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Sample records for abnormal tdp-43 immunoreactivity

  1. Primary fibroblasts cultures reveal TDP-43 abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with and without SOD1 mutations.

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    Sabatelli, Mario; Zollino, Marcella; Conte, Amelia; Del Grande, Alessandra; Marangi, Giuseppe; Lucchini, Matteo; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Romano, Angela; Piacentini, Roberto; Bisogni, Giulia; Lattante, Serena; Luigetti, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Moncada, Alice

    2015-05-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathologic inclusions observed in the motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We examined TDP-43 expression in primary fibroblasts cultures from 22 ALS patients, including cases with SOD1 (n = 4), TARDBP (n = 4), FUS (n = 2), and C9ORF72 (n = 3) mutations and 9 patients without genetic defect. By using a phosphorylation-independent antibody, 15 patients showed notable alterations of TDP-43 level in the nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments. In particular, a marked accumulation of TDP-43 was observed in the cytoplasm of all cases with C9ORF72 and TARDBP mutations, 1 patient with FUS mutation and 3 patients without genetic defect. Patients with SOD1 mutations revealed a significant reduction of TDP-43 in the nuclei without cytoplasmic mislocalization. These changes were associated with the presence of truncated and phosphorylated TDP-43 species. Our results show that fibroblasts recapitulate some of hallmark TDP-43 abnormalities observed in neuronal cells. The reduction of full-length TDP-43 level in mutant SOD1 cells indicates that at least some SOD1 mutations alter TDP-43 metabolism. PMID:25792239

  2. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology are common pathological denominators in SOD1 and TDP43 ALS mouse models

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    Magrané, Jordi; Cortez, Czrina; Gan, Wen-Biao; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal mitochondrial morphology abnormalities occur in models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with SOD1 and TDP43 mutations. These abnormalities have been linked to mitochondrial axonal transport defects, but the temporal and spatial relationship between mitochondrial morphology and transport alterations in these two distinct genetic forms of ALS has not been investigated in vivo. To address this question, we crossed SOD1 (wild-type SOD1WT and mutant SOD1G93A) or TDP43 (mutant TDP43A315T) transgenic mice with mice expressing the fluorescent protein Dendra targeted to mitochondria in neurons (mitoDendra). At different time points during the disease course, we studied mitochondrial transport in the intact sciatic nerve of living mice and analyzed axonal mitochondrial morphology at multiple sites, spanning from the spinal cord to the motor terminals. Defects of retrograde mitochondrial transport were detected at 45 days of age, before the onset of symptoms, in SOD1G93A and TDP43A315T mice, but not in SOD1WT. At later disease stages, also anterograde mitochondrial transport was affected in both mutant mouse lines. In SOD1G93A mice, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities were apparent at 15 days of age, thus preceding transport abnormalities. Conversely, in TDP43A315T mice, morphological abnormalities appeared after the onset of transport defects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that neuronal mitochondrial transport and morphology abnormalities occur in vivo and that they are common denominators of different genetic forms of the ALS. At the same time, differences in the temporal and spatial manifestation of mitochondrial abnormalities between the two mouse models of familial ALS imply that different molecular mechanisms may be involved. PMID:24154542

  3. RNP2 of RNA Recognition Motif 1 Plays a Central Role in the Aberrant Modification of TDP-43

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    Takagi, Shinnosuke; Iguchi, Yohei; Katsuno, Masahisa; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Ikenaka, Kensuke; Fujioka, Yusuke; Honda, Daiyu; Niwa, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Adachi, Hiroaki; Sobue, Gen

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated and truncated TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a major component of ubiquitinated cytoplasmic inclusions in neuronal and glial cells of two TDP-43 proteinopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Modifications of TDP-43 are thus considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of TDP-43 proteinopathies. However, both the initial cause of these abnormal modifications and the TDP-43 region responsible for its aggregation remain u...

  4. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival

  5. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

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    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  6. Oxr1 improves pathogenic cellular features of ALS-associated FUS and TDP-43 mutations.

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    Finelli, Mattéa J; Liu, Kevin X; Wu, Yixing; Oliver, Peter L; Davies, Kay E

    2015-06-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor neuron-like cells. Mutations in the RNA- and DNA-binding proteins, fused in sarcoma (FUS) and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), are responsible for 5-10% of familial and 1% of sporadic ALS cases. Importantly, aggregation of misfolded FUS or TDP-43 is also characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders in addition to ALS, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Moreover, splicing deregulation of FUS and TDP-43 target genes as well as mitochondrial abnormalities are associated with disease-causing FUS and TDP-43 mutants. While progress has been made to understand the functions of these proteins, the exact mechanisms by which FUS and TDP-43 cause ALS remain unknown. Recently, we discovered that, in addition to being up-regulated in spinal cords of ALS patients, the novel protein oxidative resistance 1 (Oxr1) protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. To further understand the function of Oxr1, we present here the first interaction study of the protein. We show that Oxr1 binds to Fus and Tdp-43 and that certain ALS-associated mutations in Fus and Tdp-43 affect their Oxr1-binding properties. We further demonstrate that increasing Oxr1 levels in cells expressing specific Fus and Tdp-43 mutants improves the three main cellular features associated with ALS: cytoplasmic mis-localization and aggregation, splicing changes of a mitochondrial gene and mitochondrial defects. Taken together, these findings suggest that OXR1 may have therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ALS and related neurodegenerative disorders with TDP-43 pathology. PMID:25792726

  7. Molecular Neuropathology of TDP-43 Proteinopathies

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    Manuela Neumann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of TDP-43 as the major component of the pathologic inclusions in most forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS resolved a long-standing enigma concerning the nature of the ubiquitinated disease protein under these conditions. Anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemistry and the recent development of novel tools, such as phosphorylation-specific TDP-43 antibodies, have increased our knowledge about the spectrum of pathological changes associated with FTLD-U and ALS and moreover, facilitated the neuropathological routine diagnosis of these conditions. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding on the molecular neuropathology and pathobiology of TDP-43 in FTLD and ALS.

  8. Rethinking ALS: the FUS about TDP-43

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    Lagier-tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation in TDP-43, a DNA/RNA binding protein, causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Combination of its mislocalization in most incidences of sporadic ALS (as well as other neurodegenerative disorders) with discovery of ALS-causing mutations in FUS/TLS, another DNA/RNA binding protein, has initiated a paradigm shift in understanding ALS pathogenesis. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS have striking structural and functional similarities, implicating alterations in RNA processing as...

  9. The Progranulin Cleavage Products, Granulins, Exacerbate TDP-43 Toxicity and Increase TDP-43 Levels.

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    Salazar, Dominique A; Butler, Victoria J; Argouarch, Andrea R; Hsu, Tsung-Yuan; Mason, Amanda; Nakamura, Ayumi; McCurdy, Helen; Cox, David; Ng, Rachel; Pan, Gloria; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kao, Aimee W

    2015-06-24

    Mutations in the human progranulin gene resulting in protein haploinsufficiency cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions. Although progress has been made in understanding the normal functions of progranulin and TDP-43, the molecular interactions between these proteins remain unclear. Progranulin is proteolytically processed into granulins, but the role of granulins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is unknown. We used a Caenorhabditis elegans model of neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy to specifically interrogate the contribution of granulins to the neurodegenerative process. Complete loss of the progranulin gene did not worsen TDP-43 toxicity, whereas progranulin heterozygosity did. Interestingly, expression of individual granulins alone had little effect on behavior. In contrast, when granulins were coexpressed with TDP-43, they exacerbated its toxicity in a variety of behaviors including motor coordination. These same granulins increased TDP-43 levels via a post-translational mechanism. We further found that in human neurodegenerative disease subjects, granulin fragments accumulated specifically in diseased regions of brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a toxic role for granulin fragments in a neurodegenerative disease model. These studies suggest that presence of cleaved granulins, rather than or in addition to loss of full-length progranulin, may contribute to disease in TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26109656

  10. An ALS-mutant TDP-43 neurotoxic peptide adopts an anti-parallel ?-structure and induces TDP-43 redistribution.

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    Zhu, Li; Xu, Meng; Yang, Mengxue; Yang, Yanlian; Li, Yang; Deng, Jianwen; Ruan, Linhao; Liu, Jianghong; Du, Sidan; Liu, Xuehui; Feng, Wei; Fushimi, Kazuo; Bigio, Eileen H; Mesulam, Marsel; Wang, Chen; Wu, Jane Y

    2014-12-20

    TDP-43 proteinopathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases that had been considered distinct from classical amyloid diseases. Here, we provide evidence for the structural similarity between TDP-43 peptides and other amyloid proteins. Atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy examination of peptides spanning a previously defined amyloidogenic fragment revealed a minimal core region that forms amyloid fibrils similar to the TDP-43 fibrils detected in FTLD-TDP brain tissues. An ALS-mutant A315E amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptide is capable of cross-seeding other TDP-43 peptides and an amyloid-? peptide. Sequential Nuclear Overhauser Effects and double-quantum-filtered correlation spectroscopy in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the A315E-mutant TDP-43 peptide indicate that it adopts an anti-parallel ? conformation. When added to cell cultures, the amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptides induce TDP-43 redistribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Neuronal cultures in compartmentalized microfluidic-chambers demonstrate that the TDP-43 peptides can be taken up by axons and induce axonotoxicity and neuronal death, thus recapitulating key neuropathological features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Importantly, a single amino acid change in the amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptide that disrupts fibril formation also eliminates neurotoxicity, supporting that amyloidogenesis is critical for TDP-43 neurotoxicity. PMID:25113748

  11. TDP-43 is a component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubiquitin-positive tau-negative neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites are common pathological features in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with or without symptoms of motor neuron disease and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, we have identified a TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a nuclear factor that functions in regulating transcription and alternative splicing, as a component of these structures in FTLD. Furthermore, skein-like inclusions, neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and glial inclusions in the spinal cord of ALS patients are also positive for TDP-43. Dephosphorylation treatment of the sarkosyl insoluble fraction has shown that abnormal phosphorylation takes place in accumulated TDP-43. The common occurrence of intracellular accumulations of TDP-43 supports the hypothesis that these disorders represent a clinicopathological entity of a single disease, and suggests that they can be newly classified as a proteinopathy of TDP-43

  12. Does a loss of TDP-43 function cause neurodegeneration?

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    Xu Zuo-Shang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, TAR-DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 was discovered to be in the intracellular aggregates in the degenerating cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, two fatal neurodegenerative diseases [1,2]. ALS causes motor neuron degeneration leading to paralysis [3,4]. FTLD causes neuronal degeneration in the frontal and temporal cortices leading to personality changes and a loss of executive function [5]. The discovery triggered a flurry of research activity that led to the discovery of TDP-43 mutations in ALS patients and the widespread presence of TDP-43 aggregates in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. A key question regarding the role of TDP-43 is whether it causes neurotoxicity by a gain of function or a loss of function. The gain-of-function hypothesis has received much attention primarily based on the striking neurodegenerative phenotypes in numerous TDP-43-overexpression models. In this review, I will draw attention to the loss-of-function hypothesis, which postulates that mutant TDP-43 causes neurodegeneration by a loss of function, and in addition, by exerting a dominant-negative effect on the wild-type TDP-43 allele. Furthermore, I will discuss how a loss of function can cause neurodegeneration in patients where TDP-43 is not mutated, review the literature in model systems to discuss how the current data support the loss-of-function mechanism and highlight some key questions for testing this hypothesis in the future.

  13. ALS-Associated TDP-43 Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Which Drives Cytoplasmic TDP-43 Accumulation and Stress Granule Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Adam K.; Kai Y Soo; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Parakh, Sonam; Ma, Yi; Farg, Manal A.; Wallace, Robyn H; Crouch, Peter J.; Turner, Bradley J.; Horne, Malcolm K; Atkin, Julie D.

    2013-01-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) accumulates in the cytoplasm of affected neurons and glia, where it associates with stress granules (SGs) and forms large inclusions. SGs form in response to cellular stress, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is induced in both familial and sporadic forms of ALS. Here we demonstrate that pharmacological induction of ER stress causes TDP-43 to accumulate in the cyt...

  14. "Structural characterization of the minimal segment of TDP-43 competent for aggregation".

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    Mompeán, Miguel; Buratti, Emanuele; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Brito, Rui M M; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Baralle, Francisco E; Laurents, Douglas V

    2014-03-01

    TDP-43 is a nuclear protein whose abnormal aggregates are implicated in ALS and FTLD. Recently, an Asn/Gln rich C-terminal segment of TDP-43 has been shown to produce aggregation in vitro and reproduce most of the protein's pathological hallmarks in cells, but little is known about this segment's structure. Here, CD and 2D heteronuclear NMR spectroscopies provide evidence that peptides corresponding to the wild type and mutated sequences of this segment adopt chiefly disordered conformations that, in the case of the wild type sequence, spontaneously forms a ?-sheet rich oligomer. Moreover, MD simulation provides evidence for a structure consisting of two ?-strands and a well-defined, yet non-canonical structural element. Furthermore, MD simulations of four pathological mutations (Q343R, N345K, G348V and N352S) occurring in this segment predict that all of them could affect this region's structure. In particular, the Q343R variant tends to stabilize disordered conformers, N345K permits the formation of longer, more stable ?-strands, and G348V tends to shorten and destabilize them. Finally, N352S acts to alter the ?-stand register and when S352 is phosphorylated, it induces partial unfolding. Our results provide a better understanding of TDP-43 aggregation process and will be useful to design effectors capable to modulate its progression. PMID:24440310

  15. TDP-43: The relationship between protein aggregation and neurodegeneration in ALS and FTLD

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    Baloh, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulations of aggregated proteins are a key feature of the pathology of all of the major neurodegenerative diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was brought into this fold quite recently, with the discovery of TDP-43 inclusions in nearly all ALS cases. In part this discovery was fueled by the recognition of the clinical overlap between ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, where ubiquitinated TDP-43 inclusions were first identified. Later the identification of TDP-43 mutations...

  16. TDP-43 Potentiates Alpha-synuclein Toxicity to Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice

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    Tian Tian, Cao Huang, Jianbin Tong, Ming Yang, Hongxia Zhou, Xu-Gang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 and ?-synuclein are two disease proteins involved in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. While TDP-43 proteinopathy is considered a pathologic hallmark of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobe degeneration, ?-synuclein is a major component of Lewy body characteristic of Parkinson's disease. Intriguingly, TDP-43 proteinopathy also coexists with Lewy body and with synucleinopathy in certain disease conditions. Here we reported the effects of TDP-43 on ?-synuclein neurotoxicity in transgenic mice. Overexpression of mutant TDP-43 (M337V substitution in mice caused early death in transgenic founders, but overexpression of normal TDP-43 only induced a moderate loss of cortical neurons in the transgenic mice at advanced ages. Interestingly, concomitant overexpression of normal TDP-43 and mutant ?-synuclein caused a more severe loss of dopaminergic neurons in the double transgenic mice as compared to single-gene transgenic mice. TDP-43 potentiated ?-synuclein toxicity to dopaminergic neurons in living animals. Our finding provides in vivo evidence suggesting that disease proteins such as TDP-43 and ?-synuclein may play a synergistic role in disease induction in neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Proteomic analyses reveal that loss of TDP-43 affects RNA processing and intracellular transport.

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    Štalekar, M; Yin, X; Rebolj, K; Darovic, S; Troakes, C; Mayr, M; Shaw, C E; Rogelj, B

    2015-05-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a predominantly nuclear, ubiquitously expressed RNA and DNA-binding protein. It recognizes and binds to UG repeats and is involved in pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stability and microRNA metabolism. TDP-43 is essential in early embryonic development but accumulates in cytoplasmic aggregates in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and tau-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is not known yet whether cytoplasmic aggregates of TDP-43 are toxic or protective but they are often associated with a loss of TDP-43 from the nucleus and neurodegeneration may be caused by a loss of normal TDP-43 function or a gain of toxic function. Here we present a proteomic study to analyze the effect of loss of TDP-43 on the proteome. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001668. Our results indicate that TDP-43 is an important regulator of RNA metabolism and intracellular transport. We show that Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1), DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (Dnmt3a) and chromogranin B (CgB) are downregulated upon TDP-43 knockdown. Subsequently, transportin 1 level is increased as a result of RanBP1 depletion. Improper regulation of these proteins and the subsequent disruption of cellular processes may play a role in the pathogenesis of the TDP-43 proteinopathies ALS and FTLD. PMID:25743254

  18. TDP-43 regulates the microprocessor complex activity during in vitro neuronal differentiation.

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    Di Carlo, Valerio; Grossi, Elena; Laneve, Pietro; Morlando, Mariangela; Dini Modigliani, Stefano; Ballarino, Monica; Bozzoni, Irene; Caffarelli, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) is an RNA-binding protein implicated in RNA metabolism at several levels. Even if ubiquitously expressed, it is considered as a neuronal activity-responsive factor and a major signature for neurological pathologies, making the comprehension of its activity in the nervous system a very challenging issue. TDP-43 has also been described as an accessory component of the Drosha-DGCR8 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8) microprocessor complex, which is crucially involved in basal and tissue-specific RNA processing events. In the present study, we exploited in vitro neuronal differentiation systems to investigate the TDP-43 demand for the microprocessor function, focusing on both its canonical microRNA biosynthetic activity and its alternative role as a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Our findings reveal a novel role for TDP-43 as an essential factor that controls the stability of Drosha protein during neuronal differentiation, thus globally affecting the production of microRNAs. We also demonstrate that TDP-43 is required for the Drosha-mediated regulation of Neurogenin 2, a master gene orchestrating neurogenesis, whereas post-transcriptional control of Dgcr8, another Drosha target, resulted to be TDP-43-independent. These results implicate a previously uncovered contribution of TDP-43 in regulating the abundance and the substrate specificity of the microprocessor complex and provide new insights into TDP-43 as a key player in neuronal differentiation. PMID:24113842

  19. C-Jun N-terminal kinase controls TDP-43 accumulation in stress granules induced by oxidative stress

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    Masters Colin L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TDP-43 proteinopathies are characterized by loss of nuclear TDP-43 expression and formation of C-terminal TDP-43 fragmentation and accumulation in the cytoplasm. Recent studies have shown that TDP-43 can accumulate in RNA stress granules (SGs in response to cell stresses and this could be associated with subsequent formation of TDP-43 ubiquinated protein aggregates. However, the initial mechanisms controlling endogenous TDP-43 accumulation in SGs during chronic disease are not understood. In this study we investigated the mechanism of TDP-43 processing and accumulation in SGs in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells exposed to chronic oxidative stress. Cell cultures were treated overnight with the mitochondrial inhibitor paraquat and examined for TDP-43 and SG processing. Results We found that mild stress induced by paraquat led to formation of TDP-43 and HuR-positive SGs, a proportion of which were ubiquitinated. The co-localization of TDP-43 with SGs could be fully prevented by inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. JNK inhibition did not prevent formation of HuR-positive SGs and did not prevent diffuse TDP-43 accumulation in the cytosol. In contrast, ERK or p38 inhibition prevented formation of both TDP-43 and HuR-positive SGs. JNK inhibition also inhibited TDP-43 SG localization in cells acutely treated with sodium arsenite and reduced the number of aggregates per cell in cultures transfected with C-terminal TDP-43 162-414 and 219-414 constructs. Conclusions Our studies are the first to demonstrate a critical role for kinase control of TDP-43 accumulation in SGs and may have important implications for development of treatments for FTD and ALS, targeting cell signal pathway control of TDP-43 aggregation.

  20. TDP-43 as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Spinal Motoneuron Degeneration.

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    Gulino, Rosario; Forte, Stefano; Parenti, Rosalba; Gulisano, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a nuclear DNA/RNA-binding protein involved in gene transcription and mRNA processing. Recently, TDP-43 has been found in the cytoplasmic inclusions observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Substantial attention has been devoted to the toxic effects of the cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates, whereas the functional role of this protein remains poorly investigated. Interestingly, TDP-43 could be localized in the synapse and affect synaptic plasticity and locomotion in Drosophila. Here, we would like to understand if TDP-43 could modulate spinal cord plasticity in a mouse model of neurotoxic motoneuron depletion. Therefore, the expression levels of TDP- 43 and synaptic proteins such as synapsin-I and the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2 and GluR4 were measured by western blotting. By using multivariate regression models, protein expression levels were correlated each other as well as with the motor performance. The results suggested that motor performance could be linked to the expression of synapsin-I, and that the latter could depend on TDP-43, which in turn could interact with AMPA receptors. In conclusion, our results suggest that TDP-43 is likely involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Given the increasing interest in mouse models of TDP-43 gain or loss of function in neurodegenerative diseases, the elucidation of the role of TDP-43 in the spinal cord is mandatory. More generally, given the recently increased knowledge about spinal cord plasticity, we postulate that the stimulation of the intrinsic plastic potential of spinal cord would be a successful repairing strategy. PMID:25613499

  1. Positive Florbetapir PET Amyloid Imaging in a Subject with Frequent Cortical Neuritic Plaques and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with TDP43-Positive Inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Geidy E.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Sue, Lucia I.; Hidalgo, Jose A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bedell, Barry J.; Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Suh, Eunran; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Mintun, Mark A.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal accumulation and modification of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) have recently been discovered to be defining histopathological features of particular subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and are also common in aging, particularly coexisting with hippocampal sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This case report describes a 72 year old Hispanic male with no family history of neurological disease, who presented at ...

  2. TDP-43 regulates the Microprocessor complex activity during in vitro neuronal differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Carlo, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    TDP-43 is an RNA-binding protein implicated in RNA metabolism at several levels. Even if ubiquitously expressed, it is considered as a neuronal activity-responsive factor and a major signature for neurological pathologies, making the comprehension of its activity in the nervous system a very challenging issue. TDP-43 has also been described as an accessory component of the Drosha-DGCR8 microprocessor complex, which is crucially involved in basal and tissue-specific RNA processing events. ...

  3. Methylene Blue Protects against TDP-43 and FUS Neuronal Toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A.; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J. Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57? or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive pa...

  4. TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - is it a prion disease?

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    Ludolph, A C; Brettschneider, J

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating disease characterized by rapidly progressive paresis. The neuropathological hallmark of most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases are neuronal and glial aggregates of phosphorylated 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (pTDP-43). The accumulation of similar proteins into insoluble aggregates is now recognized as a common pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases in general. Importantly, many of these proteins such as tau and amyloid-? in Alzheimer's disease and ?-synuclein in Parkinson's show a stereotypical sequential distribution pattern with progressing disease. In this review, we discuss recent evidence that TDP-43 in ALS may propagate similarly to other neurodegenerative disease proteins. We furthermore delineate similarities and important differences of TDP-43 proteinopathies to prion diseases. PMID:25846565

  5. On the development of markers for pathological TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geser, F

    2011-12-01

    Pathological 43-kDa transactive response sequence DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) has been recognized as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive, tau and ?-synuclein negative inclusions (FTLD-U) and the transitional forms between these multisystem conditions. In order to develop TDP-43 into a successful ALS biomarker, the natural history of TDP-43 pathology needs to be characterized and the underlying pathophysiology established. Here we propose a spatial and temporal "two-axes" model of central nervous system vulnerability for TDP-43 linked degeneration and review recent studies on potential biomarkers related to pathological TDP-43 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and skeletal muscle. The model includes the following two arms: Firstly, a "motor neuron disease" or "spinal cord\\/brainstem to motor cortex" axis (with degeneration possibly ascending from the lower motor neurons to the upper motor neurons); and secondly, a "dementia" or "corticoid\\/allocortex to neocortex" axis (with a probable spread of TDP-43 linked degeneration from the mediotemporal lobe to wider mesocortical and neocortical brain areas). At the cellular level, there is a gradual disappearance of normal TDP-43 in the nucleus in combination with the formation of pathological aggregates in the cell body and cellular processes, which can also be used to identify the stage of the disease process. Moreover, TDP-43 lesions in subpial\\/subependymal or perivascular localizations have been noted, and this might account for increased CSF and blood TDP-43 levels through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated.

  6. TDP-43 Proteinopathy and Motor Neuron Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Ann C; Gavett, Brandon E; Stern, Robert A; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Cantu, Robert C; Kowall, Neil W; Perl, Daniel P.; Hedley-Whyte, E Tessa; Price, Bruce; Sullivan, Chris; Morin, Peter; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Wulff, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is increased in association with head injury. Repetitive head injury is also associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tauopathy characterized by neurofibrillary tangles throughout the brain in the relative absence of ?-amyloid deposits. We examined 12 cases of CTE and, in 10, found a widespread TAR DNA-binding protein of approximately 43 kd (TDP-43) proteinopathy affectin...

  7. FUS pathology defines the majority of tau-and TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Urwin, H.; Josephs, K. A.; Rohrer, J. D.; Mackenzie, I. R. A.; Neumann, H. A. M.; Authier, A.; Seelaar, H.; Swieten, J. C.; Brown, J. M.; Johannsen, P.; Nielsen, J. E.; Holm, I. E.; Dickson, D.; Rademakers, R.; Graff-radford, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    Through an international consortium, we have collected 37 tau-and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases, and present here the first comprehensive analysis of these cases in terms of neuropathology, genetics, demographics and clinical data. 92% (34/37) had fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein pathology, indicating that FTLD-FUS is an important FTLD subtype. This FTLD-FUS collection specifically focussed on aFTLD-U cases, one of three recently def...

  8. The ALS/FTLD-related RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS have common downstream RNA targets in cortical neurons?

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Daiyu; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Iguchi, Yohei; Fujioka, Yusuke; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Akio; Ohno, Kinji; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2013-01-01

    TDP-43 and FUS are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and loss of function of either protein contributes to these neurodegenerative conditions. To elucidate the TDP-43- and FUS-regulated pathophysiological RNA metabolism cascades, we assessed the differential gene expression and alternative splicing profiles related to regulation by either TDP-43 or FUS in primary cortical neurons. These profiles overlapped by >25% with respect to gene ...

  9. TDP-43 Loss-of-Function Causes Neuronal Loss Due to Defective Steroid Receptor-Mediated Gene Program Switching in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Vanden Broeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 proteinopathy is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders. Whether TDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a novel toxic gain-of-function mechanism of the aggregates or by a loss of its normal function is unknown. We increased and decreased expression of TDP-43 (dTDP-43 in Drosophila. Although upregulation of dTDP-43 induced neuronal ubiquitin and dTDP-43-positive inclusions, both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 resulted in selective apoptosis of bursicon neurons and highly similar transcriptome alterations at the pupal-adult transition. Gene network analysis and genetic validation showed that both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 directly and dramatically increased the expression of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein Map205, resulting in cytoplasmic accumulations of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR and a failure to switch EcR-dependent gene programs from a pupal to adult pattern. We propose that dTDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a loss of its normal function.

  10. FUS pathology defines the majority of tau- and TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urwin, Hazel; Josephs, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    Through an international consortium, we have collected 37 tau- and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases, and present here the first comprehensive analysis of these cases in terms of neuropathology, genetics, demographics and clinical data. 92% (34/37) had fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein pathology, indicating that FTLD-FUS is an important FTLD subtype. This FTLD-FUS collection specifically focussed on aFTLD-U cases, one of three recently defined subtypes of FTLD-FUS. The aFTLD-U subtype of FTLD-FUS is characterised clinically by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and has a particularly young age of onset with a mean of 41 years. Further, this subtype had a high prevalence of psychotic symptoms (36% of cases) and low prevalence of motor symptoms (3% of cases). We did not find FUS mutations in any aFTLD-U case. To date, the only subtype of cases reported to have ubiquitin-positive but tau-, TDP-43- and FUS-negative pathology, termed FTLD-UPS,is the result of charged multivesicular body protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) mutation. We identified three FTLD-UPS cases, which are negative for CHMP2B mutation, suggesting that the full complement of FTLD pathologies is yet to be elucidated.

  11. Evolutionarily Conserved Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A/B Proteins Functionally Interact with Human and Drosophila TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 (TDP-43)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Maurizio; Buratti, Emanuele; Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Del Bel Belluz, Lisa; Stuani, Cristiana; Baralle, Francisco; Feiguin, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Human TDP-43 represents the main component of neuronal inclusions found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) Drosophila ortholog (TBPH) can biochemically and functionally overlap the properties of the human factor. The recent direct implication of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A2B1 and A1, known TDP-43 partners, in the pathogenesis of multisystem proteinopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis supports the hypothesis that the physical and functional interplay between TDP-43 and hnRNP A/B orthologs might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. To test this hypothesis and further validate the fly system as a useful model to study this type of diseases, we have now characterized human TDP-43 and Drosophila TBPH similarity in terms of protein-protein interaction pathways. In this work we show that TDP-43 and TBPH share the ability to associate in vitro with Hrp38/Hrb98DE/CG9983, the fruit fly ortholog of the human hnRNP A1/A2 factors. Interestingly, the protein regions of TDP-43 and Hrp38 responsible for reciprocal interactions are conserved through evolution. Functionally, experiments in HeLa cells demonstrate that TDP-43 is necessary for the inhibitory activity of Hrp38 on splicing. Finally, Drosophila in vivo studies show that Hrp38 deficiency produces locomotive defects and life span shortening in TDP-43 with and without animals. These results suggest that hnRNP protein levels can play a modulatory role on TDP-43 functions. PMID:24492607

  12. Divergent roles of ALS-linked proteins FUS/TLS and TDP-43 intersect in processing long pre-mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Hutt, Kasey R; Vu, Anthony Q; Baughn, Michael; Huelga, Stephanie C; Clutario, Kevin M; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Liang, Tiffany Y; Mazur, Curt; Wancewicz, Edward; Kim, Aneeza S; Watt, Andy; Freier, Sue; Hicks, Geoffrey G; Donohue, John Paul; Shiue, Lily; Bennett, C Frank; Ravits, John; Cleveland, Don W; Yeo, Gene W

    2013-01-01

    FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) and TDP-43 are integrally involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. We found that FUS/TLS binds to RNAs from >5,500 genes in mouse and human brain, primarily through a GUGGU-binding motif. We identified a sawtooth-like binding pattern, consistent with co-transcriptional deposition of FUS/TLS. Depletion of FUS/TLS from the adult nervous system altered the levels or splicing of >950 mRNAs, most of which are distinct from RNAs dependent on TDP-43. Abundance of only 45 RNAs was reduced after depletion of either TDP-43 or FUS/TLS from mouse brain, but among these were mRNAs that were transcribed from genes with exceptionally long introns and that encode proteins that are essential for neuronal integrity. Expression levels of a subset of these were lowered after TDP-43 or FUS/TLS depletion in stem cell-derived human neurons and in TDP-43 aggregate–containing motor neurons in sporadic ALS, supporting a common loss-of-function pathway as one component underlying motor neuron death from misregulation of TDP-43 or FUS/TLS. PMID:23023293

  13. Increased metal content in the TDP-43(A315T) transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Theresa N T; Lim, Nastasia K H; Grubman, Alexandra; Li, Qiao-Xin; Volitakis, Irene; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43 (A315T) mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but zinc, copper, and manganese levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43 (A315T) mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43 (A315T) mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43 (A315T) in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43 (A315T) mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive decline. PMID:24575040

  14. Increased metal content in the TDP-43A315T transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Crouch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43 is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43A315T mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but Zn, Cu and Mn levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43A315T mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43A315T mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43A315T in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43A315T mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive decline.

  15. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a positive regulator of the RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS/TLS: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liang; Zheng, Lei; Si, Ying; Luo, Wenyi; Dujardin, Gwendal; Kwan, Thaddaeus; Potochick, Nicholas R; Thompson, Sunnie R; Schneider, David A; King, Peter H

    2014-11-14

    Posttranscriptional gene regulation is governed by a network of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that interact with regulatory elements in the mRNA to modulate multiple molecular processes, including splicing, RNA transport, RNA stability, and translation. Mounting evidence indicates that there is a hierarchy within this network whereby certain RBPs cross-regulate other RBPs to coordinate gene expression. HuR, an RNA-binding protein we linked previously to aberrant VEGF mRNA metabolism in models of SOD1-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, has been identified as being high up in this hierarchy, serving as a regulator of RNA regulators. Here we investigated the role of HuR in regulating two RBPs, TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, that have been linked genetically to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found that HuR promotes the expression of both RBPs in primary astrocytes and U251 cells under normal and stressed (hypoxic) conditions. For TDP-43, we found that HuR binds to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and regulates its expression through translational efficiency rather than RNA stability. With HuR knockdown, there was a shift of TDP-43 and FUS mRNAs away from polysomes, consistent with translational silencing. The TDP-43 splicing function was attenuated upon HuR knockdown and could be rescued by ectopic TDP-43 lacking the 3' UTR regulatory elements. Finally, conditioned medium from astrocytes in which HuR or TDP-43 was knocked down produced significant motor neuron and cortical neuron toxicity in vitro. These findings indicate that HuR regulates TDP-43 and FUS/TLS expression and that loss of HuR-mediated RNA processing in astrocytes can alter the molecular and cellular landscape to produce a toxic phenotype. PMID:25239623

  16. TDP-43 N terminus encodes a novel ubiquitin-like fold and its unfolded form in equilibrium that can be shifted by binding to ssDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Haina; Lim, Liang-Zhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Song, Jianxing

    2014-12-30

    Transactivation response element (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of most forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia-frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), as well as an increasing spectrum of other neurodegenerative diseases. Previous structural and functional studies on TDP-43 have been mostly focused on its recognized domains. Very recently, however, its extreme N terminus was identified to be a double-edged sword indispensable for both physiology and proteinopathy, but thus far its structure remains unknown due to the severe aggregation. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery that protein aggregation can be significantly minimized by reducing salt concentrations, by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy we revealed that the TDP-43 N terminus encodes a well-folded structure in concentration-dependent equilibrium with its unfolded form. Despite previous failure in detecting any sequence homology to ubiquitin, the folded state was determined to adopt a novel ubiquitin-like fold by the CS-Rosetta program with NMR chemical shifts and 78 unambiguous long-range nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) constraints. Remarkably, this ubiquitin-like fold could bind ssDNA, and the binding shifted the conformational equilibrium toward reducing the unfolded population. To the best of our knowledge, the TDP-43 N terminus represents the first ubiquitin-like fold capable of directly binding nucleic acid. Our results provide a molecular mechanism rationalizing the functional dichotomy of TDP-43 and might also shed light on the formation and dynamics of cellular ribonucleoprotein granules, which have been recently linked to ALS pathogenesis. As a consequence, one therapeutic strategy for TDP-43-causing diseases might be to stabilize its ubiquitin-like fold by ssDNA or designed molecules. PMID:25503365

  17. ApoE and TDP-43 neuropathology in two siblings with familial FTLD-motor neuron disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vossel, Keith A.; Bien-Ly, Nga; Bernardo, Aubrey; RASCOVSKY, KATYA; Karydas, Anna; Rabinovici, Gil D; Sidhu, Manu; Huang, Eric J.; Miller, Bruce L; Huang, Yadong; Seeley, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND) is characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions containing TDP-43. Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), derived from the apoE ?4 allele, enhances brain atrophy in FTLD through unknown mechanisms. Here, we studied two siblings with C9ORF72-linked familial FTLD-MND, an apoE ?4 homozygote and an apoE ?3 homozygote. The apoE ?4 homozygote had more cognitive-behavioral symptoms, fronto-insulo-temporal atrophy, and apoE fragments and ...

  18. ER-mitochondria associations are regulated by the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and are disrupted by ALS/FTD-associated TDP-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Radu; de Vos, Kurt J.; Paillusson, Sébastien; Mueller, Sarah; Sancho, Rosa M.; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lin, Wen-Lang; Xu, Ya-Fei; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Miller, Christopher C. J.

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) form tight structural associations and these facilitate a number of cellular functions. However, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to mitochondria are not properly known. Understanding these mechanisms is not just important for comprehending fundamental physiological processes but also for understanding pathogenic processes in some disease states. In particular, disruption to ER-mitochondria associations is linked to some neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that the ER-resident protein VAPB interacts with the mitochondrial protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein-51 (PTPIP51) to regulate ER-mitochondria associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that TDP-43, a protein pathologically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal dementia perturbs ER-mitochondria interactions and that this is associated with disruption to the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Finally, we show that overexpression of TDP-43 leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and that GSK-3? regulates the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction. Our results describe a new pathogenic mechanism for TDP-43.

  19. Corticobasal degeneration with olivopontocerebellar atrophy and TDP-43 pathology: an unusual clinicopathologic variant of CBD

    OpenAIRE

    Kouri, Naomi; Oshima, Kenichi; Takahashi, Makio; Murray, Melissa E; Ahmed, Zeshan; Parisi, Joseph E.; Yen, Shu-Hui C.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    CBD is a disorder affecting cognition and movement due to a progressive neurodegeneration associated with distinctive neuropathologic features, including abnormal phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and glia in cortex, basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem, as well as ballooned neurons and astrocytic plaques. We identified three cases of CBD with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (CBD-OPCA) that did not have ?-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions of multiple system atrophy (MSA)....

  20. Mutant TDP-43 Deregulates AMPK Activation by PP2A in ALS Models

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Nirma D.; Sheean, Rebecca K.; Scott, John W.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Horne, Malcolm K.; Turner, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergetic abnormalities and metabolic dysfunction occur in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and genetic mouse models. However, whether metabolic dysfunction occurs early in ALS pathophysiology linked to different ALS genes remains unclear. Here, we investigated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which is a key enzyme induced by energy depletion and metabolic stress, in neuronal cells and mouse models expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) or TAR DNA bindin...

  1. Antisense RNA foci in the motor neurons of C9ORF72-ALS patients are associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Higginbottom, Adrian; Stopford, Matthew J; Highley, J Robin; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Kirby, Janine; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Shaw, Pamela J

    2015-07-01

    GGGGCC repeat expansions of C9ORF72 represent the most common genetic variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. We and others have proposed that RNA transcribed from the repeat sequence is toxic via sequestration of RNA-binding factors. Both GGGGCC-repeat (sense) and CCCCGG-repeat (antisense) molecules are detectable by fluorescence in situ hybridisation as RNA foci, but their relative expression pattern within the CNS and contribution to disease has not been determined. Blinded examination of CNS biosamples from ALS patients with a repeat expansion of C9ORF72 showed that antisense foci are present at a significantly higher frequency in cerebellar Purkinje neurons and motor neurons, whereas sense foci are present at a significantly higher frequency in cerebellar granule neurons. Consistent with this, inclusions containing sense or antisense derived dipeptide repeat proteins were present at significantly higher frequency in cerebellar granule neurons or motor neurons, respectively. Immunohistochemistry and UV-crosslinking studies showed that sense and antisense RNA molecules share similar interactions with SRSF2, hnRNP K, hnRNP A1, ALYREF, and hnRNP H/F. Together these data suggest that, although sense and antisense RNA molecules might be expected to be equally toxic via their shared protein binding partners, distinct patterns of expression in various CNS neuronal populations could lead to relative differences in their contribution to the pathogenesis of neuronal injury. Moreover in motor neurons, which are the primary target of pathology in ALS, the presence of antisense foci (? (2), p correlated with mislocalisation of TDP-43, which is the hallmark of ALS neurodegeneration. This has implications for translational approaches to C9ORF72 disease, and furthermore interacting RNA-processing factors and transcriptional activators responsible for antisense versus sense transcription might represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25943887

  2. Divergent roles of ALS-linked proteins FUS/TLS and TDP-43 intersect in processing long pre-mRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Hutt, Kasey R.; Vu, Anthony Q; Baughn, Michael; Huelga, Stephanie C.; Clutario, Kevin M.; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Liang, Tiffany Y.; Mazur, Curt; Wancewicz, Edward; Kim, Aneeza S.; Watt, Andy; Freier, Sue; Hicks, Geoffrey G

    2012-01-01

    FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) and TDP-43 are integrally involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. We found that FUS/TLS binds to RNAs from >5,500 genes in mouse and human brain, primarily through a GUGGU-binding motif. We identified a sawtooth-like binding pattern, consistent with co-transcriptional deposition of FUS/TLS. Depletion of FUS/TLS from the adult nervous system altered the levels or splicing of >950 mRNAs, most of which ar...

  3. FTLD-TDP with motor neuron disease, visuospatial impairment and a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome: broadening the clinical phenotype of TDP-43 proteinopathies. A report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Holmerová Iva; Ridzo? Petr; Hort Jakub; Fiala Jind?ich; Kovacs Gabor G; Rusina Robert; Ströbel Thomas; Mat?j Radoslav

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin and TDP-43 positive neuronal inclusions represents a novel entity (FTLD-TDP) that may be associated with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND); involvement of extrapyramidal and other systems has also been reported. Case presentation We present three cases with similar clinical symptoms, including Parkinsonism, supranuclear gaze palsy, visuospatial impairment and a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, associated with eit...

  4. Stress granule recruitment and deposition of proteins of the FET family and TDP-43 in ALS and FTD

    OpenAIRE

    Bentmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are defined by progressive and selective loss of neurons. With increasing age the risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease exponentially rises. To date these diseases are untreatable, imposing a significant medical, social and financial burden onto our ageing society. Typical features of neurodegenerative diseases are abnormal aggregation of a disease characteriz...

  5. Altered microRNA expression in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology caused by progranulin mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocerha Jannet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be triggered through genetic or sporadic mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have become a major therapeutic focus as their pervasive expression and powerful regulatory roles in disease pathogenesis become increasingly apparent. Here we examine the role of miRNAs in FTLD patients with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 pathology (FTLD-TDP caused by genetic mutations in the progranulin (PGRN gene. Results Using miRNA array profiling, we identified the 20 miRNAs that showed greatest evidence (unadjusted P PGRN mutations when compared to 32 FTLD-TDP patients with no apparent genetic abnormalities. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses provided technical validation of the differential expression for 9 of the 20 miRNAs in frontal cortex. Additional qRT-PCR analyses showed that 5 out of 9 miRNAs (miR-922, miR-516a-3p, miR-571, miR-548b-5p, and miR-548c-5p were also significantly dysregulated (unadjusted P PGRN mutation carriers, consistent with a systemic reduction in PGRN levels. We developed a list of gene targets for the 5 candidate miRNAs and found 18 genes dysregulated in a reported FTLD mRNA study to exhibit anti-correlated miRNA-mRNA patterns in affected cortex and cerebellar tissue. Among the targets is brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3, which was recently identified as an important player in synapse biology. Conclusions Our study suggests that miRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of FTLD-TDP caused by PGRN mutations and provides new insight into potential future therapeutic options.

