intake (p = 0.40), allergic symptoms (p = 0.51), or frequency of anti-Anisakis reactivity (p = 0.22). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only age was independently associated with postpartum anti-Anisakis reactivity. This study confirmed a low prevalence of fish intake and suggested that Anisakis spp. had no impact on high-risk pregnancies among this postpartum study population. PMID:26408579

  5. Identification, bioinformatics analyses, and expression of immunoreactive antigens of Mycoplasma haemofelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Santos, Andrea P

    2011-08-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis infection frequently causes anemia in cats. Despite an intense immune response and/or antibiotic treatment, cats often remain asymptomatic carriers following infection. Our hypothesis is that detection of antibodies to M. haemofelis is a sensitive approach for identifying infected cats, particularly carriers. To date, no immunoassay has been developed. This is due largely to the inability to culture M. haemofelis in vitro; hence, a source of antigen is not readily available. The objective of this study was to identify, express, and purify immunogenic proteins of M. haemofelis. To accomplish this, two whole-genomic expression libraries were created in the Lambda ZapII vector and immunoscreened with preimmune plasma, plasma from specific-pathogen-free cats, and pooled acute- and convalescent-phase plasma from experimentally infected cats. The inserts from 21 immunoreactive clones were sequenced, resulting in the identification of 60 genes coding for putative proteins necessary for diverse cellular functions, along with several novel genes of M. haemofelis. Fragments of selected genes based on bioinformatic analyses were PCR amplified, cloned into a high-level protein expression system, and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli as a His(6)-fusion protein. The recombinant fusion proteins of M. haemofelis were purified and evaluated as an antigen in a Western blot to verify the findings of previous immunoscreening. Together with bioinformatics analyses of individual genes, this approach provided several putative candidate antigens. Five antigens of M. haemofelis were reactive by Western blotting against the immune plasma and negative against nonimmune plasma; these antigens might be useful serologic or even vaccine targets. PMID:21653748

  6. Identification, Bioinformatics Analyses, and Expression of Immunoreactive Antigens of Mycoplasma haemofelis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B.; Santos, Andrea P.

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis infection frequently causes anemia in cats. Despite an intense immune response and/or antibiotic treatment, cats often remain asymptomatic carriers following infection. Our hypothesis is that detection of antibodies to M. haemofelis is a sensitive approach for identifying infected cats, particularly carriers. To date, no immunoassay has been developed. This is due largely to the inability to culture M. haemofelis in vitro; hence, a source of antigen is not readily available. The objective of this study was to identify, express, and purify immunogenic proteins of M. haemofelis. To accomplish this, two whole-genomic expression libraries were created in the Lambda ZapII vector and immunoscreened with preimmune plasma, plasma from specific-pathogen-free cats, and pooled acute- and convalescent-phase plasma from experimentally infected cats. The inserts from 21 immunoreactive clones were sequenced, resulting in the identification of 60 genes coding for putative proteins necessary for diverse cellular functions, along with several novel genes of M. haemofelis. Fragments of selected genes based on bioinformatic analyses were PCR amplified, cloned into a high-level protein expression system, and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli as a His6-fusion protein. The recombinant fusion proteins of M. haemofelis were purified and evaluated as an antigen in a Western blot to verify the findings of previous immunoscreening. Together with bioinformatics analyses of individual genes, this approach provided several putative candidate antigens. Five antigens of M. haemofelis were reactive by Western blotting against the immune plasma and negative against nonimmune plasma; these antigens might be useful serologic or even vaccine targets. PMID:21653748

  7. Loss of Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 Immunoreactivity Linked to Dendritic Spine Loss in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shelton, Micah A; Newman, Jason T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) is a neuronal protein that plays a role in maintaining dendritic structure through its interaction with microtubules. In schizophrenia (Sz), numerous studies have revealed that the typically robust immunoreactivity (IR) of MAP2 is significantly reduced across several cortical regions. The relationship between MAP2-IR reduction and lower dendritic spine density, which is frequently reported in Sz, has not been explored in previous studies, and MAP2-IR loss has not been investigated in the primary auditory cortex (Brodmann area 41), a site of conserved pathology in Sz. METHODS: Using quantitative spinning disk confocal microscopy in two cohorts of subjects with Sz and matched control subjects (Sz subjects, n = 20; control subjects, n = 20), we measured MAP2-IR and dendritic spine density and spine number in deep layer 3 of BA41. RESULTS: Subjects with Sz exhibited a significant reduction in MAP2-IR. The reductions in MAP2-IR were not associated with neuron loss, loss of MAP2 protein, clinical confounders, or technical factors. Dendritic spine density and number also were reduced in Sz and correlated with MAP2-IR. In 12 (60%) subjects with Sz, MAP2-IR values were lower than the lowest values in control subjects; only in this group were spine density and number significantly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that MAP2-IR loss is closely linked to dendritic spine pathology in Sz. Because MAP2 shares substantial sequence, regulatory, and functional homology with MAP tau, the wealth of knowledge regarding tau biology and the rapidly expanding field of tau therapeutics provide resources for identifying how MAP2 is altered in Sz and possible leads to novel therapeutics.

  8. Nociceptin immunoreactivity and receptor mRNA in the human trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Mingyan; Uddman, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    Nociceptin is a peptide transmitter belonging to the opioid family. Nociceptin has recently attracted considerable interest since it appears to exhibit a number of differences to the other opioids. In the present study, we used a nociceptin antibody to map the distribution of nociceptin in the human trigeminal ganglion. In addition, we studied the nociceptin receptor at mRNA levels by RT-PCR and the vasomotor response to nociceptin in human cerebral vessels using a sensitive in vitro method. About 70% of all neuronal cells in trigeminal ganglia were nociceptin immunopositive. Nociceptin was predominantly (78%) expressed in medium-sized cells (30-60 microm). Nociceptin also distributed in small-sized cells (14% of positive cell bodies; 60 microm). Double immunostaining showed that in the human trigeminal ganglion nociceptin colocalized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP). About 61% of nociceptin positive cells contained CGRP, 54% contained SP, 50% contained NOS and 68% contained PACAP. Immunoreactivity to nociceptin was not detected in human cerebral blood vessels. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction detected the expression of nociceptin receptor mRNA in trigeminal ganglia but not in basilar arteries. To further examine whether there are functional nociceptin receptors in human cerebral arteries, a pharmacological study was done, where cerebral arteries revealed strong contractions to 60 mM K(+) and U466166 and strong relaxation to CGRP. Nociceptin failed to elicit contraction or relaxation. In conclusion, nociceptin is expressed in human trigeminal ganglia but not in cerebral blood vessels. Nociceptin is colocalized with CGRP, SP, NOS and PACAP. Nociceptin receptor mRNA is expressed in human trigeminal ganglia but not in basilar arteries. The functional role of nociceptin may be at the presynaptic level.

  9. Neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in the cat claustrum: A light- and electron-microscopic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinova-Palova, D V; Landzhov, B; Dzhambazova, E; Minkov, M; Edelstein, L; Malinova, L; Paloff, A; Ovtscharoff, W

    2014-11-01

    The claustrum is a telencephalic nucleus located ventrolateral to the basal ganglia in the mammalian brain. It has an extensive reciprocal connectivity with most if not all of the cerebral cortex, in particular, primary sensory areas. However, despite renewed and growing interest amongst investigators, there remains a paucity of data concerning its peptidergic profile. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence, morphology, distribution and ultrastructure of neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (NPY-ir) neurons and fibers in the claustrum of the cat. Ten adult healthy cats from both sexes were used. All animals received human and ethical treatment in accordance with the Principles of Laboratory Animal Care. Subjects were irreversibly anesthetized and transcardially perfused with fixative solution containing glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde. Brains were promptly removed, postfixed and sectioned. Slices were incubated with polyclonal anti-NPY antibodies according to the standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method adopted by our Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology. NPY-ir neurons and fibers were found to be diffusely distributed throughout the claustrum, with no obvious topographic or functional patterning other than larger numbers in its central/broadest part (stereotaxic planes A12-A16). Neurons were generally classified by diameter into three sizes: small (under 17 ?m), medium (17-25 ?m) and large (over 25 ?m). Staining density is varied with some neurons appearing darker than others. At the electron-microscopic level NPY immunoproduct was observed within neurons, dendrites and terminal boutons, each differing relative to their ultrastructural attributes. Two types of NPY-ir synaptic boutons were found. Lastly, it is of interest to note that gender-specific differences were not observed. PMID:25157673

  10. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  11. Diagnosing of chromosome abnormalities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Videbech, P

    1984-01-01

    A survey of how frequent chromosome abnormalities are diagnosed in Denmark prenatally as well as postnatally compared with the expected incidence in an 11-year period 1970-1980 has been made from the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register. Ten percent of the expected number of Klinefelter's syndrome, 41% of Turner's syndrome and 10% of other sex chromosome abnormalities in children born between 1970 and 1980 have been diagnosed until January 1, 1983. The total frequency of diagnosed cases with sex chromosome abnormalities is 13% of the expected number. Induced abortion was made in 62% of the cases with sex chromosome abnormalities diagnosed prenatally. Ninety percent of all cases with Down's syndrome were diagnosed by chromosome examination, and 10% were diagnosed prenatally and aborted. During the last part of the period from 1977-1980 this had increased to 20%. Thirty-seven percent of cases with other chromosome abnormalities were diagnosed. Among the expected 4,396 children with chromosome abnormalities to beborn between 1970 and 1980, a total of 39% were diagnosed postnatally until January 1, 1983, and 10% were diagnosed prenatally. It is concluded that there is a great need for training consultants in clinical genetics, expansion and further decentralization of cytogenetic service with more cytogenetic laboratories and employment of clinical geneticists in all 14 Danish counties.

  12. Fetal Calcifications Are Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Ellika; Sirotkina, Meeli; Marnerides, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver) at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far. Methods One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection. Results Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001). The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%), trisomy 18 (22%), and monosomy X (18%). A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004). Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Conclusion The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer special attention towards co-existence of malformations, as this would be a strong indicator for a chromosomal abnormality. PMID:25923652

  13. OPHTHALMOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  14. Behavioral alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIANA LE, SUEUR-MALUF; MILENA B., VIANA; MÁRCIA R., NAGAOKA; ANA LAURA B., AMORIM; AMANDA N., CARDOSO; BRUNA C., RODRIGUES; NATÁLIA F., MENDES; JACKSON C., BITTENCOURT; ISABEL C., CÉSPEDES.

    Full Text Available A Encefalopatia hepática (HE) engloba uma variedade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, incluindo ansiedade e disfunção psicomotora. Embora seja uma complicação frequente da cirrose hepática, os substratos neurobiológicos responsáveis por suas manifestações clínicas são em grande parte desconhecidos. No [...] presente estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico de ligação e secção do ducto biliar (BDL; bile-duct ligation), para indução da cirrose hepática e, no 21º dia após a cirurgia, submetidos aos testes comportamentais no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e campo aberto para avaliação da ansiedade e atividade locomotora. A análise da imunorreatividade à proteína Fos (Fos-ir) foi utilizada para melhor compreender as alterações neurobiológicas presentes nos animais do grupo BDL. Foi realizada a quantificação da concentração de amônia plasmática e análise histopatológica dos fígados. Os ratos do grupo BDL mostraram diminuição significativa na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos do LCE, caracterizando efeito ansiogênico. Estes animais também apresentaram redução significativa na Fos-ir no núcleo septal lateral e núcleo medial da amígdala. A concentração plasmática de amônia foi significativamente mais elevada que a do grupo sham e o diagnóstico de cirrose foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. Estes resultados indicam que o modelo de HE induzido por BDL induz efeito ansiogênico possivelmente relacionado à ativação de circuitos mediadores da ansiedade e à hiperamonemia. Abstract in english Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction. Although HE is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, the neurobiological substrates responsible for its clinical manifestations are largely unclear. In the present stu [...] dy, male Wistar rats were bile duct-ligated (BDL), a procedure which induces liver cirrhosis, and on the 21st day after surgery tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in an open field for anxiety and locomotor activity measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to better understand the neurobiological alterations present in BDL animals. Plasma levels of ammonia were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed. BDL rats showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the EPM, an anxiogenic effect. These animals also presented significant decreases in Fos-ir in the lateral septal nucleus and medial amygdalar nucleus. Their ammonia plasma levels were significantly higher when compared to the sham group and the diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that the BDL model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

  15. Calcium-binding Protein Calretinin Immunoreactivity in the Dog Superior Colliculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied calretinin-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and cells in the canine superior colliculus (SC) and studied the distribution and effect of enucleation on the distribution of this protein. Localization of calretinin was immunocytochemically observed. A dense plexus of anti-calretinin-IR fibers was found within the upper part of the superficial gray layer (SGL). Almost all of the labeled fibers were small in diameter with few varicosities. The intermediate and deep layers contained many calretinin-IR neurons. Labeled neurons within the intermediate gray layer (IGL) formed clusters in many sections. By contrast, labeled neurons in the deep gray layer (DGL) did not form clusters. Calretinin-IR neurons in the IGL and DGL varied in morphology and included round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, and horizontal neurons. Neurons with varicose dendrites were also labeled in the IGL. Most of the labeled neurons were small to medium in size. Monocular enucleation produced an almost complete reduction of calretinin-IR fibers in the SC contralateral to the enucleation. However, many calretinin-IR cells appeared in the contralateral superficial SC. Enucleation appeared to have no effect on the distribution of calretinin-IR neurons in the contralateral intermediate and deep layers of the SC. The calretinin-IR neurons in the superficial dog SC were heterogeneous small- to medium-sized neurons including round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, pyriform, and horizontal in shape. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that no cells in the dog SC expressed both calretinin and GABA. Many horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled retinal ganglion cells were seen after injections into the superficial layers. The vast majority of the double-labeled cells (HRP and calretinin) were small cells. The present results indicate that antibody to calretinin labels subpopulations of neurons in the dog SC, which do not express GABA. The results also suggest that the calretinin-IR afferents in the superficial layers of the dog SC originate from small class retinal ganglion cells. The expression of calretinin might be changed by the cellular activity of selective superficial collicular neurons. These results are valuable in delineating the basic neurochemical architecture of the dog visual system

  16. Behavioral alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIANA LE, SUEUR-MALUF; MILENA B., VIANA; MÁRCIA R., NAGAOKA; ANA LAURA B., AMORIM; AMANDA N., CARDOSO; BRUNA C., RODRIGUES; NATÁLIA F., MENDES; JACKSON C., BITTENCOURT; ISABEL C., CÉSPEDES.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Encefalopatia hepática (HE) engloba uma variedade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, incluindo ansiedade e disfunção psicomotora. Embora seja uma complicação frequente da cirrose hepática, os substratos neurobiológicos responsáveis por suas manifestações clínicas são em grande parte desconhecidos. No [...] presente estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico de ligação e secção do ducto biliar (BDL; bile-duct ligation), para indução da cirrose hepática e, no 21º dia após a cirurgia, submetidos aos testes comportamentais no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e campo aberto para avaliação da ansiedade e atividade locomotora. A análise da imunorreatividade à proteína Fos (Fos-ir) foi utilizada para melhor compreender as alterações neurobiológicas presentes nos animais do grupo BDL. Foi realizada a quantificação da concentração de amônia plasmática e análise histopatológica dos fígados. Os ratos do grupo BDL mostraram diminuição significativa na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos do LCE, caracterizando efeito ansiogênico. Estes animais também apresentaram redução significativa na Fos-ir no núcleo septal lateral e núcleo medial da amígdala. A concentração plasmática de amônia foi significativamente mais elevada que a do grupo sham e o diagnóstico de cirrose foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. Estes resultados indicam que o modelo de HE induzido por BDL induz efeito ansiogênico possivelmente relacionado à ativação de circuitos mediadores da ansiedade e à hiperamonemia. Abstract in english Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction. Although HE is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, the neurobiological substrates responsible for its clinical manifestations are largely unclear. In the present stu [...] dy, male Wistar rats were bile duct-ligated (BDL), a procedure which induces liver cirrhosis, and on the 21st day after surgery tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in an open field for anxiety and locomotor activity measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to better understand the neurobiological alterations present in BDL animals. Plasma levels of ammonia were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed. BDL rats showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the EPM, an anxiogenic effect. These animals also presented significant decreases in Fos-ir in the lateral septal nucleus and medial amygdalar nucleus. Their ammonia plasma levels were significantly higher when compared to the sham group and the diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that the BDL model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

  17. Paraffin immunoreactivity of CD10, CDw75, and Bcl-6 in follicle center cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, C H; Polski, J M; Lance Evans, H; Gardner, L J

    2001-05-01

    Follicle center cell lymphoma(FCCL) has the following immunophenotype(IP): sIg+, Pan B+, CD10+/-, CD5-, CD23-/+, CD43-, CD11c-, CD25-. In addition, reactivities of a malignant lymphoma with CDw75(LN-1) and bcl-6 are considered indicators of FCCL. Bcl-6 expression is common in Grade 1 FCCL (100%) and rare in other indolent B-cell lymphomas(BCL). In contrast, bcl-2 expression is common in FCCL (80%) and in other BCL subtypes. Since no previous study has correlated paraffin immunoreactivity(PIR) of CD10, CDw75, and bcl-6 in FCCL (Grades 1-3), this is this study's purpose. Twenty-nine FCCL's were identified and reviewed (6, Grade 1; 10, Grade 2; 13, Grade 3) from the Division of Hematopathology, St. Louis University. The diagnoses were based on morphology and immunohistochemistry(IH)(21 cases) +/- the flow cytometric IP(14 cases). The paraffin blocks were stained for CD10 (Novacastra, Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA), CDw75 and bcl-6 (DAKO Corporation, Carpinteria, CA). Results showed that, CD10 by paraffin IH(PIH) was positive in 23 [18(strong); 3(moderate); 2(weak)] and negative in 6(3, Grade 2; 3, Grade 3). All CD10-cases were CDw75+; 4, bcl-6+. The two CD10-, bcl-6-cases were Grade 2. CDw75 was positive in 28 cases [16(strong); 11(moderate); 1(weak)] and negative in 1 (Grade 3; CD10+, bcl-2+, bcl-6+). Bcl-6 was positive in 26 [16(strong); 6(moderate); 4(weak)] and negative in 3(Grade 2's). Thus, the sensitivity of CD10, CDw75, and bcl-6 by PIH for FCCL was 79%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. Of the three stains evaluated by PIH in FCCL, CDw75 was the most sensitive, closely followed by bcl-6. CD10 was least sensitive-79%. By combining these 3 stains, the sensitivity was 100%; thus, a combined approach is recommended. PMID:11378576

  18. Distribution of serotonin-immunoreactivity in the brain of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet, E; Miceli, D; Pierre, J; Repérant, J; Masicotte, G; Herbin, M; Vesselkin, N P

    1996-03-01

    The distribution of serotonin (5-HT)-containing perikarya, fibers and terminals in the brain of the pigeon (Columba livia) was investigated, using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence methods combined with retrograde axonal transport. Twenty-one different groups of 5-HT immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified, 2 of which were localized at the hypothalamic level (periventricular organ, infundibular recess) and 19 at the tegmental-mesencephalic and rhombencephalic levels. Ten of the cell groups were situated within the region of the midline from the isthmic to the posterior rhombencephalic level and constituted the raphe system (nucleus annularis, decussatio brachium conjunctivum, area ventralis, external border of the nucleus interpeduncularis, zona peri-nervus oculomotorius, zona perifasciculus longitudinalis medialis, zona inter-flm, nucleus linearis caudalis, nucleus raphe superior pars ventralis, nucleus raphe inferior). The 9 other cell populations belonged to the lateral group and extended from the posterior mesencephalic tegmentum to the caudal rhombencephalon [formatio reticularis mesencephali, nucleus ventrolateralis tegmenti, ectopic area (Ec) of the nucleus isthmo-opticus (NIO), nucleus subceruleus, nucleus ceruleus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, nucleus vestibularis medialis, nucleus reticularis parvocellularis and nucleus reticularis magnocellularis]. Combining the retrograde axonal transport of rhodamine beta-isothiocyanate (RITC) after intraocular injection and immunohistofluorescence (fluoresceine isothiocyanate: FITC/5-HT) showed the centrifugal neurons (NIO, Ec) to be immunonegative. Serotonin-IR fibers and terminals were found to be very broadly distributed within the brain and were particularly prominent in several structures of the telencephalon (archistriatum pars dorsalis, nucleus taeniae, area parahippocampalis, septum), diencephalon (nuclei preopticus medianus, magnocellularis, nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis, nucleus triangularis, nucleus pretectalis), mesencephalon-rhombencephalon (superficial layers of the optic tectum, nucleus ectomamillaris, nucleus isthmo-opticus and in most of the cranial nerve nuclei). Comparing the present results with those of previous studies in birds suggests some major serotonin-containing pathways in the avian brain and clarifies the possible origin of the serotonin innervation of some parts of the brain. Moreover, comparing our results in birds with those obtained in other vertebrate species shows that the organization of the serotoninergic system in many regions of the avian brain is much like that found in reptiles and mammals. PMID:8881471

  19. Distribution and densitometry mapping of L1-CAM Immunoreactivity in the adult mouse brain – light microscopic observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki Hironobu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in mouse brain might provide a basis for understanding its role in the brain. Results We examined the overall distribution of L1 in the adult mouse brain by immunohistochemistry using two polyclonal antibodies against different epitopes for L1. Immunoreactive L1 was widely but unevenly distributed from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical cord. The accumulation of immunoreactive L1 was greatest in a non-neuronal element of the major fibre bundles, i.e. the lateral olfactory tract, olfactory and temporal limb of the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, stria terminalis, globus pallidus, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, solitary tract, and spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. High to highest levels of non-neuronal and neuronal L1 were found in the grey matter; i.e. the piriform and entorhinal cortices, hypothalamus, reticular part of the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, trigeminal spinal nucleus etc. High to moderate density of neuronal L1 was found in the olfactory bulb, layer V of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, pontine grey, superior colliculi, cerebellar cortex, solitary tract nucleus etc. Only low to lowest levels of neuronal L1 were found in the hippocampus, grey matter in the caudate-putamen, thalamus, cerebellar nuclei etc. Conclusion L1 is widely and unevenly distributed in the matured mouse brain, where immunoreactivity was present not only in neuronal elements; axons, synapses and cell soma, but also in non-neuronal elements.

  20. Localisation of NG2 immunoreactive neuroglia cells in the rat locus coeruleus and their plasticity in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobus Van Der Want

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus (LC nucleus modulates adaptive behavioural responses to stress and dysregulation of LC neuronal activity is implicated in stress-induced mental illnesses. The LC is composed primarily of noradrenergic neurons together with various glial populations. A neuroglia cell-type largely unexplored within the LC is the NG2 cell. NG2 cells serve primarily as oligodendrocyte precursor cells throughout the brain. However, some NG2 cells are in synaptic contact with neurons suggesting a role in information processing. The aim of this study was to neurochemically and anatomically characterise NG2 cells within the rat LC. Furthermore, since NG2 cells have been shown to proliferate in response to traumatic brain injury, we investigated whether such NG2 cells plasticity also occurs in response to emotive insults such as stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that NG2 cells were enriched within the pontine region occupied by the LC. Close inspection revealed that a sub-population of NG2 cells were located within unique indentations of LC noradrenergic somata and were immunoreactive for the neuronal marker NeuN whilst NG2 cell processes formed close appositions with clusters immunoreactive for the inhibitory synaptic marker proteins gephyrin and the GABA-A receptor alpha3-subunit, on noradrenergic dendrites. In addition, LC NG2 cell processes were decorated with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 immunoreactive puncta. Finally, ten days of repeated restraint stress significantly increased the density of NG2 cells within the LC. The study demonstrates that NG2 IR cells are integral components of the LC cellular network and they exhibit plasticity as a result of emotive challenges.

  1. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  2. Abnormal head position in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  3. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  4. [Abnormal hemoglobins and thalassemias in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Reyes, G

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of abnormal hemoglobins in Mexico is derived from surveys and from the study of patients with hemolytic anemia. In aboriginal populations, more than 3,000 individuals have been studied: structural abnormal hemoglobins are virtually absent in Mexican Indians and the sporadic finding of hemoglobin S among them is due to admixture with Africans brought as slaves during the Spanish domination; two new variants of hemoglobin (Mexico and Chiapas) were found in aborigines. The surveys in hybrid groups in selected areas of the country show that in some West and East Coast communities there are different frequencies of Hb S heterozygous, and that a high prevalence of Hb S trait has been found in some communities similar to that in some African areas. In a group of 200 subjects of a town located along the Gulf of Mexico Coast, 6% of Hb S and 15% of thalassemia beta heterozygous is observed. In hospital surveys in two cities (Guadalajara and Puebla) several abnormalities of hemoglobin have been identified (C, SC, Riyadh, Baltimore, Tarrant, Fannin-Lubbock and Mexico). In the study of isolated cases, mainly of patients with hemolytic anemia, hemoglobins I-Philadelphia, G-San Jose and D-Los Angeles are seen. The thalassemias are the more frequent hemoglobin abnormalities in selected populations of our country. In a community of Italian ancestry a frequency of 1.3% of beta thalassemia trait is found. In our laboratory, 76% of the abnormalities are cases of beta thalassemia trait. Patients with Hb H disease, beta thalassemia (homozygous and heterozygous) and combinations of these abnormalities with hemoglobins S, Hb S + hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and Hb E as well as families with delta-beta thalassemia, HPFH and Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston have been also detected. PMID:9658939

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients diagnosed as primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) using conventional karyotyping. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Clinical Laboratory, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January 2006 - June 2012. Methodology: Patients of all ages and either gender who fulfilled WHO criteria for MDS were included. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted at the time of diagnosis. Patients who had secondary MDS were excluded from analysis. Chromosome identification and karyotype description was done according to the International System for Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN, 1995) and described as frequency percentage. Results: Out of the 122 cases of MDS, 71 patients had their karyotype done at the time of diagnosis, including 42 males (59.2%) and 29 females (40.8%) with median age of 60 years. Forty one (57.7%) showed normal karyotype and 30 (42.3%) showed clonal karyotypic abnormalities at diagnosis. Out of which 14 (19.7%) had single, 11 (15.5%) had complex and 6 (8.5%) had double cytogenetic abnormalities. The common abnormalities found were: trisomy 8 in 7 cases (9.9%), -7/del (7q) in 3 cases (4.2%), -Y and complex 5q in 2 cases (2.8%) each, complex trisomy 8, del 11q , inversion 9, trisomy 19 and del 20q were found in 1 case (1.4%) each. Other abnormalities were found in 11 cases (15.5%). Conclusion: Trisomy 8 was the most common disorder/abnormality found in this study population followed by the complex cytogenetics. (author)

  6. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Rygaard, Carsten; Hallas, Jesper; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil...

