WorldWideScience

Sample records for abnormal tdp-43 immunoreactivity

  1. Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: two pathological patterns shown by analysis of distribution of TDP-43-immunoreactive neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihira, Yasushi; Tan, Chun-Feng; Onodera, Osamu; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Yamada, Mitsunori; Morita, Takashi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2008-08-01

    A nuclear protein, 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), was recently identified as a component of the ubiquitinated inclusions (UIs) in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). In the present study using immunohistochemistry, we examined various regions of the nervous system in a series of 35 SALS cases using a polyclonal antibody against TDP-43. Seven of the 35 cases had disease durations of more than 10 years with artificial respiratory support (ARS; duration: 69-156 months). In all cases, TDP-43-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs and GCIs) were found together in many regions, including the histologically affected lower motor neuron nuclei. Cluster analysis of the distribution pattern of TDP-43-ir NCIs for cases without ARS (n = 28) identified two types (type 1, n = 16; type 2, n = 12). Type 2 was distinguished from type 1 by the presence of TDP-43-ir NCIs in the frontotemporal cortex, hippocampal formation, neostriatum and substantia nigra, and was significantly associated with dementia. Eleven of the 28 cases showed UIs in the hippocampal dentate granule cells, all of which had type-2 distribution pattern. Cases with ARS (n = 7) were also classified into the same types (type 1, n = 5; type 2, n = 2). Cases having type-1 distribution pattern (n = 21) showed no evident neuronal loss in most of the non-motor neuron nuclei where TDP-43-ir NCIs were present, whereas cases having type-2 distribution pattern (n = 14) often showed evident neuronal loss in the frontotemporal cortices, amygdaloid nuclei and substantia nigra. These findings indicate that SALS is a multisystem degenerative disease widely affecting both neurons and glial cells with a heterogeneous pattern of TDP-43-ir NCI distribution (SALS showing type-2 distribution pattern being closely linked to FTLD-U), and that long-term survival supported by a respirator has no apparent influence on the TDP-43 neuronal distribution pattern. PMID:18481073

  2. The Pathological Phenotypes of Human TDP-43 Transgenic Mouse Models Are Independent of Downregulation of Mouse Tdp-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Fei; Prudencio, Mercedes; Hubbard, Jaime M.; Tong, Jimei; Whitelaw, Ena C.; Jansen-West, Karen; Stetler, Caroline; Cao, Xiangkun; Song, John; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the major component of pathological deposits in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It has been reported that TDP-43 transgenic mouse models expressing human TDP-43 wild-type or ALS-associated mutations recapitulate certain ALS and FTLD pathological phenotypes. Of note, expression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) reduces the levels of mouse Tdp-43 (mTdp-43). However, it remained unclear whether the mechanisms through which TDP-43 induces ALS or FTLD-like pathologies resulted from a reduction in mTdp-43, an increase in hTDP-43, or a combination of both. In elucidating the role of mTdp-43 and hTDP-43 in hTDP-43 transgenic mice, we observed that reduction of mTdp-43 in non-transgenic mice by intraventricular brain injection of AAV1-shTardbp leads to a dramatic increase in the levels of splicing variants of mouse sortilin 1 and translin. However, the levels of these two abnormal splicing variants are not increased in hTDP-43 transgenic mice despite significant downregulation of mTdp-43 in these mice. Moreover, further downregulation of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 hemizygous mice, which are asymptomatic, to the levels equivalent to that of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 homozygous mice does not induce the pathological phenotypes observed in the homozygous mice. Lastly, the number of dendritic spines and the RNA levels of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for synapse formation and function are significantly decreased in symptomatic homozygous mice. Together, our findings indicate that mTdp-43 downregulation does not lead to a loss of function mechanism or account for the pathological phenotypes observed in hTDP-43 homozygous mice because hTDP-43 compensates for the reduction, and associated functions of mTdp-43. Rather, expression of hTDP-43 beyond a certain threshold leads to abnormal metabolism of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for neuronal structure and function, which might be responsible for the ALS or FTLD-like pathologies observed in homozygous hTDP-43 transgenic mice. PMID:23922830

  3. Early detection of structural abnormalities and cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 in tissue-engineered skins derived from ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Bastien; Touzel-Deschênes, Lydia; Lamontagne, Rémy; Lamarre, Marie-Soleil; Scott, François-Dominique; Khuong, Hélène T; Dion, Patrick A; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Gould, Peter; Rouleau, Guy A; Dupré, Nicolas; Berthod, François; Gros-Louis, François

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset disease characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord progressively leading to paralysis and death. Current diagnosis of ALS is based on clinical assessment of related symptoms. The clinical manifestations observed in ALS appear relatively late in the disease course after degeneration of a significant number of motor neurons. As a result, the identification and development of disease-modifying therapies is difficult. Therefore, novel strategies for early diagnosis of neurodegeneration, to monitor disease progression and to assess response to existing and future treatments are urgently needed. Factually, many neurological disorders, including ALS, are accompanied by skin changes that often precede the onset of neurological symptoms. Aiming to generate an innovative human-based model to facilitate the identification of predictive biomarkers associated with the disease, we developed a unique ALS tissue-engineered skin model (ALS-TES) derived from patient's own cells. The ALS-TES presents a number of striking features including altered epidermal differentiation, abnormal dermo-epidermal junction, delamination, keratinocyte infiltration, collagen disorganization and cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions. Remarkably, these abnormal skin defects, uniquely seen in the ALS-derived skins, were detected in pre-symtomatic C9orf72-linked ALS patients carrying the GGGGCC DNA repeat expansion. Consequently, our ALS skin model could represent a renewable source of human tissue, quickly and easily accessible to better understand the physiophatological mechanisms underlying this disease, to facilitate the identification of disease-specific biomarkers, and to develop innovative tools for early diagnosis and disease monitoring. PMID:25637145

  4. Expression of mutant TDP-43 induces neuronal dysfunction in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Dennis W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Researchers have identified 44 mutations in the TARDBP gene that encode TDP-43 as causative for cases of sporadic and familial ALS http://www.molgen.ua.ac.be/FTDMutations/. Certain mutant forms of TDP-43, such as M337V, are associated with increased low molecular weight (LMW fragments compared to wild-type (WT TDP-43 and cause neuronal apoptosis and developmental delay in chick embryos. Such findings support a direct link between altered TDP-43 function and neurodegeneration. Results To explore the pathogenic properties of the M337V mutation, we generated and characterized two mouse lines expressing human TDP-43 (hTDP-43M337V carrying this mutation. hTDP-43M337V was expressed primarily in the nuclei of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and intranuclear and cytoplasmic phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates were frequently detected. The levels of TDP-43 LMW products of ~25 kDa and ~35 kDa species were also increased in the transgenic mice. Moreover, overexpression of hTDP-43M337V dramatically down regulated the levels of mouse TDP-43 (mTDP-43 protein and RNA, indicating TDP-43 levels are tightly controlled in mammalian systems. TDP-43M337V mice displayed reactive gliosis, widespread ubiquitination, chromatolysis, gait abnormalities, and early lethality. Abnormal cytoplasmic mitochondrial aggregates and abnormal phosphorylated tau were also detected in the mice. Conclusion Our novel TDP-43M337V mouse model indicates that overexpression of hTDP-43M337V alone is toxic in vivo. Because overexpression of hTDP-43 in wild-type TDP-43 and TDP-43M337V mouse models produces similar phenotypes, the mechanisms causing pathogenesis in the mutant model remain unknown. However, our results suggest that overexpression of the hTDP-43M337V can cause neuronal dysfunction due to its effect on a number of cell organelles and proteins, such as mitochondria and TDP-43, that are critical for neuronal activity. The mutant model will serve as a valuable tool in the development of future studies designed to uncover pathways associated with TDP-43 neurotoxicity and the precise roles TDP-43 RNA targets play in neurodegeneration.

  5. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival

  6. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  7. Significance and limitation of the pathological classification of TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tetsuaki

    2014-12-01

    Based on the cerebral tans-activation response DNA protein 43 (TDP-43) immunohistochemistry, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP) is classified into four subtypes: type A has numerous neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and dystrophic neurites (DNs); type B has numerous NCIs with few DNs; type C is characterized by DNs which are often longer and thicker than DNs in type A, with few NCIs; and type D has numerous neuronal intranuclear inclusions and DNs with few NCIs. The relevance of this classification system is supported by clinical, biochemical and genetic correlations, although there is still significant heterogeneity, especially in cases with type A pathology. The subtypes of TDP-43 pathology should be determined in cases with other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, to evaluate the pathological significance of TDP-43 abnormality in them. The results of the biochemical analyses of the diseased brains and the cellular models suggest that different strains of TDP-43 with different conformations may determine the clinicopathological phenotypes of TDP-43 proteinopathy, like prion disease. Clarifying the mechanism of the conformational changes of TDP-43 leading to the formation of multiple abnormal strains may be important for differential diagnosis and developing disease-modifying therapy for TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:25196969

  8. [FTLD/ALS as TDP-43 proteinopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tomohiko; Ariizumi, Yuko; Shiga, Atsushi; Yokoseki, Akio; Sato, Tatsuya; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Onodera, Osamu

    2010-11-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often coexist in the same patients: FTLD/MND. However, it is unclear whether FTLD/MND can be distinguished from ALS or FTLD. TAR DNA binding protein 43 KDa (TDP-43) has been identified as the major component of the ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies in ALS, FTLD, and FTLD/MND. On the basis of this finding, a new concept of neurodegenerative disorders, namely TDP-43 proteinopathy, has been proposed for these disorders. In ALS, more than 30 mutations of the TDP-43 gene have been identified. The clinical features and neuropathological findings of ALS with TDP-43 mutation are identical to those of sporadic ALS. Therefore, TDP-43 plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of ALS. In contrast, only few patients with FTLD phenotype have TDP-43 mutations. Therefore, we have speculated that TDP-43 does not play a primary role in the pathogenesis of FTLD. The analysis of distribution of TDP-43 inclusion bodies in ALS patients revealed that ALS has two subtypes: (1) limited in the motor neuron system and (2) extended into the frontotemporal lobe. Additionally, causative genes of familial FTLD/MND have not been mapped to TDP-43. These results suggest that FTLD/MND is a disease distinct from FTLD and ALS. PMID:21921552

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction in human TDP-43 transfected NSC34 cell lines and the protective effect of dimethoxy curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinsheng; Duan, Weisong; Guo, Yansu; Jiang, Hong; Li, Zhongyao; Huang, Jing; Hong, Kun; Li, Chunyan

    2012-12-01

    TAR-DNA-binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) was recently found to be one of the major disease proteins in the pathological inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The effect of TDP-43 on mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. Here, we show that human TDP-43 caused mitochondrial morphologic abnormality, decrease of mitochondrial complex I activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and increased expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in human TDP-43 stably transfected NSC-34 cells by using flow cytometric analysis, spectrophotometric assays, electron microscopy and Western blotting. We also show that dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) could ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction in mutated TDP-43 stably transfected cell lines. DMC could be potentially useful for neurodegenerative diseases linked with mutated TDP-43. PMID:22986236

  10. Expression of mutant TDP-43 induces neuronal dysfunction in transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson Dennis W; Stetler Caroline; Cao Xiangkun; Lin Wen-Lang; Zhang Yong-Jie; Xu Ya-Fei; Lewis Jada; Petrucelli Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Researchers have identified 44 mutations in the TARDBP gene that encode TDP-43 as causative for cases of sporadic and familial ALS http://www.molgen.ua.ac.be/FTDMutations/. Cert...

  11. Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with pallido-nigro-luysian degeneration: a TDP-43 immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Yasuo; Mori, Fumiaki; Nunomura, Jinichi; Ookawa, Keizou; Yajima, Nobuhisa; Yagihashi, Soroku; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2010-04-01

    Recently, Nishihira et al. demonstrated the presence of two types of TDP-43 pathology in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (Acta Neuropathol 2008; 116: 169-182). Type 1 represents the TDP-43 distribution pattern observed in classic ALS, whereas type 2 shows the presence of TDP-43 inclusions in the frontotemporal cortex, hippocampal formation, neostriatum and substantia nigra and is significantly associated with dementia. However, ALS with pallido-nigro-luysian degeneration (PNLD) is very rare. We recently encountered a case of ALS with PNLD of 9 years duration, in which the patient received artificial respiratory support for 6 years. In our case, neuronal loss and TDP-43-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions were found in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus. Neither neuronal loss nor TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions were found in the frontotemporal cortex and hippocampus. These findings suggest that the pallido-nigro-luysian system is also involved in the disease process of ALS and that ALS with PNLD is different from ALS with dementia based on the distribution pattern of neuronal loss and TDP-43 accumulation. PMID:19703266

  12. LAMINAR DISTRIBUTION OF THE PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN SPORADIC FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION WITH TDP-43 PROTEINOPATHY: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY USING POLYNOMIAL CURVE FITTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Mackenzie, Ian R. A.; Hedreen, John; Cairns, Nigel J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Previous data suggest heterogeneity in laminar distribution of the pathology in the molecular disorder frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). To study this heterogeneity, we quantified the changes in density across the cortical laminae of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), glial inclusions (GI), neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII), dystrophic neurites (DN), surviving neurons, abnormally enlarged neurons (EN), and vacuoles in regions of the frontal and temporal lobe. Methods Changes in density of histological features across cortical gyri were studied in ten sporadic cases of FTLD-TDP using quantitative methods and polynomial curve-fitting. Results Our data suggest that laminar neuropathology in sporadic FTLD-TDP is highly variable. Most commonly, NCI, DN, and vacuolation were abundant in the upper laminae and GI, NII, EN, and glial cell nuclei in the lower laminae. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions affected more of the cortical profile in longer duration cases, their distribution varied with disease subtype, but was unrelated to Braak tangle score. Different TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions were not spatially correlated. Conclusions Laminar distribution of pathological features in ten sporadic cases of FTLD-TDL is heterogeneous and may be accounted for, in part, by disease subtype and disease duration. In addition, the feed-forward and feed-back cortico-cortical connections may be compromised in FTLD-TDP. PMID:22804696

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction and decrease in body weight of a transgenic knock-in mouse model for TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribl, Carola; Samara, Aladin; Trümbach, Dietrich; Peis, Regina; Neumann, Manuela; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Rathkolb, Birgit; Wolf, Eckhard; Beckers, Johannes; Horsch, Marion; Neff, Frauke; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Koob, Sebastian; Reichert, Andreas S; Hans, Wolfgang; Rozman, Jan; Klingenspor, Martin; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Glasl, Lisa; Hölter, Sabine M; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas

    2014-04-11

    The majority of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases as well as many patients suffering from frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusion bodies show TDP-43 pathology, the protein encoded by the TAR DNA-binding protein (Tardbp) gene. We used recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to introduce an ALS patient cDNA into the mouse Tdp-43 locus. Expression levels of human A315T TDP-43 protein were 300% elevated in heterozygotes, whereas the endogenous mouse Tdp-43 was decreased to 20% of wild type levels as a result of disturbed feedback regulation. Heterozygous TDP-43(A315TKi) mutants lost 10% of their body weight and developed insoluble TDP-43 protein starting as early as 3 months after birth, a pathology that was exacerbated with age. We analyzed the splicing patterns of known Tdp-43 target genes as well as genome-wide gene expression levels in different tissues that indicated mitochondrial dysfunction. In heterozygous mutant animals, we observed a relative decrease in expression of Parkin (Park2) and the fatty acid transporter CD36 along with an increase in fatty acids, HDL cholesterol, and glucose in the blood. As seen in transmission electron microscopy, neuronal cells in motor cortices of TDP-43(A315TKi) animals had abnormal neuronal mitochondrial cristae formation. Motor neurons were reduced to 90%, but only slight motoric impairment was detected. The observed phenotype was interpreted as a predisease model, which might be valuable for the identification of further environmental or genetic triggers of neurodegeneration. PMID:24515116

  14. Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of long duration is associated with relatively mild TDP-43 pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihira, Yasushi; Tan, Chun-Feng; Hoshi, Yasuhiro; Iwanaga, Keisuke; Yamada, Megumi; Kawachi, Izumi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Hozumi, Isao; Morita, Takashi; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS), a fatal neurological disease, has been shown to be a multisystem proteinopathy of TDP-43 in which both neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system are widely affected. In general, the natural history of SALS is short (<5 years). However, it is also known that a few patients may survive for 10 years or more, even without artificial respiratory support (ARS). In the present study using TDP-43 immunohistochemistry, we examined various regions of the nervous system in six patients with SALS of long duration (10-20 years) without ARS, in whom lower motor-predominant disease with Bunina bodies and ubiquitinated inclusions (UIs) in the affected lower motor neurons was confirmed. One case also showed UIs in the hippocampal dentate granule cells (UDG). In all cases, except one with UDG, the occurrence of TDP-43-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) was confined to a few regions in the spinal cord and brainstem, including the anterior horns. In one case with UDG, TDP-43-ir NCIs were also detected in the substantia nigra, and some regions of the cerebrum, including the hippocampal dentate gyrus (granule cells). The number of neurons displaying NCIs in each region was very small (1-3 per region, except the dentate gyrus). On the other hand, the occurrence of TDP-43-ir glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) was more widespread in the central nervous system, including the cerebral white matter. Again, however, the number of glial cells displaying GCIs in each region was very small (1-3 per region). In conclusion, compared to the usual form of SALS, TDP-43 pathology shown in SALS of long duration was apparently mild in degree and limited in distribution, corresponding to the relatively benign clinical courses observed. It is now apparent that SALS of long duration is actually part of a TDP-43 proteinopathy spectrum. PMID:18923836

  15. Zinc induces depletion and aggregation of endogenous TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragounis, Aphrodite; Price, Katherine Ann; Soon, Cynthia P W; Filiz, Gulay; Masters, Colin L; Li, Qiao-Xin; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2010-05-01

    Ubiquitinated neuronal aggregates containing TDP-43 are pathological hallmarks in the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In affected neurons, TDP-43 undergoes C-terminal fragmentation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination and forms aggregates in the cytoplasm or nucleus. Although in vitro studies have been able to recapitulate these features using transfected cell culture models, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms that underlie pathological changes to endogenous TDP-43. As altered metal ion homeostasis and increased oxidative stress are central features of neurodegeneration, including FTLD and ALS, we sought to determine the affects of these factors on endogenous TDP-43 metabolism in mammalian cells. Treatment of SY5Y neuronal-like cells expressing endogenous TDP-43 with zinc (Zn) induced depletion of TDP-43 expression and formation of inclusions that were TDP-43 positive. TDP-43 was also detected in the cytosol of Zn-affected cells but this was not aggregated. No evidence of C-terminal fragmentation, phosphorylation, or ubiquitination was observed. The depletion and aggregation of TDP-43 were associated with the specific action of Zn but were not seen with copper, iron, or H(2)O(2). These studies describe for the first time specific induction of endogenous TDP-43 aggregation in neuronal-like cells and suggest that specific Zn-associated processes could affect TDP-43 metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20138212

  16. TDP-43 is a component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubiquitin-positive tau-negative neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites are common pathological features in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with or without symptoms of motor neuron disease and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, we have identified a TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a nuclear factor that functions in regulating transcription and alternative splicing, as a component of these structures in FTLD. Furthermore, skein-like inclusions, neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and glial inclusions in the spinal cord of ALS patients are also positive for TDP-43. Dephosphorylation treatment of the sarkosyl insoluble fraction has shown that abnormal phosphorylation takes place in accumulated TDP-43. The common occurrence of intracellular accumulations of TDP-43 supports the hypothesis that these disorders represent a clinicopathological entity of a single disease, and suggests that they can be newly classified as a proteinopathy of TDP-43

  17. Does a loss of TDP-43 function cause neurodegeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zuo-Shang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 was discovered to be in the intracellular aggregates in the degenerating cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, two fatal neurodegenerative diseases [1,2]. ALS causes motor neuron degeneration leading to paralysis [3,4]. FTLD causes neuronal degeneration in the frontal and temporal cortices leading to personality changes and a loss of executive function [5]. The discovery triggered a flurry of research activity that led to the discovery of TDP-43 mutations in ALS patients and the widespread presence of TDP-43 aggregates in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. A key question regarding the role of TDP-43 is whether it causes neurotoxicity by a gain of function or a loss of function. The gain-of-function hypothesis has received much attention primarily based on the striking neurodegenerative phenotypes in numerous TDP-43-overexpression models. In this review, I will draw attention to the loss-of-function hypothesis, which postulates that mutant TDP-43 causes neurodegeneration by a loss of function, and in addition, by exerting a dominant-negative effect on the wild-type TDP-43 allele. Furthermore, I will discuss how a loss of function can cause neurodegeneration in patients where TDP-43 is not mutated, review the literature in model systems to discuss how the current data support the loss-of-function mechanism and highlight some key questions for testing this hypothesis in the future.

  18. Clinicopathological study of diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification. With special reference to TDP-43 proteinopathy and alpha-synucleinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habuchi, Chikako; Iritani, Shuji; Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Torii, Youta; Ishihara, Ryoko; Arai, Tetsuaki; Hasegawa, Masato; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Shibayama, Hiroto; Ozaki, Norio

    2011-02-15

    Diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC) is a relatively rare presenile dementia that clinically shows overlapping symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). DNTC is pathologically characterized by localized temporal or frontotemporal atrophy with massive neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads and Fahr's-type calcification without senile plaques. We tried to clarify the molecular basis of DNTC by immunohistochemically examining the appearance and distribution of accumulated alpha-synuclein (aSyn) and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) in the brains of 10 Japanese autopsy cases. We also investigated the clinically characteristic symptoms from the clinical charts and previous reports, and the correlations with neuropathological findings. The characteristic symptoms were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). As a result, we confirmed the high frequency of neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of aSyn (80%) and phosphorylated TDP-43 (90%) in DNTC cases. There was a significant correlation between some selected items of NPI-Q scores and the severity of the limbic TDP-43 pathology. The pathology of DNTC included TDP-43 and aSyn pathology with high frequency. These abnormal accumulations of TDP-43 might be involved in the pathological process of DNTC, having a close relationship to the FTLD-like psychiatric symptoms during the clinical course. PMID:21106208

  19. ALS-associated mutations in TDP-43 increase its stability and promote TDP-43 complexes with FUS/TLS

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Shuo-chien; Albuquerque, Claudio P.; Han, Joo Seok; Lagier-tourenne, Clotilde; Tokunaga, Seiya; Zhou, Huilin; Cleveland, Don W.

    2010-01-01

    Dominant mutations in two functionally related DNA/RNA-binding proteins, trans-activating response region (TAR) DNA-binding protein with a molecular mass of 43 KDa (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma/translocation in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS), cause an inherited form of ALS that is accompanied by nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates containing TDP-43 or FUS/TLS. Using isogenic cell lines expressing wild-type or ALS-linked TDP-43 mutants and fibroblasts from a human patient, pulse-chase radiolabeling of n...

  20. Phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibody detects intraneuronal dot-like structures showing morphological characters of granulovacuolar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, Ai; Yamazaki, Tsuneo; Kakuda, Satoko; Makioka, Kouki; Lemere, Cynthia A; Fujita, Yukio; Takatama, Masamitsu; Okamoto, Koichi

    2009-09-29

    TAR-DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was considered to be a disease-specific component of ubiquitin-positive and tau-negative inclusions in the brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, this protein also accumulates abnormally in neurons in other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the role of TDP-43 deposition in these diseases is not clear, abnormal phosphorylation of the protein is suggested to be a critical step in disease pathogenesis. In this study, we generated a new phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibody and examined AD brain sections from temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and temporal neocortex, by immunohistochemistry. The antibody, called A2, specifically recognized phosphorylated TDP-43 in western blotting using ALS and AD specimens, detecting a strong 45kDa band and several shorter fragments at around 25kDa with smears. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in AD brain sections without staining nuclei that were normal physiological TDP-43 localization sites. These results were consistent with previous reports. However, intraneuronal dot-like structures were also intensely labeled by immunohistochemistry. These structures were observed in all the AD brain sections examined and also occurred in sections from the brains of aged subjects without AD pathologies. The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of these granular structures were compatible with those of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD). The A2 antibody clearly and intensely detected granular structures distributed over the hippocampus, subiculum, parahippocampus and temporal neocortex. Thus, immunohistochemistry using phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibodies would be a new useful tool for identifying GVD. PMID:19539703

  1. Characterizing TDP-43 interaction with its RNA targets

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Amit; Myers, Michael P.; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important functional features of nuclear factor TDP-43 is its ability to bind UG-repeats with high efficiency. Several cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and RNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (RIP-seq) analyses have indicated that TDP-43 in vivo can also specifically bind loosely conserved UG/GU-rich repeats interspersed by other nucleotides. These sequences are predominantly localized within long introns and in the 3?UTR of various genes. Most importantly, some o...

  2. ALS-Associated TDP-43 Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Which Drives Cytoplasmic TDP-43 Accumulation and Stress Granule Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Adam K.; Soo, Kai Y.; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Parakh, Sonam; Ma, Yi; Farg, Manal A.; Wallace, Robyn H.; Crouch, Peter J.; Turner, Bradley J.; Horne, Malcolm K.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2013-01-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) accumulates in the cytoplasm of affected neurons and glia, where it associates with stress granules (SGs) and forms large inclusions. SGs form in response to cellular stress, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is induced in both familial and sporadic forms of ALS. Here we demonstrate that pharmacological induction of ER stress causes TDP-43 to accumulate in the cyt...

  3. Accumulation of TDP-43 and alpha-actin in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient with the K17I ANG mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilhean, Danielle; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Thuriès, Valérie; Russaouen, Odile; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Salachas, François; Meininger, Vincent; Leguern, Eric; Duyckaerts, Charles

    2009-10-01

    A K17I mutation in the ANG gene encoding angiogenin has been identified in a case that we previously published as ALS with neuronal intranuclear protein inclusions (Seilhean et al. in Acta Neuropathol 108:81-87, 2004). These inclusions were immunoreactive for smooth muscle alpha-actin but not for angiogenin. Moreover, they were not labeled by anti-TDP-43 antibodies, while numerous cytoplasmic inclusions immunoreactive for ubiquitin, p62 and TDP-43 were detected in both oligodendrocytes and neurons in various regions of the central nervous system. In addition, expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin was increased in the liver where severe steatosis was observed. This is the first neuropathological description of a case with an ANG mutation. Angiogenin is known to interact with actin. Like other proteins involved in ALS pathogenesis, such as senataxin, TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, it plays a role in RNA maturation. PMID:19449021

  4. Metabolism and mis-metabolism of the neuropathological signature protein TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chen; Bose, Jayarama Krishnan; Majumder, Pritha; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Huang, Jen-Tse Joseph; Huang, Jeffrey K; Shen, Che-Kun James

    2014-07-15

    TDP-43 (also known as TARDBP) is a pathological signature protein of neurodegenerative diseases, with TDP-43 proteinopathies including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-TDP and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-TDP. These TDP-43 proteinopathies are characterized by cytoplasmic insoluble TDP-43-positive aggregates in the diseased cells, the formation of which requires the seeding of TDP-25 fragment generated by caspase cleavage of TDP-43. We have investigated the metabolism and mis-metabolism of TDP-43 in cultured cells and found that endogenous and exogenously overexpressed TDP-43 is degraded not only by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and macroautophagy, but also by the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) mediated through an interaction between Hsc70 (also known as HSPA8) and ubiquitylated TDP-43. Furthermore, proteolytic cleavage of TDP-43 by caspase(s) is a necessary intermediate step for degradation of the majority of the TDP-43 protein, with the TDP-25 and TDP-35 fragments being the main substrates. Finally, we have determined the threshold level of the TDP-25 fragment that is necessary for formation of the cytosolic TDP-43-positive aggregates in cells containing the full-length TDP-43 at an elevated level close to that found in patients with TDP-43 proteinopathies. A comprehensive model of the metabolism and mis-metabolism of TDP-43 in relation to these findings is presented. PMID:24860144

  5. TDP-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of TDP-43, limits the accumulation of double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldi, Tassa K; Ash, Peter Ea; Wilson, Gavin; Gonzales, Patrick; Garrido-Lecca, Alfonso; Roberts, Christine M; Dostal, Vishantie; Gendron, Tania F; Stein, Lincoln D; Blumenthal, Thomas; Petrucelli, Leonard; Link, Christopher D

    2014-12-17

    Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deleted for TDP-1, an ortholog of the neurodegeneration-associated RNA-binding protein TDP-43, display only mild phenotypes. Nevertheless, transcriptome sequencing revealed that many RNAs were altered in accumulation and/or processing in the mutant. Analysis of these transcriptional abnormalities demonstrates that a primary function of TDP-1 is to limit formation or stability of double-stranded RNA. Specifically, we found that deletion of tdp-1: (1) preferentially alters the accumulation of RNAs with inherent double-stranded structure (dsRNA); (2) increases the accumulation of nuclear dsRNA foci; (3) enhances the frequency of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing; and (4) dramatically increases the amount of transcripts immunoprecipitable with a dsRNA-specific antibody, including intronic sequences, RNAs with antisense overlap to another transcript, and transposons. We also show that TDP-43 knockdown in human cells results in accumulation of dsRNA, indicating that suppression of dsRNA is a conserved function of TDP-43 in mammals. Altered accumulation of structured RNA may account for some of the previously described molecular phenotypes (e.g., altered splicing) resulting from reduction of TDP-43 function. PMID:25391662

  6. Mutant TDP-43 and FUS Cause Age-Dependent Paralysis and Neurodegeneration in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Tauffenberger, Arnaud; Aggad, Dina; Rouleau, Guy; Drapeau, Pierre; Parker, J. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the DNA/RNA binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. Intracellular accumulations of wild type TDP-43 and FUS are observed in a growing number of late-onset diseases suggesting that TDP-43 and FUS proteinopathies may contribute to multiple neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand the mechanisms of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity we have created transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains that express ful...

  7. Prion-like mechanisms of TDP-43 in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethurst, Phillip; Sidle, Katie C L; Hardy, John

    2014-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal devastating neurodegenerative disorder which predominantly affects the motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The death of the motor neurons in ALS causes subsequent muscle atrophy, paralysis and eventual death. Clinical and biological evidence now demonstrates that ALS has many similarities to prion disease in terms of disease onset, phenotype variability and progressive spread. The pathognomonic ubiquitinated inclusions deposited in the neurons and glial cells in brains and spinal cords of patients with ALS and FTLD-U contain aggregated TDP-43 protein, and evidence now suggests that TDP-43 has cellular prion-like properties. The cellular mechanisms of prion protein misfolding and aggregation are thought to be responsible for the characteristics of prion disease. Therefore, there is a strong mechanistic basis for a prion-like behaviour of the TDP-43 protein being responsible for some characteristics of ALS. In this review, we compare the prion-like mechanisms of TDP-43 to the clinical and biological nature of ALS in order to investigate how this protein could be responsible for some of the characteristic properties of the disease. PMID:25487060

  8. UBE2E ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and ubiquitin isopeptidase Y regulate TDP-43 protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Friederike; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Strong, Jennifer C; Jäckel, Sandra; Rasse, Tobias M; Geisler, Sven; Springer, Wolfdieter; Schulz, Jörg B; Voigt, Aaron; Kahle, Philipp J

    2014-07-01

    Trans-activation element DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) characterizes insoluble protein aggregates in distinct subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. TDP-43 mediates many RNA processing steps within distinct protein complexes. Here we identify novel TDP-43 protein interactors found in a yeast two-hybrid screen using an adult human brain cDNA library. We confirmed the TDP-43 interaction of seven hits by co-immunoprecipitation and assessed their co-localization in HEK293E cells. As pathological TDP-43 is ubiquitinated, we focused on the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2E3 and the ubiquitin isopeptidase Y (UBPY). When cells were treated with proteasome inhibitor, ubiquitinated and insoluble TDP-43 species accumulated. All three UBE2E family members could enhance the ubiquitination of TDP-43, whereas catalytically inactive UBE2E3(C145S) was much less efficient. Conversely, silencing of UBE2E3 reduced TDP-43 ubiquitination. We examined 15 of the 48 known disease-associated TDP-43 mutants and found that one was excessively ubiquitinated. This strong TDP-43(K263E) ubiquitination was further enhanced by proteasomal inhibition as well as UBE2E3 expression. Conversely, UBE2E3 silencing and expression of UBPY reduced TDP-43(K263E) ubiquitination. Moreover, wild-type but not active site mutant UBPY reduced ubiquitination of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments and of a nuclear import-impaired mutant. In Drosophila melanogaster, UBPY silencing enhanced neurodegenerative TDP-43 phenotypes and the accumulation of insoluble high molecular weight TDP-43 and ubiquitin species. Thus, UBE2E3 and UBPY participate in the regulation of TDP-43 ubiquitination, solubility, and neurodegeneration. PMID:24825905

  9. Sustained Expression of TDP-43 and FUS in Motor Neurons in Rodent's Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Huang, Pedro Yuxing Xia, Hongxia Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43 and fused in sarcoma (FUS are two highly conserved ribonucleoproteins. Pathogenic mutations of the TDP-43 or the FUS gene are all linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS that is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. To better understand the correlation of ALS disease genes with the selectivity of chronic motor neuron degeneration, we examined the longitudinal expression of the TDP-43 and the FUS genes in C57BL6 mice and in Sprague-Dawley rats. TDP-43 and FUS were robustly and ubiquitously expressed in the postnatal mice and rats, but were markedly decreased in the adult rodents. In adulthood, TDP-43 and FUS proteins were even undetectable in peripheral organs including skeletal muscles, liver, and kidney, but were constantly expressed at substantial levels in the central nervous system. Motor neurons expressed the TDP-43 and the FUS genes at robust levels throughout rodent's lifetime. Moreover, TDP-43 and FUS were accumulated in the cytoplasm of motor neurons in aged animals. Our findings suggest that TDP-43 and FUS play an important role in development and that constant and robust expression of the genes in motor neurons may render the neurons vulnerable to pathogenic mutation of the TDP-43 or the FUS gene. To faithfully model the pathology of TDP-43- or FUS gene mutations in rodents, we must replicate the expression patterns of the TDP-43 and the FUS gene in animals.

  10. Frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated disease protein TDP-43 promotes dendritic branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yubing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TDP-43 is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein implicated in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD, sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. In diseased neurons, TDP-43 is depleted in the nucleus, suggesting a loss-of-function pathogenic mechanism. However, the normal function of TDP-43 in postmitotic neurons is largely unknown. Results Here we demonstrate that overexpression of Drosophila TDP-43 (dTDP-43 in vivo significantly increases dendritic branching of sensory neurons in Drosophila larvae. Loss of dTDP-43 function, either in a genetic null mutant or through RNAi knockdown, decreased dendritic branching. Further genetic analysis demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for dTDP-43 in dendrite formation. Moreover, human TDP-43 (hTDP-43 promoted dendritic branching in Drosophila neurons, and this function was attenuated by mutations associated with ALS. Conclusion These findings reveal an essential role for TDP-43 in dendritic structural integrity, supporting the notion that loss of normal TDP-43 function in diseased neurons may compromise neuronal connectivity before neuronal cell loss in FTD and ALS.

  11. An ALS-associated mutation affecting TDP-43 enhances protein aggregation, fibril formation and neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weirui; Chen, Yanbo; Zhou, Xiaohong; Kar, Amar; Ray, Payal; Chen, Xiaoping; Rao, Elizabeth J; Yang, Mengxue; Ye, Haihong; Zhu, Li; Liu, Jianghong; Xu, Meng; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Zhang, David; Bigio, Eileen H; Mesulam, Marsel; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi; Fushimi, Kazuo; Wu, Jane Y

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in TARDBP, encoding TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43), are associated with TDP-43 proteinopathies, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We compared wild-type TDP-43 and an ALS-associated mutant TDP-43 in vitro and in vivo. The A315T mutant enhances neurotoxicity and the formation of aberrant TDP-43 species, including protease-resistant fragments. The C terminus of TDP-43 shows sequence similarity to prion proteins. Synthetic peptides flanking residue 315 form amyloid fibrils in vitro and cause neuronal death in primary cultures. These data provide evidence for biochemical similarities between TDP-43 and prion proteins, raising the possibility that TDP-43 derivatives may cause spreading of the disease phenotype among neighboring neurons. Our work also suggests that decreasing the abundance of neurotoxic TDP-43 species, enhancing degradation or clearance of such TDP-43 derivatives and blocking the spread of the disease phenotype may have therapeutic potential for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:21666678

  12. Parkin-mediated reduction of nuclear and soluble TDP-43 reverses behavioral decline in symptomatic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenqiang, Chen; Lonskaya, Irina; Hebron, Michaeline L; Ibrahim, Zainab; Olszewski, Rafal T; Neale, Joseph H; Moussa, Charbel E-H

    2014-09-15

    The transactivation DNA-binding protein (TDP)-43 binds to thousands of mRNAs, but the functional outcomes of this binding remain largely unknown. TDP-43 binds to Park2 mRNA, which expresses the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin. We previously demonstrated that parkin ubiquitinates TDP-43 and facilitates its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Here we used brain penetrant tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including nilotinib and bosutinib and showed that they reduce the level of nuclear TDP-43, abrogate its effects on neuronal loss, and reverse cognitive and motor decline. Nilotinib decreased soluble and insoluble TDP-43, while bosutinib did not affect the insoluble level. Parkin knockout mice exhibited high levels of endogenous TDP-43, while nilotinib and bosutinib did not alter TDP-43, underscoring an indispensable role for parkin in TDP-43 sub-cellular localization. These data demonstrate a novel functional relationship between parkin and TDP-43 and provide evidence that TKIs are potential therapeutic candidates for TDP-43 pathologies. PMID:24847002

  13. Mimicking Aspects of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Lou Gehrig's Disease in Rats via TDP-43 Overexpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatom, Jason B; Wang, David B; Dayton, Robert D; Skalli, Omar; Hutton, Michael L; Dickson, Dennis W; Klein, Ronald L

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of neuropathological lesions made of TDP-43 and ubiquitin proteins in cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), there is a burst of effort on finding related familial mutations and developing animal models. We used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for human TDP-43 expression targeted to the substantia nigra (SN) of rats. Though TDP-43 was expressed mainly in neuronal nuclei as expected, it was also expressed in the cytoplasm, and dotted along the plasma membrane of neurons. Cytoplasmic staining was both diffuse and granular, indicative of preinclusion lesions, over 4 weeks. Ubiquitin deposited in the cytoplasm, specifically in the TDP-43 group, and staining for microglia was increased dose-dependently by 1–2 logs in the TDP-43 group, while neurons were selectively obliterated. Neuronal death induced by TDP-43 was pyknotic and apoptotic. TDP-43 gene transfer caused loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN and their axons in the striatum. Behavioral motor dysfunction resulted after TDP-43 gene transfer that was vector dose-dependent and progressive over time. The cytoplasmic expression, ubiquitination, and neurodegeneration mimicked features of the TDP-43 diseases, and the gliosis, apoptosis, and motor impairment may also be relevant to TDP-43 disease forms involving nigrostriatal degeneration. PMID:19223871

  14. Sustained Expression of TDP-43 and FUS in Motor Neurons in Rodent's Lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Cao Huang, Pedro Yuxing Xia

    2010-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) are two highly conserved ribonucleoproteins. Pathogenic mutations of the TDP-43 or the FUS gene are all linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. To better understand the correlation of ALS disease genes with the selectivity of chronic motor neuron degeneration, we examined the longitudinal expression of the TDP-43 and the FUS genes in C57BL6 mice and in Sprague-...

  15. Mimicking Aspects of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Lou Gehrig's Disease in Rats via TDP-43 Overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Tatom, Jason B.; Wang, David B.; Dayton, Robert D.; Skalli, Omar; Hutton, Michael L.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of neuropathological lesions made of TDP-43 and ubiquitin proteins in cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), there is a burst of effort on finding related familial mutations and developing animal models. We used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for human TDP-43 expression targeted to the substantia nigra (SN) of rats. Though TDP-43 was expressed mainly in neuronal nuclei as expected, it was also expressed in the cyt...

  16. The molecular link between inefficient GluA2 Q/R site-RNA editing and TDP-43 pathology in motor neurons of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takenari; Kwak, Shin

    2014-10-10

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) pathology and reduced expression of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2), which is the RNA editing enzyme responsible for adenosine-to-inosine conversion at the GluA2 glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site, concomitantly occur in the same motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients; this finding suggests a link between these two ALS-specific molecular abnormalities. AMPA receptors containing Q/R site-unedited GluA2 in their subunit assembly are Ca(2+)-permeable, and motor neurons lacking ADAR2 undergo slow death in conditional ADAR2 knockout (AR2) mice, which is a mechanistic ALS model in which the ADAR2 gene is targeted in cholinergic neurons. Moreover, deficient ADAR2 induced mislocalization of TDP-43 similar to TDP-43 pathology seen in the sporadic ALS patients in the motor neurons of AR2 mice. The abnormal mislocalization of TDP-43 specifically resulted from activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent serine protease calpain that specifically cleaved TDP-43 at the C-terminal region, and generated aggregation-prone N-terminal fragments. Notably, the N-terminal fragments of TDP-43 lacking the C-terminus were demonstrated in the brains and spinal cords of ALS patients. Because normalization of either the Ca(2+)-permeability of AMPA receptors or the calpain activity in the motor neurons normalized the subcellular localization of TDP-43 in AR2 mice, it is likely that exaggerated calpain-dependent TDP-43 fragments played a role at least in the initiation of TDP-43 pathology. Elucidation of the molecular cascade of neuronal death induced by ADAR2 downregulation could provide a new specific therapy for sporadic ALS. In this review, we summarized the work from our group on the role of inefficient GluA2 Q/R site-RNA editing and TDP-43 pathology in sporadic ALS, and discussed possible effects of inefficient ADAR2-mediated RNA editing in general. PMID:24355598

  17. The N-terminus of TDP-43 promotes its oligomerization and enhances DNA binding affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The N-terminus of TDP-43 contains an independently folded structural domain (NTD). ? The structural domains of TDP-43 are arranged in a beads-on-a-string fashion. ? The NTD promotes TDP-43 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. ? The NTD may assist nucleic acid-binding activity of TDP-43. -- Abstract: TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with different neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Here, the structural and physical properties of the N-terminus on TDP-43 have been carefully characterized through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence anisotropy studies. We demonstrate for the first time the importance of the N-terminus in promoting TDP-43 oligomerization and enhancing its DNA-binding affinity. An unidentified structural domain in the N-terminus is also disclosed. Our findings provide insights into the N-terminal domain function of TDP-43.

  18. The N-terminus of TDP-43 promotes its oligomerization and enhances DNA binding affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chung-ke [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tzong-Huah [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chemical Biology and Molecular Biophysics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Biochemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chu-Ya [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Ming-hui; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Ku-Feng [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yu-heng [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tai-huang, E-mail: bmthh@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse, E-mail: jthuang@chem.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N-terminus of TDP-43 contains an independently folded structural domain (NTD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural domains of TDP-43 are arranged in a beads-on-a-string fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD promotes TDP-43 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD may assist nucleic acid-binding activity of TDP-43. -- Abstract: TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with different neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Here, the structural and physical properties of the N-terminus on TDP-43 have been carefully characterized through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence anisotropy studies. We demonstrate for the first time the importance of the N-terminus in promoting TDP-43 oligomerization and enhancing its DNA-binding affinity. An unidentified structural domain in the N-terminus is also disclosed. Our findings provide insights into the N-terminal domain function of TDP-43.

  19. TDP-43 Is Intrinsically Aggregation-prone, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutations Accelerate Aggregation and Increase Toxicity*

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian S.; Snead, David; Lee, Jonathan J.; Mccaffery, J. Michael; Shorter, James; Gitler, Aaron D.

    2009-01-01

    Non-amyloid, ubiquitinated cytoplasmic inclusions containing TDP-43 and its C-terminal fragments are pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal motor neuron disorder, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Importantly, TDP-43 mutations are linked to sporadic and non-SOD1 familial ALS. However, TDP-43 is not the only protein in disease-associated inclusions, and whether TDP-43 misfolds or is merely sequestered by other agg...

  20. Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Widespread multisystem degeneration with TDP-43 pathology in a patient after long-term survival on a respirator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihira, Yasushi; Tan, Chun-Feng; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Yonemochi, Yosuke; Kondo, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Takashi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    It has been reported that widespread multisystem degeneration can occur in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) who have survived for long periods with artificial respiratory support (ARS). We report a case of SALS of 8 years and 8 months duration in a 71-year-old woman, who received ARS for 7 years and 8 months. In this patient, the symptoms at the early stage were those of typical ALS, and a totally locked-in state with frontal lobe atrophy appeared a few years after the start of ARS. At autopsy, marked atrophy of the frontal lobe and brainstem tegmentum was evident. Microscopically, widespread multisystem degeneration with obvious neuronal loss was a feature. Bunina bodies and ubiquitinated inclusions were observed in the remaining lower motor neurons. Of interest was that Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions (LBHIs), which were later shown to be immunnoreactive (ir) for 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and ubiquitin, were also detected in neurons in various regions of the nervous system, including the lower and upper motor neuron nuclei. The distributions of neurons with TDP-43-ir and ubiquitin-ir cytoplasmic inclusions were also widespread in the nervous system, and in each region, the numbers of these neurons were apparently larger than those of neurons with LBHIs. Importantly, double-labeling immunofluorescence revealed that the widespread TDP-43-ir inclusions were often ubiqutinated. In conclusion, the entire pathological picture appeared to correspond well to the patient's long-standing, progressive disease, including the TDP-43 pathology with ubiquitination. These findings further strengthen the idea that TDP-43 abnormality is closely associated with the pathogenesis of SALS. PMID:19170893

  1. Dual vulnerability of TDP-43 to calpain and caspase-3 proteolysis after neurotoxic conditions and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Lin, Fan; Robertson, Claudia S; Wang, Kevin K W

    2014-09-01

    Transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy has recently been reported in chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a neurodegenerative condition linked to prior history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While TDP-43 appears to be vulnerable to proteolytic modifications under neurodegenerative conditions, the mechanism underlying the contribution of TDP-43 to the pathogenesis of TBI remains unknown. In this study, we first mapped out the calpain or caspase-3 TDP-43 fragmentation patterns by in vitro protease digestion. Concurrently, in cultured cerebrocortical neurons subjected to cell death challenges, we identified distinct TDP-43 breakdown products (BDPs) of 35, 33, and 12?kDa that were indicative of dual calpain/caspase attack. Cerebrocortical culture incubated with calpain and caspase-fragmented TDP-43 resulted in neuronal injury. Furthermore, increased TDP-43 BDPs as well as redistributed TDP-43 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm were observed in the mouse cortex in two TBI models: controlled cortical impact injury and overpressure blast-wave-induced brain injury. Finally, TDP-43 and its 35?kDa fragment levels were also elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of severe TBI patients. This is the first evidence that TDP-43 might be involved in acute neuroinjury and TBI pathology, and that TDP-43 and its fragments may have biomarker utilities in TBI patients. PMID:24917042

  2. Phosphorylation of hnRNP K by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 controls cytosolic accumulation of TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L; Yang, Shu; Zhang, Katharine; Duncan, Clare; Moujalled, Donia M; Parker, Sarah J; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Lidgerwood, Grace; Turner, Bradley J; Atkin, Julie D; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Proepper, Christian; Boeckers, Tobias M; Kanninen, Katja M; Blair, Ian; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2015-03-15

    Cytosolic accumulation of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major neuropathological feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, the mechanisms involved in TDP-43 accumulation remain largely unknown. Previously, we reported that inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) prevented cytosolic stress granule accumulation of TDP-43, correlating with depletion of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K from stress granules. In the present study, we further investigated the relationship between TDP-43 and hnRNP K and their control by CDKs. Inhibition of CDK2 abrogated the accumulation of TDP-43 into stress granules. Phosphorylated CDK2 co-localized with accumulated TDP-43 and phosphorylated hnRNP K in stress granules. Inhibition of CDK2 phosphorylation blocked phosphorylation of hnRNP K, preventing its incorporation into stress granules. Due to interaction between hnRNP K with TDP-43, the loss of hnRNP K from stress granules prevented accumulation of TDP-43. Mutation of Ser216 and Ser284 phosphorylation sites on hnRNP K inhibited hnRNP K- and TDP-43-positive stress granule formation in transfected cells. The interaction between hnRNP K and TDP-43 was further confirmed by the loss of TDP-43 accumulation following siRNA-mediated inhibition of hnRNP K expression. A substantial decrease of CDK2 and hnRNP K expression in spinal cord motor neurons in ALS patients demonstrates a potential key role for these proteins in ALS and TDP-43 accumulation, indicating that further investigation of the association between hnRNP K and TDP-43 is warranted. Understanding how kinase activity modulates TDP-43 accumulation may provide new pharmacological targets for disease intervention. PMID:25410660

  3. Positive Florbetapir PET Amyloid Imaging in a Subject with Frequent Cortical Neuritic Plaques and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with TDP43-Positive Inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Geidy E.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Sue, Lucia I.; Hidalgo, Jose A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bedell, Barry J.; Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Suh, Eunran; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Mintun, Mark A.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal accumulation and modification of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) have recently been discovered to be defining histopathological features of particular subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and are also common in aging, particularly coexisting with hippocampal sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This case report describes a 72 year old Hispanic male with no family history of neurological disease, who presented at ...

  4. TDP-43 pathology and neuronal loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Johannes; Arai, Kimihito; Del Tredici, Kelly; Toledo, Jon B.; Robinson, John L.; Lee, Edward B.; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Irwin, David J.; Fang, Lubin; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Ludolph, Albert C.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Braak, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    We examined the phosphorylated 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (pTDP-43) inclusions as well as neuronal loss in full-length spinal cords and five selected regions of the central nervous system from 36 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 10 age-matched normal controls. The most severe neuronal loss and pTDP-43 lesions were seen in lamina IX motor nuclei columns 4, 6, and 8 of lower cervical segments and in columns 9–11 of lumbosacral segments. Severity of pTDP-43 pathology and neuronal loss correlated closely with gray and white matter oligodendroglial involvement and was linked to onset of disease, with severe involvement of columns 4, 6, and 8 of upper extremity onset cases and severe involvement of columns of 9, 10, and 11 in cases with lower extremity onset. Severe TDP-43 lesions and neuronal loss were observed in stage 4 cases and sometimes included Onuf’s nucleus. Notably, three cases displayed pTDP-43 aggregates in the midbrain oculomotor nucleus, which we had not seen previously even in cases with advanced (i.e., stage 4) pathology. pTDP-43 aggregates were observed in neurons of Clarke’s column in 30.6 % of cases but rarely in the intermediolateral nucleus (IML). Gray matter oligodendroglial pTDP-43 inclusions were present in areas devoid of neuronal pTDP-43 aggregates and neuronal loss. Taken together, our findings indicate that (1) the dorsolateral motor nuclei columns of the cervical and lumbosacral anterior horn may be the earliest foci of pTDP-43 pathology in the spinal cord, (2) gray matter oligodendroglial involvement is an early event in the ALS disease process that possibly heralds subsequent involvement of neurons by pTDP-43 pathology, and (3) in some very advanced cases, there is oculomotor nucleus involvement, which may constitute an additional neuropathological stage (designated here as stage 5) of pTDP-43 pathology in ALS. PMID:24916269

  5. TDP-43 regulates the Microprocessor complex activity during in vitro neuronal differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Carlo, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    TDP-43 is an RNA-binding protein implicated in RNA metabolism at several levels. Even if ubiquitously expressed, it is considered as a neuronal activity-responsive factor and a major signature for neurological pathologies, making the comprehension of its activity in the nervous system a very challenging issue. TDP-43 has also been described as an accessory component of the Drosha-DGCR8 microprocessor complex, which is crucially involved in basal and tissue-specific RNA processing events. ...

  6. PPAR gamma activation is neuroprotective in a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, Archi; Menzl, Judith; Podolsky, Taylor C; Manzo, Ernesto; Estes, Patricia S; Ashford, Sarah; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2015-03-15

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease for which there is no cure. We have previously developed a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43 that recapitulates several aspects of disease pathophysiology. Using this model, we designed a drug screening strategy based on the pupal lethality phenotype induced by TDP-43 when expressed in motor neurons. In screening 1200 FDA-approved compounds, we identified the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone as neuroprotective in Drosophila. Here, we show that pioglitazone can rescue TDP-43-dependent locomotor dysfunction in motor neurons and glia but not in muscles. Testing additional models of ALS, we find that pioglitazone is also neuroprotective when FUS, but not SOD1, is expressed in motor neurons. Interestingly, survival analyses of TDP or FUS models show no increase in lifespan, which is consistent with recent clinical trials. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we show that the predicted Drosophila PPAR? homologs, E75 and E78, are in vivo targets of pioglitazone. Finally, using a global metabolomic approach, we identify a set of metabolites that pioglitazone can restore in the context of TDP-43 expression in motor neurons. Taken together, our data provide evidence that modulating PPAR? activity, although not effective at improving lifespan, provides a molecular target for mitigating locomotor dysfunction in TDP-43 and FUS but not SOD1 models of ALS in Drosophila. Furthermore, our data also identify several 'biomarkers' of the disease that may be useful in developing therapeutics and in future clinical trials. PMID:25432537

  7. Aggregate formation prevents dTDP-43 neurotoxicity in the Drosophila melanogaster eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragnaz, Lucia; Klima, Raffaela; Skoko, Natasa; Budini, Mauricio; Feiguin, Fabian; Baralle, Francisco E

    2014-11-01

    TDP-43 inclusions are an important histopathological feature in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Fronto-Temporal Lobar Degeneration. However, the relation of these inclusions with the pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear. In fact, the inclusions could be toxic themselves, induce loss of function by sequestering TDP-43 or a combination of both. Previously, we have developed a cellular model of aggregation using the TDP-43 Q/N rich amino acid sequence 331-369 repeated 12 times (12xQ/N) and have shown that these cellular inclusions are capable of sequestering the endogenous TDP-43 both in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. We have tested this model in vivo in the Drosophila melanogaster eye. The eye structure develops normally in the absence of dTDP-43, a fact previously seen in knock out fly strains. We show here that expression of EGFP 12xQ/N does not alter the structure of the eye. In contrast, TBPH overexpression is neurotoxic and causes necrosis and loss of function of the eye. More important, the neurotoxicity of TBPH can be abolished by its incorporation to the insoluble aggregates induced by EGFP 12xQ/N. This data indicates that aggregation is not toxic per se and instead has a protective role, modulating the functional TBPH available in the tissue. This is an important indication for the possible pathological mechanism in action on ALS patients. PMID:25088712

  8. Endogenous TDP-43, but not FUS, contributes to stress granule assembly via G3BP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulas Anaïs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons, a cell type that is intrinsically more vulnerable than other cell types to exogenous stress. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures to toxins has long been thought to be relevant to ALS. One cellular mechanism to overcome stress is the formation of small dense cytoplasmic domains called stress granules (SG which contain translationally arrested mRNAs. TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP is an ALS-causative gene that we have previously implicated in the regulation of the core stress granule proteins G3BP and TIA-1. TIA-1 and G3BP localize to SG under nearly all stress conditions and are considered essential to SG formation. Here, we report that TDP-43 is required for proper SG dynamics, especially SG assembly as marked by the secondary aggregation of TIA-1. We also show that SG assembly, but not initiation, requires G3BP. Furthermore, G3BP can rescue defective SG assembly in cells depleted of endogenous TDP-43. We also demonstrate that endogenous TDP-43 and FUS do not have overlapping functions in this cellular process as SG initiation and assembly occur normally in the absence of FUS. Lastly, we observe that SG assembly is a contributing factor in the survival of neuronal-like cells responding to acute oxidative stress. These data raise the possibility that disruptions of normal stress granule dynamics by loss of nuclear TDP-43 function may contribute to neuronal vulnerability in ALS.