  6. FTLD-TDP with motor neuron disease, visuospatial impairment and a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome: broadening the clinical phenotype of TDP-43 proteinopathies. A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmerová Iva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin and TDP-43 positive neuronal inclusions represents a novel entity (FTLD-TDP that may be associated with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND; involvement of extrapyramidal and other systems has also been reported. Case presentation We present three cases with similar clinical symptoms, including Parkinsonism, supranuclear gaze palsy, visuospatial impairment and a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, associated with either clinically possible or definite MND. Neuropathological examination revealed hallmarks of FTLD-TDP with major involvement of subcortical and, in particular, mesencephalic structures. These cases differed in onset and progression of clinical manifestations as well as distribution of histopathological changes in the brain and spinal cord. Two cases were sporadic, whereas the third case had a pathological variation in the progranulin gene 102 delC. Conclusions Association of a "progressive supranuclear palsy-like" syndrome with marked visuospatial impairment, motor neuron disease and early behavioral disturbances may represent a clinically distinct phenotype of FTLD-TDP. Our observations further support the concept that TDP-43 proteinopathies represent a spectrum of disorders, where preferential localization of pathogenetic inclusions and neuronal cell loss defines clinical phenotypes ranging from frontotemporal dementia with or without motor neuron disease, to corticobasal syndrome and to a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome.

  7. Serum bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in women with cycle abnormalities, with or without polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, B C; Pache, T D; Lamberts, S W; Hop, W C; de Jong, F H; Dahl, K D

    1991-10-01

    Serum steroid, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit levels were assessed in 35 women with cycle abnormalities [11 with and 24 without polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) according to strict clinical and biochemical criteria] and 8 regularly cycling women in the early (cycle day 3 or 4) and mid (cycle day 7 or 8) follicular phase. LH and FSH levels were estimated using two immunological techniques [RIA and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)] and in vitro bioassays (BIO), using mouse Leydig cells and rat granulosa cells, respectively. In PCOD patients mean alpha-subunit, free androgen index [FAI; testosterone x 100/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol (E2) were significantly elevated compared to levels in the early follicular phase of control cycles and non-PCOD patients. In addition, in PCOD patients mean IRMA-LH and RIA-LH levels were distinctly increased (2.8- to 3.6 fold, respectively; both comparisons, P less than 0.001) compared to control values, but in the same order of magnitude (1.3- to 1.4-fold increments) as that in non-PCOD patients. However, the median BIO-LH level in PCOD patients was 5.9-fold higher than that in non-PCOD patients and 4.0-fold higher than the BIO-LH in the early follicular phase of control women. Consequently, the median BIO/IRMA-LH ratio was 4.8-fold higher in PCOD patients compared to non-PCOD patients. In women with cycle abnormalities, individual BIO/IRMA-LH ratios correlated with BIO-LH (rs = 0.48), FAI (rs = 0.39), free estrogens (E2/SHBG ratios; rs = 0 0.47), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (rs = 0.60) concentrations. Mean IRMA-, RIA-, and BIO-FSH levels and BIO/IRMA-FSH ratios were not significantly different when various groups were compared. Although RIA- and IRMA-LH levels showed good correlation (rs = 0.88), RIA-LH levels were consistently higher, resulting in distinctly higher RIA-LH/FSH ratios (mean, 4.5) compared to IRMA-LH/FSH ratios (median, 1.8) in PCOD patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1909705

  8. Abnormal serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 is associated with tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarchoan, Mark; Toledo, Jon B; Lee, Edward B; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Kazi, Hala; Han, Li-Ying; Louneva, Natalia; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Kim, Sangwon F; Trojanowski, John Q; Arnold, Steven E

    2014-11-01

    Neuronal insulin signaling abnormalities have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the specificity of this association and its underlying mechanisms have been unclear. This study investigated the expression of abnormal serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in 157 human brain autopsy cases that included AD, tauopathies, ?-synucleinopathies, TDP-43 proteinopathies, and normal aging. IRS1-pS(616), IRS1-pS(312) and downstream target Akt-pS(473) measures were most elevated in AD but were also significantly increased in the tauopathies: Pick's disease, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed frequent co-expression of IRS1-pS(616) with pathologic tau in neurons and dystrophic neurites. To further investigate an association between tau and abnormal serine phosphorylation of IRS1, we examined the presence of abnormal IRS1-pS(616) expression in pathological tau-expressing transgenic mice and demonstrated that abnormal IRS1-pS(616) frequently co-localizes in tangle-bearing neurons. Conversely, we observed increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau in the high-fat diet-fed mouse, a model of insulin resistance. These results provide confirmation and specificity that abnormal phosphorylation of IRS1 is a pathological feature of AD and other tauopathies, and provide support for an association between insulin resistance and abnormal tau as well as amyloid-?. PMID:25107476

  9. 21 CFR 862.1405 - Immunoreactive insulin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Identification. An immunoreactive insulin test system is a device intended to measure immunoreactive insulin in serum and plasma. Immunoreactive insulin measurements are used in...metabolism disorders, including diabetes mellitus, and...

  10. Chromosome Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a female is born with only one sex chromosome, an X, and is usually shorter than average and unable to have children, among other difficulties. Structural Abnormalities: A chromosome's structure can be altered in several ways. Deletions: ...

  11. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... predict if the problem will reoccur. If Your Family Has Experienced a Genetic-Related Birth Abnormality Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a ... the proper course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic ... with Down Syndrome: Health ...

  12. Intraepidermal neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-immunoreactive nerve fibres: evidence for sprouting in uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Ståhle-Bäckdahl, M

    1989-05-01

    The use of indirect immunohistochemistry in 12 patients on maintenance hemodialysis has shown weak or moderately strong neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-immunoreactive nerve terminals and fibres sprouting throughout the layers of the epidermis. No such terminals or fibres were found in any of 15 controls. There was no difference between uremic patients with pruritus and those without. Furthermore, NSE-positive nerve fibres with a normal appearance were seen in the dermis, at the epidermal-dermal junctional zone and sometimes entering the stratum basale in both patients and controls. The immunoreactive nerves were thin, smooth and, at their terminal fields, varicose. The immunoreactivity seemed to be associated chiefly with sensory nerves. Thus, our results suggest that uremic patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop an abnormal pattern of cutaneous innervation. PMID:2657508

  13. Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions are associated with increased risk for ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Elden, Andrew C.; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Hart, Michael P.; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Johnson, Brian S.; Fang, Xiaodong; Armakola, Maria; Geser, Felix; Greene, Robert; Lu, Min Min; Padmanabhan, Arun; Clay, Dana; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Juhr, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human neurodegenerative disease. The causes of ALS are poorly understood, although the protein TDP-43 has been suggested to play a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Here we show that Ataxin-2, a polyglutamine (polyQ) protein mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), is a potent modifier of TDP-43 toxicity in animal and cellular models. The proteins associate in a complex that depends on RNA. Ataxin-2 is abnormally localized in s...

  14. Mapping of neurokinin-like immunoreactivity in the human brainstem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveñas, Rafael; Martin, Francisco; Belda, Magdalena; Smith, Victor; Salinas, Pablo; Rivada, Eva; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narvaez, Jose Angel; Marcos, Pilar; Tramu, Gerard; Gonzalez-Baron, Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Background Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we have studied the distribution of immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies containing neurokinin in the adult human brainstem with no prior history of neurological or psychiatric disease. Results Clusters of immunoreactive cell bodies and high densities of neurokinin-immunoreactive fibers were located in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons and mesencephalon. Moreover, immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the inferior colliculus, the raphe obscurus, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, and in the midline of the anterior medulla oblongata. In general, immunoreactive fibers containing neurokinin were observed throughout the whole brainstem. In addition to the nuclei mentioned above, the highest densities of such immunoreactive fibers were located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the superior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus ambiguus, the gracile nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the medial and superior vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and the interpeduncular nucleus. Conclusion The widespread distribution of immunoreactive structures containing neurokinin in the human brainstem indicates that neurokinin might be involved in several physiological mechanisms, acting as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. PMID:12617753

  15. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  16. Immunoreactive determinants of CA 125 in women with endometriosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mojiminiyi, O. A.; Bramwell, M. E.; Kennedy, S. H.; Shepstone, B. J.; Humm, S. M.; Barlow, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Among 10 patients with endometriosis CA 125 was increased (greater than 35 U/ml) in endometriotic cyst fluid in all the patients, but only two had increased serum concentrations. Gel electrophoresis of serum, endometriotic cyst fluid, and endometriotic tissue resolved the CA 125 immunoreactive fragments from the three sources into bands of similar electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions showed immunoreactive fragments of apparent masses of 55,000...

  17. Rapid renal clearance of immunoreactive canine plasma myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rates and mechanisms of myoglobin removal from plasma were examined in closed-chest dogs, using disappearance patterns of immunoreactivity and radioactivity after i.v. canine myoglobin radiolabeled with 125I. Arterial immunoreactive myoglobin concentration decreased monoexponentially over a 2-decade range, with rate constants of disappearance averaging -0.080 +/- 0.014 min-1 (+/- SD). Renal arteriovenous difference in immunoreactive myoglobin concentration documented extraction of the parent molecule, with extraction ratios averaging 0.36 +/- 0.06. Renal venous specific activity increased a few minutes after myoglobin administration, consistent with discharge from the kidney of nonimmunoreactive radiolabeled peptides of the parent molecule. Arterial disappearance of 125I was subsequently delayed in relation to immunoreactive myoglobin. Urinary recoveries of immunoreactive parent molecule and radiolabeled constituents were limited, averaging 2.5 +/- 1.1% and 12 +/- 1.1% over a 6-hour period. Arterial rate, constants of disappearance of immunoreactive myoglobin decreased markedly with decreases in renal perfusion produced by obstruction of renal arterial inflow. Researchers conclude that myoglobin entering the vascular space is normally cleared rapidly by renal catabolism. Seven myoglobin concentration-time patterns during acute myocardial infarction directly reflect patterns of protein entry into the vascular space after release from injured tissuee from injured tissue

  18. DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellows CF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Gagliardi1, Monica Goswami1, Roberto Passera2, Charles F Bellows11Department of Surgery and Pathology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Division of Nuclear Medicine Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Turin, ItalyIntroduction: Microtubule-associated doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCLK1 is a novel candidate marker for intestinal stem cells. The aim of our study was to assess DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal carcinogenesis and its correlation with prognosis.Methods: DCLK1 immunostaining was performed in colorectal tissue from 71 patients, including 18 adenomatous polyps, 40 primary adenocarcinomas, and 14 metastatic lesions. Each case was evaluated by a combined scoring method based on the intensity of staining (score 0–3 and the percentage of tissue staining positive (score 0–3. Immunoexpression for DCLK1 was considered as positive when the combined score was 2–6 and negative with a score of 0–1.Results: Overall, 14/18 (78% of polyps, 30/40 (75% of primary adenocarcinomas, and 7/14 (50% of distant metastases were positive for DCLK1. In adenomatous polyps and primary cancer there was no association between DCLK1 staining score and tumor pathology. However, after curative colorectal cancer resection, patients whose tumor had a high (?5 combined staining score had increased cancer-specific mortality compared to patients with low (0–4 staining score (hazard ratio 5.89; 95% confidence interval: 1.22–28.47; P = 0.027.Conclusion: We found that DCLK1 is frequently expressed in colorectal neoplasia and may be associated with poor prognosis. Further studies are necessary to validate the use of DCLK1 as a prognostic marker.Keywords: DCLK1, DCAMKL-1, gastrointestinal stem cell, cancer stem cell, adenomatous polyps, liver metastasis, immunohistochemistry

  19. Abnormalities in Pericytes on Blood Vessels and Endothelial Sprouts in Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Shunichi; Baluk, Peter; Kaidoh, Toshiyuki; Haskell, Amy; Jain, Rakesh K.; Mcdonald, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    Endothelial cells of tumor vessels have well-documented alterations, but it is less clear whether pericytes on these vessels are abnormal or even absent. Here we report that ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and desmin-immunoreactive pericytes were present on >97% of blood vessels viewed by confocal microscopy in 100-?m-thick sections of three different spontaneous or implanted tumors in mice. However, the cells had multiple abnormalities. Unlike pericytes on capillaries in normal pancreatic i...

  20. Localization of pan-cadherin immunoreactivity in adult rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz, Serdar; Dalcik, Hakki; Yardimoglu, Melda; Gonca, Suheyla; Ceylan, Sureyya

    2002-01-01

    Cadherins, being responsible for selective cell recognition and normal tissue integrity in adults, regulate morphogenesis in a variety of organs during development. In this study, anti-rat pan-cadherin antibody, specific to all subgroups of the cadherin family, was used to map the distribution of the pan-cadherin immunoreactivity in adult rat organs. Pan-cadherin immunoreactivity positive tissues were: secretory cells of the adenohypophysis, autonomic nerve, corneal epithelium, oesophageal nerve plexus, stomach and pyloric glandular cells, epithelium of the ileum and its nerve plexus, alveolar cells of the lung, proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, islet cells of Langerhans, and the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. For the first time, positive pan-cadherin immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the epithelial cells of the corpus ciliaris and in the nerve plexus of corpus cavernosum of the penis. In conclusion, our results suggest that cells in many tissues and organs of the adult rat synthesize cadherins. PMID:12468390

  1. Cloning and Expression of a Helicobacter bilis Immunoreactive Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Sunlian; Hodzic, Emir; Kendall, Lon V.; Smith, Amy; Freet, Kimberly; Barthold, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to identify immunoreactive Helicobacter bilis antigens with potential for serodiagnosis, sera from mice experimentally infected with H. bilis were used to screen an H. bilis genomic DNA expression library. Among 17 immunoreactive clones, several contained sequences that encoded a predicted 167-kDa protein (P167). Five overlapping P167 peptides (P167A to P167E) of approximately 40 kDa each were generated and tested. Immune sera reacted with fragments P167C and P167D at dilutions o...

  2. Antisense RNA foci in the motor neurons of C9ORF72-ALS patients are associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Higginbottom, Adrian; Stopford, Matthew J.; Highley, J. Robin; Ince, Paul G.; Wharton, Stephen B.; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Kirby, Janine; Hautbergue, Guillaume M.; Shaw, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    GGGGCC repeat expansions of C9ORF72 represent the most common genetic variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. We and others have proposed that RNA transcribed from the repeat sequence is toxic via sequestration of RNA-binding factors. Both GGGGCC-repeat (sense) and CCCCGG-repeat (antisense) molecules are detectable by fluorescence in situ hybridisation as RNA foci, but their relative expression pattern within the CNS and contribution to disease has not been...

  3. FTLD-ALS of TDP-43 type and SCA2 in a family with a full ataxin-2 polyglutamine expansion.

    OpenAIRE

    Ba?umer, D.; East, Sz; Tseu, B.; Zeman, A.; Hilton, D.; Talbot, K.; Ansorge, O.

    2014-01-01

    Polyglutamine expansions in the ataxin-2 gene (ATXN2) cause autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), but have recently also been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We present clinical and pathological features of a family in which a pathological ATXN2 expansion led to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ALS (FTLD-ALS) in the index case, but typical SCA2 in a son, and compare the neuropathology with a case of typical SCA2. The index case shares the molecula...

  4. Suppression of Amyloid ? A11 Antibody Immunoreactivity by Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Cappai, Roberto; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Svensson, Gabriel; Multhaup, Gerd; Fransson, Lars-?ke; Mani, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid ? (A?) is generated from the copper- and heparan sulfate (HS)-binding amyloid precursor protein (APP) by proteolytic processing. APP supports S-nitrosylation of the HS proteoglycan glypican-1 (Gpc-1). In the presence of ascorbate, there is NO-catalyzed release of anhydromannose (anMan)-containing oligosaccharides from Gpc-1-nitrosothiol. We investigated whether these oligosaccharides interact with A? during APP processing and plaque formation. anMan immunoreactivity was detected in amyloid plaques of Alzheimer (AD) and APP transgenic (Tg2576) mouse brains by immunofluorescence microscopy. APP/APP degradation products detected by antibodies to the C terminus of APP, but not A? oligomers detected by the anti-A? A11 antibody, colocalized with anMan immunoreactivity in Tg2576 fibroblasts. A 50–55-kDa anionic, sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable, anMan- and A?-immunoreactive species was obtained from Tg2576 fibroblasts using immunoprecipitation with anti-APP (C terminus). anMan-containing HS oligo- and disaccharide preparations modulated or suppressed A11 immunoreactivity and oligomerization of A?42 peptide in an in vitro assay. A11 immunoreactivity increased in Tg2576 fibroblasts when Gpc-1 autoprocessing was inhibited by 3-?[2(diethylamino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A) and decreased when Gpc-1 autoprocessing was stimulated by ascorbate. Neither overexpression of Gpc-1 in Tg2576 fibroblasts nor addition of copper ion and NO donor to hippocampal slices from 3xTg-AD mice affected A11 immunoreactivity levels. However, A11 immunoreactivity was greatly suppressed by the subsequent addition of ascorbate. We speculate that temporary interaction between the A? domain and small, anMan-containing oligosaccharides may preclude formation of toxic A? oligomers. A portion of the oligosaccharides are co-secreted with the A? peptides and deposited in plaques. These results support the notion that an inadequate supply of vitamin C could contribute to late onset AD in humans. PMID:21642435

  5. Intraneuronal A? immunoreactivity is not a predictor of brain amyloidosis-? or neurofibrillary degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Wegiel, Jerzy; Kuchna, Izabela; Nowicki, Krzysztof; Frackowiak, Janusz; Mazur-kolecka, Bozena; Imaki, Humi; Wegiel, Jarek; Mehta, Pankaj; Silverman, Wayne; Reisberg, Barry; Deleon, Mony; Wisniewski, Thomas; Pirttilla, Tuula; Frey, Harry; Lehtima?ki, Terho

    2007-01-01

    Amyloid ? (A?) immunoreactivity in neurons was examined in brains of 32 control subjects, 31 people with Down syndrome, and 36 patients with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease to determine if intraneuronal A? immunoreactivity is an early manifestation of Alzheimer-type pathology leading to fibrillar plaque formation and/or neurofibrillary degeneration. The appearance of A? immunoreactivity in neurons in infants and stable neuron-type specific A? immunoreactivity in a majority of ...

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding? • Glossary Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • Use of some birth control methods, such as an intrauterine device (IUD) or birth control pills • Infection of the uterus or cervix • Fibroids • ...

  7. Restraint stress activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive brain nuclei in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel, Miriam; Stengel, Andreas; Wang, Lixin; Tache?, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a newly discovered peptide that was reported to reduce food intake when injected centrally. We recently described its wide distribution in rat brain autonomic nuclei which implies potential recruitment of nesfatin-1 by stress. We investigated whether restraint, a mixed psychological and physical stressor activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were either subjected to 30 min restraint or left undisturbed and 90 min later brains...

  8. Immunoreactive neuropeptides in the cells of human thymus

    OpenAIRE

    Leposavi? Gordana; Todorovi? Vera; Nikoli? I.; Perisi? Milica

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to explore the expression of different neuropeptides, viz. vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), bombesin and motilin in the cells of fetal and adult human thymus. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cortical and medullary thymocytes were labeled by all antibodies, except those specific for motilin. Immunoreactive VIP and SP were observed in the solitary epithelial cells located in the subcapsular/sub...

  9. Relationships among Parvalbumin-Immunoreactive Neuron Density, Phase-Locked Gamma Oscillations, and Autistic/Schizophrenic Symptoms in PDGFR-? Knock-Out and Control Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Takamura, Yusaku; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits and negative symptoms are important therapeutic targets for schizophrenia and autism disorders. Although reduction of phase-locked gamma oscillation has been suggested to be a result of reduced parvalbumin-immunoreactive (putatively, GABAergic) neurons, no direct correlations between these have been established in these disorders. In the present study, we investigated such relationships during pharmacological treatment with a newly synthesized drug, T-817MA, which displays neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. In this study, we used platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? gene knockout (PDGFR-? KO) mice as an animal model of schizophrenia and autism. These mutant mice display a reduction in social behaviors; deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI); reduced levels of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the medical prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and superior colliculus; and a deficit in of auditory phase-locked gamma oscillations. We found that oral administration of T-817MA ameliorated all these symptoms in the PDGFR-? KO mice. Furthermore, phase-locked gamma oscillations were significantly correlated with the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons, which was, in turn, correlated with PPI and behavioral parameters. These findings suggest that recovery of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons by pharmacological intervention relieved the reduction of phase-locked gamma oscillations and, consequently, ameliorated PPI and social behavioral deficits. Thus, our findings suggest that phase-locked gamma oscillations could be a useful physiological biomarker for abnormality of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons that may induce cognitive deficits and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and autism, as well as of effective pharmacological interventions in both humans and experimental animals. PMID:25803852

  10. Immunoreactivity examination of patients with testicular tumours treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the immunoreactivity study of 72 patients receiving radiotherapy are presented. Tuberculin and DNCB (2,4 dinitrochlorobenzol) reactivity tests were performed before, during and 3 years after the radiation therapy and at the time when metastases appeared. The number of positive reactions decreased slightly in both tuberculin and DNCB groups, though not significantly. Metastatic patients showed a significant decrease of reactivity against DNCB as compared with the results obtained before the treatment. In 5,6% of patients herpes zoster was registered. No other infections occured. It was found that immunosuppression caused by the radiation treatment does not influence the later fate of patients with testicular tumours. (author)

  11. Immunoreactivity examination of patients with testicular tumours treated with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanits, K.; Kuhn, E.; Csere, T.

    1985-02-01

    Results of the immunoreactivity study of 72 patients receiving radiotherapy are presented. Tuberculin and DNCB (2,4 dinitrochlorobenzol) reactivity tests were performed before, during and 3 years after the radiation therapy and at the time when metastases appeared. The number of positive reactions decreased slightly in both tuberculin and DNCB groups, though not significantly. Metastatic patients showed a significant decrease of reactivity against DNCB as compared with the results obtained before the treatment. In 5,6% of patients herpes zoster was registered. No other infections occured. It was found that immunosuppression caused by the radiation treatment does not influence the later fate of patients with testicular tumours. 41 refs.

  12. Parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    OpenAIRE

    FERRER, I; Zujar, M J; Admella, C; Alcantara, S

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the morphology and distribution of nonpyramidal neurons in the brain of insectivores, parvalbumin and calbindin 28 kDa immunoreactivity was examined in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were found in all layers of the isocortex, but in contrast to other mammals, a laminar organisation or specific regional distribution was not seen. Characteristic parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were multipolar cells with large ascendi...

  13. Abnormal Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Rohila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing crime rate identification using biometrics has become an important field of research. When it is not possible to take snapshot, to read iris, to take finger prints etc then identification using gait may be proved an effective tool to identify a person. This paper presents a method which distinguishs between normal and abnormal gait. A person having abnormal gait may be categorize as suspicious and alarming actions may be taken. Experiments have been done on real world data and system has been trained for normal walk for real world subjects.

  14. Renal abnormalities in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated laboratory and clinical manifestations of renal disease in 96 patients with leprosy, looking for a sensitive and early marker for detection and possibly follow-up of nephropathy in these patients. Microscopic hematuria was observed in 21.9% of the cases (with dysmorphic erythrocytes in 71.4% of them). Abnormal microalbuminuria and urinary beta 2-microglobulin were found in 15.8 and 19.8% of the cases, respectively. We have observed a high frequency of hematuria, abnormal microalbuminuria and elevation of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in these patients still with normal serum creatinine. PMID:8289988

  15. Menin immunoreactivity in secretory granules of human pancreatic islet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelenko, Larisa V; Agarwal, Sunita; Du, Qiang; Yan, Wusheng; Erickson, Heidi S; Abu-Asab, Mones; Raffeld, Mark A; Libutti, Steven K; Marx, Stephen J; Emmert-Buck, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The protein product of the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I (MEN1) gene is thought to be involved in predominantly nuclear functions; however, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis data on cellular localization are conflicting. To further investigate menin expression, we analyzed human pancreas (an MEN1 target organ) using IHC analyses and 6 antibodies raised against full-length menin or its peptides. In 10 normal pancreas specimens, 2 independently raised antibodies showed unexpected cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in peripheral cells in each islet examined (over 100 total across all 10 patients). The staining exhibited a distinct punctate pattern and subsequent immunoelectron microscopy indicated the target antigen was in secretory granules. Exocrine pancreas and pancreatic stroma were not immunoreactive. In MEN1 patients, unaffected islets stained similar to those in normal samples but with a more peripheral location of positive cells, whereas hyperplastic islets and tumorlets showed increased and diffuse cytoplasmic staining, respectively. Endocrine tumors from MEN1 patients were negative for menin, consistent with a 2-hit loss of a tumor suppressor gene. Secretory granule localization of menin in a subset of islet cells suggests a function of the protein unique to a target organ of familial endocrine neoplasia, although the IHC data must be interpreted with some caution because of the possibility of antibody cross-reaction. The identity, cellular trafficking, and role of this putative secretory granule-form of menin warrant additional investigation. PMID:25153502

  16. Orexin-immunoreactive inputs to rat sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Smith, I J; Martin, C L; Marcus, J N; Yanagisawa, M; Minson, J B; Scammell, T E

    2003-11-13

    Orexin increases blood pressure and orexin-immunoreactive (IR) axons robustly innervate the spinal cord. Seeking anatomical evidence for direct effects of orexin on sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN), we used immunohistochemistry to study the relationships between orexin-IR axons and SPN identified by immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or for cholera toxin B retrogradely transported from the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). In the intermediolateral cell column (IML), varicose, orexin-positive axons closely apposed almost all SPN in segments T1 and T2, but appositions were rare in T4-L2. Orexin fibers also apposed ChAT-IR cell bodies in the intercalated nucleus and the central autonomic area from T1 to L2. Orexin-IR synapses were identified ultrastructurally on SPN projecting to the SCG. Since SPN involved in cardiovascular control cluster in the IML of mid- and lower thoracic cord, these findings suggest that orexin affects blood pressure by acting on supraspinal neurons rather than SPN. PMID:14583395

  17. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  18. Immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I; Röhlich, P; Aros, B

    1982-01-01

    The presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (Emys orbicularis, Pseudemys scripta elegans, Lacerta agilis et viridis, Gallus domesticus, Columba livia, Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, Taeniopyga punctate). The outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. The results were compared with those obtained in retinal photoreceptors of the same species as well as in the pineal organ of fishes and amphibians (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Rana esculenta). Corresponding to immunoreactive structures seen in the light microscope, we found typical outer segments on a large number of pinealocytes in most of the reptiles and birds studied. The presence of opsin in the numerous well developed pineal outer segments of these reptilian and avian species contradicts the earlier hypothesis on the gradual regression of pineal sensitive structures in the avian line of evolution. PMID:6213109

  19. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the human claustrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinova-Palova, D V; Edelstein, L; Landzhov, B V; Braak, E; Malinova, L G; Minkov, M; Paloff, A; Ovtscharoff, W

    2014-09-01

    The morphology and distribution of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons (PV-ir) were studied in the human claustrum. PV-ir neurons were observed throughout the claustrum, with the highest numbers noted in the central (broadest) portion as compared with the dorsal and ventral aspects. Reaction product was evident in the neuronal perikarya, dendritic processes, and spines. In the majority of these labeled neurons, the cytoplasm was devoid of lipofuscin pigment. Cell bodies varied widely in both shape and size, ranging from oval and small, to multipolar and large. PV-ir neurons were classified into two groups, primarily based on dendritic morphology: spiny neurons with long and straight dendrites, and aspiny neurons with thin and curving dendritic processes. PV-ir fibers were seen throughout the neuropil, with many immuno-positive puncta noted. PMID:23832597

  20. [Immunoreaction and blood transfusion--chairmen's introductory remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Tsutomu; Matsushita, Tadashi

    2013-05-01

    Although blood transfusion is an extremely important therapeutic procedure that usually proceeds without complications, there are some risks associated with donated blood. Investigations into the causes of transfusion reactions and their prevention are important issues for transfusion therapy. In addition to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for infectious diseases and the irradiation of blood to prevent post-transfusion GVHD, prestorage leukocyte reduction and diversion of the first part of the donation of blood were recently introduced into transfusion therapy. This symposium, entitled "Immunoreaction and blood transfusion", reviewed the immune responses associated with blood transfusion, which is probably the most frequent medical procedure performed in allogeneic organ transplantation, with four themes provided by the four featured invited speakers: transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transfusion-transmitted infectious disease surveillance, and transfusion-related immunomodulation. PMID:23947177

  1. MAPK immunoreactivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat testis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yel& #305; z Bozdem& #305; r, Donmez; Gulnur, Kizilay; Yeter, Topcu-Tarladacalisir.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK), in the testes of male rats with experimental diabetes. METHODS: Twenty males Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a [...] control group (n=8) and a diabetes group (administration of 40 mg/kg/day streptozotocin (STZ) for five sequential days, n=12). After six weeks, testicular biopsy samples were obtained for light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) index was significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004) when compared to the control group. Both total (t)-ERK and phosphor (p)-ERK immunoreactivities were significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004, p

  2. Cloning and Expression of a Helicobacter bilis Immunoreactive Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sunlian; Hodzic, Emir; Kendall, Lon V.; Smith, Amy; Freet, Kimberly; Barthold, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to identify immunoreactive Helicobacter bilis antigens with potential for serodiagnosis, sera from mice experimentally infected with H. bilis were used to screen an H. bilis genomic DNA expression library. Among 17 immunoreactive clones, several contained sequences that encoded a predicted 167-kDa protein (P167). Five overlapping P167 peptides (P167A to P167E) of approximately 40 kDa each were generated and tested. Immune sera reacted with fragments P167C and P167D at dilutions of 1:1,600 and 1:6,400, respectively, and reacted with an H. bilis membrane extract at a dilution of 1:800 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera from mice experimentally infected with H. hepaticus did not react with P167C and P167D. Sera from mice naturally infected with H. bilis but not sera from mice naturally infected with H. hepaticus reacted with P167C and P167D. Hyperimmune sera against P167C peptide reacted with recombinant P167C and with a 120-kDa band in H. bilis lysates but did not react with a protein of the same size on immunoblots prepared from H. hepaticus, H. muridarum, or unrelated Borrelia burgdorferi and Campylobacter jejuni whole-cell lysates. Nevertheless, the P167A, P167B, P167C, and P167D primers, but not the P167E primers, amplified DNA from H. hepaticus, and all five primer sets amplified DNA from H. muridarum. These results suggest that P167 is an immunodominant, H. bilis-specific antigen that may have potential for use in serodiagnosis. PMID:11986271

  3. Contactless abnormal gait detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Anh-Tuan; Auvinet, Edouard; Multon, Franck; Meunier, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method to detect abnormal gait based on the symmetry verification of the two-leg movement. Unlike other methods requiring special motion captors, the proposed method uses image processing techniques to correctly track leg movement. Our method first divides each leg into upper and lower parts using anatomical knowledge. Then each part is characterised by two straight lines approximating its two borders. Finally, leg movement is represented by the angle evolution of these lines. In this process, we propose a new line approximation algorithm which is robust to the outliers caused by incorrect separation of leg into upper / lower parts. In our experiment, the proposed method got very encouraging results. With 281 normal / abnormal gait videos of 9 people, this method achieved a classification accuracy of 91%. PMID:22255480

  4. Localization of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunoreactivity in adult rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz, S; Dalcik, H; Yardimoglu, M; Gonca, S; Ceylan, S

    2002-05-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) mediates homophilic adhesion between cells and heterophilic adhesion between cells and extracellular matrix in a Ca2+-independent manner. N-CAM is widely expressed during development and plays a crucial role in cell division, migration, and differentiation, but its expression is restricted in adults. The distribution of N-CAM immunoreactivity in adult rat tissues was investigated in the present study. N-CAM immunoreactivity was present in the nervous system in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, ependymal cells surrounding the central canal, axons of the white matter, and in Lamina X of the gray matter of the spinal cord. N-CAM immunoreactivity also was found in autonomic nerves. In the digestive system, N-CAM immunoreactivity was found in the stratified squamous epithelium and nerve plexus of the esophagus, glandular cells of the stomach and pylorus, lamina propria, and epithelium of the villi of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. N-CAM immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the secretory cells of the adenohypophysis, islets of Langerhans, and acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. Alveolar cells of the lung were also N-CAM immunoreactive. In the urinary system, N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney. In the male reproductive system, N-CAM immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the nerve plexus around the urethral epithelium and in the nerve fibers around the smooth muscle cells of the corpus cavernosum penis. In the visual system, N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen in the epithelial cells of the corpus ciliaris. Cornea and lens epithelium also showed positive immunoreactivity. Our results suggest that cells in many tissues and organs of the adult rat synthesize N-CAM. PMID:12229933

  5. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how ...

  6. Drastic immunoreactivity changes between the immature and mature forms of the Sendai virus HN and F0 glycoproteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Mottet, G; Portner, A; Roux, L.

    1986-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of the Sendai virus HN and F0 glycoproteins was shown to mature before reaching the final form exhibited by the native mature proteins. The maturation process differed for the two proteins. The native F0 immunoreactivity was shown to be defined cotranslationally, and the addition of high-mannose sugar residues may represent the final step in defining the maturation of immunoreactivity. On the other hand, native HN immunoreactivity was slowly fashioned during the hour afte...

  7. Chronic 835-MHz radiofrequency exposure to mice hippocampus alters the distribution of calbindin and GFAP immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Dhiraj; Pradhan, Jonu; Aryal, Bijay; Lee, Chang-Min; Choi, In-Young; Park, Ki-Sup; Kim, Seok Bae; Kim, Hyung Gun; Kim, Myeung Ju

    2010-07-30

    Exponential interindividual handling in wireless communication system has raised possible doubts in the biological aspects of radiofrequency (RF) exposure on human brain owing to its close proximity to the mobile phone. In the nervous system, calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a critical role in releasing neurotransmitters, generating action potential and membrane integrity. Alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration trigger aberrant synaptic action or cause neuronal apoptosis, which may exert an influence on the cellular pathology for learning and memory in the hippocampus. Calcium binding proteins like calbindin D28-K (CB) is responsible for the maintaining and controlling Ca(2+) homeostasis. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of RF exposure on rat hippocampus at 835 MHz with low energy (specific absorption rate: SAR=1.6 W/kg) for 3 months by using both CB and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) specific antibodies by immunohistochemical method. Decrease in CB immunoreactivity (IR) was noted in exposed (E1.6) group with loss of interneurons and pyramidal cells in CA1 area and loss of granule cells. Also, an overall increase in GFAP IR was observed in the hippocampus of E1.6. By TUNEL assay, apoptotic cells were detected in the CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, which reflects that chronic RF exposure may affect the cell viability. In addition, the increase of GFAP IR due to RF exposure could be well suited with the feature of reactive astrocytosis, which is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the loss of nearby neurons. Chronic RF exposure to the rat brain suggested that the decrease of CB IR accompanying apoptosis and increase of GFAP IR might be morphological parameters in the hippocampus damages. PMID:20546709

  8. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  9. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rosefielde

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  10. Distinct Temporal and Anatomical Distributions of Amyloid-? and Tau Abnormalities following Controlled Cortical Impact in Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hien T.; Sanchez, Laura; Esparza, Thomas J.; Brody, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Intracellular accumulations of amyloid-? and tau proteins have been observed within hours following severe TBI in humans. Similar abnormalities have been recapitulated in young 3xTg-AD mice subjected to the controlled cortical impact model (CCI) of TBI and sacrificed at 24 h and 7 days post injury. This study investigated the temporal and anatomical distributions of amyloid-? and tau abnormalities from 1 h to 24 h post injury in the same model. Intra-axonal amyloid-? accumulation in the fimbria was detected as early as 1 hour and increased monotonically over 24 hours following injury. Tau immunoreactivity in the fimbria and amygdala had a biphasic time course with peaks at 1 hour and 24 hours, while tau immunoreactivity in the contralateral CA1 rose in a delayed fashion starting at 12 hours after injury. Furthermore, rapid intra-axonal amyloid-? accumulation was similarly observed post controlled cortical injury in APP/PS1 mice, another transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Acute increases in total and phospho-tau immunoreactivity were also evident in single transgenic TauP301L mice subjected to controlled cortical injury. These data provide further evidence for the causal effects of moderately severe contusional TBI on acceleration of acute Alzheimer-related abnormalities and the independent relationship between amyloid-? and tau in this setting. PMID:21980472

  11. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity in brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri (Cyclostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirikowski, G; Erhart, G

    1984-01-01

    Paraffin sections of brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri were immunostained with an antiserum to FMRF-amide. Immunoreactivity was visible in a large number of neurons in the posterior part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in long neuronal processes extending cranially from the hypothalamus to the olfactory system and caudally to the medulla oblongata. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity was also found in cells of the adenohypophysis. These observations suggest that the hagfish possesses a brain FMRF-amide-like transmitter system and pituitary cells containing FMRF-amide-like material. Antisera to ACTH, alpha-MSH and pancreatic polypeptide gave no immunoreaction in hagfish brain or pituitary.

  12. Inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in healthy rat pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is produced by NO synthase (NOS isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS, endothelial NOS (eNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS. It is believed that, while nNOS and eNOS are effective in regulation of normal physiological processes, iNOS is expressed at an increasing rate especially in inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of iNOS immunoreactivity (iNOS-IR and, to compare the iNOS-IR in islet of Langerhans cells (LC, acinar cells (AC, centroacinar cells (CC and ductal cells (DC by immunohistochemical (IHC method in healthy rat pancreata. This study revealed the presence of iNOS-IR in all cell types except AC. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference (p<0.001 with respect to iNOS-IR in comparison of all cell types. However, binary comparison of cell types revealed no significant differences between LC and DC (p=0.136, significant differences LC and CC, CC and DC (p=0.001 and 0.022, respectively and a highly significant differences LC and AC, AC and DC (P<0.001. The results of this study indicate that iNOS-IR is present in almost all LC. Thus, especially in reseach related to diabetes, it should not be disregarded that iNOS may be constitutively present in pancreatic islets.

  13. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in rat occipital cortex after callosotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lepore

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal steroidogenesis can be influenced by direct neural links between the central nervous system and the gonads. It is known that androgen receptor (AR is expressed in many areas of the rat brain involved in neuroendocrine control of reproduction, such as the cerebral cortex. It has been recently shown that the occipital cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on testicular stereoidogenesis by a pituitary-independent neural mechanism. Moreover, the complete transection of the corpus callosum leads to an increase in testosterone (T secretion of hemigonadectomized rats. The present study was undertaken to analyze the possible corticocortical influences regulating male reproductive activities. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: 1 intact animals as control; 2 rats undergoing sham callosotomy; 3 posterior callosotomy; 4 gonadectomy and posterior callosotomy. Western blot analysis showed no remarkable variations in cortical AR expression in any of the groups except in group I where a significant decrease in AR levels was found. Similarly, both immunocytochemical study and cell count estimation showed a lower AR immunoreactivity in occipital cortex of callosotomized rats than in other groups. In addition, there was no difference in serum T and LH concentration between sham-callosotomized and callosotomized rats. In conclusion, our results show that posterior callosotomy led to a reduction in AR in the right occipital cortex suggesting a putative inhibiting effect of the contralateral cortical area.

  14. Immunoreactive neuropeptides in the cells of human thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavi? Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to explore the expression of different neuropeptides, viz. vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, bombesin and motilin in the cells of fetal and adult human thymus. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cortical and medullary thymocytes were labeled by all antibodies, except those specific for motilin. Immunoreactive VIP and SP were observed in the solitary epithelial cells located in the subcapsular/subtrabecular cortex, at the corticomedullary junction and in the medulla. The cells within the subcapsular/subtrabecular monolayer, rare solitary cells in the deep cortex and epithelial cell network in the medulla, were labeled with antibodies to CGRP and bombesin. Hassall’s corpuscles were labeled with all antibodies except that specific for SP. The obtained data obtained testify to the expression of different neuropeptides in human thymic lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells and suggest a role for neuroendocrine hormone-mediated mechanisms in the regulation of thymic homeostasis in humans.