  7. Significance of negative hysteroscopic view in abnormal uterine bleeding.

    OpenAIRE

    Parasnis H; Parulekar S

    1992-01-01

    Ninety six cases of abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated by both panoramic hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage. The indications for hysteroscopy included postmenopausal bleeding, infertility with abnormal bleeding, abnormal bleeding and suspected leiomyoma with bleeding. Twenty three patients had abnormal hysteroscopy findings. Hysteroscopy diagnosed endometrial polyp and submucus leiomyoma with 100% accuracy. In 17 cases, the results of hysteroscopy and curettage were in agr...

  8. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness. PMID:23211704

  9. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  10. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  11. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  12. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  13. Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Secondhand Smoke and Heart Rhythm Abnormality URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  14. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav BjØrn; David, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis and outcome were reviewed. Results: Of the 370 cases identified, 31.6% were associated with spinabifida (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I-cell disease, Muenke craniosynostosis and two with an as yet undefined craniosynostosis syndrome. Overall, 16.5 % had an underlying genetic syndrome. Conclusions: Abnormal fetal head shape may be a normal variant, but is commonly associated with a wide variety of underlying pathologies. In view of the high incidence of genetic syndromes, in the absence of a clear diagnosis, referral to a tertiary centre and genetic input is advised as detection of subtle sonographic features may aid diagnosis, allowing for targeted molecular analysis. An algorithm for management will be proposed.

  15. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    McGill, Megan L.; Devinsky, Orrin; Wang, Xiuyuan; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Carlson, Chad; Butler, Tracy; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Thesen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and ...

  16. An abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abnormal secretion of plasma human growth hormore (hGH) and insulin in 67 acromegalic patients had been previously treated by external pituitary radiation were studied. All subjects, following an overnight fast, a standard 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, were performed and venous blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. They were measured for blood glucose, plasma insulin and hGH. The results of this study have shown that, of the 67 subjects, 23 cases had an abnormal glucose tolerance(34.32%). Diabetes was detected in 17 cases (23.37%) and 6 patients had decreased glucose tolerance(8.69%). In all, hGH levels were consistantly above 5 ng/ml and were not suppressed after an oral glucose load. In these patients, however, about one-third had abnormal glucose tolerance. Low plasma insulin response to glucose and that of the releasing were evident in them than the normal glucose tolerance and a healthy control group. In addition, the mechanism of the abnormal secretion of hGH and insulin were disscussed

  17. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  18. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  19. Immunoreactivity of monoclonal anti-melanoma antibodies in relation to the amount of radioactive iodine substituted to the antibody molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzku, S.; Kirchgessner, H.; Dippold, W.G.; Brueggen, J.

    1985-11-01

    The damage to monoclonal anti-melanoma antibodies caused by iodination was investigated by comparing the results obtained using the chloramine-T method and the 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3..cap alpha..,6..cap alpha..-diphenyl-glycoluril (IODOGEN) method at different levels of iodine substitution to the molecule. The level of substitution at which losses in immunoreactivity occurred were evaluated in each monoclonal antibody (MAb) studied. This phenomenon was not dependent on the method of substitution, provided that mild conditions of reaction were used. Lineweaver-Burk plots and - in cases of alterations in binding affinity - Scatchard plots were found to provide an adequate description of the binding behaviour of individual MAbs after labelling. Immunoreactivity was shown to be determined not only by the proportion of bona fide reactive MAb molecules, but also by a substitution-dependent decrease in affinity constants. The practical consequences of altered binding parameters were demonstrated by quantitating specific antibodyaccumulation in melanoma transplants in vivo.

  20. Proliferative enteropathy (PE: Induced changes in galanin-like immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system of the porcine distal colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonkowski S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of galanin (GAL like immonoreactivity in the porcine descending colon during proliferative entheropathy (PE. Accordingly, the distribution pattern of GAL - like immunoreactive (GAL-LI nerve structures was studied by the immunofluorescence technique in the circular muscle layer, myenteric (MP, outer submucous (OSP and inner submucous plexuses (ISP, as well as in the mucosal layer of the porcine descending colon under physiological conditions and during PE. In control animals GAL-LI perikarya have been shown to constitute 4.03 ± 0.1%, 6.67 ± 0.3% and 11.20 ± 0.5% in MP, OSP and ISP, respectively. PE caused changes in the GAL - like immunoreactivity, which differed in particular parts of the studied bowel segment. During PE the number of GAL-LI perikarya amounted to 2.90±0.5%, 8.42±1.0% and 21.72±1,4% within the MP, OSP and ISP, respectively. Moreover PE caused an increase in the number of GAL-LI nerve fibers in the colonic circular muscle and mucosal layers, as well as in all intramural plexuses, especially in ISP, where nearly every ganglion contained a very dense meshwork of the GAL-positive nerve fibers under the studied pathological factor. This study for the first time reports on changes in GAL-LI nerve structures of the porcine descending colon during Lawsonia intracellularis infection.

  1. Fibrinogen Excretion in the Urine and Immunoreactivity in the Kidney Serves as a Translational Biomarker for Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dana; Bijol, Vanesa; Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Gonzalez, Victoria R.; Frendl, Gyorgy; Zhang, Qin; Goering, Peter L.; Brown, Ronald P.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Vaidya, Vishal S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrinogen (Fg) is significantly up-regulated in the kidney after acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated the performance of Fg as a biomarker for early detection of AKI. In rats and mice with kidney tubular damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or cisplatin administration, respectively; kidney tissue and urinary Fg increased significantly and correlated with histopathological injury, urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG) corresponding to the progression and regression of injury temporally. In a longitudinal follow-up of 31 patients who underwent surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, urinary Fg increased earlier than SCr in patients who developed postoperative AKI (AUC-ROC = 0.72). Furthermore, in a cohort of patients with biopsy-proven AKI (n = 53), Fg immunoreactivity in the tubules and interstitium increased remarkably and was able to distinguish patients with AKI from those without AKI (n = 59). These results suggest that immunoreactivity of Fg in the kidney, as well as urinary excretion of Fg, serves as a sensitive and early diagnostic translational biomarker for detection of AKI. PMID:22819533

  2. Development of paraventricular nucleus (PVN associated with immuno-reactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the second half of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babovi? Siniša S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this stady was to shed more light on the developmental characteristics of human paraventricular nucleus (PVN and hypothalamus in general, using modern immunohistochemical techniques to detect the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the synthesis of catecholamine (CA. Fetal brains were examined at 12, 16, 20 and 23 weeks gestation. Immunohistochemical staining used for sections is a qualitative method for detection and distribution of the chosen protein. The amplification of positive signals was cared out using AVIDIN/BIOTIN technique. The first positive results were obtained at 16th week of gestation and immunoreactivity grew with the advancement of gestation and that there was no homogenisation of immunoreactivity in some parts of the nucleus. The PVN showed to be an oval formation, nearly parallel with the lateral wall of the 3 rd cerebral ventricle, where the upper apex of the nucleus is situated closer to the ependymal ventricular layer. There was an ascendant dorsal movement of the nucleus in the embryonic phase of hypothalamus development.

  3. Follicular growth of a thyroid carcinoma cell line (KAT-4) with abnormal E-cadherin and impaired epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmark, Johanna; Heldin, Nils-Erik; Nilsson, Mikael

    2002-09-01

    Loss of the epithelial phenotype is a well-established phenomenon during progression of carcinomas to a more malignant state. In the present study, we describe a human thyroid tumor cell line (KAT-4), established from a poorly differentiated carcinoma, which displays exceptional features. In culture, the KAT-4 cells had a fast proliferation rate that was not restricted by high cell density, resulting in multilayered growth. Unexpectedly, the cells expressed normal levels of epithelial markers, e.g., cytokeratin, occludin, and E-cadherin, showed apical-basolateral polarization of the plasma membrane including microvilli and junction complexes, and formed intercellular lumens resembling thyroid follicles. Yet, when grown on filter, the cells were unable to establish a tight paracellular barrier. Moreover, E-cadherin expressed at the cell surface consisted of two peptides with abnormal size (135 and 95 kd, respectively) as compared to mature E-cadherin (120 kd) in nonneoplastic thyrocytes. Northern blot analysis and examination of immunoreactivity, glycosylation, and catenin binding suggested that E-cadherin was aberrant because of altered posttranscriptional processing. Thus, the KAT-4 thyroid carcinoma cell line has a unique phenotype, with maintained epithelial morphology despite dysfunctioning tight junctions, abnormal E-cadherin, and loss of contact-inhibited growth, that is not previously identified in other wild-type tumor cell lines. PMID:12481943

  4. A latex agglutination test for the field determination of abnormal vitellogenin production in male fishes contaminated by estrogen mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen mimics are pollutants present in the aquatic environment. These compounds induce abnormalities in the reproductive system of male fishes, which lead to a total or partial male feminization, or to their demasculinization. Ultimately, these alterations could lead to a disappearance of the total contaminated fish population. Moreover, these toxic substances possess the capacity to mimic endogenous estrogens and to induce the abnormal production of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fishes. The purpose of this research was to develop an easy, specific, cheap and fast method for diagnosing the contamination of male fishes by estrogen mimics, using VTG as biomarker. The selected method is based on a reverse latex agglutination test (rLAT), developed with monoclonal antibodies specific of this biomarker. The development of this VTG-rLAT has involved, firstly, the purification of carp VTG to produce monoclonal antibodies, specifics of this protein. One of these antibodies was selected to recover latex particles (diameter: 1 ?m). Finally, the immunoreactivity of the VTG-rLAT was verified with different fish plasma samples from males treated with 17?-estradiol and non-treated males or females in vitellogenesis

  5. FMRFamide-like immunoreactive nervus terminalis innervation to the pituitary in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.): demonstration by lesion and immunocytochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, N. S.; Subhedar, N.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    Certain thick FMRFamide-like immunoreactive fibers arising from the ganglion cells of nervus terminalis in the olfactory bulb of Clarias batrachus can be traced centripetally through the medial olfactory tract, telencephalon, lateral preoptic area, tuberal area, and hypothalamohypophysial tract to the pituitary. Following 6 days of bilateral olfactory tract transection, the immunoreactivity in the thick fibers, caudal to the lesion site, was partially eliminated, whereas after 10 and 14 days, it was totally abolished in the processes en route to the pituitary. The results indicate a direct innervation of the pituitary gland by the FMRFamide-like peptide containing fibers of the nervus terminalis.

  6. Disorganization of honey-comb immunoreactive pattern of desmin and plectin in rat atrophic soleus muscle fiber induced by hindlimb suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, S.; Hachisuka, K.; Furukawa, H.; Doi, Y.; Kudo, H.; Fujimoto, S.

    2002-01-01

    Immunoreactivity for desmin, plectin and a- actinin was inve s t i gated in rat atrophic soleus muscle fibers induced by hindlimb suspension between 1 and 4 weeks (hindlimb suspension group, HSG), and compared with that of the control group (CG). Some of the HSG for 4 weeks were allowed unrestricted cage activity for 2 weeks as the recovery group (RG). In the cross-sectioned muscle fibers of the CG, desmin and plectin show e d h o n ey-comb immunoreactive patte...

  7. Abnormality of dermal collagen fibrils in Ehlers Danlos syndrome. Anticipation of the abnormality for the inherited hypermobile disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayasi, Takasi

    2004-01-01

    The abnormality of dermal collagen fibrils is the ultrastructural criterion of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). This study evaluates the clinical significance of the abnormality. Besides 348 lax patients presenting the stigmata of EDS, skin specimens from 12 normal members in the pedigree of EDS, 98 randomly selected normal individuals, 7 Marfan syndrome and 4 osteogenesis inperfecta type I, were studied by electron microscopy. The abnormality was defined by thickness, array and shape of collagen fibrils. Of 348 lax patients, 115 patients showed Beighton's score higher than 6 and constantly the abnormality (EDS). Variable numbers of the patients with scores 1 to 5 displayed the abnormality (forme fruste). The abnormality did not correspond with variation of laxity. Marfan syndrome and osteogenesis imperfecta were indistinguishable from EDS by the abnormality. Some of the normal persons in the EDS pedigree and some controls also showed the abnormality. The abnormality expressed the disposition for heritably defected collagen fibril formation. PMID:15319154

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Embalse NGS: Abnormal event procedures development lifecycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present used philosophy in Canada and in Atucha Nuclear Generating Station (Argentina) it was decided to develop the Abnormal Event Procedures (EOP's) in a logical diagram format. The EOP's have in general two parts: the diagnosis and the operative action to mitigate the event. Some serious incidents can be resolved by the EOP's, but the philosophy is first, to satisfy the EOP's requirements. Taking into account the operating experience, the Final Safety Report and the results of simulations done by appropriate codes, it was possible to obtain the corresponding sequence for each abnormal event. With the information available in the Control Room (windows, alarms, trends, etc) for each part of the EOP's was associated the instrumentation that the operator must observe. 3 figs

  10. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The cent...

  11. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  12. Abnormal right ventricular relaxation in pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Murch, Stuart D.; La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J.; Prior, David L; MacIsaac, Andrew I.; Burns, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected P...

  13. MRI appearances of Muellerian duct abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerian duct abnormalities are a well-documented cause of sub-fertility, and in some cases can be successfully treated in order to preserve fertility and prevent complications. In this paper we review the various types of anomaly and present their appearances as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI provides an excellent, non-invasive method of differentiating between the different types of anomaly and defining their suitability for surgical treatment

  14. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  15. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnorma...

  16. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr V. Popovych; Tass, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the tr...

  17. Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    POWELL, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to an...

  18. Abnormal Selective Attention in Psychopathic Female Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Vitale, Jennifer E.; Brinkley, Chad A.; Hiatt, Kristina D.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Research on psychopathy in women has generated equivocal laboratory findings. This study examined the performance of psychopathic women in 2 laboratory tasks designed to assess abnormal selective attention associated with response modulation deficits: a computerized picture–word (PW) task, and a picture–word Stroop (PW Stroop) task. Consistent with data from psychopathic men, women receiving high scores on the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (Hare, 1991) displayed reduced Stroop interference on...

  19. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Aaron J. Kaye; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate the...

  20. Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, W -X

    2013-01-01

    We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. We further investigate the dynamics of volatility, trading volume, average trade size and turnover around the transactions associated with the abnormal motifs for large, medium and small trades. It is found that these variables peak at the abnormal events and exhibit a power-law accumulation in the pre-event time period and a power-law relaxation in the post-event period. We also find that the cumulative excess returns are significantly positive after buyer-initiated suspicious trades and exhibit a mild price reversal afte...

  1. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2010-02-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neurone function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation in both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  2. Thalamic shape abnormalities in antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Danivas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia states abnormal pruning as one of the pathogenetic mechanism in schizophrenia. Though thalamic volume abnormalities have been documented, the shape differences of thalamus in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia in comparison with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers need validation. Materials and Methods: We examined antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia patients ( n=60 and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers ( n=44. The thalamic shape abnormalities were analyzed from their coded structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using three-dimensional automated image analysis software, FMRIB?s (Oxford Center for the functional MRI of the brain tools-FIRST (FMRIB?s Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool by creating deformable mesh model. Correlation with the psychopathology scores was carried out using F-statistics. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed significant inward deformations in the regions corresponding to anterior, ventromedial, mediodorsal, and pulvinar nuclei. There was a direct correlation between negative syndrome score and the deformation in the right mediodorsal and right pulvinar nuclei. Conclusion: The inward deformations of thalamus in antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients correspond to those nuclei which have reciprocal connections with frontal, superior temporal, and anterior cingulate regions and support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  3. [Hematologic abnormalities in infantile visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchene, S; Braham, N; Bouatay, A; Hizem, S; Berriri, S; Eljemai, A; Boughamoura, L; Kortas, M

    2015-11-01

    The clinical and biological manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis are often confusing, most particularly because it can mimic and lead to a variety of hematological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the hematologic abnormalities observed in infantile visceral leishmaniasis from January 2000 and December 2013. The study included 35 children with a mean age of 3.5 years. Clinical manifestations were dominated by splenomegaly, fever, and paleness, defining the classic triad in 16% of our patients. Anemia was present in all patients. Leukopenia was found in 51% of the cases. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 48% of our patients and 36% had pancytopenia. All cases were confirmed by the presence of Leishman bodies (amastigotes) in the bone marrow smears. Quantitative and qualitative megakaryocyte abnormalities were found. Similarly, dysgranulopoiesis was observed in 31% of the cases, eosinophilia was present in 6%, erythroid hypoplasia in 3%, and erythroid hyperplasia in 34%. Different features of dyserythropoiesis were revealed in 71% of the patients with images of hemophagocytosis in 6% and multiple dysplasias in 9%. The knowledge of these hematological abnormalities associated with infantile visceral leishmaniasis can assist us in searching for Leishman bodies in the bone marrow smears to provide a diagnosis more quickly without necessarily resorting to more sophisticated tests. PMID:26433577

  4. Detecting Abnormal Behaviors in Crowded Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin P. Popoola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational awareness is a basic function of the human visual system, which is attracting a lot of research attention in machine vision and related research communities. There is an increasing demand for smarter video surveillance of public and private space using intelligent vision systems which can distinguish what is semantically meaningful to the human observer as ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behaviors. In this study we propose a novel robust behavior descriptor for encoding the intrinsic local and global behavior signatures in crowded scenes. Crowd scenes transitioning from normal to abnormal behaviors such as “rush”, “scatter” and “herding” were modeled and detected. The descriptor uses features that encode both local and global signatures of crowd interactions. Bayesian topic modeling is used to capture the intrinsic structure of atomic activity in the video frames and used to detect the transition from normal to abnormal behavior. Experimental results and analysis of the proposed framework on two publicly available crowd behavior datasets show the effectiveness of this method compared to other methods for anomaly detection in crowds with a very good detection accuracy rates.

  5. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  6. Abnormality monitoring method and device for equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present invention, abnormalities of equipments to be monitored are detected at high accuracy by recurring analysis of a plurality of measuring signals. A calculated monitoring parameter is used as a reference for judgement irrespective of the operation state of equipments to be monitored and the entire plant, and the difference of the response characteristics of each of measuring signals. Namely, when there is any difference of the response characteristics between each of the measured signals, the recurring analysis is conducted after compensating the difference. The recurring coefficient is judged to be significant or not based on the calculated correlation coefficient. The recurring coefficient only when it is judged to be significant is used as a monitoring parameter. The monitoring parameter is judged as to whether in a predetermine normal range not. When it is not in the range, it is judged that abnormality is occurred in the equipment. According to the method of the present invention, the judgement for the occurrence of abnormality can be expressed by a single numeral as a monitoring parameter. Accordingly, there is not always necessary for relying upon operator's subjecting judgement. (I.S.)

  7. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial appearances. Facial deformity caused by trauma, congenital disabilities, and postsurgical sequelae present with significant adverse functional consequences. Facial deformities have a significant negative effect on perceptions of social functionality, including employability, honesty, and trustworthiness. Adverse perceptions of patients with facial deformities occur regardless of sex, educational level, and age of evaluator. PMID:12794453

  8. Aggrecan and chondroitin-6-sulfate abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a postmortem study on the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, H; Markota, M; Jaquet, F; Ghosh, D; Wallin, A; Santos, A; Caterson, B; Berretta, S

    2015-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix aggregates surrounding distinct neuronal populations and regulating synaptic functions and plasticity. Previous findings showed robust PNN decreases in amygdala, entorhinal cortex and prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia (SZ), but not bipolar disorder (BD). These studies were carried out using a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) lectin marker. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the CSPG aggrecan, and 6-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS-6) chains highly represented in aggrecan, may contribute to these abnormalities. Antibodies against aggrecan and CS-6 (3B3 and CS56) were used in the amygdala of healthy control, SZ and BD subjects. In controls, aggrecan immunoreactivity (IR) was observed in PNNs and glial cells. Antibody 3B3, but not CS56, also labeled PNNs in the amygdala. In addition, dense clusters of CS56 and 3B3 IR encompassed CS56- and 3B3-IR glia, respectively. In SZ, numbers of aggrecan- and 3B3-IR PNNs were decreased, together with marked reductions of aggrecan-IR glial cells and CS-6 (3B3 and CS56)-IR 'clusters'. In BD, numbers of 3B3-IR PNNs and CS56-IR clusters were reduced. Our findings show disruption of multiple PNN populations in the amygdala of SZ and, more modestly, BD. Decreases of aggrecan-IR glia and CS-6-IR glial 'clusters', in sharp contrast to increases of CSPG/lectin-positive glia previously observed, indicate that CSPG abnormalities may affect distinct glial cell populations and suggest a potential mechanism for PNN decreases. Together, these abnormalities may contribute to a destabilization of synaptic connectivity and regulation of neuronal functions in the amygdala of subjects with major psychoses. PMID:25603412

  9. Origin of porcine brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive innervation of the middle cerebral artery in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S E; Kibbe, M R; Hurley, K M; Needleman, P; Saper, C B

    1991-07-22

    We recently demonstrated that porcine brain natriuretic peptide-like immunoreactive (pBNPir) fibers innervate parts of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries comprising the circle of Willis. To determine the origin of this innervation, we used the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue dye combined with pBNP immunocytochemistry. Cells which project to the middle cerebral artery and were also pBNPir were found in the trigeminal, pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia bilaterally but not in the geniculate or otic ganglia. The majority of these double-labelled cells were found in the ipsilateral trigeminal (46%) and superior cervical ganglia (34%). A pBNP-like substance may be a natural vasodilator in sympathetic, sensory and to a lesser extent parasympathetic neurons innervating the cerebrovascular system. PMID:1834966

  10. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevent Cognitive Decline VIDEO: If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, ... to Home Page VIDEO: If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, ...

  11. Essential tremor and cerebellar dysfunction: abnormal ballistic movements

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, B.; Deuschl, G; Lauk, M.; Timmer, J; Guschlbauer, B; Lucking, C

    2002-01-01

    Background: Clinical characteristics reminiscent of cerebellar tremor occur in patients with advanced essential tremor. Ballistic movements are known to be abnormal in cerebellar disease. The hypothesis was proposed that ballistic movements are abnormal in essential tremor, reflecting cerebellar dysfunction.

  12. Heterotaxia syndrome: the role of screening for intestinal rotation abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, M; Borenstein, S; Hornberger, L; Langer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Heterotaxia syndrome involves multiple anomalies, including cardiac malformations and intestinal rotation abnormalities. Most authors recommend routine radiological evaluation, with laparotomy and Ladd procedure if a rotation abnormality is found.

  13. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, E.M. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Faculty of Medicine; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Inst. for Cancer Res.; Kvinnsland, S. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Oncology; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Inst. for Cancer Res.

    1999-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  14. Sexual behavior triggers the appearance of non-neuronal cells containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, R; Ramos, C L; Silverman, A J

    1992-04-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulates the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins and facilitates the display of sexual behavior. We report that in doves, following a brief period of courtship, non-neuronal cells containing GnRH-like immunoreactivity (ir) are seen in the habenula of both male and female doves. These cells appear to be translocated from either the cerebrospinal fluid or from capillaries in the pia or choroid plexus into the parenchyma of the brain. Immunoreactive cells are virtually absent in the habenula in control animals housed alone. The identity of the ir cells that enter the habenula is unknown but they would appear to be of either the macrophage or the mast cell lineage. Both of these blood-derived cells have heterochromatic nuclei and irregular cell surfaces with many filamentous processes, as do the GnRH-ir cells. The vacuolated granules of the ir cells could be indicative of mast cell degranulation or of endocytic vesicles of a phagocytosing cell. These data suggest that there is a population of cells within the habenula that are of similar size and morphology to the GnRH-ir ceils and are metachromatic when stained with toluidine blue. The latter is a property of heparin-containing mast cells. Lineage specific markers that permit a double-label study will be required to determine the exact nature of the GnRH-ir cells. Whatever their lineage, the translocation of non-neuronal cells into the undamaged adult central nervous system has not been described previously, and may provide a means of delivering biologically active substances into specific brain regions. PMID:21554598

  15. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in the porcine arteries of vascular subovarian plexus (VSP during the estrous cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andronowska

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important angiogenic factor in the female reproductive tract. It binds to cell surface through ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase receptors, the most important being VEGFR-1 (flt-1 and VEGFR-2 (flk-1. The broad ligament of the uterus is a dynamic organ consisting of specialized complexes of blood vessels connected functionally to the uterus, oviduct and ovary. Endothelial cells form an inner coating of the vessel walls and thus they stay under the influence of various modulators circulating in blood including ovarian steriods involved in developmental changes in the female reproductive system. The aim of the present study was to immunolocalize VEGF and its two receptors: VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in the broad ligament of the uterus in the area of vascular subovarian plexus during different phases of the estrous cycle in pig and to determine the correlation between immunoreactivity of the investigated factors and phases of the estrous cycle. The study was performed on cryostat sections of vascular subovarian plexus stained immunohistochemically by ABC method. Specific polyclonal antibodies: anti-VEGF, anti-VEGFR-1 and anti-VEGFR-2 were used. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Our study revealed the presence of VEGF and its receptors in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of VSP arteries. All agents displayed phase-related differences in immunoreactivity suggesting the modulatory effect of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on the arteries of the VSP in the porcine broad ligament of the uterus.