  9. Frequency of ubiquitin and FUS-positive, TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Seelaar, H.; Klijnsma, K. Y.; Koning, I.; Lugt, A.; Chiu, W. Z.; Azmani, A.; Rozemuller, A. J. M.; Swieten, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically, genetically and pathologically heterogeneous disorder. Within FTLD with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U), a new pathological subtype named FTLD-FUS was recently found with fused in sarcoma (FUS) positive, TDP-43-negative inclusions, and striking atrophy of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of FTLD-FUS in our pathological FTLD series, and to describe the clinical, neuroimaging and neuropatho...

  10. RNA-Processing Protein TDP-43 Regulates FOXO-Dependent Protein Quality Control in Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou

    2014-01-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here...

  11. Common variants at 7p21 are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Deerlin, V. M.; Sleiman, P. M. A.; Martinez-lage, M.; Chen-plotkin, A.; Wang, L. S.; Graff-radford, N. R.; Dickson, D. W.; Rademakers, R.; Boeve, B. F.; Grossman, M.; Arnold, S. E.; Mann, D. M. A.; Pickering-brown, S. M.; Seelaar, H.; Heutink, P.

    2010-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common cause of presenile dementia. The predominant neuropathology is FTLD with TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions (FTLD-TDP)1. FTLD-TDP is frequently familial resulting from progranulin (GRN) mutations. We assembled an international collaboration to identify susceptibility loci for FTLD-TDP, using genome-wide association (GWA). We found that FTLD-TDP associates with multiple SNPs mapping to a single linkage disequilibrium (...

  12. The ALS/FTLD-related RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS have common downstream RNA targets in cortical neurons?

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Daiyu; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Iguchi, Yohei; Fujioka, Yusuke; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Akio; Ohno, Kinji; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2013-01-01

    TDP-43 and FUS are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and loss of function of either protein contributes to these neurodegenerative conditions. To elucidate the TDP-43- and FUS-regulated pathophysiological RNA metabolism cascades, we assessed the differential gene expression and alternative splicing profiles related to regulation by either TDP-43 or FUS in primary cortical neurons. These profiles overlapped by >25% with respect to gene ...

  13. Development of a Novel Nonradiometric Assay for Nucleic Acid Binding to TDP-43 Suitable for High-Throughput Screening Using AlphaScreen® Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cassel, Joel A.; Blass, Benjamin E.; Reitz, Allen B.; Pawlyk, Aaron C.

    2010-01-01

    TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nucleic acid binding protein that is associated with the pathology of cystic fibrosis and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar dementia. We have developed a robust, quantitative, nonradiometric high-throughput assay measuring oligonucleotide binding to TDP-43 using AlphaScreen® technology. Biotinylated single-stranded TAR DNA (bt-TAR-32) and 6 TG repeats (bt-TG6) bound with high affinity to TDP-43, ...

  14. TDP-43 Loss-of-Function Causes Neuronal Loss Due to Defective Steroid Receptor-Mediated Gene Program Switching in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Vanden Broeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 proteinopathy is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders. Whether TDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a novel toxic gain-of-function mechanism of the aggregates or by a loss of its normal function is unknown. We increased and decreased expression of TDP-43 (dTDP-43 in Drosophila. Although upregulation of dTDP-43 induced neuronal ubiquitin and dTDP-43-positive inclusions, both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 resulted in selective apoptosis of bursicon neurons and highly similar transcriptome alterations at the pupal-adult transition. Gene network analysis and genetic validation showed that both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 directly and dramatically increased the expression of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein Map205, resulting in cytoplasmic accumulations of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR and a failure to switch EcR-dependent gene programs from a pupal to adult pattern. We propose that dTDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a loss of its normal function.

  15. Coaggregation of RNA-binding proteins in a model of TDP-43 proteinopathy with selective RGG motif methylation and a role for RRM1 ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammer, Eric B; Fallini, Claudia; Gozal, Yair M; Duong, Duc M; Rossoll, Wilfried; Xu, Ping; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Peng, Junmin; Bassell, Gary J; Seyfried, Nicholas T

    2012-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component within ubiquitin-positive inclusions of a number of neurodegenerative diseases that increasingly are considered as TDP-43 proteinopathies. Identities of other inclusion proteins associated with TDP-43 aggregation remain poorly defined. In this study, we identify and quantitate 35 co-aggregating proteins in the detergent-resistant fraction of HEK-293 cells in which TDP-43 or a particularly aggregate prone variant, TDP-S6, were enriched following overexpression, using stable isotope-labeled (SILAC) internal standards and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We also searched for differential post-translational modification (PTM) sites of ubiquitination. Four sites of ubiquitin conjugation to TDP-43 or TDP-S6 were confirmed by dialkylated GST-TDP-43 external reference peptides, occurring on or near RNA binding motif (RRM) 1. RRM-containing proteins co-enriched in cytoplasmic granular structures in HEK-293 cells and primary motor neurons with insoluble TDP-S6, including cytoplasmic stress granule associated proteins G3BP, PABPC1, and eIF4A1. Proteomic evidence for TDP-43 co-aggregation with paraspeckle markers RBM14, PSF and NonO was also validated by western blot and by immunocytochemistry in HEK-293 cells. An increase in peptides from methylated arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) RNA-binding motifs of FUS/TLS and hnRNPs was found in the detergent-insoluble fraction of TDP-overexpressing cells. Finally, TDP-43 and TDP-S6 detergent-insoluble species were reduced by mutagenesis of the identified ubiquitination sites, even following oxidative or proteolytic stress. Together, these findings define some of the aggregation partners of TDP-43, and suggest that TDP-43 ubiquitination influences TDP-43 oligomerization. PMID:22761693

  16. Chronological requirements of TDP-43 function in synaptic organization and locomotive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Buratti, Emanuele; Verstreken, Patrik; Baralle, Francisco E; Feiguin, Fabian

    2014-11-01

    Alterations in TDP-43 are commonly found in patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the genetic suppression of the conserved homologue in Drosophila (TBPH) provokes alterations in the functional organization of motoneuron synaptic terminals, resulting in locomotive defects and reduced life span. To gain more insight into this pathological process, it is of fundamental importance to establish when during the fly life cycle the lack of TBPH affects motoneuron activity and whether this is a reversible phenomenon. To achieve this, we conditionally expressed the endogenous protein in TBPH minus Drosophila neurons and found that TBPH is a short lived protein permanently required for Drosophila motility and synaptic assembly through the direct modulation of vesicular proteins, such as Syntaxin 1A, indicating that synaptic transmission defects are early pathological consequences of TBPH dysfunction in vivo. Importantly, TBPH late induction is able to recover synaptogenesis and locomotion in adult flies revealing an unexpected late-stage functional and structural neuronal plasticity. These observations suggest that late therapeutic approaches based on TDP-43 functionality may also be successful for the human pathology. PMID:25088713

  17. Targeted depletion of TDP-43 expression in the spinal cord motor neurons leads to the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like phenotypes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lien-Szu; Cheng, Wei-Cheng; Shen, C-K James

    2012-08-10

    ALS, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a progressive and fatal motor neuron disease with no effective medicine. Importantly, the majority of the ALS cases are with TDP-43 proteinopathies characterized with TDP-43-positive, ubiquitin-positive inclusions (UBIs) in the cytosol. However, the role of the mismetabolism of TDP-43 in the pathogenesis of ALS with TDP-43 proteinopathies is unclear. Using the conditional mouse gene targeting approach, we show that mice with inactivation of the Tardbp gene in the spinal cord motor neurons (HB9:Cre-Tardbp(lx/-)) exhibit progressive and male-dominant development of ALS-related phenotypes including kyphosis, motor dysfunctions, muscle weakness/atrophy, motor neuron loss, and astrocytosis in the spinal cord. Significantly, ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in the TDP-43-depleted motor neurons of the spinal cords of HB9:Cre-Tardbp(lx/-) mice with the ALS phenotypes. This study not only establishes an important role of TDP-43 in the long term survival and functioning of the mammalian spinal cord motor neurons, but also establishes that loss of TDP-43 function could be one major cause for neurodegeneration in ALS with TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:22718760

  18. Development of a novel nonradiometric assay for nucleic acid binding to TDP-43 suitable for high-throughput screening using AlphaScreen technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Joel A; Blass, Benjamin E; Reitz, Allen B; Pawlyk, Aaron C

    2010-10-01

    TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nucleic acid binding protein that is associated with the pathology of cystic fibrosis and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar dementia. We have developed a robust, quantitative, nonradiometric high-throughput assay measuring oligonucleotide binding to TDP-43 using AlphaScreen technology. Biotinylated single-stranded TAR DNA (bt-TAR-32) and 6 TG repeats (bt-TG6) bound with high affinity to TDP-43, with K(D) values of 0.75 nM and 0.63 nM, respectively. Both oligonucleotides exhibited slow dissociation rates, with half-lives of 750 min for bt-TAR-32 and 150 min for bt-TG6. The affinities of unlabeled oligonucleotides, as determined by displacement of either bt-TAR-32 or bt-TG6, were consistent with previous reports of nucleic acid interactions with TDP-43, where increasing TG or UG repeats yield greater affinity. A diversity library of 7360 compounds was screened for inhibition of TDP-43 binding to bt-TAR-32, and a series of compounds was discovered with nascent SAR and IC(50) values ranging from 100 nM to 10 µM. These compounds may prove to be useful biochemical tools to elucidate the function of TDP-43 and may lead to novel therapeutics for indications where the TDP-43 nucleic acid interaction is causal to the associated pathology. PMID:20855563

  19. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-associated Proteins TDP-43 and FUS/TLS Function in a Common Biochemical Complex to Co-regulate HDAC6 mRNA*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Hwa; Shanware, Naval P.; Bowler, Michael J.; Tibbetts, Randal S.

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease that preferentially targets motor neurons. It was recently found that dominant mutations in two related RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 (43-kDa TAR DNA-binding domain protein) and FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma) cause a subset of ALS. The convergent ALS phenotypes associated with TDP-43 and FUS/TLS mutations are suggestive of a functional relationship; however, whether or not TDP-43 and FUS/TLS ope...

  20. ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine induces changes in both GSK3 and TDP-43 in human neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Saez, Emma; de Munck, Estefanía; Arahuetes, Rosa M; Solas, M Teresa; Martínez, Ana M; Miguel, Begoña G

    2013-01-01

    ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, which are extensively distributed in different environments all over the world. L-BMAA has been linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. This work aims to analyze the toxicological action of L-BMAA related to alterations observed in different neurodegenerative illness as Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our results demonstrate that neuroblastoma cells treated with L-BMAA show an increase in glycogen synthase kinase 3 ? (GSk3?) and induce accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) truncated forms (C-terminal fragments), phosphorylated  and high molecular weight forms of TDP-43, that appears frequently in some neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23665941

  1. Common variants at 7p21 are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Wang, Li-San; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W; Rademakers, Rosa; Boeve, Bradley F; Grossman, Murray; Arnold, Steven E; Mann, David M A; Pickering-Brown, Stuart M; Seelaar, Harro; Heutink, Peter; van Swieten, John C; Murrell, Jill R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Spina, Salvatore; Grafman, Jordan; Hodges, John; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Gilman, Sid; Lieberman, Andrew P; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Woltjer, Randall L; Bigio, Eileen H; Mesulam, Marsel; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; Rosenberg, Roger N; White, Charles L; Ferrer, Isidro; Lladó, Albert; Neumann, Manuela; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Hulette, Christine Marie; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Miller, Bruce L; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; McKee, Ann C; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; Lah, James J; Hardy, John; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Lashley, Tammaryn; Mackenzie, Ian R A; Feldman, Howard H; Hamilton, Ronald L; Dekosky, Steven T; van der Zee, Julie; Kumar-Singh, Samir; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Mayeux, Richard; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G; Troncoso, Juan C; Kril, Jillian J; Kwok, John B J; Halliday, Glenda M; Bird, Thomas D; Ince, Paul G; Shaw, Pamela J; Cairns, Nigel J; Morris, John C; McLean, Catriona Ann; DeCarli, Charles; Ellis, William G; Freeman, Stefanie H; Frosch, Matthew P; Growdon, John H; Perl, Daniel P; Sano, Mary; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Beach, Thomas G; Reiman, Eric M; Woodruff, Bryan K; Cummings, Jeffrey; Vinters, Harry V; Miller, Carol A; Chui, Helena C; Alafuzoff, Irina; Hartikainen, Päivi; Seilhean, Danielle; Galasko, Douglas; Masliah, Eliezer; Cotman, Carl W; Tuñón, M Teresa; Martínez, M Cristina Caballero; Munoz, David G; Carroll, Steven L; Marson, Daniel; Riederer, Peter F; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Hakonarson, Hakon; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2010-03-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common cause of presenile dementia. The predominant neuropathology is FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions (FTLD-TDP). FTLD-TDP is frequently familial, resulting from mutations in GRN (which encodes progranulin). We assembled an international collaboration to identify susceptibility loci for FTLD-TDP through a genome-wide association study of 515 individuals with FTLD-TDP. We found that FTLD-TDP associates with multiple SNPs mapping to a single linkage disequilibrium block on 7p21 that contains TMEM106B. Three SNPs retained genome-wide significance following Bonferroni correction (top SNP rs1990622, P = 1.08 x 10(-11); odds ratio, minor allele (C) 0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.71). The association replicated in 89 FTLD-TDP cases (rs1990622; P = 2 x 10(-4)). TMEM106B variants may confer risk of FTLD-TDP by increasing TMEM106B expression. TMEM106B variants also contribute to genetic risk for FTLD-TDP in individuals with mutations in GRN. Our data implicate variants in TMEM106B as a strong risk factor for FTLD-TDP, suggesting an underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:20154673

  2. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte A.J. Van Zundert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1G93A contains toxic factor(s that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1G93A and ACM-SOD1G86R or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43A315T mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30-60 minutes increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Nav channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine or riluzole prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Nav channel activity.

  3. TDP-43 N terminus encodes a novel ubiquitin-like fold and its unfolded form in equilibrium that can be shifted by binding to ssDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Haina; Lim, Liang-Zhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Song, Jianxing

    2014-12-30

    Transactivation response element (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of most forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia-frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), as well as an increasing spectrum of other neurodegenerative diseases. Previous structural and functional studies on TDP-43 have been mostly focused on its recognized domains. Very recently, however, its extreme N terminus was identified to be a double-edged sword indispensable for both physiology and proteinopathy, but thus far its structure remains unknown due to the severe aggregation. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery that protein aggregation can be significantly minimized by reducing salt concentrations, by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy we revealed that the TDP-43 N terminus encodes a well-folded structure in concentration-dependent equilibrium with its unfolded form. Despite previous failure in detecting any sequence homology to ubiquitin, the folded state was determined to adopt a novel ubiquitin-like fold by the CS-Rosetta program with NMR chemical shifts and 78 unambiguous long-range nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) constraints. Remarkably, this ubiquitin-like fold could bind ssDNA, and the binding shifted the conformational equilibrium toward reducing the unfolded population. To the best of our knowledge, the TDP-43 N terminus represents the first ubiquitin-like fold capable of directly binding nucleic acid. Our results provide a molecular mechanism rationalizing the functional dichotomy of TDP-43 and might also shed light on the formation and dynamics of cellular ribonucleoprotein granules, which have been recently linked to ALS pathogenesis. As a consequence, one therapeutic strategy for TDP-43-causing diseases might be to stabilize its ubiquitin-like fold by ssDNA or designed molecules. PMID:25503365

  4. Maturation process of TDP-43-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Zhang, Hai-Xin; Nishihira, Yasushi; Tan, Chun-Feng; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2008-08-01

    To elucidate the maturation process of TDP-43-positive neuronal inclusions, we immunohistochemically and immunoelectron-microscopically examined multiple areas from the brain and spinal cord from ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 25 control subjects. TDP-43 immunohistochemistry demonstrated three types of inclusions in ALS: skein-like, round, and dot-like inclusions. Skein-like inclusions were found in all cases of ALS. Dot-like inclusions were found in the anterior horn in seven cases of ALS, all of whom had round inclusions, but not in cases without round inclusions. In addition, careful examination revealed two types of diffuse punctate cytoplasmic staining: linear wisps and punctate granules. Linear wisps were present in all cases of ALS but in none of 25 controls. In contrast, punctate granules were detected in all cases of ALS as well as in five of 13 normal and in seven of 12 diseased controls. Immunoelectron-microscopy revealed that skein-like inclusions consisted of granule-associated parallel filaments. Round and dot-like inclusions were composed of granulo-filamentous structures. However, punctate granules corresponded to the mitochondria and were not immunostained with anti-ubiquitin, indicating that punctate granules represent cross-reaction. We assumed that linear wisps ("fine skein") aggregate as thicker and longer threads ("coarse skein"), whereas round inclusions arise from dot-like inclusions. These findings suggest that there are differences in the formation process between skein-like and round inclusions, despite the antigenic and ultrastructural similarities. PMID:18560845

  5. Transcriptome-wide analysis of TDP-43 binding small RNAs identifies miR-NID1 (miR-8485), a novel miRNA that represses NRXN1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen; Chen, Xiaowei; Chen, Runsheng

    2014-01-01

    The Tar DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP, TDP-43) regulates RNA processing and miRNA biogenesis and is known to be involved in neurodegeneration. Messenger RNA (mRNA) targets of TDP-43 have recently been systematically identified, but small RNAs (sRNAs) bound by TDP-43 have not been studied in details. Here, we reexamine cross-linking, immunoprecipitation and sequencing (CLIP-seq) data, and identify pre-miRNAs, miRNAs and piRNAs bound by TDP-43 in human and mouse brains. Subsequent analysis of TDP-43 binding miRNAs suggests that target genes are enriched in functions involving synaptic activities. We further identify a novel miRNA (miR-NID1) processed from the intron 5 of human neurexin 1, NRXN1, and show that miR-NID1 represses NRXN1 expression by binding to TDP-43. Our results are in accordance with previously published data indicating TDP-43 through binding of specific miRNAs to play roles in neurodevelopmental activities and neurological disorders and further our understanding of TDP-43 function. PMID:23827811

  6. Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Biopanning for Isolation of Morphology Specific Reagents against TDP-43 Variants in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephanie M; Venkataraman, Lalitha; Tian, Huilai; Khan, Galam; Harris, Brent T; Sierks, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Because protein variants play critical roles in many diseases including TDP-43 in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and beta-amyloid and tau in Alzheimer's disease, it is critically important to develop morphology specific reagents that can selectively target these disease-specific protein variants to study the role of these variants in disease pathology and for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We have developed novel atomic force microscopy (AFM) based biopanning techniques that enable isolation of reagents that selectively recognize disease-specific protein variants. There are two key phases involved in the process, the negative and positive panning phases. During the negative panning phase, phages that are reactive to off-target antigens are eliminated through multiple rounds of subtractive panning utilizing a series of carefully selected off-target antigens. A key feature in the negative panning phase is utilizing AFM imaging to monitor the process and confirm that all undesired phage particles are removed. For the positive panning phase, the target antigen of interest is fixed on a mica surface and bound phages are eluted and screened to identify phages that selectively bind the target antigen. The target protein variant does not need to be purified providing the appropriate negative panning controls have been used. Even target protein variants that are only present at very low concentrations in complex biological material can be utilized in the positive panning step. Through application of this technology, we acquired antibodies to protein variants of TDP-43 that are selectively found in human ALS brain tissue. We expect that this protocol should be applicable to generating reagents that selectively bind protein variants present in a wide variety of different biological processes and diseases. PMID:25742170

  7. Neuropathological assessments of the pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP43-positive inclusions: an inter-laboratory study by the BrainNet Europe consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafuzoff, Irina; Pikkarainen, Maria; Neumann, Manuela; Arzberger, Thomas; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Bodi, Istvan; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Bugiani, Orso; Ferrer, Isidro; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen; Giaccone, Giorgio; Graeber, Manuel B; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Ince, Paul G; Ironside, James W; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; King, Andrew; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Kovács, Gábor G; Meyronet, David; Monoranu, Camelia; Nilsson, Tatjana; Parchi, Piero; Patsouris, Efstratios; Revesz, Tamas; Roggendorf, Wolfgang; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Seilhean, Danielle; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Thal, Dietmar R; Wharton, Stephen B; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2014-09-20

    The BrainNet Europe consortium assessed the reproducibility in the assignment of the type of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP) 43 following current recommendations. The agreement rates were influenced by the immunohistochemical (IHC) method and by the classification strategy followed. p62-IHC staining yielded good uniform quality of stains, but the most reliable results were obtained implementing specific Abs directed against the hallmark protein TDP43. Both assessment of the type and the extent of lesions were influenced by the Abs and by the quality of stain. Assessment of the extent of the lesions yielded poor results repeatedly; thus, the extent of pathology should not be used in diagnostic consensus criteria. Whilst 31 neuropathologists typed 30 FTLD-TDP cases, inter-rater agreement ranged from 19 to 100 per cent, being highest when applying phosphorylated TDP43/IHC. The agreement was highest when designating Type C or Type A/B. In contrast, there was a poor agreement when attempting to separate Type A or Type B FTLD-TDP. In conclusion, we can expect that neuropathologist, independent of his/her familiarity with FTLD-TDP pathology, can identify a TDP43-positive FTLD case. The goal should be to state a Type (A, B, C, D) or a mixture of Types (A/B, A/C or B/C). Neuropathologists, other clinicians and researchers should be aware of the pitfalls whilst doing so. Agreement can be reached in an inter-laboratory setting regarding Type C cases with thick and long neurites, whereas the differentiation between Types A and B may be more troublesome. PMID:25239189

  8. ER-mitochondria associations are regulated by the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and are disrupted by ALS/FTD-associated TDP-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Radu; de Vos, Kurt J.; Paillusson, Sébastien; Mueller, Sarah; Sancho, Rosa M.; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lin, Wen-Lang; Xu, Ya-Fei; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Miller, Christopher C. J.

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) form tight structural associations and these facilitate a number of cellular functions. However, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to mitochondria are not properly known. Understanding these mechanisms is not just important for comprehending fundamental physiological processes but also for understanding pathogenic processes in some disease states. In particular, disruption to ER-mitochondria associations is linked to some neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that the ER-resident protein VAPB interacts with the mitochondrial protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein-51 (PTPIP51) to regulate ER-mitochondria associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that TDP-43, a protein pathologically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal dementia perturbs ER-mitochondria interactions and that this is associated with disruption to the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Finally, we show that overexpression of TDP-43 leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and that GSK-3? regulates the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction. Our results describe a new pathogenic mechanism for TDP-43.

  9. Endogenous progesterone levels and frontotemporal dementia: modulation of TDP-43 and Tau levels in vitro and treatment of the A315T TARDBP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Theresa N T; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Glaros, Elias N; Kim, Woojin S; Hallupp, Marianne; Bartley, Lauren; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R; Halliday, Glenda M; Double, Kay L; Schofield, Peter R; Crouch, Peter J; Kwok, John B J

    2013-09-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is associated with motor neurone disease (FTD-MND), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS). Together, this group of disorders constitutes a major cause of young-onset dementia. One of the three clinical variants of FTD is progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), which is focused on in this study. The steroid hormone progesterone (PROG) is known to have an important role as a neurosteroid with potent neuroprotective and promyelination properties. In a case-control study of serum samples (39 FTD, 91 controls), low serum PROG was associated with FTD overall. In subgroup analysis, low PROG levels were significantly associated with FTD-MND and CBS, but not with PSPS or PNFA. PROG levels of >195 pg/ml were significantly correlated with lower disease severity (frontotemporal dementia rating scale) for individuals with CBS. In the human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cell line, exogenous PROG (9300-93,000 pg/ml) had a significant effect on overall Tau and nuclear TDP-43 levels, reducing total Tau levels by ?1.5-fold and increasing nuclear TDP-43 by 1.7- to 2.0-fold. Finally, elevation of plasma PROG to a mean concentration of 5870 pg/ml in an Ala315Thr (A315T) TARDBP transgenic mouse model significantly reduced the rate of loss of locomotor control in PROG-treated, compared with placebo, mice. The PROG treatment did not significantly increase survival of the mice, which might be due to the limitation of the transgenic mouse to accurately model TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration. Together, our clinical, cellular and animal data provide strong evidence that PROG could be a valid therapy for specific related disorders of FTD. PMID:23798570

  10. The Influence of Pathological Mutations and Proline Substitutions in TDP-43 Glycine-Rich Peptides on Its Amyloid Properties and Cellular Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chia-Sui; Wang, Cindy Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Bryan Po-Wen; He, Ruei-Yu; Liu, Gerard Chun-Hao; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Wenlung; Chern, Yijuang; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2014-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) was identified as the major ubiquitinated component deposited in the inclusion bodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) in 2006. Later on, numerous ALS-related mutations were found in either the glycine or glutamine/asparagine-rich region on the TDP-43 C-terminus, which hinted on the importance of mutations on the disease pathogenesis. However, how the structural conversion was influenced by the mutations and the biological significance of these peptides remains unclear. In this work, various peptides bearing pathogenic or de novo designed mutations were synthesized and displayed their ability to form twisted amyloid fibers, cause liposome leakage, and mediate cellular toxicity as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), circular dichroism (CD), Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, Raman spectroscopy, calcein leakage assay, and cell viability assay. We have also shown that replacing glycines with prolines, known to obstruct ?-sheet formation, at the different positions in these peptides may influence the amyloidogenesis process and neurotoxicity. In these cases, GGG308PPP mutant was not able to form beta-amyloid, cause liposome leakage, nor jeopardized cell survival, which hinted on the importance of the glycines (308–310) during amyloidogenesis. PMID:25090004

  11. The influence of pathological mutations and proline substitutions in TDP-43 glycine-rich peptides on its amyloid properties and cellular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chia-Sui; Wang, Cindy Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Bryan Po-Wen; He, Ruei-Yu; Liu, Gerard Chun-Hao; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Wenlung; Chern, Yijuang; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2014-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) was identified as the major ubiquitinated component deposited in the inclusion bodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) in 2006. Later on, numerous ALS-related mutations were found in either the glycine or glutamine/asparagine-rich region on the TDP-43 C-terminus, which hinted on the importance of mutations on the disease pathogenesis. However, how the structural conversion was influenced by the mutations and the biological significance of these peptides remains unclear. In this work, various peptides bearing pathogenic or de novo designed mutations were synthesized and displayed their ability to form twisted amyloid fibers, cause liposome leakage, and mediate cellular toxicity as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), circular dichroism (CD), Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, Raman spectroscopy, calcein leakage assay, and cell viability assay. We have also shown that replacing glycines with prolines, known to obstruct ?-sheet formation, at the different positions in these peptides may influence the amyloidogenesis process and neurotoxicity. In these cases, GGG308PPP mutant was not able to form beta-amyloid, cause liposome leakage, nor jeopardized cell survival, which hinted on the importance of the glycines (308-310) during amyloidogenesis. PMID:25090004

  12. A novel GRN mutation (GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG) in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions: clinicopathologic report of 6 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Suh, Eunran; Shim, Hyung-Sub; Weintraub, Sandra; Hyman, Bradley T; Arnold, Steven E; McCarty-Wood, Elisabeth; Van Deerlin, Viviana M; Schneider, Julie A; Trojanowski, John Q; Frosch, Matthew P; Baker, Matt C; Rademakers, Rosa; Mesulam, Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, the underlying pathology most often linked to the clinical diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia, is rapidly increasing. Mutations in 7 known genes (MAPT, GRN, C9orf72, VCP, CHMP2B, and, rarely, TARDBP and FUS) are associated with frontotemporal dementia, and the pathologic classification of frontotemporal lobar degeneration has recently been modified to reflect these discoveries. Mutations in one of these genes (GRN), which encodes progranulin, have been implicated in up to a quarter of cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43)-positive inclusions; currently, there are more than 60 known pathogenic mutations of the gene. We present the clinical, pathologic, and genetic findings on 6 cases from 4 families, 5 of which were shown to have a novel GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG mutation. PMID:24709683

  13. Folding of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked protein TDP-43 reveals an intermediate state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackness, Brian C; Tran, Meme T; McClain, Shannan P; Matthews, C Robert; Zitzewitz, Jill A

    2014-03-21

    Pathological alteration of TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein-43), a protein involved in various RNA-mediated processes, is a hallmark feature of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Fragments of TDP-43, composed of the second RNA recognition motif (RRM2) and the disordered C terminus, have been observed in cytoplasmic inclusions in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, suggesting that conformational changes involving RRM2 together with the disordered C terminus play a role in aggregation and toxicity. The biophysical data collected by CD and fluorescence spectroscopies reveal a three-state equilibrium unfolding model for RRM2, with a partially folded intermediate state that is not observed in RRM1. Strikingly, a portion of RRM2 beginning at position 208, which mimics a cleavage site observed in patient tissues, increases the population of this intermediate state. Mutually stabilizing interactions between the domains in the tethered RRM1 and RRM2 construct reduce the population of the intermediate state and enhance DNA/RNA binding. Despite the high sequence homology of the two domains, a network of large hydrophobic residues in RRM2 provides a possible explanation for the increased stability of RRM2 compared with RRM1. The cluster analysis suggests that the intermediate state may play a functional role by enhancing access to the nuclear export signal contained within its sequence. The intermediate state may also serve as a molecular hazard linking productive folding and function with pathological misfolding and aggregation that may contribute to disease. PMID:24497641

  14. Altered microRNA expression in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology caused by progranulin mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocerha Jannet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be triggered through genetic or sporadic mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have become a major therapeutic focus as their pervasive expression and powerful regulatory roles in disease pathogenesis become increasingly apparent. Here we examine the role of miRNAs in FTLD patients with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 pathology (FTLD-TDP caused by genetic mutations in the progranulin (PGRN gene. Results Using miRNA array profiling, we identified the 20 miRNAs that showed greatest evidence (unadjusted P PGRN mutations when compared to 32 FTLD-TDP patients with no apparent genetic abnormalities. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses provided technical validation of the differential expression for 9 of the 20 miRNAs in frontal cortex. Additional qRT-PCR analyses showed that 5 out of 9 miRNAs (miR-922, miR-516a-3p, miR-571, miR-548b-5p, and miR-548c-5p were also significantly dysregulated (unadjusted P PGRN mutation carriers, consistent with a systemic reduction in PGRN levels. We developed a list of gene targets for the 5 candidate miRNAs and found 18 genes dysregulated in a reported FTLD mRNA study to exhibit anti-correlated miRNA-mRNA patterns in affected cortex and cerebellar tissue. Among the targets is brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3, which was recently identified as an important player in synapse biology. Conclusions Our study suggests that miRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of FTLD-TDP caused by PGRN mutations and provides new insight into potential future therapeutic options.

  15. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H K; Lo, S T

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (AE1/3, CAM 5.2 and PKK-1) and polyclonal antisera against the cytokeratin proteins were reacted with a range of astrocytic tumours, oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas. Seven of 12 cases (58%) of glioblastoma multiforme, five of eight (63%) anaplastic astrocytomas and two of five (40%) well-differentiated astrocytomas were immunoreactive with AE1/3 but not with the other anti-cytokeratin antibodies. In oligodendrogliomas, AE1/3 stained isolated astrocyte-like cells as well as scattered neoplastic oligodendrocytes in four of eight cases (50%) cases. Four ependymomas were negative for all cytokeratin markers examined. The immunostaining of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas with AE1/3 might represent co-expression of cytokeratin with glial fibrillary acidic protein by gliomas and calls for caution in the use of these antibodies in the differential diagnosis between gliomas and carcinomas. PMID:2472343

  16. Chromosome Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome Abnormalities What are chromosomes? Where are chromosomes found in the body? How many chromosomes do humans ... chromosome abnormalities happen? Glossary of Terms What are chromosomes? Chromosomes are the structures that hold our genes. ...

  17. Nail abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...

  18. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    If there is any sign of uncontrollable and unexplained gait abnormalities, call your health care provider. ... there is pain, is it in the muscles, joints, spine, or other location? Is there a fever? Is there pain in the testicles? Does there appear to be ...

  19. Immunoreactivity of valosin-containing protein in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in a case of its novel mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Takashi; Ito, Hidefumi; Fukushima, Hiroko; Inoue, Takeshi; Kondo, Takayuki; Ikemoto, Akito; Asano, Takeshi; Shodai, Akemi; Fujita, Takuji; Fukui, Satoshi; Morino, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Riki; Kawamata, Jun; Urushitani, Makoto; Kawakami, Hideshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2014-12-10

    BackgroundMutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene were first found to cause inclusion- body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). Mutations in the VCP gene were later reported to occur in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). But the role of VCP in the neurodegenerative processes that occur in ALS remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the role of VCP in the neurodegeneration seen in sporadic and VCP mutant ALS.ResultsImmunohistochemistry demonstrated that the frequency of distinct VCP-positive nuclei of spinal motor neurons of patients with sporadic ALS (SALS) and the ALS with VCP novel mutation (ALS-VCP, M158V) was increased, compared with that of the control cases. No VCP-positive inclusion bodies were observed in SALS patients, a ALS-VCP patient or in control subjects. Neuropathologic examination of the ALS-VCP case showed loss of motor neurons, the presence of Bunina bodies, and degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. Bunina bodies detected in this case were confirmed to show immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features similar to those previously described. Furthermore, neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions immunopositive for TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), phosphorylated TDP-43, ubiquitin (Ub), p62, and optineurin were identified in the spinal and medullary motoneurons, but not in the neocortex. Gene analysis of this ALS-VCP patient confirmed the de novo mutation of M158V, which was not found in control cases; and bioinformatics using several in silico analyses showed possible damage to the structure of VCP. Immunocytochemical study of cultured cells showed increased cytoplasmic translocation of TDP-43 in cells transfected with several mutant VCP including our patient¿s compared with wild-type VCP.ConclusionThese findings support the idea that VCP is associated with the pathomechanism of SALS and familial ALS with a VCP mutation, presumably acting through a dominant-negative mechanism. PMID:25492614

  20. Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Growth of Leptospire, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: Immunoreactivity and Cell Division

    CERN Document Server

    Triampo, W; Triampo, D; Wong-Ekkabut, J; Tang, I M; Triampo, Wannapong; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Triampo, Darapond; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the exposure of the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola to a constant magnetic field with magnetic flux density from a permanent ferrite magnet = 140 mT were studied. Changes in Leptospira cells after their exposure to the field were determined on the basis of changes in their growth behavior and agglutination immunoreactivity with a homologous antiserum using darkfield microscopy together with visual imaging. The data showed that the exposed Leptospira cells have lower densities and lower agglutination immunoreactivity than the unexposed control group. Interestingly, some of the exposed Leptospira cells showed abnormal morphologies such as large lengths. We discussed some of the possible reasons for these observations.

  1. Endogenous TDP-43, but not FUS, contributes to stress granule assembly via G3BP

    OpenAIRE

    Aulas Anaïs; Stabile Stéphanie; Vande Velde Christine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons, a cell type that is intrinsically more vulnerable than other cell types to exogenous stress. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures to toxins has long been thought to be relevant to ALS. One cellular mechanism to overcome stress is the formation of small dense cytoplasmic domains called stress granules (SG) wh...

  2. Calcium binding protein immunoreactivity in a reptilian thalamic reticular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, M B; Stritzel, M E

    1991-07-19

    Immunoreactivity to antisera directed against a variety of calcium binding proteins was investigated in the thalamic reticular nucleus of one species of reptiles, Caiman crocodilus. Cells and fibers were immunoreactive for parvalbumin whereas fibers but not neurons were immunoreactive for calbindin and calcitonin gene related peptide. These data support the observations that Caiman thalamic reticular nucleus contains at least two neuronal populations. One group, whose cells are immunoreactive for parvalbumin, forms at least part of the projection to the dorsal thalamus. The other group, which contains qualitatively different and sparser number of neurons, is immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase. PMID:1933314

  3. ?2-MSH immunoreactivity in the human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients undergoing aorto-coronary by-pass surgery, we found a 26% arterial-venous difference of immunoreactive ?2-melanocytostimulating hormone (MSH), a proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived peptide known to possess profound hemodynamic effects. These results prompted an investigation of the presence of ?2-MSH in the human heart. Using a two-step extraction procedure, regions of human hearts were examined by sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays to determine their ?2-MSH content. Mean (± SEM) concentrations of 0.14 ± 0.023 pmol/g and 0.12 ± 0.017 were found in right atrium and right ventricle, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography indicated that 80-90 % of the total immunoreactivity eluted in a single sharp peak in a position identical to that of synthetic ?2-MSH

  4. Immunoreactive dynorphin in pituitary and brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, A.; Ghazarossian, V. E.

    1980-01-01

    Distribution of the potent opioid peptide dynorphin has been determined in pituitary gland (pig, beef, rat), in the various regions of rat brain, and in rat spinal cord, by using a highly specific antiserum. By gel permeation chromatography in 4 M guanidine, the porcine pituitary immunoreactivity is found in a major peak of apparent molecular weight about 1700 and a minor peak of about 3400. Similar peaks are found in rat pituitary extracts, whereas rat brain contains, in addition, two peaks ...

  5. Dopamine transporter immunoreactivity in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, C; Revay, R; Vaughan, R A; Kriek, E; Grant, S; Uhl, G R; Kuhar, M J

    1995-08-21

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a primary site for the action of cocaine in inducing euphoria. Its action is necessary for the selectivities of dopaminergic neurotoxins that provide the best current experimental models of Parkinson's disease. In the present report, rat dopamine transporter-like immunoreactivity (iDAT) was assessed by immunohistochemistry using newly developed polyclonal antisera raised against conjugated peptides corresponding to sequences found in the dopamine transporter's carboxy- and amino-termini. Dense iDAT was observed in patterns consistent with neural processes and terminals in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, nigrostriatal bundle, and lateral habenula. Perikarya in the substantia nigra pars compacta were immunostained with moderate intensity using one of two immunohistochemical methods, while scattered ventral tegmental area perikarya were stained with somewhat less intensity. Immunoreactive neuronal processes with axonal and dendritic morphologies were stained in the substantia nigra and the paranigral and parabrachialis pigmentosus nuclei of the ventral tegmental area, while sparser processes were noted more medially in the ventral tegmental area. Neuronal processes were found in several laminae in the cingulate cortex, with notable fiber densities in the superficial aspects of lamina I and laminae II/III. The intensities of immunoreactivities in striatum and cerebral cortex were dramatically attenuated ipsilateral to nigrostriatal bundle 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. Specificity of immunostaining was supported by agreement of the results using sera directed against two distinct DAT segments, studies with preimmune and preadsorbed sera and studies of the extracted protein. These antisera identify and reveal details of the distribution of DAT immunoreactivity in rat brain and display variations in levels of DAT expression of likely functional significance. PMID:7499533

  6. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the retina.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, T.; Marshak, D.; Basinger, S.; Walsh, J.; Morley, J.; Stell, W.

    1980-01-01

    A substance with somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) was found in extracts of goldfish, frog, and cow retina. Dilutions of retinal SLI parallel the standard curve for radioimmunoassay obtained with synthetic somatostatin. Chromatography of goldfish retinal extract on Sephadex G-50 revealed two peaks of SLI, one that coeluted with synthetic somatostatin and one that eluted as a larger molecule. Incubation in 8 M urea did not alter the chromatographic pattern of the extract. SLI was presen...

  7. Human lymphocyte production of immunoreactive thyrotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, E. M.; Phan, M.; Kruger, T. E.; Coppenhaver, D. H.; Blalock, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Interferon-alpha inducers were previously shown to cause human lymphocyte production of a corticotropin (ACTH)-like peptide. Thyrotropin (TSH) was not produced under these conditions. In contrast, this report shows that a T-cell mitogen (staphylococcal enterotoxin A), which does not induce the ACTH-like peptide, caused human lymphocyte production of an immunoreactive (ir) TSH. Lymphocyte synthesis of the ir TSH was first detectable at 24 hr, peaked at 48 hr, and thereafter declined. NaDodSO4/...

  8. Interleukin-6 immunoreactivity in human tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabibzadeh, S. S.; Poubouridis, D.; May, L. T.; Sehgal, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    The cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), has emerged as a likely mediator of many of the systemic alterations observed in patients with cancer (fever, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and alterations in plasma protein composition) and may also mediate local effects such as alteration in proliferation of tumor cells, increased tumor cell motility, and decreased intercellular adhesions between tumor cells. The distribution of IL-6 immunoreactivity in different human tumors was studied. IL-6...

  9. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ... some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? 1) Eye misalignment: Sometimes when a person ...

  10. [Yuasa-Mitsuyama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuyama, Yoshio

    2011-02-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical entity that comprises at least two distinct diseases: Pick's disease with Pick bodies and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau-negative and ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). FTLD-U is now usually referred to as FTLD-TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43). FTLD-TDP-43, but not Pick's disease with tau-positive Pick bodies, is often associated with motor neuron disease (MND). More than 200 cases of this combined form, i.e., FTD-MND, have been reported in Japan. The neuropathological characteristics of MND in patients with FTD are essentially similar to the MND in patients without dementia. However the other characteristics of the combination of FTD and MND are such that the author has considered this disease a unique clinicopathological entity. These characteristics are as follows: (1) frontotemporal lobe-type dementia with insidious onset, usually in the presenile period; (2) neurogenic muscular wasting during the course of the illness [amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)]-- or [spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA)]-like symptoms); (3) duration from the onset of illness to death is 2-5 years (average duration, 30.6 months); (4) both extrapyramidal symptoms and definite sensory deficiency are less commonly observed; (5) no characteristic abnormalities in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or on the electroencephalogram (EEG) in screening tests; (6) no known parental consanguinity or familial occurrence; and (7) nonspecific mild-to-slight degenerative changes in the frontotemporal cortex, hypoglossal nuclei, spinal cord, and frequently in the substantia nigra. FTD-MND is characterized by ubiquitin-immunoreactive intraneuronal inclusions in cortical layers II and III and the hippocampal dentate granule cells. The occurrence of ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative and ubiquitinated TDP-43 positive inclusions could be the key to determining the pathological background of this disease. Further studies are required clinicopathological differentiation between FTD-MND and ALS-dementia (ALS-D). PMID:21301035

  11. Immunoreactive somatomedin A in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A RIA has been developed for somatomedin A (SM-A) utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies. This assay, measuring SM-A, the insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, and somatomedin C, allows determination in serum samples. In comparison with a serum standard, the mean serum levels in patients with acromegaly or GH deficiency and healthy subjects were 8.7 +- 0.7 (n=25), 0.24 +- 0.02 (n=25), and 1.15 +- 0.11 U/ml, respectively. The correlation coefficient between immunoreactive SM-A and SM-A by radioreceptor assay was highly significant (r=0.93), although the potency ratio of SM-A between the two groups of patients was higher in the RIA than in the radioreceptor assay. Gel chromatography revealed that SM-A in acromegalic serum is bound to a carrier protein which is absent in patients with GH deficiency. After gel chromatography at low pH, 90% of applied immunoreactive SM-A was recovered in the low molecular weight fraction and consisted mainly of neutral polypeptides

  12. Immunoreactive trypsin and neonatalscreening for cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in dried blood spots from 160.822 five-day-old babies as a part of a regionwide neonatal screening program for cystic fibrosis. A second test was performed for 492 babies in whom blood IRT levels were found greater than 900 ?g/l; retesting revealed persistent elevation in 55. Sweat testing confirmed cystic fibrosis in 43 babies, but results were normal in 12. During the course of this study, a total of 51 cystic fibrosis babies were identified: 43 by newborn screening, 6 because they had meconium ileus; so, early diagnosis was achieved in 49 cases out of 51. Two newborn babies did not have elevated IRT and they were missed by the screening test. Our results confirm that elevated blood IRT is characteristic of newborn babies with cystic fibrosis and show that this test has an excellent specificity (99.7%) and a good sensitivity (95%) when used as a neonatal screening test

  13. Tissue polypeptide antigen immunoreactivity in human semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, J; Eneroth, P; Bygdeman, M

    1984-01-01

    A substance with TPA immunoreactivity is present in human seminal plasma. This seminal plasma TPA shows immunological similarity with TPA isolated from a pool of carcinoma tumors. TPA is taken up by live spermatozoa and it cannot be easily washed out. Split-ejaculate studies suggest that TPA originates mainly from the prostate. TPA is not correlated with the spermatozoa count, total number of spermatozoa, percentage of normal spermatozoa, or forward motility. The mean seminal plasma concentration of TPA in morphologically normal ejaculates is 14,531 U/liter. No difference was found in the TPA levels between the normal group and various groups of patients under investigation for involuntary infertility. PMID:6537749

  14. Determination of immunoreactive proteins of Babesia ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Ferda; Guler, Leyla; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ekici, Ozlem Derinbay; Isik, Nermin

    2013-12-01

    Babesia ovis, an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite transmitted by ticks, causes severe infections in sheep in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Parasite-specific immunoreactive proteins have been used as antigen in the serological diagnosis of babesiosis. There is no study about determination of B. ovis-specific proteins in sheep. This study was planned to determine the immunoreactive proteins of B. ovis. In this study, two splenectomized lambs, and twelve seropositive sheep and five seronegative lambs for anti-B. ovis antibodies were used as materials. Infected blood samples at 5% of parasitemia from the two splenectomized lambs experimentally infected with a virulent B. ovis field strain were analyzed for B. ovis-specific proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting (WB). B. ovis-specific five major proteins were recognized by anti-B. ovis serum but not by healthy sheep serum. They were of approximate molecular weights 154, 109, 77, 58, and 38 kDa. As the control samples, protein profiles of the blood extracts of two lambs before splenectomy operation were also blotted with the immune sera, but none of the five proteins was detected. These proteins were also immunoblotted with heterologous positive and negative sheep sera. All of twelve positive sera recognized the 109 kDa protein with 100 percent sensitivity. The 77 kDa protein reacted in 11 of 12 sera (91.6%). The sensitivities of the other 3 proteins ranged between 83.3% and 25%. The five protein bands immunoblotted with sera of the 5 negative lambs did not give any positive reaction. The results of this study revealed the presence of proteins recognized by the serum antibodies of experimentally and naturally infected sheep with B. ovis. Additional studies on the purification of these proteins and on subsequently their utilization in a serodiagnostic method are required to improve the serological diagnosis of ovine babesiosis. PMID:24209710

  15. Mapping of neurokinin-like immunoreactivity in the human brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narvaez Jose

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we have studied the distribution of immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies containing neurokinin in the adult human brainstem with no prior history of neurological or psychiatric disease. Results Clusters of immunoreactive cell bodies and high densities of neurokinin-immunoreactive fibers were located in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons and mesencephalon. Moreover, immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the inferior colliculus, the raphe obscurus, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, and in the midline of the anterior medulla oblongata. In general, immunoreactive fibers containing neurokinin were observed throughout the whole brainstem. In addition to the nuclei mentioned above, the highest densities of such immunoreactive fibers were located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the superior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus ambiguus, the gracile nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the medial and superior vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and the interpeduncular nucleus. Conclusion The widespread distribution of immunoreactive structures containing neurokinin in the human brainstem indicates that neurokinin might be involved in several physiological mechanisms, acting as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator.

  16. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  17. Frontotemporal dementias: update on recent developments in molecular genetics and neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisci?, Rajka M

    2009-03-01

    Frontotemporal dementias (FTD) are the second most common type of presenile dementias, considered to be clinically and pathologically different from Alzheimer's dementia (AD). FTD differs clinically from AD because memory loss is rarely an early symptom. Instead, FTD is usually denoted by behavioural and language difficulties, and may co-occur with motor neuron disease (MND). Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U) is the most common underlying pathology with and without MND. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), encoded by the TARDBP gene, has been identified as the major pathological protein of FTLD-U with or without MND, demonstrating that abnormal TDP-43 alone is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. FTLD is a genetically complex disorder. A proportion of cases of FTLD-U have various pathogenic mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene. Other FTLD-U entities with TDP-43 proteinopathy include FTLD-U with valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene mutation and FTLD with MND linked to chromosome 9p. In contrast, chromosome 3-linked dementia, a FTLD-U with chromatic modifying protein 2B (CHMP2B) mutation, has TDP-43 negative inclusions. Thus, TDP-43 defines a novel class of neurodegenerative diseases called TDP-43 proteinopathies. These recent discoveries will contribute to an accurate diagnosis, and facilitate the development of diagnosis and therapy. PMID:19329383

  18. Immunoreactivity and expression of amylin in gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Eissele, R.; Neuhaus, C.; Trautmann, M. E.; Funk, A.; Arnold, R.; Ho?fler, H.

    1993-01-01

    Amylin was isolated from human insulinomas, but there has been only preliminary data regarding whether this peptide can also be detected in other types of gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining of 87 gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors demonstrated amylin immunoreactivity in 21.8% of the neoplasmas. Thirteen of 15 insulinomas, three of 21 gastrinomas, two of 29 nonfunctioning tumors, and one of 18 carcinoids were amylin-immunoreactive. ...

  19. Effect of treadmill exercise on blood glucose, serum corticosterone levels and glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in the hippocampus in chronic diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Koo; Yi, Sun Shin; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Park, Ok Kyu; Yan, Bingchun; Song, Wook; Won, Moo-Ho; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Seong, Je Kyung

    2011-02-01

    Abnormal excess of glucocorticoid is one of feature characteristics in type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise at chronic diabetic stages on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus, which are very vulnerable to diabetes. For this study, we used Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats. Twenty-three-week-old ZLC and ZDF rats were put on the treadmill with or without running for 7 weeks and sacrificed at 30 weeks of age. Treadmill exercise significantly decreased diabetes-induced blood glucose and serum corticosteroid levels although they did not drop to control levels. In sedentary ZLC rats, GR immunoreactivity was detected in pyramidal cells of the CA1 region as well as in granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In the sedentary ZDF rats, GR immunoreactivity was significantly increased in these regions. However, treadmill exercise significantly decreased GR immunoreactivity in these regions. These results indicate that treadmill exercise in chronic diabetic rats significantly decreased GR immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus, although blood glucose and serum corticosteroid levels did not fully recover to normal state. PMID:21076867

  20. Rapid renal clearance of immunoreactive canine plasma myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rates and mechanisms of myoglobin removal from plasma were examined in closed-chest dogs, using disappearance patterns of immunoreactivity and radioactivity after i.v. canine myoglobin radiolabeled with 125I. Arterial immunoreactive myoglobin concentration decreased monoexponentially over a 2-decade range, with rate constants of disappearance averaging -0.080 +/- 0.014 min-1 (+/- SD). Renal arteriovenous difference in immunoreactive myoglobin concentration documented extraction of the parent molecule, with extraction ratios averaging 0.36 +/- 0.06. Renal venous specific activity increased a few minutes after myoglobin administration, consistent with discharge from the kidney of nonimmunoreactive radiolabeled peptides of the parent molecule. Arterial disappearance of 125I was subsequently delayed in relation to immunoreactive myoglobin. Urinary recoveries of immunoreactive parent molecule and radiolabeled constituents were limited, averaging 2.5 +/- 1.1% and 12 +/- 1.1% over a 6-hour period. Arterial rate, constants of disappearance of immunoreactive myoglobin decreased markedly with decreases in renal perfusion produced by obstruction of renal arterial inflow. Researchers conclude that myoglobin entering the vascular space is normally cleared rapidly by renal catabolism. Seven myoglobin concentration-time patterns during acute myocardial infarction directly reflect patterns of protein entry into the vascular space after release from injured tissuee from injured tissue

  1. Immunoreactivity and expression of amylin in gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissele, R.; Neuhaus, C.; Trautmann, M. E.; Funk, A.; Arnold, R.; Höfler, H.

    1993-01-01

    Amylin was isolated from human insulinomas, but there has been only preliminary data regarding whether this peptide can also be detected in other types of gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining of 87 gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors demonstrated amylin immunoreactivity in 21.8% of the neoplasmas. Thirteen of 15 insulinomas, three of 21 gastrinomas, two of 29 nonfunctioning tumors, and one of 18 carcinoids were amylin-immunoreactive. Seventeen of the 19 amylin-immunoreactive tumors were primarily located in the pancreas, but two tumors were found in the intestine. Measurements of amylin messenger RNA expression in a few tumors revealed amylin synthesis in these tumors. Amylin immunoreactivity did not correlate with invasion and metastasis. However, the rate of curative resections was significantly higher in amylin-immunoreactive tumors. These results demonstrate for the first time that amylin immunoreactivity is not restricted to insulinomas and can also occur rarely in endocrine tumors of the intestine. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8317551

  2. Identification of immunoreactive proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Cristian; Soggiu, Alessio; Bonizzi, Luigi; Greco, Viviana; Ricchi, Matteo; Arrigoni, Norma; Bassols, Anna; Urbani, Andrea; Roncada, Paola

    2015-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of a chronic enteritis of ruminants (bovine paratuberculosis (PTB)-Johne's disease) that is associated with enormous worldwide economic losses for the animal production. Diagnosis is based on observation of clinical signs, the detection of antibodies in milk or serum, or evaluation of bacterial culture from feces. The limit of these methods is that they are not able to detect the disease in the subclinical stage and are applicable only when the disease is already advanced. For this reason, the main purpose of this study is to use the MAP proteome to detect novel immunoreactive proteins that may be helpful for PTB diagnoses. 2DE and 2D immunoblotting of MAP proteins were performed using sera of control cattle and PTB-infected cattle in order to highlight the specific immunoreactive proteins. Among the assigned identifiers to immunoreactive spots it was found that most of them correspond to surface-located proteins while three of them have never been described before as antigens. The identification of these proteins improves scientific knowledge that could be useful for PTB diagnoses. The sequence of the identified protein can be used for the synthesis of immunoreactive peptides that could be screened for their immunoreaction against bovine sera infected with MAP. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange consortium with identifier PXD001159 and DOI 10.6019/PXD001159. PMID:25404104

  3. TDP-43 Pathology in a Case of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia with a NIPA1/SPG6 Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-lage, Maria; Molina-porcel, Laura; Falcone, Dana; Mccluskey, Leo; Lee, Virginia M. -y; Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in NIPA1 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome) have been described as a cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) known as SPG6 (spastic paraplegia-6). We present the first neuropathological description of a patient with a NIPA1 mutation, and clinical phenotype of complicated HSP with motor neuron disease-like syndrome and cognitive decline. Postmortem examination revealed degeneration of lateral corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns with motor ne...

  4. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  5. Immunoreactivity of 125I-papain labelled by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different methods of papain iodination (with chloramine-T, lactoperoxidase and conjugation with Bolton-Hunter reagent) have been compared. The highest yield of 125I-papain could be obtained using lactoperoxidase which enabled to achieve the highest immunoreactivity. 125I-papain, labelled this way, is suitable for the radioimmunoassay of papain. (author)

  6. Localization in the gastrointestinal tract of immunoreactive prosomatostatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    Antisera against 5 different regions of the entire prosomatostatin molecule were used for immunohistochemical mapping of prosomatostatin-containing structures in the pig gastrointestinal tract, and for radioimmunological and chromatographical analysis of the products of prosomatostatin in extracts of ileal mucosa. The latter showed that the antisera were capable of identifying components containing N-terminal as well as C-terminal parts of prosomatostatin. Endocrine cells were identified with all antisera in most parts of the gastrointestinal tract, and varicose nerve fibres were observed in all parts of the small intestine but not in the stomach and the colon. The colon contained very few immunoreactive structures. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were found in the submucous plexus of the small intestine. All immunoreactive endocrine cells in the stomach and the duodenum and all immunoreactive nerves were stained by all 5 antisera whereas the small intestinal endocrine cells did not stain for the most N-terminal region of prosomatostatin. The results suggest that all gastrointestinal somatostatin is derived from the same precursor molecule, which, however, in the small intestinal endocrine cells is processed differently from that of the other tissues.