  15. HCN4-like immunoreactivity in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Hanako; Partida, Gloria J; Lee, Sherwin C; Ishida, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    Antisera directed against hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive (HCN) channels bind to somata in the ganglion cell layer of rat and rabbit retinas, and mRNA for different HCN channel isoforms has been detected in the ganglion cell layer of mouse retina. However, previous studies neither provided evidence that any of the somata are ganglion cells (as opposed to displaced amacrine cells) nor quantified these cells. We therefore tested whether isoform-specific anti-HCN channel antisera bind to ganglion cells labeled by retrograde transport of fluorophore-coupled dextran. In flat-mounted adult rat retinas, the number of dextran-backfilled ganglion cells agreed with cell densities reported in previous studies, and anti-HCN4 antisera bound to the somata of approximately 40% of these cells. The diameter of these somata ranged from 7 to 30 microm. Consistent with localization to cell membranes, the immunoreactivity formed a thin line that circumscribed individual somata. Optic fiber layer axon fascicles, and the proximal dendrites of some ganglion cells, also displayed binding of anti-HCN4 antisera. These results suggest that the response of some mammalian retinal ganglion cells to hyperpolarization may be modulated by changes in intracellular cAMP levels, and could thus be more complex than expected from previous voltage and current recordings. PMID:18282314

  16. Preservative effect of aprotinin on canine plasma immunoreactive adrenocorticotropin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, R J; Clark, T P; Peterson, M E

    1994-10-01

    The susceptibility of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) in canine blood and plasma to enzymatic degradation has limited the availability of endogenous ACTH assay for veterinary use. This study examined if a proteinase (enzyme) inhibitor, aprotinin, mixed with blood at the time of collection, would limit the loss of immunoreactive (IR) ACTH from canine plasma stored at various temperatures. Blood was collected from laboratory-maintained dogs or dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and placed into EDTA-containing tubes in the presence or absence of aprotinin. Plasma obtained was stored for 4 d at temperatures ranging from -86 degrees C to room temperature (22 degrees C). Results showed that addition of aprotinin preserved IR-ACTH concentrations in plasma stored for 4 d at temperatures refrigerant packs. Plasma collected with aprotinin and stored at 22 degrees C showed a slight (17-23%) but significant (P < 0.05) decline in IR-ACTH. Unfrozen plasma collected without aprotinin showed significant (P < 0.05) loss of IR-ACTH during storage under identical conditions. These data indicate that aprotinin has a profound preservative effect upon canine plasma IR-ACTH and that it may be possible to submit unfrozen samples collected with this inhibitor to appropriate reference laboratories for analysis of IR-ACTH. PMID:7530181

  17. Deposition of immunoreactants in a cutaneous allergic drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: The analysis of allergic drug reaction pathology may be difficult, especially if multiple histological reaction patterns are detected on review of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained sections. In this case, we emphasize the value of adding immunohistochemistry (IHC and multicolor direct immunofluorescence (DIF as tools to improve the diagnosis of these complex disorders. Patient and Methods: Our patient is a twenty-year-old Caucasian female, who presented with a sudden onset of erythematous macules on the skin following administration of amoxicillin. Lesional tissue was examined by H & E and IHC, and perilesional tissue by DIF and IHC. Results: The H&E findings revealed diffuse dermal edema, and a mild, superficial, perivascular dermatitis with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate, consistent with an allergic drug eruption. The IHC and DIF studies revealed autoreactivity to sweat glands, nerves and dermal blood vessels, as well as dermal deposits of immune reactants such as fibrinogen and complement around the inflamed areas. Conclusions: Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products have been shown in some cases of allergic disorders; thus, we encourage the effect further testing for these immunoreactants in biopsies from patients with possible allergic drug reactions.

  18. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SIE) and hemoglobin levels were measured in 152 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Anemia was present in 18% of asymptomatic patients who tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 50% of patients with a condition related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 75% of patients with AIDS. The mean SIE level for untreated AIDS patients was greater than for patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus or patients with an AIDS-related condition but not outside the normal range for SIE, and the incremental increase in SIE level for a given decline in hemoglobin level was much less in AIDS patients than in patients with uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia. Forty-two patients were treated with zidovudine, and the hemoglobin level fell 10 g/L or more in 48%. The data indicate that SIE level is inappropriately low in anemic AIDS patients. The ability of these patients to produce erythropoietin is intact and can be expressed with zidovudine therapy. However, even very high levels of SIE fail to stimulate erythropoiesis adequately

  19. The abnormal fontanel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesler, Joseph; Ricer, Rick

    2003-06-15

    The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median time of closure is 13.8 months. The most common causes of a large anterior fontanel or delayed fontanel closure are achondroplasia, hypothyroidism, Down syndrome, increased intracranial pressure, and rickets. A bulging anterior fontanel can be a result of increased intracranial pressure or intracranial and extracranial tumors, and a sunken fontanel usually is a sign of dehydration. A physical examination helps the physician determine which imaging modality, such as plain films, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, or magnetic resonance imaging, to use for diagnosis. PMID:12825844

  20. Distribution of Neuropeptide F-Like Immunoreactivity in the Eastern Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    OpenAIRE

    Nuss, Andrew B.; Forschler, Brian T.; Crim, Joe W.; Brown, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The nervous system and gut of worker, soldier and alate castes of the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were examined for immunoreactivity to an antiserum to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Leipidoptera: Noctuidae) MP-I (QAARPRF-NH2), a truncated form of neuropeptide F. More than 145 immunostained axons and cell bodies were seen in the brain and all ganglia of the ventral nerve cord. Immunoreactive axons exiting the brain projected anteriorly t...

  1. Humoral immunoreactivity to gliadin and to tissue transglutaminase is present in some patients with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matkovic Suzana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a clonal B-cell disorder with many immunological disturbances. The aim of this work was to assess whether some of food antigens contribute to the imbalance of immune response by screening the sera of MM patients for their immunoreactivity to food constituent gliadin, to tissue transglutaminase-2 (tTG-2 and to Ro/SSA antigen. Sera from 61 patients with MM in various stages of disease, before, or after some cycles of conventional therapy were analyzed by commercial Binding Site ELISA tests. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis of data obtained was performed by Mann Whitney Test. Results The higher serum IgA immunoreactivity to gliadin was found in 14/56 patients and in one of control people. The enhanced serum IgG immunoreactivity to gliadin was found in only two of tested patients and in two controls. The enhanced IgA immunoreactivity to tTG-2 was found in 10/49 patients' sera, while 4/45 patients had higher serum IgG immunoreactivity. The enhanced serum IgG immunoreactivity to RoSSÀ antigen was found in 9/47 analyzed MM patients' sera. Statistical analysis of data obtained revealed that only the levels of anti-tTG-2 IgA immunoreactivity in patients with MM were significantly higher than these obtained in healthy controls (P Conclusion Data obtained showed the existence of the enhanced serum immunoreactivity to gliadin, tTG-2 and Ro/SSA antigens in some patients with MM. These at least partially could contribute to the immunological imbalance frequently found in this disease.

  2. Diurnal variation of ?-endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of ?-endorphin immunoreactive material. (Author)

  3. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-casein, ?-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, ?-lactoglobulin: 94%, ?-casein: 93%, ?-lactalbumin: 82%, ?-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and ?-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems. PMID:25391267

  4. Induction of Fos protein immunoreactivity by spinal cord contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Del-Bel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify neurons in the central nervous system that respond to spinal contusion injury in the rat by monitoring the expression of the nuclear protein encoded by the c-fos gene, an activity-dependent gene, in spinal cord and brainstem regions. Rats were anesthetized with urethane and the injury was produced by dropping a 5-g weight from 20.0 cm onto the exposed dura at the T10-L1 vertebral level (contusion group. The spinal cord was exposed but not lesioned in anesthetized control animals (laminectomy group; intact animals were also subjected to anesthesia (intact control. Behavioral alterations were analyzed by Tarlov/Bohlman scores, 2 h after the procedures and the animals were then perfused for immunocytochemistry. The patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI which were site-specific, reproducible and correlated with spinal laminae that respond predominantly to noxious stimulation or injury: laminae I-II (outer substantia gelatinosa and X and the nucleus of the intermediolateral cell column. At the brain stem level FLI was detected in the reticular formation, area postrema and solitary tract nucleus of lesioned animals. No Fos staining was detected by immunocytochemistry in the intact control group. However, detection of FLI in the group submitted to anesthesia and surgical procedures, although less intense than in the lesion group, indicated that microtraumas may occur which are not detected by the Tarlov/Bohlman scores. There is both a local and remote effect of a distal contusion on the spinal cord of rats, implicating sensory neurons and centers related to autonomic control in the reaction to this kind of injury.

  5. Immunoreactive LH in long-term frozen human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet Kaur Surindar; Jimenez, Mark; Newman, Ron; Handelsman, David J

    2014-04-01

    Urine provides a convenient non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for measurement of certain hormones. Urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) measurements have been used for endocrinology research and anti-doping testing. However, the commercially available LH immunoassays are developed and validated for human blood samples but not urine so that LH assays intended for use with urine samples need thorough validation. Therefore, the present study evaluated the measurement of urinary LH immunoreactivity using previously validated immunofluorometric (IF) and immunochemiluminometric (ICL) LH assays after prolonged frozen storage. LH was measured in serial urine samples following administration of a single injection of one of two doses of recombinant human chorionic hormone (rhCG) with assays run at the end of study (2008) and again after four years of frozen (-20?°C) storage where samples were stored without adding preservatives. The ICL assay showed quantitatively reproducible LH measurements after prolonged -20?°C storage. However, the IF immunoassay gave consistently lower LH levels relative to ICL (2008) with a further proportionate reduction after four years of sample storage (2012). Yet, both the assays displayed similar patterns of the time-course of urine LH measurement both before and after four years of frozen storage. In conclusion, we found that both immunoassays are suitable for urinary LH measurements with ICL assay being more robust for quantitative urinary LH measurement such as for anti-doping purposes, whereas the IF could be applicable for research studies where urine LH levels are compared within-study but not in absolute terms. PMID:23606665

  6. Target areas innervated by PACAP-immunoreactive retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2004-04-01

    The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) originates from a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The cells of the RHT co-store the neurotransmitters PACAP and glutamate, which in a complex interplay mediate light information to the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). These ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive probably due to expression of melanopsin, a putative photoreceptor involved in light entrainment. In the present study we examined PACAP-containing retinal projections to the brain using intravitreal injection of the anterograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (ChB) and double immunostaining for PACAP and ChB. Our results show that the PACAP-containing nerve fibres not only constituted the major projections to the SCN and the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus but also had a large terminal field in the olivary pretectal nucleus. The contralateral projection dominated except for the SCN, which showed bilateral innervation. PACAP-containing retinal fibres were also found in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, the anterior and lateral hypothalamic area, the subparaventricular zone, the ventral part of the lateral geniculate nucleus and the nucleus of the optic tract. Retinal projections not previously described in the rat also contained PACAP. These new projections were found in the lateral posterior nucleus, the posterior limitans nucleus, the dorsal part of the anterior pretectal nucleus and the posterior and medial pretectal nuclei. Only a few PACAP-containing retinal fibres were found in the superior colliculus. Areas innervated by PACAP-immunoreactive fibres also expressed the PACAP-specific PAC1 receptor as shown by in situ hybridization histochemistry. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role as neurotransmitter in non-imaging photoperception to target areas in the brain regulating circadian timing, masking, regulation of sleep-wake cycle and pupillary reflex. PMID:14991397

  7. Induction of Fos protein immunoreactivity by spinal cord contusion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.A., Del-Bel; C.A.G., Borges; H.L.A., Defino; F.S., Guimarães.

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify neurons in the central nervous system that respond to spinal contusion injury in the rat by monitoring the expression of the nuclear protein encoded by the c-fos gene, an activity-dependent gene, in spinal cord and brainstem regions. Rats were anest [...] hetized with urethane and the injury was produced by dropping a 5-g weight from 20.0 cm onto the exposed dura at the T10-L1 vertebral level (contusion group). The spinal cord was exposed but not lesioned in anesthetized control animals (laminectomy group); intact animals were also subjected to anesthesia (intact control). Behavioral alterations were analyzed by Tarlov/Bohlman scores, 2 h after the procedures and the animals were then perfused for immunocytochemistry. The patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) which were site-specific, reproducible and correlated with spinal laminae that respond predominantly to noxious stimulation or injury: laminae I-II (outer substantia gelatinosa) and X and the nucleus of the intermediolateral cell column. At the brain stem level FLI was detected in the reticular formation, area postrema and solitary tract nucleus of lesioned animals. No Fos staining was detected by immunocytochemistry in the intact control group. However, detection of FLI in the group submitted to anesthesia and surgical procedures, although less intense than in the lesion group, indicated that microtraumas may occur which are not detected by the Tarlov/Bohlman scores. There is both a local and remote effect of a distal contusion on the spinal cord of rats, implicating sensory neurons and centers related to autonomic control in the reaction to this kind of injury.

  8. Cardiac abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    Cirrhosis is associated with several circulatory abnormalities. A hyperkinetic circulation characterized by increased cardiac output and decreased arterial pressure and peripheral resistance is typical. Despite this hyperkinetic circulation, some patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have subclinical cardiomyopathy with evidence of abnormal ventricular function unmasked by physiologic or pharmacologic stress. Florid congestive alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops in a small percentage, but the concu...

  9. Plasma immunoreactive neuropeptide Y in congestive heart failure at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, B K; Husum, D; Videbaek, R; Stokholm, K H; Saelsen, L; Christensen, N J

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to study plasma immunoreactive Neuropeptide Y (NPY) at rest and during exercise in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and in healthy subjects. Thirty-five patients, mean age 64 years, with CHF in optimal treatment and with a mean ejection fraction of 32%, were studied at rest and during exercise. Twelve age and sex matched healthy subjects were compared for resting values. Another nine healthy subjects were studied at rest and during exercise at a constant low load of 75W and at a high load defined as 80% of their individual maximal capacity. In patients with congestive heart failure mean plasma immunoreactive NPY at rest was 10.3 pmol l-1 and was not significantly different from the control group. No differences between patients with slight and severe CHF were found and there was no correlation between plasma immunoreactive NPY and left ventricular ejection fraction. Mean maximal exercise time was on average 6.3 min. Only three patients exercised more than 10 min. At maximal exercise mean plasma immunoreactive NPY was 10.6 pmol l-1 the same as at rest. Plasma noradrenaline was increased in CHF patients compared to healthy subjects, and rose further during exercise. In healthy subjects plasma immunoreactive NPY rose significantly on both workloads, but more on the high load (p < 0.05), when the rise was first significant after 10 min. Plasma immunoreactive NPY at rest and during exercise was not increased in CHF patients in optimal medical treatment. Consequently plasma immunoreactive NPY is not a useful marker of the severity of CHF in these patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8266002

  10. Endogenous progesterone levels and frontotemporal dementia: modulation of TDP-43 and Tau levels in vitro and treatment of the A315T TARDBP mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Theresa N. T.; Dobson-stone, Carol; Glaros, Elias N.; Kim, Woojin S.; Hallupp, Marianne; Bartley, Lauren; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Double, Kay L.; Schofield, Peter R.; Crouch, Peter J.; Kwok, John B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is associated with motor neurone disease (FTD-MND), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS). Together, this group of disorders constitutes a major cause of young-onset dementia. One of the three clinical variants of FTD is progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), which is focused on in this study. The steroid hormone progesterone (PROG) is known to have an important role as a neurosteroid with potent neuroprotective and promyel...

  11. Depletion of TDP 43 overrides the need for exonic and intronic splicing enhancers in the human apoA-II gene

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Pablo Arrisi; Ayala, Youhna M.; Romano, Maurizio; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E.

    2005-01-01

    Exon 3 of the human apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) gene is efficiently included in the mRNA although its acceptor site is significantly weak because of a peculiar (GU)16 tract instead of a canonical polypyrimidine tract within the intron 2/exon 3 junction. Our previous studies demonstrated that the SR proteins ASF/SF2 and SC35 bind specifically an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) within exon 3 and promote exon 3 splicing. In the present study, we show that the ESE is necessary only in the proper...

  12. Radionuclide localisation of parathyroid abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results of a dual radionuclide computerised subtraction procedure for localising parathyroid abnormalities in surgery are presented. Tc-99m and Tl-201 both visualize the thyroid gland but Tl-201 is also taken up by abnormal parathyroid glands. Thus imaging is undertaken using a computerised subtraction technique of one thyroid image from another, leaving the uptake in any abnormal parathyroid gland visible in the final subtracted image. It is concluded that improvements to the technique are still required but in principle it is suitable for small district general hospitals lacking computerised tomography facilities. (U.K.)

  13. The minimally abnormal Papanicolaou smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzman, G L; Julian, T M

    1996-03-01

    The Bethesda system has helped to standardize the nomenclature for cervical cytology. Previously used cytologic classification systems failed to define modern histopathologic concepts. The Bethesda system also has dramatically increased the number of Papanicolaou smears classified as minimally abnormal. While high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3) clearly require colposcopic evaluation, the minimally abnormal Pap smear may not always require colposcopic assessment. Common minimally abnormal cytologic categories include atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, low-grade intraepithelial lesions and atypical glandular cells. New guidelines propose a conservative and expectant approach for these mild abnormalities. Understanding the meaning of these Pap smear reports and instituting appropriate treatments will improve patients care, reduce clinician anxiety and help ensure the best care for patients. PMID:8629563

  14. Morphometric characteristics of Neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cortical amygdaloid nucleus belongs to the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid complex. In this nucleus there are neurons that produce neuropetide Y. This peptide has important roles in sleeping, learning, memory, gastrointestinal regulation, anxiety, epilepsy, alcoholism and depression. Material and methods We investigated morphometric characteristics (numbers of primary dendrites, longer and shorter diameters of cell bodies and maximal radius of dendritic arborization of NPY immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus on 6 male adult human brains, aged 46 to 77 years, by immunohistochemical avidin-biotin technique. Results Our investigation has shown that in this nucleus there is a moderate number of NPY immunoreactive neurons. 67% of found neurons were nonpyramidal, while 33% were pyramidal. Among the nonpyramidal neurons the dominant groups were multipolar neurons (41% - of which 25% were multipolar irregular, and 16% multipolar oval. Among the pyramidal neurons the dominant groups were the neurons with triangular shape of cell body (21%. All found NPY immunoreactive neurons (pyramidal and nonpyramidal altogether had intervals of values of numbers of primary dendrites 2 to 6, longer diameters of cell bodies 13 to 38 µm, shorter diameters of cell bodies 9 to 20 µm and maximal radius of dendritic arborization 50 to 340 µm. More than a half of investigated neurons (57% had 3 primary dendrites. Discussion and conclusion The other researchers did not find such percentage of pyramidal immunoreactive neurons in this amygdaloid nucleus. If we compare our results with the results of the ather researchers we can conclude that all pyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons found in this human amygdaloid nucleus belong to the class I of neurons, and that all nonpyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons belong to the class II of neurons described by other researchers. We suppose that all found pyramidal neurons were projectional.

  15. Evaluation of the immunoreactive fraction of an anti-tumour monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Mantovani, L.; Ménard, S.; Mezzanzanica, D.; Miotti, S.; Pupa, S. M.; Colnaghi, M. I.

    1990-01-01

    Over a period of approximately 1 year, the immunoreactivity of the anti-ovary carcinoma MAb MOv18 was evaluated after radiolabelling with 125I on two different ovarian carcinoma cell lines, OvCa432 and IGROV1. A high variability of the immunoreactive values was observed by analysing different preparations of radiolabelled MOv18 (from 12 to 21% on OvCa432 and from 22 to 56% on IGROV1) and by using the same radiolabelled preparation (12% on OvCa432 and 51% on IGROV1). Since the variability coul...

  16. Substance P-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Balfe, A

    1981-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry we find substance P-like material in nerve cells of hydra. These nerve cells are situated in the ectoderm of the basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of hydra extracts gives dilution curves parallel to that of synthetic substance P, from which it can be calculated that one animal contains at least 0.6 fmol substance P-like immunoreactivity. After chromatography on Biogel P-100, the substance P-like immunoreactivity elutes as a peak in the void volume and a peak at the position of synthetic substance P.

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B transgenic mice develop TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 pathology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tudor, E L

    2010-05-19

    Cytoplasmic ubiquitin-positive inclusions containing TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) within motor neurons are the hallmark pathology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 is a nuclear protein and the mechanisms by which it becomes mislocalized and aggregated in ALS are not properly understood. A mutation in the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein-B (VAPB) involving a proline to serine substitution at position 56 (VAPBP56S) is the cause of familial ALS type-8. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which VAPBP56S induces disease, we created transgenic mice that express either wild-type VAPB (VAPBwt) or VAPBP56S in the nervous system. Analyses of both sets of mice revealed no overt motor phenotype nor alterations in survival. However, VAPBP56S but not VAPBwt transgenic mice develop cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulations within spinal cord motor neurons that were first detected at 18 months of age. Our results suggest a link between abnormal VAPBP56S function and TDP-43 mislocalization.

  18. Chewing suppresses the stress-induced increase in the number of pERK-immunoreactive cells in the periaqueductal grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Narimatsu, Yuri; Ono, Yumie; Sasaguri, Ken-Ichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2015-07-10

    We investigated the effects of chewing under immobilization stress on the periaqueductal gray (PAG) matter using phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) as a marker of responding cells. Immobilization stress increased pERK-immunoreactive cells in the PAG. Among four subdivisions of the PAG, the increase of immunoreactive cells was remarkable in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions. However, increase of pERK-immunoreactive cells by the immobilization stress was not so evident in the dorsomedial and lateral subdivisions. The chewing under immobilization stress prevented the stress-induced increase of pERK-immunoreactive cells in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions with statistical significances (p<0.05). Again, chewing effects on pERK-immunoreactive cells were not visible in the dorsomedial and lateral subdivisions. These results suggest that the chewing alleviates the PAG (dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions) responses to stress. PMID:25980997

  19. Early development of GABA-like immunoreactive cells in the retina of turtle embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaux-Botteri, C; Hergueta, S; Pieau, C; Wasowicz, M; Dalil-Thiney, N; Nguyen-Legros, J

    1994-11-18

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the earliest neuroactive substances appearing in the developing central nervous system. The distribution and the time course of the appearance of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the retina of the turtle Emys orbicularis were investigated from embryonic stage 13 to hatching. The first GABA-like immunoreactive cells were observed at stage 14. These cells were located in both the scleral third of the neuroblastic layer and the inner layers of the retina. They were identified as presumptive immature horizontal cells and amacrine cells, respectively. The observation of numerous labelled fibers in the nerve fiber layer suggests that some of the GABA-like immunoreactive cells in the layers were ganglion cells. The development of GABA-like immunoreactive cells followed a gradient of maturation from central to peripheral retina. At hatching, the central retina appeared nearly morphologically mature. In conclusion, GABA is present before the morphofunctional maturation of the retina and this precocious existence supports the idea of its involvement in a neurotrophic role preceding the establishment of synaptic connections and neurotransmitter function. PMID:7697864

  20. Gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-like immunoreactivity in blood cells of human eosinophilic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Virtanen, M; Hilliges, M; Hansson, L O

    1991-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of the peptide gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) within human polymorphonuclear leucocytes of blood from eosinophilic patients is described. The gamma-MSH immunoreactivity was observed only in neutrophilic granulocytes leaving all other cell types immuno-negative. PMID:1805488

  1. Oxaliplatin-induced loss of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit neuronal immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Bronwen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin and related chemotherapeutic drugs cause painful chronic peripheral neuropathies in cancer patients. We investigated changes in neuronal size profiles and neurofilament immunoreactivity in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue of adult female Wistar rats after multiple-dose treatment with oxaliplatin, cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Results After treatment with oxaliplatin, phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H immunoreactivity was reduced in neuronal cell bodies, but unchanged in nerve fibres, of the L5 DRG. Morphometric analysis confirmed significant changes in the number (-75%; P P P = 0.82, NF-M (-1%, P = 0.96 or NF-H (0%; P = 0.93 after oxaliplatin treatment, although the sizes of parvalbumin (-29%, P = 0.047, NF-M (-11%, P = 0.038 and NF-H (-28%; P = 0.0033 immunoreactive neurons were reduced. In an independent comparison of different chemotherapeutic agents, the number of pNF-H-immunoreactive neurons was significantly altered by oxaliplatin (-77.2%; P P = 0.03 but not by carboplatin or paclitaxel, and their mean cell body area was significantly changed by oxaliplatin (-31.1%; P = 0.008 but not by cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a specific pattern of loss of pNF-H immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue that corresponds with the relative neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin, cisplatin and carboplatin. Loss of pNF-H may be mechanistically linked to oxaliplatin-induced neuronal atrophy, and serves as a readily measureable endpoint of its neurotoxicity in the rat model.

  2. Postural Abnormalities: An Individualized Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…

  3. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cord is too long. There is too much amniotic fluid. The provider ruptures the membranes to start or speed up labor. The woman ... the umbilical cord inserts abnormally into the fetal membranes, instead of the center of ... share a single amniotic sac, and the babies' cords can become entangled. ...

  4. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-01-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is c...

  5. Occurrence of calcitonin, somatostatin-like immunoreactivity, and carcinoembryonic antigen in two sisters suffering from familial thyroid medullary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of calcitonin, somatostatin-like immunoreactivity and carcinoembryonic antigen in tumor tissues (surgically obtained) and identified by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, is reported in two sisters suffering from familial thyroid medullary carcinoma. C-cell hyperplasia occurred in both individuals. Preoperatively, both patients had elevated calcitonin serum levels and carcinoembryonic antigen. No ACTH or thyroglobulin immunoreactivity could be found in the tumor tissue. After thyroidectomy, 131I treatment and percutaneous radiation, somatostatin-like immunoreactivity and carcinoembryonic antigen plasma levels were in the normal range, whereas calcitonin was still elevated. It is proposed that calcitonin, somatostatin, and carcinoembryonic antigen are produced by the thyroid medullary carcinoma. (author)

  6. Responses of plasma cyclic AMP, serum immunoreactive insulin, C-peptide immunoreactivity and blood sugar levels to glucagon in patients with liver diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimamura,Junnosuke

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Levels of plasma cyclic AMP, serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI, serum c-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR and blood sugar (BS were determined 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after a glucagon injection (0.01 mg per kg body weight in normal controls, patients with acute hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Plasma cyclic AMP responses to glucagon in liver disease patients varied widely in peak value, and only in patients with fulminant hepatitis and decompensated liver cirrhosis with poor prognosis was the response suppressed. The peak response of BS was found significantly later in liver cirrhosis patients than in normal controls. IRI and CPR responses to glucagon were lower in acute hepatitis patients than in normal controls and liver cirrhosis patients. IRI levels and their sum were also lower in acute hepatitis patients, although CPR levels were not significantly different. Thus, the ratio of the sum of CPR from 0 to 60 min to that of IRI was significantly higher in acute hepatitis, indicating impaired pancreatic secretion of insulin to glucagon stimulation as well as increased uptake of insulin by the liver in acute hepatitis.

  7. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  8. Ciliary abnormalities in respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchdahl, R. M.; Reiser, J.; Ingram, D.; Rutman, A.; Cole, P. J.; Warner, J. O.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and sixty seven children, ranging in age from 5 weeks to 16 years, with chronic upper or lower respiratory tract problems, or both, were investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. Abnormal ciliary function was found in 18 cases all of whom had chronic lower respiratory disease and most of whom also had upper respiratory problems. Fifteen of the 18 cases had reduced ciliary beat frequencies (less than 10 Hz) associated with dyskinesia and the other three showed apparent absence of ciliat...

  9. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  10. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  11. Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuzfa, A.; Alimi, J. -m

    2006-01-01

    We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still acc...

  12. Tumor microenvironment and hemorheological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronzio, Gianfranco; Freitas, Isabel; Kwaan, Hau C

    2003-10-01

    This article reviews the various mechanisms in a malignant tumor that lead to hypoxia, production of tumor interstitial fluid, and rheological changes in its microenvironment. In addition, the associated procoagulant effects are described. The latter phenomenon is the result of complex and dynamic interplay among tumor cells, endothelial cells, circulating blood cells, and angiogenic, clotting, and hemorheological factors. The implications of these abnormalities on therapeutic approach are discussed. PMID:14631549

  13. DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity in AII amacrine cells of rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida, Gloria J; Lee, Sherwin C; Haft-Candell, Leah; Nichols, Grant S; Ishida, Andrew T

    2004-12-13

    Previous studies demonstrated that the dopamine- and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphatase inhibitor known as "DARPP-32" is present in rat, cat, monkey, and human retinas. We have followed up these studies by asking what specific cell subtypes contain DARPP-32. Using a polyclonal antibody directed against a peptide sequence of human DARPP-32, we immunostained adult rat retinas that were either transretinally sectioned or flat mounted and found DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity in some cells of the amacrine cell layer across the entire retinal surface. We report here, based on the shape and spatial distribution of these cells, their staining by an anti-parvalbumin antibody, and their juxtaposition with processes containing tyrosine hydroxylase, that DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity is present in AII amacrine cells of rat retina. These results suggest that the response of AII amacrine cells to dopamine is not mediated as simply as previously supposed. PMID:15515184

  14. Mapping of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart larvae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina, Boleli; Zilá Luz, Paulino-Simões.

    1099-11-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the central nervous system (CNS) of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 wandering stage larvae. The PAP immunocytochemical method was applied to the entire CNS (whole mounts). About 90 neurons were visualized in the CNS (20 in the brain and 70 in the [...] ventral ganglion). Both somata and axons were strongly stained. These neurons showed a segmental arrangement and bilateral symmetry. All processes presented a basic projection pattern, in which the major fibres travel contralaterally. Comparison of these neurons with serotonergic neurons described in other insects suggests order-specific traits such as cerebral clusters and presence of only one 5-HT immunoreactive neuron in the 8th abdominal neuromere as well.

  15. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity is found in dendritic guard cells of human sweat ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Wang, L

    1993-01-01

    Somatostatin is reported in a new population of human sweat duct cells. The epithelial content of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in normal human skin from various sites of the body was investigated using indirect immunofluorescence. With this methodology we found round-to-oval somatostatin-immunoreactive cells situated outside the lining sweat duct cells at the level of the stratum spinosum. The cells had processes that were clearly directed towards the duct lumen, passing between the lining duct cells. This finding raises new questions and ideas about somatostatin's role in the skin, and could point to a possible involvement of somatostatin in immune defense, sweat secretion modification, antiproliferation, or other actions. PMID:8097870

  16. Independent prognostic value of fascin immunoreactivity in stage III–IV colonic adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Puppa, G.; Maisonneuve, P.; Sonzogni, A.; Masullo, M.; Chiappa, A.; Valerio, M.; Zampino, M. G.; Franceschetti, I.; Capelli, P.; Chilosi, M.; Menestrina, F.; Viale, G.; Pelosi, G.

    2007-01-01

    Fascin, an actin-bundling protein involved in cell motility, has been shown to be upregulated in several types of carcinomas. In this study, we investigated the expression of fascin in 228 advanced colonic adenocarcinoma patients with a long follow-up. Fascin expression was compared with several clinicopathologic parameters and survival. Overall, fascin immunoreactivity was detected in 162 (71%) tumours with a prevalence for right-sided tumours (P

  17. Plasma somatostatin-like immunoreactivity during the interdigestive period in the dog.

    OpenAIRE

    Aizawa, I; Itoh, Z; Harris, V.; Unger, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    To study possible physiologic relationships between somatostatin and the gastric interdigestive contractions (GIC), gastric motor activity, and plasma somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) concentration were determined simultaneously in four conscious dogs, each of which was studied on two separate occasions. Plasma SLI level was highest during the GIC period and lowest 60 and 80 min after the cessation of the GIC; the mean difference in plasma SLI was 41 +/- 6 pg/ml. When synthetic motili...

  18. Immunoreactivity of ATF-2 and Fra-2 in human dental follicle.

    OpenAIRE

    Nurullah Keklikoglu; Ilker Bolat

    2010-01-01

    It is asserted that epithelial rests in dental follicle (DF) existing around the impacted teeth in adults are effective in cyst formation. In this study, it is intended for determining and comparing the immunoreactivity (IR) ratio of ATF-2 and Fra-2 proteins, the members of Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) family which regulates important cellular activities such as growth, proliferation and differentiation, in DF epithelial cells (EC) and connective tissue cells (CC). In this study, ATF-2 and Fra-...

  19. Automated recognition and counting of the immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells in chronic gastritis (the preliminary study).

    OpenAIRE

    Cezary Jochymski; Tomasz Markiewicz; Janina Slodkowska; Wojciech Kozlowski

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the designed software CAMI (Computerized Analysis of Microscopic Images) for a digital reconstruction of the diversiform glands seen in chronic inflammatory gastric mucosa, and for automated recognition and quantization of the immunoreactive neuroendocrine (NE) cells appearing within mucosal glands. Digital reconstruction of the individual gastric gland is difficult due to variable shapes of the glandular cross-sections. Fifteen gastric biopsy specimens representing chronic...

  20. Irisin-immunoreactivity in neural and non-neural cells of the rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Dun, Siok L.; Lyu, Rong-ming; Chen, Yi-hung; Chang, Jaw-kang; Luo, Jin J.; Dun, Nae J.

    2013-01-01

    Irisin is a recently identified myokine secreted from the muscle in response to exercise. In the rats and mice, immunohistochemical studies with an antiserum against irisin peptide fragment (42–112), revealed that irisin-immunoreactivity (irIRN) was detected in three types of cells; namely, skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Tissue sections processed with irisin antiserum pre-absorbed with the irisin peptide(42–112) (1 ?g/ml) showed no immunoreac...

  1. Lack of ubiquitin immunoreactivities at both ends of neuropil threads. Possible bidirectional growth of neuropil threads.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwatsubo, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Esaki, Y.; Ihara, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Immunocytochemically, neuropil threads (curly fibers) were investigated in the Alzheimer's disease brain using a confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope by double labeling with tau/ubiquitin antibodies. Ubiquitin immunoreactivities were found to be lacking at one or both ends in more than 40% of tau-positive threads. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that bundles of paired helical filaments, which constitute neuropil threads, were positive for ubiquitin around their midportions, but of...

  2. Human leukemia and normal leukocytes contain a species of immunoreactive but nonfunctional dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative radioimmunoassay has been developed for human dihydrofolate reductase (tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase; 5,6,7,8-tetrahdrofolate:NADP/sup +/ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) by using antiserum raised in rabbits against the active enzyme purified from calf liver. An immunoreactive protein could be identified in the cytoplasm of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, which contained no functional dihydrofolate reductase activity. Its concentration was stoichiometric to the volume of cytoplasm assayed and paralleled the standard curve obtained with purified enzyme, indicating that this protein in the human cells is antigenically similar to the homologous antigen. The concentration of this immunoreactive protein in the cytoplasm of human leukemia and normal leukocytes in all instances greatly exceeded the concentration of functional dihydrofolate reductase, which was measured by the binding of [3H]methotrexate. This nonfunctional immunoreactive protein in the cytoplasm and cytosol from two different samples of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells analyzed by gel filtration had an apparent molecular weight of 41,000, which is twice the molecular weight of the functional enzyme

  3. Heterogeneity of human plasma insulin: techniques for separating immunoreactive components and their determination by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When human plasma is filtered on Sephadex G-SO fine, insulin immunoreactivity is recovered in two peaks: 'big insulin', the higher molecular weight component and 'little insulin', the lower molecular component, having elution volumes that correspond to those of porcine proinsulin 125I and porcine insulin 125I respectively. The presence of another form of immunoreactive insulin 'big big insulin' was detected from an insuloma suspect and its elution pattern corresponding to serum albumin. The eluates correspondent to 'big' and 'little' insulin as well as 'big big' component were assayed by radioimmunoassay using crystalline human insulin as a standard, porcine insulin 125 tracer and anti insulin serum. The antibody, raised in guinea-pigs, was sensitive and potent being adequate for the assay. The reactivity of insulin and proinsulin was tested against the antibody. The relative proportions of several components of total immunoreactive insulin in plasma were studied in basal conditions in five normal subjects and in the patient JSC with pancreatic insulin-secreting tumor as well as after glucose stimuli in all tolbutamide in JSC. (author)

  4. Protein gene product 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibres and cells in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Hilliges, M; Jernberg, T; Wiegleb-Edström, D; Johansson, O

    1990-07-01

    Sections of human skin were processed according to the indirect immunofluorescence technique with a rabbit antiserum against human protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Immunoreactivity was detected in intraepidermal and dermal nerve fibres and cells. The intraepidermal nerves were varicose or smooth with different diameters, running as single processes or branched, straight or bent, projecting in various directions and terminating in the stratum basale, spinosum or granulosum. The density of the intraepidermal nerves varied between the different skin areas investigated. PGP 9.5-containing axons of the lower dermis were found in large bundles. They separated into smaller axon bundles within the upper dermis, entering this portion of the skin perpendicular to the surface. Then they branched into fibres mainly arranged parallel to the epidermal-dermal junctional zone. However, the fibres en route to the epidermis traversed the upper dermis more or less perpendicularly. Furthermore, immunoreactive dermal nerve fibres were found in the Meissner corpuscles, the arrector pili muscles, hair follicles, around the eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and around certain blood vessels. Such fibres were also observed around most subcutaneous blood vessels, sometimes heavily innervating these structures. Numerous weakly-to-strongly PGP 9.5-immunoreactive cells were found both in the epidermis and in the dermis. PMID:2143435

  5. Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Moscarello, JM; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that food deprivation and food presentation produce different patterns of neuronal activity (as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats. Since the amygdala has been implicated in both motivational and reinforcement processes and has neuronal connections to both the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, it was of interest to assess amygdaloid c-Fos immunoreactivity during similar manipulation...

  6. Abnormal uterine bleeding. Diagnostic value of hysteroscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Madan, S. M.; Al-jufairi, Z. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the specificity, sensitivity and predictive value of hysteroscopic impression versus histological diagnosis of endometrial curettings in evaluating patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. In addition, to determine whether office hysteroscopy can eliminate hospital diagnostic dilatation and curettage for patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. METHODS A retrospective study of 556 patients who underwent hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage for abnormal ut...

  7. Glutaminase-like immunoreactivity in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T; Itoh, K; Shigemoto, R; Mizuno, N

    1989-01-01

    Distribution of putative glutamatergic neurons in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the rat was examined immunocytochemically by using a monoclonal antibody against phosphate-activated glutaminase, which has been proposed to be a major synthetic enzyme of transmitter glutamate and so may serve as a marker for glutamatergic neurons in the central nervous system. Intensely-immunolabeled neuronal cell bodies were densely distributed in the main precerebellar nuclei sending mossy fibers to the cerebellum; in the pontine nuclei, pontine tegmental reticular nucleus of Bechterew, external cuneate nucleus, and lateral reticular nucleus of the medulla oblongata. Phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactive granular deposits were densely seen in the brachium pontis and restiform body, suggesting the immunolabeling of mossy fibers of passage. In the cerebellum, neuropil within the granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex displayed intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactivity, and that within the deep cerebellar nuclei showed moderate immunoreactivity. These results indicate that many mossy fiber terminals originate from phosphate-activated glutaminase-containing neurons and utilize phosphate-activated glutaminase for the synthesis of transmitter glutamate. Intensely-immunostained neuronal cell bodies were further observed in other regions which have been reported to contain neurons sending mossy fibers to the cerebellum; in the dorsal part of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, dorsomedial part of the oral subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, interpolar subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, paratrigeminal nucleus, supragenual nucleus, regions dorsal to the abducens nucleus and genu of the facial nerve, superior and medial vestibular nuclei, cell groups f, x and y, hypoglossal prepositus nucleus, intercalated nucleus, nucleus of Roller, reticular regions intercalated between the motor trigeminal and principal sensory trigeminal nuclei, linear nucleus, and gigantocellular and paramedian reticular formation. Neuronal cell bodies with intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactivity were also found in other brainstem regions, such as the paracochlear glial substance, posterior ventral cochlear nucleus, and cell group e. Although it is still controversial whether all glutamatergic neurons use phosphate-activated glutaminase in a transmitter-related process and whether phosphate-activated glutaminase is involved in other metabolism-related processes, the neurons showing intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactivity in the present study were suggested to be putative glutamatergic neurons. PMID:2586753

  8. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  9. Nonosseous abnormalities on bone scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfi, Issa; Collier, B David; Mohammed, Ahmed M

    2003-09-01

    Although bone scanning is a test primarily concerned with skeletal abnormalities, important nonosseous findings are occasionally present on the images. To gauge the significance of such nonosseous uptake and, in particular, to determine whether these findings contain useful diagnostic information, the technical and medical staff in nuclear medicine must recognize the various patterns of nonbony uptake and understand their causes. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate the appearances of nonosseous uptake on bone scans, to categorize the forms of soft-tissue uptake, to emphasize technical artifacts leading to soft-tissue uptake, and to highlight the clinical significance of pathologic soft-tissue uptake. PMID:12968045

  10. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Stoian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  11. Hand images: normal and abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

  12. Chromosomal phenotypes and submicroscopic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devriendt Koen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The finding, during the last decade, that several common, clinically delineated syndromes are caused by submicroscopic deletions or, more rarely, by duplications, has provided a powerful tool in the annotation of the human genome. Since most microdeletion/microduplication syndromes are defined by a common deleted/duplicated region, abnormal dosage of genes located within these regions can explain the phenotypic similarities among individuals with a specific syndrome. As such, they provide a unique resource towards the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes such as congenital heart defects, mental and growth retardation and abnormal behaviour. In addition, the study of phenotypic differences in individuals with the same microdeletion syndrome may also become a treasury for the identification of modifying factors for complex phenotypes. The molecular analysis of these chromosomal anomalies has led to a growing understanding of their mechanisms of origin. Novel tools to uncover additional submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies at a higher resolution and higher speed, as well as the novel tools at hand for deciphering the modifying factors and epistatic interactors, are 'on the doorstep' and will, besides their obvious diagnostic role, play a pivotal role in the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes.

  13. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  14. Abnormal motor behavior during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montplaisir, Jacques

    2004-06-01

    Abnormal motor behaviors during sleep can be classified into four categories, ranging from myoclonic jerks to complex and integrated motor behaviors There have been recent developments in several of these conditions, in particular restless legs syndrome (RLS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RLS is one of the major causes of insomnia. Familial aggregation of RLS has been demonstrated by several groups, and molecular genetics studies have suggested the presence of susceptibility genes on chromosomes 12q and 14q. Pharmacologic and brain imaging studies suggest the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in RLS, but recent work has focused on brain iron metabolism. Studies indicate that RBD patients may eventually develop Parkinson's disease (PD). Conversely, RBD has been found in patients already diagnosed with PD. Single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography studies have shown a decrease in binding to presynaptic dopamine transporter in both idiopathic RBD and PD. Patients with RBD (associated or unassociated with PD) also have neuropsychological deficits. RBD may therefore represent the prodrome of a neurodegenerative disease leading to multiple system atrophy and Lewy body dementia. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of abnormal sleep motor behaviors may prove useful in the management of insomnia. PMID:15301995

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor immunoreactive cells are selectively maintained in the paraventricular hypothalamus of calorically restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, O; Yaghmaie, F; Garan, S A; Gouw, A M; Voelker, M A; Sternberg, H; Timiras, P S

    2007-02-01

    The mammalian lifespan is dramatically extended by both caloric restriction (CR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) suppression. Both interventions involve neuroendocrine alterations directed by the hypothalamus. Yet, it remains unclear whether CR exerts its affects by altering central IGF-1 sensitivity. With this question in mind, we investigated the influence of CR and normal aging on hypothalamic IGF-1 sensitivity, by measuring the changes in IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) populations. Taking IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to IGF-1, we counted IGF-1R immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of Young-ad libitum fed (Young-Al, 6 weeks old), Old-ad libitum fed (Old-Al, 22 months old), and old calorically restricted (Old-CR, 22 months old) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each cross-section of PVN hypothalamus. Ad libitum fed mice show a 37% reduction in IGF-1R immunoreactive cells and a 12% reduction in the total cell population of the PVN with aging. In comparison, caloric-restricted mice show a 33% reduction in IGF-1R immunoreactive cells and a notable 24% decrease in the total cell population with aging. This selective maintenance of IGF-1R expressing cells coupled with the simultaneous loss of non-immunoreactive cells, results in a higher percentage of IGF-1R immunoreactive cells in the PVNs of CR mice. Thus, the decline in the percentage of IGF-1 sensitive cells in the PVN with age is attenuated by CR. PMID:17194562

  16. Right temporal variant frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Elizabeth A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of atrophy in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) correlate with the clinical subtypes of behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), semantic dementia, progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) and FTD with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND). Right temporal variant FTD is associated with behavioral dyscontrol and semantic impairment, with tau abnormalities more common in right temporal bvFTD and TDP-43 accumulation in right temporal semantic dementia. However, no clinical and anatomical correlation has been ...