  16. Chronic upregulation of activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 and nerve growth factor following diffuse axonal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzaszcz MaryAnn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of axonal injury following TBI, and have linked cognitive disability in these patients to white matter signal changes. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of this white matter injury, and the role of microglial activation in this process. It is increasingly recognized that microglia constitute a heterogeneous population with diverse roles following injury. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that following diffuse axonal injury involving the corpus callosum, there is upregulation of a subpopulation of microglia that express the lectin galectin-3/Mac-2 and are involved in myelin phagocytosis. Methods Adult mice were subject to midline closed skull injury or sham operation and were sacrificed 1, 8, 14 or 28 days later. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques were used to analyze patterns of labelling within the corpus callosum qualitatively and quantitatively. Results Activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 were most abundant 1 day following injury. Their levels were attenuated at later time points after TBI but still were significantly elevated compared to sham animals. Furthermore, the majority of galectin-3/Mac-2+ microglia were immunoreactive for nerve growth factor in both sham and injured animals. Conclusions Our results suggest that galectin-3/Mac-2+ microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of diffuse axonal injury both acutely and chronically and that they mediate their effects, at least in part by releasing nerve growth factor.

  17. Changes in RFamide-Related Peptide-1 (RFRP-1)-Immunoreactivity During Postnatal Development and the Estrous Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Sara R; Andersen, Mille D

    2014-01-01

    GnRH is a key player in the hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. It has been shown that the mammalian counterpart of the avian gonadotropin inhibitory hormone named RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that innervate and inhibit GnRH neurons. The RFRP precursor is processed into 2 mature peptides, RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. These are characterized by a conserved C-terminal motif RF-NH2 but display highly different N termini. Even though the 2 peptides are equally potent in vitro, little is known about their relative distribution and their distinct roles in vivo. In this study, we raised an antiserum selective for RFRP-1 and defined the distribution of RFRP-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Next, we analyzed the level of RFRP-1-ir during postnatal development in males and females and investigated changes in RFRP-1-ir during the estrous cycle. RFRP-1-ir neurons were distributed along the third ventricle from the caudal part of the medial anterior hypothalamus throughout the medial tuberal hypothalamus and were localized in, but mostly in between, the dorsomedial hypothalamic, ventromedial hypothalamic, and arcuate nuclei. The number of RFRP-1-ir neurons and the density of cellular immunoreactivity were unchanged from juvenile to adulthood in male rats during the postnatal development. However, both parameters were significantly increased in female rats from peripuberty to adulthood, demonstrating prominent gender difference in the developmental control of RFRP-1 expression. The percentage of c-Fos-positive RFRP-1-ir neurons was significantly higher in diestrus as compared with proestrus and estrus. In conclusion, we found that adult females, as compared with males, have significantly more RFRP-1-ir per cell, and these cells are regulated during the estrous cycle.

  18. Reduced density of glutamine synthetase immunoreactive astrocytes in different cortical areas in major depression but not in bipolar I disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bannier, Jana; Steiner, Johann; Walter, Martin; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for disturbances within the glutamate system in patients with affective disorders, which involve disruptions of the glutamate–glutamine-cycle. The mainly astroglia-located enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a central role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. However, GS is also expressed in numerous oligodendrocytes (OLs), another class of glial cells implicated in mood disorder pathology. To learn more about the role of glia-associated GS in mental illnesses, we decided to find out if numerical densities of glial cells immunostained for the enzyme protein differ between subjects with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), and psychically healthy control cases. Counting of GS expressing astrocytes (ACs) and OLs in eight cortical and two subcortical brain regions of subjects with mood disorder (N = 14), BD (N = 15), and controls (N = 16) revealed that in major depression the densities of ACs were significantly reduced in some cortical but not subcortical gray matter areas, whereas no changes were found for OLs. In BD no alterations of GS-immunoreactive glia were found. From our findings we conclude that (1) GS expressing ACs are prominently involved in glutamate-related disturbances in major depression, but not in BD and (2) GS expressing OLs, though being present in significant numbers in prefrontal cortical areas, play a minor (if any) role in mood disorder pathology. The latter assumption is supported by findings of others showing that – at least in the mouse brain cortex – GS immunoreactive oligodendroglial cells are unable to contribute to the glutamate–glutamine-cycle due to the complete lack of amino acid transporters (Takasaki et al., 2010). PMID:26321908

  19. Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum days 6-8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of sterile water or olanzapine (1.0, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg, sc). Maternal behavior was tested 2h later, after which rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected. Ten brain regions that were either implicated in the action of antipsychotic drugs and/or in the regulation of maternal behavior were examined for c-Fos immunoreactivity. Acute olanzapine treatment dose-dependently disrupted various components of maternal behavior (e.g., pup retrieval, pup licking, nest building, crouching) and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens shell and core (NAs and NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLSt), ventral lateral septum (LSv), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), important brain areas generally implicated in the incentive motivation and reward processing. In contrast, olanzapine treatment did not alter c-Fos in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBST) and medial amygdala (MeA), the core brain areas directly involved in the mediation of rat maternal behavior. These findings suggest that olanzapine disrupts rat maternal behavior primarily by suppressing incentive motivation and reward processing via its action on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems, other limbic and striatal areas, but not by disrupting the core processes involved in the mediation of maternal behavior in particular. PMID:22960130

  20. Reduced density of glutamine synthetase immunoreactive astrocytes in different cortical areas in major depression but not in bipolar I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Gert Bernstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for disturbances within the glutamate system in patients with affective disorders, which involve disruptions of the glutamate-glutamine- cycle. The mainly astroglia-located enzyme glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a central role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. However, glutamine synthetase is also expressed in numerous oligodendrocytes, another class of glial cells implicated in mood disorder pathology. To learn more about the role of glia-associated glutamine synthetase in mental illnesses, we decided to find out if numerical densities of glial cells immunostained for the enzyme protein differ between subjects with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and psychically healthy control cases. Counting of glutamine synthetase expressing astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in eight cortical and two subcortical brain regions of subjects with mood disorder (N=14, bipolar disorder (N=15 and controls (N=16 revealed that in major depression the densities of astrocytes were significantly reduced in some cortical but not subcortical gray matter areas, whereas no changes were found for oligodendrocytes. In bipolar disorder no alterations of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive glia were found. From our findings we conclude that (1 glutamine synthetase expressing astrocytes are prominently involved in glutamate-related disturbances in major depression, but not in bipolar disorder and (2 glutamine synthetase expressing oligodendrocytes, though being present in significant numbers in prefrontal cortical areas, play a minor (if any role in mood disorder pathology. The latter assumption is supported by findings of others showing that - at least in the mouse brain cortex - glutamine synthetase immunoreactive oligodendroglial cells are unable to contribute to the glutamate-glutamine cycle due to the complete lack of amino acid transporters (Takasaki et al.

  1. Inducing effect of skeletal muscle extracts on the appearance of calbindin-immunoreactive dorsal root ganglion cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, I; Droz, B

    1989-01-01

    Calbindin D-28k is a calcium-binding protein which is not expressed by dorsal root ganglion cells cultured from 6-day-old (E6) chick embryos. When soluble muscle extracts from embryos at E11, E18 or chickens 2 weeks after hatching were added immediately after seeding, dorsal root ganglia cells grown at E6 displayed neuronal subpopulations expressing calbindin immunoreactivity with time; the effect of muscle extract on the percentage of calbindin-immunoreactive dorsal root ganglia cells followed a dose-response curve. When muscle extract was added to cultures after a 3 day delay, the percentage of calbindin-expressing neurons was unchanged. The effect produced by muscle extract and, to a lesser degree, skin extract on the appearance of calbindin-positive neurons was not reproduced by brain or liver extracts while all four exerted a trophic action on cultured neurons. Hence it is assumed that muscle extract contains a factor which produces an inductive effect on the initiation of calbindin-expression by uncommitted subpopulations of sensory neurons rather than a trophic influence on the selective survival of covertly committed neuronal subpopulations. The fact that muscle extract promoted calbindin expression by dorsal root ganglia cells in neuron-enriched as well as in mixed dorsal root ganglion cell cultures indicates that the factor would act directly on sensory neurons rather than indirectly through mediation of non-neuronal cells. Since the active muscular factor was non-dialysable, heat-inactivated, trypsin-sensitive and retained by molecular filters with a cut-off of 30 K, this factor is probably a protein. PMID:2761694

  2. Spatio-temporal Video Parsing for Abnormality Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Anti?, Borislav; Ommer, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Abnormality detection in video poses particular challenges due to the infinite size of the class of all irregular objects and behaviors. Thus no (or by far not enough) abnormal training samples are available and we need to find abnormalities in test data without actually knowing what they are. Nevertheless, the prevailing concept of the field is to directly search for individual abnormal local patches or image regions independent of another. To address this problem, we propo...

  3. Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Aman; Sachdeva Ravinder; Wanchu Ajay; Dikshit Byomakesh; Das Reena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron stu...

  4. Localization of S1- and S2-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the brittle star Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje 1828).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bremaeker, N; Deheyn, D; Thorndyke, M C; Baguet, F; Mallefet, J

    1997-05-22

    The recent isolation and characterization of the SALMFanide neuropeptides S1 GFNSALMFamide; and S2 (SGPYSFNSGLTFamide) from the sea stars. Asterias rubens and Asterias forbesi have initiated numerous studies on their morphological localization and distribution within the phylum Echinodermata. It has been shown by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay that these peptides are widely distributed in the nervous system of some asteroids, echinoids and ophiuroids. A physiological approach has also shown that S1 and S2 potentiate the luminescence of the small ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata. In the present study. S1- and S2-like immunoreactivity have been localized in A. squamata by immunocytochemistry on both wholemount preparation and histological sections. The results reveal a widespread neuronal distribution of S1-like immunoreactivity in the circumoral ring, radial nerve cord, and tube feet. S1-like immunoreactivity was found to be associated with axons and cell bodies in both the ectoneural and hyponeural components of the nervous. S2-like immunoreactivity was detected only in the ectoneural plenus of the circumoral ring and radial nerve cord. PMID:9178539

  5. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  6. The Spacing Principle for Unlearning Abnormal Neuronal Synchrony

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr V. Popovych; Xenakis, Markos N.; Tass, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Desynchronizing stimulation techniques were developed to specifically counteract abnormal neuronal synchronization relevant to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The goal of our approach is to achieve an anti-kindling, where the affected neural networks unlearn abnormal synaptic connectivity and, hence, abnormal neuronal synchrony, by means of desynchronizing stimulation, in particular, Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation. As known from neuroscience, psychology and education, lear...

  7. Autosomal Chromosome Abnormality: A Cause of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Diane

    Intended for parents and professionals, the book explains chromosome abnormalities in lay terms and discusses the relationship of specific conditions to birth defects. Chromosomal abnormalities are defined and factors in diagnosis and recurrence are discussed. Normal chromosome reproduction processes are covered while such numerical abnormalities

  8. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  9. Abnormal grain growth in iron-silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tricia A.

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) was studied in an Fe-1%Si alloy using automated Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) to determine the driving force for this phenomenon. Experiments were performed with the knowledge that there are several possible driving forces and, the intent to determine the true driving force by elimination of the other potential candidates. These potential candidates include surface energy anisotropy, anisotropic grain boundary properties and the stored energy of deformation. In this work, surface energy and grain boundary anisotropies as well as the stored energy of deformation were investigated as the possible driving forces for AGG. Accordingly, industrially processed samples that were temper rolled to 1.5% and 8% were annealed in air for various times followed by quenching in water. The results obtained were compared to those from heat treatments performed in wet 15%H2-85%N2 at a US Steel facility. In addition, for a more complete study of the effect of surface energy anisotropies on AGG, the 1.5% temper-rolled material was heat-treated in other atmospheres such as 5%H2-95%Ar, 98%H2-2%He, 98%H2-2%H 2S, and 98%H2-2%N2 for 1 hour followed by quenching in water. The character of the grain boundaries in the materials was also examined for each set of experiments conducted, while the influence of stored energy was evaluated by examining intragranular orientation gradients. AGG occurred regardless of annealing atmosphere though the most rapid progression was observed in samples annealed in air. In general, grains of varying orientations grew abnormally. One consistently observed trend in all the detailed studies was that the matrix grains remained essentially static and either did not grow or only grew very slowly. On the other hand, the abnormally large grains (ALG), on average, were approximately 10 times the size of the matrix. Analysis of the grain boundary character of the interfaces between abnormal grains and the matrix showed no significant variation from the overall population of boundaries. This suggested that grain boundary character was not a factor in controlling AGG. When the effect of stored energy differences was considered, it was observed that grains that experienced AGG had low orientation gradients. Based on these results and cross comparison of all classes of experiments performed, it was determined that stored energy differences were the main driving force for AGG in this Fe-1%Si alloy.

  10. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haymon, M.L. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Willis, R.B. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics; Ehlayel, M.S. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics; Lacassie, Y. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics]|[Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1997-05-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi.

  11. Abnormal-glow-discharge deposition of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-tungsten films that adhere well to silicon dioxide were deposited using a dc abnormal-glow discharge through WF6, H2, and Ar. Film resistivities on the order of 30 ?? cm and deposition rates as high as 200 A/min were obtained without heating the substrate externally. X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that electron scattering at the grain boundaries has limited the conductivity of the plasma-deposited films. Tungsten films having resistivities within a factor of two times that of bulk tungsten were produced with a two-step process utilizing plasma and conventional chemical vapor deposition

  12. TRANSIENT ABNORMAL MYELOPOIESIS IN A NEONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM is a unique di sorder of newborns associated intimately with Down’s syndrome, present ing with clinical and morphological features indistinguishable from acute myeloid leuka emia (AML. We report a case in a neonate, presenting with severe perinatal asphyxia and cyanosis ; complicated by metabolic acidosis. The hemogram revealed leucocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The peripheral smear showed marked left shift and 55% circulating myeloblasts. Additio nal findings included a hepatomegaly and mild dysmorphic features. The child eventually succu mbed to pulmonary hemorrhage on day one itself. TAM has to be differentiated from conge nital leukemia which portends a poor prognosis

  13. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1992. There are two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants and six abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministration (all therapeutic) at NRC-licensed facilities discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating three previously reported abnormal occurrences

  14. Report to congress on abnormal occurrences: January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1992. The abnormal occurrences involving medical therapy misadministrations at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant, and none were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  15. Real-time Multiple Abnormality Detection in Video Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Simon Hartmann; Ren, Huamin

    2013-01-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in video sequences has recently gained an increasing attention within the research community. Although progress has been seen, there are still some limitations in current research. While most systems are designed at detecting specific abnormality, others which are capable of detecting more than two types of abnormalities rely on heavy computation. Therefore, we provide a framework for detecting abnormalities in video surveillance by using multiple features and cascade classifiers, yet achieve above real-time processing speed. Experimental results on two datasets show that the proposed framework can reliably detect abnormalities in the video sequence, outperforming the current state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Ectodermal abnormalities in patients with Kabuki syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Afifi, Hanan H; Eid, Maha M; El-Badry, Tarek H; Kholoussi, Naglaa

    2011-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is extensively described in the literature and characterized by a typical facial gestalt in combination with postnatal short stature, hypotonia, joint laxity, developmental delay, persistent fetal fingertip pads, and an ever-growing group of congenital abnormalities. In this study, we focus on some ectodermal manifestations that we have observed. We studied seven patients who fulfilled the clinical criteria for KS and undertook a detailed clinical, dental, cytogenetic, and immunoglobulin assessments. In addition, microscopic hair examinations were performed on all patients and compared with matched control patients. All patients had receding of the anterior hair line, but five had evident sparse frontal scalp hair. They all showed peculiar similar microscopic hair abnormalities in the form of twisting of the hair shafts, irregularity of the diameter of the hair, and trichorrhexis nodosa. In addition, hypoplastic nails, café-au-lait patches, and missing upper lateral incisors were observed in 57.1%, 28.6%, and 14.3% of the patients, respectively. Variable orodental anomalies were seen in all the patients with an everted lower lip found in four patients (57.1%). This report provides further evidence that some cases of KS have ectodermal involvement. PMID:21692838

  17. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association is not clear. Structural changes are not related to cognitive decline, but a link to an increased risk of stroke, especially in patients with aura, cannot be ruled out. SUMMARY: Migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. It is not yet clear how factors such as migraine sub-type, attack frequency, and sex affects this association. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to address these issues. Brain structure changes in migraine could potentially serve as disease biomarkers or as a mean of identifying sub-groups of patients with specific therapeutic needs and prognoses.

  18. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  19. Forensic significance of skull development abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilija Vladimir I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In the course of bone tissue development some genetic disorders such as exostoses and enostoses, may occur. Exostoses and enostoses represent bone tissue hyperplasia that can develop at any part of skeleton. Neurotrauma can cause fatal biological consequences, which is directly associated with skull development abnormalities. Case report This is a case report of a male cadaver 36 years of age. The autopsy revealed massive hemorrhage on the left side of the neck and the right side of the lower jaw. A major fissure of the arterial wall was found on the basilar artery. A bony, wart-like excrescence was found on the clivus of the occipital bone. Discussion Coinciding ruptures and consequential bleeding from basilar artery with presence of development abnormalities in the clivus region, suggest that one has to clearly distinguish the result of the injury from anomalies already existing in the skull. The position of the attacker can be determined by concise and objective investigation. Conclusion This is a case report of an anomaly in bone development: a bony, wart-like excrescence on the right side of the clivus. Due to neurotrauma and consequential sliding of brain structures, the damage of basilar artery and of the bony excrescence occurred, which led to bleeding and fatal outcome.

  20. Control of abnormal synchronization in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Oleksandr V; Tass, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  1. First trimester ultrasound screening of chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnini?-Pjevi? Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A retrocervical subcutaneous collection of fluid at 11-14 weeks of gestation, can be visualized by ultrasound as nuchal translucency (NT. Objective. To examine the distribution of fetal nuchal translucency in low risk population, to determine the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in the population of interest based on maternal age and NT measurement. Method. Screening for chromosomal defects, advocated by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF, was performed in 1,341 pregnancies in the period January 2000 - April 2004. Initial risk for chromosomal defects (based on maternal and gestational age and corrected risk, after the NT measurement, were calculated. Complete data were collected from 1,048 patients. Results. Out of 1,048 pregnancies followed, 8 cases of Down’s syndrome were observed, 7 were detected antenatally and 6 out of 7 were detected due to screening that combines maternal age and NT measurement. According to our results, sensitivity of the screening for aneuploidies based on maternal age alone was 12.5% and false positive rate 13.1%, showing that screening based on NT measurement is of great importance. Screening by a combination of maternal age and NT, and selecting a screening-positive group for invasive testing enabled detection of 75% of fetuses with trisomy 21. Conclusion. In screening for chromosomal abnormalities, an approach which combines maternal age and NT is effective and increases the detection rate compared to the use of any single test. .

  2. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  3. Abnormality diagnosis device for plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abnormality diagnosis device for plant equipments of the present invention comprises an input device for inputting process signals of an objective plant equipment, a processing device for receiving and converting the signals, a memory device for storing knowledges on the objective plant equipment, a diagnosis device, and an output device for outputting the cause estimated by the diagnosis device and determined countermeasures. The process signals of the plant equipment to be measured are electrically inputted and converted to signals in a computer and sent to the diagnosis device. Knowledges for diagnosis on the plant to be measured are preliminarily inputted to the memory device, where signals from the input device and the processing device are received, to monitor the plant, estimate the causes of abnormalities and determine the countermeasures by using knowledges on the plant equipments extracted from the memory device. Further, the output device receives signals of the diagnosis device, and outputs and displays the estimated cause and determined countermeasures. (N.H.)

  4. Correlation of in vivo neuroimaging abnormalities with postmortem human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and dendritic loss.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archibald, Sarah L.; Masliah, Eliezer

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the absence of significant opportunistic infection, the most common alterations on neuroimaging in the brains of patients with AIDS include enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces, white-matter loss, volume loss in striatal structures, and white-matter signal abnormalities. Although previous studies have linked brain viral levels to these alterations, other neuropathological mechanisms might also contribute to them. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between findings on premortem magnetic resonance images and postmortem neuropathologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis and neurodegeneration. DESIGN: Morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in seropositive cases with matched seronegative controls, and the correlation of these volumes to neuropathological measures in autopsied seropositive cases. SETTING: University of California, San Diego, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one seropositive subjects studied at autopsy and 19 seronegative cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In vivo structural magnetic resonance imaging data analyzed by quantitative methods, with comparison of volumes from magnetic resonance imaging and neuropathological data from autopsies. RESULTS: The HIV-seropositive subjects demonstrated cerebrospinal fluid increases relative to seronegative controls. These increases were associated with a significant decrease in the volumes of cerebral and cerebellar white matter, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and, to a lesser extent, cerebral cortex. The volume of cerebral white-matter tissue with elevated signal was also increased. This signal elevation in white matter predicted the autopsy diagnosis of HIV encephalitis, as well as the extent of dendritic loss as assessed by analysis of microtubule-associated protein 2 immunoreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: White-matter and cortical damage resulting from HIV disease are closely related. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging may be a valuable adjunct in the assessment of patients at risk for developing HIV encephalitis

  5. Abnormal neuronal morphology and neurochemistry in the auditory brainstem of Fmr1 knockout rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, K; Falvey, K; Kulesza, R J

    2015-09-10

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly one in 5000 newborn males and is a leading genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder. In addition to developmental delays and intellectual impairment, FXS is characterized by seizures, attention deficit, and hypersensitivity to visual, tactile and auditory stimuli. The Fmr1 gene encodes Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is abundant in neurons, binds select mRNAs and functions as a negative regulator of mRNA translation. A deficiency in FMRP, as in FXS and Fmr1 knockout (KO) animals, results in neuronal dysmorphology and altered synaptic function. Additionally, there is evidence for disruption of GABAergic circuits in subjects lacking FMRP. Our previous studies demonstrated widespread expression of FMRP in human auditory brainstem neurons. Given this observation, we hypothesized that FMRP is highly expressed in rat auditory brainstem neurons and that the auditory hypersensitivity characteristic of FXS results from dysfunction of brainstem networks secondary to decreased expression of FMRP. In our investigation of postnatal day 50 (P50) control rats, we found that FMRP was widely expressed in neurons of the superior olivary complex (SOC). In P50 Fmr1 KO rats, many SOC neurons had a smaller soma when compared to controls, indicative of abnormal neuronal morphology. Additionally, neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) were more round in Fmr1 KO rats. There was also reduced expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) in neurons of the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) and a reduction in the number of calretinin-immunoreactive terminals associated with neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). Together, these findings support the conclusion that the auditory dysfunction characteristic of FXS arises, at least in part, from defective brainstem networks. PMID:26166728

  6. A comparative analysis of the distribution of immunoreactive orexin A and B in the brains of nocturnal and diurnal rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Joshua P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orexins (hypocretins are a family of peptides found primarily in neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Although the orexinergic system is generally thought to be the same across species, the orexins are involved in behaviors which show considerable interspecific variability. There are few direct cross-species comparisons of the distributions of cells and fibers containing these peptides. Here, we addressed the possibility that there might be important species differences by systematically examining and directly comparing the distribution of orexinergic neurons and fibers within the forebrains of species with very different patterns of sleep-wake behavior. Methods We compared the distribution of orexin-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in two nocturnal species (the lab rat, Rattus norvegicus and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus and two diurnal species (the Nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus and the degu, Octodon degus. For each species, tissue from the olfactory bulbs through the brainstem was processed for immunoreactivity for orexin A and orexin B (hypocretin-1 and -2. The distribution of orexin-positive cells was noted for each species. Orexin fiber distribution and density was recorded and analyzed using a principal components factor analysis to aid in evaluating potential species differences. Results Orexin-positive cells were observed in the lateral hypothalamic area of each species, though there were differences with respect to distribution within this region. In addition, cells positive for orexin A but not orexin B were observed in the paraventricular nucleus of the lab rat and grass rat, and in the supraoptic nucleus of the lab rat, grass rat and hamster. Although the overall distributions of orexin A and B fibers were similar in the four species, some striking differences were noted, especially in the lateral mammillary nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and flocculus. Conclusion The orexin cell and fiber distributions observed in this study were largely consistent with those described in previous studies. However, the present study shows significant species differences in the distribution of orexin cell bodies and in the density of orexin-IR fibers in some regions. Finally, we note previously undescribed populations of orexin-positive neurons outside the lateral hypothalamus in three of the four species examined.