  7. Identification, characterization, and distribution of secretin immunoreactivity in rat and pig brain.

    OpenAIRE

    O Donohue, T. L.; Charlton, C. G.; Miller, R. L.; Boden, G.; Jacobowitz, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Secretin immunoreactivity was detected in the central nervous system of the rat and pig with a highly specific radioimmunoassay. The secretin immunoreactivity in the rat and pig brain and duodenum extracts was fractionated by using a reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic system. The immunoreactive secretin from pig brain and duodenum coeluted precisely with synthetic porcine secretin. However, immunoreactive secretin extracted from rat brain and duodenum eluted slightly before po...

  8. Cholinergic, somatostatin-immunoreactive interneurons in the guinea pig intestine: morphology, ultrastructure, connections and projections.

    OpenAIRE

    Portbury, A. L.; Pompolo, S.; Furness, J. B.; Stebbing, M. J.; Kunze, W. A.; Bornstein, J. C.; Hughes, S.

    1995-01-01

    The shape, projection, ultrastructure and chemistry of interneurons that were initially identified by their immunoreactivity for somatostatin in the small intestine of the guinea pig were examined. Somatostatin immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and nerve fibres were located in the myenteric plexus. Simultaneous labelling for 2 antigens revealed that the somatostatin immunoreactive interneurons were also immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase, but not for calbindin or neuropeptide Y. Cell...

  9. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones are the problem, doctors call the problem dysfunctional uterine bleeding, or DUB. Abnormal bleeding caused by ... by KA Oriel, MD, and S Schrager, MD (American Family Physician August 01, 1999, http://www.aafp.org/ ...

  10. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, Anne S.; Chow, Eva W. C.; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2000-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significa...

  11. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity after intestinal resection in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    Neurotensin is a tridecapeptide located mainly in the distal small intestine. The present study was carried out in order to investigate the neurotensin response after proximal small intestinal resection in the rat. After resection, the median plasma concentration of neurotensin like immunoreactivity (NTLI) was unchanged compared with sham operated rats. Intragastric instillation of fat increased the plasma concentration of NTLI from 45 pmol/l (34-63) in sham operated rats to 92 pmol/l (46-121) in resected rats. No significant increase in the plasma concentration of NTLI was found after intragastric instillation of amino acids or glucose. The tissue concentration of NTLI increased significantly in the jejunum and ileum after proximal small intestinal resection, while the number of immunoreactive neurotensin cells was unchanged. This study shows that the adaptive responses in the distal small intestine after proximal small intestinal resection also involve the neurotensin producing cells.

  12. Insulin-like immunoreactive substances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatography on G50 or G100 sephadex column of rat plasma or serum divides up the insulin-like immunoreactive material into three peaks: monomere insulin, proinsulin and a fraction of molecular weight between 50 and 100,000. This fraction is virtually absent (less than 1%) from immunoreactive material extracted from the pancreas. Comparison of the results obtained by methods using double or simple antibodies (charcoal dextran) and study of fixation in vitro of labelled insulin, taken up by various plasma proteins, suggest that the high molecular weight material includes insulin more or less broken down and linked to proteins. Furthermore, when a double antibody method is used, the alpha globulins and albumin in the rat present also an insulin-like reactivity. This disadvantage does not occur with the charcoal dextran method which is more specific

  13. gamma. sub 2 -MSH immunoreactivity in the human heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, R.; Bjartell, A.; Lisander, J.; Edvinsson, L. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    In patients undergoing aorto-coronary by-pass surgery, we found a 26% arterial-venous difference of immunoreactive {gamma}{sub 2}-melanocytostimulating hormone (MSH), a proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived peptide known to possess profound hemodynamic effects. These results prompted an investigation of the presence of {gamma}{sub 2}-MSH in the human heart. Using a two-step extraction procedure, regions of human hearts were examined by sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays to determine their {gamma}{sub 2}-MSH content. Mean ({plus minus} SEM) concentrations of 0.14 {plus minus} 0.023 pmol/g and 0.12 {plus minus} 0.017 were found in right atrium and right ventricle, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography indicated that 80-90 % of the total immunoreactivity eluted in a single sharp peak in a position identical to that of synthetic {gamma}{sub 2}-MSH.

  14. Relationships among Parvalbumin-Immunoreactive Neuron Density, Phase-Locked Gamma Oscillations, and Autistic/Schizophrenic Symptoms in PDGFR-? Knock-Out and Control Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Takamura, Yusaku; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits and negative symptoms are important therapeutic targets for schizophrenia and autism disorders. Although reduction of phase-locked gamma oscillation has been suggested to be a result of reduced parvalbumin-immunoreactive (putatively, GABAergic) neurons, no direct correlations between these have been established in these disorders. In the present study, we investigated such relationships during pharmacological treatment with a newly synthesized drug, T-817MA, which displays neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. In this study, we used platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? gene knockout (PDGFR-? KO) mice as an animal model of schizophrenia and autism. These mutant mice display a reduction in social behaviors; deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI); reduced levels of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the medical prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and superior colliculus; and a deficit in of auditory phase-locked gamma oscillations. We found that oral administration of T-817MA ameliorated all these symptoms in the PDGFR-? KO mice. Furthermore, phase-locked gamma oscillations were significantly correlated with the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons, which was, in turn, correlated with PPI and behavioral parameters. These findings suggest that recovery of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons by pharmacological intervention relieved the reduction of phase-locked gamma oscillations and, consequently, ameliorated PPI and social behavioral deficits. Thus, our findings suggest that phase-locked gamma oscillations could be a useful physiological biomarker for abnormality of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons that may induce cognitive deficits and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and autism, as well as of effective pharmacological interventions in both humans and experimental animals. PMID:25803852

  15. Restraint stress activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive brain nuclei in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel, Miriam; Stengel, Andreas; Wang, Lixin; Tache?, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a newly discovered peptide that was reported to reduce food intake when injected centrally. We recently described its wide distribution in rat brain autonomic nuclei which implies potential recruitment of nesfatin-1 by stress. We investigated whether restraint, a mixed psychological and physical stressor activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were either subjected to 30 min restraint or left undisturbed and 90 min later brains...

  16. Influence of feeding on serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Jm, Steiner; Cg, Ruaux; Da, Williams

    2014-01-01

    Jörg M Steiner, Craig G Ruaux, David A Williams Gastrointestinal Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Measurement of serum concentration of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) has been shown to be highly specific for exocrine pancreatic function and sensitive for the diagnosis of canine pancreatitis. Currently, it is recommended that food be withheld for at least 12 hours before collecting a...

  17. Glyoxalase I activity and immunoreactivity in the aging human lens

    OpenAIRE

    Mailankot, Maneesh; Padmanabha, Smitha; Pasupuleti, Nagarekha; Major, Denice; Howell, Scott; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2009-01-01

    Glyoxalase I (GLOI) is the first enzyme of the glyoxalase system that catalyzes the metabolism of reactive dicarbonyls, such as methylglyoxal (MGO). During aging and cataract development, human lens proteins are chemically modified by MGO, which is likely due to inadequate metabolism of MGO by the glyoxalase system. In this study, we have determined the effect of aging on GLOI activity and the immunoreactivity and morphological distribution of GLOI in the human lens. A monoclonal antibody was...

  18. Increased Caspase-3 Immunoreactivity of Erythrocytes in STZ Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Numan Tamer; Mehmet Sinan Dal; Amp Xf Kalp, Osman G.; Abdullah Çim; Amp Xfc Kbayram, H. Amp Xfc Seyin B. Amp Xfc Y.; Kaya, Sava Amp X. F.; Rat, U. Amp X. F. Ur F. Amp X.

    2012-01-01

    Eryptosis is a term to define apoptosis of erythrocytes. Oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, both of which exist in the diabetic intravascular environment, can trigger eryptosis of erythrocytes. In this experimental study, it is presented that the majority of erythrocytes shows caspase-3 immunoreactivity in streptozocin- (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Besides that, caspase-3 positive erythrocytes are aggregated and attached to vascular endothelium. In conclusion, these results may start a debat...

  19. Reptilian dorsal column nucleus lacks GAD immunoreactive neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, M B; Stritzel, M E

    1989-11-27

    Brains of reptiles, Caiman crocodilus, were processed by standard immunocytochemical methodology using a polyclonal antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) as well as several monoclonal antibodies to GAD. No neurons immunoreactive for GAD, GAD(+), were observed in the dorsal column nucleus, although GAD(+) puncta were seen. These findings suggest that in Caiman, the dorsal column nucleus, like the dorsal thalamus, lacks local circuit neurons. PMID:2611654

  20. Biomolecular immunoreactivity factor in antibody labelling design for potent radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomolecular factors' importance in optimum immunoconjugate design when high specific labelling is attempted is discussed. High specific labelling allows a small dose to be administered avoiding saturating antigen binding sites and to compensate for loss of bivalency etc. upon fragmentation. Clinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications result in adverse toxicity and poor scintigraphic resolution from the corrupted distribution upon labelling. DTPA is a strong chelator and forms a tight sequestering cryptate structure of small dimensions with the radioactive metals Tc-99m and In-111. Size severely affects permeability with reticuloendothelial accumulation. Compact scaled radiolabels are advantageous as potent payload moieties for radiotherapy as well as imaging. The antibody binding site requires close surface contact with its epitope to effect the specificity of immunoreaction. Binding site exposure to coupling chemistry can be directed via affinity purification methodology. The globular antibody with an amphiphilic structure presents conformed surface chemistry and is relatively inert requiring excess reaction stoichiometry. Radiolabelled antibodies to calcitonin (a 32 aminoacid polypeptide ectopic lung tumor antigen) in a solid phase immunoreactivity assay demonstrate 48 hours for 90% uptake. Site directed radiolabelling is of interest in preservation of immunoreactivity in protein engineering. 19 refs., 8 figs

  1. Identification of immunoreactive proteins of Brucella melitensis by immunoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongpeng; Yan, Fang; Ji, Wenhui; Luo, Deyan; Liu, Xin; Xing, Li; Duan, Yueqiang; Yang, Penghui; Shi, Xiumin; Lu, Zhong; Wang, Xiliang

    2011-09-01

    Infection with Brucella causes brucellosis, a chronic disease in humans, which induces abortion and sterility in livestock. Among the different Brucella species, Brucella melitensis is considered the most virulent and is the predominant species associated with outbreaks in China. To date, no safe human vaccine is available against Brucella infection. The currently used live vaccines against Brucella in livestock induce antibodies that interfere with the diagnosis of field infection in vaccinated animals, which is harmful to eradication programs. However, there is as yet no complete profile of immunogenic proteins of B. melitensis. Towards the development of a safer, equally efficacious, and field infection-distinguishable vaccine, we used immunoproteomics to identify novel candidate immunogenic proteins from B. melitensis M5. Eighty-eight immunoreactive protein spots from B. melitensis M5 were identified by Western blotting and were assigned to sixty-one proteins by mass spectrometry, including many new immunoreactive proteins such as elongation factor G, F0F1 ATP synthase subunit beta, and OMP1. These provide many candidate immunoreactive proteins for vaccine development. PMID:21922434

  2. Local abnormal redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Jean-Claude

    2006-04-01

    Observations of "abnormal" (non-Dopplerian) redshifts in the spectrum of nearby sources (the Sun, binary stars, close-by galaxies in groups), and of "abnormal light deflection in the vicinity of the Sun," are presented. Emphasis is given on the need of reconsidering the observations, which have not been seriously considered since the 1970. During the early 1970s, Chip Arp started discovering several cases of "abnormal" (i.e., non-Dopplerian) redshifts in the spectra of extragalactic objects. It is one of the most important observational discoveries of our times, in my opinion. At about the same time, I became interested in the abnormal redshifts found in the spectrum of the Sun. J.-P. Vigier, at the same time, was involved in understanding the nature of the photon, along the lines defined by Louis de Broglie, and he did not accept the idea of a zero rest-mass of the photon. We put our efforts together, and we tried to link the abnormal redshifts observed in the local, nearby, universe as consequences of some "tired-light" mechanism, closely linked with the rest-mass of the photon, which we assumed to be a "non-zero restmass," without actually knowing anything else but an upper value of this rest-mass. I feel it is a need today to remind the audience of these local, solar and others, abnormal redshifts, although they were mentioned extensively several years ago, but they were neither properly confirmed nor really accounted for. Almost all relevant references can be found in our review paper (Pecker 1977).

  3. Localization of Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Rat Retina and the Synaptic Connectivity of Y1 Immunoreactive Cells

    OpenAIRE

    D Angelo, Iona; Oh, Su-ja; Chun, Myung-hoon; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2002-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an inhibitory neuropeptide expressed by a moderately dense population of wide-field amacrine cells in the rat retina, acts through multiple (Y1–y6) G-protein–coupled receptors. This study determined the cellular localization of Y1 receptors and the synaptic connectivity of Y1 processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina. Specific Y1 immunoreactivity was localized to horizontal cell bodies in the distal inner nuclear layer and their processes in the ...

  4. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  5. The value of immunoreactive lipase in acute pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    We have evaluated a new agglutination test for serum immunoreactive lipase in 24 patients with abdominal pain and hyperamylasaemia. On admission all 20 patients with acute pancreatitis had a positive lipase test, 3 of the 4 patients who did not have pancreatitis had a negative lipase test. The sensitivity of the lipase test on day 1 is 100%, the specificity 96% and predictive value of a positive test is 95.2% compared to 83% for amylase. A negative test excludes pancreatitis. In addition, the...

  6. Enzyme immunoassay of immunoreactive trypsin in serum and blood spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme immunoassay method for the assay of serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) is described. The method is a two site binding assay carried out on microtitre plates as the solid phase. Wells were coated with affinity purified anti-human trypsin and bioinylated anti-trypsin and avidin-?-galactosidase were used as the second antibody and detection system respectively. The assay was sensitive enough to determine IRT concentrations in either serum or dried blood spots. A good correlation was obtained when the method was compared with the Hoechst radioimmunoassay method. (Author)

  7. Immunoreactivity examination of patients with testicular tumours treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the immunoreactivity study of 72 patients receiving radiotherapy are presented. Tuberculin and DNCB (2,4 dinitrochlorobenzol) reactivity tests were performed before, during and 3 years after the radiation therapy and at the time when metastases appeared. The number of positive reactions decreased slightly in both tuberculin and DNCB groups, though not significantly. Metastatic patients showed a significant decrease of reactivity against DNCB as compared with the results obtained before the treatment. In 5,6% of patients herpes zoster was registered. No other infections occured. It was found that immunosuppression caused by the radiation treatment does not influence the later fate of patients with testicular tumours. (author)

  8. Small skeletal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, the skeletal imaging capabilities of digital radiography with storage phosphors have been poorly investigated, and the diagnostic accuracy ofthis technique has not been thoroughly assessed. To evaluate the performance of storage phosphor digital radiography we compared 66 conventional and 66 digital radiographs of small abnormalities of the extremities (fractures, erosions, calcifications). Conventional images were obtained with a low-speed screen-film system while digital ones were acquired with high resolution (5lp/mm max) phosphors and laser-printed on a 8'x10' film. Two experienced radiologist defined the gold standard (389 abnormalities) and four radiologist scored the findings (1,556 observations) on a five-point discrete scale. ROC analysis indicated film and storage radiography to be equally effective in the overall detection of abnormalities. No difference was found in the individual performances of the four readers in the site subclasses (wrist, hand) and in the specific detection of fractures and erosions. Digital radiography proved to be superior to conventional radiography in the detection of calcifications in all sites and particularly in the wrist (p<0.05). Storage phosphor radiography may replace conventional radiography of the extremities without causing any significant decrease in diagnostic accuracy

  9. Parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, I.; Zujar, M. J.; Admella, C.; Alcantara, S.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the morphology and distribution of nonpyramidal neurons in the brain of insectivores, parvalbumin and calbindin 28 kDa immunoreactivity was examined in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were found in all layers of the isocortex, but in contrast to other mammals, a laminar organisation or specific regional distribution was not seen. Characteristic parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were multipolar cells with large ascendi...

  10. Effect of inescapable stress in rodent models of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder on CRH and vasopressin immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, Vera; Rybnikova, E; Pivina, S

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to reveal possible common and specific neuroendocrine mechanisms of depression and anxiety-like states in rodents. Animal models of depression and anxiety (in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD) were applied including the learned helplessness and the stress-restress paradigms, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that depressive- and anxiety-like states in animals were accompanied by the rise in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) immunoreactivity in the parvocellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Decrease in vasopressin-immunoreactivity in early period of depressive-like state development was followed by the normalization of vasopressin content in the hypothalamic PVN in delayed period. Increased CRH and vasopressin immunoreactivity in the magnocellular part of the PVN in delayed period of anxiety-like state development was detected only in the stress-restress paradigm. These results suggest that CRH hyperdrive in the parvocellular PVN appears to be a common neuroendocrine abnormality for depressive- and anxiety-like states in animals, while over-expression of CRH and vasopressin in the magnocellular PVN represents a specific feature of anxiety/PTSD-like state. PMID:24317347

  11. Distribution of parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the human amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, H; Soininen, H; Paljärvi, L; Karkola, K; Pitkänen, A

    1995-09-18

    The calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin, was localized immunohistochemically in the human amygdaloid complex. Neuronal cell bodies and fibers that are immunoreactive to parvalbumin were observed in most of the amygdaloid nuclei and cortical areas. Three types of immunoreactive aspiny neurons, ranging from small spherical cells (type 1) to large multipolar cells (type 2) and fusiform cells (type 3), were observed. The densities of the types of neurons that were parvalbumin-immunoreactive varied in the different regions of the amygdala. The highest densities of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the lateral nucleus, in the magnocellular and intermediate divisions of the basal nucleus, in the magnocellular division of the accessory basal nucleus and in the amygdalohippocampal area. The regions containing the lowest density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were the paralaminar nucleus, the parvicellular division of the basal nucleus, the central nucleus, the medial nucleus and the anterior cortical nucleus. In general, the distribution of immunoreactive fibers and terminals paralleled that of immunoreactive cells. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive varicose fibers formed basket-like plexi and cartridges around the unstained neurons, which suggests that parvalbumin is located in GABAergic basket cells and chandelier cells, respectively. The distribution of parvalbumin-immunoreactive profiles in the human amygdaloid complex was similar to, rather than different from that previously reported in the monkey amygdala (Pitkänen and Amaral [1993] J. Comp. Neurol. 331:14-36). This study provides baseline information about the organization of GABAergic inhibitory circuitries in the human amygdaloid complex. PMID:8522643

  12. Enkephalin-like immunoreactivity within the telencephalon of the reptile Caiman crocodilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauth, S E

    1984-02-01

    Immunohistochemical methods were used to characterize the distribution of staining for leucine enkephalin-like and methionine enkephalin-like immunoreactivities in the telencephalon of Caiman crocodilus. Very similar distributions of both leucine enkephalin-like and methionine enkephalin-like immunoreactivity were observed. The greatest accumulations of enkephalin-like immunoreactive material were observed within the ventrolateral area of the telencephalon, a region considered comparable to the mammalian corpus striatum and avian paleostriatal complex (i.e. basal ganglia) on the basis of embryological, anatomical and histochemical criteria. Within the ventrolateral area, many small immunoreactive neuron cell bodies were observed, particularly within the rostromedial small-celled component of the ventrolateral telencephalic area. A rich plexus of fibers displaying enkephalin-like immunoreactivity invests the entire ventrolateral area including the large-celled subdivision. A system of thick, coarse, radially-directed immunoreactive fibers running between medial and dorsal portions of the ventrolateral area and more ventral portions was observed in this study. Other structures in the caiman telencephalon, containing large numbers of neural elements displaying enkephalin-like immunoreactivity, were the ventral paleostriatum (a region considered comparable to the ventral pallidum of mammals), the lateral septal nucleus and the nucleus accumbens. The corticoid areas contained far fewer elements displaying enkephalin-like immunoreactivity, although immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies were observed within the medial, dorsal and lateral corticoid areas, particularly at caudal levels. The dorsal ventricular ridge contains the lowest number of immunoreactive cells and fibers of any structure within the caiman telencephalon although occasional neurons displaying enkephalin-like immunoreactivity were encountered in the dorsal ventricular ridge. The results are compared to the distribution of enkephalin within the cerebral hemispheres of mammals, birds and other reptiles. PMID:6371580

  13. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorge Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

  14. [Immunoreaction and blood transfusion--chairmen's introductory remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Tsutomu; Matsushita, Tadashi

    2013-05-01

    Although blood transfusion is an extremely important therapeutic procedure that usually proceeds without complications, there are some risks associated with donated blood. Investigations into the causes of transfusion reactions and their prevention are important issues for transfusion therapy. In addition to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for infectious diseases and the irradiation of blood to prevent post-transfusion GVHD, prestorage leukocyte reduction and diversion of the first part of the donation of blood were recently introduced into transfusion therapy. This symposium, entitled "Immunoreaction and blood transfusion", reviewed the immune responses associated with blood transfusion, which is probably the most frequent medical procedure performed in allogeneic organ transplantation, with four themes provided by the four featured invited speakers: transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transfusion-transmitted infectious disease surveillance, and transfusion-related immunomodulation. PMID:23947177

  15. Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in some dorsal thalamic nuclei in Crocodilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, M B; Stritzel, M E

    1994-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) immunocytochemical properties of thalamic nuclei known to project to the telencephalon were investigated in reptiles, Caiman crocodilus and Alligator mississippiensis, by monoclonal antibodies to GAD epitopes designated as GAD-1, GAD-2 and GAD-5. GAD-immunoreactive puncta were observed with all three monoclonal antibodies in the following dorsal thalamic nuclei by avidin-biotin complex methodology: dorsolateralis anterior, dorsomedialis anterior, diagonalis, rotundus, reuniens pars centralis and pars diffusa, and the medialis complex. In general, immunoreactivity to GAD was more robust in Alligator than in Caiman. GAD-2 immunoreactivity was more intense than immunoreactivity to GAD-1 or GAD-5 at similar antibody concentrations in both species. Thalamic nuclei varied in the pattern and intensity of GAD (+)puncta staining in Caiman and Alligator. No GAD-immunoreactive neurons were observed in any of these seven thalamic nuclei with any GAD antibody in either species. PMID:7517022

  16. A rare stapes abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  17. Eye movement abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  18. Plant equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention comprises a plurality of acoustic or oscillation sensors, an A/D convertor for sampling signal data at the highest frequency among abnormal sounds to be monitored, a schedule control section for indicating a frequency corresponding to each of the abnormality and a method for discriminating the abnormality, a data extraction section for extracting required data in accordance with the frequency indicated by the A/D conversed data, and an abnormal sound discriminating and processing section for discriminating the abnormal sound. Namely, signals from the sensor are put to A/D conversion at a sampling frequency at least twice of the highest frequency of the abnormal sounds. Only the data required for discriminating the abnormal sounds are extracted and discriminated in accordance with the indication of the scheduling control section. Accordingly, abnormal sounds are surely captured and discriminated. More then two abnormal sounds can reliably be captured at a time to increase the processing speed. The number of sensors and thus the number of devices to be monitored can be increased. (N.H.)

  19. Abnormal enteric nerve morphology in atretic esophagus of fetal rats with adriamycin-induced esophageal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W; Bishop, A E; Spitz, L; Polak, J M

    1999-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is common in children after successful repair of esophageal atresia (EA), and may be related to a congenital neuronal abnormality of the esophagus. This study employed a fetal rat model of adriamycin-induced EA to investigate whether the innervation of the esophagus is abnormal in EA. The fetal rats were divided into four groups: (1) normal controls; (2) a saline-injected controls; (3) adriamycin administered but without the development of EA; and (4) adriamycin-induced EA. The distal esophageal segments were immunostained with a general neural marker, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP). Immunoreactivity per cross-sectional area (/xsa) was measured with an image analyzer. The extent of the esophageal circumference encircled by PGP-stained nerve tissue was assessed. While there was no significant difference in PGP immunoreactivity/xsa between the groups, the near-complete ring of nerve tissue along the plane of the myenteric plexus was replaced by clusters of nerve tissue in the atretic group (normal vs EA, P = 0. 001, Mann-Whitney U test). The abnormal distribution of nerve tissue in the atretic esophagus may be contributing factor in the esophageal dysmotility seen in EA. PMID:9914345

  20. Abnormalities of the globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although much has been published in the radiology literature on the multitudinous conditions affecting the bony orbit, there has been relatively little on diseases confined to the globe itself. As current cross-sectional imaging techniques evolve, the globes can be visualized in ever greater detail, facilitating the recognition of even fairly subtle disease entities in this region. Indeed, the fact that high-resolution detailed images of this area are achievable without significant time or radiation penalty when evaluating surrounding structures means that incidental disease is not infrequently encountered. As such, common disease entities in this region are of interest to the general radiologist and the diagnosis of globe disease need not be the remit of experienced observers in specialist centres. At our institutions we have recently encountered a number of cases covering a broad spectrum of diagnoses including traumatic, neoplastic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and infective aetiologies. The purpose of this review is to briefly revise the pertinent anatomical and physiological properties of the globe and to familiarize the reader with the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of a number of these disease states. The collection of abnormalities included is not intended to be exhaustive, merely representative, with the emphasis towards those more commonly encountered.

  1. Microanatomical localization of dopamine receptor protein immunoreactivity in the rat cerebellar cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, P; Bronzetti, E; Ricci, A; Zaccheo, D; Amenta, F

    2000-01-31

    Dopamine (DA) receptor subtype localization was investigated in rat cerebellar cortex using immunohistochemical techniques with antibodies raised against D1-D5 receptor protein. A faint D1 receptor protein immunoreactivity was developed in molecular and Purkinje neurons layers. D2 receptor protein immunoreactivity was found primarily in cerebellar white matter followed by molecular and granular layers and Purkinje neurons. Antibodies against D2S receptor protein were localized in molecular layer and to a lesser extent, in granular layer. A few Purkinje neurons displayed a faint D2S receptor protein immunoreactivity. D3 receptor protein immunoreactivity was observed primarily in molecular and in Purkinje neurons layers of lobules 9 and 10. A faint D3 receptor protein immunoreactivity was also localized in Purkinje neurons and to a lesser extent, in molecular and granular layers of cerebellar lobules 1-8. D4 receptor protein immunoreactivity was found in cerebellar white matter. A pale immunostaining was also visualized in molecular layer. D5 receptor protein immunoreactivity was localized primarily in molecular and Purkinje neurons layers and to a lesser extent, in granular layer and in white matter. The above results indicate that rat cerebellar cortex expresses the DA receptor subtypes so far identified. Purkinje neurons, which are the only efferent neurons of cerebellum, are richest in DA receptor protein immunoreactivity. This suggests that dopaminergic neurotransmission may modulate efferent inputs from cerebellum. The localization of the majority of D2 and D4 and of a faint D5 protein receptor immunoreactivity in cerebellar white matter suggests that these receptors may be presynaptic and transported axonally. PMID:10784114

  2. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  3. Immunoreactive oxytocin and vasopressin in the non-pregnant human uterus and oviductal isthmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, S; Forman, Axel

    1989-01-01

    The regional distribution of immunoreactive OT and AVP in the human uterus was investigated. Specimens of non-pregnant human uterus and oviduct were homogenized and extracted. The tissue levels exceeded the plasma concentrations of the peptides. The largest quantities of both peptides were found in the cervix and oviductal isthmus. The amounts found in the uterine fundus and isthmus were, however, not significantly different. Only 23% of immunoreactive OT eluted in the position of standard peptide on high-performance liquid chromatography. All immunoreactive AVP eluted with standard AVP after additional ether extraction of octadecasilyl extracts. We conclude that the human uterus contains materials immunologically and chromatographically identical to oxytocin and vasopressin.

  4. Immunoreactive inhibin concentration in blood tested under variable sampling conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan; Micic, S

    1996-01-01

    The stability of immunoreactive (i.r.) inhibin in blood samples drawn and handled under different conditions and at different time intervals were studied. Ten serum and plasma samples drawn in 1994 from healthy volunteers were compared to samples collected in 1986 from 10 healthy women admitted for laparoscopic sterilization and analysed 6 years later. All samples were drawn on the twelfth day of the menstrual cycle and handled under identical clinical conditions (22 degrees C). The concentrations in the 1986 samples were similar to the Se-i.r. inhibin levels from 1994. Different clotting temperatures, repetitive freezing and thawing or hemolysis had no effects on the i.r. inhibin values, whereas non-hemolysed samples left at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days were significantly lower, which might be due to a statistical type 2 error. No differences in concentration between serum and plasma i.r. inhibin were demonstrated. In conclusion, i.r. inhibin is a very stable peptide hormone in both serum and plasma if drawn and handled under normal conditions.

  5. Clinical applications of measurement of serum immunoreactive levels of erythropoietin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification of erythropoietin (Ep) in 1977 enabled investigators to more clearly define the role of this hormone in erythropoiesis in man. Radioimmunoassays were rapidly developed. Undoubtedly differences between levels of immunoreactive and biologically active Ep will be found but the resolution of these discrepancies will expand our understanding of the erythron. Recently others described a monoclonal antibody against Ep. Because of this breakthrough, large quantities of pure hormone should soon be available to a larger number of investigators than currently have access to it. The major clinical use of this hormone will probably be in the treatment of the anemia of chronic renal disease. In the relatively few years since the radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed, measurements of the levels of this hormone have been made in several disease states as well as in normal man. Most of the findings to date confirm the predictions that have been made over the years based on studies done using the rather crude bioassay for Ep. In the present study the authors shall review and expand on what is known about subjects with chronic lung and renal disease

  6. Immunoreactive neuropeptides in the cells of human thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavi? Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to explore the expression of different neuropeptides, viz. vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, bombesin and motilin in the cells of fetal and adult human thymus. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cortical and medullary thymocytes were labeled by all antibodies, except those specific for motilin. Immunoreactive VIP and SP were observed in the solitary epithelial cells located in the subcapsular/subtrabecular cortex, at the corticomedullary junction and in the medulla. The cells within the subcapsular/subtrabecular monolayer, rare solitary cells in the deep cortex and epithelial cell network in the medulla, were labeled with antibodies to CGRP and bombesin. Hassall’s corpuscles were labeled with all antibodies except that specific for SP. The obtained data obtained testify to the expression of different neuropeptides in human thymic lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells and suggest a role for neuroendocrine hormone-mediated mechanisms in the regulation of thymic homeostasis in humans.

  7. Deposition of immunoreactants in a cutaneous allergic drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: The analysis of allergic drug reaction pathology may be difficult, especially if multiple histological reaction patterns are detected on review of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained sections. In this case, we emphasize the value of adding immunohistochemistry (IHC and multicolor direct immunofluorescence (DIF as tools to improve the diagnosis of these complex disorders. Patient and Methods: Our patient is a twenty-year-old Caucasian female, who presented with a sudden onset of erythematous macules on the skin following administration of amoxicillin. Lesional tissue was examined by H & E and IHC, and perilesional tissue by DIF and IHC. Results: The H&E findings revealed diffuse dermal edema, and a mild, superficial, perivascular dermatitis with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, consistent with an allergic drug eruption. The IHC and DIF studies revealed autoreactivity to sweat glands, nerves and dermal blood vessels, as well as dermal deposits of immune reactants such as fibrinogen and complement around the inflamed areas. Conclusions: Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products have been shown in some cases of allergic disorders; thus, we encourage the effect further testing for these immunoreactants in biopsies from patients with possible allergic drug reactions.

  8. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SIE) and hemoglobin levels were measured in 152 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Anemia was present in 18% of asymptomatic patients who tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 50% of patients with a condition related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 75% of patients with AIDS. The mean SIE level for untreated AIDS patients was greater than for patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus or patients with an AIDS-related condition but not outside the normal range for SIE, and the incremental increase in SIE level for a given decline in hemoglobin level was much less in AIDS patients than in patients with uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia. Forty-two patients were treated with zidovudine, and the hemoglobin level fell 10 g/L or more in 48%. The data indicate that SIE level is inappropriately low in anemic AIDS patients. The ability of these patients to produce erythropoietin is intact and can be expressed with zidovudine therapy. However, even very high levels of SIE fail to stimulate erythropoiesis adequately

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment

  10. GnRH-immunoreactive centrifugal visual fibers in the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Médina, Monique; Repérant, Jacques; Miceli, Dom; Ward, Roger; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2005-08-01

    Thin varicose centrifugal visual fibers, between 30-45 in number and displaying cGnRH-I immunoreactivity, were identified in Crocodylus niloticus. Approximately 80% of these fibers were also FMRF-amide-like immunoreactive. The cGnRH-I fibers extended from the preoptic region to the retina where they appeared to terminate in the external portion of the inner plexiform layer. The location of their neurons of origin could not be determined precisely following the intraocular injection of the retrograde axonal tracer RITC. Nevertheless, the presence of cGnRH-I-immunoreactive neurons exclusively within the complex comprising the terminal nerve and the septo-preoptic region, and of several retinopetal fibers labelled retrogradely with the axonal tracer at the septo-preoptic junction, indicates that the cGnRH-immunoreactive centrifugal visual system originates from within this complex. PMID:16002052

  11. Neonatal screening strategy for cystic fibrosis using immunoreactive trypsinogen and direct gene analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, E.; Ryall, R. G.; Morris, C. P.; Nelson, P. V.; Carey, W. F.; Pollard, A. C.; Robertson, E. F.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effectiveness of a two tier neonatal screening strategy for cystic fibrosis, which combines estimation of immunoreactive trypsinogen followed by direct gene analysis in dried blood spot samples collected at age 5 days. DESIGN--Prospective study of two tier screening strategy. The first tier of testing immunoreactive trypsinogen concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates aged 4-5 days. In the second tier direct gene analysis to detect cystic f...

  12. Decreased serotonin transporter immunoreactivity in the human hypothalamic infundibular nucleus of overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnekeAlkemade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: That serotonin plays a role in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy metabolism has been known for a long time. Serotonin transporters (SERT play a crucial role in serotonin signalling by regulating its availability in the synaptic cleft. The neuroanatomy underlying serotonergic signalling in humans is largely unknown, and until now, SERT immunoreactivity in relation to body weight has not been investigated.Objective: To clarify the distribution of SERT immunoreactivity throughout the human hypothalamus and to compare SERT immunoreactivity in the infundibular nucleus (IFN, the human equivalent of the arcuate nucleus, in lean and overweight subjects. Design: First, we investigated the distribution of serotonin transporters (SERT over the rostro-caudal axis of six postmortem hypothalami by means of immunohistochemistry. Second, we estimated SERT immunoreactivity in the IFN of lean and overweight subjects. Lastly, double-labelling of SERT with Neuropeptide Y (NPY and melanocortin cell populations was performed to further identify cells showing basket-like SERT staining. Results: SERT-immunoreactivity was ubiquitously expressed in fibers throughout the hypothalamus and was the strongest in the IFN. Immunoreactivity in the IFN was lower in overweight subjects (p=0.036. Basket-like staining in the IFN was highly suggestive of synaptic innervation. A very small minority of cells showed SERT double labelling with NPY, agouti-related protein and ??melanocyte stimulating hormone. Conclusions: SERT is ubiquitously expressed in the human hypothalamus. Strong SERT immunoreactivity, was observed in the IFN a region important for appetite regulation, in combination with lower SERT immunoreactivity in the IFN of overweight and obese subjects, may point towards a role for hypothalamic SERT in human obesity.

  13. Octopamine-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain and Subesophageal Ganglion of the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta

    OpenAIRE

    Dacks, A. M.; Christensen, T. A.; Agricola, H. -j; Wollweber, L.; Hildebrand, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Octopamine is a neuroactive monoamine that functions as a neurohormone, a neuromodulator and a neurotransmitter in many invertebrate nervous systems, but little is known about the distribution of octopamine in the brain. We therefore used a monoclonal antibody to study the distribution of octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the brain of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. Immunoreactive processes were observed in many regions of the brain, with the distinct exception of the upper division of the cent...

  14. Cholinergic amacrine cells of the rabbit retina contain glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyrate immunoreactivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Brecha, N.; Johnson, D.; Peichl, L.; Wa?ssle, H.

    1988-01-01

    The transmitters acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) play critical roles in the formation of receptive-field properties of retinal ganglion cells. In rabbit retina, cholinergic amacrine and displaced amacrine cells were identified by immunohistochemical staining for the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and by their avid accumulation of the fluorescent dye 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Several GABA-immunoreactive and glutamate decarboxylase-immunoreactive cell types, including a prom...

  15. A simple method to determine the immunoreactivity of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies to the TAG-72 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method has been developed for determining the immunoreactivity of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies to the TAG-72 antigen. The method involves binding of a constant small amount of the antibody to increasing concentrations of bovine submaxillary mucin. The immunoreactive fraction (IRF) is then determined by linear extrapolation of binding to infinite antigen excess. Using this assay, the IRF of radioiodinated anti-TAG-72 antibodies ranged from 0.22-0.48. (author)

  16. Oxaliplatin-induced loss of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit neuronal immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Connor Bronwen; Ip Virginia; Jong Nancy N; Liu Johnson J; Subramaniam Joshuan; Mf, Jamieson Stephen; McKeage Mark J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxaliplatin and related chemotherapeutic drugs cause painful chronic peripheral neuropathies in cancer patients. We investigated changes in neuronal size profiles and neurofilament immunoreactivity in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissue of adult female Wistar rats after multiple-dose treatment with oxaliplatin, cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Results After treatment with oxaliplatin, phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H) immunoreactivity was reduced in ...

  17. Seasonal changes in methionine-enkephalin immunoreactivity in the brain of a hibernator, Spermophilus columbianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurnberger, F; Lee, T F; Jourdan, M L; Wang, L C

    1991-04-26

    To identify the actual location of central endogenous opioid systems which may be involved in regulating the hibernation cycle, differences in the pattern of central methionine-enkephalin (Met-EK) immunoreactivity were compared between hibernating (body temperature, Tb = 7 degrees C) and non-hibernating (Tb = 37 degrees C) Columbian ground squirrels using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique. In non-hibernating animals, Met-EK-immunoreactive perikarya were observed in telencephalic (putamen, caudate nucleus, medial septum-diagonal band complex, amygdala) and diencephalic (periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area) regions, whereas immunoreactive fibers were found in the lateral septum, stria terminalis nucleus, various hypothalamic areas, arcuate nucleus, median eminence, thalamic intralaminar, periventricular nucleus and lateral habenular nucleus. Compared to the non-hibernating animal, a marked increase in the number of Met-EK-immunoreactive fibers was found in the lateral septal nucleus, the periventricular nucleus, the intralaminar thalamus and the paraventricular hypothalamus of hibernating ground squirrels. Since these changes in immunoreactivity were not observed in the artificially induced hypothermic ground squirrels (Tb = 7 degrees C), it is unlikely that the dissimilarity in immunoreactivity between animals from different hibernating phases is due to differences in their Tb. In combination with our previous studies, these results tend to suggest that hibernation may be brought about by an increase in endogenous opioid activity, especially in the lateral septal region. PMID:1860064

  18. Age-related changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes in the rat cerebellar cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, M; Barili, P; Bronzetti, E; Zaccheo, D; Amenta, F

    1999-05-01

    Age-related changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity were investigated in the cerebellar cortex of young (3 months), adult (12 months) and old (24 months) rats using immunohistochemical techniques associated with image analysis. In young rats, cell bodies of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes were found in the white matter and in the granular layer of cerebellar cortex. Radially-oriented branches of astrocytes which are sited in the granular layer were also observed in the molecular layer. The number of GFAP-immunoreactivity astrocytes of white matter was decreased in adult and old rats in comparison with young cohorts, whereas their size increased progressively from 3 to 24 months old. The number and the size of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes of the granular layer was similar in young and adult rats. An increased number and size of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes was noticeable in old rats in comparison with younger cohorts. The number of radially oriented branches of the molecular layer was the same in the three age groups investigated. The above results indicate that GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes of rat cerebellar cortex undergo age-related changes. The not homogeneous sensitivity to aging of cerebellar astrocytes suggests that evaluation of changes of different cell populations of cerebellar cortex should represent an important step of research on aging cerebellum. PMID:10400309

  19. Calcium binding protein immunoreactivity in nucleus rotundus in a reptile, Caiman crocodilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, M B; Siadati, A

    1999-01-01

    Nucleus rotundus is a prominent nucleus in the dorsal thalamus of nonmammalian amniotes. In one group of reptiles, Caiman crocodilus, previous studies have identified three parts of this neuronal aggregate. The central portion, the rotundal core, which receives visual input from the midbrain and projects to a restricted portion of the telencephalon, contains relay cells only. Previous examinations using Nissl morphology indicated that neurons of the rotundal core were not a homogeneous population of cells. The present investigation utilized another methodology to examine cell populations within the rotundal core, immunoreactivity to the calcium binding proteins, calbindin/calretinin and parvalbumin. Light microscopic observations revealed the following features. First, calbindin/calretinin immunoreactive neurons and parvalbumin immunoreactive neurons were present in the rotundal core. Of these two antibodies, immunoreactivity to calbindin/calretinin was much more robust and calbindin/calretinin immunoreactive neurons were more numerous than parvalbumin cells. Second, neurons immunoreactive to either calbindin/calretinin or parvalbumin were not homogeneous but comprised several populations based on perikaryal shape and size and neuronal process morphology. These results are compared with similar data in other amniotes. PMID:10473904

  20. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the amygdala of the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bossowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and morphology of neurons containing somatostatin (SOM was investigated in the amygdala (CA of the pig. The SOM-immunoreactive (SOM-IR cell bodies and fibres were present in all subdivisions of the porcine CA, however, their number and density varied depending on the nucleus studied. The highest density of SOM-positive somata was observed in the layer III of the cortical nuclei, in the anterior (magnocellular part of the basomedial nucleus and in the caudal (large-celled part of the lateral nucleus. Moderate to high numbers of SOM-IR cells were also observed in the medial and basolateral nuclei. Many labeled neurons were also consistently observed in the lateral part of the central nucleus. In the remaining CA regions, the density of SOM-positive cell bodies varied from moderate to low. In any CA region studied SOM-IR neurons formed heterogeneous population consisting of small, rounded or slightly elongated cell bodies, with a few poorly branched smooth dendrites. In general, morphological features of these cells clearly resembled the non-pyramidal Golgi type II interneurons. The routine double-labeling studies with antisera directed against SOM and neuropeptide Y (NPY demonstrated that a large number of SOM-IR cell bodies and fibers in all studied CA areas contained simultaneously NPY. In contrast, co-localization of SOM and cholecystokinin (CCK or SOM and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP was never seen in cell bodies and fibres in any of nuclei studied. In conclusion, SOM-IR neurons of the porcine amygdala form large and heterogeneous subpopulation of, most probably, interneurons that often contain additionally NPY. On the other hand, CCK- and/or VIP-IR neurons belonged to another, discrete subpopulations of porcine CA neurons.

  1. Induction of Fos protein immunoreactivity by spinal cord contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Del-Bel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify neurons in the central nervous system that respond to spinal contusion injury in the rat by monitoring the expression of the nuclear protein encoded by the c-fos gene, an activity-dependent gene, in spinal cord and brainstem regions. Rats were anesthetized with urethane and the injury was produced by dropping a 5-g weight from 20.0 cm onto the exposed dura at the T10-L1 vertebral level (contusion group. The spinal cord was exposed but not lesioned in anesthetized control animals (laminectomy group; intact animals were also subjected to anesthesia (intact control. Behavioral alterations were analyzed by Tarlov/Bohlman scores, 2 h after the procedures and the animals were then perfused for immunocytochemistry. The patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI which were site-specific, reproducible and correlated with spinal laminae that respond predominantly to noxious stimulation or injury: laminae I-II (outer substantia gelatinosa and X and the nucleus of the intermediolateral cell column. At the brain stem level FLI was detected in the reticular formation, area postrema and solitary tract nucleus of lesioned animals. No Fos staining was detected by immunocytochemistry in the intact control group. However, detection of FLI in the group submitted to anesthesia and surgical procedures, although less intense than in the lesion group, indicated that microtraumas may occur which are not detected by the Tarlov/Bohlman scores. There is both a local and remote effect of a distal contusion on the spinal cord of rats, implicating sensory neurons and centers related to autonomic control in the reaction to this kind of injury.

  2. Induction of Fos protein immunoreactivity by spinal cord contusion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.A., Del-Bel; C.A.G., Borges; H.L.A., Defino; F.S., Guimarães.

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to identify neurons in the central nervous system that respond to spinal contusion injury in the rat by monitoring the expression of the nuclear protein encoded by the c-fos gene, an activity-dependent gene, in spinal cord and brainstem regions. Rats were anest [...] hetized with urethane and the injury was produced by dropping a 5-g weight from 20.0 cm onto the exposed dura at the T10-L1 vertebral level (contusion group). The spinal cord was exposed but not lesioned in anesthetized control animals (laminectomy group); intact animals were also subjected to anesthesia (intact control). Behavioral alterations were analyzed by Tarlov/Bohlman scores, 2 h after the procedures and the animals were then perfused for immunocytochemistry. The patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) which were site-specific, reproducible and correlated with spinal laminae that respond predominantly to noxious stimulation or injury: laminae I-II (outer substantia gelatinosa) and X and the nucleus of the intermediolateral cell column. At the brain stem level FLI was detected in the reticular formation, area postrema and solitary tract nucleus of lesioned animals. No Fos staining was detected by immunocytochemistry in the intact control group. However, detection of FLI in the group submitted to anesthesia and surgical procedures, although less intense than in the lesion group, indicated that microtraumas may occur which are not detected by the Tarlov/Bohlman scores. There is both a local and remote effect of a distal contusion on the spinal cord of rats, implicating sensory neurons and centers related to autonomic control in the reaction to this kind of injury.

  3. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormalities and their possible effects on mother and baby. What is single umbilical artery? About 1 percent of singleton and about 5 percent of multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets or more) have an umbilical cord that contains ...

  4. GFAP immunoreactivity within the rat nucleus ambiguus after laryngeal nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdugo-Vega, G; Arias-Gil, G; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Davies, D C; Vázquez, T; Pascual-Font, A

    2014-11-01

    Changes that occur in astroglial populations of the nucleus ambiguus after recurrent (RLN) or superior (SLN) laryngeal nerve injury have hitherto not been fully characterised. In the present study, rat RLN and SLN were lesioned. After 3, 7, 14, 28 or 56 days of survival, the nucleus ambiguus was investigated by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescence or a combination of GFAP immunofluorescence and the application of retrograde tracers. GFAP immunoreactivity was significantly increased 3 days after RLN resection and it remained significantly elevated until after 28 days post injury (dpi). By 56 dpi it had returned to basal levels. In contrast, following RLN transection with repair, GFAP immunoreactivity was significantly elevated at 7 dpi and remained significantly elevated until 14 dpi. It had returned to basal levels by 28 dpi. Topographical analysis of the distribution of GFAP immunoreactivity revealed that after RLN injury, GFAP immunoreactivity was increased beyond the area of the nucleus ambiguus within which RLN motor neuron somata were located. GFAP immunoreactivity was also observed in the vicinity of neuronal somata that project into the uninjured SLN. Similarly, lesion of the SLN resulted in increased GFAP immunoreactivity around the neuronal somata projecting into it and also in the vicinity of the motor neuron somata projecting into the RLN. The increase in GFAP immunoreactivity outside of the region containing the motor neurons projecting into the injured nerve, may reflect the onset of a regenerative process attempting to compensate for impairment of one of the laryngeal nerves and may occur because of the dual innervation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. This dual innervation of a very specialised muscle could provide a useful model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying axonal regeneration process and the results of the current study could provide the basis for studies into functional regeneration following laryngeal nerve injury, with subsequent application to humans. PMID:25181319

  5. Endogenous progesterone levels and frontotemporal dementia: modulation of TDP-43 and Tau levels in vitro and treatment of the A315T TARDBP mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Theresa N. T.; Dobson-stone, Carol; Glaros, Elias N.; Kim, Woojin S.; Hallupp, Marianne; Bartley, Lauren; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Double, Kay L.; Schofield, Peter R.; Crouch, Peter J.; Kwok, John B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is associated with motor neurone disease (FTD-MND), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS). Together, this group of disorders constitutes a major cause of young-onset dementia. One of the three clinical variants of FTD is progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), which is focused on in this study. The steroid hormone progesterone (PROG) is known to have an important role as a neurosteroid with potent neuroprotective and promyel...

  6. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in neurological diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rui, Póvoa; Luciano, Cavichio; Ana Lúcia de, Almeida; Danielle, Viotti; Celso, Ferreira; Luciane, Galvão; João, Pimenta.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with neurologic diseases. METHODS: We studied 161 patients with neurologic disorders by analyzing the 12-lead electrocardiogram during the pathological process. An expert who did not know anything about the patients evaluated the [...] traces. RESULTS: Neurological process included brain tumor (41%), stroke (27.3%), cerebral aneurysm (15.5%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (6.8%), subdural hemorrhage (5%), and head injury (4.4%). Electrocardiograms were normal in 61% of cases, and the most frequent abnormality was ventricular repolarization (23.7%). The presence of T waves (4.6%) and prolonged QT intervals (8.8%) was the most characteristic of brain injuries. CONCLUSION: We observed a lower incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities than that described in the literature.

  7. Do men with prostate abnormalities (prostatitis/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostate cancer) develop immunity to spermatozoa or seminal plasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, P; Naz, R K

    2012-08-01

    Prostate is an immunocompetent and not an immunoprivileged organ. It has an active immunologic armamentarium. There are three major prostate abnormalities namely, prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. In all these abnormalities, infection/inflammation has been implicated. As infection/inflammation of the male genital tract can also be involved in induction of antisperm antibodies (ASA), this study was conducted to examine if these prostate abnormalities lead to the formation of ASA. Sera were obtained from normal healthy men (n = 20), men with chronic prostatitis (n = 20), men with BPH (n = 25), men with prostate cancer (n = 25) and immunoinfertile men (n = 10). The presence of antisperm antibodies against lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-solubilized human sperm extract (HSE), seminal plasma and synthetic peptides based upon sperm-specific antigens namely fertilization antigen (FA-1) and YLP(12), were analysed using the sperm immobilization technique (SIT), tray agglutination technique (TAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunobead binding technique (IBT). All the sera from normal men and men with prostate abnormalities (chronic prostatitis/BPH/prostate cancer) were found to be negative in SIT and TAT. In ELISA, a few sera from men having prostate abnormalities (4-24%) showed a weak positive immunoreactivity (2-3 SD units) with some of the spermatozoa/seminal plasma antigens. Majority of the samples did not show any immunoreactivity (organ, and its abnormalities cause a rise in circulating prostate-specific antigen (PSA), it appears that there is no concomitant induction of immunity to spermatozoa/seminal components including sperm-specific fertility-related antigens, thus not causing ASA-induced immunoinfertlity. This is the first study to our knowledge reporting the absence of ASA in men with BPH and prostate cancer. PMID:22321000

  8. FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the medusa Polyorchis penicillatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Spencer, A N

    1984-01-01

    Three different antisera to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide) and two different antisera to the fragment RFamide were used to stain sections or whole mounts of the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis penicillatus. All antisera stained the same neuronal structures. Strong immunoreactivity was found in neurons of the ectodermal nerve nets of the manubrium and tentacles, in neurons of the sensory epithelium, and in neurons at the periphery of the sphincter muscle. Strong immunoreactivity was also present in processes and perikarya of the whole outer nerve ring, in the ocellar nerves, and in nerve cells lying at the periphery of the ocellus. The inner nerve ring contained a moderate number of immunoreactive processes and perikarya, which were distinct from the swimming motor neurons. In contrast to the situation in the hydrozoan polyp Hydra attenuata, no immunoreactivity was found with several antisera to oxytocin/vasopressin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. The morphology and location of most FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Polyorchis coincides with two identified neuronal systems, which have been recently discovered from neurophysiological studies.