  17. Localization of neuropeptide-Y immunoreactivity in estradiol-concentrating cells in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable evidence shows that gonadal steroids exert a facilitatory influence on levels and release of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) from the hypothalamus. However, it is not known whether gonadal steroids act directly on NPY-producing cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus to produce these facilitatory effects on NPY or whether they act on other cells that have a modulatory influence via synapses on ARC NPY cells. We applied the combined method of steroid autoradiography and immunocytochemistry to assess the localization of [3H]estradiol in relation to NPY-producing cells in the hypothalamus. Rats (n = 6) were bilaterally ovariectomized and injected intracerebroventricularly with colchicine. Twenty-four hours later each rat received an iv injection of 17 beta-[2,4,6,7,16,17(-3)H]estradiol (SA, 166 Ci/mmol) at a dose of 5.0 micrograms/kg BW. One hour after the injection of [3H]estradiol, the rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde; brains were removed, frozen in isopentane precooled in liquid nitrogen (-190 C), sectioned, and processed for autoradiography. The autoradiograms were then incubated with specific antibodies for NPY immunostaining by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The results revealed NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex and a few cells in the median eminence. NPY-immunoreactive fibers were also detected in the internal layer of the median eminence. The largest number of neurons showinence. The largest number of neurons showing NPY immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm was detected in the ARC, and only in this nucleus did we observed colocalization of [3H]estradiol and NPY immunoreactivity in neurons. A population of NPY-immunopositive cells in the ARC (10-20%) exhibited nuclear [3H]estradiol; the majority of these cells were located in the lateral and ventral portions of the ARC

  18. Pedal sole immunoreactive axons in terrestrial pulmonates: Limax, Arion, and Helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Roger D

    2014-02-01

    A century ago histological techniques such as formic acid-gold chloride showed the nerve morphology of the pedal sole in Limax and Helix. There have been no similar descriptions since then of the central nervous system relevant to locomotory pedal waves in the foot of slugs and snails. Topical application of 5-HT affects locomotory waves, but the innervation of the pedal sole with 5-HT axons is not known. Three-dimensional morphology of pedal axons in terrestrial pulmonate embryos is shown herein with modern histological techniques using antibodies and the confocal microscope. In Limax maximus, pedal ganglia are shown with Tritonia pedal peptide (TPep) antibodies. Ladder-like cross bridges in the pedal sole are shown with antibodies to both TPep and 5-HT. In Arion ater, pedal ganglia neurons and their axons that form a plexus in the pedal sole are shown with 5-HT antibodies. In Helix aspersa, 5-HT immunoreactive pedal ganglia neurons and a developing pedal sole axon plexus are seen as in A. ater. Axons in this plexus that grow across the pedal sole can be seen growing into pre-existing nerves. No peripheral 5-HT neurons were identified in these three species. This immunoreactive plexus to 5-HT antibodies in A. ater and H. aspersa spreads over the pedal sole epithelium. Axons immunoreactive to 5-HT antibodies in A. ater and H. aspersa extend the length of the foot, primarily in the rim, so that activity in these axons cannot provide local patterned input to produce locomotory waves, but may provide modulatory input to pedal sole muscles. PMID:24648204

  19. Serum antibody immunoreactivity to equine zona protein after SpayVac vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mask, Tracy A; Schoenecker, Kathryn A; Kane, Albert J; Ransom, Jason I; Bruemmer, Jason E

    2015-07-15

    Immunocontraception with porcine ZP (pZP) can be an effective means of fertility control in feral horses. Previous studies suggest that antibodies produced after pZP vaccination may both inhibit fertilization and cause follicular dysgenesis. Zonastat-H, PZP-22, and SpayVac are three pZP vaccines proposed for use in horses. Although all these vaccines contain the pZP antigen, variations in antigen preparation and vaccine formulation lead to differences in antigenic properties among them. Likewise, despite numerous efficacy and safety studies of Zonastat-H and PZP-22, the contraceptive mechanisms of SpayVac remain unclear. The preparation of pZP for SpayVac is thought to include more nonzona proteins, making it less pure than the other two vaccines. This may result in increased antigenicity of the vaccine. We therefore investigated the immunoreactivity of serum antibodies from SpayVac-vaccinated mares to equine zona protein. Western blot analyses revealed an immunoreactivity of these antibodies to protein isolated from mature equine oocytes, ZP, follicular tissues, and ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to locate the binding of serum antibodies to the ZP of immature oocytes in ovarian stromal tissue. We also found serum antibodies from SpayVac-treated mares to be predominantly specific for zona protein 3. Collectively, our results suggest a model where serum antibodies produced in response to SpayVac vaccination are immunoreactive to equine zona protein in vitro. Our study lends insight into the contraceptive mechanisms underlying the infertility observed after SpayVac vaccination. PMID:25922172

  20. Advantage of highly immunoreactive monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoscintigraphy for tumor detection, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoreactivity (IR) is the fraction of a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) preparation capable of binding to an excess of a specific antigen. One of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunoscintigraphy is to use a highly immunoreactive MoAb. To assess the effect of an antibody IR on biodistribution, a fast and simple purification method has been developed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a hydroxylapatite (HA) column. The column was eluted at ambient temperature with 0.12 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). With this system, the F ab fragments from the MoAb 96.5 against the human melanoma associated p97 antigen were separated into two well-resolved peaks at retention times of 6 and 16 min. FEM-XII cells (human skin melanoma cell line) were used in a cell binding assay (CBA) to determine the maximal percent IR and the affinity constant of each HA-HPLC peak. The second peak from an 125I-F ab 96.5 showed approximately two times greater maximal binding than did the first peak, whereas the affinity constant for the two was the same. This indicated that the F ab 96.5 preparations used in this study were a mixture of more active and less active components. Moreover, prior to the HA-HPLC experiments, these preparations were analyzed with a gel filtration HPLC showing a single molecular weight peak. This suggested that the HA-HPLC separation was not based on molecular weight differences although the separation might differences although the separation mechanism of HA has not yet been fully understood. Thereby, it is concluded that the HA-HPLC is a powerful tool to purify MoAbs into the higher immunoreactive fraction which has a potential advantage in tumor targeting. (author)

  1. Nuclear tau immunoreactivity in presenile dementia with motor neuron disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasozomenos, S C

    1995-01-01

    We report for the first time localization of tau immunoreactivity with neuronal nuclei in an autopsy case of a 64-year-old white male with a 10-year history of presenile dementia with motor neuron disease. The anti-tau mAbs Tau-1, Tau-2, Tau-5 and PHF-1 and the anti-phosphoneurofilament mAb SMI-31, which crossreacts with tau, stained neuronal nuclei in neocortical pyramidal layer V or in layer III of primary motor cortex, in the periamygdaloid and entorhinal cortices, in pons and in a few paramedian neurons in dorsal medulla. The staining was excluded from nucleoli. PMID:7606894

  2. Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?

    CERN Document Server

    Füzfa, A

    2006-01-01

    We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still accounting for the present tests of general relativity. This explanation allows to build dark energy models (i) without violation of the strong energy condition $p<-\\rho c^2/3$ (ii) with non-negligible direct couplings to gravitation and (iii) natural convergence mechanism toward general relativity.

  3. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  4. Auditory abnormalities in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Bo Wang; Bing-Xin Shi; Shu-Ping Jiang; Chun-Yan Xi; Ying-Hua Tan; Lin Wang

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the characteristics of auditory abnormalities present in cases of autism. One hundred and fifty six children with autism and 141matched controls with language delay were investigated via direct observations combined with parent/caregiver reports. All of the autistic individuals demonstrated auditory abnormalities especially in the domain of hyposensitivity, compared with 33.3% of children with language delay. The auditory abnormalities in autism primarily c...

  5. Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868

  6. Protein Misdirection Inside and Outside Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS: A Possible Clue for Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Ido

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43 are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS, respectively. The commonalities of the two proteins include a propensity to aggregate and acquire detrimental conformations through oligomerization, fragmentation, or post-translational modification that may drive abnormal subcellular localizations. Although SOD1 is a major cytosolic protein, mutated SOD1 has been localized to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and even the extracellular space. The nuclear exclusion of TDP-43 is a pathological hallmark for ALS, although the pathogenic priority remains elusive. Nevertheless, these abnormal behaviors based on the protein misfolding are believed to induce diverse intracellular and extracellular events that may be tightly linked to non-cell-autonomous motor neuron death. The generation of mutant- or misfolded protein-specific antibodies would help to uncover the distribution and propagation of the ALS-linked proteins, and to design a therapeutic strategy to clear such species. Herein we review the literature regarding the mislocalization of ALS-linked proteins, especially mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 species, and discuss the rationale of molecular targeting strategies including immunotherapy.

  7. Independent prognostic value of fascin immunoreactivity in stage III–IV colonic adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppa, G; Maisonneuve, P; Sonzogni, A; Masullo, M; Chiappa, A; Valerio, M; Zampino, M G; Franceschetti, I; Capelli, P; Chilosi, M; Menestrina, F; Viale, G; Pelosi, G

    2007-01-01

    Fascin, an actin-bundling protein involved in cell motility, has been shown to be upregulated in several types of carcinomas. In this study, we investigated the expression of fascin in 228 advanced colonic adenocarcinoma patients with a long follow-up. Fascin expression was compared with several clinicopathologic parameters and survival. Overall, fascin immunoreactivity was detected in 162 (71%) tumours with a prevalence for right-sided tumours (P<0.001). Fascin correlated significantly with sex, tumour grade and stage, mucinous differentiation, number of metastatic lymph nodes, extranodal tumour extension, and the occurrence of distant metastases. Patients with fascin-expressing tumours experienced a shorter disease-free and overall survival in comparison with those with negative tumours, and fascin immunoreactivity emerged as an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. Moreover, patients with the same tumour stages could be stratified in different risk categories for relapse and progression according to fascin expression. Our findings suggest that fascin is a useful prognostic marker for colonic adenocarcinomas. PMID:17375048

  8. Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of estrogen receptors in human meningiomas has long been a controversial issue. This may be explained, in part, by apparent heterogeneity of estrogen binding sites in meningioma tissue. In this study, estrogen receptors were determined in 58 meningiomas with an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against human estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) and with a sensitive radioligand binding assay using 125I-labeled estradiol (125I-estradiol) as radioligand. Low levels of estrophilin immunoreactivity were found in tumors from 62% of patients, whereas radioligand binding activity was demonstrated in about 46% of the meningiomas examined. In eight (14%) tissue samples multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed. The immunoreactive binding sites correspond to the classical, high affinity estrogen receptors: the Kd for 125I-estradiol binding to the receptor was approximately 0.2 nM and the binding was specific for estrogens. The second, low affinity class of binding sites considerably influenced measurement of the classical receptor even at low ligand concentrations. The epidemiological and clinical data from patients with meningiomas, and the existence of specific estrogen receptors confirmed by immunochemical detection, may be important factors in a theory of oncogenesis

  9. XIAP immunoreactivity in glial and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Ito, Hidefumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) selectively binds to caspases-3, -7 and -9, and inhibits the activities of these caspases. To elucidate the role of XIAP in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), we performed immunohistochemical studies on XIAP in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 8 normal subjects and 10 patients with MSA. In normal brains, several types of neurons were immunostained for XIAP, and XIAP-immunopositive oligodendrocytes were scattered throughout the cerebral and cerebellar white matter. In the MSA brains, neuronal XIAP immunoreactivity was spared even in the severely-affected lesions, and glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and dystrophic neurites were all intensely immunoreactive for XIAP. A semiquantitative analysis of mid-pons sections double-immunostained for XIAP and ?-synuclein demonstrated that the average percentages of XIAP-immunopositive GCIs and NCIs in the pontine nucleus were 70.2% and 82.2%, respectively. Our results suggest that a widespread accumulation of XIAP may occur in brains with MSA, and that XIAP may be partially associated with the pathogenesis of MSA. PMID:23993308

  10. [Extrinsic cells, immunoreactive to Ca-binding protein, as sources of thalamic visual centres in tortoises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakova, M N; Kenigfest, N B; Belekhova, M G

    2005-01-01

    Extrinsic sources of calcium-binding proteins involved in immunoreactive innervation of the visual thalamic nuclei Rot and GLd in turtles (Testudo horsfieldi and Emys orbicularis) were studied using HRP tracing method and immunohistochemistry. In 1.5-4.5 months after monocular enucleation calbindin (Calb)-, parvalbumin (Parv)- and calretinin (Calr)-labeling was found in fragments of degenerated retinal fibers in the contralateral optic tract and in some retinorecipient structures (optic tectum, GLd and GLv). Changes in GLd were detected in its neuropil part. in 2.0-3.5 months after unilateral ablation of tectum and pretectum, the densities of Parv-, Calb- and Aclr-immunoreactivity terminals and fibers were diminisched in the ipsilateral n. Rot, with the maximum effect seen in Parv. Following HRP injection into the visual thalamus (Rot and GLd), retrogradely labeled cells with Parv label only, were revealed in the ventrothalamic nucleus Enta, pretectal nucleus Ptv, and in all types of Ca-binding proteins (CaBPr) in separately labeled cells of the optic tectum. Thus, it has been shown that thalamic visual centers in turtles have multiple extrinsic cells, which serve as sources of CaBPr projections. The present data suggest that organization of CaBPr inputs to visual thalamus in reptiles (turtle) and higher amniotes are fundamentally similar. PMID:16706155

  11. Orcokinin-like immunoreactivity in central neurons innervating the salivary glands and hindgut of ixodid ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladislav, Roller; Ladislav, Šimo; Akira, Mizoguchi; Mirko, Slovák; Yoonseong, Park; Dušan, Žit?an

    2015-05-01

    Orcokinins are conserved neuropeptides within the Arthropoda but their cellular distribution and functions in ticks are unknown. We use an antibody against the highly conserved N-terminal (NFDEIDR) of mature orcokinin peptides to examine their distribution in six ixodid species: Amblyomma variegatum, Dermacentor reticulatus, Hyalomma anatolicum, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Numerous immunoreactive neurons (~100) were detected in various regions of the synganglion (central nervous system) in all examined tick species. Immunoreactive projections of two prominent groups of efferent neurons in the post-oesophageal region were examined in detail: (1) neurons innervating the salivary glands; (2) neurons innervating the hindgut. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), we detected orcokinin peaks in extracts of the synganglia and hindguts but not in the salivary glands of I. scapularis females. Our data provide further evidence of the presence of orcokinin in ixodid ticks and establish a morphological basis for functional studies of identified peptidergic neuronal networks. PMID:25792509

  12. Calretinin immunoreactivity in normal and carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Young; Kim, Jin Nam; Chang, In Youb; Park, Sung Ho; Yoon, Sang Pil

    2011-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is a potent hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic chemical. Little, however, is known about the association of CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity and calretinin. We hypothesized that calretinin might be localized in the proximal tubule cells and play a role against CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity, since the target of CCl(4) is the brush border-bearing tubule cells. CCl(4) (1 ml/kg) was administrated by oral gavage to 8-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats once a week for 4 weeks. A significant increase in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine was confirmed by serum analysis. Calretinin immunolocalization was compared with the calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in normal and CCl(4)-treated kidneys. Calretinin was clearly immunolocalized in the apical surface of proximal convoluted tubule in the deeper cortex of normal kidney and blurred after CCl(4) administration, with only minor changes of calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, irrelevant to the CCl(4) treatment. These findings might have significance since decreased immunolocalization of calretinin with CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity may contribute to the toxicity-related decrease in calcium transport or calcium buffering activity in the kidney. PMID:20947139

  13. Lithium treatment and thyroid abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocchetta Alberto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the interactions between lithium treatment and thyroid function have long been recognised, their clinical relevance is still controversial. This paper sets out a review of the literature to date, considering that lithium still represents the gold standard among prophylactic treatments of manic-depression several decades after its introduction. Method PubMed database was used to search for English-language articles relating to lithium treatment and thyroid function. As the amount of relevant papers totalled several hundreds, this review refers to previous reviews, especially with regard to older literature. Moreover, the authors particularly refer to a series of studies of thyroid function performed in a cohort of patients at different stages of lithium treatment, who were followed up by their group from 1989 onwards. Results The main findings from this review included: a lithium definitely affects thyroid function as repeatedly shown by studies on cell cultures, experimental animals, volunteers, and patients; b inhibition of thyroid hormone release is the critical mechanism in the development of hypothyroidism, goitre, and, perhaps, changes in the texture of the gland which are detected by ultrasonic scanning; c compensatory mechanisms operate and prevent the development of hypothyroidism in the majority of patients; d when additional risk factors are present, either environmental (such as iodine deficiency or intrinsic (immunogenetic background, compensatory potential may be reduced and clinically relevant consequences may derive; e hypothyroidism may develop in particular during the first years of lithium treatment, in middle-aged women, and in the presence of thyroid autoimmunity; f thyroid autoimmunity is found in excess among patients suffering from affective disorders, irrespective of lithium exposure; g in patients who have been on lithium for several years, the outcome of hypothyroidism, goitre, and thyroid autoimmunity do not much differ from those observed in the general population; h hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer are observed rarely during lithium treatment. Recommendations Thyroid function tests (TSH, free thyroid hormones, specific antibodies, and ultrasonic scanning should be performed prior to starting lithium prophylaxis. A similar panel should be repeated at one year. Thereafter, annual measurements of TSH may be sufficient to prevent overt hypothyroidism. In the presence of raised TSH or thyroid autoimmunity, shorter intervals between assessments are advisable (4–6 months. Measurement of antibodies and ultrasonic scanning may be repeated at 2-to-3-year intervals. The patient must be referred to the endocrinologist if TSH concentrations are repeatedly abnormal, and/or goitre or nodules are detected. Thyroid function abnormalities should not constitute an outright contraindication to lithium treatment, and lithium should not be stopped if a patient develops thyroid abnormalities. Decisions should be made taking into account the evidence that lithium treatment is perhaps the only efficient means of reducing the excessive mortality which is otherwise associated with affective disorders.

  14. Nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 like immunoreactivity in the olfactory system, brain and pituitary of frog, Microhyla ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senejani, A G; Gaupale, Tekchand C; Unniappan, Suraj; Bhargava, Shobha

    2014-06-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorectic protein derived from the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). While nesfatin-1 has been widely studied in mammals, and goldfish, there are no reports of nesfatin-1 in amphibians. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, this study assessed the distribution of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the brain of frog Microhyla ornata. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 like immunoreactivity was found in the olfactory receptor neurons, Bowman's glands and in the olfactory epithelium of medial diverticulum. In the brain, immunoreactive perikarya were seen in the anterior preoptic area, magnocellular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior thalamic nucleus, nucleus infundibularis ventralis and dorsalis, and the cerebellar nucleus. NUCB2/nesfatin-1like immunoreactivity was also detected in the pineal and pituitary glands of frog. The presence of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the key brain regions suggest possible roles for this protein in the regulation of physiological processes in frogs. PMID:24768694

  15. Comparative analysis of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity reveals genuine differences in the hypothalamic Kiss1 systems between rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Kiss1 mRNA and its corresponding peptide products, kisspeptins, are expressed in two restricted brain areas of rodents, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The concentration of mature kisspeptins may not directly correlate with Kiss1 mRNA levels, because mRNA translation and/or posttranslational modification, degradation, transportation and release of kisspeptins could be regulated independently of gene expression, and there may thus be differences in kisspeptin expression even in species with similar Kiss1 mRNA profiles. We measured and compared kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in both nuclei and both sexes of rats and mice and quantified kisspeptin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. We also determined Kiss1 mRNA levels and measured kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in colchicine pretreated rats. Overall, we find higher levels of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the mouse compared to the rat, independently of brain region and gender. In the female mouse AVPV high numbers of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons were present, while in the rat, the female AVPV displays a similar number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons compared to the level of Kiss1 mRNA expressing cells, only after axonal transport inhibition. Interestingly, the density of kisspeptin innervation in the anterior periventricular area was higher in female compared to male in both species. Species differences in the ARC were evident, with the mouse ARC containing dense fibers, while the rat ARC contains clearly discernable cells. In addition, we show a marked sex difference in the ARC, with higher kisspeptin levels in females. These findings show that the translation of Kiss1 mRNA and/or the degradation/transportation/release of kisspeptins are different in mice and rats.

  16. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  17. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  18. Occupational exposures during abnormal radiological events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This present work shows the Cuban experience in the medical personnel dosimetry evaluation in the scope of the abnormal radiological events, in the last 10 years. The main results of this work have demonstrated that greater part of abnormal occupational exposures were obtained by industrial radiography and nuclear medicine procedures

  19. Magnetic resonance tomography of joint abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical shift imaging permits separate demonstration of water and fatbound protons in a selected plane. Compared with normal spin-echo sequences, specific information can be obtained in the investigation of internal joint structures. A pilot study was carried out on the possibility of showing normal and abnormal structures, using normal controls, and 16 patients with various joint abnormalities. (orig.)

  20. A family with multiple musculoskeletal abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, K E; Gow, P J; Mayo, K M

    1984-01-01

    A family with multiple musculoskeletal abnormalities is reported. The disorder is characterised by platyspondyly, abnormality of the upper femoral epiphyses, and the development of precocious osteoarthritis. It is proposed that this family represents an example of autosomal dominantly inherited spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (SED tarda).

  1. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  2. Chronic ethanol-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity: an immunocytochemical observation in various regions of adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalçik, Hakki; Yardimoglu, Melda; Filiz, Serdar; Gonca, Süheyla; Dalçik, Cannur; Erden, Bekir Faruk

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of chronic ethanol (ETOH) treatment on the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity was investigated in adult rat brains. ETOH were administered as increasing concentrations of 2.4%-7.2% (v/v) gradually for 21 days. Immunocytochemistry revealed that chronic-ETOH treatment increased synthesis of GFAP. The increase in the diameter and the number of GFAP (+) cells were statistically significant compared with the control group (p <. 05). An increase of GFAP immunoreactivity was evident in various white matter and gray matter structures. We concluded that functional astrocytic cells responded to chronic ETOH exposure by increasing the synthesis of GFAP. PMID:19922358

  3. Characterization of trkB immunoreactive cells in the intermediolateral cell column of the rat spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    McCartney, Annemarie M.; Abejuela, Vanessa L.; Isaacson, Lori G.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the trkB receptor immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of the upper thoracic spinal cord. Small trkB-ir cells (area =56.1 +/? 4.4 µm2) observed in the IML showed characteristics of oligodendrocytes and were frequently observed in close apposition to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-ir cell bodies. Large trkB-ir cells (area =209.3 +/? 25.2 µm2) showed immunoreactivity for the neuronal marker NeuN, ind...

  4. Auditory abnormalities in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Bo Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the characteristics of auditory abnormalities present in cases of autism. One hundred and fifty six children with autism and 141matched controls with language delay were investigated via direct observations combined with parent/caregiver reports. All of the autistic individuals demonstrated auditory abnormalities especially in the domain of hyposensitivity, compared with 33.3% of children with language delay. The auditory abnormalities in autism primarily comprised of auditory hyposensitivity, auditory hypersensitivity, phonophobia, and peculiar interests in certain sounds. Participants with autism were rated as having more problems than the language-delayed children in all the items of each domain. No significant difference in the range of auditory abnormalities were observed between mild and severe autistic children except for the presence of phonophobia. Children with autism presented with diverse auditory abnormalities which may be specific features in autism and may play an important role in the early identification of autism.

  5. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  6. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature is found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness.

  7. Immunoreactivity and Radioimmunoscintigraphy of 4-Lysine Single Chain (Fv) Lym-1 Antibody for the Radiometal Chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small size of recombinant scFv, composed of VH and VL region of IgG, has many advantages such as faster blood clearance, improved tumor localization and reduced human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response. On the other hand, owing to small size, number of amino group, which was not involved in binding site, of ScFv lym-1 was insufficient in conjugation with CITC-DTPA chelator for radio metal labeling. The goal of this study is to introduce 4-lysine tag to the end of ScFv lym-1 sequence for radio metal conjugation and to evaluate the immunoreactivity and radioimmunoscintigraphy of chelator conjugated 4-lysine taq scFv lym-1 (4-lys scFv)

  8. Characterisation of recombinant immunoreactive antigens of the scab mite Sarcoptes scabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, C; Lucius, R; Matthes, H F; Meusel, G; Reich, B; Kalinna, B H

    2008-05-31

    Sarcoptic mange (or scabies) is an important skin disease which can affect a variety of species including humans, cattle, goats, sheep, horses, pigs, rabbits, and dogs. Approximately 300 million people are affected worldwide and in lifestock animals the infestation may lead to substantial economic losses caused by depression in growth and feed conversion rates. Diagnosis of Sarcoptes infestation is difficult and only a few serological tests have been developed using whole mite antigen for diagnosis of mange in animals. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of cDNAs of several immunoreactive clones and their recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Three of the proteins contain repetitive sequences which suggests that they might be involved in immune evasion. The application of these antigens in serodiagnosis and the suitability for diagnosis is discussed. PMID:18359167

  9. Tracheal cryopreservation: caspase-3 immunoreactivity in tracheal epithelium and in mixed glands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Sotres-Vega; M., Baltazares-Lipp; J., Villalba-Caloca; M.O., Gaxiola-Gaxiola; J.A., Santibañez-Salgado; J.R., Olmos-Zúñiga; R., Jasso-Victoria.

    1156-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation has an immunomodulating effect on tracheal tissue as a result of class II antigen depletion due to epithelium exfoliation. However, not all epithelium is detached. We evaluated the role of apoptosis in the remaining epithelium of 30 cryopreserved tracheal grafts. Caspase-3 immunorea [...] ctivity of tracheal epithelium was studied in canine tracheal segments cryopreserved with F12K medium, with or without subsequent storage in liquid nitrogen at -196°C for 15 days. Loss of structural integrity of tracheal mixed glands was observed in all cryopreserved tracheal segments. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity in tracheal mucosa and in mixed glands was significantly decreased, in contrast to the control group and to cryopreserved tracheal segments in which it remained high, due to the effect of storage in liquid nitrogen (P

  10. [Distribution of GABA-immunoreactive elements in the reptile amygdaloid complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belekhova, M G; Chkheidze, D D; Veselkin, N P; Kenigfest, N B; Kratskin, I L; P'err, Zh; Reperan, Zh

    1992-01-01

    GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-I) elements (neuronal somata and neuropile) are detected in turtle Emys orbicularis and lizard Ophysaurus spodus in all structures of ventral and dorsal parts of amygdaloid complex (AC) considered as phylogenetic more ancient and younger, respectively by means of the immunohistochemical method. Their maximal quantity in the ventral section of AC is found in the lateral region, lesser--in the ventral, central and medial regions. Besides in lizards a specialized laminar distribution of GABA-I elements in n. sphaericus is observed. GABA-I neurons are also detected in structures of dorsal part in turtles and lizards against the background of the immunopositive neuropile of a moderate density. It is supposed that GABA-ergic innervation of AC is liable to considerable variations in connection with taxonomic, ecological and other factors. PMID:1584309

  11. Tau immunoreactivity detected in human plasma, but no obvious increase in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingelson, M; Blomberg, M

    1999-01-01

    Tau proteins are central to the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease and tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid are elevated in affected individuals. In this study, we investigated the presence of tau in plasma from subjects with Alzheimer's disease (n = 16), frontotemporal dementia (n = 10), vascular dementia (n = 16) and from healthy controls (n = 15). By using an ELISA with monoclonal tau antibodies, tau immunoreactivity was detected in approximately 20% of the subjects. However, no difference between the disease and control groups was seen. After gel filtration of tau immunopositive plasma, the peak reactivity was found in the 160-kD fraction, indicating the source to be tau-like molecules of high-molecular-weight or polymers of low-molecular-weight tau isoforms. We conclude that measurements of tau in plasma cannot be utilized diagnostically for Alzheimer's disease or for the other dementias investigated. Copyrightz1999S.KargerAG,Basel

  12. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or ?Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  13. Effects of reserpine on reproduction and serotonin immunoreactivity in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Li, Andrew Y; Witt, Colleen M; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting cattle. Two sperm staining techniques were adapted successfully to reveal the morphology of stable fly sperm, for the first time, and determine successful mating in females through the assessment of sperm transfer. This approach was also applied to assess sperm transfer by males treated with different doses of reserpine. Mating or sperm transfer did not occur in flies during the first 3 days after emergence. Thereafter, the percentage of females that mated increased with age. Reserpine treatment of males reduced sperm transfer in a dose-dependent manner. Older males were more sensitive to reserpine treatment than younger flies. Reserpine treatment of 5 days old females reduced the number of eggs laid, but had no effect on egg-hatching rates. Results of immunoreactivity (IR) experiments indicated that serotonin in the neuronal processes innervating male testes was completely depleted by reserpine within 5h after treatment. This effect was transient as the serotonin immunoreactive signal was recovered in 33.3% of the males at 1 day post-treatment and in 94.4% of the flies at 3 days post-treatment. The results of this study concur with previous findings in other insect species and extend our knowledge of the critical roles biogenic amines play in mating and oviposition behaviors of the stable fly. The work could provide a foundation to further characterize the specific roles of individual biogenic amines and their receptors in stable fly reproduction. PMID:23321479

  14. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M1dG adducts. No differences in M1dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX). This reduction in ?H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreon in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  15. Production of the recombinant single chain anti-B cell lymphoma antibody and evaluation of immunoreactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Ho; Choi, Tae Hyun; Woo, Kang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Kim, Soo Gwan; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Recombinant ScFv lym-1 was produced, using pET vector system for large scale production. ScFv lym-1 gene inserted pET-22b (+) vector, was expressed in E. coli BL-21 strain. ScFv lym-1 antibody extracted from periplasm, was purified with His-Taq column. To evaluated immunoreactivity with Raji cell, ScFv lym-1 was labeled with I-125 and I-125 ScFv lym-1 was purified with desalting column. Raji cell was injected into the C57BR/cdJ SCID mice. Gamma camera imaging were taken time point at 1, 8, 24 and 48 hr with 8 mm pinhole collimator. An active scFv lym-1 could be produced in E. coli with soluble from using pET vector system. Immunoreactivity and affinity constant of lgG lym-1 were 54% and 1.83 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1}, respectively, and those of scFv lym-1 were 53.7% and 1.46 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1}, respectively. Biodistribution of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance in blood, spleen, kidney and than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. Gamma camera image of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance and tumor targeting liver than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. In vitro properties of scFv lym-1 were similar to those of lgG lym-1. ScFv lym-1 showed faster blood clearance than lgG lym-1. These results suggest that scFv lym-1 antibody can be useful for tumor imaging agent.

  16. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  17. Immunoreactivity of ATF-2 and Fra-2 in human dental follicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is asserted that epithelial rests in dental follicle (DF existing around the impacted teeth in adults are effective in cyst formation. In this study, it is intended for determining and comparing the immunoreactivity (IR ratio of ATF-2 and Fra-2 proteins, the members of Activator Protein-1 (AP-1 family which regulates important cellular activities such as growth, proliferation and differentiation, in DF epithelial cells (EC and connective tissue cells (CC. In this study, ATF-2 and Fra-2 immunoreactivity (ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR in EC and CC in DF tissues obtained from 30 patients were analyzed by using immunohistochemical method. Ratios of ATF-2-IR positive cells were found 17.36+/-9.55% in EC, 27.27+/-14.86% in CC and ratios of Fra-2-IR positive cells were found 20.04+/-11.47% in EC, 16.71+/-9.05% in CC. In the statistically comparison performed; significant differences were found between EC and CC in terms of both ATF-2-IR (p<0.001 and Fra-2-IR (p<0.05. In EC, no significant difference was found between ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR (p>0.05, whereas significant difference was found between ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR in CC (p<0.001. According to these data, it can be suggested that Fra-2 protein may be more effective than ATF-2 protein in cyst formation originated from EC of DF. Besides, finding that ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR are different in CC although similar in EC shows that AP-1 members can be expressed at different ratios in same tissues.

  18. Effects of Dielectrophoresis on Growth, Viability and Immuno-reactivity of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhunia Arun K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dielectrophoresis (DEP has been regarded as a useful tool for manipulating biological cells prior to the detection of cells. Since DEP uses high AC electrical fields, it is important to examine whether these electrical fields in any way damage cells or affect their characteristics in subsequent analytical procedures. In this study, we investigated the effects of DEP manipulation on the characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes cells, including the immuno-reactivity to several Listeria-specific antibodies, the cell growth profile in liquid medium, and the cell viability on selective agar plates. It was found that a 1-h DEP treatment increased the cell immuno-reactivity to the commercial Listeria species-specific polyclonal antibodies (from KPL by ~31.8% and to the C11E9 monoclonal antibodies by ~82.9%, whereas no significant changes were observed with either anti-InlB or anti-ActA antibodies. A 1-h DEP treatment did not cause any change in the growth profile of Listeria in the low conductive growth medium (LCGM; however, prolonged treatments (4 h or greater caused significant delays in cell growth. The results of plating methods showed that a 4-h DEP treatment (5 MHz, 20 Vpp reduced the viable cell numbers by 56.8–89.7 %. These results indicated that DEP manipulation may or may not affect the final detection signal in immuno-based detection depending on the type of antigen-antibody reaction involved. However, prolonged DEP treatment for manipulating bacterial cells could produce negative effects on the cell detection by growth-based methods. Careful selection of DEP operation conditions could avoid or minimize negative effects on subsequent cell detection performance.

  19. Production of the recombinant single chain anti-B cell lymphoma antibody and evaluation of immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant ScFv lym-1 was produced, using pET vector system for large scale production. ScFv lym-1 gene inserted pET-22b (+) vector, was expressed in E. coli BL-21 strain. ScFv lym-1 antibody extracted from periplasm, was purified with His-Taq column. To evaluated immunoreactivity with Raji cell, ScFv lym-1 was labeled with I-125 and I-125 ScFv lym-1 was purified with desalting column. Raji cell was injected into the C57BR/cdJ SCID mice. Gamma camera imaging were taken time point at 1, 8, 24 and 48 hr with 8 mm pinhole collimator. An active scFv lym-1 could be produced in E. coli with soluble from using pET vector system. Immunoreactivity and affinity constant of lgG lym-1 were 54% and 1.83 x 109 M-1, respectively, and those of scFv lym-1 were 53.7% and 1.46 x 109 M-1, respectively. Biodistribution of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance in blood, spleen, kidney and than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. Gamma camera image of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance and tumor targeting liver than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. In vitro properties of scFv lym-1 were similar to those of lgG lym-1. ScFv lym-1 showed faster blood clearance than lgG lym-1. These results suggest that scFv lym-1 antibody can be useful for tumor imaging agent

  20. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schults, Marten A.; Nagle, Peter W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Rensen, Sander S. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Godschalk, Roger W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco [Cancer Risk Factor Branch, ISPO Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Greve, Jan W. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Driessen, Ann [Department of Pathology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Verdam, Froukje J.; Buurman, Wim A. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik J. van [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K., E-mail: r.k.chiu@med.umcg.nl [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M{sub 1}dG adducts. No differences in M{sub 1}dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX). This reduction in {gamma}H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  1. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Partata

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

  2. CAN SHORT RATIOS PREDICT ABNORMAL RETURNS?

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Cohen

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the relationship between short ratios and abnormal returns on the Nasdaq100 Index between May and July 2010. Our goal is to investigate whether short ratios can predict short-term abnormal returns and to examine to what extent short ratios of 3 and 5 can serve as bear and bull market predictors. Our results show that in general short ratios are poor predictors of abnormal returns. However, in a relatively small number of Nasdaq100 firms with an average market capitali...

  3. Amphibian abnormalities on National Wildlife Refuges

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet outlines a study done to 1 find the percentage of abnormal frogs and toads on the nations National Wildlife Refuges and 2 determine how the...

  4. Model for quantifying absorption through abnormal skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques are available for quantitatively studying factors governing absorption through normal skin (in vivo and in vitro) but relatively little is known about the permeability of abnormal skin. We have designed and evaluated an in vivo model for quantifying absorption through abnormal skin. Absorption of [3H]mannitol and [14C]octyl benzoate was studied through altered rat skin. [3H]Mannitol penetrated normal skin much more slowly than did [14C]octyl benzoate. Abnormal skin was more permeable to [3H]mannitol and [14C]octyl benzoate, absorption was greater than 100X and greater than 2X greater, respectively, than normal. The in vivo model has been successfully used to quantify absorption through abnormal skin

  5. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  6. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  7. Childhood Psychosis Combined with XYZ Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Naomi; Pergament, Eugene

    1971-01-01

    Summarizes the diagnostic evaluation of one prepubescent male with the double Y syndrome and suggests a need to investigate further the biochemical, physiological, and genetic roles underlying such gross behavioral abnormalities. (WY)

  8. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Noval; Mar González-Manrique; José María Rodríguez-Del Valle; José María Rodríguez-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or ta...

  9. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  10. Osteopoikilosis Patient with Abnormal Bone Scan

    OpenAIRE

    Alev Gürgan; Gonca Deniz; Yasemin Turan; Serpil Bal

    2008-01-01

    Osteopoikilosis a condition mimicking a variety of bone pathology is a rare osteosclerotic displasia. The diagnosis is usually done according to radiographs which are performed incidentally. Although bone scan is usually normal, especially in young patients abnormal tracer uptake can be seen. We report a 25 year-old female osteopoikilosis patient with abnormal bone scan and characteristic radiographic findings who had been diagnosed and treated inappropriately. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:6...

  11. Osteopoikilosis Patient with Abnormal Bone Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Gürgan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteopoikilosis a condition mimicking a variety of bone pathology is a rare osteosclerotic displasia. The diagnosis is usually done according to radiographs which are performed incidentally. Although bone scan is usually normal, especially in young patients abnormal tracer uptake can be seen. We report a 25 year-old female osteopoikilosis patient with abnormal bone scan and characteristic radiographic findings who had been diagnosed and treated inappropriately. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:69-72

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anupamasuresh Y; Suresh YV; Prachi Jain

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common problem for the patients and the gynecologists. It adversely effects on the quality of life and psychology of women. It is of special concern in developing country as it adds to the causes of anemia. Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is not complete without tissue diagnosis especially in perimenopausal and post-menopausal women. Histological characteristics of endometrial biopsy material as assessed by light mic...

  13. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Eslamian, L.

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal menstrual bleeding is one of the most common reasons of gynecologic consultation in adolescent girls. During the first two years after menarche. Most of cycles are anovulatory. Despite this, they are somewhat regular with a range of approximately 21-40 days. Cycles longer than 42 days or shorter than 21 days and bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days particularly 2 years after menarche are considered abnormal. Since the variability in cycle length is greater in adolescence than in ad...

  15. Immunologic abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Klimas, N. G.; Salvato, F. R.; Morgan, R.; Fletcher, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    The chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), formerly known as chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome, is a clinical state of some complexity and uncertain etiology. In order to characterize in a comprehensive manner the status of laboratory markers associated with cellular immune function in patients with this syndrome, 30 patients with clinically defined CFS were studied. All of the subjects were found to have multiple abnormalities in these markers. The most consistent immunological abnormality detect...

  16. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  17. Linear bubble model of abnormal grain growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, W. W.; Vinals, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    A linear bubble model of grain growth is introduced to study the conditions under which an isolated grain can grow to a size much larger than the surrounding matrix average (abnormal growth). We first consider the case of bubbles of two different types such that the permeability of links joining unlike bubbles is larger than that of like bubbles (a simple model of grain boundary anisotropy). Stable abnormal growth is found both by mean field analysis and direct numerical sol...

  18. Remote disassembly of an abnormal multiplication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of abnormal multiplying systems remote disassembling is described. This method was worked through in actual operations as response to the nuclear accident at the RFNC-VNIIEF criticality test facility FKBN-2M on 17 June 1997. The abnormal assembly was a sphere of 235U (90%), surrounded by a copper reflector. The detailed information on the multiplying system disassembly operations could be of use to the experts at other institutions when they develop emergency response plans. (author)

  19. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  20. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  1. Chromosome abnormalities in newborn children. Physical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Hansen, K B

    1981-01-01

    A chromosome examination was made on 11,148 consecutively live-born children: 93 had a chromosome abnormality and 192 a chromosome variant. The physical aspects of the children with chromosome abnormalities and variants were compared with those of the children with normal karyotypes. Children with aneuploid or unbalanced chromosome abnormalities were more immature or not fully developed at birth than those with normal karyotypes. Birth weight was lower in children with all types of chromosome abnormalities, including reciprocal translocations and chromosome variants. The low birth weight in children with chromosome variants was mainly due to the low birth weight of children with G variants. These children were also subject to a higher frequency of special delivery treatment. Heart disorders were increased in children with aneuploid or unbalanced chromosome abnormalities. The frequency of foetal erythroblastosis was increased in children with short Y as well as in children with acentric fragments. Neonatal mortality was higher in children with aneuploid or unbalanced chromosome abnormalities than in children with normal karyotypes.