  7. The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies was evaluated. Pelvic MRI was carried out on 29 cases suspected of abnormal pregnancy by ultrasonography and clinical examinations. The abnormal pregnancies were classified into three categories: (1) maternal abnormalities, (2) fetal abnormalities and (3) placental abnormalities. MRI was of great value for the diagnosis of maternal abnormalities, particularly in cases of coexistent pelvic tumor. MRI allowed diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and dermoid cyst through its excellent tissue characterization and broad range of vision. MRI was useful in making diagnoses of fetal central nervous anomalies and fetal death, since the lack of fetal movement and the lesions were clear enough to be detected by MRI. However, anomalies in the fetal trunk or extremities could only be demonstrated, but not diagnosed, by MRI owing to its inferior spatial and time resolution. MRI showed placenta accreta and placental hematoma. Although accurate diagnosis was difficult because of their rarity, MRI revealed the hemorrhagic component of the lesions, which was not shown by ultrasonography. The author believes MRI has potential usefulness in making diagnoses of placental abnormalities through its tissue characterization. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the soft tissue characterization, field of view, while MRI was inferior in time and spatial resolution. In summary, MRI hould be used in case of abnormal pregnancies such as pelvic tumors, fetal nervous anomalies and placental hemorrhagic lesions. MRI will become useful for the diagnosis of other abnormalities as its spatial resolution and fast scan technology advances. (author)

  8. The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The clinical usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies was evaluated. Pelvic MRI was carried out on 29 cases suspected of abnormal pregnancy by ultrasonography and clinical examinations. The abnormal pregnancies were classified into three categories: (1) maternal abnormalities, (2) fetal abnormalities and (3) placental abnormalities. MRI was of great value for the diagnosis of maternal abnormalities, particularly in cases of coexistent pelvic tumor. MRI allowed diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and dermoid cyst through its excellent tissue characterization and broad range of vision. MRI was useful in making diagnoses of fetal central nervous anomalies and fetal death, since the lack of fetal movement and the lesions were clear enough to be detected by MRI. However, anomalies in the fetal trunk or extremities could only be demonstrated, but not diagnosed, by MRI owing to its inferior spatial and time resolution. MRI showed placenta accreta and placental hematoma. Although accurate diagnosis was difficult because of their rarity, MRI revealed the hemorrhagic component of the lesions, which was not shown by ultrasonography. The author believes MRI has potential usefulness in making diagnoses of placental abnormalities through its tissue characterization. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the soft tissue characterization, field of view, while MRI was inferior in time and spatial resolution. In summary, MRI hould be used in case of abnormal pregnancies such as pelvic tumors, fetal nervous anomalies and placental hemorrhagic lesions. MRI will become useful for the diagnosis of other abnormalities as its spatial resolution and fast scan technology advances. (author).

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupamasuresh Y

    2014-06-01

    Methods: In our prospective study of 359 Patients of the age between 46 and 73 years, clinical characteristics and the pattern of endometrial histopathology and their association in women, who present with abnormal uterine bleeding, are categorised into six groups. Results: In our study, a significant correlation of histopathology and BMI was observed with endometrial hyperplasia and malignancy in obese patient i.e. 37 out 96 and 13 out of 23 respectively. The incidence of malignancy has been increasing with the age being 1.6% in 46-50 years to 60% in 70-75 years. In our study 116 (32.3% had hypertension, 33 patients (9.2% had diabetes mellitus, 40 patients (11.1% had hypothyroidism. Conclusions: We found a maximum incidence of AUB in multiparous women. Clinicohistopathological analysis of AUB revealed endometrial hyperplasia in majority of patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 656-661

  10. Developmental disruptions underlying brain abnormalities in ciliopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiami; Higginbotham, Holden; Li, Jingjun; Nichols, Jackie; Hirt, Josua; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Anton, E S

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential conveyors of signals underlying major cell functions. Cerebral cortical progenitors and neurons have a primary cilium. The significance of cilia function for brain development and function is evident in the plethora of developmental brain disorders associated with human ciliopathies. Nevertheless, the role of primary cilia function in corticogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we delineate the functions of primary cilia in the construction of cerebral cortex and their relevance to ciliopathies, using an shRNA library targeting ciliopathy genes known to cause brain disorders, but whose roles in brain development are unclear. We used the library to query how ciliopathy genes affect distinct stages of mouse cortical development, in particular neural progenitor development, neuronal migration, neuronal differentiation and early neuronal connectivity. Our results define the developmental functions of ciliopathy genes and delineate disrupted developmental events that are integrally related to the emergence of brain abnormalities in ciliopathies. PMID:26206566

  11. MR imaging of the abnormal thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the MR images and CT studies of 25 patients with thymic lesions including lymphoma (n = 12), thymoma (n = 6), thymic hyperplasia (n = 2), thymic cyst, leukemia, seminoma, teratoma, and lymphangioma. T1-weighted spin-echo sequences were better for demonstrating tumor extent, and T2-weighted sequences were better for distinguishing cystic from solid thymic masses. Cyst formation and/or hemorrhage appeared as high signal intensity (grater than that of fat) on T2-weighted images. Focal areas of decreased signal intensity (less than that of muscle) corresponded pathologically to areas of fibrosis, capsule or septa formation, air, or calcification. MR imaging provided information comparable with that from CT with respect to lesion size, extent, and associated lymphadenopathy. MR imaging was superior to CT in assessing vascular compression or displacement but overestimated airway compression. The authors believe that MR imaging represents an excellent alternative examination to CT in the evaluation of suspected thymic abnormality

  12. Hemoglobinas anormais e dificuldade diagnóstica Abnormal hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinas humanas, com padrão de herança definido geneticamente, apresentam variações polimórficas características dentro de nossa população, na dependência dos grupos raciais que formam cada região. Aparecem sob a forma de variantes de hemoglobinas ou talassemias, sendo mais freqüentes, no Brasil, os tipos variantes S e C e as talassemias alfa e beta, todas na forma heterozigota. Durante o ano de 1999, amostras de sangue de 506 indivíduos com anemia a esclarecer ou que já passaram por alguma triagem de hemoglobinopatias foram encaminhadas ao Centro de Referência de Hemoglobinas da UNESP, para confirmação diagnóstica e submetidas a procedimentos eletroforéticos, análises bioquímicas e citológicas, para caracterização das hemoglobinas anormais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar quais tipos de hemoglobinas anormais apresentam maior dificuldade diagnóstica. As amostras foram provenientes de 24 cidades de doze estados. Os resultados mostraram que 354 indivíduos (69,96% apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais, sendo 30 Hb AS (5,93%, 5 Hb AC (0,98%, 76 sugestivos de talassemia alfa heterozigota (15,02%, 134 sugestivos de talassemia beta heterozigota (26,48% e 109 com outras formas de hemoglobinas anormais (21,54%, que incluem variantes raras e interações de diferentes formas de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes. Concluiu-se que, apesar da melhoria técnica oferecida atualmente e a constante formação de recursos humanos capacitados, as talassemias em sua forma heterozigota (210 indivíduos -- 41,50% são responsáveis pela maior dificuldade diagnóstica, seguido da caracterização de variantes raras e formas interativas de hemoglobinopatias (109 indivíduos -- 21,54%, sugerindo que se deve aumentar a capacidade de formação de pessoal e as informações a respeito destas alterações genéticas em nossa população.The human hemoglobins, with genetically defined inheritance patterns, have shown characteristic polymorphic variation within the Brazilian population, depending on the racial groups of each region. They have appeared under the form of hemoglobin variants or thalassemias, the variant types S and C and the alpha and beta thalassemias being more common, all of them in heterozygote form. During the year of 1999, blood samples from 506 individuals, with suspected anemia or that had already passed through hemoglobinopathies screening, were sent to the Hemoglobin Reference Center -- UNESP for diagnostic confirmation and submitted to electrophoresis proceedings, biochemical and cytological analyses in order to characterize the type of abnormal hemoglobins. The goal of the present study was to verify which abnormal hemoglobin types show greater diagnostic difficulty. The samples came from 24 cities in twelve states. The results showed that 354 (69.96% individuals presented abnormal hemoglobins, 30 (5.93% being Hb AS, 5 (0.98% being Hb AC, 76 (15.02% suggestive of heterozygote alpha thalassemia, 134 (26.48% suggestive of heterozygote beta thalassemia and 109 (21.54% with other forms of abnormal hemoglobin, including rare variants and different forms of thalassemias and variant hemoglobin interactions. It has been concluded that, despite the improved techniques currently available and a constant influx of capacitated personnel, the heterozygote form of thalassemias (210 individuals -- 41.50% is challenging to diagnose, followed in difficulty by rare variant characterization and interactive forms of hemoglobinopathies (109 individuals -- 21,54%, suggesting that the capacity for production of qualified professionals and information about these genetic changes in our population should be increased.

  13. Hemoglobinas anormais e dificuldade diagnóstica / Abnormal hemoglobins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme G., Leoneli; Rodrigo E., Imperial; Daniela P., Marchi-Salvador; Paulo C., Naoum; Cláudia R., Bonini-Domingos.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinas humanas, com padrão de herança definido geneticamente, apresentam variações polimórficas características dentro de nossa população, na dependência dos grupos raciais que formam cada região. Aparecem sob a forma de variantes de hemoglobinas ou talassemias, sendo mais freqüentes, no Br [...] asil, os tipos variantes S e C e as talassemias alfa e beta, todas na forma heterozigota. Durante o ano de 1999, amostras de sangue de 506 indivíduos com anemia a esclarecer ou que já passaram por alguma triagem de hemoglobinopatias foram encaminhadas ao Centro de Referência de Hemoglobinas da UNESP, para confirmação diagnóstica e submetidas a procedimentos eletroforéticos, análises bioquímicas e citológicas, para caracterização das hemoglobinas anormais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar quais tipos de hemoglobinas anormais apresentam maior dificuldade diagnóstica. As amostras foram provenientes de 24 cidades de doze estados. Os resultados mostraram que 354 indivíduos (69,96%) apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais, sendo 30 Hb AS (5,93%), 5 Hb AC (0,98%), 76 sugestivos de talassemia alfa heterozigota (15,02%), 134 sugestivos de talassemia beta heterozigota (26,48%) e 109 com outras formas de hemoglobinas anormais (21,54%), que incluem variantes raras e interações de diferentes formas de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes. Concluiu-se que, apesar da melhoria técnica oferecida atualmente e a constante formação de recursos humanos capacitados, as talassemias em sua forma heterozigota (210 indivíduos -- 41,50%) são responsáveis pela maior dificuldade diagnóstica, seguido da caracterização de variantes raras e formas interativas de hemoglobinopatias (109 indivíduos -- 21,54%), sugerindo que se deve aumentar a capacidade de formação de pessoal e as informações a respeito destas alterações genéticas em nossa população. Abstract in english The human hemoglobins, with genetically defined inheritance patterns, have shown characteristic polymorphic variation within the Brazilian population, depending on the racial groups of each region. They have appeared under the form of hemoglobin variants or thalassemias, the variant types S and C an [...] d the alpha and beta thalassemias being more common, all of them in heterozygote form. During the year of 1999, blood samples from 506 individuals, with suspected anemia or that had already passed through hemoglobinopathies screening, were sent to the Hemoglobin Reference Center -- UNESP for diagnostic confirmation and submitted to electrophoresis proceedings, biochemical and cytological analyses in order to characterize the type of abnormal hemoglobins. The goal of the present study was to verify which abnormal hemoglobin types show greater diagnostic difficulty. The samples came from 24 cities in twelve states. The results showed that 354 (69.96%) individuals presented abnormal hemoglobins, 30 (5.93%) being Hb AS, 5 (0.98%) being Hb AC, 76 (15.02%) suggestive of heterozygote alpha thalassemia, 134 (26.48%) suggestive of heterozygote beta thalassemia and 109 (21.54%) with other forms of abnormal hemoglobin, including rare variants and different forms of thalassemias and variant hemoglobin interactions. It has been concluded that, despite the improved techniques currently available and a constant influx of capacitated personnel, the heterozygote form of thalassemias (210 individuals -- 41.50%) is challenging to diagnose, followed in difficulty by rare variant characterization and interactive forms of hemoglobinopathies (109 individuals -- 21,54%), suggesting that the capacity for production of qualified professionals and information about these genetic changes in our population should be increased.

  14. Cardiac abnormalities and sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Joanna; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Many factors have been implicated in SIDS cases including environmental influences such as sleeping arrangements and smoking. Most recently, cardiac abnormalities have been hypothesised to play a role in some cases, particularly the primary genetic arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). Both post-mortem and clinical studies of SIDS cases have provided supporting evidence for the involvement of cardiac genetic disorders in SIDS. This review provides a summary of this evidence focussing particularly on the primary hypothesis related to underlying familial LQTS. In addition, the current literature relating to other cardiac genetic conditions such as Brugada syndrome (BrS) and structural heart diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is briefly presented. Finally, the implications of a possible cardiac genetic cause of SIDS is discussed with reference to the need for genetic testing in SIDS cases and subsequent clinical and genetic testing in family members. PMID:25301030

  15. Abnormal right ventricular relaxation in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Stuart D; La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J; Prior, David L; MacIsaac, Andrew I; Burns, Andrew T

    2015-06-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected PHT were studied. In addition to standard measurements, RV pressure was sampled with a high-fidelity micromanometer, and RV pressure/time curves were analyzed. Patients were divided into a PHT group and a non-PHT group on the basis of a derived mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 25 mmHg. Eleven patients were classified to the PHT group. This group had significantly higher RV minimum diastolic pressure ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] mmHg, [Formula: see text]) and RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP; [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] mmHg, [Formula: see text]), and RV ? was significantly prolonged ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] ms, [Formula: see text]). There were strong correlations between RV ? and RV minimum diastolic pressure ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and between RV ? and RVEDP ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). There was a trend toward increased RV contractility (end-systolic elastance) in the PHT group ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text] mmHg/mL, [Formula: see text]) and a correlation between RV systolic pressure and first derivative of maximum pressure change ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Stroke volumes were similar. Invasive measures of RV early relaxation are abnormal in patients with PHT, whereas measured contractility is static or increasing, which suggests that diastolic dysfunction may precede systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, there is a strong association between measures of RV relaxation and RV filling pressures. PMID:26064464

  16. Prognostic Significance of Immunoreactive Neutrophil Elastase in Human Breast Cancer: Long-Term Follow-Up Results in 313 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Akizuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We have measured the concentration of immunoreactive neutrophil elastase (ir-NE in the tumor extracts of 313 primary human breast cancers. Sufficient time has elapsed, and we are now ready to analyze its prognostic value in human breast cancer. METHODS: ir-NE concentration in tumor extracts was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that enables a rapid measurement of both free-form ir-NE and the ?1-protease inhibitor-complexed form of ir-NE. We analyzed the prognostic value of this enzyme in human breast cancer in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Patients with breast cancer tissue containing a high concentration of ir-NE had poor survival compared to those with a low concentration of ir-NE at the cutoff point of 9.0 µg/100 mg protein (P = .0012, which had been previously determined in another group of 49 patients. Multivariate stepwise analysis selected lymph node status (P= .0004; relative risk = 1.46 and ir-NE concentration (P= .0013; relative risk = 1.43 as independent prognostic factors for recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor ir-NE concentration is an independent prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer who undergo curative surgery. This enzyme may play an active role in tumor progression that leads to metastasis in human breast cancer.

  17. Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA and immunoreactivity in the rat heart and human atrial appendage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization of mRNA encoding preproatrial natriuretic peptide was investigated in tissue sections and cultures of rat heart and in sections of human right atrial appendage using the technique of in situ hybridization with 32P- and 35S-labeled RNA probes. Rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) transcripts were demonstrated in numerous atrial myocytes and, to a lesser extent, in ventricular myocytes in both tissue sections and newborn rat heart cultures. These findings are consistent with those obtained by RNA blot analysis of rat heart total RNA, indicating that a single prepro-ANP transcript of ? 900 nucleotides was present in the ventricles as well as the atria. Using a 35S-labeled RNA probe for human ANP mRNA, ANP transcripts were also localized to the majority of myocytes in the human right atrial appendage. Only background levels of autoradiographic labeling were obtained when RNA probes identical to the coding sequence of rat or human ANP mRNA were used. A close correlation was found between the distribution of ANP immunoreactivity and prepro-ANP mRNA in these preparations. These results provide unequivocal evidence for the expression of the ANP gene in the rat ventricles, as well as the atria, because myocytes in these tissues have been established as the sites of both ANP localization and precursor biosynthesis. The combined use of cardiac cultures and in situ hybridization may be of value in future studies investigating the regulation of ANP synthesis in cardiac myocytes

  18. Immunoreactive hepatic stellate cells in biopsy material in children with chronic hepatitis B. The first report in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?otowska, J M; Lebensztejn, D M

    2015-12-01

    The research objective was to identify and quantify the immunohistochemically (IHC) stained hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), including staging (S), location in the hepatic lobule, and correlation with hepatocyte count. Retrospective morphological analysis was based on liver biopsies obtained from 70 CHB children before antiviral treatment. To determine fibrosis stage, the Batts and Ludwig scoring system was applied. Immunohistochemical examinations used monoclonal antibodies against ?-SMA. IHC observations in CHB children revealed a significant positive correlation between the mean number of ?-SMA immunopositive HSCs within the hepatic lobule (r = 0.518; p power field) in 4 study groups, i.e. with S-0, S-1, S-2, S-3, were 5.00; 5.98; 9.80; 12.19, respectively. Interestingly, in most groups the highest count of immunoreactive HSCs/100 hepatocytes was in the intermediate zone, indicating its high metabolic activity in liver fibrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and statistical investigations of HSCs in children with CHB showed a close positive correlation of cell count with fibrosis intensity, which may have prognostic implications in this pathology. PMID:26619100

  19. Distribution of Vasotocin- and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-like Immunoreactivity in the Brain of Blue Tit (Cyanistes coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Szekely

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping. The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species.

  20. Streptozocin diabetes alters immunoreactive beta-endorphin levels and pain perception after 8 wk in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, L J; Estilow, S; Lewis, M; Vasilenko, P

    1986-12-01

    Plasma, pituitary, and hypothalamic levels of the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin were measured by radioimmunoassay and column chromatography in female rats 8 wk after the induction of diabetes with streptozocin (STZ) and in control female rats. In addition, pain perception was determined by measuring the latency to paw lick or jump after being placed on a hot plate. Plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin (IR-BE) were significantly reduced in STZ-induced diabetic female rats, as were the content and concentration of IR-BE in the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary (NIL) and the content of IR-BE in the hypothalamus. The concentration but not the content of IR-BE in the anterior pituitary (AP) of the STZ-induced diabetic rats was increased significantly. Streptozocin-induced diabetes also resulted in a significant reduction in the total protein content of the AP, NIL, and hypothalamus. Column chromatography indicated that the decrease in IR-BE in the plasma, NIL, and hypothalamus represented a decrease in beta-endorphin, whereas the increase in IR-BE in the AP represented an increase in both beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. Diabetic animals consistently showed decreased latencies to paw lick or jump when subjected to hot-plate testing after 7 wk. These findings suggest that in female rats, central and peripheral endogenous opiate levels and tolerance to nociceptive thermal stimulation were diminished by 8 wk of chemically induced diabetes. PMID:2945745

  1. Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.E.S., Hermel; G.S., Severino; A.L., Cecconello; F.M., Pereira; G.L., Sanvitto; A.B., Lucion.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the [...] long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control) and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life). At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-µm sections at 120-µm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 ± 206, N = 6; 1020 ± 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively), paraventricular (584 ± 85, N = 8; 682 ± 62, N = 9) or periventricular (743 ± 118, N = 7; 990 ± 158, N = 7) nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.

  2. Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E.S. Hermel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life. At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-µm sections at 120-µm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 ± 206, N = 6; 1020 ± 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively, paraventricular (584 ± 85, N = 8; 682 ± 62, N = 9 or periventricular (743 ± 118, N = 7; 990 ± 158, N = 7 nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.

  3. Neuropeptide Y administration acutely increases hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity: lack of effect in other rat brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of acute central administration of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) to adult male rats on the brain content of corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) was investigated. The brain regions studied included frontal cortex, hippocampus, medulla-pons, midbrain-thalamus, cerebellum, neurointermediate lobe of pituitary, median eminence and the remaining hypothalamus. CRF-ir was determined in each of these regions using radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF. CRF-ir was found to be significantly increased in the major site of CRF localization in the brain, the hypothalamus, in NPY-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated controls either 15 minutes (p<0.025) or 45 minutes (p<0.005) post-injection. This increase was localized to the median eminence (p<0.05 after 15 minutes, p<0.01 after 45 minutes). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other brain regions assessed. Plasma adrenocorticotropin levels were also found to increase following NPY treatment, an effect which became significant after 45 minutes (p<0.05). These data show that NPY can alter the content of hypothalamic CRF and may play a role in its regulation. 33 references, 4 figures

  4. Ex vivo measurement of calpain activation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek M Witkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited proteolysis of multiple intracellular proteins by endogenous Ca-dependent cysteine proteases--calpains--is an important regulatory mechanism for cell proliferation, apoptosis etc. Its importance for cellular functions is stressed by existence of endogenous calpain inhibitors--calpastatins. The calpain-calpastatin system within living cells is in a fragile balance, which depends on both partners. The interdependence of calpain--a protease--and calpastatin--an endogenous inhibitor and at the same time a substrate for this enzyme makes any assessment of actual activity of this enzyme in the cells very difficult. In this work we made an attempt to estimate and compare the activity of calpain in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by assessing the levels of limited proteolysis of calpastatin in these cells by western blot, while at the same time the levels of calpain protein inside these cells was measured by flow cytometry. Our results indicate that it is possible to compare (semi-quantitatively the activities of calpain in peripheral blood CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes from various donors that way. Preliminary results showed that calpain activity is increased in the CD4+ T cells isolated from peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to control lymphocytes. Extremely high intrinsic activity of calpain was detected in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CD19+ cells. All this confirms the detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin as a good maker of endogenous calpain activity.

  5. MPTP-induced increase in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like immunoreactivity in the monkey cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Necchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been described to be overexpressed following many pathological stimuli, but whether they are required for neurodegeneration or neuroprotection is still open. In the present report, we analyzed the role of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in Purkinje cell degeneration caused by the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in the monkey cerebellum, and determined the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant drug a-dihydroergocryptine (DHEC, whose prior and simultaneous administration reduced the MPTP-induced neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. Immunocytochemistry for c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins showed persistent increased staining in Purkinje cells of MPTP-treated monkeys. The staining was greatly reduced in animals receiving DHEC. Similar results were observed in white matter glial cells after immunoreaction for c-Fos. The results suggest that, at least as far as the cerebellum is concerned, the increase in c-Fos and c-Jun expression correlate with cell damage, rather than with preservation.

  6. An increased frequency of human sperm chromosomal abnormalities after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13 cancer patients were studied before radiotherapy (RT) and at regular intervals after RT to determine the effect of RT on chromosomal abnormalities in sperm. Before RT, the frequency of abnormal sperm chromosome complements was 0%. After RT, the majority of men were azoospermic but complements could be analysed from 4 men. In the first 12 months the frequency of abnormalities was 13% and at 24 months it was 13%. By 36 months after RT, most men had recovered sperm production and the frequency of abnormalities in 8 men was 21%, which is significantly higher than the rate in control donors. For individual men the range was 6-67%, and there was a significant correlation between testicular radiation dose and the frequency of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequencies of both numerical and structural abnormalities were significantly increased after RT. (Auth.)

  7. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  8. Is the presence of abnormal prion protein in the renal glomeruli of feline species presenting with FSE authentic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencsik Anna A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a recent paper written by Hilbe et al (BMC vet res, 2009, the nature and specificity of the prion protein deposition in the kidney of feline species affected with feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE were clearly considered doubtful. This article was brought to our attention because we published several years ago an immunodetection of abnormal prion protein in the kidney of a cheetah affected with FSE. At this time we were convinced of its specificity but without having all the possibilities to demonstrate it. As previously published by another group, the presence of abnormal prion protein in some renal glomeruli in domestic cats affected with FSE is indeed generally considered as doubtful mainly because of low intensity detected in this organ and because control kidneys from safe animals present also a weak prion immunolabelling. Here we come back on these studies and thought it would be helpful to relay our last data to the readers of BMC Vet res for future reference on this subject. Here we come back on our material as it is possible to study and demonstrate the specificity of prion immunodetection using the PET-Blot method (Paraffin Embedded Tissue - Blot. It is admitted that this method allows detecting the Proteinase K (PK resistant form of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres without any confusion with unspecific immunoreaction. We re-analysed the kidney tissue versus adrenal gland and brain samples from the same cheetah affected with TSE using this PET-Blot method. The PET-Blot analysis revealed specific PrPres detection within the brain, adrenal gland and some glomeruli of the kidney, with a complete identicalness compared to our previous detection using immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, these new data enable us to confirm with assurance the presence of specific abnormal prion protein in the adrenal gland and in the kidney of the cheetah affected with FSE. It also emphasizes the usefulness for the re-examination of any available tissue blocks with the PET-Blot method as a sensitive complementary tool in case of doubtful PrP IHC results.

  9. Induction of chromosomal abnormalities in gamma irradiated human spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interspecific fertilization system between human spermatozoa and zona-free hamster eggs provides the possibility to analyze spontaneous and induced chromosome abnormalities in human sperm. Using this system we have established a dose-effect relationship for the chromosome abnormalities in human sperm. Using this system we have established a dose-effect relationship for the chromosome abnormalities induced in human spermatozoa by different doses of gamma rays. (authors)

  10. Augmentin treatment during pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik T; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the human teratogenic potential of augmentin (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid) treatment during pregnancy. Materials and methods: Pair analysis of cases with different congenital abnormalities and their matched controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, between 1991 and 1996. Results: The case group included 6935 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities, while the control group consisted o...