  9. Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma: a radioimmunoassay for its determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma. To prevent the binding of radioactive kallikrein to plasma inhibitors, 125I-kallikrein was inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a procedure that maintained 125I-kallikrein immunoreactivity. Different volumes of plasma displaced 125I-PMSF-kallikrein in a parallel fashion to the kallikrein standard curve. The sensitivity of the RIA was 200 pg, and the recovery of nonradioactive active kallikrein added to plasma was 58.7%. The concentration of immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in normal rat plasma averaged 47.1 +/- 1.7 (SE) ng/ml. Bilateral nephrectomy caused a threefold increase in circulating glandular kallikrein (50 +/- 2.7 to 167 +/- 7 ng/ml; P 125I-PMSF-kallikrein as tracer prevents the interference in the RIA caused by plasma protease inhibitors. It also indicates that the submandibular gland is an important source of the immunoreactive glandularant source of the immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma and that the kidney probably participates in its metabolism. Glandular kallikrein released by the submandibular gland into the circulation may participate in regulating local blood flow before it is inactivated by plasma inhibitors

  10. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  11. Characterization of the carrier protein of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montali, U; Balzan, S; Ghione, S

    1987-12-01

    The presence of an endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive substance(s) (DLIS) has been reported in the plasma and urine of experimental animals and humans. This substance might have a role in arterial hypertension. Although the chemical structure of DLIS is at present unknown, several studies indicate that DLIS has a low molecular weight and is reversibly bound in serum to carrier proteins. We have investigated the carrier protein of DLIS in chromatographic studies, using neonate plasma eluted on a Sephadex G200 column. The chromatographic profile of digoxin-like immunoreactivity showed a major peak with a molecular weight of approximately 60,000 daltons and a smaller peak eluted after the salt region. When the major peak was chromatographed on a Sephadex G100 column only one single peak was obtained, which closely coincided with the elution peak of albumin. Chromatographic separation of neonate plasma on a Sephadex G25 revealed a major post-salt immunoreactive peak. When these fractions were incubated with purified human albumin and separated again on the Sephadex G25, a large immunoreactive peak corresponding to albumin was again found while the immunoreactivity after salt completely disappeared. Our data therefore strongly suggest that the endogenous digitalis-like factor is carried in plasma by albumin. PMID:3481818

  12. Serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neurons in the antenna of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Shimohigashi, Miki; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    The antennae of insects contain a vast array of sensory neurons that process olfactory, gustatory, mechanosensory, hygrosensory, and thermosensory information. Except those with multimodal functions, most sensory neurons use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Using immunohistochemistry combined with retrograde staining of antennal sensory neurons in the cockroach Periplaneta americana, we found serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neurons in the antenna. These were selectively distributed in chaetic and scolopidial sensilla and in the scape, the pedicel, and first 15 segments of the flagellum. In a chaetic sensillum, A single serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neuron cohabited with up to four serotonin-negative sensory neurons. Based on their morphological features, serotonin-immunopositive and -negative sensory neurons might process mechanosensory and contact chemosensory modalities, respectively. Scolopidial sensilla constitute the chordotonal and Johnston's organs within the pedicel and process antennal vibrations. Immunoelectron microscopy clearly revealed that serotonin-immunoreactivities selectively localize to a specific type of mechanosensory neuron, called type 1 sensory neuron. In a chordotonal scolopidial sensillum, a serotonin-immunoreactive type 1 neuron always paired with a serotonin-negative type 1 neuron. Conversely, serotonin-immunopositive and -negative type 1 neurons were randomly distributed in Johnston's organ. In the deutocerebrum, serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neuron axons formed three different sensory tracts and those from distinct types of sensilla terminated in distinct brain regions. Our findings indicate that a biogenic amine, serotonin, may act as a neurotransmitter in peripheral mechanosensory neurons. PMID:23852943

  13. The effect of diabetes and centrally administered insulin on anterior hypothalamic estrogen receptor alpha immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, P; Morales, J C; Karkanias, G B

    2007-03-01

    Diabetic rats have characteristic reproductive deficits. Peripheral and central (intra-cerebro-ventricular [ICV]) insulin restores the reproductive phenotype to control levels. In this experiment, we evaluated a possible defect in steroid feedback by evaluating hypothalamic estrogen receptor (ER) alpha availability using ERalpha immunocytochemistry. Animals were ovariectomised and given estradiol and progesterone. Diabetic and control animals were given ICV insulin or saline. Nuclear and/or cytoplasmic ERalpha immunoreactivity was evaluated in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT). In the PVN, nuclear immunoreactivity was increased among diabetic, ICV insulin-treated animals. Diabetic saline-treated and nondiabetic animals had similar ERalpha immunoreactivity. The OVLT had lower numbers of immunoreactive neurons compared to the PVN; no differences among the treatment groups were found in the OVLT. Central insulin treatment increased the number of PVN nuclear ERalpha immunoreactive neurons among diabetic animals. However, there was no reduction in ERalpha when comparing saline-treated diabetic animals to non-diabetic rats, suggesting that decreases in hypothalamic ERalpha in the regions studied do not account for diabetes-induced reproductive deficits. PMID:17357885

  14. Urotensin II-immunoreactive neurons in the caudal neurosecretory system of freshwater and seawater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, K; Kawata, M; Akaji, K; Takagi, A; Moriga, M; Kobayashi, H

    1985-01-01

    Antiserum generated against synthetic urotensin II of the goby, Gillichthys mirabilis, was used to localize urotensin II in the caudal neurosecretory system in six species of freshwater teleosts: Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Salmo gairdneri and Plecoglossus altivelis, and six species of seawater teleosts: Acanthogobius flavimanus, Pagrus major, Parapristipoma trilineatum, Trachurus japonicus, Seriola dumerili and Seriola quinqueradiata. In the carp, urotensin II-immunoreactive perikarya were classified into three groups according to their size and shape. Small cells were located in the spinal cord dorsal to the urophysis, medium-sized cells immediately anterior to the urophysis, and large cells anterior to the medium-sized cells. In each group, a small number of nonreactive cells was found. Urotensin II-immunoreactive nerve fibers extended toward the urophysis and terminated around the blood vessels. Other species of teleosts showed a similar immunoreaction to that observed in the carp. The immunoreaction of the urophysis was stronger in seawater fish than freshwater fish. Urotensin II-immunoreactive elements could not be detected in the brains of the carp, goldfish and goby. PMID:3884162

  15. Chronological changes in inflammatory cytokines immunoreactivities in the mouse hippocampus after systemic administration of high dosage of tetanus toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing Chun; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Shin, Bich Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Deuk-Sik; Kim, Myong Jo; Kang, Il-Jun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2012-11-01

    Tetanus toxin (TeT) is an exotoxin and has a capacity for neuronal binding and internalization. In the present study, we compared changes in the immunoreactivities and protein levels of interleukin (IL-) 2 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and IL-4 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the hippocampus proper (HP) and dentate gyrus (DG) after systemic treatment of 10 or 100 ng/kg TeT into mice. In this study, we could not find any neuronal damage or loss in any subregions of the hippocampus after TeT treatment. In the control groups, strong IL-2 immunoreactivity was shown in the stratum pyramidal (SP) of the HP and in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the DG. At 6 h post-treatment, IL-2 immunoreactivity was hardly detected in the SP and GCL; however, strong IL-2 immunoreactivity was shown in the stratum oriens of the HP in both the groups. Thereafter, intermediate IL-2 immunoreactivity was shown in the SP and GCL. On the other hand, intermediate IL-4 immunoreactivity was detected in the SP and GCL of the control groups. At 6 h post-treatment, IL-4 immunoreactivity in the SP and GCL was apparently increased. Thereafter, IL-4 immunoreactivity was lower than that at 6 h post-treatment. In brief, IL-2 and 4 immunoreactivities were easily detected in SP and GCL in the controls and dramatically decreased and increased at 6 h post-treatment, respectively. PMID:22990290

  16. Comparative tumour localization properties of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody preparations of defined immunoreactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunoreactive fraction of an anti-CEA monoclonal antibody preparation has been progressively decreased by the addition of increasing proportions of impurity in the form of immunologically inert mouse immunoglobulin. Following radioiodination, the immunoreactive fractions of the preparations were determined and their localization in a human tumour xenograft in nude mice was assessed. There was a progressive decline in tumour localization, from tumour to blood ratios of 2:1 with unadulterated antibody to 0.6:1 with preparations only 15% with respect to the initial antibody. These findings demonstrate that the immunoreactive fraction of monoclonal antibody preparations is a major limiting factor in tumour localization and this has implications for experimental and clinical applications of monoclonal antibodies. (orig.)

  17. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling. PMID:17389182

  19. Sperm abnormalities in exposed humans.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Rubeš, J.

    Cambridge : Issue in Toxicology, Royal Society of Chemistry Publ.,, 2007, s. 247-258. ISBN 978-0-85404-847-2 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution exposure * sperm abnormalities * male reproductive health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  20. Morphometric characteristics of Neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cortical amygdaloid nucleus belongs to the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid complex. In this nucleus there are neurons that produce neuropetide Y. This peptide has important roles in sleeping, learning, memory, gastrointestinal regulation, anxiety, epilepsy, alcoholism and depression. Material and methods We investigated morphometric characteristics (numbers of primary dendrites, longer and shorter diameters of cell bodies and maximal radius of dendritic arborization of NPY immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus on 6 male adult human brains, aged 46 to 77 years, by immunohistochemical avidin-biotin technique. Results Our investigation has shown that in this nucleus there is a moderate number of NPY immunoreactive neurons. 67% of found neurons were nonpyramidal, while 33% were pyramidal. Among the nonpyramidal neurons the dominant groups were multipolar neurons (41% - of which 25% were multipolar irregular, and 16% multipolar oval. Among the pyramidal neurons the dominant groups were the neurons with triangular shape of cell body (21%. All found NPY immunoreactive neurons (pyramidal and nonpyramidal altogether had intervals of values of numbers of primary dendrites 2 to 6, longer diameters of cell bodies 13 to 38 µm, shorter diameters of cell bodies 9 to 20 µm and maximal radius of dendritic arborization 50 to 340 µm. More than a half of investigated neurons (57% had 3 primary dendrites. Discussion and conclusion The other researchers did not find such percentage of pyramidal immunoreactive neurons in this amygdaloid nucleus. If we compare our results with the results of the ather researchers we can conclude that all pyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons found in this human amygdaloid nucleus belong to the class I of neurons, and that all nonpyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons belong to the class II of neurons described by other researchers. We suppose that all found pyramidal neurons were projectional.

  1. Calbindin-D28K-immunoreactive cells and fibres in the human amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, H; Soininen, H; Pitkänen, A

    1996-11-01

    The distribution of calbindin-D28k-immunoreactive cells and fibres in five human amygdalae was analysed from sections that had been stained immunohistochemically with a monoclonal antibody raised against calbindin-D28k. The highest density of calbindin-D28k-positive neurons were found in the anterior cortical, medial, posterior cortical and accessory basal nuclei, in the parvicellular division of the basal nucleus and in the amygdalohippocampal area. The lowest densities of immunopositive neurons were found in the paralaminar nucleus, in the periamygdaloid cortex (PAC1 and PACo) and in some of the intercalated nuclei. The deep nuclei (lateral, basal and accessory basal nuclei) contained a high density of calbindin-D28k-immunoreactive fibres and terminals. The cortical nuclei and the central nucleus were characterized by intense neuropil labelling. Morphologically, a large majority of the calbindin-D28k-immunoreactive neurons were aspiny or sparsely spiny and resembled inhibitory local circuit neurons. A small population of lightly-stained, pyramidal-shaped neurons was also observed. In most of the amygdaloid nuclei, calbindin-D28k-immunoreactive fibres travelled close to each other and formed bundles, which suggests that some of the immunostained neurons were double-bouquet cells. In the paralaminar nucleus, the calbindin-D28k-immunoreactive axons formed tortuous plexus (100-200 microns in diameter) that surrounded several unstained somata. This study provides baseline information on the morphology and distribution of calcium-binding protein-containing inhibitory cells and fibres immunoreactive for calbindin-D28k in the human amygdaloid complex. This information can be used in future studies on the pathogenesis of diseases known to damage the amygdala, such as Alzheimer's disease and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:8931007

  2. Calretinin-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the human amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, H; Soininen, H; Pitkänen, A

    1996-05-27

    Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein that colocalizes with GABA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the rat and the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of calretinin-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the human amygdaloid complex. A conspicuous feature was the high density of calretinin neurons in the human amygdala. The highest densities of the calretinin-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the anterior cortical nucleus, accessory basal nucleus, amygdalohippocampal area, and in the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract. The paralaminar nucleus, central nucleus, medial nucleus, and the periamygdaloid cortex contained the lowest densities of calretinin neurons. In most of the amygdaloid areas, the calretinin cells had the appearance of aspiny or sparsely spiny local circuit neurons. However, in the amygdalohippocampal area, we found also densely spined dendrites. The cortical areas and the central nucleus were characterized by intense neuropil labeling, while the deep nuclei contained a high density of calretinin-immunoreactive fibers and terminals. Calretinin immunoreactivity was also found in the intra-amygdaloid fiber bundles, stria terminalis, and in the ventral amygdalofugal pathway. This suggests that in addition to the local circuit neurons, calretinin immunoreactivity is also located in neurons that connect the amygdaloid complex with the other brain areas. The distribution and morphological characteristics of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons differed from those of another calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin, in the human amygdala (Sorvari et al. [1995] J. Comp. Neurol. 360:185-212). This suggests that these two calcium-binding proteins are located in different populations of neurons. PMID:8726994

  3. CT diagnosis of urachal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze CT manifestations of urachal abnormalities and to evaluate its clinical diagnostic value. Methods: CT findings of 23 cases of urachal abnormalities proven by surgery and pathology were retrospectively reviewed, the emphasis was focused on its location, shape, size, enhancement-pattern and radiological features in Retzius space. Results: All urachal abnormalities were located in the median line of Retzius space alone the course of the urachus (n=23). There was no positive CT finding in 1 case of patent urachus (n=1). Simple urachal cyst appeared as a homogeneous fluid-filled cavity with thin wall and no enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast agency (n=2). Five cases of infected urachal cyst manifested as cysts with thickening and enhanced wall (n=5), 3 cases as multi-cyst lesion (n=3) and 2 cases as homogeneous mass (n=2). Some patch and strip appeared in Retzius space surrounding the lesions in these cases (n=10). The urachus neoplasms in 7 cases manifested as irregular soft-tissue masses in the midline of the apex of the bladder,with marked enhancement in 4 cases (n=4), mild enhancement in 2 cases (n=2) and no enhancement in 1 case (n=1). Three cases of urachal diverticulum accompanied with calculus appeared as intramural high-density lesions protruding into the bladder and the Retzius space simultaneously, 1 case with infected urachal cyst below umbilicus. Conclusion: Due to its special anatomic position, urachal abnormaliecial anatomic position, urachal abnormalities could be easily identified on CT preoperatively, but urachal cyst might mimic urachal tumor when infected sometimes. Familiarity with the anatomical basis and the CT features of urachal abnormalities would facilitate to establish the preoperative diagnosis correctly. (authors)

  4. Localisation of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactivity in the echinoderm Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S J; Thorndyke, M C

    1994-10-01

    Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is believed to be the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, a function that has been extended to a number of invertebrate systems. We have used a specific antiserum raised against GABA to demonstrate GABA-like immunoreactivity in the radial nerve cord (RNC), tube feet and the digestive system of the asteroid Asterias rubens. In the RNC, immunoreactivity was restricted to ectoneural fibres and cell bodies while in the tube feet fibres were revealed in the basal nerve ring and longitudinal nerve. In the gut, extensive labelling was apparent in the basi-epithelial plexus as well as in mucosal perikarya. PMID:7954698

  5. Occurrence and distribution of insulin receptor-like immunoreactivity in molluscan brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonetti, D; Bianchi, F

    1993-01-01

    Insulin receptor-like immunoreactivity (IR) was investigated in the central ganglia of different gastropod molluscs using a monoclonal antiserum raised against an epitope of the human placental insulin receptor. A well detectable and clear location of immunoreactive material was mainly found in the CNS of the freshwater snails Planorbarius corneus and Lymnaea stagnalis. This evidence correlates quite suggestively with the occurrence in these snails of a molluscan insulin peptide (MIP) previously shown. The widespread and discrete distribution of IR over a variety of physiologically distinct regions of P. corneus and L. stagnalis ganglia argues that these "receptors" may modulate multiple functions within the CNS. PMID:7684174

  6. Detection of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivities in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, C K; Croll, R P

    1995-08-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was detected histochemically in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus. Most immunoreactivity was concentrated in the cerebral, pedal, and parietovisceral ganglia, particularly in the cortical cell bodies and in their fibers which extend into the central neuropile. Whole-mount immunofluorescence studies were used to localize concentrations of immunoreactive cells on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of each ganglion. Immunoreactivity was also detected in nerves emanating from the ganglia. Strong immunoreactivity was localized in peripheral organs, including the gut and gills of juvenile and adult scallops. Weak immunoreactivity was detected in the gonads, heart, and adductor muscle of the adults. A broad FMRFamide-like immunoreactive band of 2.5-8.2 kDa was detected by Western blotting of acetone extracts of the parietovisceral ganglia. In the presence of protease inhibitors, two FMRFamide-like immunoreactive bands (7.2-8.2 kDa and > 17 kDa) were obtained. Neither of these bands comigrated with the FMRFamide standard. It is concluded that peptides of the FMRFamide family are probably regulators of numerous central and peripheral functions in P. magellanicus. PMID:7648623

  7. Special report on abnormal climate in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports on abnormal climate in 2010 with impact on the each field. It is comprised of four chapters, which deal with Introduction with purpose of publish and background, current situation and cause of abnormal climate in 2010 on abnormal climate around the world and Korea, Action and impact against abnormal climate in 2010 to agriculture, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, forest, fishery products, environment and health, Evaluation and policy proposal. It also has an appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world in 2010 and media reports on abnormal climate in Korea in 2010.

  8. The presence of Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide-like immunoreactivity in the accessory glands of male Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K; Applebaum, Shalom W; Kubli, Eric; Choffat, Yves; Rafaeli, Ada

    2004-01-01

    In this study a highly specific polyclonal antibody to DrmSP was produced and used to develop and standardize a sensitive direct ELISA. Structure-activity studies revealed that the antiserum is specific to the N-terminal of DrmSP. This ELISA was used for the detection of DrmSP-like immunoreactivity in the reproductive tissues of male Helicoverpa armigera moths at femtomole levels. Two positive immunoreactive peaks were found in HPLC purified extracts of male accessory glands. The immunoreactive peak, which contained a higher amount of immunoreactivity, was also found to be pheromonostatic in PBAN-injected decapitated females as well as in intact female moths during their peak pheromone production. Lower levels of DrmSP-like immunoreactivity were found in younger males (1-2 day-old) when compared to older males (3-7 day-old). PMID:15019527

  9. Imaging of pediatric mesenteric abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative paucity of mesenteric fat seen in the pediatric population can make detection and localization of processes in the mesentery difficult. This pictorial essay reviews pediatric mesenteric disorders and presents criteria that help localize processes to the mesentery. Disorders are categorized by specific patterns of involvement, which can readily be identified by imaging: developmental abnormalities of mesenteric rotation, diffuse mesenteric processes, focal mesenteric masses, and multifocal mesenteric masses. (orig.)

  10. Imaging of pediatric mesenteric abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarewych, Z.M.; Frush, D.P.; Bisset, G.S. III [Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Donnelly, L.F. [Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The relative paucity of mesenteric fat seen in the pediatric population can make detection and localization of processes in the mesentery difficult. This pictorial essay reviews pediatric mesenteric disorders and presents criteria that help localize processes to the mesentery. Disorders are categorized by specific patterns of involvement, which can readily be identified by imaging: developmental abnormalities of mesenteric rotation, diffuse mesenteric processes, focal mesenteric masses, and multifocal mesenteric masses. (orig.) With 19 figs., 24 refs.

  11. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  12. Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuzfa, A.; Alimi, J. -m

    2006-01-01

    We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still acc...

  13. Radiological appearances of sinonasal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Beltagi, A.H.; Sobeih, A.A.; Valvoda, M.; Dahniya, M.H.; Badr, S.S

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this pictorial review is to present a variety of abnormalities of the sinonasal cavities to emphasize the diversity of lesions occurring in this region. These include congenital, neoplastic and granulomatous disorders and some allergic and inflammatory lesions with uncommon radiological appearances, as well as expanding lesions of the facial bones or of dental origin with secondary involvement of the related sinus(es). El-Beltagi, A.H. et al. (2002). Clinical Radiology 57, 702-718.

  14. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  15. Leydig cells in the lingual epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, are immunoreactive for serotonin.

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, K.; Shimamura, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Leydig cells in the lingual epithelium of the axolotl were investigated by immunohistochemistry using serotonin antiserum. Serotonin-immunoreactivity was found in their secretory granules. The physiological role of serotonin in the Leydig cell, a type of exocrine cell, is unknown.

  16. VIP-like immunoreactivity in the intestinal tract of fish with different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, G; de Girolamo, P; Affatato, C; Antonucci, R; Russo, P; Gargiulo, G

    1997-01-01

    We studied the distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactive (VIP-ir) cells and fibres in the intestine of three fish species with different feeding habits: the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), the goldfish (Carassius auratus), and the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus). Each species was divided into two groups: (1) fish fed once a day up until sacrifice and (2) fish fed once a day and then fasted three days before sacrifice. Immunoreactive endocrine cells and fibres were present in all three fish species. The immunoreactive cells were distributed along the entire intestinal mucosa of the carp and goldfish but were found only in the anterior intestine of the sunfish. The immunoreactive fibres were present along the entire intestinal wall, in the myenteric plexus, in the circular muscular layer, and in the connective tissue of the mucosa in all three fish species. No differences were found between the cells and fibres of normally-fed animals and the cells and fibres of fasted animals. The authors hypothesize that the different distributions of VIP-ir cells and fibres are related to the different contents of hard and indigestible matter of the fish food. PMID:9174846

  17. Monoclonal antibody to the rat glucocorticoid receptor. Relationship between the immunoreactive and DNA-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of the glucocorticoid receptor that reacted with a monoclonal antibody (BUGR-1) was identified. In order to identify the immunoreactive region, the rat liver glucocorticoid receptor was subjected to limited proteolysis; immunoreactive fragments were identified by Western blotting. The monoclonal antibody reacted with both the undigested Mr approximately 97,000 receptor subunit and a Mr approximately 45,000 fragment containing the steroid-binding and DNA-binding domains. Digestion by trypsin also produced two steroid-binding fragments of Mr approximately 27,000 and 31,000 which did not react with the antibody and an immunoreactive Mr approximately 16,000 fragment. This Mr approximately 16,000 fragment was shown to bind to DNA-cellulose, indicating that it contained a DNA-binding domain of the receptor. The undigested receptor must have steroid associated with it to undergo activation to a DNA-binding form. However, the Mr approximately 16,000 immunoreactive fragment binds to DNA-cellulose even if it is obtained by digestion of the steroid-free holoreceptor which does not itself bind to DNA

  18. Fifteen novel immunoreactive proteins of Chinese virulent Haemophilus parasuis serotype 5 verified by an immunoproteomic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanfei; Wu, Guangyan; Zhai, Zhipeng; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is associated with meningitis, polyserositis, polyarthritis and bacterial pneumonia. At present, its prevention and control is difficult because of the lack of suitable subunit vaccines. Nowadays, high-throughput methods, immunoproteomics, are available to screen for more vaccine candidates. A protein extraction method for H. parasuis and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) were optimized to provide high-resolution profiles covering pH 3 to 10. Twenty immunoreactive spots were excised from gels after strict comparison between 2-DE Western blot membranes and the relevant gels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS successfully identified 16 different proteins. Fifteen of them were reported as immunoreactive proteins in H. parasuis for the first time. In addition, recombinant HP5-7 (ABC transporter, periplasmic-binding protein) showed immunoreactivity both with hyperimmune rabbit serum and convalescent swine serum. Four recombinants of the 14 successfully expressed genes showed immunoreactivity with hyperimmune rabbit serum. PMID:25200063

  19. Ontogeny of GnRH-like immunoreactive neuronal systems in the forebrain of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, K C; Gaikwad, Archana; Sarkar, Sumit; Schreibman, Martin P; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2005-04-01

    GnRH immunoreactivity appeared in the medial olfactory placode very early in the development of Cirrhinus mrigala. The immunoreactive elements were divisible into distinct migratory and non-migratory components. The migratory component appeared as a patch of intensely immunoreactive cells located close to the olfactory epithelium in day 6 post-fertilization larvae. Subsequently, these neurons migrate caudally along the ventromedial aspect of the developing forebrain and enroute give rise to GnRH immunoreactive neurons in the (1) nervus terminalis located in ventral and caudal part of the olfactory bulb (day 8), and (2) basal telencephalon (day 9). The non-migratory GnRH immunoreactive component appeared in the olfactory placode of day 1 post-fertilization larvae. It consisted of few olfactory receptor neuron (ORN)-like cells with distinct flask-shaped somata, dendrites that communicate with the periphery and a single axon on the basal side; GnRH immunoreactivity was seen throughout the neuron. Considerable increase in the number of immunoreactive ORNs was encountered in day 2 post-fertilization larvae. On day 3, the dendrites of ORNs sprout bunches of apical cilia, while on the basal side the axonal outgrowths can be traced to the olfactory bulb. GnRH immunoreactive fibers were distributed in the olfactory nerve layer in the periphery of the bulb and glomeruli-like innervation was clearly established in 5 days old larvae. The innervation to the olfactory bulb showed a considerable increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in 9 and 19 days old larvae. However, GnRH immunoreactivity in non-migratory as well as migratory components gradually diminished and disappeared altogether by the age of 68 days. Results of the present study suggest that GnRH may serve a neurotransmitter role in the ORNs during early stages of development in C. mrigala. PMID:15748717

  20. Chemical phenotypes of P2X2 purinoreceptor immunoreactive cell bodies in the area postrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Chiara; Colldén, Gustav; Meister, Björn

    2012-06-01

    Purines such as adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) act as extracellular messengers through specific purinergic receptors. Three different classes of purinergic receptors have been identified and termed P1, P2X, and P2Y. The purinergic receptor subunit P2X2 is a ligand-gated ion channel that is widely expressed by neurons in the CNS. In the brainstem medulla oblongata, the ionotropic P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) is enriched in the area postrema (AP). Two different antisera to P2X2R were used to determine the chemical nature of P2X2R immunoreactive cell bodies in the rat AP, an area lacking a blood-brain barrier. Subcellularly, P2X2R immunoreactivity was located to the periphery of individual cell bodies. The majority of P2X2R-immunoreactive cells were shown to contain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (63.5 ± 7.7%) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (61.5 ± 5.1%). Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)-containing cells were not detected in the AP, supporting a noradrenergic nature of P2X2R cells in the AP. There were no P2X2R-immunoreactive cells in the AP that contained the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 65. Only single vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive cell bodies that were not P2X2R-positive were demonstrated in the AP. Some P2X2R-positive cells in the AP were immunoreactive for the neuropeptides substance P and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, whereas dynorphin-, enkephalin-, or cholecystokinin-positive cells were not P2X2R-immunoreactive. Presence of P2X2R in a majority of noradrenergic cells of the AP implies that ATP may have a regulatory action on neuronal noradrenaline release from the AP, a circumventricular organ with a strategic position enabling interactions between circulating substances and the central nervous system. PMID:22038573

  1. Direct reticular projections of trigeminal sensory fibers immunoreactive to CGRP: potential monosynaptic somatoautonomic projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W MichaelPanneton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few trigeminal sensory fibers project centrally beyond the trigeminal sensory complex, with only projections of fibers carried in its sensory anterior ethmoidal (AEN and intraoral nerves described. Fibers of the AEN project into the brainstem reticular formation where immunoreactivity against substance P and CGRP are found. We investigated whether the source of these peptides could be from trigeminal ganglion neurons by performing unilateral rhizotomies of the trigeminal root and looking for absence of label. After an 8-14d survival, substance P immunoreactivity in the trigeminal sensory complex was diminished, but we could not conclude that the sole source of this peptide in the lateral parabrachial area and lateral reticular formation arises from primary afferent fibers. Immunoreactivity to CGRP after rhizotomy however was greatly diminished in the trigeminal sensory complex, confirming the observations of others. Moreover, CGRP immunoreactivity was nearly eliminated in fibers in the lateral parabrachial area, the caudal ventrolateral medulla, both the peri-ambiguus and ventral parts of the rostral ventrolateral medulla, in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus, and diminished in the caudal pressor area. The nearly complete elimination of CGRP in the lateral reticular formation after rhizotomy suggests this peptide is carried in primary afferent fibers. Moreover, the arborization of CGRP immunoreactive fibers in these areas mimics that of direct projections from the AEN. Since electrical stimulation of the AEN induces cardiorespiratory adjustments including an apnea, peripheral vasoconstriction, and bradycardia similar to those seen in the mammalian diving response, we suggest these perturbations of autonomic behavior are enhanced by direct somatic primary afferent projections to these reticular neurons. We believe this to be first description of potential direct somatoautonomic projections to brainstem neurons regulating autonomic activity.

  2. Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma: a radioimmunoassay for its determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabito, S.F.; Scicli, A.G.; Kher, V.; Carretero, O.A.

    1982-04-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma. To prevent the binding of radioactive kallikrein to plasma inhibitors, /sup 125/I-kallikrein was inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a procedure that maintained /sup 125/I-kallikrein immunoreactivity. Different volumes of plasma displaced /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein in a parallel fashion to the kallikrein standard curve. The sensitivity of the RIA was 200 pg, and the recovery of nonradioactive active kallikrein added to plasma was 58.7%. The concentration of immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in normal rat plasma averaged 47.1 +/- 1.7 (SE) ng/ml. Bilateral nephrectomy caused a threefold increase in circulating glandular kallikrein (50 +/- 2.7 to 167 +/- 7 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Removal of the submandibular and sublingual glands signficantly decreased its concentration from 52 +/- 2.3 to 34 +/- 1.6 ng/ml (P < 0.001). Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein was higher in the submandibular gland vein than in arterial blood (venous; 94 +/- 10.5; arterial: 64 +/- 6.3 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and was lower in the renal venous blood (venous: 44 +/- 2.2; arterial: 53 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the use of /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein as tracer prevents the interference in the RIA caused by plasma protease inhibitors. It also indicates that the submandibular gland is an important source of the immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma and that the kidney probably participates in its metabolism. Glandular kallikrein released by the submandibular gland into the circulation may participate in regulating local blood flow before it is inactivated by plasma inhibitors.

  3. Organization of galanin-like immunoreactive neuronal systems in weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Maler, L; Nagy, J I

    1992-01-01

    Immunohistochemical procedures were used to investigate the distribution of galanin-like immunoreactive neuronal somata, fiber pathways and apparent termination fields in the gymnotiform brain. Immunoreactive somata were observed only in the hypothalamus and were confined to preoptic, lateral and caudal hypothalamic regions. Within these areas, positive cells tended to be most concentrated in juxtaventricular nuclei. Dense immunoreactive fiber systems originating from hypothalamic regions were seen to project in separate or coalescing fiber bundles to the basal telencephalan, thalamus/tuberal diencephalon, midbrain and brainstem. The density of positive axons and boutons was quite variable, but regions which displayed the most massive network of axons included structures within the hypothalamus itself (anterior periventricular preoptic nucleus, caudal and lateral hypothalamus), ventral telencephalon (superior and ventral subdivisions), thalamic/tuberal areas (central posterior nucleus and tuberal neuropil within the ventral territory of the prepacemaker nucleus) and brainstem nuclei (dorsal reticular nucleus and the medial paralemniscal nucleus). Within these areas axons appeared more randomly distributed and varicose than along fiber tracs, and in counterstained sections were occasionally seen in apposition to unstained neuronal cell bodies and dendrites. In addition, a system of fibers was seen in the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary. It is concluded that galanin-like immunoreactive neurons in the gymnotiform brain have a more restricted distribution than those in mammals, and that the major fiber systems emanating from the hypothalamus resemble the diverse projections of the tuberomammillary nucleus of higher vertebrates. The anatomy of galanin-like immunoreactive systems in the apteronotid brain suggests a role in neuroendocrine regulation and an involvement with anatomical areas controlling aggressive and courtship behaviour. PMID:1376606

  4. CD15 immunoreactivity in the developing brain of a marsupial, the tammar wallaby ( Macropus eugenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S; Mai, J K; Andressen, C

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the distribution of the CD15 epitope in the developing brain of an Australian diprotodontid metatherian mammal, the tammar wallaby ( Macropus eugenii), using immunohistochemistry in conjunction with hematoxylin and eosin staining. At the time of birth (28 days after conception), CD15 immunoreactivity labeled somata in the primordial plexiform layer of the parietal cortex in a similar position to that seen in the early fetal eutherian brain. CD15 immunoreactivity in the brain of the developing pouch-young wallaby was found to be localized on the surface of radial glia at boundaries between developmentally significant forebrain compartments in a similar distribution to that seen in developing eutherian brain. These were best seen in the developing diencephalon, delineating epithalamus, ventral and dorsal thalamus and hypothalamic anlage, and in the striatum. Immunoreactivity for CD15 identified radial glia marking the lateral migratory stream at the striatopallial boundary, peaking in intensity at P19 to P25. From P37 to P54, CD15 immunoreactivity also demarcated patch compartments in the developing striatum. In contrast, CD15 immunoreactivity in hindbrain structures showed some differences from the temporospatial pattern seen in eutherian brain. These may reflect the relatively early brainstem maturation required for the newborn wallaby to be able to traverse the distance from the maternal genital tract to the pouch. The wallaby provides a convenient model for testing hypotheses concerning the role of CD15 in forebrain development because all events in which CD15 may play a critical role in forebrain morphogenesis occur during pouch life, when the young wallaby is accessible to experimental manipulation. PMID:15597195

  5. Oxaliplatin-induced loss of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit neuronal immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Bronwen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin and related chemotherapeutic drugs cause painful chronic peripheral neuropathies in cancer patients. We investigated changes in neuronal size profiles and neurofilament immunoreactivity in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue of adult female Wistar rats after multiple-dose treatment with oxaliplatin, cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Results After treatment with oxaliplatin, phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H immunoreactivity was reduced in neuronal cell bodies, but unchanged in nerve fibres, of the L5 DRG. Morphometric analysis confirmed significant changes in the number (-75%; P P P = 0.82, NF-M (-1%, P = 0.96 or NF-H (0%; P = 0.93 after oxaliplatin treatment, although the sizes of parvalbumin (-29%, P = 0.047, NF-M (-11%, P = 0.038 and NF-H (-28%; P = 0.0033 immunoreactive neurons were reduced. In an independent comparison of different chemotherapeutic agents, the number of pNF-H-immunoreactive neurons was significantly altered by oxaliplatin (-77.2%; P P = 0.03 but not by carboplatin or paclitaxel, and their mean cell body area was significantly changed by oxaliplatin (-31.1%; P = 0.008 but not by cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a specific pattern of loss of pNF-H immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue that corresponds with the relative neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin, cisplatin and carboplatin. Loss of pNF-H may be mechanistically linked to oxaliplatin-induced neuronal atrophy, and serves as a readily measureable endpoint of its neurotoxicity in the rat model.

  6. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Labor and Delivery 4 Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Position refers to whether the ... be necessary. There are several abnormal presentations. Breech presentation: The buttocks present first. Breech presentation occurs in ...

  7. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  8. T cell immune abnormalities in immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Xuebin; Zhang, Liping; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal T cell immunity. Cytotoxic T cells, abnormal T regulatory cells, helper T cell imbalance, megakaryocyte maturation abnormalities and abnormal T cell anergy are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. The loss of T cell-mediated immune tolerance to platelet auto-antigens plays a crucial role in immune thrombocytopenia. The induction of T cell tolerance is an important mechanism by which the pathogenesis and treatment of imm...

  9. Abnormal axillary lymph nodes in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary radiography was performed in 56 patients with arthritis, predominantly rheumatoid arthritis. Definite abnormal axillary lymph nodes were found in 24 and probably abnormal nodes in 8. Abnormal nodes were characterized by increased attenuation, rounded shape and absence of fatty replacement. (Auth)

  10. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-07-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in the 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and, therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses, especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory tension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid, and at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:10957839

  11. Calretinin-immunoreactive terminals make synapses on calbindin D28k-immunoreactive neurons in the lateral nucleus of the human amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, H; Miettinen, R; Soininen, H; Paljärvi, L; Karkola, K; Pitkänen, A

    1998-02-01

    A double-labeling immunohistochemical procedure and correlated light and electron microscopy were used to examine if calretinin-immunoreactive terminals make synapses on calbindin D28k-positive cells. In the lateral nucleus of the human amygdala, calretinin terminals make symmetric-like synapses on the somata and proximal dendrites of calbindin D28k-labeled cells. Our data provide the first evidence that neurons which contain two different calcium-binding proteins form synaptic contacts with each other in the human amygdala. PMID:9507193

  12. Enteroendocrine profile of ?-transducin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rocco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; De Giorgio, Roberto; Vallorani, Claudia; Bonaldo, Alessio; Gatta, Pier Paolo; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Ruggeri, Eugenio; Bernardini, Chiara; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Sternini, Catia; Clavenzani, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    In vertebrates, chemosensitivity of nutrients occurs through the activation of taste receptors coupled with G-protein subunits, including ?-transducin (G(?tran)) and ?-gustducin (G(?gust)). This study was aimed at characterising the cells expressing G(?tran) immunoreactivity throughout the mucosa of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. G(?tran) immunoreactive cells were mainly found in the stomach, and a lower number of immunopositive cells were detected in the intestine. Some G(?tran) immunoreactive cells in the stomach contained G(?gust) immunoreactivity. Gastric G(?tran) immunoreactive cells co-expressed ghrelin, obestatin and 5-hydroxytryptamine immunoreactivity. In contrast, G(?tran) immunopositive cells did not contain somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in any investigated segments of the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. Specificity of G(?tran) and G(?gust) antisera was determined by Western blot analysis, which identified two bands at the theoretical molecular weight of ~45 and ~40 kDa, respectively, in sea bass gut tissue as well as in positive tissue, and by immunoblocking with the respective peptide, which prevented immunostaining. The results of the present study provide a molecular and morphological basis for a role of taste-related molecules in chemosensing in the sea bass gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23748963

  13. Ventilation abnormalities in pulmonary embolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ventilation scans of 11 patients with angiographically-proven PE were reviewed. All patients had one or more lung perfusion defects. The chest roentgenograph was abnormal in 11 of the patients. The ventilation studies were performed in the posterior positron prior to the perfusion lung scan using Xe-133. The ventilation study consists of washin, equilibrium, and washout images. In four patients with normal washin there was retention of the Xe-133 (delayed washout) at the site of the perfusion defect. All had roentgenographic abnormalities. Another pattern was observed at the sites of some perfusion defects in six patients. In these, there was decreased washin at the perfusion defect location. Two patients had both decreased washin and delayed washout. In only one case was the typical ventilation pattern of normal washin and normal washout. The method of retention is unclear, but may be due to decreased clearance of Xe-133 secondary to decreased blood flow in the area or deposition of some fat soluble component left at the site of embolization. The etiology of the reduced washin is unclear, but may be due to reduced surfactant production. This study suggests that more attention must be paid to the ventilation study, where there may be additional clues to the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

  14. Hand images: normal and abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

  15. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  16. Chromosomal phenotypes and submicroscopic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devriendt Koen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The finding, during the last decade, that several common, clinically delineated syndromes are caused by submicroscopic deletions or, more rarely, by duplications, has provided a powerful tool in the annotation of the human genome. Since most microdeletion/microduplication syndromes are defined by a common deleted/duplicated region, abnormal dosage of genes located within these regions can explain the phenotypic similarities among individuals with a specific syndrome. As such, they provide a unique resource towards the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes such as congenital heart defects, mental and growth retardation and abnormal behaviour. In addition, the study of phenotypic differences in individuals with the same microdeletion syndrome may also become a treasury for the identification of modifying factors for complex phenotypes. The molecular analysis of these chromosomal anomalies has led to a growing understanding of their mechanisms of origin. Novel tools to uncover additional submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies at a higher resolution and higher speed, as well as the novel tools at hand for deciphering the modifying factors and epistatic interactors, are 'on the doorstep' and will, besides their obvious diagnostic role, play a pivotal role in the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes.

  17. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Stoian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  18. Immunohistochemical study on localization of serotonin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European catfish (Silurus glanis, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köprücü, S; Yaman, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the distribution of serotonin immunoreactive cells within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of European catfish (Silurus glanis). For this purpose, the tissue samples were taken from the stomach (cardia, fundus and pylorus region) and intestine (anterior, middle and posterior region). They were examined by applying the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase method. The serotonin containing immunoreactive cells are presented in all regions of the GIT. It was determined to be localized generally in different distribution within the stomachs and intestines of S. glanis. It was found that the most intensive regions of immunoreactive cells were the cardia stomach and posterior of intestine. PMID:25041659

  19. Identification of immunoreactive proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from cultured tilapia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause lethal infections in humans and animals, including aquatic species. Immunoreactive proteins of the S. agalactiae strain, GD201008-001, isolated from cultured tilapia in China, were screened by immunoproteomics using hyperimmune sera, convalescent guinea pig sera and GD201008-001-infected tilapia antisera as primary detection antibodies. A total of 16 different proteins were identified including 13 novel immunoreactive proteins of S. agalactiae. Four proteins, serine-rich repeat glycoprotein 1, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BKD) subunit E2, 5'-nucleotidase family protein and ornithine carbamoyltransferase, were shown to react with the three types of sera and thus were considered to represent novel S. agalactiae vaccine candidate antigens. Our findings represent the basis for vaccine development for piscine S. agalactiae and are necessary for understanding virulence factors and immunogenicity of S. agalactiae with different hosts. PMID:23929656

  20. Immunoreactive helix-destabilizing protein localized in transcriptionally active regions of Drosophila polytene chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, G. L.; Thompson, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    A highly purified helix-destabilizing protein (HDP) obtained from rat liver has been used to elicit specific, high-titer anti-HDP sera in rabbits. These antisera show immunological crossreaction with single-stranded DNA binding proteins from several very diverse eukaryotic sources, including Drosophila embryos. The use of such antisera in the labeling of Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes by indirect immunofluorescence shows concentrations of immunoreactive HDP in many regions, but especia...

  1. Distribution of Gb3 Immunoreactivity in the Mouse Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Obrig; Fumiko Obata

    2010-01-01

    We have shown previously that neurons in the mouse spinal cord express Gb3. We show in this article that distribution of anti-Gb3-Ab reactivity occurs in many different types of neurons of different areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The immunoreactive neurons are in olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. In several different circumventricular organs where vessels do not have the blood-brain-barrier...

  2. Corticotropin-releasing factor-immunoreactive neurons of the paraventricular nucleus become vasopressin positive after adrenalectomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, J. Z.; Mezey, E.; Skirboll, L.

    1984-01-01

    The immunoperoxidase technique was used to study the effect of adrenalectomy on vasopressin (VP) immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rat. In control animals, relatively few VP-immunostained parvocellular neurons were found in addition to a large population of magnocellular VP neurons. Seven to 14 days after bilateral adrenalectomy, VP immunostaining increased markedly in specific subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus. In contrast to normal animals, VP immunor...

  3. Peptide immunoreactive nerves and cells of the guinea pig gall bladder and biliary pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, W.; Gu, J.; Huang, W.; Mcgregor, G. P.; Ghatei, M. A.; Bloom, S. R.; Polak, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Using the methods of immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay, five peptides (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P, somatostatin, met-enkephalin, and bombesin) have been found in the gall bladder and the biliary tracts of guinea pig and each of them possesses a characteristic distribution pattern. Networks of nerves containing each peptide were found in the smooth muscle, around blood vessels and, occasionally, in the lamina propria. The distribution of the peptide immunoreact...

  4. Distribution of galanin immunoreactivity in the respiratory tract of pig, guinea pig, rat, and dog.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, A.; Polak, J. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Cadieux, A.; Christofides, N. D.; Springall, D. R.; Bloom, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Galanin, a newly discovered peptide isolated from porcine intestine, is known to cause contraction in rat smooth muscle preparations and to induce hyperglycaemia in dogs. By the use of radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical techniques the concentration and distribution of galanin immunoreactivity were determined in several areas of the respiratory tract of five dogs, five guinea pigs, five rats, and two pigs. Antibodies were raised in rabbits to whole unconjugated natural porcine galanin. T...

  5. Irisin-immunoreactivity in neural and non-neural cells of the rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Dun, Siok L.; Lyu, Rong-ming; Chen, Yi-hung; Chang, Jaw-kang; Luo, Jin J.; Dun, Nae J.

    2013-01-01

    Irisin is a recently identified myokine secreted from the muscle in response to exercise. In the rats and mice, immunohistochemical studies with an antiserum against irisin peptide fragment (42–112), revealed that irisin-immunoreactivity (irIRN) was detected in three types of cells; namely, skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Tissue sections processed with irisin antiserum pre-absorbed with the irisin peptide(42–112) (1 ?g/ml) showed no immunoreac...

  6. Role of Digoxin-Like Immunoreactive Substance in the Pathogenesis of Transient Tachypnea of Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun Kultursay; Mete Akisu; Sebnem Calkavur; Murat Olukman; Erturk Levent; Mehmet Yalaz

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transient tachypnea of newborn (TTN) is usually observed in term or near-term infants. It constitutes an important part of the respiratory distress cases observed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Aim. This paper examines the effects of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) on fluid and ion balance, hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters of neonates with TTN. Methods. Plasma DLIS, Na+, K+, urea, creatinine, serum and urine osmolarity, urine FeNa+, 24-hou...

  7. Poor evidence for insulin/insulin-like immunoreactivity in the CNS of lower vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, H G; Aurin, H; Dorn, A; Weiss, J; Ziegler, M

    1981-01-01

    The localization of insulin/insulin-like immunoreactivity was studied in the brain and the pancreas of an amphibian (clawed frog [Xenopus laevis Daudin]) and in the CNS of two teleost fishes (bream [Abramis brama L.] and rudd [Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.] using the indirect immunofluorescence technique. With exception of cerebellar Purkinje cells no neuronal elements were found to contain insulin-like material. The frog pancreas was characterized by a strong immunofluorescence in cells producing the polypeptide. PMID:6795888

  8. Independent prognostic value of fascin immunoreactivity in stage III–IV colonic adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Puppa, G.; Maisonneuve, P.; Sonzogni, A.; Masullo, M.; Chiappa, A.; Valerio, M.; Zampino, M. G.; Franceschetti, I.; Capelli, P.; Chilosi, M.; Menestrina, F.; Viale, G.; Pelosi, G.

    2007-01-01

    Fascin, an actin-bundling protein involved in cell motility, has been shown to be upregulated in several types of carcinomas. In this study, we investigated the expression of fascin in 228 advanced colonic adenocarcinoma patients with a long follow-up. Fascin expression was compared with several clinicopathologic parameters and survival. Overall, fascin immunoreactivity was detected in 162 (71%) tumours with a prevalence for right-sided tumours (P

  9. Independent prognostic value of fascin immunoreactivity in stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelosi, G.; Pastorino, U.; Pasini, F.; Maissoneuve, P.; Fraggetta, F.; Iannucci, A.; Sonzogni, A.; Manzoni, G.; Terzi, A.; Durante, E.; Bresaola, E.; Pezzella, F.; Viale, G.

    2003-01-01

    Fascin-1, the most expressed form of fascin in vertebrate tissues, is an actin-bundling protein that induces cell membrane protrusions and increases motility of normal and transformed epithelial cells. Very few data are available on the role of this protein in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two hundred and twenty patients with stage I NSCLC and long-term follow-up were evaluated immunocytochemically for fascin expression. Overall, variable fascin immunoreactivity was detected in 98% of 11...

  10. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and somatostatin immunoreactivity in rat dentate hilar neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Dun, N. J.; Dun, S. L.; Wong, R. K.; Fo?rstermann, U.

    1994-01-01

    Distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), somatostatin (SSN), and parvalbumin (PV) was studied in the rat hippocampus by immunohistochemical methods. The aim was to explore the interrelationship between SSN-immunoreactive (SSN-IR) neurons in the dentate hilus, which have been shown to be vulnerable to a number of pathophysiological insults, and the presence or absence of NOS and/or PV in the same subset of dentate hilar neurons. Small NOS-IR neurons were scattered in the pyramidal, oriens,...

  11. Histamine-immunoreactive local neurons in the antennal lobes of the Hymenoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Reisenman, Carolina E.; Paulk, Angelique C.; Nighorn, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Neural networks receive input which is transformed before being sent as output to higher centers of processing. These transformations are often mediated by local interneurons (LNs) that influence output based on activity across the network. In primary olfactory centers, the LNs that mediate these lateral interactions are extremely diverse. For instance, the antennal lobes (ALs) of bumble bees possess both GABA and histamine-immunoreactive (HA-ir) LNs, and both are neurotransmitters associated...

  12. Release of immunoreactive oxytocin and neurophysin I by cultured luteinizing bovine granulosa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Geenen, Vincent; Legros, Jean-jacques; Hagelstein, Marie-the?re?se; Louis-kohn, Francine; Lecomte-yerna, Marie-jeanne; Demoulin, Andre?; Franchimont, Paul

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the production of oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin-neurophysin (bNpI) by bovine granulosa cells cultured in presence of 10% foetal calf serum, a condition known to induce spontaneous luteinization of these cells. The production of immunoreactive (ir) OT was significantly higher in the cultures harvested from large follicles than in those derived from small follicles. Chromatography on Sephadex G-25 showed similar elution sites of ovarian and synthetic OT, while HPLC revealed two pea...

  13. Ocular abnormalities occurring with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D M; Nordlund, J J; Lerner, A B

    1979-06-01

    One hundred twelve patients with vitiligo were examined for ocular abnormalities. Discrete areas of depigmentation with associated pigment hyperplasia clinically appearing to involve the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium were observed in 44 patients, and active uveitis was seen in nine patients. The changes observed suggest that the spectrum of diseases that includes Harada's disease and the Vogt-Koyanagi syndrome may be broader than previously appreciated. Patients with these syndromes may represent the most severe examples of vitiligo and uveal inflammation. The occurrence of symptoms of night blindness in 12 patients and a family history of retinitis pigmentosa in two of these may signify a possible malfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium. Further evidence for a pigment epithelium disorder is suggested by the high incidence of an unusually prominent choroidal pattern in these patients. PMID:534100

  14. Abnormal Iron Homeostasis and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RubenVidal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs, and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1 a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2 a gain of a toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration.

  15. Distribution of gastrin-releasing peptide immunoreactivity in the brain of the collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, J L; den Boer-Visser, A M

    2000-04-01

    The distribution of immunoreactivity after applying an antibody against gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) was studied in the brain of the collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto). In the forebrain GRP-immunoreactive (GRP-ir) cells were found in the hyperstriatum accessorium, medial and lateral parts of the neostriatum, corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporoparieto-occipitalis areas, hippocampus, pre- and parahippocampal areas and prepiriform cortex. In the brainstem, GRP-ir cells were restricted mainly to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental nucleus. Areas with densely packed GRP-ir clusters of varicosities were the medial intermediate hyperstriatum ventrale and lateral septal nucleus; dense GRP-ir neuropil was found in the parolfactory lobe, and in the dorsal half of the intermediate and caudal archistriatum. The ventral lamina medullaris contained many GRP-ir fibers. Forebrain areas devoid of immunoreactivity were the basal nucleus, ectostriatum, rostral archistriatum, most of the paleostriatum augmentatum and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Moderate densities of GRP-ir elements were found in the other telencephalic areas and further in, among others, the preoptic and hypothalamic region, ventral area of Tsai, cerulean nuclei, parabrachial complex, dorsal glossopharyngeal and vagus motor nuclei and medial nuclei of the solitary complex. The observations are compared with data from the literature and the implications for the definition of specific centers within the avian brain are discussed, with emphasis on systems with a role in visceral and motivational functions and in learning. PMID:10805083

  16. Identification of high immunoreactive proteins from Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recognized by human serum antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzychczy-Wloch, Monika; Gorska, Sabina; Brzozowska, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej; Heczko, Piotr B; Bulanda, Malgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the studies was to identify immunogenic proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) isolates. Investigation of the immunoreactivity with human sera allowed us to determine major immunogenic proteins which might be potential candidates for the development of vaccine. For the study, we have selected 60 genetically different, well-characterized GBS clinical isolates. The proteins immunoreactivity with 24 human sera from patients with GBS infections, carriers, and control group without GBS was detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. As a result, some major immunogenic proteins were identified, of which four proteins with molecular masses of about 45 to 50 kDa, which exhibited the highest immunoreactivity features, were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The proteins were identified by comparative analysis of peptides masses using MASCOT and statistical analysis. The results showed known molecules such as enolase (47.4 kDa), aldehyde dehydrogenase (50.6 kDa), and ones not previously described such as trigger factor (47 kDa) and elongation factor Tu (44 kDa). The preliminary results indicated that some GBS proteins that elicit protective immunity hold promise not only as components in a vaccine as antigens but also as carriers or adjuvants in polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, but more studies are needed. PMID:24152143

  17. Natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity in nerve structures and Purkinje fibres of human, pig and sheep hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, M; Eriksson, A; Forsgren, S

    1997-04-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a well-described peptide in cardiac Purkinje fibres and has been shown to interfere with the autonomic regulation in the heart of various species, including man. Recently, we detected immunoreactivity for the peptide in intracardial ganglionic cells and nerve fibre varicosities of bovine hearts, by the use of a modified immunostaining technique that induced an improved detection of natriuretic peptides. These findings raised the question as to whether natriuretic peptides are detectable in these tissues in man and other species. The conduction system from human, pig and sheep hearts was dissected processed with antisera against atrial natriuretic peptide and the closely related brain natriuretic peptide. Immunostaining for the brain natriuretic peptide was detected in some Purkinje fibres in all of these species. Interestingly, in pig, sheep and human hearts, some ganglionic cells and nerve fibres showed atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity, particularly in the soma of human ganglionic cells. This is the first study showing immunoreactivity for the atrial natriuretic peptide in nerve structures and for the brain natriuretic peptide in Purkinje fibres of the human heart. The results give a morphological correlate for the documented effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on the heart autonomic nervous system and for the presumable effects of brain natriuretic peptide in the conduction system of man. PMID:9184848

  18. Heterogeneity of human plasma insulin: techniques for separating immunoreactive components and their determination by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When human plasma is filtered on Sephadex G-SO fine, insulin immunoreactivity is recovered in two peaks: 'big insulin', the higher molecular weight component and 'little insulin', the lower molecular component, having elution volumes that correspond to those of porcine proinsulin 125I and porcine insulin 125I respectively. The presence of another form of immunoreactive insulin 'big big insulin' was detected from an insuloma suspect and its elution pattern corresponding to serum albumin. The eluates correspondent to 'big' and 'little' insulin as well as 'big big' component were assayed by radioimmunoassay using crystalline human insulin as a standard, porcine insulin 125 tracer and anti insulin serum. The antibody, raised in guinea-pigs, was sensitive and potent being adequate for the assay. The reactivity of insulin and proinsulin was tested against the antibody. The relative proportions of several components of total immunoreactive insulin in plasma were studied in basal conditions in five normal subjects and in the patient JSC with pancreatic insulin-secreting tumor as well as after glucose stimuli in all tolbutamide in JSC. (author)

  19. Immunoreactivity of thymosin beta 4 in human foetal and adult genitourinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nemolato

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thymosins beta 4 (T?4 is a member of the beta-thymosins family, a family of peptides playing essential roles in many cellular functions. Our recent studies suggested T?4 plays a key role in the development of human salivary glands and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to analyse the presence of T?4 in the human adult and foetal genitourinary tract. Immunolocalization of T?4 was studied in autoptic samples of kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, testicle and prostate obtained from four human foetuses and four adults. Presence of the peptide was observed in cells of different origin: in surface epithelium, in gland epithelial cells and in the interstitial cells. T?4 was mainly found in adult and foetal bladder in the transitional epithelial cells; in the adult endometrium, glands and stromal cells were immunoreactive for the peptide; T?4 was mainly localized in the glands of foetal prostate while, in the adults a weak T?4 reactivity was restricted to the stroma. In adult and foetal kidney, T?4 reactivity was restricted to ducts and tubules with completely spared glomeruli; a weak positivity was observed in adult and foetal oocytes; immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the interstitial cells of foetal and adult testis. In this study, we confirm that T?4 could play a relevant role during human development, even in the genitourinary tract, and reveal that immunoreactivity for this peptide may change during postnatal and adult life.

  20. Assessment of residual immunoreactivity in red or white wines clarified with pea or lupin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A; Ballabio, C; Bernardini, R; Bertelli, A A E; Novembre, E; Vierucci, A; Restani, P

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable proteins could be a suitable alternative to animal proteins in the clarification of wine, but their residues could represent a risk for subjects with food allergy or intolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of specific immunoreactivity in red and white wines treated, as must or wine, with vegetable proteins in the clarification process. The proteins considered were prepared from lupins and peas, which are not included among the allergens listed in annex Illbis of Directive 2003/89/EC. The presence of residual immunoreactivity to specific rabbit anti-lupin and anti-pea polyclonal antibodies in treated wines was assessed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Residual protein was not detectable in red wines clarified with lupin, pea or a mixture of pea and lupin proteins or in white wines clarified with pea proteins. A small number of musts treated with lupin or pea proteins and white wines treated with lupin proteins yielded equivocal results, probably because of the presence of interfering material (e.g., sugar-rich proteins from grape and yeast). The use of bentonite as a secondary clarifying agent is therefore recommended since its combination with vegetable proteins is particularly effective in removing overall protein immunoreactivity. PMID:15244321

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on immunoreactivity and biochemical properties of peanut allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on allergenicity and biochemical properties of peanut protein were investigated in this study. Peanut protein extracts solution and defatted powder were irradiated at the dose of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to observe the change of molecular weight. Changes in allergenicity of irradiated peanut major allergen (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3) were analyzed by immunoblotting and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). The changes of concentration, turbidity and hydrophobicity of the irradiated protein solution were determined by UV and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Results showed that allergen solution was more sensitive to irradiation than allergen in solid state. When the irradiated dose was lower than 10 kGy, the immunoreactivity of allergen solution became little stronger; and when the dose higher than 10 kGy, the immunoreactivity was reduced. The IC50 was 11 times than the control, after irradiation at the dose of 20 kGy. The concentration and turbidity of the allergen solution increased with the increasing of irradiation dose. Hydrophobicity first went up with increasing irradiation and then decreased when the irradiation dose was above 15 kGy. The biochemical properties of peanut allergen were altered and immunoreactivity was reduced by EB irradiation, the effect of electron beam irradiation on peanut allergen in solid state was more significant. (authors)

  2. Somatostatin-28 like immunoreactivity in normal and tumour tissue from duodenum and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay using labelled somatostatin-14 revealed that components of somatostatin-28 antisera cross-reactive to somatostatin-14 were removed by absorption of somatostatin-28 antisera with sepharose 4B-somatostatin-14. Indirect immunofluorescence techniques using specific antisera against somatostatin-28 were carried out in normal pancreas, duodenum, a somatostatinoma in the duodenum, and pancreatic tumour cells containing somatostatin-14 positive cells, in order to establish if somatostatin-28 is present in normal and pathological tissues. Somatostatin-28 like immunoreactivity was present in pancreatic islets cells and in the epithelial cells of the duodenum as well as in the duodenal somatostatinoma and in pancreatic tumour cells. Furthermore, cells reacting with specific antisera against somatostatin-28 were identical to those with somatostatin-14 antisera in normal and pathological tissues. The findings suggested that somatostatin-28 like immunoreactivity may be constantly present in the tissues where somastostatin like immunoreactivity was detected using somatostatin-14 antisera. However, further studies are necessary to clarify whether somatostatin-28 and somatostatin-14 were independently present in these tissues, in other words, whether somatostatin-14 may be produced from somatostatin-28 or not, since somatostatin-14 antisera had cross-reactivities to somatostatin-28. (authors)

  3. The Characteristics of Immunoreactivity of Alpha-fetoprotein Producing Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swei H Tsung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alphafetoprotein (AFP producing gastric cancer (AFP-GC is very malignant and highly metastatic compared with common gastric cancer. We encountered six patients with AFP-GC. The purpose of this study was to characterize the immunoreactivity of alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric cancer, using a panel of hepatocytic markers, including alpha-fetoprotein, hepatocyte antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CD10. Five of 6 cases showed cytoplasmic reactivity for alpha-fetoprotein. Immunoreactivity with a cytoplasmic, membranous, or canalicular pattern, or a mixed pattern was found for polyclonal CEA. Positive immunostaining for hepatocyte antigen was noted in only 2 of 6 cases. Negative immunostaining was found in all 6 patients for CD10. This study demonstrated that most AFP producing gastric cancer, hepatoid or non-hepatoid, were immunoreactive for AFP and p-CEA, but non-reactive for CD10. Therefore, CD-10 might be helpful to distinguish primary hepatocellular carcinoma from AFP-GC when it metastasizes to the liver. In this small series of patients with gastric cancer, AFP production indicated the poor prognosis, regardless hepatoid or non-hepatoid.