  2. Survival and growth of neurons with enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in fetal brain areas grafted to the anterior chamber of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, H; Hoffer, B J; Palmer, M R; Seiger, A; Olson, L

    1983-12-01

    Areas of fetal rat brain and spinal cord known to contain enkephalin-like immunoreactive cell bodies and/or terminal fields were transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of adult rats. Enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons survive and produce an enkephalin-like immunoreactive fiber network within grafts of spinal cord, ventral medulla oblongata, ventrolateral pons, tectum, locus coeruleus, substantia nigra and the areas containing columna fornicis and globus pallidus. Although single intraocular grafts of neocortex do not apparently contain enkephalin-like immunoreactive fibers, such grafts contain a variable amount of sparsely distributed enkephalin-like fibers when sequentially grafted in oculo with either locus coeruleus or spinal cord. Combinations of locus coeruleus and globus pallidus contained a rich enkephalin fiber network in the locus coeruleus part and a sparse innervation of the globus pallidus part. We conclude that enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons in small areas of fetal rat brain can be successfully transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye. They are able to survive and develop to maturity in complete isolation from the rest of the brain. In general, the enkephalin-like immunoreactive fiber density in the various single grafts approximated that of their brain counterparts in situ. Fiber formation can be reinitiated in mature enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons by addition of new brain target areas. Thus, the technique permits establishment of isolated, defined enkephalin systems and pathways accessible to functional analysis. PMID:6363968

  3. Automated recognition and counting of the immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells in chronic gastritis (the preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Jochymski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the designed software CAMI (Computerized Analysis of Microscopic Images for a digital reconstruction of the diversiform glands seen in chronic inflammatory gastric mucosa, and for automated recognition and quantization of the immunoreactive neuroendocrine (NE cells appearing within mucosal glands. Digital reconstruction of the individual gastric gland is difficult due to variable shapes of the glandular cross-sections. Fifteen gastric biopsy specimens representing chronic gastritis were stained routinely with H+E and immunohistochemically with 3 NE markers: Chromogranin A, Somatostatin and Serotonin. Two expert pathologists counted manually the NE cells with the light microscope in 4 types of glandular cross-sections: round, short- oblique, long- oblique and longitudinal. The automated counting of the NE cells was performed on the digital images presenting the same microscopic areas which were selected for the manual reading. The first step of image analysis was concerned to the cell extraction and recognition of the cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. The unstained nuclei of the NE cells were spotted by the sequential thresholding algorithm combined with the artificial neural network of SupportVector Machine (SVM type. The second step of image analysis comprised reconstruction of the glands. The presumed shape of each gastric gland was defined by the cellular lining of viewed glandular cross-section. The designed algorithm for gland reconstruction was based on the cell masks. The third step of analysis dealt the cell counting. Every recognized gland with the face cells was used for the NE cell evaluation. The results of the automated quantization compared with manual counting results for the number of NE cells showed high concordance in 3 types of glandular cross-sections: round, short- and long- oblique. A difference noticed in the results of the longitudinal glands should be verified in the extended study. The designed software CAMI is more adequate for the gland recognition with an discontinuous gland face seen in the immunohistochemical digital images, which appear to be a difficult problem for the accurate automated analysis of the cellular component of glands.

  4. Immunoreactivity for Taurine Characterizes Subsets of Glia, GABAergic and non-GABAergic Neurons in the Neo- and Archicortex of the Rat, Cat and Rhesus Monkey: Comparison with Immunoreactivity for Homocysteic Acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzer, MF; COWEY, A; Ottersen, OP; Streit, P.; P. Somogyi

    1992-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is an area rich in taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), but only limited information exists regarding its cellular distribution. We therefore examined taurine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of the rat, cat and macaque monkey using antiserum directed against glutaraldehyde-conjugated taurine. Immunostaining was assessed at the light and electron microscopic level, and patterns obtained in light microscopic studies were compared to those produced with antiser...

  5. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Peter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research.

  6. Abnormal hepatocellular mitochondria in methylmalonic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilnai, Yael; Enns, Gregory M; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Higgins, John; Vogel, Hannes

    2014-10-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most frequently encountered forms of branched-chain organic acidemias. Biochemical abnormalities seen in some MMA patients, such as lactic acidemia and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate excretion, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to investigate the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in MMA, we examined liver tissue for evidence of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Five explanted livers obtained from MMA mut(0) patients undergoing liver transplantation were biopsied. All patients had previous episodes of metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, ketonuria, and hyperammonemia. All biopsies revealed a striking mitochondriopathy by electron microscopy. Mitochondria were markedly variable in size, shape, and conformation of cristae. The inner matrix appeared to be greatly expanded and the cristae were diminutive and disconnected. No crystalloid inclusions were noted. This series clearly documents extensive mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities in liver samples from MMA patients undergoing transplantation, providing pathological evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of MMA mut(0). Considering the trend to abnormally large mitochondria, the metabolic effects of MMA may restrict mitochondrial fission or promote fusion. The correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological abnormalities in MMA may provide insights for better understanding and monitoring of optimized or novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24933007

  7. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  8. Distribution and chemical coding pattern of somatostatin immunoreactivity in the dorsal striatum of the guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Najdzion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a detailed description of somatostatin (SOM distribution and the colocalization pattern of SOM, neuropeptide Y (NPY and nitric oxide synthase (NOS in the dorsal striatum (caudate-putamen complex of the guinea pig. Within the dorsal striatum, SOM is found in a population of medium-sized aspiny interneurons. We found that 97% of all SOM-IR neurons expressed NPY simultaneously, while 98% of all NPY-ergic perikarya was simultaneously SOM-IR. On the other hand, while 98% of all SOM-IR cells were simultaneously NOS-IR, only 91% of all NOS-containing neurons exhibited SOM-immunoreactivity. Irrespective of their chemical coding, both types of SOM-IR neurons were scattered throughout the dorsal striatum, sometimes in the form of small, loosely arranged clusters of 2–4 cells. While SOM-IR and NPY-IR nerve fibers were present in all of the studied regions, they were more numerous in the ventro-medial part of the studied structure, with the exception of its caudal portion, where SOM-IR and NPY-IR fibers additionally formed a dense network in the part corresponding to the caudate nucleus. A low expression of staining for NOS-IR fibers was seen throughout the entire dorsal striatum. In some fibers, SOM and NPY were co-expressed. Fibers expressing both SOM and NOS were not found. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 690–699

  9. Colocalization of glucagon-like peptide and glucagon immunoreactivities in pancreatic islets and intestine of salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, M; Miyata, K; Oota, Y; Gorbman, A; Plisetskaya, E M

    1988-08-01

    Pancreatic islets of salmon contain at least two peptides of the glucagon family: 29-amino acid glucagon and 31-amino acid glucagon-like peptide (GLP). Both peptides were recently isolated from the pancreatic islets of coho salmon and sequenced (Plisetskaya et al. 1986). Antibodies generated against these two peptides and against human glucagon were used as immunocytochemical probes to investigate whether glucagon and GLP are processed in the same, or in different cell types in the pancreatic islets and the gut of salmon. Two salmonid species, rainbow trout and coho salmon, were studied. All islet A-cells in the two species were immunoreactive toward both anti-salmon (s)-glucagon and anti-s-GLP. Similar colocalization of glucagon and GLP immunoreactivites was found in open-type endocrine cells in mucosae of the small intestine (including the pyloric coecae) and the large intestine close to the vent of rainbow trout. None of the antibodies stained mucosal cells of the body of the stomach. These results suggest that in the pancreas and the gut of salmonid fish the same cells produce both glucagon and GLP. These peptides are most likely the products of a single gene coding for the preproglucagon sequence. PMID:3044602

  10. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the guinea pig. A mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triepel, J; Metz, J; Munroe, D; London, S; Sweriduk, S; Forssmann, W G

    1987-07-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive (VIP-IR) neurons in the lower medulla oblongata and the spinal cord has been analyzed in guinea pigs. This study includes results obtained by colchicine treatment and transection experiments. In the spinal cord, numerous VIP-IR varicosities were observed in the substantia gelatinosa of the columna dorsalis; some were also found in the substantia intermedia and the columna anterior. The spinal VIP-IR nerve fibers were mainly of intraspinal origin and oriented segmentally. VIP-IR nuclei in the spinal cord extended dorsally into corresponding regions of the caudal medulla oblongata, namely from the substantia intermedia medialis and lateralis into the vagus-solitarius complex and from the nucleus spinalis lateralis into the area of the nucleus reticularis lateralis. Additional VIP-IR perikarya were observed in the pars caudalis of the nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini. The VIP-IR nuclei within the caudal medulla oblongata probably form a continuous system with those localized within the spinal cord. They may be involved functionally in the modulation of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation in the guinea pig. PMID:3304643

  11. Retroperitoneal schwannoma is characterized by a high incidence of cellular type and GFAP-immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Takanori; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Sakaki, Mika; Fujii, Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    To clarify the clinicopathologic characteristics of retroperitoneal schwannomas, which are sometimes confused with other spindle cell tumors, 27 cases were studied microscopically and immunohistochemically. The 27 cases consisted of 17 females and 10 males, the ages of whom ranged from 31-79 (mean 57.4) years. Gross examination revealed well-demarcated, encapsulated tumors, 3-15 cm (mean 8 cm) in diameter. Microscopic review divided them into 13 cases of cellular/fascicular, 3 of conventional, 6 of intermediate, and 5 of ancient type. Cellular/fascicular schwannomas were composed of cellular fascicles of spindle cells, in which nuclear palisading, Antoni B area and cyst were unclear, while numerous foamy cells were intermingled. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed diffuse, strong positivity for S-100 protein and Sox10 in all tumors studied. In addition, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was extensively expressed in 92% of the cellular/fascicular type, while it was less prominent in others. The present study suggests that retroperitoneal schwannoma often occurs in the middle-aged woman, grows to a large size, exhibits cellular/fascicular microscopic features in half of the cases, and may arise from GFAP-positive Schwann cells. The presence of hyalinized vessels and dense infiltration of foamy macrophages as well as diffuse immunoreactivity for S-100 protein and Sox10 are helpful for the differential diagnosis. PMID:22726065

  12. Calretinin-, neurocalcin-, and parvalbumin-immunoreactive elements in the olfactory bulb of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñón, J G; Weruaga, E; Crespo, C; Porteros, A; Arévalo, R; Aijón, J; Alonso, J R

    2001-01-22

    The distribution pattern and morphology of calretinin-, neurocalcin-, and parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were studied in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs of the hedgehog. The detection of these markers was carried out by using monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies and the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase method. Specific neuronal populations were positive for these calcium-binding proteins in the hedgehog olfactory bulb, revealing both similarities to and differences from the data reported in the olfactory bulb of rodent species. The distribution pattern of each calcium-binding protein studied in the accessory olfactory bulb was highly similar to that described in other macrosmatic species. However, in the main olfactory bulb, the markers analyzed were expressed in similar interneuronal populations as they are in the rodent olfactory bulb, whereas cell groups categorized as projecting neurons demonstrated striking differences in the expression of these calcium-binding proteins. These results suggest that the expression of calcium-binding proteins in a given brain region is not a constant feature among species despite a similar organization but that different factors could influence their expression. Thus, the accessory olfactory system involved in the processing of specific and similar olfactory cues among species demonstrates a more constant organization among species. By contrast, the functionally important role of the main olfactory system in the hedgehog is accompanied by a more complex organization, which is reflected in an increased diversity of calcium-buffering systems. PMID:11135235

  13. Immunoreactive Trypsinogen (IRT) as a Biomarker for Cystic Fibrosis: challenges in newborn dried blood spot screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrell, Bradford L; Hannon, W Harry; Hoffman, Gary; Ojodu, Jelili; Farrell, Philip M

    2012-05-01

    On May 23-24, 2011, a workshop entitled "Immunoreactive Trypsinogen (IRT) as a Biomarker for Cystic Fibrosis: Technical Issues and Challenges" was held in Annapolis, Maryland. The two-day workshop was co-hosted by the National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, Austin, Texas, and the Association of Public Health Laboratories, Silver Spring, Maryland, in collaboration with the Health Resources and Services Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Participants included nearly 40 representatives from U.S. state public health and commercial laboratories performing newborn dried blood spot screening tests for cystic fibrosis (CF), the federal government, academic research institutions, and commercial vendors of products used in newborn screening. Representatives from selected European CF newborn screening programs were also present. The workshop focused on identifying key IRT testing issues and mechanisms for achieving their resolution and laboratory harmonization in order to reduce, or eliminate completely, the late identified CF cases following a negative newborn screen. Informative findings are reported, their impacts on improving IRT screening are described, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22425451

  14. Serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of two ixodid tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Natalie A; Li, Andrew Y; Witt, Colleen M

    2007-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry was used to describe the distribution of serotonin-like immunoreactive (5HT-IR) neurons and neuronal processes in the central nervous system (CNS), the synganglion, of two ixodid tick species; the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. 5HT-IR neurons were identified in the synganglion of both tick species. D. albipictus had a significantly higher number of 5HT-IR neurons than A. americanum. The labeling pattern and number of 5HT-IR neurons were significantly different between sexes in D. albipictus, but were not significantly different between sexes in A. americanum. 5HT-IR neurons that were located in the cortex of the synganglion projected processes into the neuropils, invading neuromeres in the supraesophageal ganglion including the protocerebrum, postero-dorsal, antero-dorsal and cheliceral neuromeres. In the subesophageal ganglion, dense 5HT-IR neuronal processes were found in the olfactory lobes, pedal, and opisthosomal neuromeres. Double-labeling with neurobiotin backfilled from the first leg damaged at the Haller's organ revealed serotoninergic neuronal processes surrounding the glomeruli in the olfactory lobes. The high number of the 5HT-IR neurons and the extensive neuronal processes present in various regions of the synganglion suggest that serotonin plays a significant role in tick physiology. PMID:18040871

  15. In vitro release of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide from the rat atria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue,Hiroshi

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from atria was examined by ANP radioimmunoassay. Isolated right rat atria were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, and test substances were added to the incubation medium. The fluid was assayed for rat ANP by a radioimmunoassay method recently developed in our laboratory. We produced an antiserum to human ANP(99-216 (alpha-hANP(1-28 which showed a good cross-reactivity of 63% with rat ANP(99-126 (alpha-rANP(1-28 and was useful for measuring rat ANP concentrations of the medium. Application of the medium to a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system resulted in a single peak of immunoreactive rat ANP corresponding to a small molecular weight synthetic rat ANP of 28 amino acid residues. Catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and isoproterenol reduced the basal secretion of ANP, whereas acetylcholine stimulated the release of ANP. Forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not affect the release of ANP. These results suggest the possibility that the regulation of ANP release may be partially associated with adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms.

  16. Dihydrotestosterone and estrogen regulation of rat brain androgen-receptor immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C S; Story, A J

    Androgen-receptor upregulation that occurs with androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) administration may be mediated by AAS metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estrogen. Castrated and intact male rats received 14 s.c. daily injections of AAS (2 mg/kg testosterone cypionate, 2 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate, and 1 mg/kg boldenone undecylenate in sesame oil vehicle), DHT (5 mg/kg dihydrotestosterone), EB (5 mg/kg estradiol benzoate), or sesame oil vehicle. Approximately 18-24 h after the fourteenth injection, brain tissues were removed and processed immunocytochemically using the PG-21 androgen-receptor antibody. As reported before, castration eliminated AR-ir (androgen-receptor immunoreactivity) and AAS upregulated AR-ir in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHVL), medial amygdala (MePV), and medial preoptic area (MPOM). When compared to AAS, DHT fully upregulated AR-ir in the VM VL and MPOM and partially upregulated AR-ir in the MePV. EB treatment partially upregulated AR-ir in the VMHVL and MePV, but not in the MPOM of castrated rats. Because AR-ir in the MPOM was consistently upregulated by DHT or AAS, and not EB, androgen-receptor availability in this region may be mediated specifically via androgen receptors. PMID:10913783

  17. Corazonin- and PDF-immunoreactivities in the cephalic ganglia of termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závodská, Radka; Wen, Chih-Jen; Sehnal, Frantisek; Hrdý, Ivan; Lee, How-Jing; Sauman, Ivo

    2009-05-01

    Antisera against the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and corazonin (Crz) reacted with distinct sets of neurons in the cephalic ganglia of termites. The locations of immunoreactive cells were similar but their numbers differed among the eight species examined: PDF-ir occurred in 0-6 cells in each optic lobe and 1-2 pairs of cells in the subosophageal ganglion (SOG), and Crz-ir in 0-2 pairs of cells in the pars intecerebralis, 3-14 cells in each lateral protocerebrum, and 0-6 pairs of cells in the SOG. Staining patterns were identical in the pseudergates, soldiers, and substitutive reproductives of Prorhinotermes simplex. Workers and soldiers were compared in the remaining 7 species. The only caste divergence was detected in Coptotermes formosanus, in which the soldiers differed from the workers by lack of 4 Crz-ir perikarya in the pars intercerebralis and occasionally also by the absence of 2 Crz-ir perikarya in the SOG. Diurnal changes in PDF-ir and Crz-ir were examined in P. simplex kept under long day (18:6h light:darkness) or short day (10:14 h) photoperiods. No circadian fluctuations in the distribution or the intensity of immunostaining were found in the pseudergates and soldiers that were sacrificed in 4h intervals or in the male and female substitutive reproductives examined in 6h intervals. PMID:19073190

  18. Regional distribution of Ginkgo biloba-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, P E; Moore, C A; Collie, M T; Satvat, E

    2009-04-01

    A growing literature supports the notion that Ginkgo biloba has cognitive enhancing and anxiolytic properties; however, its effects on neuronal populations have yet to be characterized. The present study used c-Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) to characterize functional activity in selected brain regions following administration of a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract. Because Ginkgo is typically consumed orally, Exp 1 sought to identify patterns of neural activity induced by oral administration. To ensure that the alterations in functional neural activity observed in Exp 1 were not simply due to novel gustatory experience, Exp 2 characterized patterns of Fos-IR following intraperitoneal administration of Ginkgo. Rats were habituated to handling and experimental conditions. In Exp 1, rats self-administered 150 mg/kg Ginkgo or vehicle alone (strawberry jam) orally. In Exp 2, rats were injected with Ginkgo (2.5 or 25 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (0.3% gum Arabic). Animals were anaesthetized and perfused transcardially. Brains were sectioned, immunostained using a c-Fos antibody, then the number of labelled cells was quantified microscopically in selected brain regions. In both experiments Ginkgo increased Fos-IR in numerous brain regions including the insular cortex and amygdala. Intraperitoneal administration induced Fos-IR in some additional regions including the nucleus accumbens and dentate gyrus. Results provide important preliminary data serving to identify several candidate neural sites involved in the cognitive enhancing and anxiolytic effects of Ginkgo biloba. PMID:18757190

  19. Effect of age on the myosin-V immunoreactive myenteric neurons of rats ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Ferreira Schoffen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the gastrointestinal neuromuscular function related to age have been demonstrated in human and animal models. This study analyzes the effects of the aging process on the area of the neuronal cell bodies of the myenteric plexus in the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the ileal circumference of Wistar, 12 month-old in comparison 3 month-old animals. The ileum was removed and whole-mount preparations immunostained by the antibody anti-myosin-V were processed. The morphometric analyses were performed using a computerized image analysis system, with a subsequent distribution of neurons by size in intervals of 100 ?m². The cellular body morphometry revealed a significant increase in the size of the myosin-V- immunoreactive myenteric neurons from 12 month -old animals when compared with 3 month-old animals. However, significant differences between the regions were not observed; these observations were not age-dependent. The implications of these results in relation to the increase of the body weight, size of the small intestine, general organization of the myenteric plexus, staining method of neurons and the possible factors involved in the regulation and/or control of the volume of neronal cells due to aging, are discussed.

  20. Effect of age on the myosin-V immunoreactive myenteric neurons of rats ileum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Paulo, Ferreira Schoffen; Maria Raquel, Marçal Natali.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the gastrointestinal neuromuscular function related to age have been demonstrated in human and animal models. This study analyzes the effects of the aging process on the area of the neuronal cell bodies of the myenteric plexus in the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the ilea [...] l circumference of Wistar, 12 month-old in comparison 3 month-old animals. The ileum was removed and whole-mount preparations immunostained by the antibody anti-myosin-V were processed. The morphometric analyses were performed using a computerized image analysis system, with a subsequent distribution of neurons by size in intervals of 100 ?m². The cellular body morphometry revealed a significant increase in the size of the myosin-V- immunoreactive myenteric neurons from 12 month -old animals when compared with 3 month-old animals. However, significant differences between the regions were not observed; these observations were not age-dependent. The implications of these results in relation to the increase of the body weight, size of the small intestine, general organization of the myenteric plexus, staining method of neurons and the possible factors involved in the regulation and/or control of the volume of neronal cells due to aging, are discussed.

  1. Somatostatin immunoreactive cells in lesional psoriatic human skin during peptide T treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Talme, T; Marcusson, J A; Wetterberg, L

    1994-03-01

    Peptide T has been shown to be an effective treatment in psoriasis. The mechanism through which peptide T works in psoriasis is at present unknown. Furthermore, a clearance of psoriasis has also been registered using the inhibitory peptide somatostatin. These observations all focus on the fact that peptide T, somatostatin, and/or other peptides, might provide a clue to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis. Therefore, the effect of peptide T administration on somatostatin containing cutaneous cell populations was investigated. Ten psoriatic patients were treated with peptide T (D-Ala-peptide T amide; 2 mg/day i.v.) for 28 days. Serial biopsies were obtained from the psoriatic lesions before, once weekly during and 4 weeks after discontinuation of the peptide T treatment. An indirect immunofluorescence procedure was performed using a polyclonal antiserum against somatostatin. Clinically, most of the patients responded successfully to the treatment. Immunohistochemical investigations of the serial biopsies revealed the appearance of extensive changes in the number of dermal somatostatin immunoreactive dendritic cells. We believe that peptide T may stimulate the local synthesis and/or release of somatostatin, or proliferation and/or migration of certain dendritic cell populations in psoriatic lesions during healing. Since the benefits of peptide T treatment of psoriatic patients parallel earlier investigations using somatostatin infusions, it is likely that somatostatin given exogenously or synthesized/released endogenously plays a vital role in inducing the healing process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7911613

  2. Rearrangement of S-100 immunoreactive Langerhans' cells in human psoriatic skin treated with peptide T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Hilliges, M; Talme, T; Marcusson, J A; Wetterberg, L; Johansson, O

    1995-01-01

    Dendritic cells marked by protein S-100 (S-100) antiserum in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis have previously been identified to be Langerhans' cells. In this study, S-100 immunoreactive cells have been investigated in psoriatic lesioned skin during and after peptide T treatment. Peptide T is an octapeptide with affinity for the CD4 receptor. Nine patients were intravenously infused with peptide T, 2 mg in 500 ml saline per day for 28 days. Sections from involved skin before, every week during, and after the treatment were processed by indirect immunofluorescence using S-100 antiserum. Before the treatment the epidermal Langerhans' cells were numerically decreased or even completely gone in the involved skin of psoriasis as compared to skin from normal healthy controls, while the dermal dendritic cells instead were increased and gathered in cell clusters around vascular structures. Four of the nine patients had histopathological improvements after the peptide T treatment, and, in those cases, the dendritic cells in the dermis were reduced in number, and the Langerhans' cells in the epidermis were numerically increased as well as even reversed to normal position and morphology. These changes in the distribution and density of Langerhans' cells represent their rearrangement during the course of psoriasis and/or the remission after peptide T treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7727353

  3. Adrenomedullin immunoreactivity tissue distribution in parathyroids of the patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letizia, C; Ricci, F; De Toma, G; Cianci, R; Alo, P; Celi, M; Panzironi, G; Mingazzini, P L; D'Erasmo, E; Mazzuoli, G F

    2004-07-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a new potent vasorelaxant peptide identified originally in extracts of pheochromocytoma, and is widely distributed within the tissue. Although histopathological studies have demonstrated the presence of ADM-immunoreactivity (ir-ADM) in some human neuroendocrine tumors (such as insulinoma, pituitary adenoma, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors), data on the presence of ADM in normal and pathological parathyroid gland are not available. Plasma AM concentrations were recently reported to be elevated in patients with PHP (primary hyperparathyroidism). The aim of our study was to determine tissue distribution of ir-AM in 34 patients with PHP (27 female and 7 male, mean age 50 +/- 6 years) undergoing surgery. Six normal parathyroid samples incidentally found during thyroidectomy for neoplastic diseases and ten sections of human rectus abdominis muscle tissue were used as controls (C). Adenomatous parathyroids were found in 22 PHP and hyperplastic parathyroids in twelve PHP patients. Four hyperplastic parathyroids were found in three PHP patients and three parathyroids in 10 PHP patients. Eight parathyroids revealed a prevalent diffuse growth pattern and four showed a prevalent nodular growth pattern. Immunohistochemical ADM expression was seen in seven of twelve (58.3 %) hyperplastic parathyroids and in fourteen of twenty-two (66.6 %) adenomatous glands. Parathyroid chief cells showed strong cytoplasmatic staining, whereas oncocytic cells showed a faintly aspecific cytoplasmatic staining. Normal parathyroids were negative for ir-ADM. In conclusion, we found the presence of ADM in parathyroid chief cells of PHP patients using immunohistochemistry in our study. PMID:15305232

  4. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  5. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R

    2001-09-01

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed. PMID:11584121

  6. Linear bubble model of abnormal grain growth

    CERN Document Server

    Mullins, W W; Vinals, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    A linear bubble model of grain growth is introduced to study the conditions under which an isolated grain can grow to a size much larger than the surrounding matrix average (abnormal growth). We first consider the case of bubbles of two different types such that the permeability of links joining unlike bubbles is larger than that of like bubbles (a simple model of grain boundary anisotropy). Stable abnormal growth is found both by mean field analysis and direct numerical solution. We next study the role of grain boundary pinning (e.g., due to impurities or precipitate phases) by introducing a linear bubble model that includes lower and upper thresholds in the driving force for bubble growth. The link permeability is assumed finite for driving forces above the upper threshold, zero below the lower threshold, and hysteretic in between. Abnormal growth is also observed in this case.

  7. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  8. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  9. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients diagnosed as primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) using conventional karyotyping. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Clinical Laboratory, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between January 2006 - June 2012. Methodology: Patients of all ages and either gender who fulfilled WHO criteria for MDS were included. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted at the time of diagnosis. Patients who had secondary MDS were excluded from analysis. Chromosome identification and karyotype description was done according to the International System for Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN, 1995) and described as frequency percentage. Results: Out of the 122 cases of MDS, 71 patients had their karyotype done at the time of diagnosis, including 42 males (59.2%) and 29 females (40.8%) with median age of 60 years. Forty one (57.7%) showed normal karyotype and 30 (42.3%) showed clonal karyotypic abnormalities at diagnosis. Out of which 14 (19.7%) had single, 11 (15.5%) had complex and 6 (8.5%) had double cytogenetic abnormalities. The common abnormalities found were: trisomy 8 in 7 cases (9.9%), -7/del (7q) in 3 cases (4.2%), -Y and complex 5q in 2 cases (2.8%) each, complex trisomy 8, del 11q , inversion 9, trisomy 19 and del 20q were found in 1 case (1.4%) each. Other abnormalities were found in 11 cases (15.5%). Conclusion: Trisomy 8 was the most common disorder/abnormality found in this study population followed by the complex cytogenetics. (author)

  10. Significance of negative hysteroscopic view in abnormal uterine bleeding.

    OpenAIRE

    Parasnis H; Parulekar S

    1992-01-01

    Ninety six cases of abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated by both panoramic hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage. The indications for hysteroscopy included postmenopausal bleeding, infertility with abnormal bleeding, abnormal bleeding and suspected leiomyoma with bleeding. Twenty three patients had abnormal hysteroscopy findings. Hysteroscopy diagnosed endometrial polyp and submucus leiomyoma with 100% accuracy. In 17 cases, the results of hysteroscopy and curettage were in agr...

  11. The Relationship of Allopregnanolone Immunoreactivity and HPA-Axis Measures to Experimental Pain Sensitivity: Evidence for Ethnic Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mechlin, Beth; Morrow, A Leslie; Maixner, William; Girdler, Susan S

    2007-01-01

    In animal models, allopregnanolone (ALLO) negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has been shown to exert analgesic effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between plasma ALLO immunoreactivity (ALLO-ir), HPA-axis measures, and pain sensitivity in humans. Forty-five African Americans (21 men, 24 women) and 39 non-Hispanic Whites (20 men, 19 women) were tested for pain sensitivity to tourniquet ischemia, thermal heat, and cold pressor tes...

  12. Morphological and laminar distribution of cholescystokinine - immunoreactive neurons in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Laslo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cholecystocinine is a neuropeptide whose function in the cortex has not yet been clarified, although its relation with some psychic disorders has been noticed. Previous studies have not provided detailed data about types, or arrangement of neurons that contain those neuropeptide in the cortex of human inferior parietal lobe. The aim of this study was to examine precisely the morphology and typography of neurons containing cholecytocinine in the human cortex of inferior parietal lobule. Material and methods. There were five human brains on which we did the immunocystochemical research of the shape and laminar distribution of cholecystocinine immunoreactive neurons on serial sections of supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus. The morphological analysis of cholecystocinine-immunoreactive neurons was done on frozen sections using avidin-biotin technique, by antibody to cholecystocinine diluted in the proportion 1:6000 using diamine-benzedine. Results. Cholecystocinine immunorective neurons were found in the first three layers of the cortex of inferior parietal lobule, and their densest concentration was in the 2nd and 3rd layer. The following types of neurons were found: bipolar neurons, then its fusiform subtype, Cajal-Retzius neurons (in the 1st layer, reverse pyramidal (triangular and unipolar neurons. The diameters of some types of neurons were from 15 to 35 µm, and the diameters of dendritic arborization were from 85-207 µm. A special emphasis is put on the finding of Cajal-Retzius neurons that are immunoreactive to cholecystocinine, which demands further research. Conclusion. Bearing in mind numerous clinical studies pointing out the role of cholecystokinine in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, the presence of a great number of cholecystokinine immunoreactive neurons in the cortex of inferior parietal lobule suggests their role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  13. Chemical heterogeneity in cerebellar Purkinje cells: existence and coexistence of glutamic acid decarboxylase-like and motilin-like immunoreactivities.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan-Palay, V.; Nilaver, G; Palay, S. L.; M.C. Beinfeld; Zimmerman, E A; Wu, J Y.; O'Donohue, T L

    1981-01-01

    Purkinje neurons of the cerebellar cortex from a chemically and morphologically heterogeneous population containing some members that have gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), others that have immunoreactivity for motilin, and a small number that have both. The remaining 30-40% of all Purkinje cells have neither of these two neuroactive substances, leaving possibilities for other transmitter candidates. The evidence was compiled from double-staining immunocytochemical procedures performed on singl...

  14. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartels Annette

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1 is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may therefore play an essential role in the progression of a malignant tumour. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate TIMP-1 protein immunoreactivity in tissue from primary ovarian cancer patients and associate these findings with the course of the disease including response to treatment in the individual patient. Methods TIMP-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (in tissue micro arrays in a total of 163 ovarian cancer specimens obtained from primary debulking surgery during 1991-1994 as part of a randomized clinical protocol. Results Positive TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was found in 12.3% of the tumours. The median survival time for the 143 patients with TIMP-1 negative tumours was 23.7 months [19.0-29.4] 95% CI, while the median survival time for the 20 patients with TIMP-1 positive tumours was 15.9 months [12.3-27.4] 95% CI. Although a difference of 7.8 months in median overall survival in favor of the TIMP-1 tumour negative patients was found, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.28, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test. Moreover, TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was not associated with CA125 response (p = 0.53 or response at second look surgery (p = 0.72. Conclusion TIMP-1 immunoreactivity in tumour tissue from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer did not correlate with patient survival or response to combination platinum/cyclophosphamide therapy.

  15. Muscarinic receptor modulation of release of [Met5]enkephalin immunoreactive material and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, B. A.; Hexum, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor modulation of secretion from the adrenal medulla was studied using retrogradely perfused bovine tissue. Atropine, at a dose not affecting 1,1 dimethyl-4-phenylpiperizinium (DMPP)-stimulated release, inhibited the acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated release of noradrenaline and [Met5]enkephalin-immunoreactive material (ME-IRM). DMPP-stimulated release of catecholamines and ME-IRM was potentiated by the addition of methacholine. Pilocarpine significantly potentiated the release o...

  16. Temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transantral (infraorbital, transmaxillary) examination of the temporomandibular joint was compared with conventional transcranial examination and lateral tomography of patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 23 to 83. Abnormalities were most frequently found at tomography, and equally frequent at transantral and transcranial examinations. The various examinations appeared to be rather supplementary. Bone erosion was frequently observed at transantral examination, which appeared to be the preferable radiographic method for detecting arthritis of this joint. Combined with transcranial examination, the method is recommended for the evaluation of temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis if tomographic equipment is not available. (Auth.)

  17. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-02-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  18. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    1996-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing development, gradually disappeared from these cells and became restricted to insulin-producing beta cells. Throughout development FA1 was not detected in endocrine glucagon, somatostatin or pancreatic polypeptide cells. Moreover, developing insulin cells that coexpressed glucagon were negative for FA1. Thus, there was a negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon both in tumours and during development. These results, together with FA1/dlk's similarity with homeotic proteins, point to a role of FA1 in islet cell differentiation. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Dec

  19. Correlative Analysis of Immunoreactivity in Confocal Laser-Scanning Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Focused Ion Beam Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TakahiroFuruta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional reconstruction of ultrastructure of rat brain with minimal effort has recently been realized by scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam milling (FIB-SEM. Because application of immunohistochemical staining to electron microscopy has a great advantage in that molecules of interest are specifically localized in ultrastructures, we here tried to apply immunocytochemistry to FIB-SEM and correlate immunoreactivity in confocal laser-scanning microcopy (CF-LSM with that in FIB-SEM. The dendrites of medium-sized spiny neurons in rat neostriatum were visualized with a recombinant viral vector, which labeled the infected neurons with membrane-targeted GFP in a Golgi stain-like fashion, and thalamostriatal afferent terminals were immunolabeled with Cy5 fluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2. After detecting the sites of terminals apposed to the dendrites in CF-LSM, GFP and VGluT2 immunoreactivities were further developed for electron microscopy by the immunogold/silver enhancement and immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine (DAB methods, respectively. In the contrast-inverted FIB-SEM images, silver precipitation and DAB deposits were observed as fine dark grains and diffuse dense profiles, respectively, indicating that these immunoreactivities were easily recognizable as in the images of transmission electron microscopy. In the sites of interest, some appositions were revealed to display synaptic specialization of asymmetric type. The present method is thus useful in the three-dimensional analysis of immunocytochemically differentiated synaptic connection in the central neural circuit.

  20. Postnatal development of orexin-A and orexin-B like immunoreactivities in the Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; McKinley, Michael J; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Akira; Ueta, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    The Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is a marsupial, which is born in an extremely undeveloped state and has a long suckling period in the mother's pouch. In the present study, we examined the immunoreactivities of orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB) in the hypothalamus of the Eastern grey kangaroo during the preweaning period, postweaning period and adulthood. In the preweaning period, only a few OXA- and OXB-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons and fibers were present and the intensity of staining was very weak. In the postweaning period, there was a pronounced increase in the numbers of OXA- and OXB-LI neurons and fibers and the intensity of the immunoreactivity was considerably stronger in comparison to the preweaning period. In the adult, the numbers of OXA- and OXB-LI neurons and fibers appeared to be slightly increased and the intensity was slightly stronger in comparison to the postweaning period. At all time periods, the distributions of OXA- and OXB-LI neurons was similar. The postnatal development of hypothalamic orexin neurons may be associated with developmental changes, including feeding behavior. PMID:16188385

  1. Comparison of immunoreactivity to serotonin, FMRFamide and SCPb in the gut and visceral nervous system of larvae, pupae and adults of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Moffett, Stacia B.; Moffett, David F.

    2005-01-01

    In all life stages, the gut of the mosquito is innervated by a small number (typically 4) of central neurons immunoreactive to serotonin (SI). The serotonergic system appears to pass through metamorphosis largely intact, despite extensive remodeling of the gut. Axons immunoreactive to antibodies raised against molluscan FMRFamide (RF-I) constitute peptidergic innervation that anatomically parallels the serotonergic system. In the larva, two clusters of 3 neurons project to the anterior region...

  2. Identification of a Glycosylated Ehrlichia canis 19-Kilodalton Major Immunoreactive Protein with a Species-Specific Serine-Rich Glycopeptide Epitope?

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Jere W; Doyle, C. Kuyler; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Cardenas, Ana Maria; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Nethery, Kimberly A.; Michael E. Woods

    2006-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis has a small subset of major immunoreactive proteins that includes a 19-kDa protein that elicits an early Ehrlichia-specific antibody response in infected dogs. We report herein the identification and molecular characterization of this highly conserved 19-kDa major immunoreactive glycoprotein (gp19) ortholog of the Ehrlichia chaffeensis variable-length PCR target (VLPT) protein. E. canis gp19 has substantial carboxyl-terminal amino acid homology (59%) with E. chaffeensis VLPT a...

  3. A pilot study evaluating changes in pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations in canines treated with L-asparaginase (ASNase), vincristine, or both for lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Zachary; Steiner, Joerg; Suchodolski, Jan; Rogers, Kenita; Barton, Claudia; Brown, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    L-asparaginase (ASNase) is a common chemotherapy agent for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. L-asparaginase has been reported to cause clinical pancreatitis in both humans and canines. Canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) is now a common diagnostic tool for evaluating pancreatitis in dogs. A total of 52 dogs were enrolled into this study. Canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations were evaluated before and after administration of ASNase, vincristine, or ...

  4. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  5. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  6. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav BjØrn; David, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis and outcome were reviewed. Results: Of the 370 cases identified, 31.6% were associated with spinabifida (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I-cell disease, Muenke craniosynostosis and two with an as yet undefined craniosynostosis syndrome. Overall, 16.5 % had an underlying genetic syndrome. Conclusions: Abnormal fetal head shape may be a normal variant, but is commonly associated with a wide variety of underlying pathologies. In view of the high incidence of genetic syndromes, in the absence of a clear diagnosis, referral to a tertiary centre and genetic input is advised as detection of subtle sonographic features may aid diagnosis, allowing for targeted molecular analysis. An algorithm for management will be proposed.

  7. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  8. Neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in the cat claustrum: A light- and electron-microscopic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinova-Palova, D V; Landzhov, B; Dzhambazova, E; Minkov, M; Edelstein, L; Malinova, L; Paloff, A; Ovtscharoff, W

    2014-11-01

    The claustrum is a telencephalic nucleus located ventrolateral to the basal ganglia in the mammalian brain. It has an extensive reciprocal connectivity with most if not all of the cerebral cortex, in particular, primary sensory areas. However, despite renewed and growing interest amongst investigators, there remains a paucity of data concerning its peptidergic profile. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence, morphology, distribution and ultrastructure of neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (NPY-ir) neurons and fibers in the claustrum of the cat. Ten adult healthy cats from both sexes were used. All animals received human and ethical treatment in accordance with the Principles of Laboratory Animal Care. Subjects were irreversibly anesthetized and transcardially perfused with fixative solution containing glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde. Brains were promptly removed, postfixed and sectioned. Slices were incubated with polyclonal anti-NPY antibodies according to the standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method adopted by our Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology. NPY-ir neurons and fibers were found to be diffusely distributed throughout the claustrum, with no obvious topographic or functional patterning other than larger numbers in its central/broadest part (stereotaxic planes A12-A16). Neurons were generally classified by diameter into three sizes: small (under 17 ?m), medium (17-25 ?m) and large (over 25 ?m). Staining density is varied with some neurons appearing darker than others. At the electron-microscopic level NPY immunoproduct was observed within neurons, dendrites and terminal boutons, each differing relative to their ultrastructural attributes. Two types of NPY-ir synaptic boutons were found. Lastly, it is of interest to note that gender-specific differences were not observed. PMID:25157673

  9. Light and electron-microscopic study of leucine enkephalin immunoreactivity in the cat claustrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinova-Palova, Dimka; Edelstein, Lawrence; Papantchev, Vassil; Landzhov, Boycho; Malinova, Lina; Todorova-Papantcheva, Daniela; Minkov, Minko; Paloff, Adrian; Ovtscharoff, Wladimir

    2012-12-01

    The claustrum is a complex telencephalic structure owing to its reciprocal connectivity with most--if not all--cortical areas. However, there is a paucity of data in the literature concerning its histochemical components, including opioid peptide neurotransmitters. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphology, distribution and ultrastructure of leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive (Leu-enk-ir) neurons and fibers in the dorsal claustrum (DC) of the cat. Seven healthy, adult male and female cats were used in our study. All animals received humane care. They were irreversibly anesthetized and transcardially perfused with fixative. Brains were removed, postfixed, blocked and sectioned. Sections were incubated with polyclonal anti-Leu-enk antibodies using the Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase Complex method. Leu-enk-ir neurons and fibers were distributed throughout the DC. Some of the neurons were lightly-stained, while others were darkly-stained. Light-microscopically, they varied in shape: oval, fusiform, multipolar and irregular. With regard to size, they were categorized as small (15 ?m or less in diameter), medium (16-20 ?m in diameter) and large (21 ?m or more in diameter). No specific pattern of regional distribution was found. On the electron microscope level, immunoproduct was observed in neurons, dendrites and terminal boutons. Different types of Leu-enk-ir neurons differ in their ultrastructural features, including two types of synaptic boutons. No gender-specific features were observed. In conclusion, it is our hope that our study will serve to contribute to a better understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of the DC in the cat, and that it can be extrapolated and applied to other mammals, including humans. PMID:22972434

  10. Alzheimer's-associated A? oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-?1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A? oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A? species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A? antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A?-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthaLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  11. Variation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] immunoreactivity during bovine gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulesu, L.; Pfarrer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in several aspects of the immune response. MIF appears to play important roles in materno-fetal immuno-tolerance during placental establishment, modulation and growth as studied in epitheliochorial porcine and hemochorial human and mouse placentae. Here we studied the bovine placenta being multiplex, villous and synepitheliochorial with a low degree of invasion, to see if MIF could be involved. Placental tissues sampled from 12 cows at 9 stages of gestation (days 18-250), and endometrial tissues from two non-pregnant animals were processed for immunohistochemistry. Bovine MIF was detected by Western blot using anti-human MIF monoclonal antibodies. An immunoreactive band of approximately 12kDa confirmed similarities between bovine and human MIFs. Compared to the non-pregnant stage with very faint staining, the caruncular epithelium during pregnancy showed stronger staining for MIF. The intercaruncular epithelium in non-pregnantendometrium showed some reaction apically with increasing intensity at uterine gland openings; in contrast, at day 18 of gestation this staining was markedly increased. During gestation both caruncular and trophoblast epithelium of the placentomes were positive with different intensity in relation to the gestational stage. In the uterine glands, some strongly stained cells were present. The mature binucleated trophoblast giant cells were negative throughout pregnancy. During reestablishment of vascularisation, the vasculature in the caruncular area showed MIF reactivity. While supporting involvement of MIF in different placental types, the spatio-temporal variation in the bovine placenta suggests a regulatory role for MIF mainly in the interhemal barrier and during vascular development.