  11. Hypertension-related eye abnormalities and the risk of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Amanda D.; Bruce, Beau B; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that hypertensive ocular funduscopic abnormalities are clearly related to stroke, even after controlling for level of blood pressure and other vascular risk factors. Retinal abnormalities indicative of a breakdown of the blood-retina barrier confer a greater increase in risk for stroke than sclerotic retinal changes. Similar retinal changes also have a positive relationship with stroke mortality. Hypertensive ocular fundus abnormalities are also reported to be associat...

  12. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    OpenAIRE

    BUCKLEY, PETER F.

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by ...

  13. Review of congenital inner ear abnormalities on CT temporal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yiin, R S Z; Tang, P H; Tan, T Y

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology of profound hearing loss in children is complex and multifactorial. Congenital inner ear abnormality is a major cause of hearing loss in children. CT temporal bone imaging is the modality of choice in the investigation of hearing loss. Recognising the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear guides the clinician's management of the condition. This pictorial essay illustrates the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear on high resolution CT temporal bone images and correlation...

  14. Dynamic upper respiratory abnormalities in Thoroughbred racehorses in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier E., Mirazo; Patrick, Page; Luis, Rubio-Martinez; Hendrick J., Marais.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper airway endoscopy at rest has been the diagnostic method of choice for equine upper respiratory tract (URT) conditions. Development of high-speed treadmill endoscopy improved the sensitivity of URT endoscopy by allowing observation of the horse's nasopharynx and larynx during exercise. However, [...] treadmill exercise may not always accurately represent the horse's normal exercise as track surface, rider, tack and environmental variables are altered. Recently, the development of dynamic overground endoscopy (DOE) has addressed some of these shortcomings. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the URT abnormalities detected during DOE in racehorses presenting with poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Patient records of Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing DOE from November 2011 to August 2012 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, primary complaint, distance exercised, maximum speed and dynamic airway abnormalities detected. Fifty-two horses underwent DOE for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. The main abnormalities detected included axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (40%), vocal cord collapse (35%), abnormal arytenoid function (33%) and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (25%). A total of 40 horses were diagnosed with one or more abnormalities of the URT (77%). Fifteen horses (29%) had a single abnormality and 25 horses (48%) had multiple abnormalities. This study showed that DOE is a useful technique for investigating dynamic disorders of the URT in racehorses in South Africa. The total number and type of dynamic pathological conditions were comparable with those identified in similar populations in other geographical locations.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with mental retardation in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Samikshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are thought to be the most common cause of mental retardation (MR. However, apart from a few selected types with typical aneuploidy, like Downs syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, etc., the frequency of detectable chromosomal abnormalities in association with idiopathic MR is very low. In this study, we have investigated chromosomal abnormalities in female MR subjects (n = 150 by high-resolution GTG banding. Of them, 30 cases were diagnosed as Downs syndrome. Among the remaining (n = 120, chromosomal abnormalities/marked polymorphisms were detectable in only three MR cases (0.025.

  16. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 ?m) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  17. Mathematical Function Development For Abnormalities Of Kidney Using Spectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA KUMAR SANT, PROF. M.P.PARSAI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the quantitative measure the various types of carcinogenic abnormalities in specific part of body.in this paper we have developed the mathematical function of MRI images normal and abnormal human kidney. The Abnormalities have been discussed in Frequency domain. There is a crystal clear demarcation in abnormal area in stem graph of normal MRI image and its Fourier transform image of stem graph. These Mathematical functions can lead to quantitative method for evaluating and hence providing therapy.

  18. Pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation related to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether the abnormal differentiation of the pterygium epithelium is related to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS: The expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK, keratin family members including K19 and K10 and the ocular master control gene Pax-6 were measured in 16 surgically excised pterygium tissues and 12 eye bank conjunctiva. In colony-forming cell assays, the differences in clone morphology and in K10, K19, P-ERK and Pax-6 expression between the head and body were investigated. When cocultured with the ERK signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059, the changes in clone morphology, colony-forming efficiency, differentiated marker K10, K19 and Pax-6 expression and P-ERK protein expression level were examined by immunoreactivity and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The expression of K19 and Pax-6 decreased in the pterygium, especially in the head. No staining of K10 was found in the normal conjunctiva epithelium, but it was found to be expressed in the superficial cells in the head of the pterygium. Characteristic upregulation of P-ERK was observed by immunohistochemistry. The clone from the head with more differentiated cells in the center expressed more K10, and the clone from the body expressed more K19. The P-ERK protein level increased in the pterygium epithelium compared with conjunctiva and decreased when cocultured with PD98059. The same medium with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 was more effective in promoting clonal growth than conventional medium with 3T3 murine feeder layers. It was observed that the epithelium clone co-cultured with the inhibitor had decreased K10 expression and increased K19 and Pax-6 expression. CONCLUSION: We suggest ERK signaling pathway activation might play a role in the pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation.

  19. Application of antisera raised against sulfate-reducing bacteria for indirect immunofluorescent detection of immunoreactive bacteria in sediment from the German Baltic Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    Lillebaek, R

    1995-01-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) could detect several distinct populations of bacteria in sediment from the German Baltic Sea. The depth distribution of immunoreactive bacteria was determined by an indirect immunofluorescence filter method. Anti-Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 1926 serum showed maximum bacterial numbers at a depth of 18 cm, with a concentration of 60 x 10(6) cells cm-3. With anti-Desulfovibrio baculatus DSM 2555 serum, counts were high...

  20. Localisation of immunoreactive factor VIII, nitric oxide synthase, substance P, endothelin-1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine in human postmortem middle cerebral artery.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorelova, E; Loesch, A.; Bodin, P.; CHADWICK, L; Hamlyn, P J; Burnstock, G

    1996-01-01

    This pre-embedding electron-immunocytochemical study investigated the localisation of endothelial (type III) and neuronal (type I) isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, substance P, endothelin-1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the human middle cerebral artery taken up to 40 h postmortem. To ¿recover' from the anoxic period some of the vessels were incubated in oxygenated Krebs solution prior to the immunoprocedure. At this long postmortem time, immunoreactivity to type III and type I nitric oxide syn...

  1. Post-Natal Dynamic Changes in Circulating Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Immunoreactive Inhibin, Progesterone, Testosterone and Estradiol-17? in Thoroughbred Colts until 6 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    DHAKAL, Pramod; TSUNODA, Nobuo; NAKAI, Rie; Nagaoka, Kentaro; NAMBO, Yasuo; Sato, Fumio; TANIYAMA, HIROYUKI; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of present study was to clarify the post-natal profile of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), immunoreactive (ir)-inhibin, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-17?, and their relationships in Thoroughbred colts. Six hundred and thirty-six colts were used for the study. Single plasma samples from each animal were harvested from the blood drawn through jugular venipuncture. The subjects were born with high amounts of progesterone, testostero...

  2. Increase of annexin 1 immunoreactivity in spinal cord of newborn opossum (Monodelphis domestica) at the time when regeneration after injury stops being possible

    OpenAIRE

    Mladinic, M; Del Bel, E.; Nicholls, J

    2007-01-01

    Annexins constitute a family of proteins that associate reversibly with cell membranes in a calcium dependent manner. We have studied the distribution of annexin 1, which is known to mediate anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids, and which is upregulated after spinal cord injury, in newborn and adult South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) spinal cord. We show the increase in the annexin 1 immunoreactivity in spinal cords of neonatal opossums over the ...

  3. Oxidatively altered IgG with increased immunoreactivity to ?2-glycoprotein I and its peptide clusters influence human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artenjak, A; Omersel, J; Ahlin Grabnar, P; Mlinari?-Raš?an, I; Shoenfeld, Y; Sodin-Semrl, S; Boži?, B; ?u?nik, S

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play a role in modifying antibodies in favor of higher auto-immunoreactivity. We studied the immunoreactivity of oxidized IgG (oxIgG) to ?2-glycoprotein I (?2GPI), six peptide sequences corresponding to amino acid clusters on its different domains, to determine their effects on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Human IgG was purified from seven donors, electro-oxidized and checked for immunoreactivity and avidity to ?2GPI and to peptides by ELISA. Conformational stability and antibody-antigen complex formation of oxIgG was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Resting and activated sub-confluent HCAEC were stimulated with oxIgG or IgG. Secreted cytokines were measured by ELISA. Immunoreactivity of seven oxIgG samples increased to 7.5-fold against ?2GPI and to 3.8-fold against six peptides as compared to IgG. oxIgG showed low avidity "properties." Conformational changes and exposure of protein hydrophobic regions were confirmed by an elevation in fluorescence (2.4- to 5.0-fold) on bis-ANS dye binding to oxIgG. oxIgG significantly elevated the release of GRO? and IL-8 in resting and activated states of HCAEC. Oxidation alters IgG in favor of autoreactivity toward whole ?2GPI and corresponding peptides on different domains of ?2GPI and could lead to dysfunction of arterial endothelium by upregulation of chemokines. PMID:25801888

  4. Estrogen receptor alpha is involved in the estrogenic regulation of arginine vasopressin immunoreactivity in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Panzica, Giancarlo; GRASSI, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The ovarian hormone estradiol regulates the expression of arginine vasopressin gene and the release of arginine vasopressin by magnocellular hypothalamic neurons. Magnocellular neurons express estrogen receptor ? and are contacted by afferent neurons that express estrogen receptor ?. In this study we have assessed the effect of selective ligands for estrogen receptors to determine the subtype of estrogen receptor involved in the regulation of arginine vasopressin immunoreactivity in the supra...

  5. p27 and Skp2 immunoreactivity and its clinical significance with endocrine and chemo-endocrine treatments in node-negative early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaioli, A; Monti, F; Regan, M M; Maffini, F; Mastropasqua, M G; Spataro, V; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Panzini, I; Gianni, L.; GOLDHIRSCH, A; A. Coates; Price, K N; Gusterson, B. A.; Viale, G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low p27 and high Skp2 immunoreactivity are associated with a poor prognosis and other poor prognostic features including resistant phenotypes and antiestrogen drug resistance. We investigated these proteins in two International Breast Cancer Study Group trials studying node-negative early breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trial VIII compared chemotherapy followed by goserelin with either modality alone in premenopausal patients. Trial IX compared chemotherapy followed by tamoxi...

  6. Increasing proportions of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive interneurons colocalize with choline acetyltransferase or vasoactive intestinal peptide in the developing rat cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Asmus, Stephen E.; Cocanougher, Benjamin T.; Allen, Donald L.; Boone, John B.; Brooks, Elizabeth A.; Hawkins, Sarah M.; Hench, Laura A.; Ijaz, Talha; Mayfield, Meredith N.

    2011-01-01

    Cortical interneurons are critical for information processing, and their dysfunction has been implicated in neurological disorders. One subset of this diverse cell population expresses tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) during postnatal rat development. Cortical TH-immunoreactive neurons appear at postnatal day (P) 16. The number of TH cells sharply increases between P16 and P20 and subsequently decreases to adult values. The absence of apoptotic markers in these cells suggests that the reduction in c...

  7. Lack of TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity predicts effect of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients (n=647) with primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoe, Gro L.; Hertel, Pernille Bræmer; Bartels, Annette; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva; Rasmussen, Birgitte B.; Mouridsen, H T; Ejlertsen, Bent Laursen; Brunner, Nils

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: A number of prospective studies have shown that adjuvant CEF significantly improves disease-free and overall survival as compared to CMF in breast cancer patients. Our aim was to determine whether the benefit of epirubicin versus methotrexate differs according to TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tissue micro arrays from 647 patients randomly assigned to CMF or CEF in DBCG trial 89D were included. The primary end-point was invasive disease-free survival (IDFS). A...

  8. Biosynthesis and release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in rat pancreatic islets in organ culture. Effects of age, glucose, and streptozotocin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolva, L O; Welinder, B S; Hanssen, K F; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1983-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity (TRH-IR) was measured in isolated islets and in medium from rat pancreatic islets maintained in organ culture. TRH-IR in methanol extracts of both islets and culture medium was eluted in the same position as synthetic TRH by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and exhibited dilution curves parallel with synthetic TRH in radioimmunoassay. [3H]Histidine was incorporated into a component that reacted with TRH antiserum and had the same retention time a...

  9. Stability in aromatase immunoreactivity of steroid-producing cells during early development of XX gonads of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: an organ culture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Fumie; Kobayashi, Tohru; Matsuda, Masaru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2008-03-01

    The organ culture system is a useful tool to study the effects of various factors on the development of undifferentiated gonads. In this study, we first established an organ culture system for gonads of all genetic male and female Nile tilapia at 5-122 days after hatching (dah). This short-term (3 days) organ culture system was then used to examine the stability of the immunoreactivity of aromatase (the enzyme which converts androgen to estrogen, thus playing a crucial role in ovarian differentiation) in steroid-producing cells (SPCs). Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that aromatase-positive cells could be initially detected in the vicinity of blood vessels in the XX gonads at 7 dah. These SPCs completely lost their immunoreactivity after 3 days in culture, indicating the instability of SPCs during early ovarian differentiation. In contrast, the immunoreactivity of the SPCs was maintained to some extent even after 3 days in culture, if the gonads were from 15-23 dah. In XX gonads collected at 122 dah, there were two major populations of SPCs: one in the vicinity of the blood vessel and the other near the oocyte. The aromatase immunoreactivity was maintained in SPCs located around the oocytes, but not in those in the vicinity of the blood vessel, after 3 days in culture. These results suggest that the SPCs originate from the cells in the vicinity of the blood vessels prior to the initial ovarian differentiation in tilapia and that the degree of differentiation of SPCs is dependent on their location in the ovary. PMID:18393572

  10. Co-occurrence of immunoreactive corticotropin-like and alpha-melanotropin-like material in pituitary cells: differences between young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Reiner, J; Geis, R; Voigt, K H; Martin, R

    1983-07-01

    We examined to which extent adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-like substances are cleavable into alpha-melanotropin (MSH)-like material by application of exogenous enzymes on pituitary sections prior to immunocytochemical stainings. In pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) cells of the anterior lobe from developing rats (1 to 21 postnatal days) at least one of two cells contained alpha-MSH-like immunoreactivity besides ACTH-like immunostaining. Pretreatment of these tissue sections with tryptic enzymes enhanced remarkably alpha-MSH-like immunostaining. In contrast, alpha-MSH-like immunoreactivity was almost not detectable in anterior lobes from adult rats, also after treatment with enzymes. After adrenalectomy (ax) POMC cells in anterior lobes behaved similarly: a few days after the operation almost all ACTH cells contained also alpha-MSH immunostaining, whereas after more than two weeks alpha-MSH immunostaining was nearly absent, also after application of enzymes. In contrast to rats, in young and adult guinea pig pituitaries all ACTH-like immunoreactivity was prevented by treatment with tryptic enzymes. These observations are consistent with the assumption that occurrence of ACTH- and alpha-MSH-like substances in rat pituitaries is regulated by a protection mechanism against proteolytic cleavage in the ACTH sequence which appears with delay in differentiating and maturing cells. PMID:6312363

  11. The effect of water quality on the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells and gonadotropin-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Mostafa A; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Hashem, Amal M; Khalil, Noha A

    2015-03-01

    The present experiments investigated the effect of water quality characteristics on the condition factor, the ovarian activity, cortisol level, and the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH- and melanin stimulating hormone; MSH- and somatolactin; SL- secreting cells) and gonadotropin (GTH)-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. After 3 months of exposure to mixtures of water from different sources (Tap and Lake Manzalah waters), with high levels of minerals and heavy metals, water quality affected the number, size, and immunostaining of stress-response-immunoreactive (ir) cells and GTH-ir cells, which showed a dramatic decrease in their size. The integrated optical density (IOD) of immunoreactivity of MSH- and GTH- cells was significantly increased; however, it was significantly decreased for ACTH- and SL- cells. Also, high levels of cortisol were observed in females exposed to waters with high concentrations of minerals and heavy metals. In parallel, low values of gonadosomatic index (GSI%) and the ovarian histology revealed a decrease of maturing follicles concomitant with an increase of atretic follicles in females exposed to Lake Manzalah polluted water. Taken together, the increased activity of stress-response-ir pituitary cells, serum cortisol level and ovarian atretic follicles in response to elevated concentrations of minerals and heavy metals, supports the possible role of ACTH, MSH, and SL in the adaptive stress response of fish. Therefore, minerals and heavy metals must be considered when discussing tilapia aquaculture status. PMID:25675939

  12. Neuronal damage and plasticity identified by Growth-associated protein-43, Glial fibrillary acidic protein and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity after hypoglycemia induced brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar HEERA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The regional expression of protein associated with axonal elongation and glial plasticity, such as growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, was examined using immunohistochemistry from hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum regions of insulin-induced severe hypoglycemic young adult rats. Within the dentate gyrus, decreased immunoreactivity for GAP-43 was observed in inner blade (IB and outer blade (OB regions following hypoglycemic injury. Similarly hypothalamus and granule cell layer of cerebellum regions also shows decrease in immunoreactivity for GAP-43 as compared with starved rat. The increased immunoreactivity for GFAP in dentate gyrus, hypothalamus and granule cell layer of cerebellum shows that neurodegenerative changes (like neuronal atrophy, membrane permeability changes in these regions activate astrocytes during insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia. Increased numbers of PSA-NCAM-labeled neurons were observed in the granule cell layer of cerebellum from hypoglycemic young adult rat as compare to starved rat. It may be possible that these changes in PSA-NCAM expression in hypoglycemic young adult rat make the cerebellum region more restrictive to histopathologic alterations as observed in hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex region during hypoglycemic injury.

  13. The influence of selected pathological states on the somatostatin-like immunoreactive (SOM-LI) endocrine cells in the mucosal layer of the porcine descending colon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S& #322; awomir, Gonkowski; Jaros& #322; aw, Ca& #322; ka.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on changes in the number of somatostatin-like immunoreactive (SOM-LI) endocrine cells in the porcine descending colon, caused by chemically driven inflammation, axotomy and proliferative enteropathy (PE). The distribution pattern of SOM-LI endocrine cells has been studied using th [...] e routine single-labelling immunofluorescence technique. Semi-quantitative evaluation of the number of the SOM-immunostained endocrine cells within the mucosal layer of the porcine descending colon has been based on counting of all endocrine cells immunoreactive to SOM per unit area (0,1 mm²). Under physiological conditions the number of SOM-LI endocrine cells has been shown to constitute 3,30±0,22. All applied pathological processes resulted in changes in the SOM-like immunoreactivity, which varied in particular processes studied. The number of SOM-LI endocrine cells increased to 6,28±0,31 and 4,43±0,35 during chemically driven inflammation and proliferative enteropathy, respectively, and decreased to 1,17%±0,16 after axotomy. The obtained results suggest that SOM-LI endocrine cells may participate in various pathological states within porcine descending colon and their functions probably depend on the type of pathological factor.

  14. Distribution of Abnormal Q Waves on Body Surface in Relation to Left Ventricular Wall Motion Abnormalities in Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Haruki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Takami, Kazuhide; Uematsu, Haruyoshi; Ishikawa, Tomihisa; Sotobata, Iwao

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the possible one-to-one relationship between each site of asynergy of the left ventricle and the body surface area to which ensuing abnormal electrical phenomena are reflected. In 140 post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients, distribution of abnormal Q waves on the body surface was correlated with the abnormal segments of LV wall motion identified by left ventriculography (LVG). Unipolar lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded from 87 lead points ov...

  15. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  16. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  17. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei, E-mail: feiwang1973@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan Yunyun, E-mail: duanyun2003@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  18. Nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity is preferentially expressed in infiltrative glioma and is associated with poor prognosis in EGFR-overexpressing glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously identified brain type fatty acid-binding protein (FABP7) as a prognostic marker for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Increased expression of FABP7 is associated with reduced survival. To investigate possible molecular mechanisms underlying this association, we compared the expression and subcellular localization of FABP7 in non-tumor brain tissues with different types of glioma, and examined the expression of FABP7 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in GBM tumors. Expression of FABP7 in non-tumor brain and glioma specimens was examined using immunohistochemistry, and its correlation to the clinical behavior of the tumors was analyzed. We also analyzed the association between FABP7 and EGFR expression in different sets of GBM specimens using published DNA microarray datasets and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. In vitro migration was examined using SF763 glioma cell line. FABP7 was present in a unique population of glia in normal human brain, and its expression was increased in a subset of reactive astrocytes. FABP7 immunoreactivity in grade I pilocytic astrocytoma was predominantly cytoplasmic, whereas nuclear FABP7 was detected in other types of infiltrative glioma. Nuclear, not cytoplasmic, FABP7 immunoreactivity was associated with EGFR overexpression in GBM (N = 61, p = 0.008). Expression of the FABP7 gene in GBM also correlated with the abundance of EGFR mRNA in our previous microarray analyses (N = 34, p = 0.016) and an independent public microarray dataset (N = 28, p = 0.03). Compared to those negative for both markers, nuclear FABP7-positive/EGFR-positive and nuclear FABP7-positive/EGFR-negative GBM tumors demonstrated shortest survival, whereas those only positive for EGFR had intermediate survival. EGFR activation increased nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity in a glioma cell line in vitro, and inhibition of FABP7 expression suppressed EGF-induced glioma-cell migration. Our data suggested that in EGFR-positive GBM the presence of nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity increases the risk of poor prognosis In this study, we identified a possible mechanism as the basis of the association between nuclear FABP7 and poor prognosis of GBM. FABP7 expression can be found in all grades of astrocytoma, but neoplastic cells with nuclear FABP7 were only seen in infiltrative types of tumors. Nuclear FABP7 may be induced by EGFR activation to promote migration of GBM tumor cells. Positive nuclear FABP7 and EGFR overexpression correlated with short survival in EGFR-positive GBM patients. Therefore, nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity could be used to monitor the progression of EGFR-overexpressed GBM

  19. Nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity is preferentially expressed in infiltrative glioma and is associated with poor prognosis in EGFR-overexpressing glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldape Ken D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously identified brain type fatty acid-binding protein (FABP7 as a prognostic marker for patients with glioblastoma (GBM. Increased expression of FABP7 is associated with reduced survival. To investigate possible molecular mechanisms underlying this association, we compared the expression and subcellular localization of FABP7 in non-tumor brain tissues with different types of glioma, and examined the expression of FABP7 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in GBM tumors. Methods Expression of FABP7 in non-tumor brain and glioma specimens was examined using immunohistochemistry, and its correlation to the clinical behavior of the tumors was analyzed. We also analyzed the association between FABP7 and EGFR expression in different sets of GBM specimens using published DNA microarray datasets and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. In vitro migration was examined using SF763 glioma cell line. Results FABP7 was present in a unique population of glia in normal human brain, and its expression was increased in a subset of reactive astrocytes. FABP7 immunoreactivity in grade I pilocytic astrocytoma was predominantly cytoplasmic, whereas nuclear FABP7 was detected in other types of infiltrative glioma. Nuclear, not cytoplasmic, FABP7 immunoreactivity was associated with EGFR overexpression in GBM (N = 61, p = 0.008. Expression of the FABP7 gene in GBM also correlated with the abundance of EGFR mRNA in our previous microarray analyses (N = 34, p = 0.016 and an independent public microarray dataset (N = 28, p = 0.03. Compared to those negative for both markers, nuclear FABP7-positive/EGFR-positive and nuclear FABP7-positive/EGFR-negative GBM tumors demonstrated shortest survival, whereas those only positive for EGFR had intermediate survival. EGFR activation increased nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity in a glioma cell line in vitro, and inhibition of FABP7 expression suppressed EGF-induced glioma-cell migration. Our data suggested that in EGFR-positive GBM the presence of nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity increases the risk of poor prognosis Conclusion In this study, we identified a possible mechanism as the basis of the association between nuclear FABP7 and poor prognosis of GBM. FABP7 expression can be found in all grades of astrocytoma, but neoplastic cells with nuclear FABP7 were only seen in infiltrative types of tumors. Nuclear FABP7 may be induced by EGFR activation to promote migration of GBM tumor cells. Positive nuclear FABP7 and EGFR overexpression correlated with short survival in EGFR-positive GBM patients. Therefore, nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity could be used to monitor the progression of EGFR-overexpressed GBM.