  4. Human leukemia and normal leukocytes contain a species of immunoreactive but nonfunctional dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative radioimmunoassay has been developed for human dihydrofolate reductase (tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase; 5,6,7,8-tetrahdrofolate:NADP/sup +/ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) by using antiserum raised in rabbits against the active enzyme purified from calf liver. An immunoreactive protein could be identified in the cytoplasm of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, which contained no functional dihydrofolate reductase activity. Its concentration was stoichiometric to the volume of cytoplasm assayed and paralleled the standard curve obtained with purified enzyme, indicating that this protein in the human cells is antigenically similar to the homologous antigen. The concentration of this immunoreactive protein in the cytoplasm of human leukemia and normal leukocytes in all instances greatly exceeded the concentration of functional dihydrofolate reductase, which was measured by the binding of [3H]methotrexate. This nonfunctional immunoreactive protein in the cytoplasm and cytosol from two different samples of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells analyzed by gel filtration had an apparent molecular weight of 41,000, which is twice the molecular weight of the functional enzyme

  5. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of the larva of the Eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, P

    1992-04-01

    1. Using indirect immunofluorescent method, the distribution of serotonin immunoreactivity was examined in the ventral nerve cord of the larva of the Eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana. 2. There were two pairs of serially homologous serotonin immunoreactive neurons per ganglion. 3. The subesophageal ganglion which develops from the fusion of three neuromeres had accordingly, six pairs of immunoreactive neurons. 4. The neurons were positioned ventrolaterally at the posterior end of the ganglia and distributed in a bilaterally symmetrical fashion. 5. The axonal processes from serotonin-immunoreactive neurons projected to the contralateral side of the hemiganglion through a ventral commissure and formed an extensive network of fibers on the dorsal side of each ganglion. PMID:1354127

  6. Comparison of alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in the spinal cord between the adult and aged beagle dog

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Ji-hyeon; Choi, Jung-hoon; Park, Joon-ha; Yan, Bing-chun; Kim, In-hye; Lee, Jae-chul; Lee, Dae-hwan; Kim, Jin-sang; Shin, Hyung-cheul; Won, Moo-ho

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (?-syn) is a presynaptic protein that is richly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals, and it is related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we compared the distribution of the immunoreactivity of ?-syn and its related gliosis in the spinal cord of young adult (2-3 years) and aged (10-12 years) beagle dogs. We discovered that ?-syn immunoreactivity was present in many neurons in...

  7. Protein Misdirection Inside and Outside Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): A Possible Clue for Therapeutic Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Akemi Ido; Makoto Urushitani; Hidenao Fukuyama

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS...

  8. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities

  9. Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868

  10. Report on abnormal climate in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports of impact on abnormal climate in 2011. It has Introduction with purpose and background of publish and summary of this report. The cause and current state on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011, Measurement and impact against abnormal climate in 2011 to agriculture, land and maritime, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, environment and health, assessment and advice on the policy. It lists the appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011 and media report data.

  11. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  12. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  13. Protein Misdirection Inside and Outside Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS: A Possible Clue for Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Ido

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43 are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS, respectively. The commonalities of the two proteins include a propensity to aggregate and acquire detrimental conformations through oligomerization, fragmentation, or post-translational modification that may drive abnormal subcellular localizations. Although SOD1 is a major cytosolic protein, mutated SOD1 has been localized to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and even the extracellular space. The nuclear exclusion of TDP-43 is a pathological hallmark for ALS, although the pathogenic priority remains elusive. Nevertheless, these abnormal behaviors based on the protein misfolding are believed to induce diverse intracellular and extracellular events that may be tightly linked to non-cell-autonomous motor neuron death. The generation of mutant- or misfolded protein-specific antibodies would help to uncover the distribution and propagation of the ALS-linked proteins, and to design a therapeutic strategy to clear such species. Herein we review the literature regarding the mislocalization of ALS-linked proteins, especially mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 species, and discuss the rationale of molecular targeting strategies including immunotherapy.

  14. Protein misdirection inside and outside motor neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): a possible clue for therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Akemi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Urushitani, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS, respectively. The commonalities of the two proteins include a propensity to aggregate and acquire detrimental conformations through oligomerization, fragmentation, or post-translational modification that may drive abnormal subcellular localizations. Although SOD1 is a major cytosolic protein, mutated SOD1 has been localized to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and even the extracellular space. The nuclear exclusion of TDP-43 is a pathological hallmark for ALS, although the pathogenic priority remains elusive. Nevertheless, these abnormal behaviors based on the protein misfolding are believed to induce diverse intracellular and extracellular events that may be tightly linked to non-cell-autonomous motor neuron death. The generation of mutant- or misfolded protein-specific antibodies would help to uncover the distribution and propagation of the ALS-linked proteins, and to design a therapeutic strategy to clear such species. Herein we review the literature regarding the mislocalization of ALS-linked proteins, especially mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 species, and discuss the rationale of molecular targeting strategies including immunotherapy. PMID:22072931

  15. Valproic acid-induced abnormal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalakshmi, Nanjangud Chandrashekar; Ramesh, Madhan; Parthasarathi, Gurumurthy; Harugeri, Anand; Christy, Mary Sam; Keshava, Belur Seshachala

    2010-01-01

    A 12-year-old female was admitted to hospital with complaints of abnormal behavior. She was on valproic acid 200mg twice daily and clobazam 5mg at night for the past 13 weeks for her complex partial seizures with secondary generalized seizures. On day 60 of the treatment with valproic acid she developed behavioral disturbances and initiated treatment with tablet chlorpromazine, olanzapine and risperidone. During the present hospitalization, as there was no improvement in abnormal behavior, antipsychotics were discontinued and she was on observation for five days. On day 6, valproic acid was replaced with carbamazepine. Patient started recovering gradually from the abnormal behavior three days after the withdrawal of valproic acid and completely recovered after three months. Causality of valproic acid-induced abnormal behavior was 'possible'. Behavioral disturbances associated with valproic acid are rare and is reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. There is a need for vigilance on abnormal behavioral effects in patients receiving valproic acid. PMID:20174523

  16. Plant abnormality detecting method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention always detects an abnormality of a plant at high accuracy irrespective of operation states of a plant. That is, various sensors are disposed at various portions in the plant for detecting abnormalities. A system for intaking plant operation states during plant operation on on-line is disposed in an abnormality detecting device independent of them. States of sound, temperature and vibration of the plant detected by each of the sensors are memorized corresponding to the plant operation states determined on on-line, so that detection of plant abnormality is corresponder to the plant operation states. Namely, an imaginary model for each of the sensors is provided, and the states of actual plant and signals from various kinds of sensors are compared with the plant operation state and signals of various sensors determined based on the imaginary model. If any contradiction occurs in the comparison, it is judged that abnormality is caused in the plant. (I.S.)

  17. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  18. Selective axonal and glial distribution of monoacylglycerol lipase immunoreactivity in the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dócs, Klaudia; Hegyi, Zoltán; Holló, Krisztina; Kis, Gréta; Heged?s, Krisztina; Antal, Miklós

    2014-06-19

    The importance of 2-AG-mediated endogenous cannabinoid signaling in spinal pain control has recently been well substantiated. Although the degradation of 2-AG seems to be essential in cannabinoid-mediated spinal nociceptive information processing, no experimental data are available about the cellular distribution of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the main degrading enzyme of 2-AG in the spinal dorsal horn. Thus, here we investigated the cellular distribution of MGL in laminae I-II of the spinal gray matter with immunocytochemical methods and revealed an abundant immunoreactivity for MGL in the rodent superficial spinal dorsal horn. We addressed the co-localization of MGL with markers of peptidergic and non-peptidergic primary afferents, axon terminals of putative glutamatergic and GABAergic spinal neurons, as well as astrocytic and microglial profiles, and we found that nearly 17 % of the peptidergic (immunoreactive for CGRP), a bit more than 10 % of the axon terminals of putative glutamatergic spinal neurons (immunoreactive for VGLUT2), and approximately 20 % of the astrocytic (immunoreactive for GFAP) profiles were immunolabeled for MGL. On the other hand, however, axon terminals of non-peptidergic (binding isolectin-B4) nociceptive primary afferents and putative inhibitory spinal neurons (immunoreactive for VGAT) as well as microglial (immunoreactive for CD11b) profiles showed negligible immunostaining for MGL. The results suggest that only nociceptive inputs arriving through a population of CGRP immunoreactive fibers are modulated by the spinal DGL?-MGL pathway. We also postulate that the DGL?-MGL signaling pathway may modulate spinal excitatory but not inhibitory neural circuits. PMID:24942136

  19. FDG-PET evaluation of pleural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, V.J.; Patz, E.; Harris, P.L. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Pleural abnormalities identified on anatomical studies are often nonspecific and may represent benign or malignant disease. We prospectively evaluated the ability of FDG-PET to identify malignancy in patients with pleural abnormalities detected on chest radiographs or chest CT. Thirty-two patients with pleural abnormalities (pleural masses, thickening or effusions) found on chest radiographs or CT were evaluated by FDG-PET. Regions of interest (ROI) were identified on the PET images correlating to anatomic abnormalities and standard uptake ratios (SUR`s) of these ROI`s were calculated. A SUR value of 2.5 or greater was considered positive for malignancy. Physicians blinded to biopsy results graded their confidence of malignancy (1-5 scale) and graded lesion FDG uptake with respect to mediastinal radioactivity. Twenty-three of the patients had definitive diagnoses by tissue biopsy. Seventeen of these patients had malignant (SUR=7.9{plus_minus}3.8) and 6 had benign (SUR=2.8{plus_minus}2.4) causes of their pleural abnormalities (p=0.001). All but two malignant cases had SURs higher than 2.5 and one of these two was correctly interpreted by the observers. SURs lower than 2.5 were seen in four of the six (67%) benign pleural abnormalities. Using a combination of both visual and semiquantitative analysis, the sensitivity of FDG-PET for detecting malignant pleural abnormalities was 94%. Active infections in the pleural space had increased FDG uptake on PET studies while other benign pleural abnormalities did not. FDG-PET has very high sensitivity for detecting malignant pleural abnormalities and can differentiate benign from malignant pleural abnormalities.

  20. Advantage of highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoscintigraphy for tumor detection, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoreactivity (IR) is the fraction of a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) preparation capable of binding to an excess of a specific antigen. One of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunoscintigraphy is to use a highly immunoreactive MoAb. To assess the effect of an antibody IR on biodistribution, a fast and simple purification method has been developed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a hydroxylapatite (HA) column. The column was eluted at ambient temperature with 0.12 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). With this system, the F ab fragments from the MoAb 96.5 against the human melanoma associated p97 antigen were separated into two well-resolved peaks at retention times of 6 and 16 min. FEM-XII cells (human skin melanoma cell line) were used in a cell binding assay (CBA) to determine the maximal percent IR and the affinity constant of each HA-HPLC peak. The second peak from an 125I-F ab 96.5 showed approximately two times greater maximal binding than did the first peak, whereas the affinity constant for the two was the same. This indicated that the F ab 96.5 preparations used in this study were a mixture of more active and less active components. Moreover, prior to the HA-HPLC experiments, these preparations were analyzed with a gel filtration HPLC showing a single molecular weight peak. This suggested that the HA-HPLC separation was not based on molecular weight differences although the separation might differences although the separation mechanism of HA has not yet been fully understood. Thereby, it is concluded that the HA-HPLC is a powerful tool to purify MoAbs into the higher immunoreactive fraction which has a potential advantage in tumor targeting. (author)

  1. Pedal sole immunoreactive axons in terrestrial pulmonates: Limax, Arion, and Helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Roger D

    2014-02-01

    A century ago histological techniques such as formic acid-gold chloride showed the nerve morphology of the pedal sole in Limax and Helix. There have been no similar descriptions since then of the central nervous system relevant to locomotory pedal waves in the foot of slugs and snails. Topical application of 5-HT affects locomotory waves, but the innervation of the pedal sole with 5-HT axons is not known. Three-dimensional morphology of pedal axons in terrestrial pulmonate embryos is shown herein with modern histological techniques using antibodies and the confocal microscope. In Limax maximus, pedal ganglia are shown with Tritonia pedal peptide (TPep) antibodies. Ladder-like cross bridges in the pedal sole are shown with antibodies to both TPep and 5-HT. In Arion ater, pedal ganglia neurons and their axons that form a plexus in the pedal sole are shown with 5-HT antibodies. In Helix aspersa, 5-HT immunoreactive pedal ganglia neurons and a developing pedal sole axon plexus are seen as in A. ater. Axons in this plexus that grow across the pedal sole can be seen growing into pre-existing nerves. No peripheral 5-HT neurons were identified in these three species. This immunoreactive plexus to 5-HT antibodies in A. ater and H. aspersa spreads over the pedal sole epithelium. Axons immunoreactive to 5-HT antibodies in A. ater and H. aspersa extend the length of the foot, primarily in the rim, so that activity in these axons cannot provide local patterned input to produce locomotory waves, but may provide modulatory input to pedal sole muscles. PMID:24648204

  2. Increased immunoreactive 11-ketotestosterone concentrations in sheep feces after acth challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid-Ahmed, Omer; Arias, Nino; Palme, Rupert; Möstl, Erich

    2013-06-01

    11-Oxoetiocholanolone and related substances are important metabolites of cortisol and are excreted via feces in ruminants. To investigate whether 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) or its immunoreactive metabolites are formed and excreted in ruminant feces, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed and validated. The antibody was raised in rabbits against 11-KT-3-CMO:bovine serum albumin with biotinylated 11-KT as a label. The assay showed a sensitivity of 0.3?pg/well. To validate the assay biologically, 6 rams were injected with a synthetic analogue of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (Synacthen, 2?µg/kg body wt). An aliquot was collected of each fecal portion spontaneously defecated 8?h before Synacthen injection to 24?h after injection and stored at -20?°C until analysis. Samples (0.5?g) were extracted using 80% methanol and immunoreactive metabolites measured using the 11-KT EIA and an already established 11,17-dioxoandrostane (11,17-DOA) EIA. High-performance liquid chromatography separation revealed no peak in the same elution position as authentic 11-KT; therefore, reacting substances were referred to as 11-KT equivalents. In the case of 11-KT immunoreactive substances, the values increased from baseline (median, 136?ng/g feces) to a peak concentration (median, 424?ng/g) 10 to 14?h after Synacthen injection and declined afterwards. Concentrations of 11,17-DOA showed the same pattern, but the values were 2 to 4 times higher. From this data, the authors conclude that 11-KT-like substances, specifically C19 O3 -androgens with a 17ß-hydroxy group, were present in the feces. These substances originate from the adrenals and are most likely cortisol metabolites. PMID:23404733

  3. Localization of neuropeptide-Y immunoreactivity in estradiol-concentrating cells in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable evidence shows that gonadal steroids exert a facilitatory influence on levels and release of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) from the hypothalamus. However, it is not known whether gonadal steroids act directly on NPY-producing cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus to produce these facilitatory effects on NPY or whether they act on other cells that have a modulatory influence via synapses on ARC NPY cells. We applied the combined method of steroid autoradiography and immunocytochemistry to assess the localization of [3H]estradiol in relation to NPY-producing cells in the hypothalamus. Rats (n = 6) were bilaterally ovariectomized and injected intracerebroventricularly with colchicine. Twenty-four hours later each rat received an iv injection of 17 beta-[2,4,6,7,16,17(-3)H]estradiol (SA, 166 Ci/mmol) at a dose of 5.0 micrograms/kg BW. One hour after the injection of [3H]estradiol, the rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde; brains were removed, frozen in isopentane precooled in liquid nitrogen (-190 C), sectioned, and processed for autoradiography. The autoradiograms were then incubated with specific antibodies for NPY immunostaining by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The results revealed NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex and a few cells in the median eminence. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were also detected in the internal layer of the median eminence. The largest number of neurons showinence. The largest number of neurons showing NPY immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm was detected in the ARC, and only in this nucleus did we observed colocalization of [3H]estradiol and NPY immunoreactivity in neurons. A population of NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC (10-20%) exhibited nuclear [3H]estradiol; the majority of these cells were located in the lateral and ventral portions of the ARC

  4. The Spectrum of Hormone Immunoreactivity in Typical and Atypical Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye?im ERTAN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to assess the spectrum of hormone immunoreactivity in our pituitary adenoma cases and discuss the diagnostic parameters of atypical pituitary adenomas.Material and Methods: A total of 166 pituitary adenoma cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2008 in our department were included in the present study. Hematoxylin-eosin stained and immunohistochemistry performed slides (ACTH, PRL, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, Ki-67, and p53 were evaluated. Cases having more than two mitoses on 10 high power fields besides more than 3% Ki-67 index were accepted in the atypical group.Results: Histologically, 159 cases were typical pituitary adenoma and 7 were atypical pituitary adenoma. Of the atypical pituitary adenoma cases, one case was ACTH, one GH and one both GH and prolactin hormone immunoreactive pituitary adenomas. Four cases were hormone immunonegative adenomas. Of the typical pituitary adenoma cases, 39 cases were GH, 19 ACTH, 17 prolactin, 10 FSH, 8 LH and one TSH immunreactive pituitary adenomas. Fourty-seven cases were hormone immunonegative adenomas.Twenty-two of the all pitutary adenoma cases had recurrence. Of these cases, 18 were typical adenoma and four were atypical adenoma.Conclusion: The ratio of prolactin immunoreactive pituitary adenoma cases in the surgical material of neuropathology is decreasing due to medical therapy. Atypical pituitary adenomas are not the sole factor affecting the recurrence mechanism but these tumors have higher recurrence rate compared with typical pituitary adenomas and we think the proliferation index might be the principal approach in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  5. Immunoreactive trypsin in acute pancreatitis: elevated levels do not correlate with hyperamylasaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Poston, G. J.; Adamson, A. S.; Heeley, A. F.; Heeley, M. E.; Hughes, E.; Benjamin, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    Immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in the serum of patients presenting with acute pancreatitis (AP) and compared to serum amylase levels. Both were elevated beyond the normal range at presentation (mean IRT 557 +/- 252 micrograms/l, range 181-1000 micrograms/l, mean control IRT 42 +/- 14 micrograms/l, range 15-82 micrograms/l; mean amylase 4500 +/- 3200 IU/l, range 600-10,500 IU/l, control amylase mean 175 +/- 43 IU/l, range 48-320 IU/l). There was minimal correlation between IRT and a...

  6. Immunoreactive helix-destabilizing protein localized in transcriptionally active regions of Drosophila polytene chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, G. L.; Thompson, P.E

    1980-11-01

    A highly purified helix-destabilizing protein (HDP) obtained from rat liver has been used to elicit specific, high-titer anti-HDP sera in rabbits. These antisera show immunological crossreaction with single-stranded DNA binding proteins from several very diverse eukaryotic sources, including Drosophila embryos. The use of such antisera in the labeling of Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes buy indirect immunofluorescence shows concentrations of immunoreactive HDP in many regions, but especially in chromosome puffs. There is a striking localization of HDP in heat shock puffs known to be sites of new transcription. The pattern of HDP distribution seems to implicate a transcriptional role, with some specificities independent of puffing itself.

  7. Correlation between Ocular Demodex Infestation and Serum Immunoreactivity to Bacillus Proteins in Patients with Facial Rosacea

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianjing; O Reilly, Niamh; Sheha, Hosam; Katz, Raananah; Raju, Vadrevu K.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Scheffer, C. G. Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose—To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum. Design—A prospective study to correlate clinical findings with laboratory data. Participants—We consecutively enrolled 59 patients: 34 men and 25 women with a mean age of 60.4±17.6 years (range, 17–93). Methods—Demodex counting was performed based on lash sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis. ...

  8. Release of substance-P-like immunoreactivity in dog paw lymph after scalding injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, C E; Brodin, E; Dalsgaard, C J; Haegerstrand, A

    1986-01-01

    The level of substance-P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in dog paw lymph was determined before and after scalding injury of the paw. At basal conditions, no SPLI could be detected in the paw lymph. Scalding induced an immediate increase of the SPLI-levels. Within 5-10 min after the scalding injury the levels increased up to 28 fmol ml-1 and then gradually decreased within 30-90 min after the injury. It is suggested that scalding injury results in release of substance P from sensory nerve endings, and that this release may contribute to the inflammatory response to scalding injury and, possibly, also wound healing. PMID:2420151

  9. Circuitry and role of substance P-immunoreactive neurons in the primate retina

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Navarro, Nicola?s; Kolb, Helga

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we extend our previous light microscopic (LM) study of substance P (SP)-containing amacrine and ganglion cell types of the human retina (Cuenca et al. [1995] J. Comp. Neurol. 356:491–504) to an electron microscopic (EM) and confocal-imaging study in order to reveal synaptic circuitry and putative input and output neurons. SP-immunoreactive (-IR) amacrine cells in primate retina are typically wide-field cells with large cell bodies occurring in normal or displaced positions re...

  10. Distribution and chemical coding pattern of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity in the preoptic area of the pig

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Majewski; Witold ?akowski; Ma?gorzata Kolenkiewicz; Janusz Najdzion; Barbara Wasilewska; Maciej Równiak; Anna Robak; Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a detailed description of cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) distribution and the co-localization pattern of CART and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cholecystokinin (CCK), and substance P (SP) in the preoptic area (POA) of the domestic pig. The POA displays a low density of immunoreactive cells and rich immunoreactivity for CART in fibers. CART-immunoreactive (CART-IR) cell bodies were single and faintly st...

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis—a model of corticofugal axonal spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braak, Heiko; Brettschneider, Johannes; Ludolph, Albert C.; Lee, Virginia M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Del Tredici, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The pathological process underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions consisting mainly of phosphorylated 43-kDa transactive response DNA-binding protein (pTDP-43), which plays an essential part in the pathogenesis of ALS. Preliminary evidence indicates that neuronal involvement progresses at different rates, but in a similar sequence, in different patients with ALS. This observation supports the emerging concept of prion-like propagation of abnormal proteins in noninfectious neurodegenerative diseases. Although the distance between involved regions is often considerable, the affected neurons are connected by axonal projections, indicating that physical contacts between nerve cells along axons are important for dissemination of ALS pathology. This article posits that the trajectory of the spreading pattern is consistent with the induction and dissemination of pTDP-43 pathology chiefly from cortical neuronal projections, via axonal transport, through synaptic contacts to the spinal cord and other regions of the brain. PMID:24217521

  12. Choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity in a physiologically distinct subtype of olfactory nonspiking local interneurons in the cockroach (periplaneta americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusca, Debora; Husch, Andreas; Baumann, Arnd; Kloppenburg, Peter

    2013-10-15

    Behavioral and physiological studies have shown that local interneurons are pivotal for processing odor information in the insect antennal lobe. They mediate inhibitory and excitatory interactions between the glomerular pathways and ultimately shape the tuning profile of projection neurons. To identify putative cholinergic local interneurons in the antennal lobe of Periplaneta americana, an antibody raised against the biosynthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was applied to individual morphologically and electrophysiologically characterized local interneurons. In nonspiking type IIa1 local interneurons, which were classified in this study, we found ChAT-like immunoreactivity suggesting that they are most likely excitatory. This is a well-defined population of neurons that generates Ca(2+) -driven spikelets upon depolarization and stimulation with odorants, but not Na(+) -driven action potentials, because they lack voltage-activated transient Na(+) currents. The nonspiking type IIa2 and type IIb local interneurons, in which Ca(2+) -driven spikelets were absent, had no ChAT-like immunoreactivity. The GABA-like immunoreactive, spiking type I local interneurons had no ChAT-like immunoreactivity. In addition, we showed that uniglomerular projection neurons with cell bodies located in the ventral portion of the ventrolateral somata group and projections along the inner antennocerebral tract exhibited ChAT-like immunoreactivity. Assigning potential transmitters and neuromodulators to distinct morphological and electrophysiological types of antennal lobe neurons is an important prerequisite for a detailed understanding of odor information processing in insects. PMID:23749599

  13. Chromosome abnormalities and season of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbech, P; Nielsen, J

    1984-01-01

    A study of seasonality has been made of birth of individuals with chromosome abnormalities registered in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register before January 1, 1981. Significant seasonal variation in birth was found for males with Klinefelter's syndrome born before 1946, but not for those born later, and not for any other sex chromosome abnormality. No significant monthly variation was found for any autosomal abnormality, except a significant increase in the frequency of conceptions for Down's syndrome during the first 4 months of the year, using a chi square with 2 degrees of freedom.

  14. Hysterosalpingography: analysis of 473 abnormal examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the reports of 4/3 abnormal hysterosalpingographies from 1,200 medical records of patients at the sterility and infertility out-patient clinic of the School of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp), from July, 1974 to December, 1981. The objective was to evaluate the incidence and main alterations diagnosed by hysterosalpingography. The most frequent findings were tuboperitoneal factors in 91% of the examinations, uterine cavity abnormalities in 17.4% and cervical factor in 6.3% of the cases. The examinations showed a great incident of tuboperitoneal abnormalities as cause of sterility from lower social classes. (author)

  15. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Protein kinase C (alpha and beta) immunoreactivity in rabbit and rat retina: effect of phorbol esters and transmitter agonists on immunoreactivity and the translocation of the enzyme from cytosolic to membrane compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, N N; Broyden, N J; Barnett, N L; Morris, N J

    1991-08-01

    Using a monoclonal antibody against protein kinase C (PKC) that recognises the isoenzymes alpha, beta I, and beta II, positive immunoreactivity was observed throughout the cytoplasm of bipolar cells in both rat and rabbit retinas. PKC immunoreactivity was also associated with the outer segment of photoreceptors in the rabbit retina and presumed amacrine cells in the rat retina. The PKC immunoreactivity in the retina was unaffected in content or localisation in rats kept in continuous dark or light conditions over a period of 6 days. The localisation of PKC immunoreactivity in retinas was similar in 6-day-old, 16 day-old, or adult rabbits. However, the content of PKC was lowest at the youngest stage and highest in the adult rabbit retinas. Of the two active phorbol esters studied, only phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDbut) at a concentration of 1 microM caused the PKC immunoreactivity in rabbit retina bipolar cells to be "transported" from the perikarya towards the axonal terminal processes. Biochemical analyses showed that most of the cytosolic PKC was translocated to the membrane compartment following such treatment. The other phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, even at a concentration of 10 microM did not cause a similar transport of PKC immunoreactivity in the bipolar cells, although a partial translocation of the enzyme could be followed biochemically. Both the translocation and transport of PKC by PDbut could be reversed by simply incubating the retinas in physiological solution for 60 min. The "transport" and translocation processes were not obviously affected by the transport inhibitor colchicine or by known PKC inhibitor such as staurosporine, H-7, sphingosine, or polymyxin B. In addition, agonists known to stimulate inositol phosphates in the retina, viz., carbachol, noradrenaline, and quisqualate, or 4-aminopyridine did not cause a translocation or "transport" of PKC as observed for the phorbol esters. PMID:2072105

  17. Immuno-reactive molecules identified from the secreted proteome of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Oellerich, Michael; Kumar, Ram; Kumar, Manish; Bhadoria, Dharam P; Reichard, Utz; Gupta, Vijay K; Sharma, Gainda L; Asif, Abdul R

    2010-11-01

    The secreted proteomes of a three week old culture of an Indian (190/96) and a German (DAYA) Aspergillus fumigatus isolate were investigated for reactivity with IgG and/or IgE antibodies derived from pooled allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) patients' sera. Two dimensional Western blotting followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the reactive protein spots revealed 35 proteins from the two A. fumigatus strains. There were seven known A. fumigatus allergens among them (Asp f1-4, Asp f9, Asp f10, and Asp f13/15), whereas three proteins displaying significant sequence similarity to known fungal allergens have been assigned as predicted allergens (Dipeptidyl-peptidase-V precursor, Nuclear transport factor 2, and Malate dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent). Eight IgG and IgE reactive proteins were common in both strains; however, 12 proteins specifically reacted in 190/96 and 15 in DAYA. Further testing with sera of 5 individual ABPA patients demonstrated that 12 out of 20 immunoreactive proteins of 190/96 strain of A. fumigatus had consistent reactivity with IgE. Seven of these proteins reacted with IgG also. The 25 of 35 identified proteins are novel with respect to immuno-reactivity with ABPA patients' sera and could form a panel of molecules to improve the currently existing less-sensitive diagnostic methods. Through expressing recombinantly, these proteins may also serve as a tool in desensibilization strategies. PMID:20828163

  18. Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of estrogen receptors in human meningiomas has long been a controversial issue. This may be explained, in part, by apparent heterogeneity of estrogen binding sites in meningioma tissue. In this study, estrogen receptors were determined in 58 meningiomas with an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against human estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) and with a sensitive radioligand binding assay using 125I-labeled estradiol (125I-estradiol) as radioligand. Low levels of estrophilin immunoreactivity were found in tumors from 62% of patients, whereas radioligand binding activity was demonstrated in about 46% of the meningiomas examined. In eight (14%) tissue samples multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed. The immunoreactive binding sites correspond to the classical, high affinity estrogen receptors: the Kd for 125I-estradiol binding to the receptor was approximately 0.2 nM and the binding was specific for estrogens. The second, low affinity class of binding sites considerably influenced measurement of the classical receptor even at low ligand concentrations. The epidemiological and clinical data from patients with meningiomas, and the existence of specific estrogen receptors confirmed by immunochemical detection, may be important factors in a theory of oncogenesis

  19. Comparative mapping of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M; Fickbohm, David J; Katz, Paul S

    2006-11-20

    The serotonergic systems in nudibranch molluscs were compared by mapping the locations of serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neurons in 11 species representing all four suborders of the nudibranch clade: Dendronotoidea (Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, Dendronotus iris, Dendronotus frondosus, and Melibe leonina), Aeolidoidea (Hermissenda crassicornis and Flabellina trophina), Arminoidea (Dirona albolineata, Janolus fuscus, and Armina californica), and Doridoidea (Triopha catalinae). A nomenclature is proposed to standardize reports of cell location in species with differing brain morphologies. Certain patterns of 5-HT immunoreactivity were found to be consistent for all species, such as the presence of 5-HT-ir neurons in the pedal and cerebral ganglia. Also, particular clusters of 5-HT-ir neurons in the anterior and posterior regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglion were always present. However, there were interspecies differences in the number of 5-HT-ir neurons in each cluster, and some clusters even exhibited strong intraspecies variability that was only weakly correlated with brain size. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the presence of particular classes of 5-HT-ir neurons exhibits a great deal of homoplasy. The conserved features of the nudibranch serotonergic system presumably represent the shared ancestral structure, whereas the derived characters suggest substantial independent evolutionary changes in the number and presence of serotonergic neurons. Although a number of studies have demonstrated phylogenetic variability of peptidergic systems, this study suggests that serotonergic systems may also exhibit a high degree of homoplasy in some groups of organisms. PMID:16998939

  20. Purification and immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies against myeloma-lambda chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G X; Zhu, H F; Su, N; Wang, X L; Zhang, Y; Yang, D F

    1991-01-01

    In this study, two murine IgM-monoclonal antibodies (IgM-McAbs) against lambda chain of myeloma protein from hybridoma ascites were purified by Sephadex G200 chromatography. The eluate of the first peak on absorption at 280 nm formed one precipitation band with rabbit anti-mouse IgM or anti-mouse immunoglobulin in agar gel double diffusion test; it also formed a detectable precipitation line in the IgM reaction area in immunoelectrophoresis. These findings showed that the eluate of the first peak on absorption at 280 nm contained purified IgM-McAbs. It was found in indirect ELISA that the immunoreactivity of the eluate of the first peak was four to five fold higher than that of the original ascites with equimolar protein concentration. Double antibody sandwich ELISA analyses of the immunoreactivity of HRP-conjugated IgM-monoclonal antibodies with lambda chain denoted that the purified IgM-McAb-HRP-conjugate might be of practical value in quantitative as well as qualitative assay of lambda chains. PMID:1819029

  1. Distribution of the creatine transporter throughout the human brain reveals a spectrum of creatine transporter immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew T J; Faull, Richard L M; Christie, David L; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2015-04-01

    Creatine is a molecule that supports energy metabolism in cells. It is carried across the plasma membrane by the creatine transporter. There has been recent interest in creatine for its neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a therapeutic agent. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the distribution of the creatine transporter in the human brain. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to map out its location and the intensity of staining. The transporter was found to be strongly expressed, especially in the large projection neurons of the brain and spinal cord. These include the pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, and motor neurons of the somatic motor and visceromotor cranial nerve nuclei and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Many other neurons in the brain also had some degree of creatine transporter immunoreactivity. By contrast, the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and the catecholaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, showed a very low to almost absent level of immunoreactivity for the transporter. We propose that the distribution may reflect the energy consumption by different cell types and that the extent of creatine transporter expression is proportional to the cell's energy requirements. Furthermore, the distribution indicates that supplemented creatine would be widely taken up by brain cells, although possibly less by those cells that degenerate in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:25159005

  2. Calretinin immunoreactivity in normal and carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Young; Kim, Jin Nam; Chang, In Youb; Park, Sung Ho; Yoon, Sang Pil

    2011-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is a potent hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic chemical. Little, however, is known about the association of CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity and calretinin. We hypothesized that calretinin might be localized in the proximal tubule cells and play a role against CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity, since the target of CCl(4) is the brush border-bearing tubule cells. CCl(4) (1 ml/kg) was administrated by oral gavage to 8-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats once a week for 4 weeks. A significant increase in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine was confirmed by serum analysis. Calretinin immunolocalization was compared with the calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in normal and CCl(4)-treated kidneys. Calretinin was clearly immunolocalized in the apical surface of proximal convoluted tubule in the deeper cortex of normal kidney and blurred after CCl(4) administration, with only minor changes of calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, irrelevant to the CCl(4) treatment. These findings might have significance since decreased immunolocalization of calretinin with CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity may contribute to the toxicity-related decrease in calcium transport or calcium buffering activity in the kidney. PMID:20947139

  3. Depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system by cysteamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective neurotoxins have been of value in providing a means for specifically interfering with the actions of endogenous neurotransmitter candidates. Others have shown cysteamine (CSH) to deplete the gastrointestinal tract and hypothalamus of rats of immunoreactive somatostatin, suggesting a toxic action of that compound directed against somatostatin-containing cells. The present study further defines the actions of cysteamine on somatostatin in the central nervous system. (CNS). Cysteamine hydrochloride administered subcutaneously results in a depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in the retina, brain, and cervical spinal cord of rats. The effect is demonstrable at doses of 30 mg/kg of body weight and above, occurs within 2 to 4 hr of a single injection of the drug, and is largely reversible within 1 week. The mean depletion of SLI observed within the CNS varies from 38% in cerebral cortex to 65% in cervical spinal cord 24 hr following administration of CSH, 300 mg/kg of body weight, s.c. By gel permeation chromatography, all molecular weight forms of SLI are affected, with the largest reductions in those forms that co-chromatograph with synthetic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. These results indicate that CSH has a generalized, rapid, and largely reversible effect in depleting SLI from the rat CNS

  4. Axonal guidance of adenosine deaminase immunoreactive primary afferent fibers in developing mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhart, M J; Roberts, M A; Knudsen, T B; Skalko, R G

    1990-08-01

    This study examined the precision of central fiber growth in a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion neurons in developing mouse spinal cord. Immunohistochemical techniques using a monospecific, polyclonal antiserum to mouse adenosine deaminase (ADA) were utilized to label a population of primary sensory afferents that have been found to exclusively innervate laminae I and II of the dorsal horn in adult mice. Initial growth of ADA-immunoreactive (ADA-IR) primary afferents occurred very early in development, embryonic day 10 (E10), a time coincident with the earliest settling time of dorsal root ganglion neurons. Adenosine deaminase immunoreactive primary afferents were observed throughout the cross-sectional area of the primordial dorsal funiculus (DF) as early as E10. Immunostained fibers remained quiescent in the DF during its growth and separation into the tract of Lissauer and dorsal column pathway. By E15, the two pathways had formed and ADA-IR fibers were observed exclusively in the tract of Lissauer. This segregation of fibers remained throughout development and reflected the adult pattern. Growth was reinitiated at E16 when the fibers advanced into the dorsal horn and proceeded directly to laminae I and II mimicking their adult distribution. Exuberant fiber growth was not detected throughout their development. These results strongly suggest that ADA-IR fibers exhibit precise fiber guidance to a preferred pathway, the tract of Lissauer, and accurate laminar innervation of the dorsal horn. PMID:2224541

  5. Characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive protein in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M K; Kogo, H; Kawashima, S; Wakabayashi, K

    1995-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize GnRH-like substance(s) in the rat pineal gland using a monoclonal antibody, LRH13, as a probe. The epitope of LRH13 is between 2nd and 5th amino acid residues of the mammalian GnRH, and its immunological characters were previously defined by us. LRH13 could show strong immunological signal on the rat pineal gland. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE of the pineal gland preparations showed a LRH13 immunoreactive band with apparent mol wt 52 kilo-Dalton (kD), which is much bigger than that of hypothalamic GnRH precursor (10 kD). The 52 kD protein, however, was detected from insoluble fraction of the pineal homogenate and liberated from the fraction by Triton X-100 (2%) treatment. On the other hand, NaCl (140 mM and 500 mM) or EDTA (10 mM) treatment failed to liberate. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that the 52 kD protein is a mixture of two proteins with different isoelectric points (pI approximately 6.8 and 7.0). Both proteins showed identical patterns of peptide mapping by V8 protease digestion, and they might be originated from the same peptide. These results suggest that the rat pineal GnRH-immunoreactive substance has a unique property as a membrane associate protein. PMID:7563231

  6. Kisspeptin immunoreactive neurons in the equine hypothalamus Interactions with GnRH neuronal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decourt, C; Tillet, Y; Caraty, A; Franceschini, I; Briant, C

    2008-12-01

    To determine if kisspeptin could be implicated in the control of reproduction in equine species, we studied the distribution of kisspeptin neurons and their anatomical interactions with GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus of pony mares. Brains were collected in three pony mares between 2 and 4h after ovulation. One major population of kisspeptin immunoreactive cell bodies was found in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), where they extended from the middle of the nucleus to the premammillary recess. Kisspeptin immunoreactive varicose fibers extended from the preoptic area to the mammillary nuclei, with important densities especially in the anterior periventricular area and the median eminence (ME). Rare close appositions of kisspeptin fibres on GnRH cell bodies were observed in the ARC. Close appositions between kisspeptin and GnRH fibres were also confirmed at a low incidence in the anterior basal periventricular area and at a high incidence in the ME. This work provides neuroanatomical bases for further investigations into the role of kisspeptin in equine reproduction. PMID:18761083

  7. Immunoreactivity, stability, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a monoclonal antibody to human leukemic B cells after three different methods of radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal B02, a murine monoclonal antibody against human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was radioiodinated using chloramine T (Chl.T), Bolton-Hunter (B-H) or N-succinimidyl-p-iodobenzoate (PIB). The preparations had comparable radiochemical purity (>97%) and immunoreactive fraction (65-80%) but the Chl.T-based product was most susceptible to deiodination and loss of immunoreactivity. After i.v. injection into CLL-xenografted nude mice, the preparations had identical patterns of clearance from the blood but the PIB-based product led to more radioactivity in liver and spleen and less in the thyroid compared to the other preparations. The Chl.T-based product showed loss of immunoreactivity in circulation and less tumor-localized radioactivity 168 h after administration. The differences between the B-H-based and PIB-based products were less impressive than between PIB-based and Chl.T-based products. (author)

  8. Model for quantifying absorption through abnormal skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques are available for quantitatively studying factors governing absorption through normal skin (in vivo and in vitro) but relatively little is known about the permeability of abnormal skin. We have designed and evaluated an in vivo model for quantifying absorption through abnormal skin. Absorption of [3H]mannitol and [14C]octyl benzoate was studied through altered rat skin. [3H]Mannitol penetrated normal skin much more slowly than did [14C]octyl benzoate. Abnormal skin was more permeable to [3H]mannitol and [14C]octyl benzoate, absorption was greater than 100X and greater than 2X greater, respectively, than normal. The in vivo model has been successfully used to quantify absorption through abnormal skin

  9. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  10. T cell immune abnormalities in immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xuebin; Zhang, Liping; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2014-10-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal T cell immunity. Cytotoxic T cells, abnormal T regulatory cells, helper T cell imbalance, megakaryocyte maturation abnormalities and abnormal T cell anergy are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. The loss of T cell-mediated immune tolerance to platelet auto-antigens plays a crucial role in immune thrombocytopenia. The induction of T cell tolerance is an important mechanism by which the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia can be studied. Studies regarding the roles of the new inducible costimulator signal transduction pathway, the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and the nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction pathway in the induction of T cell tolerance can help improve our understanding of immune theory and may provide a new theoretical basis for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:25274611

  11. Central pain in multiple sclerosis - sensory abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, A; Boivie, J

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop central neuropathic pain (CP). In the present study somatosensory abnormalities have been analysed in detail in 62 patients with MS and CP (42 women, 20 men; mean age 52 years) and in a control group of 10 women and 6 men (mean age 47 years) with MS and sensory symptoms, but without pain. Assessment included clinical testing and quantitative methods (QST) for the measurement of perception thresholds for touch, vibration, and temperatures. All CP patients except two (97%) had abnormal thresholds for innoxious and/or noxious temperatures, compared to 81% in the control group (ppainful and non-painful regions showed both the absolute threshold values and the index values to be significantly more abnormal, in the CP regions, for warmth (ppain (ppain/cold pain combined (ppain and regions with sensory symptoms in the controls showed significantly more abnormal thresholds in the CP patients for warmth (ppain/cold pain combined (ppain. PMID:19359204

  12. Losses of immunoreactive parvalbumin amacrine and immunoreactive alphaprotein kinase C bipolar cells caused by methylmercury chloride intoxication in the retina of the tropical fish Hoplias malabaricus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.M.O., Bonci; S.M.A. de, Lima; S.R., Grötzner; C.A., Oliveira Ribeiro; D.E., Hamassaki; D.F., Ventura.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on amacrine and on ON-bipolar cells in the retina, experiments were performed in MeHg-exposed groups of adult trahiras (Hoplias malabaricus) at two dose levels (2 and 6 µg/g, ip). The retinas of test and control groups were processed by mouse anti-parv [...] albumin and rabbit anti-alphaprotein kinase C (alphaPKC) immunocytochemistry. Morphology and soma location in the inner nuclear layer were used to identify immunoreactive parvalbumin (PV-IR) and alphaPKC (alphaPKC-IR) in wholemount preparations. Cell density, topography and isodensity maps were estimated using confocal images. PV-IR was detected in amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer and in displaced amacrine cells from the ganglion cell layer, and alphaPKC-IR was detected in ON-bipolar cells. The MeHg-treated group (6 µg/g) showed significant reduction of the ON-bipolar alphaPKC-IR cell density (mean density = 1306 ± 393 cells/mm²) compared to control (1886 ± 892 cells/mm²; P

  13. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Noval; Mar González-Manrique; Rodr Amp Guez-del Valle, Jos Amp Mar Amp A.; Rodr Amp Guez-s Amp Nchez, Jos Amp Mar Amp A.

    2012-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or ta...

  14. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Eslamian, L.

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal menstrual bleeding is one of the most common reasons of gynecologic consultation in adolescent girls. During the first two years after menarche. Most of cycles are anovulatory. Despite this, they are somewhat regular with a range of approximately 21-40 days. Cycles longer than 42 days or shorter than 21 days and bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days particularly 2 years after menarche are considered abnormal. Since the variability in cycle length is greater in adolescence than in ad...

  16. Echocardiographic abnormalities in type IV mucopolysaccharidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    John, R. M.; Hunter, D.; Swanton, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is well recognised in most forms of the mucopolysaccharidoses but there is poor documentation of abnormalities specific to Morquio's syndrome (type IV mucopolysaccharidosis). Ten patients with the classic form or type A Morquio's syndrome with a median age of 12.5 years underwent echocardiographic assessment. Abnormalities were detected in six (60%) cases with mitral valve involvement in five patients and aortic valve disease in four. One patient had severe mitral leaflet ...

  17. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  18. Osteopoikilosis Patient with Abnormal Bone Scan

    OpenAIRE

    Alev Gürgan; Gonca Deniz; Yasemin Turan; Serpil Bal

    2008-01-01

    Osteopoikilosis a condition mimicking a variety of bone pathology is a rare osteosclerotic displasia. The diagnosis is usually done according to radiographs which are performed incidentally. Although bone scan is usually normal, especially in young patients abnormal tracer uptake can be seen. We report a 25 year-old female osteopoikilosis patient with abnormal bone scan and characteristic radiographic findings who had been diagnosed and treated inappropriately. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:6...

  19. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  20. Evidence of portuguese stock market abnormal returns

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Elisabete Mendes; Oliveira, Lisete Trindade

    2011-01-01

    According to the stock market efficiency theory, it is not possible to consistently beat the market. However, technical analysis is more and more spread as an efficient way to achieve abnormal returns. In fact there is evidence that momentum investing strategies provide abnormal returns in different stock markets, Jegadeesh, N. and Titman, S. (1993), George, T. and Hwang, C. (2004) and Du, D. (2009). In this work we study if like other markets, the Portuguese stock market also allows to obtai...

  1. Valproic acid-induced abnormal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nagalakshmi, Nanjangud Chandrashekar; Ramesh, Madhan; Parthasarathi, Gurumurthy; Harugeri, Anand; Christy, Mary Sam; Keshava, Belur Seshachala

    2010-01-01

    A 12-year-old female was admitted to hospital with complaints of abnormal behavior. She was on valproic acid 200mg twice daily and clobazam 5mg at night for the past 13 weeks for her complex partial seizures with secondary generalized seizures. On day 60 of the treatment with valproic acid she developed behavioral disturbances and initiated treatment with tablet chlorpromazine, olanzapine and risperidone. During the present hospitalization, as there was no improvement in abnormal behavior, an...

  2. Ocular abnormalities in thin basement membrane disease

    OpenAIRE

    Colville, D.; Savige, J.; Branley, P.; Wilson, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—Alport syndrome is an X linked disease that results in renal failure, deafness, and ocular abnormalities including a dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. The ultrastructural appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) resembles that seen in some patients with Alport syndrome, and in some cases this disease is inherited too. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBMD have any ocular abnormalities....

  3. Role of neuropsin in parvalbumin immunoreactivity changes in hippocampal basket terminals of mice reared in various environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Harumitsu; Kanagawa, Dai; Nakazawa, Hitomi; Tawara-Hirata, Yoshie; Kogure, Yoko; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Takayama, Chitoshi; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Shiosaka, Sadao

    2014-01-01

    In vitro approaches have suggested that neuropsin (or kallikrein 8/KLK8), which controls gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission through neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) and its receptor (ErbB4), is involved in neural plasticity (Tamura et al., 2012, 2013). In the present study, we examined whether parvalbumin (PV)-positive neuronal networks, the majority of which are ErbB4-positive GABAergic interneurons, are controlled by neuropsin in tranquil and stimulated voluntarily behaving mice. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive fibers surrounding hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons in mice reared in their home cage were decreased in neuropsin-deficient mice, suggesting that neuropsin controls PV immunoreactivity. One- or two-week exposures of wild mice to novel environments, in which they could behave freely and run voluntarily in a wheel resulted in a marked upregulation of both neuropsin mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. To elucidate the functional relevance of the increase in neuropsin during exposure to a rich environment, the intensities of PV-immunoreactive fibers were compared between neuropsin-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice under environmental stimuli. When mice were transferred into novel cages (large cages with toys), the intensity of PV-immunoreactive fibers increased in WT mice and neuropsin-deficient mice. Therefore, behavioral stimuli control a neuropsin-independent form of PV immunoreactivity. However, the neuropsin-dependent part of the change in PV-immunoreactive fibers may occur in the stimulated hippocampus because increased levels of neuropsin continued during these enriched conditions. PMID:25540610

  4. Diagnosing of chromosome abnormalities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Videbech, P

    1984-01-01

    A survey of how frequent chromosome abnormalities are diagnosed in Denmark prenatally as well as postnatally compared with the expected incidence in an 11-year period 1970-1980 has been made from the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register. Ten percent of the expected number of Klinefelter's syndrome, 41% of Turner's syndrome and 10% of other sex chromosome abnormalities in children born between 1970 and 1980 have been diagnosed until January 1, 1983. The total frequency of diagnosed cases with sex chromosome abnormalities is 13% of the expected number. Induced abortion was made in 62% of the cases with sex chromosome abnormalities diagnosed prenatally. Ninety percent of all cases with Down's syndrome were diagnosed by chromosome examination, and 10% were diagnosed prenatally and aborted. During the last part of the period from 1977-1980 this had increased to 20%. Thirty-seven percent of cases with other chromosome abnormalities were diagnosed. Among the expected 4,396 children with chromosome abnormalities to beborn between 1970 and 1980, a total of 39% were diagnosed postnatally until January 1, 1983, and 10% were diagnosed prenatally. It is concluded that there is a great need for training consultants in clinical genetics, expansion and further decentralization of cytogenetic service with more cytogenetic laboratories and employment of clinical geneticists in all 14 Danish counties.

  5. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)n. (orig.)

  6. Set up of abnormal events database and statistical analysis of abnormal events for the HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The set up of abnormal events database for the High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR) is described, and its abnormal event are counted analyzed. The results show that the main abnormal events include reactor control and protection system breakdown, reactor coolant system breakdown and others breakdown. These three breakdowns make up about 86.09% of the total events. But the influence of they on the reactor safety is not clear

  7. Semi-automated imaging system to quantitate estrogen and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharangpani, G M; Joshi, A S; Porter, K; Deshpande, A S; Keyhani, S; Naik, G A; Gholap, A S; Barsky, S H

    2007-06-01

    A semi-automated imaging system is described to quantitate estrogen and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in human breast cancer. The system works for any conventional method of image acquisition using microscopic slides that have been processed for immunohistochemical analysis of the estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor immunohistochemical staining produce colorimetric differences in nuclear staining that conventionally have been interpreted manually by pathologists and expressed as percentage of positive tumoral nuclei. The estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of human breast cancer represent important prognostic and predictive markers of human breast cancer that dictate therapeutic decisions but their subjective interpretation result in interobserver, intraobserver and fatigue variability. Subjective measurements are traditionally limited to a determination of percentage of tumoral nuclei that show positive immunoreactivity. To address these limitations, imaging algorithms utilizing both colorimetric (RGB) as well as intensity (gray scale) determinations were used to analyze pixels of the acquired image. Image acquisition utilized either scanner or microscope with attached digital or analogue camera capable of producing images with a resolution of 20 pixels /10 mu. Areas of each image were screened and the area of interest richest in tumour cells manually selected for image processing. Images were processed initially by JPG conversion of SVS scanned virtual slides or direct JPG photomicrograph capture. Following image acquisition, images were screened for quality, enhanced and processed. The algorithm-based values for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor percentage nuclear positivity both strongly correlated with the subjective measurements (intraclass correlation: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.95) yet exhibited no interobserver, intraobserver or fatigue variability. In addition the algorithms provided measurements of nuclear estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor staining intensity (mean, mode and median staining intensity of positive staining nuclei), parameters that subjective review could not assess. Other semi-automated image analysis systems have been used to measure estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity but these either have required proprietary hardware or have been based on luminosity differences alone. By contrast our algorithms were independent of proprietary hardware and were based on not just luminosity and colour but also many other imaging features including epithelial pattern recognition and nuclear morphology. These features provide a more accurate, versatile and robust imaging analysis platform that can be fully automated in the near future. Because of all these properties, our semi-automated imaging system 'adds value' as a means of measuring these important nuclear biomarkers of human breast cancer. PMID:17535263

  8. Losses of immunoreactive parvalbumin amacrine and immunoreactive alphaprotein kinase C bipolar cells caused by methylmercury chloride intoxication in the retina of the tropical fish Hoplias malabaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.O. Bonci

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the effects of methylmercury (MeHg on amacrine and on ON-bipolar cells in the retina, experiments were performed in MeHg-exposed groups of adult trahiras (Hoplias malabaricus at two dose levels (2 and 6 µg/g, ip. The retinas of test and control groups were processed by mouse anti-parvalbumin and rabbit anti-alphaprotein kinase C (alphaPKC immunocytochemistry. Morphology and soma location in the inner nuclear layer were used to identify immunoreactive parvalbumin (PV-IR and alphaPKC (alphaPKC-IR in wholemount preparations. Cell density, topography and isodensity maps were estimated using confocal images. PV-IR was detected in amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer and in displaced amacrine cells from the ganglion cell layer, and alphaPKC-IR was detected in ON-bipolar cells. The MeHg-treated group (6 µg/g showed significant reduction of the ON-bipolar alphaPKC-IR cell density (mean density = 1306 ± 393 cells/mm² compared to control (1886 ± 892 cells/mm²; P < 0.001. The mean densities found for amacrine PV-IR cells in MeHg-treated retinas were 1040 ± 56 cells/mm² (2 µg/g and 845 ± 82 cells/mm² (6 µg/g, also lower than control (1312 ± 31 cells/mm²; P < 0.05, differently from the data observed in displaced PV-IR amacrine cells. These results show that MeHg changed the PV-IR amacrine cell density in a dose-dependent way, and reduced the density of alphaKC-IR bipolar cells at the dose of 6 µg/g. Further studies are needed to identify the physiological impact of these findings on visual function.