  12. Immunoreactivity of fractionated antigens obtained from autoclaved extracts of an arthritogenic isolate of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J C; Eamens, G J

    1986-11-01

    The immunoreactive antigens in heat-extracted (autoclaved) preparations of an arthritogenic strain of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (isolate VRS 229, serotype 1a) have been identified by gel diffusion precipitin (GDP) tests and a novel application of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure. Antigens precipitated by ethanol treatment of autoclaved extracts of this strain were resolved into 4 major peaks (A,B,C and D) after gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S200. Peak A was confirmed as a protein peak (Lowry positive) which was excluded from the gel. This peak was identified to be ELISA-reactive when assayed with serum from pigs infected with other isolates corresponding to serotypes 1a, 1b and 2. However, it did not form precipitin lines in GDP tests. Peak B was Lowry-positive and also contained carbohydrates. It was not as reactive in ELISA tests but rapidly formed precipitin lines with serum from pigs infected with the homologous isolate, but only erratically with serums from pigs infected with other serotype 1a and 1b isolates, and not with serotype 2 isolates. Peaks C and D were high in carbohydrate and phosphate content respectively but were both non-reactive in GDP tests and only slightly so by ELISA. Since serotypes 1 and 2 are the most predominant among isolates from infected pigs it is likely that the commonly recognised A antigen is a useful ELISA reagent for the diagnosis of E. rhusiopathiae infection; B antigen on the other hand, would probably be of limited diagnostic value. PMID:3103596

  13. A latex agglutination test for the field determination of abnormal vitellogenin production in male fishes contaminated by estrogen mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen mimics are pollutants present in the aquatic environment. These compounds induce abnormalities in the reproductive system of male fishes, which lead to a total or partial male feminization, or to their demasculinization. Ultimately, these alterations could lead to a disappearance of the total contaminated fish population. Moreover, these toxic substances possess the capacity to mimic endogenous estrogens and to induce the abnormal production of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fishes. The purpose of this research was to develop an easy, specific, cheap and fast method for diagnosing the contamination of male fishes by estrogen mimics, using VTG as biomarker. The selected method is based on a reverse latex agglutination test (rLAT), developed with monoclonal antibodies specific of this biomarker. The development of this VTG-rLAT has involved, firstly, the purification of carp VTG to produce monoclonal antibodies, specifics of this protein. One of these antibodies was selected to recover latex particles (diameter: 1 ?m). Finally, the immunoreactivity of the VTG-rLAT was verified with different fish plasma samples from males treated with 17?-estradiol and non-treated males or females in vitellogenesis

  14. Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy: connective tissue abnormalities in the skin support overlap with Ehlers-Danlos syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Janbernd; Hausser, Ingrid; Zou, Yaqun; Schreiber, Gudrun; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Brown, Susan C; Anton-Lamprecht, Ingrun; Muntoni, Francesco; Hanefeld, Folker; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2005-01-30

    Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is caused by mutations in the three genes coding for the alpha chains of collagen VI and characterized by generalized muscle weakness, striking hypermobility of distal joints in conjunction with variable contractures of more proximal joints, and normal intellectual development. The diagnosis is supported by abnormal immunoreactivity for collagen VI on muscle biopsies. As patients with UCMD show clinical characteristics typical of classical disorders of connective tissue such as Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS), we investigated the ultrastructure of skin biopsy samples from patients with UCMD (n=5). Electron microscopy of skin biopsies revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in all cases, including alterations of collagen fibril morphology (variation in size and composite fibers) and increase in ground substance, which resemble those seen in patients with EDS. Our findings suggest that there is a true connective tissue component as part of the phenotypic spectrum of UCMD and that there is considerable clinical as well as morphological overlap between UCMD and classic connective tissue disorders. PMID:15690374

  15. Abnormal Earnings Persistence in the Jordanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Naim Dahmash

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tested the abnormal earnings persistence in the Jordanian context through Ohlson’s (1995 firstLinear Information Dynamics (LID Model using an unbalanced panel regression analysis for a sample of (840public firms listed in the Amman Security Exchange during the period 2007 to 2011. The results showed ahighly value relevance for the industrial, financial and services sectors indicated by the coefficient of theabnormal earnings persistence. The services sector had the highest value relevance. However, the industrial andthe financial sectors were closed. Finally, the results for the detailed industry analysis of the sub-sectors hadshown different values for the coefficient of the abnormal earnings persistence, and bank firms, printing &packaging firms, and the utilities & communication firms had the highest values for the coefficient of theabnormal earnings persistence.

  16. Central nervous system abnormalities in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A

    2003-10-01

    Migraine is associated with structural and functional CNS changes, for example, ictal hyperalgesia and allodynia and interictal neural excitation. Structural abnormalities, most notably white matter changes, occur in greater prevalence in migraineurs (16 - 40%). Several studies have examined the neuropsychological correlates of migraine and/or white matter abnormalities. These studies suggest mild, interictal dysfunction in migraineurs. More research is needed to correlate migraine severity, frequency and/or treatment with neuropsychological testing. Additional studies should: identify interictal cognitive changes; clarify the contribution to long-term cognitive changes from migraine genotype, sequelae of repeated pain episodes or their treatment and the consequences of co-morbid vascular disease; and include cognitive measures as secondary end points in clinical trials. PMID:14521481

  17. Embalse NGS: Abnormal event procedures development lifecycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present used philosophy in Canada and in Atucha Nuclear Generating Station (Argentina) it was decided to develop the Abnormal Event Procedures (EOP's) in a logical diagram format. The EOP's have in general two parts: the diagnosis and the operative action to mitigate the event. Some serious incidents can be resolved by the EOP's, but the philosophy is first, to satisfy the EOP's requirements. Taking into account the operating experience, the Final Safety Report and the results of simulations done by appropriate codes, it was possible to obtain the corresponding sequence for each abnormal event. With the information available in the Control Room (windows, alarms, trends, etc) for each part of the EOP's was associated the instrumentation that the operator must observe. 3 figs

  18. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality is rare in adults. Below we present a case report of 20 yrs old male with isolated cervical cord injury, without accompanying vertebral dislocation or fracture involving the spinal canal rim. He fell down on plain and smooth ground while carrying 40 kg weight overhead and developed quadriparesis with difficulty in respiration. Plain radiographs of the neck revealed no fractures or dislocations. MRI showed bulky spinal cord and an abnormal hyper intense signal on the T2W image from C2 vertebral body level to C3/4 intervertebral disc level predominantly in the anterior aspect of the cord The patient was managed conservatively with head halter traction and invasive ventilatory support for the initial 7 days period in the ICU. In our patient recovery was good and most of the neurological deficit improved over 4 weeks with conservative management.

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  1. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea.

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia M. Al-Hamad; Amal A. Al-Eisa

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride (>90 mmol/l). We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital ...

  2. Glucocorticoids, cytokines and brain abnormalities in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Zunszain, Patricia A.; Anacker, Christoph; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Carvalho, Livia A.; Pariante, Carmine M.

    2010-01-01

    Major depression (MD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complex and multifactor aetiology. Potential mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of this disorder include monoamine deficits, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions, inflammatory and/or neurodegenerative alterations. An increased secretion and reactivity of cortisol together with an altered feedback inhibition are the most widely observed HPA abnormalities in MD patients. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, a...

  3. Electro-oculographic abnormalities in amblyopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C.; Papakostopoulos, D

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Electrodiagnostic tests have been used to investigate retinal function in amblyopia but previous results have been conflicting. METHODS--It was decided to investigate whether the electro-oculogram (EOG) showed any abnormalities in 12 adult amblyopes and 12 age and sex matched controls with normal vision. The mean amplitudes of the EOG recordings from each eye during 12 minutes of darkness and 18 minutes of light were compared. RESULTS--The mean values from the amblyopic eyes were ...

  4. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  5. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  6. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip join can be measured by means of computed tomography. (Auth.)

  7. Abnormal respiratory patterns in childhood cerebral malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, J.; English, M.; Waruiru, C.; Mwangi, I.; Marsh, K.

    1998-01-01

    Of 295 children with cerebral malaria, 117 (40%) had an abnormal respiratory pattern; 15 children exhibited more than one pattern during their clinical course. Four distinct patterns were seen. (i) Deep breathing (80 children); this was associated with severe metabolic acidosis, and resolved following treatment with intravenous fluids and/or blood. (ii) Hypoventilation with nystagmus and salivation (18 children); simultaneous electroencephalographic recording revealed continuous electrical se...

  8. Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Mierla; Dumitru Jardan; Veronica Stoian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for ...

  9. Sonic Hedgehog Genetic Abnormalities and Tissue Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren E. Yaich

    2001-01-01

    In this case study about a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly, students explore the “Sonic hedgehog” gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. The assignment involves students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality. Designed for an upper-level undergraduate biology course, the case could also be used in a cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, or other related upper-level course.

  10. Dermatoglyphic analysis of fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzumori, K.

    1980-01-01

    I applied Okajima's technique of exposing the dermal surface by chemical and mechanical treatment followed by toluidine blue stain to inspect the dermatoglyphic features of hands of aborted human fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities. The dermatoglyphic patterns of five fetuses, three with Down syndrome, one with 5p--, and one with 18 trisomy, were analyzed to determine whether the patterns were sufficiently specific to be used for diagnostic purposes. Apparently unique patterns were obtaine...

  11. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

  12. Novelty detection for the identification of abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Tarassenko, L; Nairac, A; Townsend, N; Buxton, I; Cowley, Z

    2000-01-01

    The principle of novelty detection offers an approach to the problem of fault detection which only requires the normal class to be defined. A model of normality is learnt by including normal examples only in the training data; abnormalities are then identified by testing for novelty against this description. In this paper, we review our work on statistical models of normality in feature space and we explain how we have used novelty detection to identify unusual vibration signatures in jet eng...

  13. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate the...

  14. Detecting Abnormal Behaviors in Crowded Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin P. Popoola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational awareness is a basic function of the human visual system, which is attracting a lot of research attention in machine vision and related research communities. There is an increasing demand for smarter video surveillance of public and private space using intelligent vision systems which can distinguish what is semantically meaningful to the human observer as ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behaviors. In this study we propose a novel robust behavior descriptor for encoding the intrinsic local and global behavior signatures in crowded scenes. Crowd scenes transitioning from normal to abnormal behaviors such as “rush”, “scatter” and “herding” were modeled and detected. The descriptor uses features that encode both local and global signatures of crowd interactions. Bayesian topic modeling is used to capture the intrinsic structure of atomic activity in the video frames and used to detect the transition from normal to abnormal behavior. Experimental results and analysis of the proposed framework on two publicly available crowd behavior datasets show the effectiveness of this method compared to other methods for anomaly detection in crowds with a very good detection accuracy rates.

  15. Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mierla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI or testicular sperm extraction (TESE/ICSI treatment.

  16. Abnormal functional connectivity density in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuquan; Bi, Wenwei; Zhang, Yuling; Zhu, Maohu; Zhang, Yanling; Feng, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-03-01

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Using seed-based resting state functional connectivity, many previous studies have demonstrated that PD patients have abnormal functional integration. However, this technique strongly relies on a priori selection of the seed regions and may miss important unpredictable findings. Using an ultrafast voxel-wise functional connectivity density approach, this study performed a whole brain functional connectivity analysis to investigate the abnormal resting-state functional activities in PD patients. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients exhibited decreased short-range functional connectivity densities in regions that were mainly located in the ventral visual pathway and decreased long-range functional connectivity densities in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, which have been speculated to be associated with visual hallucinations and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. PD patients also exhibited increased short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, which may represent a compensatory process for maintaining normal brain function. The observed functional connectivity density alterations might be related to the disturbed structural connectivity of PD patients, leading to abnormal functional integration. Our results suggest that functional connectivity density mapping may provide a useful means to assess PD-related neurodegeneration and to study the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:25496782

  17. Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, W -X

    2013-01-01

    We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. We further investigate the dynamics of volatility, trading volume, average trade size and turnover around the transactions associated with the abnormal motifs for large, medium and small trades. It is found that these variables peak at the abnormal events and exhibit a power-law accumulation in the pre-event time period and a power-law relaxation in the post-event period. We also find that the cumulative excess returns are significantly positive after buyer-initiated suspicious trades and exhibit a mild price reversal afte...

  18. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity and expression of GABAA receptor subunits in the thalamus after experimental TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusko, N; Pitkänen, A

    2014-05-16

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes 10-20% of acquired epilepsy in humans, resulting in an ictogenic region that is often located in the cerebral cortex. The thalamus provides heavy projections to the cortex and the activity of thalamocortical pathways is controlled by GABAergic afferents from the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RT). As rats with TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI) undergo epileptogenesis, we hypothesized that damage to the parvalbumin (PARV)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the RT is associated with seizure susceptibility after lateral FPI. To address this hypothesis, adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=13) were injured with lateral FPI. At 6months post-TBI, each animal underwent a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure susceptibility test and 2weeks of continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring for detection of the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. Thereafter, the brain was processed for PARV immunohistochemistry. We (a) estimated the total number of PARV-ir neurons in the RT using unbiased stereology, (b) measured the volume of the ventroposteromedial (VPM) and ventroposterolateral (VPL) nuclei of the thalamus, which receive PARV-ir inputs from the RT and project to the perilesional cortex, (c) quantified the density of PARV-ir terminals in the VPM-VPL, and (d) studied the expression of GABAA receptor subunits in a separate group of rats using laser-dissection of the thalamus followed by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) array studies. At 6months post-TBI, only 64% of PARV-ir neurons were remaining in the RT ipsilaterally (p0.05). Also, the volume of the VPM-VPL was only 51% of that in controls ipsilaterally (pTBI showed seizure susceptibility comparable to that in controls with the lowest number of PARV-ir neurons in the RT. Our data show that the RT and VPM-VPL undergo remarkable degeneration after lateral-FPI which results in reorganization of PARV-ir terminals in the VPM-VPL. The contribution of RT damage to seizure susceptibility and post-traumatic epileptogenesis deserves further studies. PMID:24607347

  19. Calcium-binding Protein Calretinin Immunoreactivity in the Dog Superior Colliculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied calretinin-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and cells in the canine superior colliculus (SC) and studied the distribution and effect of enucleation on the distribution of this protein. Localization of calretinin was immunocytochemically observed. A dense plexus of anti-calretinin-IR fibers was found within the upper part of the superficial gray layer (SGL). Almost all of the labeled fibers were small in diameter with few varicosities. The intermediate and deep layers contained many calretinin-IR neurons. Labeled neurons within the intermediate gray layer (IGL) formed clusters in many sections. By contrast, labeled neurons in the deep gray layer (DGL) did not form clusters. Calretinin-IR neurons in the IGL and DGL varied in morphology and included round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, and horizontal neurons. Neurons with varicose dendrites were also labeled in the IGL. Most of the labeled neurons were small to medium in size. Monocular enucleation produced an almost complete reduction of calretinin-IR fibers in the SC contralateral to the enucleation. However, many calretinin-IR cells appeared in the contralateral superficial SC. Enucleation appeared to have no effect on the distribution of calretinin-IR neurons in the contralateral intermediate and deep layers of the SC. The calretinin-IR neurons in the superficial dog SC were heterogeneous small- to medium-sized neurons including round/oval, vertical fusiform, stellate, pyriform, and horizontal in shape. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that no cells in the dog SC expressed both calretinin and GABA. Many horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled retinal ganglion cells were seen after injections into the superficial layers. The vast majority of the double-labeled cells (HRP and calretinin) were small cells. The present results indicate that antibody to calretinin labels subpopulations of neurons in the dog SC, which do not express GABA. The results also suggest that the calretinin-IR afferents in the superficial layers of the dog SC originate from small class retinal ganglion cells. The expression of calretinin might be changed by the cellular activity of selective superficial collicular neurons. These results are valuable in delineating the basic neurochemical architecture of the dog visual system

  20. Immunoreactivity and pharmacokinetics of horse anti-scorpion venom F(ab')2-scorpion venom interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin-Covatta, S; Lutsch, C; Grandgeorge, M; Lang, J; Scherrmann, J M

    1996-11-01

    The immunoreactivity and pharmacokinetics of a new horse F(ab')2 scorpion antivenom and its effect on Buthus occitanus mardochei venom plasma disposition in the rabbit were studied. The scorpion venom-specific F(ab')2 affinity constant determined by immunoradiometric assay was 1.6 +/- 0.6 10(8) M-1. One group received a F(ab')2 bolus dose of 9.57 mg.kg-1 i.v. bolus or i.m.. The plasma F(ab')2 concentration followed a biexponential decline after i.v. administration with distribution and elimination half-lives of 2.54 +/- 0.36 and 49.52 +/- 3.07 hr, respectively. The total volume of distribution (Vdss or Vd beta) was between 230 and 255 ml.kg-1. Total body clearance was 3.56 +/- 0.34 ml.kg-1.hr-1. After intramuscular administration, Tmax was 48 hr and the absolute bioavailability was 36%. Two other groups of rabbits received i.v.60 micrograms.kg-1 B. occitanus mardochei venom either alone (control group) or followed by 3 mg.kg-1 scorpion venom-specific F(ab')2 administered by intravenous infusion 1.75 hr later. In the rabbits treated with horse F(ab')2 antivenom the venom concentration profile was initially identical to that observed in the control group which received venom alone before F(ab')2 administration. Subsequent infusion of antivenom induced a 1.5-fold elevation of the plasma venom concentration with a Tmax 0.5 hr after F(ab')2 administration. The AUC was 10-fold higher in the F(ab')2-treated group than in the control group in the post-F(ab')2 infusion period. Twelve hours after F(ab')2 administration the venom disposition declined with a terminal half-life equal to that of F(ab')2 (49.49 +/- 7.53 hr). These data show the ability of F(ab')2 to alter venom pharmacokinetics and demonstrate that the scorpion toxins adopt the F(ab')2 elimination properties. PMID:8917700

  1. Behavioral alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIANA LE, SUEUR-MALUF; MILENA B., VIANA; MÁRCIA R., NAGAOKA; ANA LAURA B., AMORIM; AMANDA N., CARDOSO; BRUNA C., RODRIGUES; NATÁLIA F., MENDES; JACKSON C., BITTENCOURT; ISABEL C., CÉSPEDES.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Encefalopatia hepática (HE) engloba uma variedade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, incluindo ansiedade e disfunção psicomotora. Embora seja uma complicação frequente da cirrose hepática, os substratos neurobiológicos responsáveis por suas manifestações clínicas são em grande parte desconhecidos. No [...] presente estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico de ligação e secção do ducto biliar (BDL; bile-duct ligation), para indução da cirrose hepática e, no 21º dia após a cirurgia, submetidos aos testes comportamentais no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e campo aberto para avaliação da ansiedade e atividade locomotora. A análise da imunorreatividade à proteína Fos (Fos-ir) foi utilizada para melhor compreender as alterações neurobiológicas presentes nos animais do grupo BDL. Foi realizada a quantificação da concentração de amônia plasmática e análise histopatológica dos fígados. Os ratos do grupo BDL mostraram diminuição significativa na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos do LCE, caracterizando efeito ansiogênico. Estes animais também apresentaram redução significativa na Fos-ir no núcleo septal lateral e núcleo medial da amígdala. A concentração plasmática de amônia foi significativamente mais elevada que a do grupo sham e o diagnóstico de cirrose foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. Estes resultados indicam que o modelo de HE induzido por BDL induz efeito ansiogênico possivelmente relacionado à ativação de circuitos mediadores da ansiedade e à hiperamonemia. Abstract in english Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction. Although HE is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, the neurobiological substrates responsible for its clinical manifestations are largely unclear. In the present stu [...] dy, male Wistar rats were bile duct-ligated (BDL), a procedure which induces liver cirrhosis, and on the 21st day after surgery tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in an open field for anxiety and locomotor activity measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to better understand the neurobiological alterations present in BDL animals. Plasma levels of ammonia were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed. BDL rats showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the EPM, an anxiogenic effect. These animals also presented significant decreases in Fos-ir in the lateral septal nucleus and medial amygdalar nucleus. Their ammonia plasma levels were significantly higher when compared to the sham group and the diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that the BDL model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

  2. Behavioral alterations and Fos protein immunoreactivity in brain regions of bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIANA LE, SUEUR-MALUF; MILENA B., VIANA; MÁRCIA R., NAGAOKA; ANA LAURA B., AMORIM; AMANDA N., CARDOSO; BRUNA C., RODRIGUES; NATÁLIA F., MENDES; JACKSON C., BITTENCOURT; ISABEL C., CÉSPEDES.

    Full Text Available A Encefalopatia hepática (HE) engloba uma variedade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, incluindo ansiedade e disfunção psicomotora. Embora seja uma complicação frequente da cirrose hepática, os substratos neurobiológicos responsáveis por suas manifestações clínicas são em grande parte desconhecidos. No [...] presente estudo, ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico de ligação e secção do ducto biliar (BDL; bile-duct ligation), para indução da cirrose hepática e, no 21º dia após a cirurgia, submetidos aos testes comportamentais no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e campo aberto para avaliação da ansiedade e atividade locomotora. A análise da imunorreatividade à proteína Fos (Fos-ir) foi utilizada para melhor compreender as alterações neurobiológicas presentes nos animais do grupo BDL. Foi realizada a quantificação da concentração de amônia plasmática e análise histopatológica dos fígados. Os ratos do grupo BDL mostraram diminuição significativa na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos do LCE, caracterizando efeito ansiogênico. Estes animais também apresentaram redução significativa na Fos-ir no núcleo septal lateral e núcleo medial da amígdala. A concentração plasmática de amônia foi significativamente mais elevada que a do grupo sham e o diagnóstico de cirrose foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. Estes resultados indicam que o modelo de HE induzido por BDL induz efeito ansiogênico possivelmente relacionado à ativação de circuitos mediadores da ansiedade e à hiperamonemia. Abstract in english Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) encompasses a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and psychomotor dysfunction. Although HE is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, the neurobiological substrates responsible for its clinical manifestations are largely unclear. In the present stu [...] dy, male Wistar rats were bile duct-ligated (BDL), a procedure which induces liver cirrhosis, and on the 21st day after surgery tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in an open field for anxiety and locomotor activity measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to better understand the neurobiological alterations present in BDL animals. Plasma levels of ammonia were quantified and histopathological analysis of the livers was performed. BDL rats showed a significant decrease in the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the EPM, an anxiogenic effect. These animals also presented significant decreases in Fos-ir in the lateral septal nucleus and medial amygdalar nucleus. Their ammonia plasma levels were significantly higher when compared to the sham group and the diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by histopathological analysis. These results indicate that the BDL model induces anxiogenic results, possibly related to changes in the activation of anxiety-mediating circuitries and to increases in ammonia plasma levels.

  3. Distribution and densitometry mapping of L1-CAM Immunoreactivity in the adult mouse brain – light microscopic observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki Hironobu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in mouse brain might provide a basis for understanding its role in the brain. Results We examined the overall distribution of L1 in the adult mouse brain by immunohistochemistry using two polyclonal antibodies against different epitopes for L1. Immunoreactive L1 was widely but unevenly distributed from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical cord. The accumulation of immunoreactive L1 was greatest in a non-neuronal element of the major fibre bundles, i.e. the lateral olfactory tract, olfactory and temporal limb of the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, stria terminalis, globus pallidus, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, solitary tract, and spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. High to highest levels of non-neuronal and neuronal L1 were found in the grey matter; i.e. the piriform and entorhinal cortices, hypothalamus, reticular part of the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, trigeminal spinal nucleus etc. High to moderate density of neuronal L1 was found in the olfactory bulb, layer V of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, pontine grey, superior colliculi, cerebellar cortex, solitary tract nucleus etc. Only low to lowest levels of neuronal L1 were found in the hippocampus, grey matter in the caudate-putamen, thalamus, cerebellar nuclei etc. Conclusion L1 is widely and unevenly distributed in the matured mouse brain, where immunoreactivity was present not only in neuronal elements; axons, synapses and cell soma, but also in non-neuronal elements.

  4. Localisation of NG2 immunoreactive neuroglia cells in the rat locus coeruleus and their plasticity in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome D Swinny

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus (LC nucleus modulates adaptive behavioural responses to stress and dysregulation of LC neuronal activity is implicated in stress-induced mental illnesses. The LC is composed primarily of noradrenergic neurons together with various glial populations. A neuroglia cell-type largely unexplored within the LC is the NG2 cell. NG2 cells serve primarily as oligodendrocyte precursor cells throughout the brain. However, some NG2 cells are in synaptic contact with neurons suggesting a role in information processing. The aim of this study was to neurochemically and anatomically characterise NG2 cells within the rat LC. Furthermore, since NG2 cells have been shown to proliferate in response to traumatic brain injury, we investigated whether such NG2 cells plasticity also occurs in response to emotive insults such as stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that NG2 cells were enriched within the pontine region occupied by the LC. Close inspection revealed that a sub-population of NG2 cells were located within unique indentations of LC noradrenergic somata and were immunoreactive for the neuronal marker NeuN whilst NG2 cell processes formed close appositions with clusters immunoreactive for the inhibitory synaptic marker proteins gephyrin and the GABA-A receptor alpha3-subunit, on noradrenergic dendrites. In addition, LC NG2 cell processes were decorated with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 immunoreactive puncta. Finally, ten days of repeated restraint stress significantly increased the density of NG2 cells within the LC. The study demonstrates that NG2 IR cells are integral components of the LC cellular network and they exhibit plasticity as a result of emotive challenges.

  5. Immunoreactivity of standards and reference preparations used in the radioimmunoassay of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second International Reference Preparation of human menopausal gonadotropin (2nd IRP-HMG) and the National Pituitary Agency reference preparation LER 907 have been widely used to measure circulating levels of human FSH and LH by RIA in human serum. As the 2nd IRP-HMG has been replaced by the First International Standard for human urinary FSH and LH (1st IS), it was considered advisable to study the immunoreactivity of these preparations under our laboratory conditions. In both the FSH and LH RIA systems employed, the three preparations elicited parallel dose-response curves. In the LH assay, the immunoreractivity of 1 mIU 1st IS equaled that of 1 mIU 2nd IRP-HMG and that of 3.6 ng LER 907. In the FSH assay, the immunoreactivity of 1 mIU 1st IS equaled that of 1 mIU 2nd IRP-HMG and that of 23 ng LER 907. Parallelism does not assure identity between the substances in test serum and the reference preparations used. Indeed, not only are these three preparations not identical to each other, but they are not identical to circulating endogenous human FSH and human LH. Therefore, in order to improve the likelihood of agreement of results from one laboratory to another, and from time to time in the same laboratory, measurement of circulating levels of FSH and LH carried out with presently available reference preparations should be performed under appropriate quality control conditions utilizing well characterized test reagents. In order to provide some measure of comparabiorder to provide some measure of comparability among different laboratories, it is recommended that the immunoreactivity of these preparations be reported in equivalent unitage

  6. Abnormal cardiac nerve function in syndrome X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, G A

    1999-04-01

    Syndrome X is likely to be caused by a dysfunction of small coronary arteries. Several authors suggested that an increased adrenergic activity could be involved in the pathogenesis of syndrome X, but studies investigating this topic by indirect methods led to conflicting results. We directly investigated cardiac sympathetic nerve function in syndrome X by myocardial radionuclide studies with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). Twelve syndrome X patients and 10 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Cardiac MIBG uptake was assessed calculating the heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio and a semiquantitative MIBG uptake score. Cardiac MIBG images were normal in all but 1 of controls (10%). Conversely, abnormalities in cardiac MIBG uptake were found in 9 syndrome X patients (75%, p MIBG images, while regional defects were found in other 4 patients. The H/M ratio was lower and cardiac MIBG uptake score strikingly higher in syndrome X patients. At 3 hours the H/M ratio was 1.70 +/- 0.6 in patients and 2.19 +/- 0.3 in controls (p = 0.03), while MIBG uptake score was 36.7 +/- 31 and 4.0 +/- 2.5 (p = 0.003) in the 4 groups, respectively. There were no differences between patients and controls in lung and salivary MIBG uptake. Reversible perfusion defects on stress thallium scintigraphy were found in 5 syndrome X patients (45%), all of whom also had abnormal MIBG scintigrams, while all 3 patients with normal MIBG scintigraphy also had normal thallium images. Thus, the function of efferent cardiac adrenergic nerve fibers is strongly impaired in the majority (i.e., 75%) of syndrome X patients. This abnormal function likely contributes significantly to the pathophysiologic and clinical features of syndrome X. We speculate that also the increased perception of cardiac pain reported in these patients could be an expression of the abnormal function of cardiac nerves, reflecting alterations of afferent nociceptive cardiac nerve fibers, as the abnormalities in MIBG uptake reflect alterations of efferent cardiac adrenergic nerve fibers. PMID:10372295

  7. Serotonin immunoreactive interneurons in the brain of the Remipedia: new insights into the phylogenetic affinities of an enigmatic crustacean taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stemme Torben

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remipedia, a group of homonomously segmented, cave-dwelling, eyeless arthropods have been regarded as basal crustaceans in most early morphological and taxonomic studies. However, molecular sequence information together with the discovery of a highly differentiated brain led to a reconsideration of their phylogenetic position. Various conflicting hypotheses have been proposed including the claim for a basal position of Remipedia up to a close relationship with Malacostraca or Hexapoda. To provide new morphological characters that may allow phylogenetic insights, we have analyzed the architecture of the remipede brain in more detail using immunocytochemistry (serotonin, acetylated ?-tubulin, synapsin combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. This approach allows for a comprehensive neuroanatomical comparison with other crustacean and hexapod taxa. Results The dominant structures of the brain are the deutocerebral olfactory neuropils, which are linked by the olfactory globular tracts to the protocerebral hemiellipsoid bodies. The olfactory globular tracts form a characteristic chiasm in the center of the brain. In Speleonectes tulumensis, each brain hemisphere contains about 120 serotonin immunoreactive neurons, which are distributed in distinct cell groups supplying fine, profusely branching neurites to 16 neuropilar domains. The olfactory neuropil comprises more than 300 spherical olfactory glomeruli arranged in sublobes. Eight serotonin immunoreactive neurons homogeneously innervate the olfactory glomeruli. In the protocerebrum, serotonin immunoreactivity revealed several structures, which, based on their position and connectivity resemble a central complex comprising a central body, a protocerebral bridge, W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts, and lateral accessory lobes. Conclusions The brain of Remipedia shows several plesiomorphic features shared with other Mandibulata, such as deutocerebral olfactory neuropils with a glomerular organization, innervations by serotonin immunoreactive interneurons, and connections to protocerebral neuropils. Also, we provided tentative evidence for W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts in the remipedian central complex like in the brain of Malacostraca, and Hexapoda. Furthermore, Remipedia display several synapomorphies with Malacostraca supporting a sister group relationship between both taxa. These homologies include a chiasm of the olfactory globular tract, which connects the olfactory neuropils with the lateral protocerebrum and the presence of hemiellipsoid bodies. Even though a growing number of molecular investigations unites Remipedia and Cephalocarida, our neuroanatomical comparison does not provide support for such a sister group relationship.

  8. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevent Cognitive Decline VIDEO: If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, ... to Home Page VIDEO: If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, ...

  9. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans

  10. Abnormal response of E' center in quartz to irradiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal response of E' center of quartz in coastal aeolian sand to irradiation dose has been observed. The abnormalities occur in most (>90%) of more than 100 measured samples from the coastal areas of China. It is suggested that the abnormal response of E' center to irradiation dose be used as an indicator to identify coastal aeolian sand

  11. Incidental abnormalities detected during scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a number of abnormalities that were incidentally found in a series of 132 scintigraphic studies performed for acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. These incidental abnormalities involved the vascular system, reticuloendothelial system, and soft tissues. Correlative radiographs and computed tomographic scans are presented for some cases. The authors explore the potential impact of these abnormalities on subsequent patient evaluation and care, including radiologic workup

  12. Association of posterior tibial tendon abnormalities with abnormal signal intensity in the sinus tarsi on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.W. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Univ. of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kaplan, P.A.; Dussault, R.G. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Univ. of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Hurwitz, S. [Univ. of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2000-09-01

    Objective. To evaluate the association of abnormal signal intensity within the sinus tarsi with abnormalities of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) on MR imaging. Design and patients. Sinus tarsi abnormalities were identified on 30 ankle MR examinations in 29 patients. The PTT and anterior talofibular ligament were retrospectively analyzed for abnormalities in these same patients. Results and conclusions. Tears of the anterior talofibular ligament were found in 13 of 30 (43%) ankles. PTT abnormalities (complete tear, partial tear or dislocation) were seen in 14 of 30 (47%) studies, and were distributed relatively equally between those patients with and without lateral ligament tears. Our results provide evidence of an association between abnormalities of the PTT and the sinus tarsi. The finding of abnormal signal intensity within the sinus tarsi on MR imaging should alert the radiologist to potential abnormalities of the PTT. (orig.)

  13. Association of posterior tibial tendon abnormalities with abnormal signal intensity in the sinus tarsi on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To evaluate the association of abnormal signal intensity within the sinus tarsi with abnormalities of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) on MR imaging. Design and patients. Sinus tarsi abnormalities were identified on 30 ankle MR examinations in 29 patients. The PTT and anterior talofibular ligament were retrospectively analyzed for abnormalities in these same patients. Results and conclusions. Tears of the anterior talofibular ligament were found in 13 of 30 (43%) ankles. PTT abnormalities (complete tear, partial tear or dislocation) were seen in 14 of 30 (47%) studies, and were distributed relatively equally between those patients with and without lateral ligament tears. Our results provide evidence of an association between abnormalities of the PTT and the sinus tarsi. The finding of abnormal signal intensity within the sinus tarsi on MR imaging should alert the radiologist to potential abnormalities of the PTT. (orig.)

  14. Diagnostic value of saline contrast sonohysterography comparing with hysteroscopy for detecting endometrial abnormalities in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Goharzad; Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi; Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.Materials and Methods: A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases...

  15. Effects of castration on the immunoreactivity to NGF, BDNF and their receptors in the pelvic ganglia of the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillacioti, Caterina; De Luca, A; Paino, G; Mirabella, N

    2008-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and are members of the neurotrophin family, a family of neurotrophic factors that also includes neurotrophin (NT) 3 and NT4/5. Neurotrophins have essential roles in the survival, development and differentiation of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophins exert their effects by binding to corresponding receptors which are formed by the tyrosine protein kinases TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and the low affinity neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR). In the present study, using immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis, we have investigated immunoreactivity to BDNF, NGF, TrkB, p75NTR and TrkA in the pelvic ganglia of normal and castrated rats. Neurons of the pelvic ganglia expressed both these neurotrophins and their receptors. After castration the immunoreactivity persisted. However, the number of BDNF- and p75NTR-IR cells statistically significant decreased after castration. These results suggest that castration modulates the expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in pelvic autonomic neurons. PMID:18591156

  16. Effects of castration on the immunoreactivity to NGF, BDNF and their receptors in the pelvic ganglia of the male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Squillacioti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and are members of the neurotrophin family, a family of neurotrophic factors that also includes neurotrophin (NT 3 and NT4/5. Neurotrophins have essential roles in the survival, development and differentiation of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophins exert their effects by binding to corresponding receptors which are formed by the tyrosine protein kinases TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and the low affinity neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR. In the present study, using immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis, we have investigated immunoreactivity to BDNF, NGF, TrkB, p75NTR and TrkA in the pelvic ganglia of normal and castrated rats. Neurons of the pelvic ganglia expressed both these neurotrophins and their receptors. After castration the immunoreactivity persisted. However, the number of BDNF- and p75NTR–IR cells statistically significant decreased after castration. These results suggest that castration modulates the expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in pelvic autonomic neurons.

  17. Expression of Helicobacter pylori hspA Gene in Lactococcus lactis NICE System and Experimental Study on Its Immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Feng, Shu-Ying; Li, Zhi-Tao; Feng, Yan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to develop an oral Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) vaccine against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Methods. After L. lactis NZ3900/pNZ8110-hspA was constructed, growth curves were plotted to study whether the growth of recombinant L. lactis was affected after hspA was cloned into L. lactis and whether the growth of empty bacteria, empty plasmid bacteria, and recombinant L. lactis was affected by different concentrations of Nisin; SDS-PAGE and Western blot were adopted, respectively, to detect the HspA expressed by recombinant L. lactis and its immunoreactivity. Results. There was no effect observed from the growth curve after exogenous gene hspA was cloned into L. lactis NZ3900; different concentrations of Nisin did not affect the growth of NZ3900 and NZ3900/pNZ8110, while different concentrations of Nisin inhibited the growth of NZ3900/pNZ8110-hspA except 10?ng/mL Nisin. No HspA strip was observed from SDS-PAGE. Western blot analysis showed that HspA expressed by recombinant bacteria had favorable immunoreactivity. Conclusion. The growth of recombinant L. lactis was suppressed even though a small amount of HspA had been induced to express. Therefore recombinant L. lactis only express HspA which was not suitable to be oral vaccine against Helicobacter pylori. PMID:25977689

  18. CXCR4 and CXCL12 immunoreactivities differentiate primary non-small-cell lung cancer with or without brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratore, Sabrina; Banna, Giuseppe Luigi; D'Arrigo, Maria; Saita, Salvatore; Iemmolo, Rosario; Lucenti, Letizia; Bellia, Domenico; Lipari, Helga; Buscarino, Calogero; Cunsolo, Rosario; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

    Synchronous or metachronous brain metastases (BMs) occur in about 33% of patients affected by non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, no reliable biological marker is able to identify patients who will develop BMs. In the present study, using a quantitative double-labeling immunofluorescence analysis, we evaluated the expression of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor, CXCR4, in primary NSCLC histological specimens of patients with and without BMs. The immunoreactivity of CXCL12 and CXCR4 was significantly higher in NSCLC samples of patients with BMs. We performed Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis in order to define optimal cut-off values for CXCL12 and CXCR4 immunoreactivity that could discriminate between NSCLC patients without and with BMs. ROC curves showed a good diagnostic accuracy and adequate predictive power for both CXCL12 and CXCR4. These findings suggest a possible role for the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in the metastatic evolution of NSCLC, and its potential use as prognostic markers and drug targets. PMID:22430135

  19. Intense superoxide dismutase-1 immunoreactivity in intracytoplasmic hyaline inclusions of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with posterior column involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, N; Hirano, A; Kobayashi, M; Siddique, T; Deng, H X; Hung, W Y; Kato, T; Asayama, K

    1996-04-01

    This report concerns retrospective immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic studies on superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in intracytoplasmic hyaline inclusions (IHIs) of the anterior horn cells of three patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with posterior column involvement. All of the patients were members of the American "C" family. Almost all of the IHIs, present in the soma and cordlike swollen neurites of some affected neurons of the three patients, were intensely stained by an antibody to human SOD1. By contrast, the cytoplasm of anterior horn cells of the ALS patients and of ten control individuals reacted only weakly with the antibody or not at all. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the granule-associated thick linear structures that composed the IHIs were intensely labeled by the antibody to SOD1. The IHIs were also positively stained by antibodies to ubiquitin and phosphorylated neurofilament protein, with the distribution of immunoreactivity resembling that seen with the anti-SOD1 antibody. The DNA analysis disclosed a single-site GCC to GTC substitution at codon 4 (Ala4 --> Val) in the SOD1 gene from the brain samples of the patients and from the peripheral blood of their family members. Our results suggest that SOD1 is a component of IHIs and may interact with Ubiquitin and neurofilament protein, and point to the possibility that the presence of intense SOD1 immunoreactivity in the IHIs may be of relevance in processes involving structurally altered SOD1 molecules encoded by the mutated gene. PMID:8786408

  20. Exaggerated response of plasma glucagon-like immunoreactivity (GLI) to oral glucose in patients with reactive hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, K; Tabata, M; Tanaka, A; Kodaira, T; Nishino, T; Kumahara, Y

    1981-06-01

    In order to study the pathogenesis of reactive hypoglycemia, the responses of plasma glucose, IRI, glucagon immunoreactivity (GI) and total glucagon-like immunoreactivity (GLI) to 100 g oral glucose load were investigated in twenty-six patients of normal weight with reactive hypoglycemia. Of these patients, nineteen exhibited a diabetic OGTT curve. The findings in these patients were compared to normal control subjects (N = 20) and to disease-matched patients controls (N = 43). The psychological status was assessed by Cornell Medical Index Health Questionnaire in most of the subjects, who also received an x ray examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In addition, IVGTT was performed in the hypoglycemic patients. No apparent difference in plasma IRI response to oral glucose was observed between the hypoglycemic patients and their respective controls. Plasma total GLI concentrations were significantly increased during OGTT in both hypoglycemic groups. Following an oral glucose load, plasma GI levels were suppressed in the hypoglycemic groups to an extent similar to that in the control despite an apparent fall in their plasma glucose levels to the hypoglycemic range in the former. Radiological alterations in the upper gastrointestinal tract; deformity of the duodenal cap, gastric and/or duodenal ulcer, were found more frequently in the hypoglycemic groups. However, no characteristic change in personality was noticed in the patients. During IVGTT, neither plasma glucose nor total GLI level of the hypoglycemics differed from that of each control. The pathogenic factors responsible for reactive hypoglycemia will be discussed. PMID:7308160

  1. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  2. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 201/2-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi

  3. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized. (orig.)