  20. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Parvalbumin-Immunoreactive Interneurons Loss and Neurobehavioral Impairment is Mediated by NADPH-Oxidase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Jiang; Li, Guowei; Liang, Dong

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea usually contribute to psychiatric diseases and cognitive impairments in adults. Loss of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive interneurons (PV-IN) in the brain cortex is an important feature of psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. Here we investigate the causal contribution of oxidative stress in the brain cortex to neuropathological alterations in a mouse model of sleep apnea. Wild-type (WT) and the NADPH-oxidase-2 (gp91-phox/NOX2) knock-out adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) or standard room air in the same chamber. In vivo we determined the impact (1) of IH exposures on NOX2 expression, (2) of genetic gp91-phox/NOX2 knock-out and (3) of pharmacological NOX2 inhibition on IH-induced neuropathological alterations in adult mice. Endpoints were oxidative stress, PV-IN and neurobehavioral alterations. The results showed IH exposures increased NOX2 expression in the prefrontal cortex of WT mice, which was accompanied with elevations of indirect markers of oxidative stress (HNE, HIF-1?, 8-OHDG). WT mice showed loss of PV-IN in the prefrontal cortex and increased locomotion activity and anxiety levels after exposed to IH, while no change emerged in NOX2 knock-out mice. Treatment of WT mice with the antioxidant/NOX inhibitor apocynin prevented the neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations induced by IH exposures. Our data suggest that NOX2-derived oxidative stress is involved in the loss of PV-IN in the prefrontal cortex and development of neurobehavioral alterations for adult mice exposed to IH. These results provide a molecular mechanism for the coupling between sleep apnea and brain oxidative stress as well as potential new therapeutic avenues. PMID:25911467

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters ethanol-induced Fos immunoreactivity and dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, M C; Vivas, L M; Pautassi, R M

    2015-08-20

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) promotes alcohol intake during adolescence, as shown in clinical and pre-clinical animal models. The mechanisms underlying this effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on postnatal ethanol intake remain, however, mostly unknown. Few studies assessed the effects of moderate doses of prenatal ethanol on spontaneous and ethanol-induced brain activity on adolescence. This study measured, in adolescent (female) Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (0.0 or 2.0g/kg/day, gestational days 17-20) or non-manipulated (NM group) throughout pregnancy, baseline and ethanol-induced cathecolaminergic activity (i.e., colocalization of c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase) in ventral tegmental area (VTA), and baseline and ethanol-induced Fos immunoreactivity (ir) in nucleus accumbens shell and core (AcbSh and AcbC, respectively) and prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex. The rats were challenged with ethanol (dose: 0.0, 1.25, 2.5 or 3.25g/kg, i.p.) at postnatal day 37. Rats exposed to vehicle prenatally (VE group) exhibited reduced baseline dopaminergic tone in VTA; an effect that was inhibited by prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE group). Dopaminergic activity in VTA after the postnatal ethanol challenge was greater in PEE than in VE or NM animals. Ethanol-induced Fos-ir at AcbSh was found after 1.25g/kg and 2.5g/kg ethanol, in VE and PEE rats, respectively. PEE did not alter ethanol-induced Fos-ir at IL but reduced ethanol-induced Fos-ir at PrL. These results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure heightens dopaminergic activity in the VTA and alters the response of the mesocorticolimbic pathway to postnatal ethanol exposure. These effects may underlie the enhanced vulnerability to develop alcohol-use disorders of adolescents with a history of in utero ethanol exposure. PMID:26057446

  2. Muscarinic and opioid receptor modulation of release of [Met5-enkephalin immunoreactive material and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrogradely perfused bovine adrenal glands were stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh) and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP), with or without: hexamethonium (C-6), atropine, imipramine, methacholine, pilocarpine, etorphine, or diprenorphine. Stimulation by either ACh DMPP resulted in an increased release of both [Met5]-enkephalin immunoreactive material (ME-IRM) and catecholamines as measured by radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, respectively. ACh (5 x 10-5 M) and DMPP (5 x 10-5 M) stimulated the release of norepinephrine greater than the release of epinephrine. The action of these agents was antagonized by C-6(5 x 10-4 M). Atropine (5 x 10-7 M) antagonized the action of ACh to stimulate norepinephrine and MI-IRM release while having no effect on DMPP-stimulated release. Imipramine (5 x 10-6 M) had no effect on either ACh or DMPP-stimulated release. Methacholine (4 x 10-5 M) potentiated the DMPP (1 x 10-5 M) stimulation of ME-IRM and catecholamine release; pilocarpine (4 x 10-5 M) significantly potentiated only the DMPP-stimulated release of norepinephrine. Pilocarpine (5 x 10-5 M) and muscarine (5 x 10-5 M) had no effect on the secretion of MI-IRM and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland. Etorphine (5 x 10-7 M) significantly decreased the ACh and DMPP stimulation ME-IRM and catecholamine release. The activity of a muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the bovine adrenal medulla in stimulus-secretion coupling has been controversial. The binding of 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate to chromaffin granule membranes was investigated to further characterize muscarinic receptors in the bovine adrenal gland

  3. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  4. Abnormal Spatial Asymmetry of Selective Attention in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edgar; Mattingley, Jason B.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; English, Therese; Hester, Robert; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a selective attention abnormality in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hard to identify using conventional methods from cognitive science. This study tested whether the presence of selective attention abnormalities in ADHD may vary as a function of perceptual load and target…

  5. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  6. Abnormal 201Tl limb scan due to unilateral tremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A abnormal intra- and interextremity distribution pattern on 201Tl was observed on the limb scan of a patient with a unilateral tremor. This is ascribed to the increased blood flow in the muscles responsible for the tremor. The suggestion is made that the existence of tremor should be considered as a possible explanation for unexpected abnormalities on 201Tl limb scintigrams

  7. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, MPh, PhD, NewYork Presbyterian ... If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, MPh, PhD, NewYork Presbyterian ...

  8. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, MPh, PhD, NewYork Presbyterian ... If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, MPh, PhD, NewYork Presbyterian ...

  9. Management of abnormal radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with any other industrial activity, a certain level of risk is associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. That is, on occasions nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities may operate under conditions which were not specifically anticipated during the design and construction of the plant. These abnormal conditions and situations may cause the production of abnormal waste, which can differ in character or quantity from waste produced during normal routine operation of nuclear facilities. Abnormal waste can also occur during decontamination programmes, replacement of a reactor component, de-sludging of storage ponds, etc. The management of such kinds of waste involves the need to evaluate existing waste management systems in order to determine how abnormal wastes should best be handled and processed. There are no known publications on this subject, and the IAEA believes that the development and exchange of such information among its Member States would be useful for specialists working in the waste management area. The main objective of this report is to review existing waste management practices which can be applied to abnormal waste and provide assistance in the selection of appropriate technologies and processes that can be used when abnormal situations occur. Naturally, the subject of abnormal waste is complex and this report can only be considered as a guide for the management of abnormal waste. Refs, figs and tabs.

  10. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Immunoreactive Neuronal Elements in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Chicken Spinal Cord: With Special Reference to Their Relationship with the Tachykinin-containing Central Axon Terminals in Synaptic Glomeruli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synaptic glomeruli that involve tachykinin-containing primary afferent central terminals are numerous in lamina II of the chicken spinal cord. Therefore, a certain amount of noxious information is likely to be modulated in these structures in chickens. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry with confocal and electron microscopy to investigate whether neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)-expressing neuronal elements are in contact with the central primary afferent terminals in synaptic glomeruli of the chicken spinal cord. We also investigated which neuronal elements (axon terminals, dendrites, cell bodies) and which neurons in the spinal cord possess NK-1R, and are possibly influenced by tachykinin in the glomeruli. By confocal microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivities were seen in a variety of neuronal cell bodies, their dendrites and smaller fibers of unknown origin. Some of the NK-1R immunoreactive profiles also expressed GABA immunoreactivities. A close association was observed between the NK-1R-immunoreactive neurons and tachykinin-immunoreactive axonal varicosities. By electron microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivity was seen in cell bodies, conventional dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites in laminae I and II. Among these elements, dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites made contact with tachykinin-containing central terminals in the synaptic glomeruli. These results indicate that tachykinin-containing central terminals in the chicken spinal cord can modulate second-order neuronal elements in the synaptic glomeruli

  11. Automatic Medical Image Classification and Abnormality Detection Using KNearest Neighbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. R. J. Ramteke , Khachane Monali Y.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work presents a method for automatic classification of medical images in two classes Normal and Abnormal based on image features and automatic abnormality detection. Our proposed system consists of four phases Preprocessing, Feature extraction, Classification, and Post processing. Statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and abnormal images. We used the KNN classifier for classifying image. The KNN classifier performance compared with kernel based SVM classifier (Linear and RBF. The confusion matrix computed and result shows that KNN obtain 80% classification rate which is more than SVM classification rate. So we choose KNN algorithm for classification of images. If image classified as abnormal then post processing step applied on the image and abnormal region is highlighted on the image. The system has been tested on the number of real CT scan brain images.

  12. Haematological, ocular and skeletal abnormalities in a Samoyed family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haematological, ocular and skeletal abnormalities were documented in a samoyed male and its five offspring. Haematological abnormalities, found in repeated tests in all the dogs, included marked eosinophilia, eosinophilic bands and absence of Barr bodies. Two of the dogs had bilateral buphthalmia, retinal detachments and other ocular abnormalities. Three of the dogs had skeletal abnormalities including chondrodysplasia (dwarfism) and brachygnathia (undershot jaw). A similar combination of inherited skeletal and ocular disorders, without the haematological abnormalities, has been described in samoyeds. Acquired causes for the haematological findings, which are similar to the inherited Pelger-Huët anomaly described in several species, have been eliminated. Eosinophilic bands and scarcity of Barr bodies could be a marker, or a previously unreported manifestation, of an inherited disorder in samoyeds

  13. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1988. For this reporting period, there were no abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. There were two abnormal occurrences under other NRC-issued licenses: multiple medical therapy misadministrations at a single hospital and a medical diagnostic misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  14. Significance of negative hysteroscopic view in abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasnis H

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Ninety six cases of abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated by both panoramic hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage. The indications for hysteroscopy included postmenopausal bleeding, infertility with abnormal bleeding, abnormal bleeding and suspected leiomyoma with bleeding. Twenty three patients had abnormal hysteroscopy findings. Hysteroscopy diagnosed endometrial polyp and submucus leiomyoma with 100% accuracy. In 17 cases, the results of hysteroscopy and curettage were in agreement and hysteroscopy revealed more information than curettage in 6 cases. Among the remaining 73 cases with ?negative? hysteroscopic view, an abnormality was detected by tissue sampling in only 2 patients. The specificity and positive predictive value of hysteroscopy is 100%. The sensitivity of hysteroscopy was greater (92% than that of curettage (76% and the negative predictive value of hysteroscopy was 2.8%. Thus, panoramic hysteroscopy may prove to be superior to curettage in making an accurate diagnosis of intrauterine pathology.

  15. Significance of negative hysteroscopic view in abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasnis, H B; Parulekar, S V

    1992-01-01

    Ninety six cases of abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated by both panoramic hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage. The indications for hysteroscopy included postmenopausal bleeding, infertility with abnormal bleeding, abnormal bleeding and suspected leiomyoma with bleeding. Twenty three patients had abnormal hysteroscopy findings. Hysteroscopy diagnosed endometrial polyp and submucus leiomyoma with 100% accuracy. In 17 cases, the results of hysteroscopy and curettage were in agreement and hysteroscopy revealed more information than curettage in 6 cases. Among the remaining 73 cases with 'negative' hysteroscopic view, an abnormality was detected by tissue sampling in only 2 patients. The specificity and positive predictive value of hysteroscopy is 100%. The sensitivity of hysteroscopy was greater (92%) than that of curettage (76%) and the negative predictive value of hysteroscopy was 2.8%. Thus, panoramic hysteroscopy may prove to be superior to curettage in making an accurate diagnosis of intrauterine pathology. PMID:1432829

  16. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1988. For this reporting period, there were no abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. There were two abnormal occurrences at other NRC licensees: a significant breakdown in management and procedural controls at a medical facility and a medical diagnostic misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving radioactive material released during a transportation accident. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  17. Intracranial CT abnormality associated with childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We showed three abnormal CT findings of childhood leukemia. Case 1: A 3-year-old boy was found to have acute lymphocytic leukemia in January, 1980. Following prophylactic skull irradiation totaling 2,300 rad and 30 mg of intrathecal methotrexate, he was treated with oral and intravenous methotrexate (10-15 mg once weekly, totaling 2,035 mg). CT taken 2 years and 3 months after the onset showed fine, high-density spots in the left frontal, temporal, and bilateral parietal subcortical regions, without any contrast enhancement. The high-density spots were diagnosed as parenchymal calcification induced by the irradiation and methotrexate therapy. Case 2: A 5-year-old boy complaining of anemia and fever was diagnosed as having acute myelocytic leukemia and was treated with VAMP and DCVP. In March, 1982, he complained of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting 4.5 years after his onset. There were no neurological deficits nor any nuchal stiffness. A lumbar puncture showed increasing pressure of CSF over 250 mm H2O and a pleocytosis of the myeloblasts. CT showed an enhanced high-density mass in the pineal region and hydrocephalus. He improved and showed a normal CT after treatment with skull irradiation of 2,400 rad and four intraventricular injections of 15 mg methotrexate, 30 mg cytosine arabinoside, and 15 mg hydrocortisone via Ommaya's reservoir. Case 3: A 14-year-old boy who had suffered from acute lymphocytic leukemia, associated with meningeal infiltration, for 2 years and 10 months, complained of headache, disturbance of consciousness, and focal convulsion of the left upper limb in December, 1982. CT demonstrated multiple, round, high-density areas in the cerebral hemispheres. Those high-density areas were diagnosed as intracerebral leukemic masses and/or hemorrhages. After 1400 rad of skull irradiation and steroid therapy, the patient rallied shortly, but then expired. An autopsy was refused. (J.P.N.)

  18. Management of roads with abnormal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several asphalt concrete (AC) roads in Taoyuan County of Taiwan were found radioactively abnormal in 1994. Atomic Energy Council (AEC), the regulatory agency, was asked to take the samples, to perform the radiochemical analysis and dose evaluation as well as to investigate the source of contamination. The cause of high radiation was due to high uranium and thorium concentration slag used in the AC. The dose rate was approximately 1 ?Sv/hr at the road surface. The maximum annual dose received by pedestrians was estimated at 0.13 mSv (2.5% of annual dose limit of 5 mSv for the public), or approximately 1/15 of the value of annual natural background radiation in the Taiwan area. Consequently, the AEC suggested that there was no need to implement engineering remedy measures to remove the AC surface of the roads. However, upon consideration of socioeconomic condition and public opinion, the local government still decided to remove the contaminated surface of these roads. The AEC helped to formulate the operational procedures for removal and disposal of the AC including the radiation protection program and the disposal site. To date, all the contaminated AC surface of the roads was removed and properly disposed. The contaminated AC roads are a typical example of improper disposal of wastes containing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). A new regulation was promulgated by AEC recently to limit the use of slag, coal ash or any other industrial wastes unless its radiation or activity level is below the limit. (author)

  19. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  20. Radiologic evaluation of structural abnormalities of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This exhibit concentrates on often overlooked, unfamiliar biomechanical or structural abnormalities of the foot. Pericalcaneal pathology and its correlation with the presence of heel spurs is illustrated. In the tarsal area, coalitions, prehallux, and their relationships to abnormalities of the longitudinal arch are discussed. Distally, medial, dorsal and tailor's bunions are demonstrated. Pain and disability often precede obvious deformity, and a radiologist familiar with the early findings on x-ray studies may be the first member of the medical team to identify structural abnormalities. Diagnosis allows prompt institution of appropriate therapy, reducing the period of patient discomfort and disability

  1. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.)

  2. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Swaerd, L.; Peterson, L. (Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-03-01

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.).

  3. Acute sublethal global hypoxia induces transient increase of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the striatum of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Susana R; Patterson, Sean I; Ezquer, Marcelo E; Torrecilla, Mariana; Lama, M Cristina; Seltzer, Alicia M

    2007-03-01

    We assessed immunoreactivity (IR) in the cerebral cortex (CC), hippocampus (Hipp), and striatum (ST) of a growth-associated protein, GAP-43, and of proteins of the synaptic vesicle fusion complex: VAMP-2, Syntaxin-1, and SNAP-25 (SNARE proteins) throughout postnatal development of rats after submitting the animals to acute global postnatal hypoxia (6.5% O(2), 70 min) at postnatal day 4 (PND4). In the CC only the IR of the SNARE protein SNAP-25 increased significantly with age. The hypoxic animals showed the same pattern of IR for SNAP-25, although with lower levels at PND11, and also a significant increase of VAMP-2. SNAP-25 (control): PND11 P < 0.001 vs. PND18, 25, and 40, SNAP-25 (hypoxic): P < 0.001 vs. PND18, 25, and 40; VAMP-2 (hypoxic): P < 0.05 PND11 vs. PND18, and P < 0.01 vs. PND25 and PND40; one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test. In the Hipp, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1 increased significantly with age, reaching a plateau at PND25 through PND40 in control animals (one-way ANOVA: syntaxin-1: P = 0.043; Bonferroni: NS; SNAP-25: P = 0.013; Bonferroni: P < 0.01 PND11 vs. PND40). Hypoxic rats showed higher levels of significance in the one-way ANOVA than controls (syntaxin-1: P = 0.009; Bonferroni: P < 0.05 PND11 vs. PND25 and P < 0.001 PND11 vs. PND40). In the ST, GAP-43 differed significantly among hypoxic and control animals and the two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences with age (F = 3.23; P = 0.037) and treatment (F = 4.84; P = 0.036). VAMP-2 expression also reached statistical significance when comparing control and treated animals (F = 6.25, P = 0.018) without changes regarding to age. Elevated plus maze test performed at PND40 indicated a lower level of anxiety in the hypoxic animals. At adulthood (12 weeks) learning, memory and locomotor abilities were identical in both groups of animals. With these results, we demonstrate that proteins of the presynaptic structures of the ST are sensitive to acute disruption of homeostatic conditions, such as a temporary decrease of the O(2) concentration. Modifications in the activity of these proteins could contribute to the long term altered responses to stress due to acute hypoxic insult in the neonatal period. PMID:17146769

  4. Preclinical assessment of immunoreactivity of a new purified equine F(ab')2 against European viper venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin-Covatta, S; Lutsch, C; Lang, J; Scherrmann, J M

    1998-02-01

    The immunological and pharmacokinetic properties of a new, further purified, pasteurized preparation of equine F(ab')2 (VIPERFAV) against Vipera aspis, Vipera berus, and Vipera ammodytes venom were compared with the current equine F(ab')2 preparation (IPSER Europe). Affinity constants of the V. aspis-specific F(ab')2 were determined using biosensor technology and found to be in the range of 10(8) M-1 for the four antigenic fractions of V. aspis toxins and for both F(ab')2 preparations. The improvement of 51% in the specific activity (LD50 mg-1) of the new F(ab')2 was in close agreement with the 1.8-fold increase in the immunoreactive fraction of the new preparation. In vivo investigations of venom immunocomplexation by F(ab')2 in rabbits confirmed the ability of F(ab')2 to neutralize and redistribute toxin venom. Infusion of a stoichiometric molar ratio (i.e., 1 mg kg-1) of the new antivenom induced a 2.3-fold elevation of the plasma venom concentration with a Tmax observed 8 h after F(ab')2 administration and a decline in the terminal half-life from 31.92 +/- 4.49 h to 16.73 +/- 4.34 h, in contrast, for the venom alone. The area under the curve was 1.4-fold greater in the VIPERFAV group than in the IPSER Europe group during the post-F(ab')2 infusion period. Increasing the F(ab')2 dose to 3 mg kg-1 increased by 27% the percent of venom bound to F(ab')2. Finally, the greater the venom distribution, the smaller and less pronounced the plasma redistribution. These results demonstrate that the purification and pasteurization steps involved in the preparation of the new F(ab')2 have no deleterious influence on F(ab')2 affinity but, on the contrary, improve the protective efficacy. Alteration of viper venom kinetics by specific F(ab')2 antivenom was also shown to be dependent on the interval between of F(ab')2 administration and venom bite and on the specific F(ab')2 dose administered. PMID:9519157

  5. Localization of insulin-like growth factor-I immunoreactivity in larval and juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, N A; Anderson, A J; Rimmer, M A; Sara, V R

    1995-12-01

    Antisera to mammalian IGFs cross-react with several fish species, suggesting a long phylogenetic history of IGF-like peptides and their functional importance to all vertebrates. In this study, the tissue distribution of IGF-I-immunoreactivity (IGF-I-IR) was studied at various larval and juvenile stages of the life cycle of barramundi (Lates calcarifer). It was shown that the distribution of IGF-I-IR in this species was tissue-specific and age-dependent. In newly hatched larvae, presumptive musculature in the trunk and the pectoral fin rudiments reacted positively for IGF-I. As specimen age increased, however, IGF-I-IR in these tissues became less evident. In the retinas of barramundi 42 hr and older, a distinct band of IGF-I-IR was consistently detected between the presumptive outer nuclear and bacillary layers. Examination of sections from specimens 9 days and older revealed strong reactivity for IGF-I in a large proportion of renal tubule epithelial cells. In sections from larvae 13 to 28 days old, diffuse cytoplasmic IGF-I-IR was identified in cells lining the gill structures. At these same developmental stages, IGF-I reactive cells were also observed in the islets of Langerhans. In young juveniles (22 to 28 days posthatching), sparsely scattered clusters of neurons in the lower brain were observed which exhibited granular IGF-I-IR in perikarya. In all instances reported, IGF-I-IR in barramundi tissue was abolished by replacing antisera with normal rabbit serum or by preabsorption of antisera with purified IGF-I peptide, indicating the specificity of the reactions obtained. The distribution patterns of IGF-I-IR in barramundi tissues were broadly consistent with the reported distributions of IGF-I-like peptides and transcripts in other teleost species. The findings of this study are in general agreement with the hypothesis that IGF-I-like peptides may be involved in the regulation of tissue growth, differentiation, and function during early barramundi development. PMID:8775055

  6. Immunoreactivity for Choline Acetyltransferase of Peripheral-Type (pChAT) in the Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of the Non-Human Primate Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transcripts of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene reveal a number of different splice variants including ChAT of a peripheral type (pChAT). Immunohistochemical staining of the brain using an antibody against pChAT clearly revealed peripheral cholinergic neurons, but failed to detect cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system. In rodents, pChAT-immunoreactivity has been detected in cholinergic parasympathetic postganglionic and enteric ganglion neurons. In addition, pChAT has been observed in non-cholinergic neurons such as peripheral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. The common type of ChAT (cChAT) has been investigated in many parts of the brain and the spinal cord of non-human primates, but little information is available about the localization of pChAT in primate species. Here, we report the detection of pChAT immunoreactivity in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and its co-localization with Substance P (SP) and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Neurons positive for pChAT were observed in a rather uniform pattern in approximately half of the trigeminal neurons throughout the TG. Most pChAT-positive neurons had small or medium-sized cell bodies. Double-immunofluorescence staining showed that 85.1% of SP-positive cells and 74.0% of CGRP-positive cells exhibited pChAT immunoreactivity. Most pChAT-positive cells were part of a larger population of neurons that co-expressed SP and/or CGRP

  7. Chaperonin GroEL: a novel phylogenetically conserved protein with strong immunoreactivity of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from duck identified by immunoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yinli; Zhai, Zhipeng; Wang, Shaohui; Ma, Jiale; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-06-19

    Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens of poultry. The lack of suitable vaccines and the emergence of multi-resistant strains have hampered the control of avian colibacillosis. To identify immunogenic proteins of APEC as vaccine candidates, immunoproteomics and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were applied. Proteins from total cell lysates of APEC DE205B isolated from the brain of a duck with septicemia and neurological symptom in China were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and reacted with hyperimmune duck serum against DE205B. Fourteen immunoreactive spots were found, representing 11 distinct proteins. These included two predominant immunogenic components, outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and flagellin (FliC). GroEL, which is a member of the molecular chaperone family and identical structurally to eukaryotic heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and the other eight antigens are reported here as immunoreactive proteins of APEC for the first time. Subsequently, nine genes encoding the identified proteins were successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Seven of the recombinant proteins were able to react with hyperimmune duck serum and three of them, GroEL, OmpA and FliC, showed stronger immunoreactivity. Challenge studies revealed that, just like OmpA and FliC, recombinant GroEL stimulated a strong antibody response and supported protective efficacy against APEC infection in ducks. With high phylogenetic conservation, it is considered that GroEL would be an ideal immunogen of APEC for vaccine development. PMID:23643628

  8. Antidepressant Effects of Ketamine Are Not Related to ¹?F-FDG Metabolism or Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity in the Ventral Tegmental Area of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Saur, Lisiani; Bagatini, Pamela Bambrilla; Greggio, Samuel; Venturin, Gianina Teribele; Vaz, Sabrina Pereira; Ferreira, Kelly Dos Reis; Junqueira, Juliana Silva; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; DaCosta, Jaderson Costa; Jeckel, Cristina Maria Moriguchi; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important health problem that is often associated to stress. One of the main brain regions related to MDD is the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic center, part of the reward and motivation circuitry. Recent studies show that changes to VTA dopaminergic neurons are associated with depression and treatment. Ketamine has recently shown a fast, potent antidepressant effect in acute, sub-anesthetic doses. Thus, our aims were to elucidate if ketamine would be able to revert depression-like behaviors induced by a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) protocol and if it could cause alterations to metabolism and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactivity in VTA. For this, 48 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control + saline (CTRL + SAL), control + ketamine (CTRL + KET), CUS + saline (CUS + SAL), CUS + ketamine (CUS + KET). The CUS groups underwent 28 days of CUS protocol. Saline or ketamine (10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitonially once on day 28. The behavior was assessed by the sucrose preference test, the open field test, and the forced swim test. Glucose brain metabolism was assessed and quantified with microPET. TH-immunoreactivity was assessed by estimating neuronal density and regional and cellular optical densities. A decrease in sucrose intake in the CUS groups and an increase in immobility was rapidly reverted by ketamine (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in the open field test. There was no alteration to VTA metabolism and TH-immunoreaction. These results suggest that the depressive-like behavior induced by CUS and the antidepressant effects of ketamine are unrelated to changes in neuronal metabolism or dopamine production in VTA. PMID:25894683

  9. Production and Evaluation of Immunoreactivity of Poly Lysine-Tagged Single Chain Fragment Variable (ScFv) Lym-1 Antibody for Direct Conjugation to Fluorescence Dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small size of recombinant scFv antibody has many advantages such as rapid blood clearances and improved targeting antibodies to tumor region. On the other hand owing to small size, number of amino group is insufficient in conjugation with chelator and fluorescence labeling. This study is to introduce poly lysine tag to the C-terminal end of scFv lym-1 sequence for fluorescence chelator conjugation. Poly lysine scFv lym-1 gene, cloned into pET-22b (+) vector, was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain. Antibody purification was performed with Ni-NTA column and then size exclusion column chromatography. Expression and purification levels of poly lysine tagged scFv lym-1 antibody were confirmed by western blot analysis. I-124, I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m were used for radiolabeling of purified poly lysine scFv lym-1. Flow cytometry analysis of FITC conjugated poly lysine scFv lym-1 was performed for confirmation of immunoreactivity of human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Poly lysine scFv lym-1 antibody was purified through two steps and identified as molecular weight of 48 KDa. Radiolabeling yields of I-124, I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m into poly lysine scFv lym-1 were >99%, >99%, >95% and >99%, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of poly lysine scFv and scFv lym-1 was showed similar immunoreactivity to human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Poly lysine tag was useful for the sufficient number of amino groups to scFv lym-1 antibody for chelator conjugation with minimizing loss of immunoreactivity

  10. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Naoyuki; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Hikichi, Nanase; Ochiai, Mariko; Hosoda, Yuko; Ishikawa, Yoko; Shimazaki, Yoko; Oishi, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403

  11. Production and Evaluation of Immunoreactivity of Poly Lysine-Tagged Single Chain Fragment Variable (ScFv) Lym-1 Antibody for Direct Conjugation to Fluorescence Dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Ho; Choi, Tae Hyun; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Kang, Joo Hyun; Jeong, Su Young; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Small size of recombinant scFv antibody has many advantages such as rapid blood clearances and improved targeting antibodies to tumor region. On the other hand owing to small size, number of amino group is insufficient in conjugation with chelator and fluorescence labeling. This study is to introduce poly lysine tag to the C-terminal end of scFv lym-1 sequence for fluorescence chelator conjugation. Poly lysine scFv lym-1 gene, cloned into pET-22b (+) vector, was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain. Antibody purification was performed with Ni-NTA column and then size exclusion column chromatography. Expression and purification levels of poly lysine tagged scFv lym-1 antibody were confirmed by western blot analysis. I-124, I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m were used for radiolabeling of purified poly lysine scFv lym-1. Flow cytometry analysis of FITC conjugated poly lysine scFv lym-1 was performed for confirmation of immunoreactivity of human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Poly lysine scFv lym-1 antibody was purified through two steps and identified as molecular weight of 48 KDa. Radiolabeling yields of I-124, I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m into poly lysine scFv lym-1 were >99%, >99%, >95% and >99%, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of poly lysine scFv and scFv lym-1 was showed similar immunoreactivity to human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Poly lysine tag was useful for the sufficient number of amino groups to scFv lym-1 antibody for chelator conjugation with minimizing loss of immunoreactivity

  12. Endovascular laser therapy and the state of lipid metabolism: the structural and functional properties of red blood cells and immunoreactivity in patients with cerebrovascular pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshits, L. Y.; Ageeva, T. S.; Rassomakhin, A. A.; Zakharova, Natalia B.; Nikanorov, A. V.