  9. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the seminal plasma and human semen parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-like substance has been detected in human seminal plasma by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a highly specific anti-LH-RH antiserum. The seminal samples - not only the plasma itself but also the sample extracted by an acid/alcohol method - showed satisfactory displacement curves in our RIA system. The relationship between fertility and the LH-RH values in the seminal plasma was studied by comparing the peptide levels with sperm concentration and motility. By these two parameters, 103 samples were divided into four groups. In the low-concentration groups (oligozoospermic patients), the hormonal concentrations differed significantly between those specimens demonstrating good and poor motility. These data suggest that this immunoreactive LH-RH may play a role in human spermatogenesis

  10. Half-life of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in canine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous estimates of the half-life of synthetic somatostatin have been based upon the disappearance rate of 125I-labeled Tyr1-somatostatin. In the present study, the half-life of infused synthetic somatostatin was determined by RIA and compared with the duration of its suppressive action upon plasma insulin and glucagon. After the end of a 2-h infusion of somatostatin (500 ng/min), the radioimmunologically measured half-life was 1.82 min. The reappearance half-times for insulin and glucagon were 1.4 and 6.7 min, respectively. These data show that calculations of the half-life of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in plasma may differ from estimates based on the duration of its biological activities, which may differ from one another

  11. Immunoreactivity and Radioimmunoscintigraphy of 4-Lysine Single Chain (Fv) Lym-1 Antibody for the Radiometal Chelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Ho; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Tae Sup; Uh, Gwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Kim, Eun Jung; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Small size of recombinant scFv, composed of VH and VL region of IgG, has many advantages such as faster blood clearance, improved tumor localization and reduced human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response. On the other hand, owing to small size, number of amino group, which was not involved in binding site, of ScFv lym-1 was insufficient in conjugation with CITC-DTPA chelator for radio metal labeling. The goal of this study is to introduce 4-lysine tag to the end of ScFv lym-1 sequence for radio metal conjugation and to evaluate the immunoreactivity and radioimmunoscintigraphy of chelator conjugated 4-lysine taq scFv lym-1 (4-lys scFv)

  12. Immunoreactivity and Radioimmunoscintigraphy of 4-Lysine Single Chain (Fv) Lym-1 Antibody for the Radiometal Chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small size of recombinant scFv, composed of VH and VL region of IgG, has many advantages such as faster blood clearance, improved tumor localization and reduced human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response. On the other hand, owing to small size, number of amino group, which was not involved in binding site, of ScFv lym-1 was insufficient in conjugation with CITC-DTPA chelator for radio metal labeling. The goal of this study is to introduce 4-lysine tag to the end of ScFv lym-1 sequence for radio metal conjugation and to evaluate the immunoreactivity and radioimmunoscintigraphy of chelator conjugated 4-lysine taq scFv lym-1 (4-lys scFv)

  13. Early neuronal development in the spinal cord of a reptile assessed by neurofilament protein immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, E; Batista, M A; Bello, A R; Lancha, A; Dahl, D

    1990-01-01

    The neural tube in the Gallotia galloti Stage 22 (S.22) embryo is already closed at the level of the cervical flexure, while caudal closure does not end until S.23. Cell proliferation begins shortly after the final neural tube closure, being rapid and giving rise, by S.26, to a thick ventricular zone. Cell migration does not start until S.28, initially in the basal plate, and forming putative motoneurons. Migration in the alar plate does not start until S.33. The appearance of the first neurofilament protein-positive perikarya coincides with the structural and ultrastructural identification of the neuron, although neurofilament-immunoreactive cells can already be identified inside the ventricular zone. Finally, from S.35 onwards, after major cell migration has already occurred, neuronal maturation continues in situ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2074217

  14. Cogeneration of retrogradely labeled corticocortical projection and GABA-immunoreactive local circuit neurons in cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M W

    1985-12-01

    The times of origin of cortico-cortical projection neurons and local circuit neurons in rat visual cortex were determined. The birthdates of the projection neurons were assessed using a technique that combined retrograde labeling with lectin-bound horseradish peroxidase and tritiated thymidine autoradiography. The birthdates of some cortical local circuit neurons were determined by combining GABA immunocytochemistry with [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Double-labeled neurons (those with retrograde or immunoreactive label in their perikarya and autoradiographic silver grains over their nuclei) were born during the third week of gestation. Projection and local circuit neurons born on gestational day 14, 15, 17, 19 or 20 were located primarily in layer VIb, VIa, V, III or II, respectively. Thus, both populations of neurons are generated by parallel and concurrent inside-to-outside patterns. PMID:3910166

  15. Plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity and its variations in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golanov, E.V.; Fufacheva, A.A.; Parin, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    This paper determines the level of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-elir) in the blood plasma of baboons and studies its changes in certain situations. For radioimmunoassay of beta-ELIR in the blood plasma, a standard kit and the appropriate technique were used. The background plasma beta-ELIR level of the baboons, in a state of quiet wakefulness, was 0.0 = 1.0 fmoles/ml. The total level of b-ELIR was 134 plus or minus 24 pg/ml. The data show that elevation of the plasma b-ELIR level accompanies stress formation, including the development of a state of shock in baboons. A definite role in the regulation of the plasma b-endorphin level may be played by the paraventricular-perifornical region of the hypothalamus.

  16. c-Fos immunoreactivity in selected brain regions of rats after heat exposure and pyrogen administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Irné; Mitchell, Duncan; Niesler, Carola; Laburn, Helen P

    2006-11-20

    We determined c-Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in selected hypothalamic nuclei, the organum vasculosum of the laminae terminals (OVLT) and somatosensory cortex of rats after hyperthermia induced by exogenous heat exposure, Gram-negative or Gram-positive pyrogen administration. The magnitude of Fos-IR was similar in thermoregulatory hypothalamic nuclei of rats after heat exposure or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, despite the different origins of the hyperthermias. Heat-induced hyperthermia was associated with increased Fos-IR in the somatosensory cortex. LPS, but not heat exposure or injection of killed Staphylococcus aureus cells activated OVLT neurons. The OVLT may thus not be a port of entry for humoral mediators of Gram-positive bacterial fevers. PMID:17005162

  17. Ultrastructural localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactivity in the rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matini, P; Faussone-Pellegrini, M S

    1997-06-20

    The location of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactivity (NOS-IR) in whole mount preparations of muscularis externa of rat ileum was determined by using pre-embedding electron microscope immunocytochemistry. Several neurons, nerve fibers and nerve endings in the myenteric plexus (MP) and nerve endings within the muscle layers were found to be NOS-IR. These nerve endings were especially numerous in the deep muscular plexus (DMP) and much closer to interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) than to smooth muscle cells. Some of the ICC-MP were NOS-IR. These findings indicate that ICC-MP are apparently able to produce NO and ICC-DMP are the ileal ICC type very richly innervated by the NO releasing nerves. PMID:9224798

  18. Glutaminase immunoreactivity and enzyme activity is increased in the rat dorsal root ganglion following peripheral inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E; Balbás, John C; Benton, Richard L; Lam, Travis S; Edwards, Kristin M; Kriebel, Richard M; Schechter, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Following inflammation, primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) alter the production of several proteins. Most DRG neurons are glutamatergic, using glutaminase as the enzyme for glutamate production, but little is known about glutaminase following inflammation. In the present study, adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) was produced in rats with complete Freund's adjuvant into the hindpaw. At 7 days of AIA, DRG were examined with glutaminase immunohistochemistry, Western blot immunoreactivity, and enzyme activity. Image analysis revealed that glutaminase was elevated most in small-sized neurons (21%) (P Western blot analysis revealed a 19% increase (P neurons could lead to increased glutamate production in spinal primary afferent terminals contributing to central sensitization or in the peripheral process contributing to peripheral sensitization. PMID:22229088

  19. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  20. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  1. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Peter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research.

  2. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schults, Marten A.; Nagle, Peter W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Rensen, Sander S. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Godschalk, Roger W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco [Cancer Risk Factor Branch, ISPO Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Greve, Jan W. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Driessen, Ann [Department of Pathology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Verdam, Froukje J.; Buurman, Wim A. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik J. van [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K., E-mail: r.k.chiu@med.umcg.nl [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M{sub 1}dG adducts. No differences in M{sub 1}dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX). This reduction in {gamma}H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  3. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M1dG adducts. No differences in M1dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX). This reduction in ?H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreon in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  4. The effects of cysteamine on thyrotropin and immunoreactive beta-endorphin secretion in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Badger, T.M.; Carr, D.B.; Arnold, M.A.; Spindel, E.; Kasting, N.W.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-02-01

    We examined the effects of the thiol agent cysteamine (CSH), which is known to deplete the hypothalamus of immunoreactive somatostatin, on physiological TSH and beta- endorphin secretion in the adult male rat. CSH at doses of 90 and 300 mg/kg CSH produced a rapid decline in plasma TSH, whereas a dose of 30 mg/kg did not alter plasma TSH levels. After the higher doses of CSH, TSH levels in the blood remained lower than control values on day 2, but returned to normal by 1 week. This decrease in TSH within the plasma was not associated with a reduction in hypothalamic TRH concentrations. The TSH response to 500 ng/kg TRH was normal in CSH-treated animals. Blockade of norepinephrine synthesis with diethyldithiocarbamate (500 mg/kg) or fusaric acid (100 mg/kg) inhibited TSH secretion in a manner similar to that of CSH. beta-Endorphin-like immunoreactivity (bet-End-LI) was elevated in the plasma immediately after CSH (300 mg/kg) administration. This was associated with a 58% reduction in anterior pituitary beta-End-LI and no change in hypothalmic beta-End-LI. Plasma beta-End-LI returned to normal on day 2. The increase in plasma beta-End-LI induced by immobilization stress was not compromised by CSH treatment. The observed effects of CSH on both TSH and beta-End-LI are consistent with a reduction in central norepinephrine neurotransmission through the known actin of CSH to inhibit dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Acute stress may play a role as well in the observed changes in TSH and beta-End-LI secretion.

  5. Functional networks of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in cat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kexin; Shih, Jonathan Y; Winer, Jeffery A; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2011-09-14

    Inhibitory interneurons constitute ?20% of auditory cortical cells and are essential for shaping sensory processing. Connectivity patterns of interneurons in relation to functional organization principles are not well understood. We contrasted the connection patterns of parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells in two functionally distinct cortical regions: the tonotopic, narrowly frequency-tuned module [central narrow band (cNB)] of cat central primary auditory cortex (AI) and the nontonotopic, broadly tuned second auditory field (AII). Interneuronal connectivity patterns and laminar distribution were identified by combining a retrograde tracer (wheat-germ agglutinin apo-horseradish peroxidase colloidal gold) with labeling of the Ca(2+) binding protein parvalbumin (Pv), a marker for the GABAergic interneurons usually described physiologically as fast-spiking neurons. In AI, parvalbumin-positive (Pv+) cells constituted 13% of the retrograde labeled cells in the immediate vicinity of the injection site, compared to 10% in AII. The retrograde labeling of Pv+ cells along isofrequency countours was confined to the cNB. The spatial spread of labeled excitatory neurons in AI was more than twice that found for Pv+ cells. By contrast, in the AII, the spread of Pv+ cells was nearly equal to that of excitatory neurons. The retrograde labeling of Pv+ cells was anisotropic in AI and isotropic in AII. This demonstration of inhibitory networks in auditory cortex reveals that the connections of cat GABAergic AI and AII cells follow different anatomical plans and thus contribute differently to the shaping of neural response properties. The finding that local connectivity of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in AI is closely aligned with spectral integration properties demonstrates the critical role of inhibition in creating distinct processing modules in AI. PMID:21917816

  6. Advantage of highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoscintigraphy for tumor detection, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is theoretically a potential benefit in using a highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibody. The effect of immunoreactivity (IR) on the antibody biodistribution, however, has not yet been described in detail. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the effect of IR on the biodistribution in an animal model. The hydroxylapatite high performance liquid chromatography (HA-HPLC) system has been tested and confirmed to separate the F ab 96.5, an anti melanoma p97 antigen, into high and low IR fractions. 125I-F ab 96.5 preparations with a different IR were administered to groups of nude mice bearing FEM-XII human skin melanoma xenografts for biodistribution and imaging studies. The biodistribution data showed that the high IR antibody improved tumor targeting by increasing activity ratios of tumor to non tumor tissue; the mechanism for the increased tumor to non tumor ratios was increased tumor activity uptake and prolonged tumor activity retention with associated rapid clearance from the blood and non tumor sites. The imaging study visually supported the results obtained in the biodistribution study; the high IR antibody demonstrated better and earlier tumor delineation and the tumor to non tumor contrast continued to improve with time. In this model system, where the whole body clearance rate was the same for the high IR and low IR preparations, the overall antibody metabolism and excretion were not significantly dependent on IR. Therefore, the effect ly dependent on IR. Therefore, the effect of IR is to alter the distribution of antibody between tumor and blood, with high IR having increased tumor activity and reduced blood activity (consequently reduced non tumor organ activity). This would also be beneficial for therapeutic use of radiolabeled antibodies, since high IR antibodies can minimize undesirable radiation exposure to normal organs. In conclusion, high IR antibodies are essential for optimal tumor targeting. (author)

  7. Calretinin-immunoreactivity during postnatal development of the rat isocortex: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierle, G S; Gander, J C; D'Orlando, C; Ceilo, M R; Vogt Weisenhorn, D M

    1997-03-01

    Postnatal development of the rat cortex is characterized by the gradual development of many calcium-dependent processes which demand a precise control of the intracellular levels of this cation; when the balance is disturbed, neuronal death ultimately ensues. Calretinin (CR), a calcium-binding protein, has been postulated to have neuroprotective capacity by buffering intracellular calcium. This putative relationship between CR and neuroprotection is still, however, a controversial issue. With a view to shedding further light on this subject, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of CR in five different regions (the frontal- sensorimotor-, parietal-, temporal- and occipital region) of the rat cortex during postnatal development. Qualitative and quantitative immunocytochemistry of newborn, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20- and 30-day-old and adult rats revealed a profound increase in the density of the CR-positive neurons during the first two postnatal weeks in all regions examined. At the end of this period, CR-immunoreactive cells decreased sharply to adult levels. Cell classes exhibiting transient CR-immunoreactivity during the first two postnatal weeks included cells in layer I (amongst which were Cajal-Retzius cells), the subplate and pyramidal-like cells in the upper portion of layer V, most of them in the motor cortices. The above-described dynamics of CR expression were reflected also in the biochemical analysis performed (immunoblotting, ELISA). The temporal and spatial correlation with calcium-dependent events such as synaptogenesis, neurite elongation and remodelling in further support the contention that CR may play a neuroprotective role during postnatal development of the rat cortex. PMID:9087821

  8. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  9. Production of the recombinant single chain anti-B cell lymphoma antibody and evaluation of immunoreactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Ho; Choi, Tae Hyun; Woo, Kang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Kim, Soo Gwan; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Recombinant ScFv lym-1 was produced, using pET vector system for large scale production. ScFv lym-1 gene inserted pET-22b (+) vector, was expressed in E. coli BL-21 strain. ScFv lym-1 antibody extracted from periplasm, was purified with His-Taq column. To evaluated immunoreactivity with Raji cell, ScFv lym-1 was labeled with I-125 and I-125 ScFv lym-1 was purified with desalting column. Raji cell was injected into the C57BR/cdJ SCID mice. Gamma camera imaging were taken time point at 1, 8, 24 and 48 hr with 8 mm pinhole collimator. An active scFv lym-1 could be produced in E. coli with soluble from using pET vector system. Immunoreactivity and affinity constant of lgG lym-1 were 54% and 1.83 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1}, respectively, and those of scFv lym-1 were 53.7% and 1.46 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1}, respectively. Biodistribution of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance in blood, spleen, kidney and than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. Gamma camera image of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance and tumor targeting liver than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. In vitro properties of scFv lym-1 were similar to those of lgG lym-1. ScFv lym-1 showed faster blood clearance than lgG lym-1. These results suggest that scFv lym-1 antibody can be useful for tumor imaging agent.

  10. BRAF VE1 Immunoreactivity Patterns in Epithelioid Glioblastomas Positive for BRAF V600E Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K; Aisner, Dara L; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2015-04-01

    Epithelioid glioblastomas (E-GBMs) manifest BRAF V600E mutation in up to 50% of cases, compared with a small percentage of ordinary GBMs, suggesting that they are best considered variants rather than a different pattern of GBM. Availability of a targeted therapy, vemurafenib, may make testing BRAF status important for treatment. It is unclear whether BRAF VE1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) can substitute for Sanger sequencing in these tumors. BRAF VE1 IHC was correlated with Sanger sequencing results on our original cohort of E-GBMs, and then new E-GBM cases were tested with both techniques (n=20). Results were compared with those in similarly assessed giant cell GBMs, anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas. All tumors tested showed 1:1 correlation between BRAF V600E mutational results and IHC. However, heavy background immunostaining in some negatively mutated cases resulted in equivocal results that required repeat IHC testing and additional mutation testing using a different methodology to confirm lack of detectable BRAF mutation. Mutated/BRAF VE1 IHC E-GBMs and anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas tended to manifest strong, diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, compared with previously studied gangliogliomas, which demonstrate more intense immunoreactivity in the ganglion than in the glial tumor component. One of our E-GBM patients with initial gross total resection quickly recurred within 4 months, required a second resection, and then was placed on vemurafenib; she remains tumor free 21 months after second resection without neuroimaging evidence of residual disease, adding to the growing number of reports of successful treatment of BRAF-mutated glial tumors with drug. E-GBMs show good correlation between mutational status and IHC, albeit with limitations to IHC. E-GBMs can respond to targeted therapy. PMID:25581727

  11. Identification of initially appearing glycine-immunoreactive neurons in the embryonic zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moly, Pricila Khan; Ikenaga, Takanori; Kamihagi, Chihiro; Islam, A F M Tariqul; Hatta, Kohei

    2014-06-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Here, we report the initial development of glycine-immunoreactive (Gly-ir) neurons and fibers in zebrafish. The earliest Gly-ir cells were found in the hindbrain and rostral spinal cord by 20 h post-fertilization (hpf). Gly-ir cells in rhombomeres 5 and 6 that also expressed glycine transporter 2 (glyt2) mRNA were highly stereotyped; they were bilaterally located and their axons ran across the midline and gradually turned caudally, joining the medial longitudinal fascicles in the spinal cord by 24 hpf. Gly-ir neurons in rhombomere 5 were uniquely identified, since there was one per hemisegment, whereas the number of Gly-ir neurons in rhombomere 6 were variable from one to three per hemisegment. Labeling of these neurons by single-cell electroporation and tracing them until the larval stage revealed that they became MiD2cm and MiD3cm, respectively. The retrograde labeling of reticulo-spinal neurons in Tg(glyt2:gfp) larva, which express GFP in Gly-ir cells, and a genetic mosaic analysis with glyt2:gfp DNA construct also supported this notion. Gly-ir cells were also distributed widely in the anterior brain by 27 hpf, whereas glyt2 was hardly expressed. Double staining with anti-glycine and anti-GABA antibodies demonstrated distinct distributions of Gly-ir and GABA-ir cells, as well as the presence of doubly immunoreactive cells in the brain and placodes. These results provide evidence of identifiable glycinergic (Gly-ir/glyt2-positive) neurons in vertebrate embryos, and they can be used in further studies of the neurons' development and function at the single-cell level. PMID:24318965

  12. Comparative mapping of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Sakurai, Akira; Katz, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    The relative simplicity of certain invertebrate nervous systems, such as those of gastropod molluscs, allows behaviors to be dissected at the level of small neural circuits composed of individually identifiable neurons. Elucidating the neurotransmitter phenotype of neurons in neural circuits is important for understanding how those neural circuits function. In this study, we examined the distribution of ?-aminobutyric-acid;-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in four species of sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia): Tritonia diomedea, Melibe leonina, Dendronotus iris, and Hermissenda crassicornis. We found consistent patterns of GABA immunoreactivity in the pedal and cerebral-pleural ganglia across species. In particular, there were bilateral clusters in the lateral and medial regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglia as well as a cluster on the ventral surface of the pedal ganglia. There were also individual GABA-ir neurons that were recognizable across species. The invariant presence of these individual neurons and clusters suggests that they are homologous, although there were interspecies differences in the numbers of neurons in the clusters. The GABAergic system was largely restricted to the central nervous system, with the majority of axons confined to ganglionic connectives and commissures, suggesting a central, integrative role for GABA. GABA was a candidate inhibitory neurotransmitter for neurons in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying swimming behaviors in these species, however none of the known swim CPG neurons were GABA-ir. Although the functions of these GABA-ir neurons are not known, it is clear that their presence has been strongly conserved across nudibranchs. PMID:24638845

  13. Prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in relation to the incidence of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jan-Håkan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic infections and associated inflammatory markers are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL-1?, is suggested to play a role in the regulation of local inflammatory responses in both CVD and periodontitis. The leukotoxin from the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has recently been shown to cause abundant secretion of IL-1? from macrophages. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in myocardial infarction (MI cases (n = 532 and matched controls (n = 1,000 in a population-based case and referents study in northern Sweden. Methods Capacity to neutralize A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was analyzed in a bioassay with leukocytes, purified leukotoxin, and plasma. Plasma samples that inhibited lactate-dehydrogenase release from leukotoxin-lysed cells by ?50% were classified as positive. Results Neutralizing capacity against A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was detected in 53.3% of the plasma samples. The ability to neutralize leukotoxin was correlated to increasing age in men (n = 1,082 but not in women (n = 450. There was no correlation between presence of systemic leukotoxin-neutralization capacity and the incidence of MI, except for women (n = 146. Women with a low neutralizing capacity had a significantly higher incidence of MI than those who had a high neutralizing capacity. Conclusion Systemic immunoreactivity against A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was found at a high prevalence in the analyzed population of adults from northern Sweden. The results from the present study do not support the hypothesis that systemic leukotoxin-neutralizing capacity can decrease the risk for MI.

  14. Production of the recombinant single chain anti-B cell lymphoma antibody and evaluation of immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant ScFv lym-1 was produced, using pET vector system for large scale production. ScFv lym-1 gene inserted pET-22b (+) vector, was expressed in E. coli BL-21 strain. ScFv lym-1 antibody extracted from periplasm, was purified with His-Taq column. To evaluated immunoreactivity with Raji cell, ScFv lym-1 was labeled with I-125 and I-125 ScFv lym-1 was purified with desalting column. Raji cell was injected into the C57BR/cdJ SCID mice. Gamma camera imaging were taken time point at 1, 8, 24 and 48 hr with 8 mm pinhole collimator. An active scFv lym-1 could be produced in E. coli with soluble from using pET vector system. Immunoreactivity and affinity constant of lgG lym-1 were 54% and 1.83 x 109 M-1, respectively, and those of scFv lym-1 were 53.7% and 1.46 x 109 M-1, respectively. Biodistribution of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance in blood, spleen, kidney and than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. Gamma camera image of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance and tumor targeting liver than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. In vitro properties of scFv lym-1 were similar to those of lgG lym-1. ScFv lym-1 showed faster blood clearance than lgG lym-1. These results suggest that scFv lym-1 antibody can be useful for tumor imaging agent

  15. A sex comparison of serotonin immunoreactivity and content in the ferret preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, M J; Tobet, S A

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies with rats raised the possibility that sexually dimorphic features of the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (POA/AH) may result, in part, from a sex difference in the serotonergic innervation of this region. We asked whether a similar phenomenon may occur in a carnivore, the ferret. A sexually dimorphic male nucleus of the dorsal POA/AH (Mn-POA/AH) has previously been characterized in Nissl-stained sections of the male ferret forebrain; this nucleus is absent in females. A nondimorphic ventral nucleus of the POA/AH is found in both sexes. In the present study numerous serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactive (ir) fibers were observed in the dorsal POA/AH of gonadectomized adult ferrets of both sexes. By contrast, in both sexes the ventral nucleus of the POA/AH had many fewer 5-HTir fibers. A similar difference in the distribution of immunoreactivity between dorsal and ventral POA/AH was observed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) localized in cell bodies and in nerve fibers and for H222ir estrogen receptors localized in cell nuclei. Likewise, in both sexes the content of 5-HT and dopamine (DA), measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, were significantly higher in the dorsal than the ventral POA/AH, thereby corroborating observed regional differences in 5-HTir and THir fibers, respectively. The present findings provide no support for the notion that sexually dimorphic cytoarchitectonic features of the dorsal POA/AH in ferrets are associated with a sex difference in the serotonergic innervation of this region. PMID:8348343

  16. Profiling of human acquired immunity against the salivary proteins of Phlebotomus papatasi reveals clusters of differential immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Nicholas S; Mukbel, Rami M; Kemp, Michael T; Wadsworth, Mariha N; Lesho, Emil; Stayback, Gwen M; Champion, Matthew M; Bernard, Megan A; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Fawaz, Emadeldin Y; El-Hossary, Shabaan S; Wortmann, Glenn; Hoel, David F; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2014-05-01

    Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies are among the primary vectors of Leishmania major parasites from Morocco to the Indian subcontinent and from southern Europe to central and eastern Africa. Antibody-based immunity to sand fly salivary gland proteins in human populations remains a complex contextual problem that is not yet fully understood. We profiled the immunoreactivities of plasma antibodies to sand fly salivary gland sonicates (SGSs) from 229 human blood donors residing in different regions of sand fly endemicity throughout Jordan and Egypt as well as 69 US military personnel, who were differentially exposed to P. papatasi bites and L. major infections in Iraq. Compared with plasma from control region donors, antibodies were significantly immunoreactive to five salivary proteins (12, 26, 30, 38, and 44 kDa) among Jordanian and Egyptian donors, with immunoglobulin G4 being the dominant anti-SGS isotype. US personnel were significantly immunoreactive to only two salivary proteins (38 and 14 kDa). Using k-means clustering, donors were segregated into four clusters distinguished by unique immunoreactivity profiles to varying combinations of the significantly immunogenic salivary proteins. SGS-induced cellular proliferation was diminished among donors residing in sand fly-endemic regions. These data provide a clearer picture of human immune responses to sand fly vector salivary constituents. PMID:24615125

  17. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partata W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

  18. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.A., Partata; A.M.R., Krepsky; L.L., Xavier; M., Marques; M., Achaval.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of [...] the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

  19. Cholecystokinin-immunoreactive boutons in synaptic contact with hippocampal pyramidal neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totterdell, S; Smith, A D

    1986-09-01

    Neurons in the hippocampal formation of the rat that project to the medial nucleus accumbens were identified following the retrograde transport of a conjugate of horseradish peroxidase with wheat germ agglutinin. The great majority of such projecting neurons were located in the ventral subiculum and were pyramidal in shape; the pyramidal nature of 25 such retrogradely labelled neurons was established by Golgi impregnation. In material processed to reveal both retrogradely labelled cells and cholecystokinin-immunoreactivity, no immunoreactive projecting neurons were found. However, 48 identified projecting neurons, probably pyramidal, were found to receive input from cholecystokinin-immunoreactive boutons that formed symmetrical synaptic contacts with the soma or proximal dendrites. It is suggested that one function of cholecystokinin-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampal formation might be to influence the output of the pyramidal neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens. Since this pathway is one of the main links between the limbic system and the basal ganglia, it is conceivable that changes in the cholecystokinin levels in the hippocampus, as found in schizophrenia, might influence behaviour through the pathway connecting the hippocampus with the nucleus accumbens. PMID:3024063

  20. Morphology, size and distribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus of the rat amygdaloid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Nela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The amygdaloid complex (AC is a heterogenous group of cortical and nuclear structures. As an important component of the limbic system contains numerous neurotransmitters including neuropeptides. In this study we have investigated the types, distribution, and morphometric characteristics of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus (Ce of the AC. We have also identified CRF- immunoreactive fibers in this nucleus. This research was performed on 5 adult rats kept in standard conditions. Animals were perfused 48 hours after application of colhicin. The removed brains were postfixed and cut into free floating sections. The sections were treated with antibodies against the rabbit CRF and ABC immunohistochemstry was applied. The neurons were measured and drawn with a camera lucida. We found uniform distribution of CRF immunoreactive neurons in the Ce of AC of rat. According to morphological type dominant were triangular (50%, while bipolar (25% and multipolar (25% types were also present. The most of the CRF immunoreactive neurons had 2-5 primary dendrites. These findings will contribute to understanding the role of CRF neurons in rat Ce during stress and in other behavioral functions.

  1. Right ventricular abnormalities in ventricular tachycardia of right ventricular origin: relation to electrophysiological abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Foale, R. A.; Nihoyannopoulos, P.; Ribeiro, P.; Mckenna, W. J.; Oakley, C. M.; Krikler, D. M.; Rowland, E.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with right ventricular tachycardia may have adverse electrophysiological abnormalities linked to disturbed right ventricular structure. Seventeen patients who presented with right ventricular tachycardia without coronary artery disease or gross abnormalities of left ventricular function were studied. Patients had the ventricular tachycardia characterised at electrophysiological study and most underwent radionuclide and contrast angiography. At echocardiography specific attention was ...

  2. Linear bubble model of abnormal grain growth

    CERN Document Server

    Mullins, W W; Vinals, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    A linear bubble model of grain growth is introduced to study the conditions under which an isolated grain can grow to a size much larger than the surrounding matrix average (abnormal growth). We first consider the case of bubbles of two different types such that the permeability of links joining unlike bubbles is larger than that of like bubbles (a simple model of grain boundary anisotropy). Stable abnormal growth is found both by mean field analysis and direct numerical solution. We next study the role of grain boundary pinning (e.g., due to impurities or precipitate phases) by introducing a linear bubble model that includes lower and upper thresholds in the driving force for bubble growth. The link permeability is assumed finite for driving forces above the upper threshold, zero below the lower threshold, and hysteretic in between. Abnormal growth is also observed in this case.

  3. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  4. Device for diagnoising abnormalities of equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To measure the collision energy easily and at high accuracy by applying impact shocks at known collision energy from a simulated acoustic wave generator and using the generated acoustic signal as reference data. Constitution: A plurality of acoustic detectors are attached to the surface of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. These acoustic detectors are connected respectively to an abnormality diagnosis device for equipments. Then, when metal obstacles collide against the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel, acoustic signals generated upon collision are detected by the acoustic detectors and acoustic information thus obtained from the acoustic detectors determines the colliding position of the metal obstacles by means of the abnormality diagnosis device and then the collision energy is measured. In this case, by applying impact shocks at known collision energy near the colliding position of metal obstacles determined by the abnormality diagnosis device, collision energy can be determined at a higher accuracy. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  6. Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

  7. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaye, Kamilu M; Sani, Mahmoud U

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The morbidity and mortality from heart failure (HF) differ between patients with reduced (< 50%) and with preserved (? 50%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF) on account of many factors, including abnormalities detected in the electrocardiogram (ECG). The aim of this study was to determine and compare the ECG abnormalities between HF patients with reduced and with preserved LV EF. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and carried out in Aminu Kano teaching hospital and Murtala Mohammed specialist hospital, Kano, Nigeria, from April 2005 to June 2006. We studied the resting electrocardiograms of all HF patients aged 15 years and older who were referred to the two centres for echocardiography. Results A total of 113 patients were studied and 98.2% of them had abnormal ECGs. Forty-two patients (37.2%) had preserved LV EF while the remaining 71 (62.8%) had reduced LV EF. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LV H) was the commonest ECG abnormality, found among 55 patients (77.5%) with reduced LV EF, and 21 patients (50%) with preserved LV EF (p = 0.0026). The commonest arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation, found among 10 patients (14.1%) with reduced LV EF and eight patients (19.1%) with preserved LV EF (p = 0.486). Prolonged corrected QT interval was found among 30 (71.4%) and 56 patients (78.9%) with preserved and reduced LV EF, respectively (p = 0.370). Conclusion Most of the patients with heart failure studied in Kano, Nigeria had abnormal electrocardiograms, and the most common abnormality was LV H. PMID:18320082

  8. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients diagnosed as primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) using conventional karyotyping. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Clinical Laboratory, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January 2006 - June 2012. Methodology: Patients of all ages and either gender who fulfilled WHO criteria for MDS were included. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted at the time of diagnosis. Patients who had secondary MDS were excluded from analysis. Chromosome identification and karyotype description was done according to the International System for Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN, 1995) and described as frequency percentage. Results: Out of the 122 cases of MDS, 71 patients had their karyotype done at the time of diagnosis, including 42 males (59.2%) and 29 females (40.8%) with median age of 60 years. Forty one (57.7%) showed normal karyotype and 30 (42.3%) showed clonal karyotypic abnormalities at diagnosis. Out of which 14 (19.7%) had single, 11 (15.5%) had complex and 6 (8.5%) had double cytogenetic abnormalities. The common abnormalities found were: trisomy 8 in 7 cases (9.9%), -7/del (7q) in 3 cases (4.2%), -Y and complex 5q in 2 cases (2.8%) each, complex trisomy 8, del 11q , inversion 9, trisomy 19 and del 20q were found in 1 case (1.4%) each. Other abnormalities were found in 11 cases (15.5%). Conclusion: Trisomy 8 was the most common disorder/abnormality found in this study population followed by the complex cytogenetics. (author)

  9. [Abnormal hemoglobins and thalassemias in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Reyes, G

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of abnormal hemoglobins in Mexico is derived from surveys and from the study of patients with hemolytic anemia. In aboriginal populations, more than 3,000 individuals have been studied: structural abnormal hemoglobins are virtually absent in Mexican Indians and the sporadic finding of hemoglobin S among them is due to admixture with Africans brought as slaves during the Spanish domination; two new variants of hemoglobin (Mexico and Chiapas) were found in aborigines. The surveys in hybrid groups in selected areas of the country show that in some West and East Coast communities there are different frequencies of Hb S heterozygous, and that a high prevalence of Hb S trait has been found in some communities similar to that in some African areas. In a group of 200 subjects of a town located along the Gulf of Mexico Coast, 6% of Hb S and 15% of thalassemia beta heterozygous is observed. In hospital surveys in two cities (Guadalajara and Puebla) several abnormalities of hemoglobin have been identified (C, SC, Riyadh, Baltimore, Tarrant, Fannin-Lubbock and Mexico). In the study of isolated cases, mainly of patients with hemolytic anemia, hemoglobins I-Philadelphia, G-San Jose and D-Los Angeles are seen. The thalassemias are the more frequent hemoglobin abnormalities in selected populations of our country. In a community of Italian ancestry a frequency of 1.3% of beta thalassemia trait is found. In our laboratory, 76% of the abnormalities are cases of beta thalassemia trait. Patients with Hb H disease, beta thalassemia (homozygous and heterozygous) and combinations of these abnormalities with hemoglobins S, Hb S + hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and Hb E as well as families with delta-beta thalassemia, HPFH and Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston have been also detected. PMID:9658939

  10. ALS pathogenesis: recent insights from genetics and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarup, Vivek; Julien, Jean-Pierre

    2011-03-30

    For the vast majority of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) the etiology remains unknown. After the discovery of missense mutations in the gene coding for the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in subsets of familial ALS, several transgenic mouse lines have been generated with various forms of SOD1 mutants overexpressed at different levels. Studies with these mice yielded complex results with multiple targets of damage in disease including mitochondria, proteasomes, and secretory pathways. Many unexpected discoveries were made. For instance, the toxicity of mutant SOD1 seems unrelated to copper-mediated catalysis but rather to formation of misfolded SOD1 species and aggregates. Transgenic studies revealed a potential role of wtSOD1 in exacerbating mutant SOD1-mediated disease. Another key finding came from chimeric mouse studies and from Cre-lox mediated gene deletion experiments which have highlighted the importance of non-neuronal cells in the disease progression. Involvement of cytoskeletal components in ALS pathogenesis is supported by several mouse models of motor neuron disease with neurofilament abnormalities and with genetic defects in microtubule-based transport. Recently, the generation of new animal models of ALS has been made possible with the discovery of ALS-linked mutations in other genes encoding for alsin, dynactin, senataxin, VAPB, TDP-43 and FUS. Following the discovery of mutations in the TARDBP gene linked to ALS, there have been some reports of transgenic mice with high level overexpression of WT or mutant forms of TDP-43 under strong gene promoters. However, these TDP-43 transgenic mice do not exhibit all pathological features the human ALS disease. Here, we will describe these new TDP-43 transgenic mice and discuss their validity as animal models of human ALS. PMID:20728492

  11. Abnormal Taenia saginata tapeworms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-09-01

    Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank. PMID:22299430

  12. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, D. R.; Leibundgut, K. E.; Feldges, A.; Pla?¼ss, H. J.; Niggli, F. K.

    1998-01-01

    We present the cytogenetic investigations of five histiocytic tumour lesions from children. In four cases there was a confirmed diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and one case of histiocytosis that did not fulfil all the criteria for true LCH. All five cases showed cytogenetic abnormalities, including the first report of an abnormal clone in LCH. The clone showed a t(7;12)(q11.2;p13) translocation and was detected in only a small percentage of cells. This case and a further thre...

  13. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  14. Occult intraspinal abnormalities and congenital scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Erfani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis occurs because of either the failure of formation or the failure of segmentation or both. Evaluation of the incidence and the types of occult intraspinal abnormalities in congenital scoliosis is the subject of this study.

    METHODS: During a period of 29 years, 103 patients with congenital scoliosis were studied. MRI was used in 46 patients, myelography or CT myelography was used in 64 patients and both MRI and myelography or CT myelography were used in 7 patients for intraspinal abnormalities.

    RESULTS: In the MRI group, among the 46 patients, 19 patients (41.3% had intraspinal abnormalities consisting syringomyelia in 9 (19.5% diastematomyelia in 8 (17.4%, tethered cord syndrome in 6 (13%, low conus in 5 (10.8% and diplomyelia in 3 (6.5% of the patients. In the myelography group, among the 64 patients, 17 (26.5% had intraspinal abnormalities and diastematomyelia was the most common one found in 14 (21.8% patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Intraspinal abnormalities are frequent in congenital scoliosis. Syringomyelia may be associated with congenital scoliosis. In congenital scoliosis, rib fusion may be an indicator of intraspinal abnormalities in MRI. A significant difference between clinical findings and intraspinal anomalies (P<0.05 was noted. Moreover, we believe that total spinal MRI with coronal, sagittal and axial views is a valuable tool in determining the intraspinal abnormalities in congenital scoliosis. This method is highly recommended for detection and neurosurgical intervention before corrective surgeries.

    KEY WORDS: Congenital scoliosis, intraspinal abnormalities, diastematomyelia.

  15. Evaluation of craniovertebral junction abnormalities by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 45 cases of craniovertebral junction (CVJ) abnormalities ; pathologic conditions including 29 cases of Chiari I malformation, 22 syringomyelia and 24 bony anomaly were studied. Whereas Chiari I malformation was highly associated with syringomyelia and CVJ bony anomaly, there seemed little direct relationship between syringomyelia and CVJ bony anomaly. In syringomyelia, the enlarged cord was seen in younger age disribution than that of normal and small cord. Basal angles of CVJ abnormalities measured on MRI were greater than that of 56 normal results. (author)

  16. Temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transantral (infraorbital, transmaxillary) examination of the temporomandibular joint was compared with conventional transcranial examination and lateral tomography of patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 23 to 83. Abnormalities were most frequently found at tomography, and equally frequent at transantral and transcranial examinations. The various examinations appeared to be rather supplementary. Bone erosion was frequently observed at transantral examination, which appeared to be the preferable radiographic method for detecting arthritis of this joint. Combined with transcranial examination, the method is recommended for the evaluation of temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis if tomographic equipment is not available. (Auth.)

  17. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  18. Postnatal development of substance P-immunoreaction in the trigeminal caudalis of neonatally capsaicin-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Megumi; Maeda, Takeyasu; Takagi, Ritsuo; Seo, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    The trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) is a critical relay site for processing nociceptive afferent input from the orofacial area in addition to its modulation by neuroplastic change. Although an administration of capsaicin in neonates induces a selective destruction of substance P (SP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers, little information is available regarding its detailed effects on the Vc, particularly during postnatal development. The present study examined postnatal changes in the distribution of SP in the Vc and trigeminal ganglion (TG) by immunohistochemical techniques in naïve (NV) and neonatally capsaicin-treated (CP) mice, combined with a quantitative analysis. The neonatal mice received a single subcutaneous injection of capsaicin (50 mg/kg) at 48 hours after birth. The neural density of the SP-immunoreaction decreased to approximately a quarter of that in 1-week-old NV mice but increased to three-quarters of that in the NV in the superficial area after postnatal week 2. A double staining with SP and myelin basic protein confirmed the absence of any SP-immunoreaction in the myelinated nerve fibers in both NV and CP mice. The SP-immunoreaction never overlapped with non-peptidergic IB4-labeled neurons in the Vc and TG of either group. Neither the size distribution of SP-positive neurons nor their relative ratio in the TG differed between NV and CP mice at the ages of postnatal weeks 1 and 8. These findings indicate two putative origins for the emergent SP-immunoreaction in the superficial layer of the Vc of the CP mice: the surviving trigeminal neurons with SP against capsaicin treatment and/or intrinsic neurons/interneurons in the Vc without SP under normal conditions. PMID:16477150

  19. Neuronal HIF-1 alpha protein and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in functionally related motor areas following a focal M1 infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Ann M; Plautz, Erik J; Nguyen, Phuong; Frost, Shawn B; Eisner-Janowicz, Ines; Barbay, Scott; Dancause, Numa; Sensarma, Anirban; Taylor, Michael D; Zoubina, Elena V; Nudo, Randolph J

    2008-03-01

    Clinical and experimental data support a role for the intact cortex in recovery of function after stroke, particularly ipsilesional areas interconnected to the infarct. There is, however, little understanding of molecular events in the intact cortex, as most studies focus on the infarct and peri-infarct regions. This study investigated neuronal immunoreactivity for hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in remote cortical areas 3 days after a focal ischemic infarct, as both HIF-1alpha and VEGFR-2 have been implicated in peri-infarct neuroprotection. For this study, intracortical microstimulation techniques defined primary motor (M1) and premotor areas in squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri). An infarct was induced in the M1 hand representation, and immunohistochemical techniques identified neurons, HIF-1alpha and VEGFR-2. Stereologic techniques quantified the total neuronal populations and the neurons immunoreactive for HIF-1alpha or VEGFR-2. The results indicate that HIF-1alpha upregulation is confined to the infarct and peri-infarct regions. Increases in VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity occurred; however, in two remote regions: the ventral premotor hand representation and the M1 hindlimb representation. Neurons in these representations were previously shown to undergo significant increases in VEGF protein immunoreactivity, and comparison of the two data sets showed a significant correlation between levels of VEGF and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity. Thus, while remote areas undergo a molecular response to the infarct, we hypothesize that there is a delay in the initiation of the response, which ultimately may increase the 'window of opportunity' for neuroprotective interventions in the intact cortex. PMID:17895908

  20. Stars with abnormal spectra in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the literature a list of stars with abnormal spectra belonging to open clusters was compiled. With this data it becomes possible to derive a correlation with the age. The histograms for the Ap, Am and Be stars versus log T are presented. (Auth.)

  1. Abnormal Events for Emergency Trip in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Guk Hun; Choi, M. J.; Park, S. I.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, S. J.; Park, J. H.; Kwon, I. C

    2006-12-15

    This report gathers abnormal events related to emergency trip of HANARO that happened during its operation over 10 years since the first criticality on February 1995. The collected examples will be utilized to the HANARO's operators as a useful guide.

  2. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N=39 and N=15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  3. Metronidazole gel ineffective for minimally abnormal Pap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine; Church, Lili

    2003-01-01

    Empiric treatment of women with minimally abnormal Papanicolaou smears (limited by inflammation, benign, or reactive cellular changes) with 0.75% metronidazole vaginal gel is ineffective in yielding a higher rate of reversion to normal cytology when compared with no treatment. PMID:12540306

  4. Reversible splenial abnormality in hypoglycemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesions involving the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have been rarely reported in cases of hypoglycemic brain injury. We identified signal abnormalities in the SCC in three adult patients with hypoglycemic encephalopathy by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 1.5-T MR scanner. Repeat DWI was performed in all patients following a marked clinical improvement, and MR angiography and routine MRI were also performed. We examined each patient's detailed medical history and blood laboratory tests in order to exclude other conditions causing similar SCC abnormalities. Initial DWI was performed during which each patient showed altered mental status that was attributed to profound hypoglycemia. We observed an identical pattern of DWI abnormality characterized by high signals in the SCC with apparent diffusion coefficient reductions that were reversed completely within several days following appropriate correction of hypoglycemia. T2-weighted or FLAIR images also showed no residual lesion in the SCC and MR angiography was normal in all patients. These case reports suggest that the SCC should be added to the list of selective vulnerability to hypoglycemia and that hypoglycemia, in turn, be included in the differential diagnosis of reversible SCC abnormalities. (orig.)

  5. [Y chromosome structural abnormalities and Turner's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, C; Siffroi, J-P

    2009-06-01

    Although specifically male, the human Y chromosome may be observed in female karyotypes, mostly in women with Turner syndrome stigmata. In women with isolated gonadal dysgenesis but otherwise normal stature, the testis determining factor or SRY gene may have been removed from the Y chromosome or may be mutated. In other women with Turner syndrome, the karyotype is usually abnormal and shows a frequent 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. In these cases, the phenotype depends on the ratio between Y positive and 45,X cell lines in the body. When in mosaicism, Y chromosomes are likely to carry structural abnormalities which explain mitotic instability, such as the existence of two centromeres. Dicentric Y isochromosomes for the short arm (idic[Yp]) or ring Y chromosomes (r[Y]) are the most frequent abnormal Y chromosomes found in infertile patients and in Turner syndrome in mosaic with 45,X cells. Although monocentric, deleted Y chromosomes for the long arm and those carrying microdeletions in the AZF region are also instable and are frequently associated with a 45,X cell line. Management of infertile patients carrying such abnormal Y chromosomes must take into account the risk and the consequences of a mosaicism in the offspring. PMID:19464936

  6. Reversible splenial abnormality in hypoglycemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Choi, Jeong Yoon; Koh, Seong-Beom [Korea University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Younghen [Korea University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Ansan City (Korea)

    2007-03-15

    Lesions involving the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have been rarely reported in cases of hypoglycemic brain injury. We identified signal abnormalities in the SCC in three adult patients with hypoglycemic encephalopathy by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 1.5-T MR scanner. Repeat DWI was performed in all patients following a marked clinical improvement, and MR angiography and routine MRI were also performed. We examined each patient's detailed medical history and blood laboratory tests in order to exclude other conditions causing similar SCC abnormalities. Initial DWI was performed during which each patient showed altered mental status that was attributed to profound hypoglycemia. We observed an identical pattern of DWI abnormality characterized by high signals in the SCC with apparent diffusion coefficient reductions that were reversed completely within several days following appropriate correction of hypoglycemia. T2-weighted or FLAIR images also showed no residual lesion in the SCC and MR angiography was normal in all patients. These case reports suggest that the SCC should be added to the list of selective vulnerability to hypoglycemia and that hypoglycemia, in turn, be included in the differential diagnosis of reversible SCC abnormalities. (orig.)

  7. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  8. An abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abnormal secretion of plasma human growth hormore (hGH) and insulin in 67 acromegalic patients had been previously treated by external pituitary radiation were studied. All subjects, following an overnight fast, a standard 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, were performed and venous blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. They were measured for blood glucose, plasma insulin and hGH. The results of this study have shown that, of the 67 subjects, 23 cases had an abnormal glucose tolerance(34.32%). Diabetes was detected in 17 cases (23.37%) and 6 patients had decreased glucose tolerance(8.69%). In all, hGH levels were consistantly above 5 ng/ml and were not suppressed after an oral glucose load. In these patients, however, about one-third had abnormal glucose tolerance. Low plasma insulin response to glucose and that of the releasing were evident in them than the normal glucose tolerance and a healthy control group. In addition, the mechanism of the abnormal secretion of hGH and insulin were disscussed

  9. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav BjØrn; David, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis and outcome were reviewed. Results: Of the 370 cases identified, 31.6% were associated with spinabifida (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I-cell disease, Muenke craniosynostosis and two with an as yet undefined craniosynostosis syndrome. Overall, 16.5 % had an underlying genetic syndrome. Conclusions: Abnormal fetal head shape may be a normal variant, but is commonly associated with a wide variety of underlying pathologies. In view of the high incidence of genetic syndromes, in the absence of a clear diagnosis, referral to a tertiary centre and genetic input is advised as detection of subtle sonographic features may aid diagnosis, allowing for targeted molecular analysis. An algorithm for management will be proposed.

  10. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  11. Glomerular c4d immunoreactivity in acute rejection biopsies of renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, M; Furian, L; Della Barbera, M; Silvestre, C; Marino, S; Seveso, M; Cozzi, E; Rigotti, P; Aiello, F B

    2012-09-01

    In renal transplant patients, glomerulitis may be present in all types of acute rejection, often accompanied by diffuse C4d staining of peritubular capillaries: C4d3 positivity in more than 50% of peritubular capillaries. It may progress to chronic transplant glomerulopathy, characterized by capillary basement membrane multilayering, proteinuria, and progressive loss of renal function. While C4d3 is a recognized marker of an antibody-mediated reaction, the significance of glomerular C4d (GlC4d) staining is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate GlC4d immunoreactivity and its correlation with C4d3 in acute rejection biopsies. Paraffin-embedded acute rejection biopsies from 90 renal transplant patients were evaluated according to the Banff classification. Biopsies showing C4d-positive endothelial cells in more than 50% of glomeruli were considered GlC4d-positive. C4d3-positive staining prevalence was 23%. GlC4d-positive staining showed an 89% concordance rate (r = 0.81, P < .0001; Cohen's k = 0.80, P < .0001). GlC4d detection sensitivity was 0.80 and specificity 0.97. C4d3 and GlC4d immunoreactivity was significantly associated with glomerulitis (P < .006 and P < .03, respectively) and with proteinuria at the time of biopsy (P < .03 and P < .01, respectively). Interestingly, GlC4d positivity correlated better than C4d3 positivity with the presence of posttransplant circulating anti-human leukocyte antigen alloantibodies (P < .04 and P = .7, respectively). Patients with C4d3- or GlC4d-positive acute rejections underwent graft loss due to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy more frequently than those with C4d0- or GlC4d-negative rejections (P < .0001 and P < .005, respectively), whereas no differences were observed in graft loss due to death. In conclusion, C4d3 and GlC4d stains showed a high correlation rate. Compared with C4d3, GlC4d staining demonstrated good sensitivity and excellent specificity. Our results suggested that GlC4d staining may indicate glomerular endothelial damage and be of prognostic value. PMID:22974865

  12. Immunoreactivity for Taurine Characterizes Subsets of Glia, GABAergic and non-GABAergic Neurons in the Neo- and Archicortex of the Rat, Cat and Rhesus Monkey: Comparison with Immunoreactivity for Homocysteic Acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzer, Mf; Cowey, A.; Ottersen, Op; Streit, P.; Somogyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is an area rich in taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), but only limited information exists regarding its cellular distribution. We therefore examined taurine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of the rat, cat and macaque monkey using antiserum directed against glutaraldehyde-conjugated taurine. Immunostaining was assessed at the light and electron microscopic level, and patterns obtained in light microscopic studies were compared to those produced with antiser...

  13. A high molecular weight form of somatostatin-28 (1-12)-like immunoreactive substance without somatostatin-14 immunoreactivity in the rat pancreas. Evidence that somatostatin-14 synthesis can occur independently of somatostatin-28.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Y. C.

    1983-01-01

    Synthesis of somatostatin-14 (S-14) could occur through direct enzymatic processing of precursor somatostatin (prosomatostatin) or via sequential breakdown of prosomatostatin leads to somatostatin-28 (S-28) leads to S-14. If direct processing is important, it should theoretically generate S-14 and a molecule equivalent to prosomatostatin without the S-14 sequence. In an attempt to identify such a molecule, I characterized the molecular forms of S-28(1-12)-like immunoreactivity (S-28(1-12) LI)...

  14. The morphological and chemical characteristics of striatal neurons immunoreactive for the alpha1-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldvogel, H J; Kubota, Y; Trevallyan, S C; Kawaguchi, Y; Fritschy, J M; Mohler, H; Faull, R L

    1997-10-01

    The distribution, morphology and chemical characteristics of neurons immunoreactive for the alpha1-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the striatum of the basal ganglia in the rat brain were investigated at the light, confocal and electron microscope levels using single, double and triple immunohistochemical labelling techniques. The results showed that alpha1-subunit immunoreactive neurons were sparsely distributed throughout the rat striatum. Double and triple labelling results showed that all the alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were positive for glutamate decarboxylase and immunoreactive for the beta2,3 and gamma2 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. Three types of alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the striatum on the basis of cellular morphology and chemical characteristics. The most numerous alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were medium-sized, aspiny neurons with a widely branching dendritic tree. They were parvalbumin-negative and were located mainly in the dorsolateral regions of the striatum. Electron microscopy showed that these neurons had an indented nuclear membrane, typical of striatal interneurons, and were surrounded by small numbers of axon terminals which established alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive synaptic contacts with the soma and dendrites. These cells were classified as type 1 alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons and comprised 75% of the total population of alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons in the striatum. The remaining alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons comprised of a heterogeneous population of large-sized neurons localized in the ventral and medial regions of the striatum. The most numerous large-sized cells were parvalbumin-negative, had two to three relatively short branching dendrites and were designated type 2 alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons. Electron microscopy showed that the type 2 neurons were characterized by a highly convoluted nuclear membrane and were sparsely covered with small axon terminals. The type 2 neurons comprised 20% of the total population of alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons. The remaining large-sized alpha1-immunoreactive cells were designated type 3 cells; they were positive for parvalbumin and were distinguished by long branching dendrites extending dorsally for 600-800 microm into the striatum. These neurons comprised 5% of the total population of alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons and were surrounded by enkephalin-immunoreactive terminals. Electron microscopy showed that the alpha1-subunit type 3 neurons had an indented nuclear membrane and were densely covered with small axon terminals which established alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive symmetrical synaptic contacts with the soma and dendrites. These results provide a detailed characterization of the distribution, morphology and chemical characteristics of the alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons in the rat striatum and suggest that the type 1 and type 2 neurons comprise of separate populations of striatal interneurons while the type 3 neurons may represent the large striatonigral projection neurons described by Bolam et al. [Bolam J. P., Somogyi P., Totterdell S. and Smith A. D. (1981) Neuroscience 6, 2141-2157.]. PMID:9276493

  15. Rapid lymphocyte immunoreactivity test utilizing [3H]uridine in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microculture assay utilizing [3H]uridine incorporation was developed to test murine spleen lymphocyte immunoreactivity in vitro. Parameters of the culture technique which included cell density, doses of LPS, Con A, PHA, [3H]uridine levels, and length of culture time were investigated. Responses were detectable at 4 h for all 3 mitogens, with labelling ranging up to 180% of the control value. By 8 h there was a 200-350% increase in mitogen-induced incorporation of radioactivity. Similar increases were observed in a serum-free system. The responses were the result of increased incorporation of label by stimulated cultures rather than decreased labeling of non-mitogen treated cultures over time. The [3H]uridine incorporation was demonstrated to be the selective response of T or B cell populations when stimulated with appropriate lectins. This assay detects early RNA synthesis, as supported by experimental observations in which accumulation of radioactivity in stimulated lymphocytes was TCA precipitable, resistant to SDS treatment, and inhibited by actinomycin D. (Auth.)

  16. Chronic corticosterone administration facilitates aversive memory retrieval and increases GR/NOS immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thays B; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

    2014-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are stress hormones that mediate the organism's reaction to stress. It has been previously proposed that the facilitation of emotional aversive conditioning induced by these hormones may involve nitric oxide-pathways. The purpose of the present study was to address this question. For that, male Wistar rats were surgically implanted with slow-release corticosterone (CORT) pellets (21 days) and tested in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Additional groups of animals were also submitted to the same treatment conditions and on the 21st day of treatment assayed for GR (glucocorticoid receptors)-nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) immunoreactivity (GRi-nNOSi) or measurements of plasma CORT. Results showed that CORT treatment induced facilitation of step-down inhibitory avoidance. This same treatment also significantly increased CORT plasma levels and GRi in the medial, basolateral and basomedial amygdala, in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), in the ventral and dorsal dentate gyrus, in the ventral CA1 region and in the dorsal CA1 and CA3 regions. Furthermore, nNOSi and GRi-nNOSi were significantly increased by CORT treatment in the medial amygdala and basolateral amygdaloid complex, in the PVN, subiculum, in the dorsal CA3 region and in the ventral CA1 and CA3 regions. These results indicate that the facilitation of aversive conditioning induced by CORT involves GR-nNOS pathways activation, what may be of relevance for a better understanding of stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:24662151

  17. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected with a monoclonal mouse antibody and EGF with polyclonal rabbit antiserum. Thirty-five of the tumours were positive for TGF-alpha and 26 of the tumours for EGF. None of the poorly differentiated tumours was positive for EGF, but they all were for TGF-alpha. In sections including normal differentiated oral mucosa, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus paralleling the situation observed in the normal differentiated oral mucosa. In four cases, material was available from both a primary tumour and a metastasis. Three of these were positive for TGF-alpha and EGF with the same staining pattern as that of the primary tumours. This investigation together with our previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases.