  4. TRANSIENT ABNORMAL MYELOPOIESIS IN A NEONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM is a unique di sorder of newborns associated intimately with Down’s syndrome, present ing with clinical and morphological features indistinguishable from acute myeloid leuka emia (AML. We report a case in a neonate, presenting with severe perinatal asphyxia and cyanosis ; complicated by metabolic acidosis. The hemogram revealed leucocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The peripheral smear showed marked left shift and 55% circulating myeloblasts. Additio nal findings included a hepatomegaly and mild dysmorphic features. The child eventually succu mbed to pulmonary hemorrhage on day one itself. TAM has to be differentiated from conge nital leukemia which portends a poor prognosis

  5. Endocrine abnormalities associated with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, V S; Kathpalia, S C; Henriquez, C

    1978-11-01

    It is evident that chronic renal failure has far-reaching metabolic consequences because endocrine aberrations are common. Uremia may alter endocrine function through its effect on the hypothalamopituitary axis, the individual end organs, and the peripheral metabolism of various hormones. Deficiency of some hormones and excess of others coexist in patients with renal failure. Since the physiologic effects of many of these abnormalities are still not well defined, no treatment is necessary with the exception of true deficiency states such as testosterone deficiency. In the latter instance, exogenous hormonal supplementation is recommended. PMID:368450

  6. Thyroid abnormality secondary to tortuous carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 59-year-old man was referred to the nuclear medicine service for a thyroid scan, as his neck was thick and the thyroid was not palpable. In the past the patient had undergone head and neck irradiation for acne. A 123I-thyroid scan was interpreted as a ''cold'' nodule in the lower pole of the right lobe, but thyroid ultrasound showed no thyroid abnormality. Repeat ultrasound examination eventually showed a tortuous carotid artery behind the lower pole of the right lobe of the thyroid that corresponded to the ''cold'' defect. (orig.)

  7. Computing ODE Symmetries as Abnormal Variational Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Gouveia, Paulo D F

    2008-01-01

    We give a new computational method to obtain symmetries of ordinary differential equations. The proposed approach appears as an extension of a recent algorithm to compute variational symmetries of optimal control problems [Comput. Methods Appl. Math. 5 (2005), no. 4, pp. 387-409], and is based on the resolution of a first order linear PDE that arises as a necessary and sufficient condition of invariance for abnormal optimal control problems. A computer algebra procedure is developed, which permits to obtain ODE symmetries by the proposed method. Examples are given, and results compared with those obtained by previous available methods.

  8. Gallbladder and biliary abnormalities in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 1 1/2 years, biliary abnormalities have been detected on US in seven patients with AIDS. All had gallbladder wall thickening, and two patients had dilated bile ducts. Only five patients had symptoms and signs, while all had elevated blood chemistries. Gallbladder walls measured between 0.4 and 1.5 cm in thickness. Sequential imaging demonstrated changed in wall thickness that did not necessarily correlate with clinical status. Three patients had pericholcystic fluid; none had gallstones. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare was recovered from the gallbladder wall at cholecystectomy in one patient. Crptosporidium was recovered from duodenal aspirates of the two patients with dilated bile ducts

  9. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1992. There are two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants and six abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministration (all therapeutic) at NRC-licensed facilities discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating three previously reported abnormal occurrences

  10. Real-time Multiple Abnormality Detection in Video Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Simon Hartmann; Ren, Huamin

    2013-01-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in video sequences has recently gained an increasing attention within the research community. Although progress has been seen, there are still some limitations in current research. While most systems are designed at detecting specific abnormality, others which are capable of detecting more than two types of abnormalities rely on heavy computation. Therefore, we provide a framework for detecting abnormalities in video surveillance by using multiple features and cascade classifiers, yet achieve above real-time processing speed. Experimental results on two datasets show that the proposed framework can reliably detect abnormalities in the video sequence, outperforming the current state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Optimization of immunoreactivity test for the method of thin layer chromatography of affinity for labelling monoclonal antibodies with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monoclonal antibodies labelling with Tc-99m, must conserve their capacity to be united selectively to another molecule. For it use the method of affinity thin layer chromatography (ATLC) to determine the percentage of specific union or immunoreactivity fraction, the same one that did not give good results, for that reason is decided to optimize this technique being varied the times of fixation of antigen CEA with the stationary phase to 20 seconds and 30 minutes. The first obtained results, are that the optimal time of contact of the antigen with the stationary phase for the test of immunoreactivity by ATLC is of 30 minutes, as much for the positive controls as for the negative controls. The percentage of union specifies obtained reaches greater values of 75 % and the percentage of non specific union reaches smaller values of 25 % result that confirms to us that the noticeable antibody conserves its immunoreactivity properties. (author)

  12. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association is not clear. Structural changes are not related to cognitive decline, but a link to an increased risk of stroke, especially in patients with aura, cannot be ruled out. SUMMARY: Migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. It is not yet clear how factors such as migraine sub-type, attack frequency, and sex affects this association. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to address these issues. Brain structure changes in migraine could potentially serve as disease biomarkers or as a mean of identifying sub-groups of patients with specific therapeutic needs and prognoses.

  13. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  14. Abnormal striatal dopamine transmission in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelin, Jerome; Fecteau, Shirley; Suaud-Chagny, Marie-Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous revisions and reformulations, dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia remains a pivotal neurochemical hypothesis of this illness. The aim of this review is to expose and discuss findings from positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon- emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies investigating DA function in the striatum of medicated, drug-naive or drug-free patients with schizophrenia and in individuals at risk compared with healthy volunteers. DA function was studied at several levels: i) at a presynaptic level where neuroimaging studies investigating DOPA uptake capacity clearly show an increase of DA synthesis in patients with schizophrenia; ii) at a synaptic level where neuroimaging studies investigating dopamine transporter availability (DAT) does not bring any evidence of dysfunction; iii) and finally, neuroimaging studies investigating DA receptor density show a mild increase of D2 receptor density in basic condition and, an hyperreactivity of DA system in dynamic condition. These results are discussed regarding laterality, sub-regions of striatum and implications for the at-risk population. Striatal DA abnormalities are now clearly demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and at risk population and could constitute an endophenotype of schizophrenia. Subtle sub-clinical striatal DA abnormalities in at risk population could be a biomarker of transition from a vulnerability state to the expression of frank psychosis. PMID:23157632

  15. First trimester ultrasound screening of chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnini?-Pjevi? Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A retrocervical subcutaneous collection of fluid at 11-14 weeks of gestation, can be visualized by ultrasound as nuchal translucency (NT. Objective. To examine the distribution of fetal nuchal translucency in low risk population, to determine the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in the population of interest based on maternal age and NT measurement. Method. Screening for chromosomal defects, advocated by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF, was performed in 1,341 pregnancies in the period January 2000 - April 2004. Initial risk for chromosomal defects (based on maternal and gestational age and corrected risk, after the NT measurement, were calculated. Complete data were collected from 1,048 patients. Results. Out of 1,048 pregnancies followed, 8 cases of Down’s syndrome were observed, 7 were detected antenatally and 6 out of 7 were detected due to screening that combines maternal age and NT measurement. According to our results, sensitivity of the screening for aneuploidies based on maternal age alone was 12.5% and false positive rate 13.1%, showing that screening based on NT measurement is of great importance. Screening by a combination of maternal age and NT, and selecting a screening-positive group for invasive testing enabled detection of 75% of fetuses with trisomy 21. Conclusion. In screening for chromosomal abnormalities, an approach which combines maternal age and NT is effective and increases the detection rate compared to the use of any single test. .

  16. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  17. Forensic significance of skull development abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilija Vladimir I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In the course of bone tissue development some genetic disorders such as exostoses and enostoses, may occur. Exostoses and enostoses represent bone tissue hyperplasia that can develop at any part of skeleton. Neurotrauma can cause fatal biological consequences, which is directly associated with skull development abnormalities. Case report This is a case report of a male cadaver 36 years of age. The autopsy revealed massive hemorrhage on the left side of the neck and the right side of the lower jaw. A major fissure of the arterial wall was found on the basilar artery. A bony, wart-like excrescence was found on the clivus of the occipital bone. Discussion Coinciding ruptures and consequential bleeding from basilar artery with presence of development abnormalities in the clivus region, suggest that one has to clearly distinguish the result of the injury from anomalies already existing in the skull. The position of the attacker can be determined by concise and objective investigation. Conclusion This is a case report of an anomaly in bone development: a bony, wart-like excrescence on the right side of the clivus. Due to neurotrauma and consequential sliding of brain structures, the damage of basilar artery and of the bony excrescence occurred, which led to bleeding and fatal outcome.

  18. Comparison of immunoreactivity to serotonin, FMRFamide and SCPb in the gut and visceral nervous system of larvae, pupae and adults of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Stacia B.; Moffett, David F.

    2005-01-01

    In all life stages, the gut of the mosquito is innervated by a small number (typically 4) of central neurons immunoreactive to serotonin (SI). The serotonergic system appears to pass through metamorphosis largely intact, despite extensive remodeling of the gut. Axons immunoreactive to antibodies raised against molluscan FMRFamide (RF-I) constitute peptidergic innervation that anatomically parallels the serotonergic system. In the larva, two clusters of 3 neurons project to the anterior regions of the gut, whereas in the pupa and adult, typically two large RF-I neurons located next to the esophagus send several processes posteriorly. In adults, these neurons branch throughout the diverticula and anterior stomach. In pupae, but not in larvae or adults, the gut RF-l system coexpresses reactivity to antibodies raised against a member of another peptide family, molluscan small cardioactive peptide b (SCP-I). SCP-I immunoreactivity is localized independently of RF-l immunoreactivity in the ganglia of all stages and in neurons that project along the gut of the adult. We did not find any colocalization of S-I and the peptide markers. Distinct populations of enteroendocrine cells populate different regions of the gut at different life stages. Changes in staining pattern suggest that these cells are replaced at metamorphosis along with the other gut cells during the extensive remodeling of the tract. Distributed in the gut epithelium are subpopulations that express either RF-I or SCP-I; a small fraction of these cells bind antibodies to both peptides. The stomachs of adult females are larger than those of males, and the numbers of SCP-I and RF-I enteroendocrine cells are proportionately greater in females. In all the life stages, the junctions between different regions of the gut are the focus of regulatory input. The larval cardiac valve possesses a ring of cells, the necklace cells, which appear to receive extensive synaptic inputs from both the serotonergic system and the peptidergic system. Another focus of control is the pyloric valve, which is encircled by axon-like processes. The immunoreactive pattern of this region differs across life stages, expressing SCP-I in larvae, S-I in pupae, and both SCP-I and RF-I in adults. Abbreviation: S-I serotonin-like immunoreactivity RF-I FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity SCP-I small cardioactive peptide b-like immunoreactivity PMID:16341252

  19. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the arcuate-median eminence complex and their link to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Romero-Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region.  Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly and differentially modulate the activity and /or Dopamine synthesis of substantial numbers of tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons at the somatic and terminal level. The immunohistochemical work also gives support to the view that dopamine D1 receptors and/or dopamine D2 receptors in the lateral palisade zone by mediating dopamine volume transmission may contribute to the inhibition of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone release from nerve terminals in this region.

  20. Correlation of in vivo neuroimaging abnormalities with postmortem human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and dendritic loss.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archibald, Sarah L.; Masliah, Eliezer

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the absence of significant opportunistic infection, the most common alterations on neuroimaging in the brains of patients with AIDS include enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces, white-matter loss, volume loss in striatal structures, and white-matter signal abnormalities. Although previous studies have linked brain viral levels to these alterations, other neuropathological mechanisms might also contribute to them. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between findings on premortem magnetic resonance images and postmortem neuropathologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis and neurodegeneration. DESIGN: Morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in seropositive cases with matched seronegative controls, and the correlation of these volumes to neuropathological measures in autopsied seropositive cases. SETTING: University of California, San Diego, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one seropositive subjects studied at autopsy and 19 seronegative cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In vivo structural magnetic resonance imaging data analyzed by quantitative methods, with comparison of volumes from magnetic resonance imaging and neuropathological data from autopsies. RESULTS: The HIV-seropositive subjects demonstrated cerebrospinal fluid increases relative to seronegative controls. These increases were associated with a significant decrease in the volumes of cerebral and cerebellar white matter, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and, to a lesser extent, cerebral cortex. The volume of cerebral white-matter tissue with elevated signal was also increased. This signal elevation in white matter predicted the autopsy diagnosis of HIV encephalitis, as well as the extent of dendritic loss as assessed by analysis of microtubule-associated protein 2 immunoreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: White-matter and cortical damage resulting from HIV disease are closely related. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging may be a valuable adjunct in the assessment of patients at risk for developing HIV encephalitis

  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis

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    Anupamasuresh Y

    2014-06-01

    Methods: In our prospective study of 359 Patients of the age between 46 and 73 years, clinical characteristics and the pattern of endometrial histopathology and their association in women, who present with abnormal uterine bleeding, are categorised into six groups. Results: In our study, a significant correlation of histopathology and BMI was observed with endometrial hyperplasia and malignancy in obese patient i.e. 37 out 96 and 13 out of 23 respectively. The incidence of malignancy has been increasing with the age being 1.6% in 46-50 years to 60% in 70-75 years. In our study 116 (32.3% had hypertension, 33 patients (9.2% had diabetes mellitus, 40 patients (11.1% had hypothyroidism. Conclusions: We found a maximum incidence of AUB in multiparous women. Clinicohistopathological analysis of AUB revealed endometrial hyperplasia in majority of patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 656-661

  2. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Malhany Nadia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition.

  3. Relapsing polychondritis with multifocal neurological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, J; Atack, E A; Kraag, G

    1984-08-01

    A sixty-five year old woman developed relapsing polychondritis with three of the diagnostic criteria established by McAdam et al. (1976), namely bilateral auricular chondritis, ocular inflammation and both cochlear and vestibular dysfunction. Many authors have mentioned other neurological symptoms including unilateral facial weakness. This patient is the first case described with bilateral facial weakness and cerebral manifestations. Relapsing polychondritis, an uncommon, recurrent, inflammatory disorder affecting the cartilaginous tissues of the body (Jaksch-Wartenhorst, 1923; Herman, 1981), is regularly associated with audiovestibular dysfunction (Bollet et al., 1969; Cody et al., 1971; McAdam et al., 1976; Ridgway et al., 1979). McAdam et al. (1976) and Ridgway et al. (1979) have mentioned other neurological symptoms including unilateral facial weakness. We recently observed a patient with polychondritis and multifocal neurological abnormalities. We believe this is the first case described with bilateral facial nerve palsy and with cerebral manifestations. PMID:6467095

  4. Abnormal neuronal migration: radiologic-clinic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our experience in 18 pediatric patients with abnormal neuronal migration. Seven cases of heterotopia of the gray matter, 7 agyria-pachygyria complexes, 1 case of polymicrogyria, 2 cases of schizencephaly and 1 case of hemimegalencephaly were diagnosed by means of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. The clinical picture was reviewed in each case, with special attention to the occurrence of convulsions, psycho motor development and visual changes. In general, the greater the morphological change, the greater the neurological involvement in these patients. However, the two cases of schizencephaly presented mild clinical expression. Magnetic resonance increases the diagnostic yield in neuronal migration disorders. Nevertheless, either ultrasonography or, especially, computed tomography is useful as a first diagnostic approach in these malformative disorders. (Author)

  5. Comparative epidemiology of selected midline congenital abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P; Khoury, M J; Stewart, W F; Beaty, T H; Chee, E; Beatty, J C; Diamond, E L; Gordis, L

    1994-01-01

    We present comparative epidemiologic characteristics of five congenital abnormalities that have been suggested to result from midline abnormal developmental disturbances: esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF), imperforate anus with or without fistula (IA/F), omphalocele (OM), bladder exstrophy (BE), and diaphragmatic hernia (DH). The purpose was to assess the extent of epidemiologic similarities among these five defects. Data were collected as part of a population-based case-control study of infants with these defects born to mothers residing in Maryland, Washington, D.C., or Northern Virginia from 1980 through 1987. The estimated annual birth prevalences (per 10,000 live births) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of these five defects were 0.40 (0.26-0.61) for BE, 1.34 (1.08-1.67) for OM, 1.59 (1.29-1.95) for DH, 2.11 (1.76-2.53) for EA/TEF, and 2.97 (2.55-3.46) for IA/F. The birth prevalence of IA/F and DH increased between 1980 and 1987. In contrast to the other four defects, DH showed a significant male preponderance (rate ratio 1.57, 95% CI 1.03-2.47), a significant white excess (rate ratio white:other, 1.56, 95% CI 1.00-2.48), and a lower proportion of multiple associated defects (30% vs. 46-61%). We concluded from this study that the descriptive epidemiology of diaphragmatic hernia is different from that of the other four defects. This finding may imply differences in etiologic and pathogenetic mechanisms underlying DH. PMID:8013895

  6. Comparison of the immunoreactivity of rituximab antibody labeled with either I-125 or Re-188 for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies against tumor-associated antigens can be applied as delivery vehicles for radionuclides to treat tumors. The specificity of MAbs for tumor-associated antigens can be exploited to direct radionuclides selectively to tumor cells after systemic administration. In radioimmunotherapy, therapeutic efficacy depends on the choice of the radionuclide. The chemical characteristics of radioiodine and radiometals (Re-188) differ significantly with respect to labeling procedure and consequently the specificity of monoclonal antibody can be affected due to discrepancy of labeling condition. Rituximab is a genetically engineered, chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with mouse variable and human constant region. The CD-20 itself plays an important role in human B-cell proliferation and is an effective target for immunotherapy. In the present study, we compared the immunoreactivity of I-125-labeled Rituximab with Re-188-labeled Rituximab according to radionuclide-optimized labeling condition in cell binding assay of Lindmo method

  7. Abnormal grain growth in undoped strontium and barium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal grain growth is a commonly observed phenomenon in perovskite materials. In order to study this phenomenon, grain growth experiments were conducted over a temperature range from 1425 to 1600 deg. C for the model system SrTiO3 to analyse the nucleation of abnormal grains and to identify the growth mechanism involved for normal and abnormal grains. Grain boundaries of normal and abnormal grains were investigated in quenched samples by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and by energy-dispersive spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope. No amorphous film was observed at the grain boundaries for either normal or abnormal grains. Non-stoichiometry at the grain boundaries was identified as a possible reason for the differences in growth speed. The results are compared to the nucleation and growth of abnormal grains in BaTiO3.

  8. An increased frequency of human sperm chromosomal abnormalities after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13 cancer patients were studied before radiotherapy (RT) and at regular intervals after RT to determine the effect of RT on chromosomal abnormalities in sperm. Before RT, the frequency of abnormal sperm chromosome complements was 0%. After RT, the majority of men were azoospermic but complements could be analysed from 4 men. In the first 12 months the frequency of abnormalities was 13% and at 24 months it was 13%. By 36 months after RT, most men had recovered sperm production and the frequency of abnormalities in 8 men was 21%, which is significantly higher than the rate in control donors. For individual men the range was 6-67%, and there was a significant correlation between testicular radiation dose and the frequency of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequencies of both numerical and structural abnormalities were significantly increased after RT. (Auth.)

  9. Occurrence and distribution of substance P-related immunoreactivity in the brain of adult lampreys, Petromyzon marinus and Entosphenus tridentatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, M; Gorbman, A

    1986-05-01

    The occurrence and distribution of substance P (SP)-related immunoreactivity were examined in the adult brains of two species of lampreys, Petromyzon marinus and Entosphenus tridentatus, by using the PAP technique and three different anti-SP sera (anti-SP#1, anti-SP#2, and anti-SP#3). In both species of lampreys, anti-SP#1 and anti-SP#2 yielded positive reactions in the brain, while there was no, or slight immunoreaction there to anti-SP#3. The positive reactions toward anti-SP sera in the lamprey brain were not eliminated, or insufficiently reduced by preabsorption with SP, but they were completely abolished by preabsorption with eledoisin-related peptide. Thus, SP-positive material in the lamprey brain is more closely related, in terms of immunological determinants, to eledoisin than to SP. In Petromyzon, SP-positive perikarya were found in the ventrolateral telencephalon and the ventral hypothalamus, whereas in Entosphenus they were found in the ventral thalamus, tegmentum motoricum mesencephali (two locations), and rostral rhombencephalon, as well as in the above-mentioned two regions. Nevertheless, the distributions of SP-positive fibers in the regions of the brain other than the neurohypophysis were very similar between the two species: SP-positive fibers were found at many locations of the brain, and were especially rich in the periventricular subependymal zone of the ventral telencephalon and in the diencephalon, preoptic area, hypothalamus, and interpeduncular nucleus. In Petromyzon, a heavy accumulation of positive fibers was observed in the rostral part of the anterior neurohypophysis, whereas in Entosphenus no such fibers were observed there. These results clearly suggest the presence of a neuronal system of unknown function containing a SP-related peptide in the brain of lampreys. PMID:3781222

  10. Administration of COG1410 reduces axonal amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity and microglial activation after controlled cortical impact in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Brody, David L

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) accounts for at least 35% of the morbidity and mortality in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients without space-occupying lesions. It is also believed to be a key determinant of adverse outcomes such as cognitive dysfunction across the spectrum of TBI severity. Previous studies have shown that COG1410, a synthetic peptide derived from the apolipoprotein E (apoE) receptor binding region, has anti-inflammatory effects after experimental TBI, with improvements in cognitive recovery. However, the effects of COG1410 on axonal injury following TBI are not known. The current study evaluated the effects of 1?mg/kg daily COG1410 versus saline administered intravenously starting 30?min after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury on pericontusional TAI in young, wild-type C57BL6/J male mice. We found that COG1410 did not affect the number of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-immunoreactive axonal varicosities in the pericontusional corpus callosum and external capsule at 24?h, but reduced APP-immunoreactive varicosities by 31% at 3 days (p=0.0023), and 36% at 7 days (p=0.0009). COG1410 significantly reduced the number of Iba1-positive cells with activated microglial morphology at all three time points by 21-30%. There was no effect of COG1410 on pericontusional white matter volume or silver staining at any time point. This indicates a possible effect of COG1410 on delayed but not immediate TAI. Future studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms, therapeutic time window, and physiological implications of this effect. PMID:22676717

  11. Injected TFF1 and TFF3 bind to TFF2-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S S; Thulesen, J

    2003-01-01

    Peptides of the trefoil factor family (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) are co-secreted with mucus in most organ systems and are believed to interact with mucins to produce high-viscosity, stable gel complexes. We have previously demonstrated that cells in the GI tract possess binding sites to TFF2 and that injected TFF2 ends up in the mucus layer. In the present study, tissue binding and metabolism of parenterally administered human TFF1 and TFF3 in rats were described and compared to the immunohistochemical localization of the TFF peptides. 125I-TFF1 monomer and 125I-TFF3 mono- and dimer were given intravenously to female Wistar rats. The tissue distribution was assessed by gamma counting of organ samples and by autoradiography of histological sections. The degradation of 125I-TFF3 was studied by means of trichloracetic acid (TCA) precipitation and the saturability of the binding by administration of excess unlabelled peptide. The TFF peptides were localized in histologic sections from the GI tract by immunohistochemistry. Injected TFF3 dimer (12%) was taken up by the GI tract. At autoradiography, grains were localized to the same cells that were immunoreactive to TFF2. The binding could be displaced by excess TFF3. Similar binding was observed for the TFF1 and TFF3 monomers apart from binding in the stomach, where the uptake was only 15% in comparison to the dimer. There was no specific binding outside the GI tract and no binding to TFF1 or TFF3 immunoreactive cells. In conclusion, the TFF2-binding cells in the gastrointestinal tract seem to have basolateral, receptor-like activity to all three TFF peptides. The mucous neck cells of the stomach predominantly take up TFFs with two trefoil domains, indicating a different receptor-like activity in the stomach compared to the rest of the GI tract.

  12. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for thermal denaturation of ovine milk lactoferrin determined by its loss of immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, F; Harouna, S; Calvo, M; Pérez, M D; Sánchez, L

    2015-07-01

    Lactoferrin is a protein with important biological functions that can be obtained from milk and by-products derived from the dairy industry, such as whey. Although bovine lactoferrin has been extensively studied, ovine lactoferrin is not quite as well known. In the present study, the effect of several heat treatments in 3 different media, over a temperature range from 66 to 75°C, has been studied on lactoferrin isolated from sheep milk. Denaturation of lactoferrin was determined by measuring its immunoreactivity with specific polyclonal antibodies. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters obtained indicate that lactoferrin denatures by heat more rapidly in whey than in phosphate buffer or milk. The value of activation energy found for the denaturation process of lactoferrin when treated in whey is higher (390kJ/mol) than that obtained in milk (194kJ/mol) or phosphate buffer (179kJ/mol). This indicates that a great amount of energy is necessary to start denaturation of ovine lactoferrin, probably due to the interaction of this protein with other whey proteins. The changes in the hydrophobicity of lactoferrin after heat treatments were determined by fluorescence measurement using acrylamide. The decrease in the hydrophobicity constant was very small for the treatments from 66 to 75°C, up to 20min, which indicates that lactoferrin conformation did not experienced a great change. The results obtained in this study permit the prediction of behavior of ovine lactoferrin under several heat treatments and show that high-temperature, short-time pasteurization (72°C, 15 s) does not cause loss of its immunoreactivity and, consequently, would not affect its conformation and biological activity. PMID:25958286

  13. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in the porcine arteries of vascular subovarian plexus (VSP during the estrous cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andronowska

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important angiogenic factor in the female reproductive tract. It binds to cell surface through ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase receptors, the most important being VEGFR-1 (flt-1 and VEGFR-2 (flk-1. The broad ligament of the uterus is a dynamic organ consisting of specialized complexes of blood vessels connected functionally to the uterus, oviduct and ovary. Endothelial cells form an inner coating of the vessel walls and thus they stay under the influence of various modulators circulating in blood including ovarian steriods involved in developmental changes in the female reproductive system. The aim of the present study was to immunolocalize VEGF and its two receptors: VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in the broad ligament of the uterus in the area of vascular subovarian plexus during different phases of the estrous cycle in pig and to determine the correlation between immunoreactivity of the investigated factors and phases of the estrous cycle. The study was performed on cryostat sections of vascular subovarian plexus stained immunohistochemically by ABC method. Specific polyclonal antibodies: anti-VEGF, anti-VEGFR-1 and anti-VEGFR-2 were used. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Our study revealed the presence of VEGF and its receptors in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of VSP arteries. All agents displayed phase-related differences in immunoreactivity suggesting the modulatory effect of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on the arteries of the VSP in the porcine broad ligament of the uterus.

  14. Chronic upregulation of activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 and nerve growth factor following diffuse axonal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzaszcz MaryAnn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of axonal injury following TBI, and have linked cognitive disability in these patients to white matter signal changes. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of this white matter injury, and the role of microglial activation in this process. It is increasingly recognized that microglia constitute a heterogeneous population with diverse roles following injury. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that following diffuse axonal injury involving the corpus callosum, there is upregulation of a subpopulation of microglia that express the lectin galectin-3/Mac-2 and are involved in myelin phagocytosis. Methods Adult mice were subject to midline closed skull injury or sham operation and were sacrificed 1, 8, 14 or 28 days later. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques were used to analyze patterns of labelling within the corpus callosum qualitatively and quantitatively. Results Activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 were most abundant 1 day following injury. Their levels were attenuated at later time points after TBI but still were significantly elevated compared to sham animals. Furthermore, the majority of galectin-3/Mac-2+ microglia were immunoreactive for nerve growth factor in both sham and injured animals. Conclusions Our results suggest that galectin-3/Mac-2+ microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of diffuse axonal injury both acutely and chronically and that they mediate their effects, at least in part by releasing nerve growth factor.

  15. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  16. Effects of sex and reproductive experience on the number of orexin A-immunoreactive cells in the prairie vole brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlin, Michael; Cavanaugh, Breyanna L; Spagnuolo, Olivia S; Yan, Lily; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2014-07-01

    Large populations of cells synthesizing the neuropeptide orexin (OX) exist in the caudal hypothalamus of all species examined and are implicated in physiological and behavioral processes including arousal, stress, anxiety and depression, reproduction, and goal-directed behaviors. Hypothalamic OX expression is sexually dimorphic in different directions in laboratory rats (F>M) and mice (M>F), suggesting different roles in male and female physiology and behavior that are species-specific. We here examined if the number of hypothalamic cells immunoreactive for orexin A (OXA) differs between male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a socially monogamous species that pairbonds after mating and in which both sexes care for offspring, and if reproductive experience influences their number of OXA-immunoreactive (OXA-ir) cells. It was found that the total number of OXA-ir cells did not differ between the sexes, but females had more OXA-ir cells than males in anterior levels of the caudal hypothalamus, while males had more OXA-ir cells posteriorly. Sexually experienced females sacrificed 12 days after the birth of their first litter, or one day after birth of a second litter, had more OXA-ir cells in anterior levels but not posterior levels of the caudal hypothalamus compared to females housed with a brother (incest avoidance prevents sibling mating). Male prairie voles showed no effect of reproductive experience but showed an unexpected effect of cohabitation duration regardless of mating. The sex difference in the distribution of OXA-ir cells, and their increased number in anterior levels of the caudal hypothalamus of reproductively experienced female prairie voles, may reflect a sex-specific mechanism involved in pairbonding, parenting, or lactation in this species. PMID:24874707

  17. Transamidation of gluten proteins during the bread-making process of wheat flour to produce breads with less immunoreactive gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Sandoval, Nina Gisella; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María

    2014-08-01

    Due to an increasing incidence of celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders, different gluten-free breads have been developed using starches and additives as a substitute for gluten. Thus, patients miss not only the taste and aroma of wheat bread but also risk their sensitive intestines. Therefore, modifying gluten to avoid an immune response in CD and its application to baking is in progress. The aim of the study was to enzymatically modify gluten on wheat flour, during bread-making avoiding the use of additives, to reduce immunoreactivity, preserving its properties. Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) or chymotrypsin (ChT) was used to bind lysine or valine to gluten proteins in a model system. The best conditions were directly applied to wheat flour for bread-making with and without punching at 45 min. Subsequently, the rheological properties of the doughs, specific volume of the loaves, immunoreactive gluten content and modification of the extracted proteins were evaluated. ChT-treated breads presented a better appearance with a more homogeneous crumb, higher specific volume values (3.34-4.25 cm(3) g(-1)) and higher reactive gluten reduction (up to 71%) than the mTG-treated ones (1.23-2.66 cm(3) g(-1)) with only a 42% reactive gluten reduction. Thus, transpeptidation during bread-making is a promising technology, although it is necessary to improve the modification process to obtain the reactive gluten reduction required in breads for the treatment of CD patients and other gluten-related disorders. PMID:24917417

  18. ECG abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudehill, A.; Olsson, G. L.; Sundqvist, K.; Gordon, E.

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of and possible factors influencing ECG abnormalities were analysed in one patient group with subarachnoid haemorrhages (n = 406) and another with intracranial tumours (n = 400). The highest incidence of each ECG abnormality was always found in the patients with subarachnoid haemorrhages. In this group an ECG pattern, possibly attributable to the cerebral disease and comprising abnormalities of the T and U waves and prolongation of the Q-Tc interval, was frequently identified.

  19. Structure and stability of the abnormal neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.Z. (China Scientific and Technical University, Hofei, Communist China); Qu, Q.-Y. (Nanking University, Nanking, Communist China); Wang, Z.-R. (Inner Mongolia University, Huhehot, Communist China)

    1979-02-01

    It is proposed that the abnormal neutron star may be considered as a new type of compact star the formation of which is subsequent to that of normal neutron stars. The sequence of evolution in this case is suggested to be white dwarf/normal neutron star/abnormal neutron star/collapsed star. It appears likely that there may be a good many abnormal neutron stars among the several hundred of observed pulsars and X-ray sources in close binaries.

  20. Spatial Characteristics of White Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    White, Tonya; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ho, Beng-Choon; Dara S Manoach; Caprihan, Arvind; Schulz, S. Charles; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Gollub, Randy L.; Vince D Calhoun; Magnotta, Vincent A

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence implicating brain white matter (WM) abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; however, the spatial localization of WM abnormalities reported in the existing studies is heterogeneous. Thus, the goal of this study was to quantify the spatial characteristics of WM abnormalities in schizophrenia. One hundred and fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 138 matched controls participated in this multisite study involving the Universities of Iowa, Minnesot...

  1. Abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasheiff, R M; Drake, M E; Brendle, A; Erwin, C W

    1985-04-01

    A patient with typical clinical and electromyographic features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was found to have abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Evoked responses are generally considered to be normal in ALS despite occasional pathological and clinical evidence of sensory involvement. Thus, abnormal SEPs are considered to argue against a diagnosis of ALS. Based on the present case and a review of the literature, we suggest that abnormal SEPs need not exclude a diagnosis of ALS. PMID:2579797

  2. Accuracy of detection of radiographic abnormalities by junior doctors.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, C. A.; Driscoll, P. A.; Audley, R. J.; Grant, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of junior doctors in accident and emergency to detect radiographic abnormalities. Their assessments of 505 radiographs taken at nights and weekends over a period of 8 months and showing abnormalities were examined. Each assessment by a senior house officer (SHO) was compared with the subsequent diagnosis of a radiologist of senior registrar or consultant status. An error rate of 35% was found. For abnormalities with clinically significant consequences the error...

  3. Treatments for Biomedical Abnormalities Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Richard Eugene; Rossignol, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies point to the effectiveness of novel treatments that address physiological abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is significant because safe and effective treatments for ASD remain limited. These physiological abnormalities as well as studies addressing treatments of these abnormalities are reviewed in this article. Treatments commonly used to treat mitochondrial disease have been found to improve both core and associated ASD symptoms. Double-blind, ...

  4. Adenosine deaminase organic effect in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effect of the organic substances on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Various concentrations of 2-mercaptopurine, Ame-tycine, Adenosine analogues (Guanine, Thymine) and ATP were tested to see their effect on ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF. ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF was remarkably decreased with the increasing of concentrations of substances tested. These effects may have important therapeutic implications. (author)

  5. Dynamic upper respiratory abnormalities in Thoroughbred racehorses in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier E., Mirazo; Patrick, Page; Luis, Rubio-Martinez; Hendrick J., Marais.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper airway endoscopy at rest has been the diagnostic method of choice for equine upper respiratory tract (URT) conditions. Development of high-speed treadmill endoscopy improved the sensitivity of URT endoscopy by allowing observation of the horse's nasopharynx and larynx during exercise. However, [...] treadmill exercise may not always accurately represent the horse's normal exercise as track surface, rider, tack and environmental variables are altered. Recently, the development of dynamic overground endoscopy (DOE) has addressed some of these shortcomings. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the URT abnormalities detected during DOE in racehorses presenting with poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Patient records of Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing DOE from November 2011 to August 2012 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, primary complaint, distance exercised, maximum speed and dynamic airway abnormalities detected. Fifty-two horses underwent DOE for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. The main abnormalities detected included axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (40%), vocal cord collapse (35%), abnormal arytenoid function (33%) and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (25%). A total of 40 horses were diagnosed with one or more abnormalities of the URT (77%). Fifteen horses (29%) had a single abnormality and 25 horses (48%) had multiple abnormalities. This study showed that DOE is a useful technique for investigating dynamic disorders of the URT in racehorses in South Africa. The total number and type of dynamic pathological conditions were comparable with those identified in similar populations in other geographical locations.

  6. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. For this reporting period, there was one abnormal occurrence at nuclear power plants licensed to operate involving significant deficiencies in management controls at Slurry Nuclear Power Station. There was one abnormal occurrence under other NRC-issued licenses; the event involved a medical therapy misadministration. One other abnormal occurrence, involving industrial radiography overexposures, was reported by an Agreement State (Texas). 40 refs

  7. Is the presence of abnormal prion protein in the renal glomeruli of feline species presenting with FSE authentic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencsik Anna A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a recent paper written by Hilbe et al (BMC vet res, 2009, the nature and specificity of the prion protein deposition in the kidney of feline species affected with feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE were clearly considered doubtful. This article was brought to our attention because we published several years ago an immunodetection of abnormal prion protein in the kidney of a cheetah affected with FSE. At this time we were convinced of its specificity but without having all the possibilities to demonstrate it. As previously published by another group, the presence of abnormal prion protein in some renal glomeruli in domestic cats affected with FSE is indeed generally considered as doubtful mainly because of low intensity detected in this organ and because control kidneys from safe animals present also a weak prion immunolabelling. Here we come back on these studies and thought it would be helpful to relay our last data to the readers of BMC Vet res for future reference on this subject. Here we come back on our material as it is possible to study and demonstrate the specificity of prion immunodetection using the PET-Blot method (Paraffin Embedded Tissue - Blot. It is admitted that this method allows detecting the Proteinase K (PK resistant form of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres without any confusion with unspecific immunoreaction. We re-analysed the kidney tissue versus adrenal gland and brain samples from the same cheetah affected with TSE using this PET-Blot method. The PET-Blot analysis revealed specific PrPres detection within the brain, adrenal gland and some glomeruli of the kidney, with a complete identicalness compared to our previous detection using immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, these new data enable us to confirm with assurance the presence of specific abnormal prion protein in the adrenal gland and in the kidney of the cheetah affected with FSE. It also emphasizes the usefulness for the re-examination of any available tissue blocks with the PET-Blot method as a sensitive complementary tool in case of doubtful PrP IHC results.

  8. Abnormal Early Cleavage Events Predict Early Embryo Demise: Sperm Oxidative Stress and Early Abnormal Cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Burruel; Katie Klooster; Christopher M. Barker; Renee Reijo Pera; Stuart Meyers

    2014-01-01

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxida...

  9. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  10. Caloric restriction reduces cell loss and maintains estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of female B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaie, Farzin; Saeed, Omar; Garan, Steven A; Freitag, Warren; Timiras, Paola S; Sternberg, Hal

    2005-06-01

    Life-long calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reliable means of extending life span in mammals. Among the several theories to explain CR actions, one variant of the neuroendocrine theories of aging postulates that changing hypothalamic sensitivity to endocrine feedback is the clock that times phenotypic change over the life span. If the feedback sensitivity hypothesis is correct, CR animals should display a significantly different pattern of hormone-sensitive cell density and distribution in the hypothalamus. Of the many endocrine signal receptors that may be involved in maintaining hypothalamic feedback sensitivity, our study has selected to begin mapping those for estrogen (E). Altered hypothalamic sensitivity to E is known to schedule reproductive maturation and influence reproductive senescence. Taking estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to E, we counted ERalpha immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the pre-optic hypothalamus of young (6 weeks), ad-libitum (Old-AL) fed old (22 months), and calorie restricted (Old-CR) old (22 months) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each sampled section of pre-optic hypothalamus. Results show a 38% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and an 18% reduction in total cell numbers in AL-old mice in comparison to young mice. However, CR mice only show a 19% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and a 13% reduction in total cell numbers in comparison to young mice. This indicates CR prevents age-related cell loss and maintains estrogen sensitivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of old female B6D2F1 mice. PMID:15990721

  11. Decreased constitutive nitric oxide synthase, but increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 immunoreactivity in aortic endothelial cells of donryu rats on a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, G; Shi, J; Perry, G; Friedland, R P; Lamanna, J C

    2000-09-01

    The Donryu rat is resistant to a high cholesterol diet in that typical atheromatous lesions do not develop. Using electron microscopic immunocytochemical techniques, the effects of a CCT diet (4% cholesterol with 1% cholic acid and 0.5% thiouracil) on the distributions of neuronal, macrophage, and endothelial specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS I, NOS II, and NOS III) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) immunoreactivity were examined in the thoracic aortic intima. Atheromatous lesions were absent, but immunocytochemistry showed 1. 4+/-0.52% and 4.0+/-0.9% endothelial cells (EC) with positive staining for NOS I and NOS III, respectively, compared with 16.3+/-2. 5% and 88.6+/-2.48% in control Donryu rats. The CCT-supplemented diet induced expression of NOS II immunoreactivity in thoracic aortic intimal cells. EC, subendothelial macrophages, and smooth muscle cells (SMC) also showed high NOS II-positive staining. The percentage of NOS II-immunoreactive EC was 43+/-1.8%. In control groups, no NOS II immunoreactive cells were observed. The percentage of ET-1 immunopositive cells was also significantly increased by 9. 2+/-0.66% and 64.2+/-1.4% in control and CCT-fed groups, respectively. It is concluded that the administration of a high cholesterol diet in Donryu rats produces endothelial dysfunction associated with changes in the balance of the different isoforms of NOS and ET-1. Therefore, the increase in inducible NOS and ET-1 immunoreactivity seen during the cholesterol-enriched diet appears to be a compensatory reaction of aortic wall cells to the high cholesterol supplementation. PMID:10967532

  12. Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and substance P in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis: Effects of vagal stimulation on GAD immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, F.; Gibbs, M. A.; Mehler, W. R.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by means of its biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the neuropeptide substance P in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and gelatinous nucleus (GEL). In addition, electrical stimulation was applied to the night vagus nerve at the cervical level to assess the effects on GAD-immunoreactivity (GAR-IR). GAD-IR terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. They showed pronounced density at the level of the ASP and gradual decrease towards the solitary complex. Nerve cells were not labelled in our preparations. Ultrastructural studies showed symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contracts between labelled terminals and non-immunoreactive dendrites, axons, or neurons. Some of the labelled terminals contained both clear- and dense-core vesicles. Our preliminary findings, after electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, revealed a bilateral decrease of GAD-IR that was particularly evident at the level of the ASP. SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed varying densities in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. In our preparations, the lateral sub-division of the NTS showed the greatest accumulation. The ASP showed medium density of immunoreactive varicosities and terminals and the AP and GEL displayed scattered varicose axon terminals. The electron microscopy revealed that all immunoreactive terminals contained clear-core vesicles which make symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contact with unlabelled dendrites. It is suggested that the GABAergic terminals might correspond to vagal afferent projections and that GAD/GABA and substance P might be co-localized in the same terminal allowing the possibility of a regulated release of the transmitters in relation to demands.