    1993-06-01

    Endovascular laser therapy (EVLT) with the help of the light-conductor was carried out for 30 minutes every day. The treatment consisted of 5 - 7 sessions. 56 patients suffering from ishemic brain stroke (IBS) and dyscirculatory once phalopathy (DE) were examined. A total systems approach was used to study the influence of the EVLT on the state of hemocirculation, lipid metabolism and immunoreactivity. It has been shown that EVLT provoked the suppression of LP, the extraction of cholesterol from the cells membrane, the positive changes in the system of microcirculaton and the improvement of the clinical state of the patients with the cerebrovascular diseases (CVD).

  13. Phospho-histone H3 (pHH3) immuno-reactivity as a prognostic marker in non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    Hightower, Erica; Cabanillas, Maria E.; Fuller, Greg N.; McCutcheon, Ian E.; Hess, Kenneth R; Shah, Komal; Waguespack, Steven G.; Corley, Lynda J.; Devin, Jessica K.

    2012-01-01

    Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are typically benign neoplasms that can cause significant morbidity through local mass effects. MIB-1/Ki-67 and p53 immuno-reactivity are used to predict aggressive behavior but have known limitations. No marker to date is widely used to reliably predict tumor progression. Phospho-histone H3 (pHH3) is a protein phosphorylated during chromatin condensation in mitosis, and thus anti-pHH3 immunocyto-chemistry is able to assess mitotic activity. Study obje...

  14. Identification of abnormal operating conditions and intelligent decision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuliang; Jiang, Junjie; Su, Hongye; Chu, Jian

    2011-12-01

    In earth pressure balance (EPB) shield construction, the "plastic flow state" is difficult to form using the soil dug in the capsule because it can cause three abnormal operating conditions, including occlusion, caking in the capsule, and spewing at the outlet of the dump device. These abnormal operating conditions can, in turn, trigger failure in tunneling, cutter-device damage, and even catastrophic incidents, such as ground settlement. This present paper effectively integrates the mechanism of abnormal operating conditions and knowledge of soil conditioning, and establishes a uniform model of identifying abnormal conditions and intelligent decision support system based on the belief rule-base system. The model maximizes knowledge in improving the soil, construction experience, and data to optimize the model online. Finally, a numerical simulation with specific construction data is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  15. Analysis and treatment for abnormal loss of RCP motor lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RCP, as the 'heat' of a nuclear power plant, is one of the vital equipment of RCP Coolant System, ensuring the regular coolant flow for core heat transmission. In this case, it is a must to ensure the safety and reliability of RCP operation. During the 11th cycle of QNPC, the lubrication of RCP-A motor lost abnormally. To ensure normal operation of the motor, we performed 5 emergency lubrication-feeding. Against this problem, we analyzed the cause of abnormal lubrication loss of RCP motor and the transfer pathway for oil-gas, and according to the analysis we performed RCP motor disassembly maintenance during refueling overhaul. The paper discusses the specific treatment for the abnormal lubrication loss. It was testified useful to control the abnormal lubrication loss by the specific treatment. (authors)

  16. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to have abnormal cholesterol on a routine blood test. Dr. Mosca is Professor of Medicine and the ... unaware of. Your doctor might recommend a stress test or other types of technology that we have ...

  17. Social and Abnormal Psychology Textbooks: An Objective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Griggs, Richard A.; Hagans, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides feature and content analyses of 14 social and 17 abnormal psychology full-length textbooks from 1995-98 that are available for undergraduate psychology courses. Provides instructors of these courses a means for more informed text selection. (CMK)

  18. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  19. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence of an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period October through December 1991. Five abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. None of these occurrences involved a nuclear power plant. Four involved medical therapy misadministrations and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. The NRC's Agreement States reported three abnormal occurrences. Two involved exposures of non-radiation workers and one involved a medical therapy misadministration. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  20. Transgender Youth Don't Have Hormone Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153769.html Transgender Youth Don't Have Hormone Abnormalities Levels generally ... 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Sex hormone levels in transgender youth are consistent with the gender they were ...

  1. Changing pattern of epithelial cell abnormalities using revised Bethesda system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta T. Mufti

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: The percentage of abnormal PS is increasing (14.52% over the last decade. This increase is evident by different studies conducted across Saudi Arabia. Under present circumstances the need for mass screening.

  2. Declining total leucoyte count, an indication of transient abnormal myelopoisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonates with Down syndrome have an increased predisposition to transient abnormal myelopoisis, a haematological abnormality which is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts. The unique ability of this disorder to spontaneously enter in to a state of remission led to the creation of a new class in 2008 World Health Organization (W.H.O. classification of haemopoitic and lymphoid tumours. It has now been classified as transient abnormal myelopoisis (TAM. The cause of remission is still not clear although it is possibly linked to the abnormal expression of GATA-1 transcription factor and to a switch from hepatic haematopoesis to medullary haematopoesis. Simple laboratory monitoring by serial complete blood count and peripheral smear can give indication of this rare disorder. As very few cases of this disorder exist we share our experience and report a case of transient myeloproliferative disorder in a male newborn having Down syndrome.

  3. Abnormal cytokinesis in microsporogenesis of Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae: Paniceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowski, E V; Boldrini, K R; Pagliarini, M S; do Valle, C B

    2007-01-01

    Microsporogenesis was evaluated in the Brachiaria humidicola collection of the Embrapa Beef Cattle Center, represented by 60 accessions. One accession (H121) presented an abnormal pattern of cytokinesis that had never been reported in this genus. Among 900 meiocytes analyzed in the first division, 10.7% underwent precocious and multiple cytokinesis in metaphase I, fractionating the genome and the cytoplasm into two or more parts. The expected cytokinesis after telophase I did not occur. The abnormal meiocytes from the first division entered the second division but the second cytokinesis after telophase II was also abnormal. Among the 857 meiocytes analyzed in the second division, 10.9% presented abnormal, incomplete or total absence of cytokinesis. Dyads and binucleated microspores were recorded among the meiotic products. The use of this accession in the Embrapa breeding program is compromised. PMID:18050080

  4. Strict abnormal extremals in nonholonomic and kinematic control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Linan, M Barbero

    2008-01-01

    In optimal control problems, there exist different kinds of extremals, that is, curves candidates to be solution: abnormal, normal and strictly abnormal. The key point for this classification is how those extremals depend on the cost function. We focus on control systems such as nonholonomic control mechanical systems and the associated kinematic systems as long as they are equivalent. With all this in mind, first we study conditions to relate an optimal control problem for the mechanical system with another one for the associated kinematic system. Then, Pontryagin's Maximum Principle will be used to connect the abnormal extremals of both optimal control problems. An example is given to glimpse what the abnormal solutions for kinematic systems become when they are considered as extremals to the optimal control problem for the corresponding nonholonomic mechanical systems.

  5. Appearing and disappearing CT scan abnormalities and seizures.

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, P K; Kumar, B R; Madan, V S; Mohan, V.

    1985-01-01

    A group of patients presenting with seizures (focal or generalised) and abnormal CT scans who, on follow up, showed complete resolution of the CT scan changes, without any treatment other than anticonvulsants, are described.

  6. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are unaware of. Your doctor might recommend a stress test or other types of technology that we ... history, my personal history, other conditions that could cause abnormalities in blood cholesterol levels. I would make ...

  7. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, Christos A; Konstantinidis, Athanasios K; Ntalas, Ioannis V; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-11-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is independently associated with an increased burden of cardiovascular disease. Besides coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF), specific electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias seem to have a significant impact on cardiovascular prognosis of COPD patients. Disturbances of heart rhythm include premature atrial contractions (PACs), premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter (AFL), multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT), and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Of note, the identification of ECG abnormalities and the evaluation of the arrhythmic risk may have significant implications in the management and outcome of patients with COPD. This article provides a concise overview of the available data regarding ECG abnormalities and arrhythmias in these patients, including an elaborated description of the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanisms. The clinical impact and prognostic significance of ECG abnormalities and arrhythmias in COPD as well as the appropriate antiarrhythmic therapy and interventions in this setting are also discussed. PMID:26218181

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 108 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period July through September 1991. The report discusses two abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities, neither involving a nuclear power plant. One involved radiation exposures to members of the public from a lost radioactive source and the other involved a medical diagnostic midadministration. The Agreement States reported no abnormal occurrences. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  9. Is Having Clonal Cytogenetic Abnormalities the Same as Having Leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Mirko; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Daniella; Marchina, Eleonora; Gale, Robert Peter

    2016-01-01

    A finding of cytogenetic abnormalities, even when these are clonal and even when the abnormalities are typically associated with leukaemia, is not the same as a person having leukaemia. We describe a person who had acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and achieved a complete haematological remission and who then had persistent and transient clonal cytogenetic abnormalities for 22 years but no recurrence of leukaemia. These data suggest that clones of myeloid cells with mutations and capable of expanding to levels detectable by routine cytogenetic analyses do not all eventuate in leukaemia, even after a prolonged observation interval. The possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a person as having leukaemia becomes even greater when employing more sensitive techniques to detect mutations such as by polymerase chain reaction and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Caution is needed when interpreting clonal abnormalities in AML patients with normal blood and bone marrow parameters. PMID:26376174

  10. Incidental sinus abnormalities in 256 patients referred for brain MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanaati H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging abnormalities in the paranasal sinuses are regularly noted as incidental findings on MRI, however, little is known about their prevalence in the Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to classify these findings in the paranasal sinuses as seen on MRI and to investigate the prevalence, according to site and type of paranasal abnormality. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the T2-weighted axial MRI of 256 patients with diseases unrelated to their paranasal sinuses were reviewed between May 2002 and June 2003. The findings were categorized according to the anatomic location and the imaging characteristics of the abnormality. The abnormalities recorded included total sinus opacification, mucoperiosteal thickening >5mm, air fluid levels and retention cysts or polyps. Unilateral or bilateral involvement and septal deviation were also noted. A sinus was considered normal if it was fully aerated and no soft-tissue density was apparent within the cavity. Results: Among our cases, 111 (43.5% were male and 145 (56.5% were female. Of these patients, abnormalities in one or more of the sinus groups were found in 110 subjects (42.9%, 55.5% of which were male and 44.5% were female (P=0.001. Maxillary sinus abnormalities were observed in 66.4% of the patients, while ethmoid sinus abnormalities were found in 63.6%. Of the ethmoid abnormalities, 21% were found in the anterior section, 9% in the middle ethmoid, and 8% in the posterior ethmoid. The most common abnormality found was mucosal thickening. Among our cases, 23.4% had septal deviation, which was significantly higher among those with sinusitis (29% versus 19.1%; P<0.01. Of those patients with sinus involvement, 16% were involved in the sphenoid sinus and 5% in the frontal sinus. The results obtained from the patients with sinus abnormality revealed that 85% suffered from cough, nasal obstruction, runny nose, facial pain and post nasal discharge and 24% had been diagnosed with chronic sinusitis by physician. Conclusion: Our results showed that there was a high rate of incidental abnormalities in the paranasal sinuses that are unrelated to the patient's presenting problems.

  11. Abnormal myocardial repolarisation in response to hypoxaemia and fenoterol.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiely, D G; Cargill, R. I.; Grove, A.; Struthers, A. D.; Lipworth, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Prolongation of the QTc interval has been associated with cardiac dysrhythmias and sudden death. QTc dispersion (interlead variability in QTc interval) has recently been proposed as being a more sensitive marker of repolarisation abnormalities and shown to be a more specific index of arrhythmia risk. Although hypoxaemia and fenoterol have previously been shown to prolong the QTc interval, this does not reflect regional myocardial repolarisation abnormalities. METHODS--Electrophysi...

  12. Dental Abnormalities Caused by Novel Compound Heterozygous CTSK Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Y.; Wang, L.; Xia, D; Li, Qiang; Gao, Shan; Dong, MD; Cai, T; Shi, S; He, L; Hu, K.; Mao, T; Duan, X

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CTSK) is an important protease responsible for degrading type I collagen, osteopontin, and other bone matrix proteins. The mutations in the CTSK gene can cause pycnodysostosis (OMIM 265800), a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia. Patients with pycnodysostosis have been reported to present specific dental abnormalities; however, whether these dental abnormalities are related to dysfunctional CTSK has never been reported. Here we investigated the histologic changes of cementum and...

  13. Characteristics of Oral Abnormalities in Liver Transplant Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    J Guggenheimer; JM Close; Eghtesad, B; C Shay

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several oral mucosal abnormalities have been reported to occur more frequently in patients with liver disease. It has, however, not been determined if these conditions are related to the disease or are manifestationsof extraneous factors not associated with the liver pathology.Objective: To identify and quantify oral abnormalities in candidates for liver transplantation, and to determinewhether these conditions were correlated with the type of liver disease or were the result of o...

  14. A minicomputerized abnormal event data bank for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to provide references concerning operational safety experiences of foreign nuclear power plants, a minicomputerized abnormal event data bank (MAEDB) is established on a IBM-PC-XT. At present, the bank contains 1818 abnormal events. Its retrieval software is prepared in dBASE-III. The MAEDB is flexible, practical and easy to operate. The retrieval of events can be performed on 30 items individually, or on any meaningful combination of them

  15. A study of cluster behavioral abnormalities in down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya Ranjan; Sanyal Debasish; Roy Krishna; Saha Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Background :The behavioral phenotype in Down syndrome follows a characteristic pattern. Aims: To find the incidence of behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome, to compare these findings with other causes of intellectual disability and normal population and to cluster these abnormalities. Settings :One hundred forty mentally challenged people attending at tertiary care set up and from various non-governmental organizations were included in the study. Patients from both rural and urban set up...

  16. Strict abnormal extremals in nonholonomic and kinematic control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Liñán, María; Muñoz Lecanda, Miguel Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In optimal control problems, there exist different kinds of extremals, that is, curves candidates to be solution: abnormal, normal and strictly abnormal. The key point for this classification is how those extremals depend on the cost function. We focus on control systems such as nonholonomic control mechanical systems and the associated kinematic systems as long as they are equivalent. With all this in mind, first we study conditions to relate an optimal control problem fo...

  17. Evaluation of endometrium in peri-menopausal abnormal uterine bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Kotdawala, Parul; Kotdawala, Sonal; Nagar, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common health problems encountered by women. It affects about 20% women of reproductive age, and accounts for almost two thirds of all hysterectomies. Gynaecologists are often unable to identify the cause of abnormal bleeding even after a thorough history and physical examination. Diagnostic evaluations and treatment modalities have been evolving over time. The onus in AUB management is to exclude complex endometrial hyperplasia and endometri...

  18. Prediction of abnormal behaviors for intelligent video surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Duarte; Santos, Henrique Dinis dos; Cortez, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    The OBSERVER is a video surveillance system that detects and predicts abnormal behaviors aiming at the intelligent surveillance concept. The system acquires color images from a stationary video camera and applies state of the art algorithms to segment, track and classify moving objects. In this paper we present the behavior analysis module of the system. A novel method, called Dynamic Oriented Graph (DOG) is used to detect and predict abnormal behaviors, using real-time u...

  19. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Vainchenker, William; Tulliez, Micheline; Dickie, Renée; Hasselbalch, Hans; Rogers, Rick; Palmblad, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from patients with myelofibrosis differed from that in samples from controls. DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the microvascular density (MVD), vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrows from 19 ...

  20. Topiramate for abnormal eating behaviour in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singam, Colin; Walterfang, Mark; Mocellin, Ramon; Evans, Andrew; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide anticonvulsant that is associated with anorexia and weight loss and has been used to treat binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. This report describes a man with frontotemporal dementia, behavioural variant, associated with abnormal eating behaviour which appeared to respond to topiramate. We review the physiological basis of abnormal eating behaviour in frontotemporal dementia and explore possible mechanisms of action by which topiramate may modify eating behaviour in this condition. PMID:23548883

  1. MRI of congenital and developmental abnormalities of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knee joint is the one of the most common locations for congenital and developmental musculoskeletal abnormalities. Initial imaging of the knee joint should always begin with conventional radiographs. However, evaluation of the bone marrow, cartilaginous, ligamentous, and other soft-tissue components of the knee joint are better characterized with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present the MRI findings of prevalent congenital and developmental abnormalities in the paediatric knee with particular emphasis on the components of the growing skeleton.

  2. Characterization of abnormal grain coarsening in Alloy 718

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Richard; Preuss Michael; Fonseca João Quinta da; Witulski Thomas; Terlinde Gregor; Büscher Markus

    2014-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of abnormal grain coarsening (AGC) or “exploded grains” has been known to occur in Alloy 718 industrial forgings there is still no satisfactory explanation for it. For this reason, detailed microstructure analysis has been carried out in normal and abnormal regions. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) was employed to determine grain size, boundary distribution and measure stored energy, while backscattered imagining in a FEGSEM was used to measure ? precipitate ...

  3. Genitourinary Abnormalities in Children with Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    BALAT, Ay?e

    1999-01-01

    Urinary-tract infections (UTI) are common infectious diseases in childhood. The presence of UTI may be an indicator of a serious genitourinary (GU) abnormality that requires medical intervention. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children discharged with a diagnosis of UTI from the Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, between July 1, 1991 and June 30, 1994. The purpose of the study was to determine how many patients had underlying GU abnormalities, the specific type of abno...

  4. Redox metabolism abnormalities in autistic children associated with mitochondrial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, R E; DeLaTorre, R; TAYLOR, H; Slattery, J; Melnyk, S; Chowdhury, N.; James, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Research studies have uncovered several metabolic abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including mitochondrial disease (MD) and abnormal redox metabolism. Despite the close connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, the relation between MD and oxidative stress in children with ASD has not been studied. Plasma markers of oxidative stress and measures of cognitive and language development and ASD behavior were obtained from 18 children diagnosed ...

  5. Abnormal Control Chart Pattern Classification Optimisation Using Multi Layered Perceptron

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra Mahdiani; Hairulliza Mohd. Judi; Noraidah Sahari Ashaari

    2014-01-01

    In today's industry, control charts are widely used to monitor production process. The abnormal patterns of a quality control chart could reveal problems that occur in the process. In the recent years, as an alternative of the traditional process quality management methods, such as Shewhart Statistical Process Control (SPC), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been widely used to recognize the abnormal pattern of control charts. Various types of patterns are observed in control charts. Iden...

  6. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities, congenital abnormalities and transfusion syndrome in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Kiil, C

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of screening for structural malformations in twins and the outcome of screening for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) among monochorionic twins through a number of ultrasound scans from 12 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Enrolled into this prospective multicenter observational study were women with twin pregnancies diagnosed before 14 + 6 gestational weeks. The monochorionic pregnancies were scanned every second week until 23 weeks in order to rule out early TTTS. All pregnancies had an anomaly scan in week 19 and fetal echocardiography in week 21 that was performed by specialists in fetal echocardiography. Zygosity was determined by DNA analysis in all twin pairs with the same sex. RESULTS: Among the 495 pregnancies the prenatal detection rate for severe structural abnormalities including chromosomal aneuploidies was 83% by the combination of a first-trimester nuchal translucency scan and the anomaly scan in week 19. The incidence of severe structural abnormalities was 2.6% and two-thirds of these anomalies were cardiac. There was no significant difference between the incidence in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, nor between twins conceived naturally or those conceived by assisted reproduction. The incidence of TTTS was 23% from 12 weeks until delivery, and all those monochorionic twin pregnancies that miscarried had signs of TTTS. CONCLUSION: Twin pregnancies have an increased risk of congenital malformations and one out of four monochorionic pregnancies develops TTTS. Ultrasound screening to assess chorionicity and follow-up of monochorionic pregnancies to detect signs of TTTS, as well as malformation screening, are therefore essential in the antenatal care of twin pregnancies.

  7. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July-September 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1986. The report states that for this reporting period, there were four abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The events were (1) a differential pressure switch problem in safety systems at LaSalle facility, (2) abnormal cooldown and depressurization transient at Catawba Unit 2, (3) significant safeguards deficiencies at Wolf Creek and Fort St. Vrain, and (4) significant deficiencies in access controls at River Bend Station. There was one abnormal occurrence at the other NRC licensees; it involved a therapeutic medical misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State; it involved a therapeutic medical misadministration. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  8. Characterization of abnormal grain coarsening in Alloy 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the phenomenon of abnormal grain coarsening (AGC or “exploded grains” has been known to occur in Alloy 718 industrial forgings there is still no satisfactory explanation for it. For this reason, detailed microstructure analysis has been carried out in normal and abnormal regions. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD was employed to determine grain size, boundary distribution and measure stored energy, while backscattered imagining in a FEGSEM was used to measure ? precipitate size and morphology. It was found that abnormal regions show almost 3 times as many twin boundaries compared to a normal region. In addition, the ? phase morphologies differ very significantly when comparing these two different regions. Normal regions display ? phase with a plate like nature, whereas in abnormal regions, ? particles appear to be more spherical. Furthermore, there are clear indications of differences in ? volume fractions between the two regions. Whilst in normal regions the ? phase is found predominantly at grain boundaries, in abnormal regions the ? is also found within grains. Both backscatter images and EBSD scans indicate that there are higher levels of stored energy within the normal regions, compared to the abnormal regions. These observations suggest that AGC occurs in regions where dynamic recrystallization does not happen and where recrystallization during solution heat treatment is affected by the local particle distribution.

  9. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. The report, the twelfth in the series, covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1978. The following incidents or events in that time period were determined by the Commission to be significant and reportable: (1) There was one abnormal occurrence at the 68 nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The event involved insulation failures in containment electrical penetrations. (2) There were no abnormal occurrences at fuel cycle facilities (other than nuclear power plants). (3) There were no abnormal occurrences at other license facilities. (4) There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State Licensee. The event involved an overexposure of a radiographer. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  10. Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine treatment on kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I) immunoreactivity of neurons and glial cells in the rat substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyihár-Csillik, Elizabeth; Chadaide, Zoltan; Mihály, András; Krisztin-Péva, Beata; Fenyo, Robert; Vécsei, László

    2006-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by a preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Neurons in the SNPC are known to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); therefore, in a commonly used PD model, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a selective catecholamine neurotoxin, induces neuronal death in SNPC. We have shown with immunohistochemical techniques that kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I), the enzyme taking part in the formation of kynurenic acid (KYNA)--the only known endogenous selective NMDA receptor antagonist and a potent neuroprotective agent--is also expressed in the rat SNPC. We found that KAT-I and TH co-exist in the very same neurons of SNPC and that 6-OHDA injected into the lateral ventricle produced loss of the majority of nigral neurons. Densitometric analysis proved that, in consequence of 6-OHDA treatment, not only TH but also KAT-I immunoreactivity diminished considerably in the remaining SNPC neurons. Astrocytes in the substantia nigra were found to express KAT-I under normal conditions; the amount of this enzyme increased after administration of 6-OHDA, whereas microglial cells became KAT-I immunoreactive only after 6-OHDA treatment. Since intrinsic KYNA in SNPC neurons is perceptibly insufficient to protect them from the deleterious effect of 6-OHDA, it is hypothesized that biochemical approaches which increase KYNA content of the central nervous system might prevent the deleterious effect of 6-OHDA and, supposedly, also the neuronal degradation characterizing PD. PMID:16788821

  11. Immunolocalization of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and its Immunoreactivity during Ovary Developmental Stages of Persian Sturgeon Acipenser Persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzan Bahrami Kamangar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Immunohistochemical localization and immunoreactivity of insulin-like growthfactor-I (IGF-I were investigated during the ovarian developmental stages in Persian sturgeon.In addition, the effects of growth hormone and thyroxine were investigated on IGF-Iimmunoreactivity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Ovarian samples were taken from two brood stocks (caughtfrom the sea and from a river during their reproductive migration and at three different developmentalstages based on their polarization index (PI. The effects of two hormones onIGF-I immunoreactivity were studied at two ovarian developmental stages (PI > 0.1 andPI 0.1 (p < 0.05. Growth hormone (10 ng/ml increased IGF-I immunoreactivityin ovarian samples from the river brood stock when their PI was less than0.07, however thyroxine had not such effect (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Our results showed that IGF-I is present in the ovaries of Persian sturgeonand its reactivity is different among their gonadal development stages. This may supporta role for IGF-I during reproductive physiology in female brood stocks of the Persian sturgeon.Moreover, growth hormone is a potential hormone to increase IGF-I immunoreactivityin the ovaries of this species.