  18. The structure and immunoreactivity of exopolysaccharide isolated from Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska-Fr?czek, Sabina; Sandström, Corine; Kenne, Lennart; Pa?ciak, Mariola; Brzozowska, Ewa; Strus, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2013-08-30

    The exopolysaccharide (EPS) structure from Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 151 isolated from the intestinal tract of mice was investigated. Sugar and methylation analyses together with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional (1)H,(1)H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, and (1)H,(13)C HSQC, HMBC experiments, revealed that the repeating unit of the EPS is the linear pentasaccharide: ?6)-?-d-Galp-(1?6)-?-d-Glcp-(1?3)-?-d-Galf-(1?3)-?-d-Glcp-(1?2)-?-d-Galf-(1? The immunoreactivity of two structurally different exopolysaccharides isolated from L. johnsonii, 151 and 142 (Carbohydr. Res. 2010, 345, 108-114), was compared. Both EPSs differed in their reactivity with antisera. EPS from L. johnsonii 151 reacted with anti-Lactobacillus polyclonal sera against cells of five different strains, while EPS from L. johnsonii 142 was found to react only with its own antiserum. The broader specificity and higher reactivity of EPS from 151 strain than EPS from 142 strain were also observed with human sera. The physiological antibodies recognizing polysaccharide antigens were present in both adults and umbilical cord blood sera. A highly specific EPS 142 bearing strain was isolated from experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mice, while a strain with EPS 151 isolated from the intestinal tract of healthy mice is characterized by a broad immune reactivity common structure. PMID:23787056

  19. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells occur also in the endoderm of foot, gastric region and hypostome. By using a technique for simultaneous visualisation of nerve cells reacting with antisera to oxytocin and vasopressin, it can be shown that these nerve cells belong to a single population. In agreement with this, the staining of the nerve cells can be abolished by absorbing each antiserum with either oxytocin, vasopressin, [Lys8]vasopressin, vasotocin, mesotocin or isotocin, indicating that the antigenic determinant of hydra cross-reacts with those antibody subpopulations, which recognize common portions (sequence 1-2, 5-7, 9) of the oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides. With radioimmunoassays that are specific for either oxytocin or vasopressin, only very low amounts of immunoreactivity were measured. In addition, the dilution curves in these assays were not parallel to the standards, indicating that the antigenic determinant of hydra is not oxytocin or vasopressin. The presence of oxytocin/vasopressin-like material in coelenterates, shows that this family of peptides is of great antiquity.

  20. Claudin 3 and 4 Immunoreactivity in Malign Mesothelioma and Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ule EK?Z

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The differential diagnosis of malignant pleural mesotheliomas and lung adenocarcinomas is problematic for pathologists especially in small biopsy materials. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the immunohistochemically determined Claudin 3 and Claudin 4 immunoreactivities are useful in the differential diagnosis between malignant pleural mesotheliomas and lung adenocarcinomas.Material and Method: Using the epitope-specific rabbit antibody Claudin 3 and Claudin 4, 32 cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma (25 epithelioid, 7 biphasic and 14 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were studied immunohistochemicallyResults: None of the cases of malignant pleural mesotheliomas expressed Claudin 4, whereas all lung carcinomas were immunopositive. Claudin 3 expression was immunonegative in 29 (90.6% cases and immunopositive in 3 (9.3% cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma. With Claudin 3, 11/14 (78.9% lung adenocarcinomas and 3/32 (9.4% malignant pleural mesotheliomas were immunopositive (p=0.000.Conclusion: In conclusion, Claudin 4 antibody was found to be a highly sensitive and specific marker for distinguishing between malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma.

  1. Ionizing radiation alters beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in brain but not blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous behavioral and pharmacological studies have implicated endorphins in radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse. However, the endogenous opiate(s) responsible for this behavioral change have not been identified. The present study measured beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) in brain, blood, and combined brain and pituitary samples from irradiated and sham-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. After radiation exposure, levels of beta-END-LI decreased significantly in the brain. A similar, but not statistically significant, decline was measured in combined brain and pituitary samples. Concentrations of blood beta-END-LI were not changed by irradiation. These radiogenic changes in beta-END-LI are in some ways similar to those observed after other stresses. However, radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity may be mediated more by alterations of beta-END-LI in the brain than in the periphery. Other endogenous opiate systems may also contribute to this behavioral change in the C57BL/6J mouse

  2. Antigen-binding site protection during radiolabeling leads to a higher immunoreactive fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the immunointegrity of an antibody (Ab) depends on the preservation of its antigen-binding sites. Our goal was to radiolabel an antibody at several iodine:antibody molar ratios under conditions protecting its combining site and to compare its immunoreactive fraction (IRF) and electrophoretic mobility with those of the same antibody radiolabeled without protection. The data indicate that an antibody radiolabeled while its antigen-binding site is occupied by its antigen had the same IRF, regardless of the number of iodine atoms per antibody molecule. On the other hand, even at an I:Ab ratio of 1:1, the IRF of the same antibody radiolabeled without protection was lower than that of a protected one and decreased with increasing I:Ab ratios. In addition, the iodination of these Ab changes their electrophoretic mobility; however, when the Ab is labeled in the protected state, the degree of change is less. The binding of an antibody to its antigen prior to radiolabeling, therefore, enhances its immuno-integrity and prevents major conformational changes as reflected by electrophoresis

  3. Impact of adolescent sucrose access on cognitive control, recognition memory, and parvalbumin immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C; Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D; Morris, Margaret J; Westbrook, R Fred

    2015-04-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral control and high-order cognitive processes. Of particular concern is the fact that sugar intake is greatest in adolescence, an important neurodevelopmental period. We provided sucrose to rats when they were progressing through puberty and adolescence. Cognitive performance was assessed in adulthood on a task related to executive function, a rodent analog of the Stroop task. We found that sucrose-exposed rats failed to show context-appropriate responding during incongruent stimulus compounds presented at test, indicative of impairments in prefrontal cortex function. Sucrose exposed rats also showed deficits in an on object-in-place recognition memory task, indicating that both prefrontal and hippocampal function was impaired. Analysis of brains showed a reduction in expression of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, indicating that sucrose consumption during adolescence induced long-term pathology, potentially underpinning the cognitive deficits observed. These results suggest that consumption of high levels of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents may also impair neurocognitive functions affecting decision-making and memory, potentially rendering them at risk for developing mental health disorders. PMID:25776039

  4. Presence of TRF immunoreactivity in marginal islet cells in rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, F; Leppäluoto, J; Knip, M; Rajaniemi, H

    1981-07-01

    Isolated rat pancreatic islet extracts were submitted to reverse phase high pressure chromatography (HPLC) and assayed for thyrotrophin releasing factor (TRF), glucagon and insulin in radioimmunoassays (RIA). Our anti-TRF serum was prepared by immunizing rabbits with TRF conjugated to bovine thyroglobulin (bTG) by bisdiazobenzidine. Anti-glucagon and antiinsulin were from a commercial source (Novo, Denmark). The concentrations of TRF, glucagon and insulin were 0.05 +/- 0.02, 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 1.0 +/- 0.2 pmol/islet, respectively. Formalin-fixed pancreatic sections were stained for TRF, glucagon and insulin by peroxidase, antiperoxidase (PAP) complex method. When the adjacent sections were stained for glucagon or insulin, it was observed that TRF and glucagon-specific peroxidase reactions were confined to the marginal islet cells, but insulin reactions to the central cells. The TRF-specific peroxidase reaction was clearly reduced when the anti-TRF serum was unchanged when the antiserum was pre-incubated with synthetic TRF. The present HPLC results suggest that the islets contained TRF. Immunocytochemical studies show that the TRF-immunoreactive material, either synthesized or bound, is localized in the marginal islet cells. PMID:7020318

  5. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive (CGRP-IR) intradental nerves in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngassapa, D; Narhi, M; Hirvonen, T; Markkula, I

    1998-03-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is the most frequently occurring peptide in sensory neurons in the rat. Most of the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Immunoreactive (CGRP-IP) nerves have been found to be Capsaicin-sensitive suggesting an involvement in certain types of pain. In the dental pulp CGRP-IR nerve fibres have been studied in the rat, guinea pig, cat, sheep, pig, cow and horse but not in the dog. Extensive sprouting of CGRP-IP intradental nerves has been demonstrated in the teeth with pulpal inflammation in rat molars. In the present investigation the occurrence and distribution of CGRP-IR intradental nerves both in the normal and the injured and inflamed teeth of the dog was studied. Immunolabelling was done by the Avidin-Biotin Complex (ABC) immunoperoxidase technique. CGRP-IR intradental nerves were demonstrated in the dog. The pattern of distribution was found to be similar to that in other animal species. However, the tip one third of the coronal pulp was sparsely innervated compared to that in the rat. Also much fewer fibres were seen to penetrate predentine and dentine, and this appears characteristic of the dog teeth. Sprouting phenomenon seen in the rat was not found in the dog teeth. It is suggested that there might be a species difference in the innervation pattern of CGRP-IR intradental nerves between the rat molar and the dog canine and incisor teeth. PMID:9640812

  6. Feeding-related immunoreactive insulin changes in the PVN-VMH revealed by microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, M; Gerozissis, K; Rouch, C; Nicolaïdis, S

    1995-02-01

    The presence of insulin in the brain and its anorectic effect when centrally infused are well-established today. The question of physiological and dynamic changes in brain insulin in relation to meals is still unanswered and addressed here. Immunoreactive insulin (IRI) was measured using a sensitized RIA in 30-min microdialysates from VMH and PVN nuclei during and after a scheduled meal in male Wistar rats. We indeed observed elevations in hypothalamic IRI during the first 30 min of 1-h meals with a progressive return towards premeal levels in spite of a robust satiety. When the rats were accustomed to the scheduled meals, an anticipatory rise in IRI was found in the hypothalamus, but not in the plasma, during the 30 min preceding the due time of the meal whether the meal was presented or not. This anticipatory rise was proportional to the number of repeated scheduled meals. These results first suggest that hypothalamic IRI changes reflect in some instances those in the plasma although there are exceptions that cannot be accounted for by a simple plasma-brain tissue delivery. Besides, hypothalamic IRI can hardly be proposed as a satiety signal. The present data suggest a role in satiation rather than in satiety or, perhaps, in the inhibition of the behavioral response of feeding that can include the anticipatory rise. PMID:7728527

  7. Subfornical organ disconnection and Fos-like immunoreactivity in hypothalamic nuclei after intragastric hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Elizabeth M; Fitts, Douglas A

    2002-10-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) may act as a sodium- or osmoreceptor that drives hypothalamic and other nuclei to secrete vasopressin and to elicit drinking. However, in response to mild doses of hypertonic saline, Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) is absent in the SFO whereas it is well expressed in the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. This suggests that the hypothalamus may be activated in advance of the SFO. In this study, the fibers connecting the SFO and hypothalamus were disconnected by a wire knife cut so that Fos-ir could be examined in both the SFO and hypothalamus after an intragastric (ig) load of 0.5% of body weight of 0.6 M NaCl. Compared with Fos-ir in isotonic-loaded rats, Fos-ir after the hypertonic load was not significantly elevated in the SFO or median preoptic nucleus in sham-cut or knife-cut rats and was only slightly elevated in the OVLT in sham-cut rats. However, the hypertonic load in sham-cut rats greatly elevated Fos-ir in the SON and in the entire PVN, but this expression was reduced significantly by 30-50% in knife-cut rats. Thus, the connectivity between SFO and the hypothalamus is critical for the full expression of Fos-ir in the hypothalamus during moderate ig hypertonic saline loading even when the SFO itself does not yet express Fos-ir. PMID:12270498

  8. Patterns of GABA-like immunoreactivity in efferent fibers of the human cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrott-Fischer, Anneliese; Kammen-Jolly, Keren; Scholtz, Arne W; Glückert, Rudolf; Eybalin, Michel

    2002-12-01

    Olivocochlear efferent neurons originate in the superior olivary complex of the brainstem and terminate within sensory cell regions of the organ of Corti. Components of this complex include the lateral olivocochlear bundle whose unmyelinated axons synapse with radial afferent dendrites below inner hair cells and the medial olivocochlear bundle, from which myelinated axons form a direct synaptic contact with outer hair cells. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major neurotransmitter of the central nervous system believed to be responsible for most fast-inhibitory transmissions, has been demonstrated with interspecies variation between mammal and primate auditory efferents. In the present study, we evaluate the immunocytochemical presence of GABA in 10 human cochleae using light and electron microscopy. GABA-like immunostaining could be observed in inner spiral fibers, tunnel spiral fibers, tunnel-crossing fibers, and at efferent endings synapsing with outer hair cells. To approximate medial efferent fiber quantifications, we counted labeled terminals at the base of each outer hair cell and then compared this sum with the number of tunnel crossing fibers. We found a 'branching ratio' of 1:2 implicating a doubling in quantifiable efferent fibers at the level of the outer hair cell. In human, the distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity showed a consistent presence throughout all turns of the cochlea. A new method for application of immunoelectron microscopy on human cochleae using a pre-embedding technique is also presented and discussed. PMID:12433398

  9. Immunoreactivity and two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis characterization of Egyptian cobra venom proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehdar, Hussein Abduelrahman; Adel-Sadek, Mahmoud Abass; Redwan, Elrashdy Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    The first and second (two) dimensional gel electrophoresis has a broad protein resolution power. It was used to separate and identify cobra venom proteome. The importance of characterizing venom proteins contents from the Egyptian elapidae, specifically neurotoxins, is based on the need to produce effective anti-venom. About 30-55distinct protein spots were identified on silver stained two-dimensional gels. Around two-thirds of the venom proteins displayed low a molecular weight and a migration into hydrophobic side. The venoms from Naja haja and Naja nigricollus showed 45-55 spots, while Walternnesia aegyptia had less (31-37) spots. The commercial prepared polyclonal antivenom had a strong signal for anionic and cationic venom protein spots with molecular weight 20-115 kDa. However, it showed weak or non immunoreactivity toward anionic low molecular weight spots (2.5-15 kDa). These results suggest the need to change the immunization schedule to include low molecular weight toxin-proteomes as separate dose or sequester injection. PMID:25553707

  10. Density distribution of guinea pig myenteric plexus nerve endings containing immunoreactive substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to investigate how myenteric plexus nerve endings containing substance P are distributed in sucrose density gradients in relation to nerve endings capable of taking up 3H-acetylcholine or 14C-noradrenaline. The peak of substance P-immunoreactivity (ISP) was found at a density of 1.157 +/- 0.001 g X ml-1, that of 3H-radioactivity at 1.160 +/- 0.002 and that of 14C-radioactivity at 1.162 +/- 0.002 g X ml-1 (mean +/- SEM, N = 6); there was considerable overlap. In a second set of experiments, the resuspended P2-pellet was layered upon a discontinuous density gradient consisting of 0.6, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 M sucrose. Nine fractions were recovered. There was a 2.5-3.4-fold increase in the relative specific activity of ISP in the 1.2 M fraction (density = 1.154 g X ml-1) and the adjoining interfaces. Conventional electron microscopy showed that synaptosomal elements were present in the transmitter-enriched fractions. It is concluded that the substance P-containing nerve endings of the guinea pig myenteric plexus co-distribute (and may be co-purified with) nerve endings utilizing noradrenaline or acetylcholine on sucrose density gradients

  11. Predictive value of bcl-2 immunoreactivity in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Recent experimental evidence suggests that overexpression of bcl-2, a protein functioning by blocking apoptosis, may influence the treatment outcome in human tumours, including prostate cancer. To test the clinical implications of this hypothesis, tumours from patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy were investigated for bcl-2 immunoreactivity (IR) and correlated with prognosis and treatment outcome. Materials and methods: Bcl-2 IR was evaluated in archival tumour specimens obtained through transurethral resection from 42 patients with localized prostate cancer (T0-T4, N0 and M0). Bcl-2 IR expression was related to stage, grade and cancer-specific survival. Specimens were obtained prior to administrating routine radiotherapy for all patients. Results: Bcl-2 IR was present in 19/42 (45%) tumours. The bcl-2-positive patients had a significantly longer cancer-specific survival than the bcl-2-negative patients (10.3 versus 3.4 years, P<0.04). At follow-up (7-19 years), nine patients were still alive, 26 patients had died of prostate cancer and seven patients had died of other causes. Conclusions: This study indicates that pre-treatment bcl-2 overexpression is related to a favourable outcome in prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. Low bcl-2 along with a high stage may be a predictor of poor prognosis and these patients might benefit from additional treatment. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. A) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. In vitro release of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide from the rat atria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue,Hiroshi

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from atria was examined by ANP radioimmunoassay. Isolated right rat atria were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, and test substances were added to the incubation medium. The fluid was assayed for rat ANP by a radioimmunoassay method recently developed in our laboratory. We produced an antiserum to human ANP(99-216 (alpha-hANP(1-28 which showed a good cross-reactivity of 63% with rat ANP(99-126 (alpha-rANP(1-28 and was useful for measuring rat ANP concentrations of the medium. Application of the medium to a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system resulted in a single peak of immunoreactive rat ANP corresponding to a small molecular weight synthetic rat ANP of 28 amino acid residues. Catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and isoproterenol reduced the basal secretion of ANP, whereas acetylcholine stimulated the release of ANP. Forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not affect the release of ANP. These results suggest the possibility that the regulation of ANP release may be partially associated with adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms.

  13. Endomorphin1-like immunoreactivity in the limbic system of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, R D; Martin-Schild, S; Zadina, J E; Albers, H E

    2001-12-01

    Recently, endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2; EM1), an endogenous peptide that has high affinity and selectivity for the mu-opiate receptor, has been shown to modulate emotional behavior in mice and social behavior in Syrian hamsters. Endomorphin-1 (EM1) is present throughout the central nervous system in rats, mice, and guinea pigs; however, the distribution of EM1 in hamsters has not been described. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the distribution of EM1-like immunoreactivity (EM1L-IR) in the limbic system of Syrian hamsters using immunocytochemistry. Perikarya containing EM1L-IR were present in the anterior area, dorsomedial, ventromedial, periventricular, posterior, and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. Fibers expressing EM1L-IR were present in the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid complex, and hypothalamus. The distribution of EM1 suggests a potential endogenous role for this peptide in major processes modulated by opiates, including affective states and social behavior. PMID:11786242

  14. Tissue distribution and levels of natural and induced serum lysozyme immunoreactive molecules in a freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, E

    1991-01-01

    Lysozyme immunoreactive molecules (irLm) in Planorbarius corneus was demonstrated by an immunocytochemical method in oocytes, the kidney, spreading phagocytic hemocytes (SH), digestive phagocytic cells, and epithelial cells of the stomach and intestine. Three hr after the injection of a variety of bacteria or substances (S. aureus, E. coli, E. coli LPS, latex particles, PBS) a statistically significant increase in irLm serum level was detected by the microELISA method. Twenty-four hr later, this increase was detected only in specimens which had been injected with bacteria. A similar response was observed 14 days later, following a second injection of the above-mentioned substances in the same snails. The results suggest that: 1) irLm appears to be an inducible molecule responding non-specifically to foreign challenge; 2) no anamnestic response is observed for irLm; 3) a relationship exists between irLm and phagocytosis; indeed, irLm have chemotactic activity towards SH; 4) serum irLm probably originates from different sources; in fact, they are released from SH and the kidney. The increase in the serum irLm level is responsible, at least in part, for the lytic attack and death of bacteria, but it is probably also involved in unspecific inflammatory reactions. PMID:18621163

  15. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting. PMID:19166488

  16. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons make inhibitory synapses on pyramidal cells in the human amygdala: a light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, H; Miettinen, R; Soininen, H; Pitkänen, A

    1996-10-18

    In the present study we investigate the inhibitory circuitries that regulate the neuronal activity in the lateral and basal nuclei, which are the main sensory input regions of the amygdala. Axon terminals immunoreactive for parvalbumin, a calcium-binding protein known to colocalize with GABA, were examined in these regions with electron microscopy, and their postsynaptic targets were identified and characterized. In the lateral nucleus, parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-ir) axons formed terminal rows which made symmetric synaptic contacts on the axon initial segments of the pyramidal cells. In the basal nucleus, pericellular baskets of PV-ir fibers established symmetric synapses on pyramidal cell somata and proximal dendrites. Our data suggest that PV-ir neurons play a crucial inhibitory role in the control of pyramidal cell activity in the human amygdala. PMID:8916080

  17. Immunoreactivity of monoclonal anti-melanoma antibodies in relation to the amount of radioactive iodine substituted to the antibody molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage to monoclonal anti-melanoma antibodies caused by iodination was investigated by comparing the results obtained using the chloramine-T method and the 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3?,6?-diphenyl-glycoluril (IODOGEN) method at different levels of iodine substitution to the molecule. The level of substitution at which losses in immunoreactivity occurred were evaluated in each monoclonal antibody (MAb) studied. This phenomenon was not dependent on the method of substitution, provided that mild conditions of reaction were used. Lineweaver-Burk plots and - in cases of alterations in binding affinity - Scatchard plots were found to provide an adequate description of the binding behaviour of individual MAbs after labelling. Immunoreactivity was shown to be determined not only by the proportion of bona fide reactive MAb molecules, but also by a substitution-dependent decrease in affinity constants. The practical consequences of altered binding parameters were demonstrated by quantitating specific antibodyaccumulation in melanoma transplants in vivo. (orig.)

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Trace element abnormalities in chronic uremia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the elemental composition of autopsy tissue samples to characterize the trace element changes induced in various human tissues by uremia. Samples from the United States and Australia, including those from 120 uremic patients who had been on dialysis, 29 uremic patients who had not been on dialysis, and 64 control subjects, were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence. Tissues analyzed were aorta, bone, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and spleen; elements measured included potassium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, bromine, rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin, and uranium. Uremic abnormalities that were statistically very significant were found, including increases of calcium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, and tin and decreases of potassium and rubidium. The distribution of iron, copper, and zinc are altered. We conclude that these abnormalities are primarily the result of the uremia and that, generally, they are neither greatly moderated nor exacerbated by the dialysis procedure

  20. Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

    2011-11-01

    Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder. PMID:21596703

  1. Embalse NGS: Abnormal event procedures development lifecycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present used philosophy in Canada and in Atucha Nuclear Generating Station (Argentina) it was decided to develop the Abnormal Event Procedures (EOP's) in a logical diagram format. The EOP's have in general two parts: the diagnosis and the operative action to mitigate the event. Some serious incidents can be resolved by the EOP's, but the philosophy is first, to satisfy the EOP's requirements. Taking into account the operating experience, the Final Safety Report and the results of simulations done by appropriate codes, it was possible to obtain the corresponding sequence for each abnormal event. With the information available in the Control Room (windows, alarms, trends, etc) for each part of the EOP's was associated the instrumentation that the operator must observe. 3 figs

  2. [Epilepsy in patient with structural autosomal abnormality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, S; Atsukawa, K; Kusano, K; Akatsuka, A; Ochiai, Y; Tsuzura, S; Maekawa, K

    1994-11-01

    Few cases have been reported on the structural autosomal abnormality (SAA) focusing on epilepsy excluding those of Down syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. We investigated patients who had SAA with special reference to epilepsy. Various types of epilepsy were observed in its severity in our cases as well as previously reported cases. There was no correlation between the degree of mental retardation, motor dysfunction, brain damage on CT scan, and severity of epilepsy. Some cases had brain dysplasia, such as agenesis of corpus callosum, pachygyria, and mega cisterna magna. No correlation was found between these brain dysplasia and severity of epilepsy. It is important for a pediatrician to find a common epileptic syndrome or EEG abnormality in a SAA. An observation of symptoms in patients with the same chromosomal deletion or duplication will lead to identification of responsible gene for an epileptic symptom. PMID:7803078

  3. Abnormal Selective Attention in Psychopathic Female Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Vitale, Jennifer E.; Brinkley, Chad A.; Hiatt, Kristina D.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Research on psychopathy in women has generated equivocal laboratory findings. This study examined the performance of psychopathic women in 2 laboratory tasks designed to assess abnormal selective attention associated with response modulation deficits: a computerized picture–word (PW) task, and a picture–word Stroop (PW Stroop) task. Consistent with data from psychopathic men, women receiving high scores on the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (Hare, 1991) displayed reduced Stroop interfere...

  4. Novelty detection for the identification of abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Tarassenko, L.; Nairac, A.; Townsend, N; Buxton, I.; Cowley, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The principle of novelty detection offers an approach to the problem of fault detection which only requires the normal class to be defined. A model of normality is learnt by including normal examples only in the training data; abnormalities are then identified by testing for novelty against this description. In this paper, we review our work on statistical models of normality in feature space and we explain how we have used novelty detection to identify unusual vibration signatures in jet eng...

  5. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-hamad, Nadia M.; Al-eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride (>90 mmol/l). We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital ...

  6. Abnormal behavior detection in video protection systems

    OpenAIRE

    Patino, Luis; Benhadda, Hamid; Nefzi, Nedra; Boulay, Bernard; Bremond, Franc?ois; Thonnat, Monique

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a system to extract in an unsu- pervised manner the main activities that can be observed by a camera monitoring a scene on the long-term and with the ultimate aim to discover abnormal events. To allow for semantically interpretable results, the activities are characterised by referring them to contextual elements of the observed scene. By contextual elements, we understand activity areas such as building entrances, people meeting areas, road areas,...etc. The system th...

  7. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography

  8. Anorectal malformations with sacral bony abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.; Kumar, D.; Dickson, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A range of anorectal malformations with sacral bony abnormalities was found in members from three generations of two kindreds. The anorectal anomaly was low in all but one of the patients. Partial sacral agenesis was the main bony defect in one family, and meningomyelocele and spina bifida occulta were noted in the second. The inheritance pattern in these kinships is autosomal dominant. This may be a variant of caudal regression syndrome, which seems to be aetiologically heterogeneous.

  9. Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to an...

  10. Dermatoglyphic analysis of fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzumori, K.

    1980-01-01

    I applied Okajima's technique of exposing the dermal surface by chemical and mechanical treatment followed by toluidine blue stain to inspect the dermatoglyphic features of hands of aborted human fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities. The dermatoglyphic patterns of five fetuses, three with Down syndrome, one with 5p--, and one with 18 trisomy, were analyzed to determine whether the patterns were sufficiently specific to be used for diagnostic purposes. Apparently unique patterns were obtaine...

  11. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip join can be measured by means of computed tomography. (Auth.)

  12. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  13. Abnormal electroretinogram associated with developmental brain anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Cibis, G. W.; Fitzgerald, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have encountered abnormal ERGs associated with optic nerve hypoplasia, macular, optic nerve and chorioretinal colobomata and developmental brain anomalies. Brain anomalies include cortical dysgenesis, lissencephaly, porencephaly, cerebellar and corpus callosum hypoplasia. We describe six exemplar cases. METHODS: Scotopic and photopic ERGs adherent to international standards were performed as well as photopic ERGs to long-duration stimuli. CT or MRI studies were also done. The ERGs...

  14. Venous abnormalities demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT is capable of demonstrating various venous changes. However, little have been described on this subject in the literature. Examples of various venous abnormalities such as obstructed jugular vein, superior and inferior vena cava (IVC), tumor invasion of IVC and renal vein and venous changes in portal hypertension were presented. It was stressed that noninvasive CT is a good tool in diagnosis of some of venous changes and may be able to eliminate angiography in such cases. (author)

  15. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  16. Spatial ontologies for detecting abnormal maritime behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vandecasteele, Arnaud; Napoli, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    The upsurge in piracy and the impact of recent environmental disasters have highlighted the need to improve maritime surveillance. Governmental and private initiatives have developed monitoring systems with improved acquisition and analysis capabilities. These systems rely on one major component, namely the detection of abnormal ship behaviour. This implies a detailed formalisation of expert knowledge. However, the quantity of data, the complexity of situations, the failure to take into accou...

  17. Correlative analysis of immunoreactivity in confocal laser-scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam milling

    OpenAIRE

    TakahiroFuruta; TakahiroSonomura; IkukoNakatani; TomoUnzai; WakotoMatsuda

    2013-01-01

    Recently, three-dimensional reconstruction of ultrastructure of the brain has been realized with minimal effort by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with focused ion beam (FIB) milling (FIB-SEM). Application of immunohistochemical staining in electron microscopy (EM) provides a great advantage in that molecules of interest are specifically localized in ultrastructures. Thus, we applied immunocytochemistry for FIB-SEM and correlated this immunoreactivity with that in confocal l...

  18. Cross-Immunoreactivity between Bacterial Aquaporin-Z and Human Aquaporin-4: Potential Relevance to Neuromyelitis Optica

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yan; Duan, Tao; Patel, Jilpa; Liggett, Thomas; Loda, Eileah; Brahma, Sarang; Goswami, Rajendra; Grouse, Carrie; Byrne, Richard; Stefoski, Dusan; Javed, Adil; Miller, Stephen D.; Balabanov, Roumen

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS that is mediated, in part, by a self-reactive Ab against the astrocyte aquaporin-4 protein. In the current study, we examined the possibility and the biological significance of cross-immunoreactivity between bacterial aquaporin-Z and human aquaporin-4 proteins. Sequence-alignment analysis of these proteins revealed several regions of significant structural homology. Some of the homologous regions were also found to overla...

  19. The Relationship of Allopregnanolone Immunoreactivity and HPA-Axis Measures to Experimental Pain Sensitivity: Evidence for Ethnic Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mechlin, Beth; Morrow, A. Leslie; Maixner, William; Girdler, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    In animal models, allopregnanolone (ALLO) negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has been shown to exert analgesic effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between plasma ALLO immunoreactivity (ALLO-ir), HPA-axis measures, and pain sensitivity in humans. Forty-five African Americans (21 men, 24 women) and 39 non-Hispanic Whites (20 men, 19 women) were tested for pain sensitivity to tourniquet ischemia, thermal heat, and cold pressor tes...

  20. Profiling of Human Acquired Immunity Against the Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus papatasi Reveals Clusters of Differential Immunoreactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Geraci, Nicholas S.; Mukbel, Rami M.; Kemp, Michael T.; Wadsworth, Mariha N.; Lesho, Emil; Stayback, Gwen M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Bernard, Megan A.; Abo-shehada, Mahmoud; Coutinho-abreu, Iliano V.; Ramalho-ortiga?o, Marcelo; Hanafi, Hanafi A.; Fawaz, Emadeldin Y.; El-hossary, Shabaan S.; Wortmann, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies are among the primary vectors of Leishmania major parasites from Morocco to the Indian subcontinent and from southern Europe to central and eastern Africa. Antibody-based immunity to sand fly salivary gland proteins in human populations remains a complex contextual problem that is not yet fully understood. We profiled the immunoreactivities of plasma antibodies to sand fly salivary gland sonicates (SGSs) from 229 human blood donors residing in different regions...

  1. Distribution and Chemical Coding of Corticotropin Releasing Factor-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Guinea-Pig Enteric Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Hu, Hong-zhen; Wang, Xiyu; Wang, Guo-du; Fang, Xiucai; Gao, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D.

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence was used to study immunoreactivity (IR) for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the guinea-pig enteric nervous system. CRF-IR was expressed in both the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of all regions of the large and small intestine and the myenteric plexus of the stomach. CRF-IR-nerve fibers were present in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, in the circular muscle coat and surrounding submucosal arterioles. Most of the CRF-IR fibers persisted in the myenteric and ...

  2. Morphological and laminar distribution of cholescystokinine - immunoreactive neurons in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Laslo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cholecystocinine is a neuropeptide whose function in the cortex has not yet been clarified, although its relation with some psychic disorders has been noticed. Previous studies have not provided detailed data about types, or arrangement of neurons that contain those neuropeptide in the cortex of human inferior parietal lobe. The aim of this study was to examine precisely the morphology and typography of neurons containing cholecytocinine in the human cortex of inferior parietal lobule. Material and methods. There were five human brains on which we did the immunocystochemical research of the shape and laminar distribution of cholecystocinine immunoreactive neurons on serial sections of supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus. The morphological analysis of cholecystocinine-immunoreactive neurons was done on frozen sections using avidin-biotin technique, by antibody to cholecystocinine diluted in the proportion 1:6000 using diamine-benzedine. Results. Cholecystocinine immunorective neurons were found in the first three layers of the cortex of inferior parietal lobule, and their densest concentration was in the 2nd and 3rd layer. The following types of neurons were found: bipolar neurons, then its fusiform subtype, Cajal-Retzius neurons (in the 1st layer, reverse pyramidal (triangular and unipolar neurons. The diameters of some types of neurons were from 15 to 35 µm, and the diameters of dendritic arborization were from 85-207 µm. A special emphasis is put on the finding of Cajal-Retzius neurons that are immunoreactive to cholecystocinine, which demands further research. Conclusion. Bearing in mind numerous clinical studies pointing out the role of cholecystokinine in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, the presence of a great number of cholecystokinine immunoreactive neurons in the cortex of inferior parietal lobule suggests their role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  3. Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Growth of Leptospire, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: Immunoreactivity and Cell Division

    OpenAIRE

    Triampo, Wannapong; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Triampo, Darapond; Wong-ekkabut, Jirasak; Tang, I-ming

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the exposure of the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola to a constant magnetic field with magnetic flux density from a permanent ferrite magnet = 140 mT were studied. Changes in Leptospira cells after their exposure to the field were determined on the basis of changes in their growth behavior and agglutination immunoreactivity with a homologous antiserum using darkfield microscopy together with visual imaging. The data showed that the exposed Le...

  4. Release of Somatostatin-like Immunoreactivity from Incubated Rat Hypothalamus and Cerebral Cortex: EFFECTS OF GLUCOSE AND GLUCOREGULATORY HORMONES

    OpenAIRE

    Berelowitz, Michael; Dudlak, Daniel; Frohman, Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    Somatostatin (SRIF) is localized in the hypothalamus, extrahypothalamic brain, and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Release of gastrointestinal SRIF-like immunoreactivity (SRIF-LI) is under nutrient regulation but the effect of nutrients on neural SRIF-LI is unknown. The present studies examined the effects of glucose uptake and metabolism and hormones influencing glucose disposition on SRIF-LI release from medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and cerebral cortex (Cx) incubated in Krebs-Ring...

  5. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng against Alteration of Calcium Binding Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Mice Hippocampus after Radiofrequency Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiraj Maskey; Jin-Koo Lee; Hak Rim Kim; Hyung-Gun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity. Changes in Ca2+ concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca2+ homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure with loss of interacellular Ca2+ balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR) in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month ...

  6. Calbindin-D28k immunoreactive neurons form two populations in the rat nucleus accumbens: a compartmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Z; Totterdell, S

    1994-09-01

    This study shows localisation of a second class of calbindin-D28k containing neuron other than the medium-sized spiny neuron in the rat nucleus accumbens, using immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies. Ultrastructural characteristics were used to identify this second population of accumbens neurons within its compartments. Staining with NADPH-diaphorase and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity revealed that some neurons contained both markers. PMID:7804837

  7. Histone H1.2 is a substrate for denitrase, an activity that reduces nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Irie, Yasuyuki; Saeki, Makio; Kamisaki, Yoshinori; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Several reports have described an activity that modifies nitrotyrosine-containing proteins and their immunoreactivity to nitrotyrosine Abs. Without knowing the product of the reaction, this new activity has been called a “denitrase.” In those studies, some nonspecific proteins, which have multiple tyrosine residues, e.g., albumin, were used as a substrate. Therefore, the studies were based on an unknown mechanism of reaction and potentially a high background. To solve these problems, one ...

  8. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in the brain of the tropical freshwater fish, Pygocentrus notatus (Teleostei-Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?ceres-dittmar, G.; Tapia, F. J.; Guerrero, H. Y.; Paiva, C. L.; Marcano, D.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of GnRH in the brain of the teleost Pygocentrus notatus was demonstrated with the avidin-biotin peroxidase immunocytochemical method using highly specific antibody against synthetic mammalian GnRH. Optimal immunoreaction was obtained using: 1) Bouin's fluid for fixation; 2) repeated incubation with primary antiserum; 3) the use of a detergent in the dilution buffer; 4) the high sensitivity of the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method with the ...

  9. Localization of Angiopoietin-1 and Tie2 Immunoreactivity in Rodent Ependyma and Adjacent Blood Vessels Suggests Functional Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Brooke N.; Solanki, Rajanikant B.; Rajneesh, Kiran F.; Kulesza, Piotr; Ardelt, Agnieszka A.

    2010-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1; previously Ang-1) participates in vascular maintenance and remodeling. In the current study, we investigated the distribution of Angpt1 protein in rat brain. We detected Angpt1 immunoreactivity (IR) in cerebral blood vessels, cuboidal ependyma, and tanycytes, which are specialized hypothalamic bipolar ependymal cells. We also evaluated patterns of IR of endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Tie2, the receptor for Angpt1). Tie2 IR was present in Angpt1-immuno...

  10. A latex agglutination test for the field determination of abnormal vitellogenin production in male fishes contaminated by estrogen mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen mimics are pollutants present in the aquatic environment. These compounds induce abnormalities in the reproductive system of male fishes, which lead to a total or partial male feminization, or to their demasculinization. Ultimately, these alterations could lead to a disappearance of the total contaminated fish population. Moreover, these toxic substances possess the capacity to mimic endogenous estrogens and to induce the abnormal production of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fishes. The purpose of this research was to develop an easy, specific, cheap and fast method for diagnosing the contamination of male fishes by estrogen mimics, using VTG as biomarker. The selected method is based on a reverse latex agglutination test (rLAT), developed with monoclonal antibodies specific of this biomarker. The development of this VTG-rLAT has involved, firstly, the purification of carp VTG to produce monoclonal antibodies, specifics of this protein. One of these antibodies was selected to recover latex particles (diameter: 1 ?m). Finally, the immunoreactivity of the VTG-rLAT was verified with different fish plasma samples from males treated with 17?-estradiol and non-treated males or females in vitellogenesis

  11. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ?2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. PMID:24620795

  12. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Eslamian

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal menstrual bleeding is one of the most common reasons of gynecologic consultation in adolescent girls. During the first two years after menarche. Most of cycles are anovulatory. Despite this, they are somewhat regular with a range of approximately 21-40 days. Cycles longer than 42 days or shorter than 21 days and bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days particularly 2 years after menarche are considered abnormal. Since the variability in cycle length is greater in adolescence than in adulthood, in the absence of anemia and severe hemorrhage, greater irregularities are accepted. The major cause of abnormal menstrual bleeding in adolescence is anovulation that is caused by unstable growth and incomplete shedding of endometrium in response to continuous secretion of estrogen. The clinical result in irregular, prolonged and heavy bleeding. Treatment is hormonal and is dependent on severity of bleeding. It is necessary to continue treatment for 3-6 cycles. Eventual maturation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis usually will establish regular menses.

  13. [Thyroid disease caused by receptor abnormality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekawa, Katsuhiko; Murakami, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Hormone receptor abnormality is a syndrome of an abnormal mechanism caused by defective receptor function in hormone action. Resistance to thyroid hormone is a syndrome in which the responsiveness of the target organ to thyroid hormone is reduced. Resistance to thyroid hormone exhibits unsuppressed thyrotropin(TSH) despite elevated free thyroxin (FT4) and free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), termed the syndrome of the inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH). Resistance to thyroid hormone is mainly caused by a mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta) gene. Genetic analysis of the TRbeta gene is important to diagnose resistance to thyroid hormone. TSH receptor (TSHR) abnormality is classified as a gain-of-function mutation and loss-of-function mutation. Loss-of-function mutations in the TSHR gene occur as TSH resistance, which is found to have euthyroid hyperthyrotropinemia or hypothyroidism because of the reduced responsiveness of the receptor to TSH. R450H mutation in the TSHR gene is occasionally observed in Japanese patients with TSH resistance. In Japan, it is suggested that analysis of the R450H mutation in the TSHR gene is useful to determine the cause of hyperthyrotropinemia or hypothyroidism. PMID:24724428

  14. Abnormal functional connectivity density in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuquan; Bi, Wenwei; Zhang, Yuling; Zhu, Maohu; Zhang, Yanling; Feng, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-03-01

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Using seed-based resting state functional connectivity, many previous studies have demonstrated that PD patients have abnormal functional integration. However, this technique strongly relies on a priori selection of the seed regions and may miss important unpredictable findings. Using an ultrafast voxel-wise functional connectivity density approach, this study performed a whole brain functional connectivity analysis to investigate the abnormal resting-state functional activities in PD patients. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients exhibited decreased short-range functional connectivity densities in regions that were mainly located in the ventral visual pathway and decreased long-range functional connectivity densities in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, which have been speculated to be associated with visual hallucinations and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. PD patients also exhibited increased short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, which may represent a compensatory process for maintaining normal brain function. The observed functional connectivity density alterations might be related to the disturbed structural connectivity of PD patients, leading to abnormal functional integration. Our results suggest that functional connectivity density mapping may provide a useful means to assess PD-related neurodegeneration and to study the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:25496782

  15. Detecting Abnormal Behaviors in Crowded Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin P. Popoola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational awareness is a basic function of the human visual system, which is attracting a lot of research attention in machine vision and related research communities. There is an increasing demand for smarter video surveillance of public and private space using intelligent vision systems which can distinguish what is semantically meaningful to the human observer as ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behaviors. In this study we propose a novel robust behavior descriptor for encoding the intrinsic local and global behavior signatures in crowded scenes. Crowd scenes transitioning from normal to abnormal behaviors such as “rush”, “scatter” and “herding” were modeled and detected. The descriptor uses features that encode both local and global signatures of crowd interactions. Bayesian topic modeling is used to capture the intrinsic structure of atomic activity in the video frames and used to detect the transition from normal to abnormal behavior. Experimental results and analysis of the proposed framework on two publicly available crowd behavior datasets show the effectiveness of this method compared to other methods for anomaly detection in crowds with a very good detection accuracy rates.

  16. Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, W -X

    2013-01-01

    We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. We further investigate the dynamics of volatility, trading volume, average trade size and turnover around the transactions associated with the abnormal motifs for large, medium and small trades. It is found that these variables peak at the abnormal events and exhibit a power-law accumulation in the pre-event time period and a power-law relaxation in the post-event period. We also find that the cumulative excess returns are significantly positive after buyer-initiated suspicious trades and exhibit a mild price reversal afte...

  17. Imaging Investigation of Mediastinal Abnormalities in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of mediastinal abnormalities is important for several reasons:"n1. The mediastinum is the common location for thoracic masses in children."n2. The type and frequency of masses differ in children compared with adults."n3. Anatomic variations can be misinterpreted as mediastinal masses."nThis article is summation of several texts and articles that has been studied and interpreted. The mediastinum in children can be a difficult area to assess on chest radiograph; even the normal thymus can give the impression of a mediastinal mass lesion. Ultrasound, CT scan and MRI help to characterize the lesion, define its extent, and detect complications. Abnormal mediastinal contours can be caused by congenital or acquired masses and congenital anomalies of the mediastinal vessels."nMediastinal masses in children are a heterogeneous group of asymptomatic to life threatening congenital, infectious, or neoplastic lesions. Classification of the masses, according to the involved compartment (anterior, middle, and posterior, facilitates differentiation of the variety of mediastinal disorders. The main purpose of this study is review of mediastinal abnormalities and their imaging in children.

  18. Cross-immunoreactivity between bacterial aquaporin-Z and human aquaporin-4: potential relevance to neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yan; Duan, Tao; Patel, Jilpa; Liggett, Thomas; Loda, Eileah; Brahma, Sarang; Goswami, Rajendra; Grouse, Carrie; Byrne, Richard; Stefoski, Dusan; Javed, Adil; Miller, Stephen D; Balabanov, Roumen

    2012-11-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS that is mediated, in part, by a self-reactive Ab against the astrocyte aquaporin-4 protein. In the current study, we examined the possibility and the biological significance of cross-immunoreactivity between bacterial aquaporin-Z and human aquaporin-4 proteins. Sequence-alignment analysis of these proteins revealed several regions of significant structural homology. Some of the homologous regions were also found to overlap with important immune and disease-relevant epitopes. Cross-immunoreactivity between aquaporin-Z and aquaporin-4 was investigated and ascertained in multiple immune-based assays using sera from patients with neuromyelitis optica, immune mouse serum, and Abs raised against aquaporin-Z. The biological significance of this phenomenon was established in series of experiments demonstrating that induction of an immune response against aquaporin-Z or its homologous regions can also trigger an autoimmune reaction against aquaporin-4 and inflammation of the CNS. Our study indicates that the autoimmune response against aquaporin-4 in neuromyelitis optica may be triggered by infection-induced cross-immunoreactivity and presents a new perspective on the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:23008451

  19. Anti-Acanthamoeba IgG, IgM, and IgA immunoreactivities in correlation to strain pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walochnik, J; Obwaller, A; Haller-Schober, E M; Aspöck, H

    2001-08-01

    Several representatives of the genus Acanthamoeba are known as causative agents of Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. These occur predominantly in the immunocompromised host, but it is still unclear what primes the amoebae for pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to assess possible immunological differences between a highly pathogenic and a nonpathogenic Acanthamoeba strain. A total of 20 sera, including two sera of Acanthamoeba keratitis patients, were tested for anti-Acanthamoeba IgG, IgM, and IgA immunoreactivities using immunoblotting. All sera were positive for Acanthamoeba, revealing two predominant bands at 29 kDa and at 47 kDa, respectively. Interestingly, IgG and particularly IgA immunoreactivity enabled a clear discrimination between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Moreover, compared to the control sera, the two sera of Acanthamoeba keratitis patients showed rather weak immunoreactivities and they lacked the 29 kDa and the 47 kDa band in the IgA immunoblot against the pathogenic strain. The results of our study support the assumption that immunological predisposition might also be of importance in Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:11511003

  20. Immunoreactive forms of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the brains of aging rats exhibiting persistent vaginal estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, B S; King, J C; Bridges, R S

    1984-09-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) system in middle-aged female rats exhibiting persistent vaginal estrus (PVE) was examined using immunocytochemical (ICC) techniques. Three LHRH antisera (A-R419, A-R744, A-R422; generously supplied by Dr. A. Arimura) directed toward different portions of the LHRH molecule were utilized to compare the immunoreactive molecular moieties of this hypothalamic peptide present in neurons of aging and young female rats. The immunoreactive forms of the decapeptide detected within neurons of young cycling animals were present within the same regions of the LHRH neurons of PVE females. Immunoreactive LHRH perikarya and fibers in the middle-aged anovulatory females did not differ in their distribution in the basal forebrain from those of young cycling females. Furthermore, no gross morphological differences were apparent at the light microscopic level in LHRH neurons from young and aging females. Of particular importance was the apparent presence of the physiologically active form of the mature decapeptide in terminal regions of the median eminence. These data lead us to propose that failure to release adequate amounts of LHRH from neurovascular terminals and not the lack of availability of this hypothalamic decapeptide contributes to reproductive decline in aging female rats. PMID:6383488

  1. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    1996-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing development, gradually disappeared from these cells and became restricted to insulin-producing beta cells. Throughout development FA1 was not detected in endocrine glucagon, somatostatin or pancreatic polypeptide cells. Moreover, developing insulin cells that coexpressed glucagon were negative for FA1. Thus, there was a negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon both in tumours and during development. These results, together with FA1/dlk's similarity with homeotic proteins, point to a role of FA1 in islet cell differentiation. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Dec

  2. Basal and hyperinsulinemia-induced immunoreactive hypothalamic insulin changes in lean and genetically obese Zucker rats revealed by microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerozissis, K; Orosco, M; Rouch, C; Nicolaidis, S

    1993-05-21

    Lean and genetically obese Zucker rats were implanted with permanent intravenous catheters and a guide cannula was aimed at the region of the ventromedial (VMH) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei to measure immunoreactive insulin collected by means of microdialysis. Preliminary experiments assessed the validity of a novel assay of insulin in microdialysates by a sensitized radioimmunoassay technique. This method was then used to measure basal levels of insulin and those induced by i.v. infusion of 0.5 U of insulin over 30 min in both lean and obese rats. Basal hypothalamic immunoreactive insulin levels were lower in the obese rats than in the lean Zucker rats. When insulin was infused i.v. for 30 min, hypothalamic immunoreactive insulin showed an increase in the 30-60 min sample, which was twice as great in the obese rats. Two facts suggest that the insulin found in the microdialysates was of cerebral, not vascular origin: the short latency in the response and the finding that the response was greater in obese rats. PMID:8334519

  3. Immunoreactive endothelin-1 and endothelin a receptor in basilar artery perivascular nerves of young and adult capybaras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesch, Andrzej; Dashwood, Michael R; Coppi, Antonio A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative morphological study was the immunocytochemical and ultrastructural comparison of perivascular nerves of the basilar artery (BA) of young (6-month-old) and adult (12-month-old) capybaras - adult capybaras showed regression of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The study focused on immunolabeling for the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin A receptor (ETA) as well as for the synapse marker synaptophysin (SYP). In the BA of young capybaras, immunoreactivity for ET-1, ETA receptor and SYP was detected in perivascular nerve varicosities and/or intervaricosities. Immunoreactivity for ET-1 and ETA receptor was also displayed by some Schwann cells, which accompanied perivascular nerves. In addition to the presence of the above-described perivascular nerve characteristics, the BA of adult animals also revealed structurally altered perivascular nerves, where axon profiles were irregular in shape with dense axoplasm, while the cytoplasm of Schwann cells was vacuolated and contained myelin-like figures. These structurally altered perivascular nerves displayed immunoreactivity for ET-1, ETA receptor and SYP. These results show that the ET-1 system is present in some of the BA perivascular nerves and it is likely that this system is affected during animal maturation when ICA regression takes place. The role of ET-1 in cerebrovascular nerves is still unclear but its involvement in neural (sensory) control of cerebral blood flow and nerve function is possible. PMID:23676773

  4. Localization of enkephalin and cholecystokinin immunoreactivities in the perforant path terminal fields of the rat hippocampal formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredens, K.; Stengaard-Pedersen, K. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)); Larsson, L.I. (Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark))

    1984-06-25

    The distribution of enkephalin immunoreactivity (EI) in the molecular layer of the hippocampal formation corresponded to the terminal field of the lateral perforant path and the lateral temporoammonic tract. The distribution of cholecystokinin immunoreactivity (CI) in the molecular layer of the hippocampal formation corresponded to the established terminal field of the medial temporoammonic tract. The exception was a CI band at the deep part of the molecular layer throughout the regio superior. Accordingly, an additional terminal field of the medial temporoammonic tract is suggested. Selective lesion of the entorhinal afferents to the hippocampus and the area dentata resulted in a disappearance of EI throughout the molecular layer with no affection of CI and vice versa. Neonatally X-ray irradiated hippocampi were examined as they appear in the adult animal. These animals are known to possess an altered relation between the granule cells of area dentata and the perforant path zones extending beyond a reduced medial blade into the stratum oriens of the regio inferior. In such animals EI and CI revealed the same pattern of changes by following the perforant path zones into stratum oriens due to neonatal X-ray irradiation. Accordingly, the perforant path may contain EI and CI independent of the granule cell dendrites. Based on a discussion of these observations it is concluded that enkephalin immunoreacitivity is localized in terminals of the lateral perforant path and the lateral temporoammonic tract and that cholecystokinin immunoreactivity is localized in the terminals of the medial perforant path and the medial temporoammonic tract.

  5. Correlative Analysis of Immunoreactivity in Confocal Laser-Scanning Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Focused Ion Beam Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TakahiroFuruta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional reconstruction of ultrastructure of rat brain with minimal effort has recently been realized by scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam milling (FIB-SEM. Because application of immunohistochemical staining to electron microscopy has a great advantage in that molecules of interest are specifically localized in ultrastructures, we here tried to apply immunocytochemistry to FIB-SEM and correlate immunoreactivity in confocal laser-scanning microcopy (CF-LSM with that in FIB-SEM. The dendrites of medium-sized spiny neurons in rat neostriatum were visualized with a recombinant viral vector, which labeled the infected neurons with membrane-targeted GFP in a Golgi stain-like fashion, and thalamostriatal afferent terminals were immunolabeled with Cy5 fluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2. After detecting the sites of terminals apposed to the dendrites in CF-LSM, GFP and VGluT2 immunoreactivities were further developed for electron microscopy by the immunogold/silver enhancement and immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine (DAB methods, respectively. In the contrast-inverted FIB-SEM images, silver precipitation and DAB deposits were observed as fine dark grains and diffuse dense profiles, respectively, indicating that these immunoreactivities were easily recognizable as in the images of transmission electron microscopy. In the sites of interest, some appositions were revealed to display synaptic specialization of asymmetric type. The present method is thus useful in the three-dimensional analysis of immunocytochemically differentiated synaptic connection in the central neural circuit.

  6. Ultrastructural simultaneous localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity and the acetylcholine-like cation in rat endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, P; Tsuji, S

    1990-12-01

    The ultrastructural co-localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine (ACh)-like cation was demonstrated in the rat endocrine pancreas. Immunoperoxidase cytochemical procedure for the detection of VIP was followed by ionic fixation of ACh by silicotungstic acid. All the VIP-immunoreactive nerve endings displayed punctiform precipitates revealing ACh-like cations in the small clear vesicles. Almost all the VIP-immunoreactive nerve terminals were in contact with endocrine A, B or D cells, but not in the close vicinity of blood vessels. Nerve endings devoid of VIP immunoreactivity but containing ACh-like cations were seen either in contact with endocrine cells or in close vicinity to blood vessels. These data suggest that VIP might modulate, concomitantly with ACh, the hormonal secretion of the endocrine pancreas, although the possibility of the neurosecretion of ACh and VIP into the blood vessels should not be excluded. ACh might also control some function of the endothelial cells of blood vessels. PMID:2078401

  7. Motilin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of caimans (Caiman latirostris and Caiman crocodilus, alligatorinae): a further comparison using region-specific motilin antisera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, J; Rodrigues, M A; Kitamura, N; Pai, V D; Yamashita, T; Motizuki, T; Yanaihara, N

    1991-07-01

    Motilin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of Caiman latirostris and Caiman crocodilus were investigated using region specific antisera for porcine and canine motilin molecules. Motilin-immunoreactive cells were found in the duodenum, pyloric stomach and pancreas of both caiman species. These cells were primarily open-type endocrine ones in the epithelium of the duodenum and pyloric stomach. Motilin-immunoreactive cells were observed in both the exocrine and endocrine portions of the pancreas, and frequently exhibited one or more cytoplasmic processes of variable length. Since motilin-immunoreactive cells do not cross-react with serotonin or any of the other pancreatic and gut hormones, they are considered to be cell type independent from any of the other known pancreatic or gut endocrine cells. The molecular similarity between caiman motilin and porcine and canine motilins and the heterogeneity of the motilin molecule in the caiman digestive system is discussed. PMID:1954044

  8. Organizational principles in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system: Subdivision by coexisting peptides (somatostatin-, avian pancreatic polypeptide-, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, J. M.; Ho?kfelt, T.; A?ngga?rd, A.; Terenius, L.; Elde, R.; Markey, K.; Goldstein, M.; Kimmel, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sympathetic ganglia and some peripheral tissues of adult guinea pig and cat were analyzed by the indirect immunofluorescence technique with antisera to catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes and some peptides. In the guinea pig, noradrenergic neurons could be subdivided into three populations containing respectively (i) somatostatin-like immunoreactive material, (ii) avian pancreatic polypeptide (APP)-like immunoreactive material, and (iii) apparently only noradrenaline (NA; norepinephrine). A fo...