  12. Immunoreactivity of hen egg allergens: influence on in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the presence of other egg white proteins and of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Gustavo; López-Fandiño, Rosina; Molina, Elena

    2013-01-15

    Hen egg white comprises of a complex mixture of proteins, which greatly differ in their physicochemical characteristics and relative abundance. We aimed to identify potential undiscovered egg allergens within the egg white proteome and investigated the existence of matrix effects on the proteolytic stability and resultant IgE-binding of the allergenic proteins. In addition to the main egg allergens: ovalbumin (OVA), ovomucoid (OM) and lysozyme (LYS), two minor egg white proteins, tentatively identified as ovoinhibitor and clusterin, were found to react with serum IgE from egg-allergic patients. Egg white exhibited residual immunoreactivity after gastrointestinal digestion due to the presence of intact OVA and LYS, as well as of several IgE-binding peptides derived from OVA. The presence of egg yolk slightly increased the susceptibility to hydrolysis of egg white proteins and abrogated bile salt-induced precipitation of LYS in the duodenal medium. However, the resultant immunoreactivity against IgE of egg white proteins after in vitro digestion was not significantly modified by the presence of yolk components. PMID:23122126

  13. Different levels of humoral immunoreactivity to different wheat cultivars gliadin are present in patients with celiac disease and in patients with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci-Nikolic Branka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunity to food antigens (gliadin, cow's milk proteins is in the centre of the attention of modern medicine focused on the prevention of diseases, prevention which is based on the use of appropriate restriction diet. Detection of the enhanced levels of the immune reactions to antigen(s present in food is from this point of view of great importance because there are reports that some of health disturbances, like celiac disease (CD and some premalignant conditions, like monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, were vanished after the appropriate restriction diets. It is well known that gliadin is toxic to small bowel mucosa of relatively small population of genetically predisposed individuals, who under this toxic action develop celiac disease (CD. As the quantity of immunogenic gliadin could vary between different wheat species, the first aim of this work was to determine the percentage of immunogenic gliadin in ten bread wheat cultivars and in three commercially grown durum wheat cultivars. The second part of the study was initiated by results of previous publication, reporting that sera of some of multiple myeloma (MM patients showed the presence of elevated levels of anti-gliadin IgA, without the enhanced levels of anti-gliadin IgG antibodies, determined with commercial ELISA test. It was designed to assess is it possible to reveal is there any hidden, especially anti-gliadin IgG immunoreactivity, in serum of mentioned group of patients. For this purpose we tested MM patients sera, as well as celiac disease (CD patients sera for the immunoreaction with the native gliadin isolated from wheat species used for bread and pasta making in corresponding geographic region. Results Gliadin was isolated from wheat flour by two step 60% ehanolic extraction. Its content was determined by commercial R5 Mendez Elisa using PWG gliadin as the standard. Results obtained showed that immunogenic gliadin content varies between 50.4 and 65.4 mg/g in bread wheat cultivars and between 20 and 25.6 mg/g in durum wheat cultivars. Anti-gliadin IgA and IgG immunoreactivity of patients' sera in (IU/ml was firstly determined by commercial diagnostic Binding Site ELISA test, and then additionally by non-commercial ELISA tests, using standardized ethanol wheat extracts -gliadin as the antigen. In both patients groups IgA immunoreactivity to gliadin from different cultivars was almost homogenous and in correlation with results from commercial test (except for one patient with IgA(? myeloma, they were more then five times higher. But, results for IgG immunoreactivity were more frequently inhomogeneous, and especially for few MM patients, they were more then five times higher and did not correlate with results obtained using Binding Site test. Conclusion Results obtained showed different content of immunogenic gliadin epitopes in various species of wheat. They also point for new effort to elucidate is there a need to develop new standard antigen, the representative mixture of gliadin isolated from local wheat species used for bread production in corresponding geographic region for ELISA diagnostic tests.

  14. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jaroudi Dania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Since cervical cancer is reportedly the seventh most frequent cancer in women in Saudi Arabia and the eighth most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 and 44 years, we wanted to determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile women attending the reproductive medicine unit of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Methods : This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. A Pap smear was done for 241 of 493 (48.9% subfertile women from January 2008 through February 2009. Results : The Pap smear was normal in 166 of 241 patients (67.9%, abnormal in 71 (29.5%, and unsatisfactory for evaluation in 4 (1.7%. According to the revised Bethesda system, epithelial cell abnormality was found in 7 (2.9%, inflammation in 55 (22.8%, and infection in 9 (3.7% patients. Epithelial cell abnormalities were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (n=3, 42.8%, atypical squamous cells of high grade (ASC-H (n=1, 14.3%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL (n=2, 28.5%, and glandular cell abnormalities (AGS (n=1, 14.3%. Conclusion : The high prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology in our subfertile women accentuates the need for screening in patients eligible for in vitro fertilization. In addition, a well-organized screening program for cervical cell abnormalities at the national level should be implemented to allow identification of subfertile women at risk so that potentially life-saving measures can be undertaken early.

  15. The Correlation between Electroencephalography Amplitude and Interictal Abnormalities: Audit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami F. Al-Rawas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between background amplitude and interictal abnormalities in routine electroencephalography (EEG. Methods: This retrospective audit was conducted between July 2006 and December 2009 at the Department of Clinical Physiology at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A total of 1,718 electroencephalograms (EEGs were reviewed. All EEGs were from patients who had been referred due to epilepsy, syncope or headaches. EEGs were divided into four groups based on their amplitude: group one ?20 ?V; group two 21–35 ?V; group three 36–50 ?V, and group four >50 ?V. Interictal abnormalities were defined as epileptiform discharges with or without associated slow waves. Abnormalities were identified during periods of resting, hyperventilation and photic stimulation in each group. Results: The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 27 ± 12.5 years. Of the 1,718 EEGs, 542 (31.5% were abnormal. Interictal abnormalities increased with amplitude in all four categories and demonstrated a significant association (P <0.05. A total of 56 EEGs (3.3% had amplitudes that were ?20 ?V and none of these showed interictal epileptiform abnormalities. Conclusion: EEG amplitude is an important factor in determining the presence of interictal epileptiform abnormalities in routine EEGs. This should be taken into account when investigating patients for epilepsy. A strong argument is made for considering long-term EEG monitoring in order to identify unexplained seizures which may be secondary to epilepsy. It is recommended that all tertiary institutions provide EEG telemetry services.

  16. Immunoblotting with Peptide Antibodies: Differential Immunoreactivities Caused by Certain Amino Acid Substitutions in a Short Peptide and Possible Effects of Differential Refolding of the Peptide on a Nitrocellulose or PVDF Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Matsuo, Taisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Yamagoshi, Ryohei; Ohkura, Kazuto; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Immunodetection using antibodies, e.g., Western blotting, is generally utilized to measure the amount of a certain protein in a protein mixture. For valid interpretation of results observed by immunodetection, strict attention must be paid to the factors affecting the immunoreactivities of the antibodies. We here describe the step-by-step procedures to demonstrate that substitution of certain amino acids in a peptide can cause remarkable differences in its immunoreactivity with antibodies against epitope tags in the immobilized peptide. Refolding of the peptide on the membrane in a way that masks the epitope to different degrees was the possible reason for their distinct immunoreactivities with the antibodies. The results in this chapter suggest that we need to interpret carefully the experimental results involving immunodetection. PMID:26424282

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim You

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated cytogenetic results occurring with first trimester pregnancy loss, and assessed the type and frequency of chromosomal abnormalities after assisted reproductive treatment (ART and compared them with a control group. We also compared the rate of chromosomal abnormalities according to infertility causes in ICSI group. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was made of all patients who were referred to the Genetics Laboratory of Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center from 2005 to 2009 because of clinical abortion with a subsequent dilation and evacuation (D&E performed, and patients were grouped by type of conception as follows: conventional IVF (in vitro fertilization (n = 114, ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection (n = 140, and control (natural conception or intrauterine insemination [IUI] (n = 128. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results A total 406 specimens were referred to laboratory, ten abortuses were excluded, and in 14 cases, we did not get any spontaneous metaphase, chromosomal constitutions of 382 specimens were successfully obtained with conventional cytogenetic methods. Overall, 52.62% of the miscarriages were found to be cytogenetically abnormal among all patients, the frequency was 48.4% in the control group, 54.3% of miscarriages after ICSI and 55.3% after conventional IVF (p = 0.503. The most prevalent abnormalities were autosomal trisomy, however, nine (11.69% sex chromosome aneuploidy were noted in the ICSI group vs. four (6.45% and two (3.23% cases in the conventional IVF group and control group. We compared chromosomal abnormalities of miscarriages after ICSI according to infertility factor. 55.71% underwent ICSI due to male factors, 44.29% due to non-male factors. ICSI group having male factors showed significantly higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities than ICSI group having non-male factors (65.8% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.009, odds ratio = 1.529, 95% CI = 1.092-2.141. Conclusions There is no increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities due to ART was found with the exception of a greater number of sex chromosomal abnormalities in the ICSI group with male factor infertility. Therefore, these alterations could be correlated with the underlying parental risk of abnormalities and not with the ICSI procedure itself.

  18. Spinal osteoblastoma: relationship between paravertebral muscle abnormalities and scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To illustrate the variety of paravertebral muscle abnormalities as seen on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in association with spinal osteoblastomas and correlate the findings with the presence of scoliosis. Design. In a retrospective study the clinical notes, plain radiographic, CT and/or MRI features were reviewed for the presence of scoliosis and paravertebral muscle abnormality (either inflammation or atrophy). Patients. Twelve patients (7 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 17 years were studied. Three lesions occurred in the cervical spine, five in the thoracic spine and four in the lumbar spine. Results and conclusions. Nine patients had scoliosis. All patients with a thoracic or lumbar lesion and scoliosis (n=8) had an associated abnormality of the paravertebral muscles (usually atrophy with fatty replacement). One patient with a lumbar lesion and no scoliosis had normal paravertebral muscles. One patient with a cervical lesion had thoracic scoliosis but no muscle abnormality in the cervical region, while two patients with cervical lesions and no scoliosis showed muscle abnormalities. The results support the clinical hypothesis that scoliosis in patients with spinal osteoblastoma is due to paravertebral muscle spasm, although this would not appear to be the case for cervical lesions. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Spinal osteoblastoma: relationship between paravertebral muscle abnormalities and scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, 45-51 Bolsover Street, London W1P 8AQ (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Sherazi, Z. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Shaikh, M.I. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Natali, C. [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Ransford, A.O. [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Pringle, J.A.S. [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    Objective. To illustrate the variety of paravertebral muscle abnormalities as seen on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in association with spinal osteoblastomas and correlate the findings with the presence of scoliosis. Design. In a retrospective study the clinical notes, plain radiographic, CT and/or MRI features were reviewed for the presence of scoliosis and paravertebral muscle abnormality (either inflammation or atrophy). Patients. Twelve patients (7 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 17 years were studied. Three lesions occurred in the cervical spine, five in the thoracic spine and four in the lumbar spine. Results and conclusions. Nine patients had scoliosis. All patients with a thoracic or lumbar lesion and scoliosis (n=8) had an associated abnormality of the paravertebral muscles (usually atrophy with fatty replacement). One patient with a lumbar lesion and no scoliosis had normal paravertebral muscles. One patient with a cervical lesion had thoracic scoliosis but no muscle abnormality in the cervical region, while two patients with cervical lesions and no scoliosis showed muscle abnormalities. The results support the clinical hypothesis that scoliosis in patients with spinal osteoblastoma is due to paravertebral muscle spasm, although this would not appear to be the case for cervical lesions. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1987. The report states that for this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The first involved a significant degradation of plant safety at Oyster Creek; and the second involved a steam generator tube rupture at North Anna Unit 1. There were four abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. The first involved a therapeutic medical misadministration; the second involved a failure to report diagnostic medical misadministrations; the third involved the suspension of a well logging company's license; and the fourth involved the suspension of an industrial radiography company's license. There were two abnormal occurrences reported by an Agreement State (New York). The first involved a hospital contamination incident and the second involved therapeutic medical misadministrations. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  1. Hematological abnormalities in adult patients with Down's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLean, S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding hematological abnormalities in adults with Down\\'s syndrome (DS). AIMS: We aimed to characterize hematological abnormalities in adult patients with DS and determine their long-term significance. METHODS: We retrospectively studied a cohort of nine DS patients referred to the adult hematology service in our institution between May 2001 and April 2008. Data collected were: full blood count (FBC), comorbidities, investigations performed, duration of follow-up and outcome to most recent follow-up. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 26 months (9-71). Of the nine patients, two had myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) at presentation. Of these, one progressed, with increasing marrow failure, and requiring support with transfusions and gCSF. The remaining eight patients, with a variety of hematological abnormalities including leukopenia, macrocytosis, and thrombocytopenia, had persistently abnormal FBCs. However there was no evidence of progression, and no patient has evolved to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CONCLUSIONS: MDS is a complication of DS and may require supportive therapy. However, minor hematological abnormalities are common in adult DS patients, and may not signify underlying marrow disease.

  2. Fibrillin abnormalities and prognosis in Marfan syndrome and related disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, T.; Furthmayr, H.; Francke, U.; Gasner, C. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)

    1995-08-28

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem autosomal-dominant disorder, is characterized by mutations of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene and by abnormal patterns of synthesis, secretion, and matrix deposition of the fibrillin protein. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of fibrillin protein abnormalities in the diagnosis of MFS, we studied dermal fibroblasts from 57 patients with classical MFS, 15 with equivocal MFS, 8 with single-organ manifestations, and 16 with other connective tissue disorders including homocystinuria and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism was identified in 70 samples that were classified into four different groups based on quantitation of fibrillin synthesis and matrix deposition. Significant correlations were found for phenotypic features including arachnodactyly, striae distensae, cardiovascular manifestations, and fibrillin groups II and IV, which included 70% of the MFS patients. In addition, these two groups were associated with shortened {open_quotes}event-free{close_quotes} survival and more severe cardiovascular complications than groups I and III. The latter included most of the equivocal MFS/single manifestation patients with fibrillin abnormalities. Our results indicate that fibrillin defects at the protein level per se are not specific for MFS, but that the drastically reduced fibrillin deposition, caused by a dominant-negative effect of abnormal fibrillin molecules in individuals defined as groups II and IV, is of prognostic and possibly diagnostic significance. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Comparison of conduction abnormalities between anterior and inferior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the conduction abnormalities between anterior and inferior myocardial infarction. Methodology: Study was conducted from 1st January 2011 to 30th June 2011 in Cardiology Department Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar. Patients who presented with acute Myocardial infarction were included in the study. Patients having renal failure, Hypokalemia, Hyperkalemia, history of valve replacement, coronary artery bypass graft and those who were using Beta blocker,Lanoxin and Calcium channel blocker (Verapamil,Diltiazem) were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 600 patients were studied. Out of these 309 had acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction and remaining had acute Inferior Myocardial Infarction. The number of male patients were 70%. Mean age was 58.8 years. Conduction abnormalities were demonstrated in 12.16% patients. Amongst patients with Ant MI,3.5% patients developed atrioventricular blocks and 7.1% Intraventricular conduction defects, In inferior MI 11.3% were atrioventricular and 2.4% were Intraventricular conduction defects. There were more intraventricular defects in anterior MI while atrioventricular defects were more common in inferior MI. Conclusion: Conduction abnormalities are common findings in acute myocardial infarction. Intraventricular conduction abnormalities are more common in anterior MI and atrioventricular conduction abnormalities are more common in inferior MI. (author)

  4. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April-June 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1986. The report states that for this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. One involved an out of sequence control rod withdrawal and the other involved a boiling water reactor emergency core cooling system design deficiency. There were five abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. Two involved willful failure to report diagnostic medical misadministrations to the NRC; one involved a therapeutic medical misadministration; and two involved diagnostic medical misadministrations. There were two abnormal occurrences reported by the Agreement States. One involved an uncontrolled release of krypton-85 to an unrestricted area; the other involved a contaminated radiopharmaceutical used in diagnostic administrations. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  5. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  6. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1990. for this reporting period, there were 10 abnormal occurrences. One involved the loss of vital ac power with a subsequent reactor coolant system heat-up at the Vogtle Unit 1 nuclear power plant during shutdown. The event was investigated by an NRC Incident Investigation Team (IIT). The other nine abnormal occurrences involved nuclear material licensees and are described in detail under other NRC-issued licenses: eight of these involved medical therapy misadministrations; the other involved the receipt of an unshielded radioactive source at Amersham Corporation in Burlington, Massachusetts. The latter event was also investigated by an NRC IIT. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence

  7. Incidence of legal abortions and congenital abnormalities in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual and monthly distributions of congenital abnormalities and pregnancy outcomes as confounding factors were evaluated in Hungary in reflection of the accident at the Chernobyl reactor. The different congenital abnormality entities and the components of fetal radiation syndrome did not show a higher rate after the Chernobyl accident in the data-set of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. Among confounding factors, the rate of induced abortions did not increase after the Chernobyl accident in Hungary. In the 9th month after the peak of public concern (May and June, 1986) the rate of livebirths decreased. Three indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies as indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations, Down syndrome as an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations, and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities as indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. Diagnoses were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the sporadic cases were evaluated. The analysis of indicator conditions did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effect of the Chernobyl accident in Hungary

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1988. For this reporting period, there were three abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate: a potential for common mode failure of safety-related components due to a degraded instrument air system at Fort Calhoun; common mode failures of main steam isolation valves at Perry Unit 1; and a cracked pipe weld in a safety injection system at Farley Unit 2. There were six abnormal occurrences at other NRC licensees: a diagnostic medical misadministration; a breakdown in management controls at the Georgia Institute of Technology reactor facility; release of polonium-210 from static elimination devices manufactured by the 3M Company; two therapeutic medical misadministrationS; and a significant widespread breakdown in the radiation safety program at Case Western Reserve University research laboratories. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving radiation injury to two radiographers. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences. 43 refs

  9. Abnormal fetal movements, micrognathia and pulmonary hypoplasia: a case report. Abnormal fetal movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morokuma Seiichi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micrognathia is a facial malformation characterized by mandibular hypoplasia and a small, receding chin that fails to maintain the tongue in a forward position. We previously reported a system of prenatal screening that we developed to identify fetuses with compromised central nervous system function by observing fetal behavior. In this paper we report the case of a preterm infant with micrognathia and pulmonary hypoplasia who presented abnormal fetal movements. Case presentation A 27-year-old Japanese primigravida at 33 weeks of gestation was referred to our hospital. Ultrasonographic examination revealed clinical polyhydramnios. Micrognathia was evident on midsagittal and 3 D scan. The lung area was less than the mean -2.0 standard deviations for the gestational age. The infant had mandibular hypoplasia and glossoptosis. After emergency cesarean delivery for non-reasuring fetal status, required immediate tracheostomy and cardiopulmonary resuscitation with mechanical ventilatory support. However, the infant's cardiopulmonary condition did not improve and she died 21 hours after birth. Conclusions The findings of our ultrasound exam are suggestive of brain dysfunction. The observation of fetal behavior appears to be effective for the prediction of prognosis of cases with micrognathia.

  10. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period April through June 1993, and discusses four abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities, three involving medical brachytherapy misadministrations and one involving a research reactor that operated without a safety system. One pool irradiation facility contamination event, two medical misadministrations (one ''sodium iodide'' and one brachytherapy), and one industrial radiographer overexposure event that were reported by NRC Agreement States are also discussed. The report also contains information updating one previously reported abnormal occurrence and information on three other events of interest

  11. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs

  12. Volume estimation of brain abnormalities in MRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprijadi, Pratama, S. H.; Haryanto, F.

    2014-02-01

    The abnormality of brain tissue always becomes a crucial issue in medical field. This medical condition can be recognized through segmentation of certain region from medical images obtained from MRI dataset. Image processing is one of computational methods which very helpful to analyze the MRI data. In this study, combination of segmentation and rendering image were used to isolate tumor and stroke. Two methods of thresholding were employed to segment the abnormality occurrence, followed by filtering to reduce non-abnormality area. Each MRI image is labeled and then used for volume estimations of tumor and stroke-attacked area. The algorithms are shown to be successful in isolating tumor and stroke in MRI images, based on thresholding parameter and stated detection accuracy.

  13. Pion concentration and other abnormal states of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review abnormal states of matter, that is the phase transitions induced in matter placed in an abnormal environment are considered. Matter in huge magnetic fields such as might be associated with pulsars and the effects of supercritical electric fields such as might be produced by the concentration of electric charge during a collision between extremely heavy ions are considered. Brief comment is made on the nature of the phase transition induced by supercritical gravitational fields (black holes). However, the bulk of the article reviews the behaviour of matter at extremely high densities, i.e. densities in excess of 2.8 x 1014 g cm-3, corresponding to supercritical strong interaction fields associated with an abnormal concentration of baryon number. Such an environment may be produced in the cores of neutron stars or in nuclear shock waves induced in nuclei as a result of extremely energetic heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  14. Abnormal transient analysis by using PWR plant simulator, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes results of abnormal transient analysis by using a PWR plant simulator. The simulator is on the basis of an existing 822MWe power plant with 3 loops, and designed to cover wide range of plant operation from cold shutdown to full power at EOL. In the simulator, malfunctions are provided for abnormal conditions of equipment failures, and in this report, 26 kinds of malfunctions for primary system were simulated. The abnormal conditions are primary coolant pump trip, pressurizer relief valve and heater failure, rod control system failure and detector failures of pressure, temperature and level. Transient behavior and annunciators caused by added malfunctions are observed and discussed. Simulated responses were reasonable, and dynamic characteristics of chemical and volume control system and residual heat removal system were obtained for long term transient. (author)

  15. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntaner, L. [Department of Radiology, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]|[Avda Alejandro Rossello 27, E-07002 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Perez-Ferron, J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Herrera, M. [Department of Radiology, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Rosell, J. [Department of Genetics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Taboada, D. [Clinica Femenia, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Climent, S. [Department of Pediatrics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    1997-08-01

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  16. Sperm shape abnormalities in mice exposed to californium-252 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male mice of the B6C3F1 hybrid strain were whole-body irradiated with different doses of 252Cf/60Co. They were killed 35 days later and spermatozoa from cauda epididymides were stained with eosin-Y. The air-dried smears were examined under light microscope for sperm shape abnormalities. There was an increase in the frequency of abnormal sperm in all the treated groups compared to controls. The RBE for the mixed neutron and gamma radiation of 252Cf was 2.6. The RBE for the neutron component was 3.4. The increased frequency of abnormal sperm was associated with a concomitant decrease in testis weight in the irradiated animals. (author)

  17. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined

  18. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  19. Normal and abnormal conditions of operation of MPR-30-BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat generated in the reactor core is extracted in order to maintain the optimal condition of the core and to maintain the recommended conditions of various experiments taking place in the core. Based on safety criteria imposed on the design of MPR-30-BATAN and due to the fluid system design, this paper discusses the conditions of reactor operation during normal and abnormal conditions. The abnormal conditions of operation studied here deal with the Loss-Of-Flow Accident (LOFA). Safety margins against flow instability are examined for a variety of operating conditions in both the steady state and the transient state. Reactivity Insertion Accidents (RIA) have also been studied in detail, but are not discussed here. The results of this study support the flexibility, safety, and reliability of MPR 30-BATAN design under normal and abnormal operating conditions. (author)

  20. Motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs represent a complex group of behaviorally defined conditions with core deficits in social communication and the presence of repetitive and restrictive behaviors. To date, neuropathological studies have failed to identify pathognomonic cellular features for ASDs and there remains a fundamental disconnection between the complex clinical aspects of ASDs and the underlying neurobiology. Although not listed among the core diagnostic domains of impairment in ASDs, motor abnormalities have been consistently reported across the spectrum. In this perspective article, we summarize the evidence that supports the use of motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for ASDs. We argue that because these motor abnormalities do not directly depend on social or linguistic development, they may serve as an early disease indicator. Furthermore, we propose that stratifying patients based on motor development could be useful not only as an outcome predictor and in identifying more specific treatments for different ASDs categories, but also in exposing neurobiological mechanisms.