  9. Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Immunoreactivities in the Arcuate-Median Eminence Complex and their Link to the Tubero-Infundibular Dopamine Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-fernandez, W.; Borroto-escuela, D. O.; Vargas-barroso, V.; Narva?ez, M.; Di Palma, M.; Agnati, L. F.; Larriva Sahd, J.; Fuxe, K.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densit...

  10. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive nerve fibers and binding sites in the hamster seminal vesicle during post-natal development

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, F.; Pinho, M. S.; Fernandes, P.; Mata, L. R.; Gulbenkian, S.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerves and 125~-labeledV IPand CGRP-binding sites was studied in the hamster seminal vesicle of 12-, 30- and 60-day-old animals. In addition, the general innervation of the seminal vesicle was examined using the general neuronal marker synaptophysin. Our results show that the densities of the overall (synaptophysin immunoreactive) and CGRP-immu...

  11. A pilot study evaluating changes in pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations in canines treated with L-asparaginase (ASNase), vincristine, or both for lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Zachary; Steiner, Joerg; Suchodolski, Jan; Rogers, Kenita; Barton, Claudia; Brown, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    L-asparaginase (ASNase) is a common chemotherapy agent for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. L-asparaginase has been reported to cause clinical pancreatitis in both humans and canines. Canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) is now a common diagnostic tool for evaluating pancreatitis in dogs. A total of 52 dogs were enrolled into this study. Canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations were evaluated before and after administration of ASNase, vincristine, or ...

  12. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans

  13. Mosaic arrangement of SCP(B-), FMRFamide-, and histamine-like immunoreactive sensory hair cells in the statocyst of the gastropod mollusc Pleurobranchaea japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsuga, K; Kurokawa, M; Kuwasawa, K

    2000-04-01

    A pair of statocysts are located in the periganglionic connective tissue of the pedal ganglia of the opisthobranch mollusc Pleurobranchaea japonica. Light- and electron-microscopic observations show that the sensory epithelium of the statocyst consists of 13 disk-shaped hair cells. Each hair cell sends a single axon to the cerebral ganglion through the static nerve. Neurotransmitters in the hair cells were examined by means of immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the 13 sensory hair cells include two SCPB-, three FMRFamide-, and eight histamine-like immunoreactive cells. One hair cell contains a transmitter substance other than SCPB-, FMRFamide, histamine, serotonin, or GABA. One of the two SCPB-like immunoreactive cells, located in the ventral region of the statocyst, is the largest cell in the statocyst. The other, located in the anterodorsal region, shows co-immunoreactivity to both SCPB and FMRFamide antisera. Among the three FMRFamide-like immunoreactive hair cells, one is located in the posteroventral region, separated from the other two, which are adjacent to each other in the anterodorsal region. All the eight histamine-like immunoreactive hair cells are adjacent to one another, occupying the remainder of a triangular pyramid-shaped region. These immunoreactive cells are symmetrically placed in the right and left statocysts. This mosaic arrangement was identical among specimens. Thus the static nerve may code information about position or movement of the statoliths, with the use of different transmitters in the mosaic arrangement of the hair cells. PMID:10805085

  14. Neurons in the ventral subiculum, amygdala and entorhinal cortex which project to the nucleus accumbens: their input from somatostatin-immunoreactive boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, R L; Totterdell, S

    1993-01-01

    Neurons in the hippocampus, amygdala and entorhinal cortex which project to the nucleus accumbens were labelled retrogradely following injection of horseradish peroxidase. The injections were targetted on the medial part of the nucleus accumbens, but some injection sites included the whole nucleus. Projection neurons in all three areas were found to be spiny, and from the entorhinal cortex and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus they were pyramidal neurons. Somatostatin (S28(1-12)-immunoreactive neurons were found in all parts of the three limbic areas examined. They were found to have various morphologies, but in the electron microscope all had the ultrastructural characteristics of interneurons. In the hippocampus the stratum lacunosum was found to contain the most immunoreactive fibres while most cells lay in the stratum oriens. In the amygdala the densest staining for both cells and fibres was in the central nucleus. In the entorhinal cortex somatostatin-immunoreactive fibres and cells seemed to have no preferential distribution. Examination of somatostatin-immunoreactive profiles in the electron microscope revealed that the majority of synaptic contacts were made with dendrites, many of which were spine-bearing. In the light microscope somatostatin-immunoreactive fibres could be seen to lie near the somata and proximal dendrites of neurons that projected to the nucleus accumbens. In the electron microscope it was found that somatostatin-immunoreactive boutons were in symmetrical synaptic contact with the somata and proximal dendrites of neurons in the ventral subiculum, entorhinal cortex and amygdala which project to the nucleus accumbens. PMID:7679909

  15. Social novelty increases tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the extended olfactory amygdala of female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Breyanna L; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2010-06-16

    The monogamous social behaviors of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) require olfactory inputs, which are processed by the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd) and principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST). The male prairie vole MeApd and pBST contain hundreds of cells densely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir). Female prairie voles have relatively few of these cells, but we previously found that the number of these TH-ir cells is greatly increased in females by exogenous estradiol. We here hypothesized that the number of TH-ir cells in their MeApd and pBST would also increase during the natural hormone surges associated with females' induced estrus. We found that the number of TH-ir cells in both sites did significantly increase after females cohabitated for two days with an unfamiliar male. However, this increase did not require the presence of ovaries and even tended to occur in the pBST of females cohabitating for two days with unfamiliar females. We then determined if the greater number of TH-ir cells after heterosexual pairing was transient by examining two groups of long-term pairbonded females (primiparous and multiparous), and found these females also had significantly more TH-ir cells in the pBST and/or MeApd compared to unmated controls. Thus, social novelty arising from cohabitation with unfamiliar conspecifics produces a reoccurring increase in the number of TH-ir cells in the female prairie vole extended olfactory amygdala. Ovarian hormones are not necessarily required. This increase in catecholaminergic cells may facilitate acquisition and retention of olfactory memories necessary for social recognition in this species. PMID:20381508

  16. Distribution of zebrin-immunoreactive Purkinje cell terminals in the cerebellar and vestibular nuclei of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Douglas R; Pakan, Janelle M P; Huynh, Hang; Graham, David J; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2012-05-01

    Zebrin II (aldolase C) is expressed in a subset of Purkinje cells in the mammalian and avian cerebella such that there is a characteristic parasagittal organization of zebrin-immunopositive stripes alternating with zebrin-immunonegative stripes. Zebrin is expressed not only in the soma and dendrites of Purkinje cells but also in their axonal terminals. Here we describe the distribution of zebrin immunoreactivity in both the vestibular and the cerebellar nuclei of pigeons (Columba livia) and hummingbirds (Calypte anna, Selasphorus rufus). In the medial cerebellar nucleus, zebrin-positive labeling was particularly heavy in the “shell,” whereas the “core” was zebrin negative. In the lateral cerebellar nucleus, labeling was not as heavy, but a positive shell and negative core were also observed. In the vestibular nuclear complex, zebrin-positive terminal labeling was heavy in the dorsolateral vestibular nucleus and the lateral margin of the superior vestibular nucleus. The central and medial regions of the superior nucleus were generally zebrin negative. Labeling was moderate to heavy in the medial vestibular nucleus, particulary the rostral half of the parvocellular subnucleus. A moderate amount of zebrin-positive labeling was present in the descending vestibular nucleus: this was heaviest laterally, and the central region was generally zebrin negative. Zebrin-positive terminals were also observed in the the cerebellovestibular process, prepositus hypoglossi, and lateral tangential nucleus. We discuss our findings in light of similar studies in rats and with respect to the corticonuclear projections to the cerebellar nuclei and the functional connections of the vestibulocerebellum with the vestibular nuclei. PMID:22105608

  17. Variation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] immunoreactivity during bovine gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulesu, L.; Pfarrer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in several aspects of the immune response. MIF appears to play important roles in materno-fetal immuno-tolerance during placental establishment, modulation and growth as studied in epitheliochorial porcine and hemochorial human and mouse placentae. Here we studied the bovine placenta being multiplex, villous and synepitheliochorial with a low degree of invasion, to see if MIF could be involved. Placental tissues sampled from 12 cows at 9 stages of gestation (days 18-250), and endometrial tissues from two non-pregnant animals were processed for immunohistochemistry. Bovine MIF was detected by Western blot using anti-human MIF monoclonal antibodies. An immunoreactive band of approximately 12kDa confirmed similarities between bovine and human MIFs. Compared to the non-pregnant stage with very faint staining, the caruncular epithelium during pregnancy showed stronger staining for MIF. The intercaruncular epithelium in non-pregnantendometrium showed some reaction apically with increasing intensity at uterine gland openings; in contrast, at day 18 of gestation this staining was markedly increased. During gestation both caruncular and trophoblast epithelium of the placentomes were positive with different intensity in relation to the gestational stage. In the uterine glands, some strongly stained cells were present. The mature binucleated trophoblast giant cells were negative throughout pregnancy. During reestablishment of vascularisation, the vasculature in the caruncular area showed MIF reactivity. While supporting involvement of MIF in different placental types, the spatio-temporal variation in the bovine placenta suggests a regulatory role for MIF mainly in the interhemal barrier and during vascular development.

  18. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln's sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Kendra B; Dankoski, Elyse C; Sockman, Keith W

    2010-08-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer's condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa, social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment, we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to 1 week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity, and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects' AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate sociosexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS), and the preoptic area. We found that high-quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low-quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment. PMID:20399213

  19. Quick radioimmunoassay for plasma immunoreactive gastrin. Application for localizing occult gastrinoma(s) during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method for determining gastrin, quick gastrin, has been developed. Separation/washing procedure has been improved and can be completed within three minutes. It required only 48 minutes for the assay of 22 blood samples. Quick gastrin is a RIA that uses magnetic particles. On magnetic particles, a goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody is bound covalently. An anti-human gastrin rabbit antibody is bound to an anti-rabbit IgG antibody. Assay is started by adding the magnetic particles to a mixture of sample and 125I-gastrin. Following 30 minute incubation at 37degC, the particles are sedimented in a magnetic field and washed. The gastrin content of the sample is then quantitated by counting radioactivity of the particles. Incomplete equilibration of antigen-antibody reaction is corrected using standard solution prepared from charcoal treated plasma. The immunoreactive gastrin values by quick gastrin correlated well with those by a commercial assay kit (Gammadab RIA kit; y=1.01x+4.3, r=0.99). When compared to a reported conventional rapid assay, quick gastrin is easier and more accurate. Quick gastrin is sensitive enough to use for intra-operative determination of gastrin. We applied quick gastrin to the samples obtained from intra-operative secretin test in a gastrinoma patient. Twofold increase in gastrin after injection of secretin clearly indicated the existence of occult gastrinomas in her pancreas. When gastrin was assayed with the conventional rapid metho assayed with the conventional rapid method, the increase in gastrin was less and did not reach the criteria for existence of gastrinoma. (author)

  20. Distribution of immunoreactivities for adenohypophysial hormones in the pituitary gland of the polypteriform fish, Polypterus endlicheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Makoto; Shimotani, Toyokazu; Nozaki, Masumi

    2005-10-01

    Polypteriform fish constitutes the most primitive living descendent of the ancient bony fish. In polypteriform fish, only proopiomelanocortin (POMC) has been identified so far in the adenohypophysis, which is surprising in view of their evolutionary importance. In the present study, distribution of immunoreactive adenohypophysial hormones was examined in juvenile individuals of Polypterus endlicheri. Antisera to tetrapod and fish adenohypophysial hormones were used as immunostaining probes. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-like cells were detected by antisera to salmon POMC N-terminal peptide, porcine ACTH and mammalian alpha-melanotropin (MSH), and were distributed in the rostral pars distalis in close proximity to the hypophysial duct. MSH-like cells were found in the pars intermedia, and were stained by anti-salmon N-Ac-beta-endorphin II as well as anti-mammalian alpha-MSH and anti-salmon POMC-N terminal peptide. Prolactin (PRL)-like cells were detected only after application of anti-sturgeon PRL, and were distributed in the rostral pars distalis, where PRL-positive material was found in columnar mucinous cells lining the diverticuli of the hypophysial duct. Growth hormone (GH)-like cells were stained with antisera to sturgeon GH, human GH, salmon GH and blue shark GH, and were distributed in the proximal pars distalis. Somatolactin (SL)-like cells were stained with anti-salmon SL, and were distributed in the pars intermedia. Two types of glycoprotein hormone-positive cells were detected in the proximal pars distalis. Although both types of cells were stained with several antisera to glycoprotein hormones, such as sturgeon LHbeta and salmon LHbeta, it was difficult to know which types of cells produce LH, FSH, or TSH. Thus, the present study revealed seven types of adenohypophysial hormone-like cells in the Polypterus pituitary gland, which may provide the morphological basis for better understanding on evolution of the pituitary gland and the adenohypophysial hormones in vertebrates. PMID:16286724

  1. Fos-like immunoreactivity and thirst following hyperosmotic loading in rats with subdiaphragmatic vagotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Wendy L; Fitts, Douglas A

    2002-03-29

    If receptors in the gut relay information about increases in local osmolality to the brain via the vagus nerve, then vagotomy should diminish this signaling and reduce both thirst and brain Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir). Water intake in response to hypertonic saline (i.p. or i.g., 1 M NaCl, 1% BW; i.g., 0.6 M NaCl, 0.5% BW) was reduced during 120 min in rats with subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) compared to sham-VGX rats. Brain Fos-ir was examined in response to both i.g. loads. After the smaller load, VGX greatly reduced Fos-ir in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the magnocellular and parvocellular areas of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Fos-ir in the subfornical organ (SFO) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) was not affected. After the larger load, VGX significantly reduced Fos-ir in the parvocellular PVN and in the NTS, but not in the other regions. Thus, decreased water intake by VGX rats was accompanied by decreased Fos-ir in the parvocellular PVN after the same treatments, indicating a role for the abdominal vagus in thirst in response to signaling from gut osmoreceptors. The decreased water intake in the VGX group was not reflected as a decrease in Fos-ir in the SFO. Absorption of the larger i.g. load may have activated Fos-ir through more rapidly increasing systemic osmolality, thereby obscuring a role for the vagus at this dose in the SON and magnocellular PVN. PMID:11897101

  2. Alzheimer's-associated A? oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-?1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A? oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A? species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A? antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A?-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthaLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  3. Copeptin immunoreactivity and calcium mobilisation in hypothalamic neurones of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Brailoiu, G C; Brailoiu, E; Dun, S L; Yang, J; Chang, J K; Dun, N J

    2008-11-01

    Copeptin is cleaved from the C-terminus of vasopressin (VP) prohormone. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed intense copeptin-immunoreactivity (irCOPT) in neurones of the rat hypothalamic nuclei, including paraventricular, supraoptic, suprachiasmatic, periventricular, and accessory secretory. Varicose cell processes emanated from irCOPT neurones, some of which projected caudally and traversed the internal layer of the median eminence, and terminated in the posterior pituitary. Double-labelling hypothalamic sections with copeptin antiserum and VP or oxytocin antiserum revealed an extensive overlapping of irCOPT and irVP neurones. The biological activity of human synthetic nonglycosylated copeptin or VP was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Copeptin (1, 10, and 20 nmol/kg) injected i.v. caused no significant changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate of urethane-anaesthetised rats. VP (0.1 nmol/kg) increased MAP, which was accompanied by a small decrease of the heart rate. The ratiometric fluorescence method was employed to assess changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations [Ca2+](i) which served as an index of the biological activity of peptides. VP (1 microM) markedly increased [Ca2+](i) of rat hypothalamic neurones or vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas copeptin (100 nm to 1 microM) caused a low amplitude, sustained increase of [Ca2+](i) in a population of hypothalamic neurones, but not in any of the vascular smooth muscle cells tested. The results obtained demonstrate that copeptin is expressed in VP neurones and that the peptide in the concentrations tested, although causing little or no detectable changes of blood pressure and heart rate in anaesthetised rats nor changes in [Ca2+](i) of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells, increases [Ca2+](i) in a small population (< 2%) of hypothalamic neurones tested, indicating that copeptin is biologically active in mammalian neurones. PMID:18752653

  4. Detection of APGWamide-like immunoreactivity in the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S A; Nason, J; Croll, R P

    1997-04-01

    In pulmonate gastropods, the peptide, Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide), appears to be located nearly exclusively in the neural circuitry controlling the male reproductive organs. This neuropeptide and related neuropeptides are also present and apparently bioactive in bivalve molluscs, although their physiological role in these latter animals is unknown. The present report uses immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of APGWamide and/or related peptides within the tissues of the deep sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus. Much of the APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (APGWa-LIR) was detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of both juvenile and adult scallops, where it was concentrated in the cerebral, pedal and parietovisceral ganglia, particularly in the cortex of ganglionic cells and their axons which extend into the central neuropilar region. APGWa-LIR was also detected in the nerves ramifying from these ganglia. In addition, strong APGWa-LIR was localized in what appeared to be axonal terminals within peripheral tissues including the striated adductor muscle, foot, gills, labial palps, lips, tentacles and gonads of the juvenile scallops. The presence of APGWa-LIR was also confirmed in the gonads of adults of both sexes. Cursory examinations of the CNS of the mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, revealed the presence of APGWa-LIR in cell bodies and processes in these bivalve species as well. It is concluded that APGWamide and/or related peptides are probably important neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators of several central and peripheral functions in P. magellanicus and other bivalves. Future work must focus on the possible roles for APGWamide in the physiological processes of these and other bivalve species. PMID:9179869

  5. Association of posterior tibial tendon abnormalities with abnormal signal intensity in the sinus tarsi on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To evaluate the association of abnormal signal intensity within the sinus tarsi with abnormalities of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) on MR imaging. Design and patients. Sinus tarsi abnormalities were identified on 30 ankle MR examinations in 29 patients. The PTT and anterior talofibular ligament were retrospectively analyzed for abnormalities in these same patients. Results and conclusions. Tears of the anterior talofibular ligament were found in 13 of 30 (43%) ankles. PTT abnormalities (complete tear, partial tear or dislocation) were seen in 14 of 30 (47%) studies, and were distributed relatively equally between those patients with and without lateral ligament tears. Our results provide evidence of an association between abnormalities of the PTT and the sinus tarsi. The finding of abnormal signal intensity within the sinus tarsi on MR imaging should alert the radiologist to potential abnormalities of the PTT. (orig.)

  6. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  7. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, A; White, S J; Rasmussen, J E

    1987-01-01

    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized. PMID:3659993

  8. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, A.; White, S.J.; Rasmussen, J.E.

    1987-08-01

    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized.

  9. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized. (orig.)

  10. Abnormal grain growth in iron-silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tricia A.

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) was studied in an Fe-1%Si alloy using automated Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) to determine the driving force for this phenomenon. Experiments were performed with the knowledge that there are several possible driving forces and, the intent to determine the true driving force by elimination of the other potential candidates. These potential candidates include surface energy anisotropy, anisotropic grain boundary properties and the stored energy of deformation. In this work, surface energy and grain boundary anisotropies as well as the stored energy of deformation were investigated as the possible driving forces for AGG. Accordingly, industrially processed samples that were temper rolled to 1.5% and 8% were annealed in air for various times followed by quenching in water. The results obtained were compared to those from heat treatments performed in wet 15%H2-85%N2 at a US Steel facility. In addition, for a more complete study of the effect of surface energy anisotropies on AGG, the 1.5% temper-rolled material was heat-treated in other atmospheres such as 5%H2-95%Ar, 98%H2-2%He, 98%H2-2%H 2S, and 98%H2-2%N2 for 1 hour followed by quenching in water. The character of the grain boundaries in the materials was also examined for each set of experiments conducted, while the influence of stored energy was evaluated by examining intragranular orientation gradients. AGG occurred regardless of annealing atmosphere though the most rapid progression was observed in samples annealed in air. In general, grains of varying orientations grew abnormally. One consistently observed trend in all the detailed studies was that the matrix grains remained essentially static and either did not grow or only grew very slowly. On the other hand, the abnormally large grains (ALG), on average, were approximately 10 times the size of the matrix. Analysis of the grain boundary character of the interfaces between abnormal grains and the matrix showed no significant variation from the overall population of boundaries. This suggested that grain boundary character was not a factor in controlling AGG. When the effect of stored energy differences was considered, it was observed that grains that experienced AGG had low orientation gradients. Based on these results and cross comparison of all classes of experiments performed, it was determined that stored energy differences were the main driving force for AGG in this Fe-1%Si alloy.

  11. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 201/2-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi

  12. Thyroid abnormality secondary to tortuous carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 59-year-old man was referred to the nuclear medicine service for a thyroid scan, as his neck was thick and the thyroid was not palpable. In the past the patient had undergone head and neck irradiation for acne. A 123I-thyroid scan was interpreted as a ''cold'' nodule in the lower pole of the right lobe, but thyroid ultrasound showed no thyroid abnormality. Repeat ultrasound examination eventually showed a tortuous carotid artery behind the lower pole of the right lobe of the thyroid that corresponded to the ''cold'' defect. (orig.)

  13. Abnormal mental phenomena in the prophets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, K

    1974-07-01

    Abnormal mental phenomena of varying emotional depth are found frequently among the earlier, nonliterary, and literary prophets. Three levels are discerned: inspiration, i.e., a state of excitement with well-preserved reality controls; ecestasy, as a state in which reality control has been lost temporarily; and eidetic imagery characterized by dreams and visions. It is argued that the prophets were psychotics, or mystics, or poets, or endowed with psychic gifts. I have attempted to consider some of these phenomena from the psychiatric viewpoint, keeping in mind that such interpretations many centuries later must remain speculative. PMID:24408495

  14. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haymon, M.L. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Willis, R.B. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics; Ehlayel, M.S. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics; Lacassie, Y. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics]|[Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1997-05-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi.

  15. Thenar hypoplasia with associated radiologic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, N P; Yates, D A; Sutcliffe, J

    1979-01-01

    We report on five patients who presented with unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia of the thenar eminence. X rays of the affected limbs showed varying degrees of malformation and underdevelopment of the thumb phalanges and first metacarpal bone, and of the carpal bones at the base of the thumb, indicating a developmental abnormality. Our electrodiagnostic findings were compatible with this interpretation. We suggest that this condition is part of the clinical spectrum of radial club hand (radial dysplasia) and that when seen in adults, its recognition is important in the differential diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:514310

  16. Abnormally high diffuse activity on bone scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When th bone scintigram reveals high diffuse skeletal activity, it may be misinterpreted as normal. Some authors have reported such scintigrams in articles entitled 'Significance of absent or faint kidney sign on bone scan' and 'False negative bone scintigram'. Three cases with bone metastasis showing high diffuse skeletal activity are presented in this paper. the recognition of abnormally high diffuse skeletal activity on bone scintigrams is discussed. The exposure time of all three cases was short when compared with normal cases, when the bone image was taken with a present count. Therefore, exposure time is very important for objective differentiation between the cases showing high diffuse skeletal activity and normal cases. (orig.)

  17. Effects of ischemic preconditioning on VEGF and pFlk-1 immunoreactivities in the gerbil ischemic hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Seok; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Geum-Sil; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Young Shin; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2014-12-15

    Ischemia preconditioning (IPC) displays an important adaptation of the CNS to sub-lethal ischemia. In the present study, we examined the effect of IPC on immunoreactivities of VEGF-, and phospho-Flk-1 (pFlk-1) following transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated-group, and IPC+ischemia-operated-group). IPC was induced by subjecting gerbils to 2 min of ischemia followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated-group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) alone 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion, however, in all the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, pyramidal neurons in the SP were well protected. In immunohistochemical study, VEGF immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated-group was increased in the SP at 1 day post-ischemia and decreased with time. Five days after ischemia-reperfusion, strong VEGF immunoreactivity was found in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as pericytes, in the stratum oriens (SO) and radiatum (SR). In the IPC+sham-operated- and IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, VEGF immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the SP. pFlk-1 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated- and ischemia-operated-groups was hardly found in the SP, and, from 2 days post-ischemia, pFlk-1 immunoreactivity was strongly increased in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as pericytes. In the IPC+sham-operated-group, pFlk-1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in both pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells; in the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, the similar pattern of VEGF immunoreactivity was found in the ischemic CA1, although the VEGF immunoreactivity was strong in non-pyramidal cells at 5 days post-ischemia. In brief, our findings show that IPC dramatically augmented the induction of VEGF and pFlk-1 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion, and these findings suggest that the increases of VEGF and Flk-1 expressions may be necessary for neurons to survive from transient ischemic damage. PMID:25300771

  18. Report to congress on abnormal occurrences: January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1992. The abnormal occurrences involving medical therapy misadministrations at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant, and none were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  19. Pengaruh Pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility Terhadap Abnormal Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pengungkapan corporate social responsibility (CSR terhadap abnormal return. Penelitian ini menggunakan variabel kontrol return on equity (ROE dan price to book value (PBV. Pengukuran pengungkapan CSR didasarkan pada Global Reporting Initiative (GRI. Sedangkan, abnormal return dihitung dengan menggunakan market adjusted model. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap laporan tahunan 40 perusahaan sumber daya alam yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia pada tahun 2007-2009. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengungkapan CSR berpengaruh signifikan terhadap abnormal return yang menandakan bahwa investor mempertimbangkan informasi CSR untuk membuat keputusan. Variabel kontrol ROE berpengaruh signifikan negatif terhadap abnormal return. Sedangkan, Variabel kontrol PBV tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap abnormal return.

  20. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1992. There are two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants and six abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministration (all therapeutic) at NRC-licensed facilities discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating three previously reported abnormal occurrences

  1. Forensic significance of skull development abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilija Vladimir I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In the course of bone tissue development some genetic disorders such as exostoses and enostoses, may occur. Exostoses and enostoses represent bone tissue hyperplasia that can develop at any part of skeleton. Neurotrauma can cause fatal biological consequences, which is directly associated with skull development abnormalities. Case report This is a case report of a male cadaver 36 years of age. The autopsy revealed massive hemorrhage on the left side of the neck and the right side of the lower jaw. A major fissure of the arterial wall was found on the basilar artery. A bony, wart-like excrescence was found on the clivus of the occipital bone. Discussion Coinciding ruptures and consequential bleeding from basilar artery with presence of development abnormalities in the clivus region, suggest that one has to clearly distinguish the result of the injury from anomalies already existing in the skull. The position of the attacker can be determined by concise and objective investigation. Conclusion This is a case report of an anomaly in bone development: a bony, wart-like excrescence on the right side of the clivus. Due to neurotrauma and consequential sliding of brain structures, the damage of basilar artery and of the bony excrescence occurred, which led to bleeding and fatal outcome.

  2. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  3. Structural and functional abnormalities in the spleen of an mFtz-F1 gene-disrupted mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, K; Tsuboi-Asai, H; Matsushita, S; Suda, M; Nakashima, M; Sasano, H; Hataba, Y; Li, C L; Fukata, J; Irie, J; Watanabe, T; Nagura, H; Li, E

    1999-03-01

    The spleen has two main functions. The first is to provide a proper microenvironment to lymphoid and myeloid cells, whereas the second involves clearance of abnormal erythrocytes. Ad4BP/SF-1, a product of the mammalian FTZ-F1 gene (mFTZ-F1), was originally identified as a steroidogenic, tissue-specific transcription factor. Immunohistochemical examination of the mammalian spleens confirmed the expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 in endothelial cells of the splenic venous sinuses and pulp vein. In mFtz-F1 gene-disrupted (KO) mice, several structural abnormalities were detected in the spleen, including underdevelopment and nonuniform distribution of erythrocytes. Examination of the spleen of KO fetuses showed failure of development of certain tubular structures during embryogenesis. These structures are normally assembled by Ad4BP/SF-1 immunoreactive cells, and most likely form the vascular system during later stages of development. Other structural abnormalities in the spleen of the KO mice included defects in the tissue distribution of type-IV collagen, laminin, c-kit, and vimentin. These morphologic defects in the vascular system were associated with a decrease in the proportion of hematopoietic cells, although differentiation of these cells was not affected significantly. A high number of abnormal red blood cells containing Howell-Jolly bodies were noted in the KO mice, indicating impaired clearance by the splenic vascular system. We also detected the presence of an mRNA-encoding cholesterol side-chain cleavage P450 in the spleen, resembling the findings in steroidogenic tissues such as the gonads and adrenal cortex. The mRNA transcript was not involved in splenic structural defects as it was detected in the spleens of both normal and KO mice, indicating that the regulatory mechanism of the P450 gene in the spleen is different from that in steroidogenic tissues. Our results indicate that a lack of the mFtz-F1 gene in mice is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the splenic vascular system. PMID:10029587

  4. Parvalbumin and calbindin D-28K immunoreactive neurons in area MT of rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, P; Mehra, R D; Sidharthan, V; Sharma, K

    2001-03-01

    The chemical characteristics of the neurons of the motion sensitive visual area, area MT, remain to be established. We studied the distribution pattern of two calcium binding proteins, parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin D28K (CB) in this area, using specific monoclonal antibodies and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical technique. Aldehyde fixed 30-micron-thick cryostat sections from area MT of five animals were processed free floating for immunohistochemical staining. Besides studying the morphological characteristics of PV and CB positive neurons, quantitative analysis was carried out to determine their (1) perikaryal area (Pa) and diameter, (2) numerical densities (NV)/mm3 cortical tissue, (3) absolute number (NC) in a column of cortex under 1 mm2 cortical surface along with (4) layerwise absolute number (NL) under 1 mm2 cortical surface and (5) laminar percentage distribution of immunoreactive (IR) neurons. Quantitative analysis was carried out using a Leica QMC 500 image analysis system connected to a DMRE microscope. The results showed that both types of IR neurons were localized to all cortical layers except layer I. The PV +ve neurons were equidistributed between the supra- and infragranular layers, with the highest percentage being present in layer III (45%) followed by layer V (21%). The CB +ve neurons, on the other hand, were predominantly localized in supragranular layers, with the highest percentage being in layer III (54%) and the next highest percentage in layer II (18%). The average Pa and diameter of PV +ve neurons were found to be 96.90 +/- 28.43 micron 2 and 11.01 +/- 1.61 microns respectively. The CB +ve neurons were significantly smaller in size than the PV +ve neurons, with average Pa and diameter of the former being 92.23 +/- 26.18 micron 2 and 10.39 +/- 1.23 microns respectively. The NV for PV and CB +ve neurons showed ranges of 3157-3894 and 2303-2585, with means of 3347 +/- 285 (+/- SD) and 3436 +/- 100 respectively. The values for NC showed ranges of 5230-5444 and 4020-4268 with means of 5378 +/- 85 and 4167 +/- 95 for PV and CB neurons respectively. Variations in size together with the differential distribution of these neurons in the cortical layers may indicate their involvement in different functional circuitaries. PMID:11315542

  5. Patterns of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and neuropeptide immunoreactivity during arm regeneration in the starfish Asterias rubens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C.

    1998-01-01

    Regeneration of the arm of the starfish, Asterias rubens (L.) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) was examined using two preparations. The first involved regeneration of the entire arm tip and its associated sensory structures and the second examined regeneration of a small section of radial nerve cord in the mid-arm region. Cell cycle activity was investigated by incorporation of the thymidine analogue, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Details of neuroanatomy were obtained by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using an antiserum to the recently isolated starfish neuropeptide, GFNSALMFamide (S1). BrdU labelling indicated that initial events occur by morphallaxis, with cell cycle activity first apparent after formation of a wound epidermis. As regeneration proceeded, BrdU immunoreactive (IR) nuclei revealed cell cycle activity in cells at the distal ends of the radial nerve cord epidermis, in the coelomic epithelium, the perihaemal and water vascular canal epithelia, and in the forming tube feet of both preparations. By varying the time between BrdU pulses and tissue fixation, the possible migration or differentiation of labelled cells was investigated. Neuropeptide ICC indicated the extension of S1-IR nerve fibres into the regenerating area, soon after initial wound healing processes were complete. These fibres were varicose and disorganized in appearance, when compared to the normal pattern of S1-IR in the radial nerve. S1-IR was also observed in cell bodies, which reappeared in the reforming optic cushion and radial nerve at later stages of regeneration. Double labelling studies with anti-BrdU and anti-S1 showed no co-localization in these cell bodies, in all the stages examined. It appeared that S1-IR cells were not undergoing, and had not recently undergone, cell cycle activity. It cannot be confirmed whether S1-IR neurons were derived from proliferating cells of epithelial origin, or from transdifferentiation of epithelial cells, although the former mechanism is suggested. Differentiation of the regenerating structures to replace cells such as S1-containing neurons, is thought to involve cell cycle activity and differentiation of epithelial cells in the epidermal tissue, possibly in association with certain types of coelomocytes which move into the regenerating area.

  6. Calcium-binding protein calretinin immunoreactivity in the dog superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jea-Young; Choi, Jae-Sik; Ahn, Chang-Hyun; Kim, In-Suk; Ha, Ji-Hong; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2006-10-30

    We studied calretinin-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and cells in the canine superior colliculus (SC) and studied the distribution and effect of enucleation on the distribution of this protein. Localization of calretinin was immunocytochemically observed. A dense plexus of anti--calretinin-IR fibers was found within the upper part of the superficial gray layer (SGL). Almost all of the labeled fibers were small in diameter with few varicosities. The intermediate and deep layers contained many calretinin-IR neurons. Labeled neurons within the intermediate gray layer (IGL) formed clusters in many sections. By contrast, labeled neurons in the deep gray layer (DGL) did not form clusters. Calretinin-IR neurons in the IGL and DGL varied in morphology and included round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, and horizontal neurons. Neurons with varicose dendrites were also labeled in the IGL. Most of the labeled neurons were small to medium in size. Monocular enucleation produced an almost complete reduction of calretinin-IR fibers in the SC contralateral to the enucleation. However, many calretinin-IR cells appeared in the contralateral superficial SC. Enucleation appeared to have no effect on the distribution of calretinin-IR neurons in the contralateral intermediate and deep layers of the SC. The calretinin-IR neurons in the superficial dog SC were heterogeneous small- to medium-sized neurons including round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, pyriform, and -horizontal in shape. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that no cells in the dog SC -expressed both calretinin and GABA. Many horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled retinal ganglion cells were seen after injections into the superficial layers. The vast majority of the double-labeled cells (HRP and calretinin) were small cells. The present results indicate that antibody to calretinin labels subpopulations of neurons in the dog SC, which do not express GABA. The results also suggest that the calretinin-IR afferents in the superficial layers of the dog SC originate from small class retinal ganglion cells. The expression of calretinin might be changed by the cellular activity of selective superficial collicular neurons. These results are valuable in delineating the basic neurochemical architecture of the dog visual system. PMID:17327899

  7. Behavioral alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIANA LE, SUEUR-MALUF; MILENA B., VIANA; MÁRCIA R., NAGAOKA; ANA LAURA B., AMORIM; AMANDA N., CARDOSO; BRUNA C., RODRIGUES; NATÁLIA F., MENDES; JACKSON C., BITTENCOURT; ISABEL C., CÉSPEDES.

    Full Text Available A Encefalopatia hepática (HE) engloba uma variedade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, incluindo ansiedade e disfunção psicomotora. Embora seja uma complicação frequente da cirrose hepática, os substratos neurobiológicos responsáveis por suas manifestações clínicas são em grande parte desconhecidos. No [...] presente estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico de ligação e secção do ducto biliar (BDL; bile-duct ligation), para indução da cirrose hepática e, no 21º dia após a cirurgia, submetidos aos testes comportamentais no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e campo aberto para avaliação da ansiedade e atividade locomotora. A análise da imunorreatividade à proteína Fos (Fos-ir) foi utilizada para melhor compreender as alterações neurobiológicas presentes nos animais do grupo BDL. Foi realizada a quantificação da concentração de amônia plasmática e análise histopatológica dos fígados. Os ratos do grupo BDL mostraram diminuição significativa na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos do LCE, caracterizando efeito ansiogênico. Estes animais também apresentaram redução significativa na Fos-ir no núcleo septal lateral e núcleo medial da amígdala. A concentração plasmática de amônia foi significativamente mais elevada que a do grupo sham e o diagnóstico de cirrose foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. Estes resultados indicam que o modelo de HE induzido por BDL induz efeito ansiogênico possivelmente relacionado à ativação de circuitos mediadores da ansiedade e à hiperamonemia. Abstract in english Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction. Although HE is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, the neurobiological substrates responsible for its clinical manifestations are largely unclear. In the present stu [...] dy, male Wistar rats were bile duct-ligated (BDL), a procedure which induces liver cirrhosis, and on the 21st day after surgery tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in an open field for anxiety and locomotor activity measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to better understand the neurobiological alterations present in BDL animals. Plasma levels of ammonia were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed. BDL rats showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the EPM, an anxiogenic effect. These animals also presented significant decreases in Fos-ir in the lateral septal nucleus and medial amygdalar nucleus. Their ammonia plasma levels were significantly higher when compared to the sham group and the diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that the BDL model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

  8. Behavioral alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIANA LE, SUEUR-MALUF; MILENA B., VIANA; MÁRCIA R., NAGAOKA; ANA LAURA B., AMORIM; AMANDA N., CARDOSO; BRUNA C., RODRIGUES; NATÁLIA F., MENDES; JACKSON C., BITTENCOURT; ISABEL C., CÉSPEDES.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Encefalopatia hepática (HE) engloba uma variedade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, incluindo ansiedade e disfunção psicomotora. Embora seja uma complicação frequente da cirrose hepática, os substratos neurobiológicos responsáveis por suas manifestações clínicas são em grande parte desconhecidos. No [...] presente estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico de ligação e secção do ducto biliar (BDL; bile-duct ligation), para indução da cirrose hepática e, no 21º dia após a cirurgia, submetidos aos testes comportamentais no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e campo aberto para avaliação da ansiedade e atividade locomotora. A análise da imunorreatividade à proteína Fos (Fos-ir) foi utilizada para melhor compreender as alterações neurobiológicas presentes nos animais do grupo BDL. Foi realizada a quantificação da concentração de amônia plasmática e análise histopatológica dos fígados. Os ratos do grupo BDL mostraram diminuição significativa na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos do LCE, caracterizando efeito ansiogênico. Estes animais também apresentaram redução significativa na Fos-ir no núcleo septal lateral e núcleo medial da amígdala. A concentração plasmática de amônia foi significativamente mais elevada que a do grupo sham e o diagnóstico de cirrose foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. Estes resultados indicam que o modelo de HE induzido por BDL induz efeito ansiogênico possivelmente relacionado à ativação de circuitos mediadores da ansiedade e à hiperamonemia. Abstract in english Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction. Although HE is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, the neurobiological substrates responsible for its clinical manifestations are largely unclear. In the present stu [...] dy, male Wistar rats were bile duct-ligated (BDL), a procedure which induces liver cirrhosis, and on the 21st day after surgery tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in an open field for anxiety and locomotor activity measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to better understand the neurobiological alterations present in BDL animals. Plasma levels of ammonia were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed. BDL rats showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the EPM, an anxiogenic effect. These animals also presented significant decreases in Fos-ir in the lateral septal nucleus and medial amygdalar nucleus. Their ammonia plasma levels were significantly higher when compared to the sham group and the diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that the BDL model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

  9. Paraffin immunoreactivity of CD10, CDw75, and Bcl-6 in follicle center cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, C H; Polski, J M; Lance Evans, H; Gardner, L J

    2001-05-01

    Follicle center cell lymphoma(FCCL) has the following immunophenotype(IP): sIg+, Pan B+, CD10+/-, CD5-, CD23-/+, CD43-, CD11c-, CD25-. In addition, reactivities of a malignant lymphoma with CDw75(LN-1) and bcl-6 are considered indicators of FCCL. Bcl-6 expression is common in Grade 1 FCCL (100%) and rare in other indolent B-cell lymphomas(BCL). In contrast, bcl-2 expression is common in FCCL (80%) and in other BCL subtypes. Since no previous study has correlated paraffin immunoreactivity(PIR) of CD10, CDw75, and bcl-6 in FCCL (Grades 1-3), this is this study's purpose. Twenty-nine FCCL's were identified and reviewed (6, Grade 1; 10, Grade 2; 13, Grade 3) from the Division of Hematopathology, St. Louis University. The diagnoses were based on morphology and immunohistochemistry(IH)(21 cases) +/- the flow cytometric IP(14 cases). The paraffin blocks were stained for CD10 (Novacastra, Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA), CDw75 and bcl-6 (DAKO Corporation, Carpinteria, CA). Results showed that, CD10 by paraffin IH(PIH) was positive in 23 [18(strong); 3(moderate); 2(weak)] and negative in 6(3, Grade 2; 3, Grade 3). All CD10-cases were CDw75+; 4, bcl-6+. The two CD10-, bcl-6-cases were Grade 2. CDw75 was positive in 28 cases [16(strong); 11(moderate); 1(weak)] and negative in 1 (Grade 3; CD10+, bcl-2+, bcl-6+). Bcl-6 was positive in 26 [16(strong); 6(moderate); 4(weak)] and negative in 3(Grade 2's). Thus, the sensitivity of CD10, CDw75, and bcl-6 by PIH for FCCL was 79%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. Of the three stains evaluated by PIH in FCCL, CDw75 was the most sensitive, closely followed by bcl-6. CD10 was least sensitive-79%. By combining these 3 stains, the sensitivity was 100%; thus, a combined approach is recommended. PMID:11378576

  10. Prenatal Testosterone Excess Decreases Neurokinin 3 Receptor Immunoreactivity within the Arcuate Nucleus KNDy Cell Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, T; Fergani, C; Coolen, L M; Padmanabhan, V; Lehman, M N

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal exposure of the female ovine foetus to excess testosterone leads to neuroendocrine disruptions in adulthood, as demonstrated by defects in responsiveness with respect to the ability of gonadal steroids to regulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. In the ewe, neurones of the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which co-expresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin (termed KNDy cells), play a key role in steroid feedback control of GnRH and show altered peptide expression after prenatal testosterone treatment. KNDy cells also co-localise NKB receptors (NK3R), and it has been proposed that NKB may act as an autoregulatory transmitter in KNDy cells where it participates in the mechanisms underlying steroid negative-feedback. In addition, recent evidence suggests that NKB/NK3R signalling may be involved in the positive-feedback actions of oestradiol leading to the GnRH/luteinising hormone (LH) surge in the ewe. Thus, we hypothesise that decreased expression of NK3R in KNDy cells may be present in the brains of prenatal testosterone-treated animals, potentially contributing to reproductive defects. Using single- and dual-label immunohistochemistry we found NK3R-positive cells in diverse areas of the hypothalamus; however, after prenatal testosterone treatment, decreased numbers of NK3R immunoreactive (-IR) cells were seen only in the ARC. Moreover, dual-label confocal analyses revealed a significant decrease in the percentage of KNDy cells (using kisspeptin as a marker) that co-localised NK3R. To investigate how NKB ultimately affects GnRH secretion in the ewe, we examined GnRH neurones in the preoptic area (POA) and mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) for the presence of NK3R. Although, consistent with earlier findings, we found no instances of NK3R co-localisation in GnRH neurones in either the POA or MBH; in addition, > 70% GnRH neurones in both areas were contacted by NK3R-IR presynaptic terminals suggesting that, in addition to its role at KNDy cell bodies, NKB may regulate GnRH neurones by presynaptic actions. In summary, the finding of decreased NK3R within KNDy cells in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep complements previous observations of decreased NKB and dynorphin in the same population, and may contribute to deficits in the feedback control of GnRH/LH secretion in this animal model. PMID:25496429

  11. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity and expression of GABAA receptor subunits in the thalamus after experimental TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusko, N; Pitkänen, A

    2014-05-16

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes 10-20% of acquired epilepsy in humans, resulting in an ictogenic region that is often located in the cerebral cortex. The thalamus provides heavy projections to the cortex and the activity of thalamocortical pathways is controlled by GABAergic afferents from the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RT). As rats with TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI) undergo epileptogenesis, we hypothesized that damage to the parvalbumin (PARV)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the RT is associated with seizure susceptibility after lateral FPI. To address this hypothesis, adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=13) were injured with lateral FPI. At 6months post-TBI, each animal underwent a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure susceptibility test and 2weeks of continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring for detection of the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. Thereafter, the brain was processed for PARV immunohistochemistry. We (a) estimated the total number of PARV-ir neurons in the RT using unbiased stereology, (b) measured the volume of the ventroposteromedial (VPM) and ventroposterolateral (VPL) nuclei of the thalamus, which receive PARV-ir inputs from the RT and project to the perilesional cortex, (c) quantified the density of PARV-ir terminals in the VPM-VPL, and (d) studied the expression of GABAA receptor subunits in a separate group of rats using laser-dissection of the thalamus followed by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) array studies. At 6months post-TBI, only 64% of PARV-ir neurons were remaining in the RT ipsilaterally (p0.05). Also, the volume of the VPM-VPL was only 51% of that in controls ipsilaterally (pTBI showed seizure susceptibility comparable to that in controls with the lowest number of PARV-ir neurons in the RT. Our data show that the RT and VPM-VPL undergo remarkable degeneration after lateral-FPI which results in reorganization of PARV-ir terminals in the VPM-VPL. The contribution of RT damage to seizure susceptibility and post-traumatic epileptogenesis deserves further studies. PMID:24607347

  12. Localisation of NG2 immunoreactive neuroglia cells in the rat locus coeruleus and their plasticity in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome D Swinny

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus (LC nucleus modulates adaptive behavioural responses to stress and dysregulation of LC neuronal activity is implicated in stress-induced mental illnesses. The LC is composed primarily of noradrenergic neurons together with various glial populations. A neuroglia cell-type largely unexplored within the LC is the NG2 cell. NG2 cells serve primarily as oligodendrocyte precursor cells throughout the brain. However, some NG2 cells are in synaptic contact with neurons suggesting a role in information processing. The aim of this study was to neurochemically and anatomically characterise NG2 cells within the rat LC. Furthermore, since NG2 cells have been shown to proliferate in response to traumatic brain injury, we investigated whether such NG2 cells plasticity also occurs in response to emotive insults such as stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that NG2 cells were enriched within the pontine region occupied by the LC. Close inspection revealed that a sub-population of NG2 cells were located within unique indentations of LC noradrenergic somata and were immunoreactive for the neuronal marker NeuN whilst NG2 cell processes formed close appositions with clusters immunoreactive for the inhibitory synaptic marker proteins gephyrin and the GABA-A receptor alpha3-subunit, on noradrenergic dendrites. In addition, LC NG2 cell processes were decorated with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 immunoreactive puncta. Finally, ten days of repeated restraint stress significantly increased the density of NG2 cells within the LC. The study demonstrates that NG2 IR cells are integral components of the LC cellular network and they exhibit plasticity as a result of emotive challenges.

  13. Immunoreactivity of standards and reference preparations used in the radioimmunoassay of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second International Reference Preparation of human menopausal gonadotropin (2nd IRP-HMG) and the National Pituitary Agency reference preparation LER 907 have been widely used to measure circulating levels of human FSH and LH by RIA in human serum. As the 2nd IRP-HMG has been replaced by the First International Standard for human urinary FSH and LH (1st IS), it was considered advisable to study the immunoreactivity of these preparations under our laboratory conditions. In both the FSH and LH RIA systems employed, the three preparations elicited parallel dose-response curves. In the LH assay, the immunoreractivity of 1 mIU 1st IS equaled that of 1 mIU 2nd IRP-HMG and that of 3.6 ng LER 907. In the FSH assay, the immunoreactivity of 1 mIU 1st IS equaled that of 1 mIU 2nd IRP-HMG and that of 23 ng LER 907. Parallelism does not assure identity between the substances in test serum and the reference preparations used. Indeed, not only are these three preparations not identical to each other, but they are not identical to circulating endogenous human FSH and human LH. Therefore, in order to improve the likelihood of agreement of results from one laboratory to another, and from time to time in the same laboratory, measurement of circulating levels of FSH and LH carried out with presently available reference preparations should be performed under appropriate quality control conditions utilizing well characterized test reagents. In order to provide some measure of comparabiorder to provide some measure of comparability among different laboratories, it is recommended that the immunoreactivity of these preparations be reported in equivalent unitage

  14. Localization of enkephalin and cholecystokinin immunoreactivities in the perforant path terminal fields of the rat hippocampal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of enkephalin immunoreactivity (EI) in the molecular layer of the hippocampal formation corresponded to the terminal field of the lateral perforant path and the lateral temporoammonic tract. The distribution of cholecystokinin immunoreactivity (CI) in the molecular layer of the hippocampal formation corresponded to the established terminal field of the medial temporoammonic tract. The exception was a CI band at the deep part of the molecular layer throughout the regio superior. Accordingly, an additional terminal field of the medial temporoammonic tract is suggested. Selective lesion of the entorhinal afferents to the hippocampus and the area dentata resulted in a disappearance of EI throughout the molecular layer with no affection of CI and vice versa. Neonatally X-ray irradiated hippocampi were examined as they appear in the adult animal. These animals are known to possess an altered relation between the granule cells of area dentata and the perforant path zones extending beyond a reduced medial blade into the stratum oriens of the regio inferior. In such animals EI and CI revealed the same pattern of changes by following the perforant path zones into stratum oriens due to neonatal X-ray irradiation. Accordingly, the perforant path may contain EI and CI independent of the granule cell dendrites. Based on a discussion of these observations it is concluded that enkephalin immunoreacitivity is localized in terminals of the lateral perforant path and thinals of the lateral perforant path and the lateral temporoammonic tract and that cholecystokinin immunoreactivity is localized in the terminals of the medial perforant path and the medial temporoammonic tract. (Auth.)

  15. Immunoreactive inhibin-like material in serum and gastric juice of patients with benign and malignant diseases of the stomach.

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, S. A.; Sheth, A. R.; Nanivadekar, S. A.; Sheth, N. A.

    1985-01-01

    Immunoreactive inhibin-like material (ILM) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and gastric juice samples of 23 fasting normal men, 27 men with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), and 21 men with carcinoma of stomach (5 for gastric analysis). Serum ILM levels in carcinoma of stomach patients (367 +/- 55.5 ng ml-1) were significantly higher than in normal men (15.4 +/- 2.6 ng ml-1; P less than 0.01) and in patients with CSG (109.8 +/- 17.7 ng ml-1; P less than 0.05). Sixty two per ...

  16. Distribution of alpha CDCP-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of the snail Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffond, B; Van Minnen, J; Colard, C

    1992-01-01

    alpha CDCP is a neuropeptide produced by the caudodorsal cells of Lymnaea stagnalis and encoded by the genes of the egg-laying hormone (ELH). The use of a polyclonal antiserum raised against alpha CDCP resulted in the detection of about 800 immunoreactive neurons in the parietal ganglia and a small population (60 cells) in the cerebral ganglia of Helix aspersa. As the genes of ELH are well conserved among the gastropod species, these data designate the parietal ganglia as a putative source for the egg-laying hormone in Helix aspersa. PMID:1388687

  17. Serotonin immunoreactive interneurons in the brain of the Remipedia: new insights into the phylogenetic affinities of an enigmatic crustacean taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stemme Torben

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remipedia, a group of homonomously segmented, cave-dwelling, eyeless arthropods have been regarded as basal crustaceans in most early morphological and taxonomic studies. However, molecular sequence information together with the discovery of a highly differentiated brain led to a reconsideration of their phylogenetic position. Various conflicting hypotheses have been proposed including the claim for a basal position of Remipedia up to a close relationship with Malacostraca or Hexapoda. To provide new morphological characters that may allow phylogenetic insights, we have analyzed the architecture of the remipede brain in more detail using immunocytochemistry (serotonin, acetylated ?-tubulin, synapsin combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. This approach allows for a comprehensive neuroanatomical comparison with other crustacean and hexapod taxa. Results The dominant structures of the brain are the deutocerebral olfactory neuropils, which are linked by the olfactory globular tracts to the protocerebral hemiellipsoid bodies. The olfactory globular tracts form a characteristic chiasm in the center of the brain. In Speleonectes tulumensis, each brain hemisphere contains about 120 serotonin immunoreactive neurons, which are distributed in distinct cell groups supplying fine, profusely branching neurites to 16 neuropilar domains. The olfactory neuropil comprises more than 300 spherical olfactory glomeruli arranged in sublobes. Eight serotonin immunoreactive neurons homogeneously innervate the olfactory glomeruli. In the protocerebrum, serotonin immunoreactivity revealed several structures, which, based on their position and connectivity resemble a central complex comprising a central body, a protocerebral bridge, W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts, and lateral accessory lobes. Conclusions The brain of Remipedia shows several plesiomorphic features shared with other Mandibulata, such as deutocerebral olfactory neuropils with a glomerular organization, innervations by serotonin immunoreactive interneurons, and connections to protocerebral neuropils. Also, we provided tentative evidence for W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts in the remipedian central complex like in the brain of Malacostraca, and Hexapoda. Furthermore, Remipedia display several synapomorphies with Malacostraca supporting a sister group relationship between both taxa. These homologies include a chiasm of the olfactory globular tract, which connects the olfactory neuropils with the lateral protocerebrum and the presence of hemiellipsoid bodies. Even though a growing number of molecular investigations unites Remipedia and Cephalocarida, our neuroanatomical comparison does not provide support for such a sister group relationship.

  18. Neurons Identified by NeuN/Fox-3 immunoreactivity have a Novel Distribution in the Hamster and Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Hefton, Sara; Studholme, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has several structural characteristics and cell phenotypes shared across species. Here, we describe a novel feature of SCN anatomy that is seen in both hamster and mouse. Frozen sections through the SCN were obtained from fixed brains and stained for the presence of immunoreactivity to neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN-IR) using a mouse monoclonal antibody which is known to exclusively identify neurons. NeuN-IR did not identify all SCN neurons as medial NeuNIR n...

  19. Differences between three inbred rat strains in number of K+ channel-immunoreactive neurons in the medullary raphé nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, D.; Dwinell, M.; Qian, B.; Krause, K. L.; Bonis, J. M.; Neumueller, S.; Marshall, B. D.; Hodges, M. R.; Forster, H. V.

    2009-01-01

    Ventilatory sensitivity to hypercapnia is greater in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats than in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH) and Brown Norway (BN) inbred rats. Since pH-sensitive potassium ion (K+) channels are postulated to contribute to the sensing and signaling of changes in CO2-H+ in chemosensitive neurons, we tested the hypothesis that there are more pH-sensitive K+ channel-immunoreactive (ir) neurons within the medullary raphé nuclei of the highly chemosensitive SS rats than in the other ...

  20. The usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The clinical usefulness of MRI for the diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies was evaluated. Pelvic MRI was carried out on 29 cases suspected of abnormal pregnancy by ultrasonography and clinical examinations. The abnormal pregnancies were classified into three categories: (1) maternal abnormalities, (2) fetal abnormalities and (3) placental abnormalities. MRI was of great value for the diagnosis of maternal abnormalities, particularly in cases of coexistent pelvic tumor. MRI allowed diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and dermoid cyst through its excellent tissue characterization and broad range of vision. MRI was useful in making diagnoses of fetal central nervous anomalies and fetal death, since the lack of fetal movement and the lesions were clear enough to be detected by MRI. However, anomalies in the fetal trunk or extremities could only be demonstrated, but not diagnosed, by MRI owing to its inferior spatial and time resolution. MRI showed placenta accreta and placental hematoma. Although accurate diagnosis was difficult because of their rarity, MRI revealed the hemorrhagic component of the lesions, which was not shown by ultrasonography. The author believes MRI has potential usefulness in making diagnoses of placental abnormalities through its tissue characterization. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the soft tissue characterization, field of view, while MRI was inferior in time and spatial resolution. In summary, MRI hould be used in case of abnormal pregnancies such as pelvic tumors, fetal nervous anomalies and placental hemorrhagic lesions. MRI will become useful for the diagnosis of other abnormalities as its spatial resolution and fast scan technology advances. (author).