  13. Is TIMP-1 immunoreactivity alone or in combination with other markers a predictor of benefit from anthracyclines in the BR9601 adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy trial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Alison F.; Bartels, Annette

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Predictive cancer biomarkers to guide the right treatment to the right patient at the right time are strongly needed. The purpose of the present study was to validate prior results that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) alone or in combination with either HER2 or TOP2A copy number can be used to predict benefit from epirubicin (E) containing chemotherapy compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF) treatment. METHODS: For the purpose of this study, formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue from women recruited into the BR9601 clinical trial, which randomized patients to E-CMF versus CMF, were analyzed for TIMP-1 immunoreactivity. Using previously collected data for HER2 amplification and TOP2A gene aberrations, we defined patients as "anthracycline non-responsive", that is, 2T (TIMP-1 immunoreactive and TOP2A normal) and HT (TIMP-1 immunoreactive and HER2 negative) and anthracycline responsive (all other cases). RESULTS: In total, 288 tumors were available for TIMP-1 analysis with (183/274) 66.8%, and (181/274) 66.0% being classed as 2T and HT responsive, respectively. TIMP-1 was neither associated with patient prognosis (relapse free survival or overall survival) nor with a differential effect of E-CMF and CMF. Also, TIMP-1 did not add to the predictive value of HER2, TOP2A gene aberrations, or to Ki67 immunoreactivity. CONCLUSION: This study could not confirm the predictive value of TIMP-1 immunoreactivity in patients randomized to receive E-CMF versus CMF as adjuvant treatment for primary breast cancer.

  14. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei, E-mail: feiwang1973@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan Yunyun, E-mail: duanyun2003@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  15. Electroencephalographic Abnormalities in Patients with Idiopathic Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Yoaly Arana Lechuga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main goal of the present research is to describe the electroencephalographic activity during sleep and the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP on idiopathic insomniac patients. Methods: 22 idiopathic insomnia patients were included. Sleep recording included: fully conventional EEG recording (32 electrodes, with 16 channels getting ipsilateral bipolar recordings, EOG, EMG, EKG, thoracic and abdominal respiratory movements, nasal flow and oximetry. Results: Out of the 22 registered patients, 10 (45% showed no electroencephalographic alteration, while 12 (55% exhibited an electroencephalographic alteration (irritative activity. Concerning PSG variables, significant differences between groups (no EEG alteration and EEG alterations were detected in: sleep latency, total sleep time, total wake time, sleep efficiency, light sleep percentage, slow waves sleep percentage and on the sub type A1 index of the cyclic alternant pattern CAP. Conclusions: The present data strongly suggest that within the population diagnosed with idiopathic insomnia, there is a subgroup in which the electroencephalographic alterations may play a critical role as the source of the sleep abnormality.

  16. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  17. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  18. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... VIDEO: If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, MPh, PhD, NewYork ... VIDEO: If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, MPh, PhD, NewYork ...

  19. Management of abnormal radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with any other industrial activity, a certain level of risk is associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. That is, on occasions nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities may operate under conditions which were not specifically anticipated during the design and construction of the plant. These abnormal conditions and situations may cause the production of abnormal waste, which can differ in character or quantity from waste produced during normal routine operation of nuclear facilities. Abnormal waste can also occur during decontamination programmes, replacement of a reactor component, de-sludging of storage ponds, etc. The management of such kinds of waste involves the need to evaluate existing waste management systems in order to determine how abnormal wastes should best be handled and processed. There are no known publications on this subject, and the IAEA believes that the development and exchange of such information among its Member States would be useful for specialists working in the waste management area. The main objective of this report is to review existing waste management practices which can be applied to abnormal waste and provide assistance in the selection of appropriate technologies and processes that can be used when abnormal situations occur. Naturally, the subject of abnormal waste is complex and this report can only be considered as a guide for the management of abnormal waste. Refs, figs and tabs.

  20. Congenital nasal piriform aperture stenosis with vestibular abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaram, Smitha; Raghavan, Ashok [Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Bateman, Neil [Sheffield Children' s Hospital, ENT Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    We present a neonate with congenital nasal piriform aperture stenosis associated with an abnormal vestibular aperture. Radiological evaluation with CT is essential to confirm the diagnosis and delineate the anatomy for surgical planning. Extension of the scan field of view to include the petrous temporal bone is essential to identify associated abnormalities of the vestibule. (orig.)

  1. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  2. Abnormal phenomenon in the measurement of tritium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory was contaminated by tritium since TiT radioactive source was used continually. Measure used tritium contamination apparatus discovered that region sheltered was contaminated more seriously than region exposed. It is a abnormal phenomenon, analysis found that the region contaminated seriously was irradiated by hydrogen discharge source. The abnormal phenomenon likely relate to hydrogen discharge source. The article present an hypothetical explanation. (authors)

  3. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, MPh, PhD, NewYork Presbyterian ... If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work - Dr. Lori Mosca, MD, MPh, PhD, NewYork Presbyterian ...

  4. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a family history of heart disease or a family pattern of cholesterol abnormalities, these can help the doctor make a diagnosis ... be certain to discuss with my doctor my family history, my personal history, ... cause abnormalities in blood cholesterol levels. I would make certain ...

  5. Automatic Medical Image Classification and Abnormality Detection Using KNearest Neighbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. R. J. Ramteke , Khachane Monali Y.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work presents a method for automatic classification of medical images in two classes Normal and Abnormal based on image features and automatic abnormality detection. Our proposed system consists of four phases Preprocessing, Feature extraction, Classification, and Post processing. Statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and abnormal images. We used the KNN classifier for classifying image. The KNN classifier performance compared with kernel based SVM classifier (Linear and RBF. The confusion matrix computed and result shows that KNN obtain 80% classification rate which is more than SVM classification rate. So we choose KNN algorithm for classification of images. If image classified as abnormal then post processing step applied on the image and abnormal region is highlighted on the image. The system has been tested on the number of real CT scan brain images.

  6. Haematological, ocular and skeletal abnormalities in a Samoyed family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haematological, ocular and skeletal abnormalities were documented in a samoyed male and its five offspring. Haematological abnormalities, found in repeated tests in all the dogs, included marked eosinophilia, eosinophilic bands and absence of Barr bodies. Two of the dogs had bilateral buphthalmia, retinal detachments and other ocular abnormalities. Three of the dogs had skeletal abnormalities including chondrodysplasia (dwarfism) and brachygnathia (undershot jaw). A similar combination of inherited skeletal and ocular disorders, without the haematological abnormalities, has been described in samoyeds. Acquired causes for the haematological findings, which are similar to the inherited Pelger-Huët anomaly described in several species, have been eliminated. Eosinophilic bands and scarcity of Barr bodies could be a marker, or a previously unreported manifestation, of an inherited disorder in samoyeds

  7. Significance of negative hysteroscopic view in abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasnis H

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Ninety six cases of abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated by both panoramic hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage. The indications for hysteroscopy included postmenopausal bleeding, infertility with abnormal bleeding, abnormal bleeding and suspected leiomyoma with bleeding. Twenty three patients had abnormal hysteroscopy findings. Hysteroscopy diagnosed endometrial polyp and submucus leiomyoma with 100% accuracy. In 17 cases, the results of hysteroscopy and curettage were in agreement and hysteroscopy revealed more information than curettage in 6 cases. Among the remaining 73 cases with ?negative? hysteroscopic view, an abnormality was detected by tissue sampling in only 2 patients. The specificity and positive predictive value of hysteroscopy is 100%. The sensitivity of hysteroscopy was greater (92% than that of curettage (76% and the negative predictive value of hysteroscopy was 2.8%. Thus, panoramic hysteroscopy may prove to be superior to curettage in making an accurate diagnosis of intrauterine pathology.

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a Quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January 1 to March 31, 1989. For this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The first had generic implications and involved a plug failure resulting in a steam generator tube leak at North Anna Unit 1. The second involved a steam generator tube rupture at McGuire Unit 1. There were three abnormal occurrences under other NRC-issued licenses. Two involved medical therapy misadministrations and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. There were no abnormal occurrences reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  9. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1988. For this reporting period, there were no abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. There were two abnormal occurrences at other NRC licensees: a significant breakdown in management and procedural controls at a medical facility and a medical diagnostic misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving radioactive material released during a transportation accident. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  10. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1988. For this reporting period, there were no abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. There were two abnormal occurrences under other NRC-issued licenses: multiple medical therapy misadministrations at a single hospital and a medical diagnostic misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  11. Management of roads with abnormal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several asphalt concrete (AC) roads in Taoyuan County of Taiwan were found radioactively abnormal in 1994. Atomic Energy Council (AEC), the regulatory agency, was asked to take the samples, to perform the radiochemical analysis and dose evaluation as well as to investigate the source of contamination. The cause of high radiation was due to high uranium and thorium concentration slag used in the AC. The dose rate was approximately 1 ?Sv/hr at the road surface. The maximum annual dose received by pedestrians was estimated at 0.13 mSv (2.5% of annual dose limit of 5 mSv for the public), or approximately 1/15 of the value of annual natural background radiation in the Taiwan area. Consequently, the AEC suggested that there was no need to implement engineering remedy measures to remove the AC surface of the roads. However, upon consideration of socioeconomic condition and public opinion, the local government still decided to remove the contaminated surface of these roads. The AEC helped to formulate the operational procedures for removal and disposal of the AC including the radiation protection program and the disposal site. To date, all the contaminated AC surface of the roads was removed and properly disposed. The contaminated AC roads are a typical example of improper disposal of wastes containing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). A new regulation was promulgated by AEC recently to limit the use of slag, coal ash or any other industrial wastes unless its radiation or activity level is below the limit. (author)

  12. Intracranial CT abnormality associated with childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We showed three abnormal CT findings of childhood leukemia. Case 1: A 3-year-old boy was found to have acute lymphocytic leukemia in January, 1980. Following prophylactic skull irradiation totaling 2,300 rad and 30 mg of intrathecal methotrexate, he was treated with oral and intravenous methotrexate (10-15 mg once weekly, totaling 2,035 mg). CT taken 2 years and 3 months after the onset showed fine, high-density spots in the left frontal, temporal, and bilateral parietal subcortical regions, without any contrast enhancement. The high-density spots were diagnosed as parenchymal calcification induced by the irradiation and methotrexate therapy. Case 2: A 5-year-old boy complaining of anemia and fever was diagnosed as having acute myelocytic leukemia and was treated with VAMP and DCVP. In March, 1982, he complained of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting 4.5 years after his onset. There were no neurological deficits nor any nuchal stiffness. A lumbar puncture showed increasing pressure of CSF over 250 mm H2O and a pleocytosis of the myeloblasts. CT showed an enhanced high-density mass in the pineal region and hydrocephalus. He improved and showed a normal CT after treatment with skull irradiation of 2,400 rad and four intraventricular injections of 15 mg methotrexate, 30 mg cytosine arabinoside, and 15 mg hydrocortisone via Ommaya's reservoir. Case 3: A 14-year-old boy who had suffered from acute lymphocytic leukemia, associated with meningeal infiltration, f associated with meningeal infiltration, for 2 years and 10 months, complained of headache, disturbance of consciousness, and focal convulsion of the left upper limb in December, 1982. CT demonstrated multiple, round, high-density areas in the cerebral hemispheres. Those high-density areas were diagnosed as intracerebral leukemic masses and/or hemorrhages. After 1400 rad of skull irradiation and steroid therapy, the patient rallied shortly, but then expired. An autopsy was refused. (J.P.N.)

  13. [Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, V; Hamm, H

    2014-12-01

    Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

  14. Expression of c-fos-like immunoreactivity in brainstem after meningeal irritation by blood in the subarachnoid space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, K; Boccalini, P; Moskowitz, M A

    1992-08-01

    The expression of c-fos protein was examined by immunohistochemistry in serial sections of brainstem following the instillation of either autologous arterial blood (0.3 ml) or mock cerebrospinal fluid (0.3 ml) through a catheter placed in the cisterna magna, or following catheter placement alone in pentobarbital-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. After injection, blood was distributed within the subarachnoid space surrounding the brainstem and in the region of the circle of Willis. c-fos protein-like immunoreactivity was present at 1 h, peaked at 2 h and decreased by 8 h. At 2 h, immunoreactivity was strongly expressed within trigeminal nucleus caudalis (lamina I, IIo), as well as within nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, ependyma, pia mater and arachnoid in every animal. Moderate labeling was found in parabrachial nucleus, medullary lateral reticular nucleus and central gray. Sparse labeling was present in trigeminal nucleus caudalis (lamina III-V) and trigeminal nucleus interpolaris; few or no labeled cells were detected in other parts of the trigeminal nuclear complex, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex or trigeminal ganglion. The number of positive cells was not related to the volume of injectate but was related to the amount of injected blood. The density of cell labeling evoked by injecting mock cerebrospinal fluid or after catheter placement was markedly lower than after blood in all brainstem areas. The number of labeled cells was greatly reduced within trigeminal nuclear complex, parabrachial nucleus and medullary lateral reticular nucleus, but not within the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema or ependyma when blood was injected into adult animals in which unmyelinated C-fibers were destroyed by neonatal capsaicin treatment. Similar results were obtained after blood was instilled into the cisterna magna of rats in which meningeal afferents were chronically sectioned at the ethmoidal foramen bilaterally. We conclude that blood in the subarachnoid space is an effective stimulus for activating c-fos expression within subpopulations of brainstem neurons. Activation within trigeminal nucleus caudalis is mediated in large part by excitation of small-caliber meningeal afferents (trigeminovascular fibers), whereas c-fos expression within nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema may reflect direct stimulation of blood or blood products, or possibly the response to autonomic activation from noxious stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1501769

  15. Expression of immunoreactivity of nuclear findings by p53 and cyclin a in endometrial cytology: Comparison with endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown and endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Yanoh, Kenji; Kawanishi, Namiki; Kobayashi, Tadao K

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that "condensed cluster of stromal cells (CCSC)" and "metaplastic clumps with irregular protrusion (MCIP)" in endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) cases may simulate "clumps of cancer cells (CCC)" in endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade 1 (G1), leading to difficulty in cytological interpretation. The aim of this study was undertaken to clarify the cytological immunoreactivity of nuclear findings about CCSC and MCIP which may be recognized in EGBD cases by using p53 protein and cyclin A in liquid-based cytologic (LBC) preparations. The material consists of cytologic smears of 20 cases of EGBD and 20 cases of G1 for which histopathological diagnosis was obtained by endometrial curettage at the JA Suzuka General Hospital. The evaluation of immunoreactivity was performed by using the intensity of nuclear staining and the nuclear labeling index (N-LI). The intensity of nuclear staining was scored as negative (0), weak (1), moderate (2), or strong (3). The N-LI was scored as less than 10% (0), from 10 to 25% (1), from 26 to 50% (2), or greater than 50% (3). The final score was calculated of the addition of both partial scores. Results are as follows: As for the p53 protein immunoreactivity, CCC (2.4 ± 1.4) was a significantly higher value in comparison with CCSC (0) and MCIP (0.8 ± 0.4), respectively. As for the cyclin A immunoreactivity, CCC (2.8 ± 1.1) was a significantly higher value in comparison with CCSC (0) and MCIP (0.6 ± 0.5), respectively. CCSC and MCIP in EGBD are misunderstood as cellular atypia and structural atypia on occasion; but, as for results of the immunoreactivity scores of p53 protein and cyclin A in our study, it seemed that those biochemical characters proved that the biological activity level was low (or degenerative). The results of the current study demonstrated that the cytological immunoreactivity of nuclear findings by p53 and cyclin A appear to be more useful for the LBC assessment of endometrial lesions, especially for the discrimination of EGBD and G1. PMID:21954041

  16. Proximal patellar tendinosis and abnormalities of patellar tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To assess whether an association exists between patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. Design and patients. The MRI examinations of 630 patients (i.e. 860 knees) referred with anterior knee pain over a 4-year period were assessed in retrospect for the presence of patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. The images of the patients with patellar tendinosis were reviewed and the location within the patellar tendon was recorded. Results. There were 44 knees with proximal patellar tendinosis. Twenty-four of these were considered to have normal patellar tracking and 20 to have abnormal patellar tracking. In the group of 816 knees without proximal patellar tendinosis, 581 were considered to have normal patellar tracking and 235 knees to have abnormal patellar tracking. When the two groups were compared there was a statistically significant difference in the ratio of patients with and without abnormal tracking. Conclusion. In patients referred with anterior knee pain or suspected abnormal patellar tracking there is a significant association between proximal patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. (orig.)

  17. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  18. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Katsanos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To investigate the prevalence of electrocardiograph (ECG abnormalities in a cohort of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD followed up in a referral center and to compare them with ECG abnormalities in controls. PATIENTS-METHODS: We retrospectively studied surface ECGs from a random selected cohort of IBD patients with active disease and we compared them with ECGs from age and sex matched control individuals. The IBD cohort consisted in total of 34 patients, 22 males (aged 42.3±11.6 years and 12 females (aged 48.1±13.4 years. Twenty-seven patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC and 7 with Crohn’s disease (CD. Disease duration was 10.4±6.2 and 7.8± 4.9 years respectively. Control population consisted of 35 age and sex matched individuals (22 healthy and 13 with viral gastroenteritis. Two cardiologists analyzed ECGs throughout a standard protocol. Differential diagnosis of all abnormal ECGs was based on medical history, concomitant medication and co-morbidity. RESULTS: Twelve out of this 34-IBD patient cohort (35.2% and 13/35 (37.1% of control cohort were diagnosed with abnormal ECG’s (p=NS. In total 10 UC patients out of 27 (37% and 2 out of 7 (28.6% CD patients had evidence of some kind of ECG abnormality. Additionally, seven IBD patients had PR or QRS or QT interval at the upper normal limit. There was no significant difference in the number of ECG abnormalities between patients and controls but we recorded some qualitative differences between them regarding the type of abnormalities. DISCUSSION: In a cohort of IBD patients with active disease we recorded ECG abnormalities commonly found in healthy individuals and in individuals with viral gastroenteritis. Although we were not able to demonstrate significant differences in overall numbers, we showed qualitative differences regarding types of ECG abnormalities between patients and controls.

  19. Silica nanoparticle-based microfluidic immunosensor with laser-induced fluorescence detection for the quantification of immunoreactive trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seia, Marco A; Stege, Patricia W; Pereira, Sirley V; De Vito, Irma E; Raba, Julio; Messina, Germán A

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a silica nanoparticle-based immunosensor with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) as a detection system. The proposed device was applied to quantify the immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) in cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening. A new ultrasonic procedure was used to extract the IRT from blood spot samples collected on filter papers. After extraction, the IRT reacted immunologically with anti-IRT monoclonal antibodies immobilized on a microfluidic glass chip modified with 3-aminopropyl functionalized silica nanoparticles (APSN-APTES-modified glass chips). The bounded IRT was quantified by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-IRT antibody (anti-IRT-Ab) using 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine (ADHP) as enzymatic mediator. The HRP catalyzed the oxidation of nonfluorescent ADHP to highly fluorescent resorufin, which was measured by LIF detector, using excitation lambda at 561nm and emission at 585nm. The detection limits (LODs) calculated for LIF detection and for a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit were 0.87 and 4.2ngml(-1), respectively. The within- and between-assay variation coefficients for the LIF detection procedure were below 6.5%. The blood spot samples collected on filter papers were analyzed with the proposed method, and the results were compared with those of the reference ELISA method, demonstrating a potential usefulness for the clinical assessment of IRT during the early neonatal period. PMID:24983904

  20. Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermel E.E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life. At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-µm sections at 120-µm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 ± 206, N = 6; 1020 ± 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively, paraventricular (584 ± 85, N = 8; 682 ± 62, N = 9 or periventricular (743 ± 118, N = 7; 990 ± 158, N = 7 nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.

  1. Prognostic Significance of Immunoreactive Neutrophil Elastase in Human Breast Cancer: Long-Term Follow-Up Results in 313 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Akizuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We have measured the concentration of immunoreactive neutrophil elastase (ir-NE in the tumor extracts of 313 primary human breast cancers. Sufficient time has elapsed, and we are now ready to analyze its prognostic value in human breast cancer. METHODS: ir-NE concentration in tumor extracts was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that enables a rapid measurement of both free-form ir-NE and the ?1-protease inhibitor-complexed form of ir-NE. We analyzed the prognostic value of this enzyme in human breast cancer in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Patients with breast cancer tissue containing a high concentration of ir-NE had poor survival compared to those with a low concentration of ir-NE at the cutoff point of 9.0 µg/100 mg protein (P = .0012, which had been previously determined in another group of 49 patients. Multivariate stepwise analysis selected lymph node status (P= .0004; relative risk = 1.46 and ir-NE concentration (P= .0013; relative risk = 1.43 as independent prognostic factors for recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor ir-NE concentration is an independent prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer who undergo curative surgery. This enzyme may play an active role in tumor progression that leads to metastasis in human breast cancer.

  2. Estrogen alters hippocampal dendritic spine shape and enhances synaptic protein immunoreactivity and spatial memory in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenjian; Brake, Wayne G.; Romeo, Russell D.; Dunlop, John C.; Gordon, Marisa; Buzescu, Rodica; Magarinos, Ana Maria; Allen, Patrick B.; Greengard, Paul; Luine, Victoria; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogen (E) treatment induces axospinous synapses in rat hippocampus in vivo and in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro. To better explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we have established a mouse model for E action in the hippocampus by using Golgi impregnation to examine hippocampal dendritic spine morphology, radioimmunocytochemistry (RICC) and silver-enhanced immunocytochemistry to examine expression levels of synaptic protein markers, and hippocampal-dependent object-placement memory as a behavioral readout for the actions of E. In ovariectomized mice of several strains and F1 hybrids, the total dendritic spine density on neurons in the CA1 region was not enhanced by E treatment, a finding that differs from that in the female rat. E treatment of ovariectomized C57BL/6J mice, however, caused an increase in the number of spines with mushroom shapes. By RICC and silver-enhanced immunocytochemistry, we found that the immunoreactivity of postsynaptic markers (PSD95 and spinophilin) and a presynaptic marker (syntaxin) were enhanced by E treatment throughout all fields of the dorsal hippocampus. In the object-placement tests, E treatment enhanced performance of object placement, a spatial episodic memory task. Taken together, the morphology and RICC results suggest a previously uncharacterized role of E in synaptic structural plasticity that may be interpreted as a facilitation of the spine-maturation process and may be associated with enhancement of hippocampal-dependent memory. PMID:14766964

  3. Plasticity of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocyte size and number in visual cortex of rats reared in complex environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirevaag, A M; Greenough, W T

    1991-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated effects of postweaning rearing environment complexity on astrocyte nuclei. This study examined the effects of rearing for 10, 30 or 67 days in a complex (EC), social (SC) or individual cage (IC) environment upon glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive astrocytes of the occipital cortex. EC rats exposed to their environment for 30 days or longer had a greater surface density of astrocytic processes (Sv) than SC or IC rats. The greater surface density of EC cortical astrocytes appeared to be due to an increase in the mean size of astrocytes after 30 days of differential environmental exposure. After 67 days of environmental exposure, however, the greater Sv appeared to be due to an increase in the number of astrocytes. Astrocytic plasticity appears to develop rather slowly during exposure to a complex environment and appears to involve two stages. The first stage is a hypertrophy of existing astrocytes and the second stage involves proliferation or retarded death of astrocytes. These changes may be related to brain information processing since astrocytes are known modulators of synaptic activity and may possibly serve as regulators of synaptic density. PMID:2054618

  4. Retinal ganglion cell projections to the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and visual midbrain: bifurcation and melanopsin immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Immunoreactivity and trypsin sensitivity of recombinant virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagoudanavar, S H; Hosamani, M; Tamil, R P; Sreenivasa, B P; Chandrasekhar, B K; Venkataramanan, R

    2015-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. Development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. There is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (VLPs), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. The VLPs are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. The objective of the present study was to express the VLPs of FMD virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1 (IND 63/72), using baculovirus system and characterize them for antigenic structure. The VLPs expressed in insect cells showed immunoreactivity similar to inactivated cell culture FMDV. Further they possess similar sensitivity to trypsin as the inactivated cell culture FMDV, suggesting that trypsin-sensitive antigenic sites could be similarly arranged. Our findings suggest that the FMD VLPs have similar antigenic conformational feature like the wild type virus, thus supporting their utility in development of non-infectious FMD vaccines and/or diagnostic assays. PMID:25790055

  6. Rift Valley Fever Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins: Recombinant Protein Expression and Immunoreactivity Against Antisera from Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faburay, Bonto; Wilson, William; McVey, D. Scott; Drolet, Barbara S.; Weingartl, Hana; Madden, Daniel; Young, Alan; Ma, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes the structural proteins nucleoprotein (N), aminoterminal glycoprotein (Gn), carboxyterminal glycoprotein (Gc), and L protein, 78-kD, and the nonstructural proteins NSm and NSs. Using the baculovirus system, we expressed the full-length coding sequence of N, NSs, NSm, Gc, and the ectodomain of the coding sequence of the Gn glycoprotein derived from the virulent strain of RVFV ZH548. Western blot analysis using anti-His antibodies and monoclonal antibodies against Gn and N confirmed expression of the recombinant proteins, and in vitro biochemical analysis showed that the two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, were expressed in glycosylated form. Immunoreactivity profiles of the recombinant proteins in western blot and in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against a panel of antisera obtained from vaccinated or wild type (RVFV)-challenged sheep confirmed the results obtained with anti-His antibodies and demonstrated the suitability of the baculo-expressed antigens for diagnostic assays. In addition, these recombinant proteins could be valuable for the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). PMID:23962238

  7. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.)

  8. Ubiquitin and microtubule-associated protein tau immunoreactivity each define distinct structures with differing distributions and solubility properties in Alzheimer brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, G.; Chau, V.

    1988-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal polypeptides as well as the protein ubiquitin have been implicated as components of the neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer disease. We have examined the relationship of ubiquitin staining with immunoreactivity for some of these proteins, both in frozen sections and in cytoskeletal fractions of Alzheimer brain material. We noted (i) antibodies specific solely for neurofilament and glial filament proteins failed to stain the fibrils stainable with ubiquitin. Tau-1 antibod...

  9. Simultaneous release by bradykinin of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivities from capsaicin-sensitive structures in guinea-pig heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Geppetti, P.; Maggi, C. A.; Perretti, F.; Frilli, S.; Manzini, S.

    1988-01-01

    Both bradykinin and capsaicin infusion evoked a marked increase in the outflow of substance P- (SP-LI) and calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI) from guinea-pig isolated, perfused heart. After acute exposure to capsaicin in vitro, or in hearts taken from animals pretreated in vivo with capsaicin, bradykinin failed to induce any release. The positive chronotropic effect of bradykinin was reduced after acute capsaicin administration. The effect of bradykinin in the gui...

  10. NPY and VGF Immunoreactivity Increased in the Arcuate Nucleus, but Decreased in the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius, of Type-II Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saderi, Nadia; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Avendaño-Pradel, Rafael; Basualdo, Maria del Carmen; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Chávez-Macías, Laura; Roblera, Juan E. Olvera; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2012-01-01

    Ample animal studies demonstrate that neuropeptides NPY and ?-MSH expressed in Arcuate Nucleus and Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius, modulate glucose homeostasis and food intake. In contrast is the absence of data validating these observations for human disease. Here we compare the post mortem immunoreactivity of the metabolic neuropeptides NPY, ?MSH and VGF in the infundibular nucleus, and brainstem of 11 type-2 diabetic and 11 non-diabetic individuals. ?-MSH, NPY and tyrosine hydroxylas...

  11. Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein A4 (beta-amyloid) immunoreactivity in genetically transformed cells: implications for a cellular model of Alzheimer amyloidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Marotta, C A; Chou, W G; Majocha, R E; Watkins, R.; LaBonne, C; Zain, S. B.(State University of New York, 12222, Albany, New York, USA)

    1989-01-01

    Among the major obstacles to clarifying molecular mechanisms involved in amyloid metabolism in Alzheimer disease has been the unavailability of laboratory models for this uniquely human disorder. The present studies were aimed at establishing genetically engineered cell lines that overexpress amyloid immunoreactivity and that may be relevant to amyloid accumulation in the Alzheimer disease brain. We used cloned amyloid cDNA that contains a region encoding A4 (beta-polypeptide) amino acids alo...

  12. Impact of chronic catheterization and automated blood sampling (Accusampler) on serum corticosterone and fecal immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites and immunoglobulin A in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, F; Björk, N; Carlsson, H-E; Mayo, S; Hau, J

    2004-01-01

    Jugular catheters were inserted in nine male rats under general isofluorane anesthesia and the catheters were connected to a commercially available computerized blood sampling device (Accusampler). Blood samples (150 microl) were collected every 4 h during the first 24 h after surgery and every 12 h during the following 72 h until 94 h after surgery, when the animals were killed. All fecal pellets were collected at blood sampling. Serum corticosterone and fecal concentrations of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were quantified by ELISAs. In blood, high corticosterone concentrations (>200 ng/ml) were recorded in the first samples obtained after surgery, but the concentrations decreased steadily during the day and became cyclical, showing a diurnal variation with high levels during evenings and low levels in the mornings. The automatic blood sampling itself did not result in recordable increases in serum corticosterone concentrations. The time delay between the presence of elevated corticosterone levels in blood and in feces was approximately 12 h. Fecal immunoreactive corticosterone metabolite levels remained elevated during the 94 h study period after surgery. The fecal concentrations of IgA showed substantial between-animal variation and decreased non-significantly after the surgery. Like serum corticosterone, fecal IgA showed a diurnal variation in amounts excreted, in this case with high values in the morning and low values in the evening. The concentrations of fecal corticosterone and IgA were negatively correlated in samples obtained before surgery but no correlation existed after surgery. This indicates that fecal immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites, but not IgA, constitute a good marker of acute stress. For immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites as well as for IgA, the concentration in feces correlated well with total excretion, making single fecal samplings usable as a measure of total secretion. PMID:14709153

  13. Effects of Ca2+ channel blockers on cortical hypoperfusion and expression of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity after cortical spreading depression in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimazawa, M.; Hara, H.; Watano, T.; Sukamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. We examined the effects of two Ca2+ channel blockers, lomerizine (KB-2796) and flunarizine, on the cortical hypoperfusion (measured by hydrogen clearance and laser Doppler flowmetry methods) and cortical c-Fos-like immunoreactivity that follow KCl-induced cortical spreading depression in anaesthetized rats. Cortical spreading depression was induced by application of 1 M KCl for 30 s to the cortical surface, 3.0 mm posterior to the area of cerebral blood flow measurement. 2. In control rats...

  14. Changes in Otx2 and Parvalbumin Immunoreactivity in the Superior Colliculus in the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-? Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Urakawa, Susumu; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Li, Ruixi; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Peng, Yuwen; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC), a relay nucleus in the subcortical visual pathways, is implicated in socioemotional behaviors. Homeoprotein Otx2 and ? subunit of receptors of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR-?) have been suggested to play an important role in development of the visual system and development and maturation of GABAergic neurons. Although PDGFR-?-knockout (KO) mice displayed socio-emotional deficits associated with parvalbumin (PV-)immunoreactive (IR) neurons, their anatom...

  15. Early in vivo changes in calcium ions, oxidative stress markers, and ion channel immunoreactivity following partial injury to the optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan; Kilburn, Matthew R; Shaw, Jeremy A; Bartlett, Carole A; Harvey, Alan R; Dunlop, Sarah A; Fitzgerald, Melinda

    2012-03-01

    CNS injury is often localized but can be followed by more widespread secondary degenerative events that usually result in greater functional loss. Using a partial transection model in rat optic nerve (ON). we recently demonstrated in vivo increases in the oxidative stress-associated enzyme MnSOD 5 min after injury. However, mechanisms by which early oxidative stress spreads remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed ion distributions, additional oxidative stress indicators, and ion channel immunoreactivity in ON in the first 24 hr after partial transection. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS), we demonstrate changes in the distribution pattern of Ca ions following partial ON transection. Regions of elevated Ca ions in normal ON in vivo rapidly decrease following partial ON transection, but there is an increasingly punctate distribution at 5 min and 24 hr after injury. We also show rapid decreases in catalase activity and later increases in immunoreactivity of the advanced glycation end product carboxymethyl lysine in astrocytes. Increased oxidative stress in astrocytes is accompanied by significantly increased immunoreactivity of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 and aquaporin 4 (AQP4). Taken together, the results indicate that Ca ion changes and oxidative stress are early events following partial ON injury that are associated with changes in GluR1 AMPA receptor subunits and altered ionic balance resulting from increased AQP4. PMID:22038561

  16. Neuronal damage and plasticity identified by Growth-associated protein-43, Glial fibrillary acidic protein and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity after hypoglycemia induced brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar HEERA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The regional expression of protein associated with axonal elongation and glial plasticity, such as growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, was examined using immunohistochemistry from hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum regions of insulin-induced severe hypoglycemic young adult rats. Within the dentate gyrus, decreased immunoreactivity for GAP-43 was observed in inner blade (IB and outer blade (OB regions following hypoglycemic injury. Similarly hypothalamus and granule cell layer of cerebellum regions also shows decrease in immunoreactivity for GAP-43 as compared with starved rat. The increased immunoreactivity for GFAP in dentate gyrus, hypothalamus and granule cell layer of cerebellum shows that neurodegenerative changes (like neuronal atrophy, membrane permeability changes in these regions activate astrocytes during insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia. Increased numbers of PSA-NCAM-labeled neurons were observed in the granule cell layer of cerebellum from hypoglycemic young adult rat as compare to starved rat. It may be possible that these changes in PSA-NCAM expression in hypoglycemic young adult rat make the cerebellum region more restrictive to histopathologic alterations as observed in hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex region during hypoglycemic injury.

  17. Immunoreactivity to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptors in the trout pancreas: a further endocrine-exocrine relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lucini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is a growth factor promoting the survival of several neuronal populations in the central, peripheral and autonomous nervous system. Outside the nervous system, GDNF functions as a morphogen in kidney development and regulates spermatogonial differentiation. GDNF exerts its roles by binding to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (GFR a1, which forms a heterotetramic complex with rearranged during transfection (RET proto-oncogene product, a tyrosine kinase receptor. In this study we report the presence of GDNF-, RET- and GFRa1-like immunoreactivity in the pancreas of juvenile trout. GDNF immunoreactivity was observed in the islet cells, while GFRa1- and RET- immunoreactivity was observed in the exocrine portion. These findings suggest a paracrine role of GDNF towards exocrine cells showing GDNF receptors GFRa1 and RET. The relationship could reflect physiological interactions, as previously indicated in mammalian pancreas, and/or a trophic role by endocrine cells on exocrine parenchyma, which shows a conspicuous increase during animal growth.

  18. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1983. The report states that for this report period, there were three abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed by the NRC to operate. The first involved a main feedwater line break due to water hammer. The second involved management and procedural control deficiencies. The third involved failure of the automatic reactor trip system. There were no abnormal occurrences for the other NRC licensees. There were six abnormal occurrences at Agreement State licensees. One involved an individual who ingested and was contaminated by radioactive material. Four involved lost or stolen radioactive sources. One involved radioactive contamination of a metals production facility

  19. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...of, or findings suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings...examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  20. Analysis and treatment for abnormal loss of RCP motor lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RCP, as the 'heat' of a nuclear power plant, is one of the vital equipment of RCP Coolant System, ensuring the regular coolant flow for core heat transmission. In this case, it is a must to ensure the safety and reliability of RCP operation. During the 11th cycle of QNPC, the lubrication of RCP-A motor lost abnormally. To ensure normal operation of the motor, we performed 5 emergency lubrication-feeding. Against this problem, we analyzed the cause of abnormal lubrication loss of RCP motor and the transfer pathway for oil-gas, and according to the analysis we performed RCP motor disassembly maintenance during refueling overhaul. The paper discusses the specific treatment for the abnormal lubrication loss. It was testified useful to control the abnormal lubrication loss by the specific treatment. (authors)

  1. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 108 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period July through September 1991. The report discusses two abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities, neither involving a nuclear power plant. One involved radiation exposures to members of the public from a lost radioactive source and the other involved a medical diagnostic midadministration. The Agreement States reported no abnormal occurrences. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  2. Identification of abnormal operating conditions and intelligent decision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuliang; Jiang, Junjie; Su, Hongye; Chu, Jian

    2011-12-01

    In earth pressure balance (EPB) shield construction, the "plastic flow state" is difficult to form using the soil dug in the capsule because it can cause three abnormal operating conditions, including occlusion, caking in the capsule, and spewing at the outlet of the dump device. These abnormal operating conditions can, in turn, trigger failure in tunneling, cutter-device damage, and even catastrophic incidents, such as ground settlement. This present paper effectively integrates the mechanism of abnormal operating conditions and knowledge of soil conditioning, and establishes a uniform model of identifying abnormal conditions and intelligent decision support system based on the belief rule-base system. The model maximizes knowledge in improving the soil, construction experience, and data to optimize the model online. Finally, a numerical simulation with specific construction data is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  3. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Outcomes Similar Among Hospitals, Synthetic Steroids Increase Cancer Recurrence Risk, Mentally ... to cholesterol problems such as an abnormal thyroid. So it is very important that we see ...

  4. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October-December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 to December 31, 1987. The report states that for this reporting period, these was one abnormal occurrence at the NRC licensees; the item involved the suspension of license of an oil and gas well tracer company for noncompliance with NRC regulatory requirements. There were no abnormal occurrences report by the Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  5. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561

  6. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to have abnormal cholesterol on a routine blood test. Dr. Mosca is Professor of Medicine and the ... unaware of. Your doctor might recommend a stress test or other types of technology that we have ...

  7. Changing pattern of epithelial cell abnormalities using revised Bethesda system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta T. Mufti

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: The percentage of abnormal PS is increasing (14.52% over the last decade. This increase is evident by different studies conducted across Saudi Arabia. Under present circumstances the need for mass screening.

  8. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are unaware of. Your doctor might recommend a stress test or other types of technology that we ... If I had abnormal cholesterol on routine blood work... Dr. Mosca: If I was noted to have ...

  9. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence of an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period October through December 1991. Five abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. None of these occurrences involved a nuclear power plant. Four involved medical therapy misadministrations and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. The NRC's Agreement States reported three abnormal occurrences. Two involved exposures of non-radiation workers and one involved a medical therapy misadministration. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  10. Mechanisms of abnormal brain development leading to transsexualism (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kurilo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overview of national and world literature on sexual autoidentification is analyzed. Prenatal brain development abnormalities leading to transsexualism are discussed. Results of own cytogenetic analysis, ??genesis and spermat?genesis examination are reported.

  11. Abnormal duodenal loop demonstrated by X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of dyspeptic symptoms has previously been correlated with the shape of the duodenal loop in patients with X-ray-negative dyspepsia. An abnormal duodenal loop was associated with a significantly higher incidence of symtoms provoked by meals, vomiting, regurgitations, heartburn, and the irritable bowel syndrome. 89% of these patients (26 patients with a normal duodenal loop and 39 patients with abnormal duodenal loop) were available for a 5-year follow-up study of symptomatic outcome. The incidence of symptoms provoked by meals was still significantly higher in patients with an abnormal duodenal loop, and there was also a significant difference concerning symptomatic outcome. Approximately 75% of the patients with a normal duodenal loop had improved, and 25% had unchanged clinical conditions. Approximately 50% of the patients with an abnormal duodenal loop had improved, and 50% had an unchanged or even deteriorated clinical condition

  12. Evaluation of Extraosseous Abnormalities Detected in Bone Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the clinical and diagnostic significance of incidental findings of renal and urinary tract abnormalities, and extraosseous uptake of bone scans. The authors analyzed bone scans using 99mTc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) in 1238 cases of bone disease from April, 1979 to March, 1981. The results obtained were as follows. 1. Total extraosseous abnormalities were 112 cases (9%), which include 64 cases (5%) of renal and urinary tract abnormalities and 48 cases (4%) of other extraosseous uptakes. 2. Renal and urinary tract abnormalities were 32 cases (50%) of obstruction, 14 cases (22%) of nonvisualization, 6 cases of space occupying lesion in kidney, 8 cases of kidney displacement and 4 cases of urinary bladder deformities. 3. Other extraosseous uptake were 16 cases (33%) of body fluid collection, 15 cases of tumor uptake, 9 cases of free pertechnetate uptake and 8 others.

  13. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1992. Five abnormal occurrences are discussed in this report. One involved an extended loss of high-head safety injection capability at the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant. The other four involved medical misadministrations (three therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating a previously reported abnormal occurrence

  14. Incidental sinus abnormalities in 256 patients referred for brain MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanaati H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging abnormalities in the paranasal sinuses are regularly noted as incidental findings on MRI, however, little is known about their prevalence in the Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to classify these findings in the paranasal sinuses as seen on MRI and to investigate the prevalence, according to site and type of paranasal abnormality. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the T2-weighted axial MRI of 256 patients with diseases unrelated to their paranasal sinuses were reviewed between May 2002 and June 2003. The findings were categorized according to the anatomic location and the imaging characteristics of the abnormality. The abnormalities recorded included total sinus opacification, mucoperiosteal thickening >5mm, air fluid levels and retention cysts or polyps. Unilateral or bilateral involvement and septal deviation were also noted. A sinus was considered normal if it was fully aerated and no soft-tissue density was apparent within the cavity. Results: Among our cases, 111 (43.5% were male and 145 (56.5% were female. Of these patients, abnormalities in one or more of the sinus groups were found in 110 subjects (42.9%, 55.5% of which were male and 44.5% were female (P=0.001. Maxillary sinus abnormalities were observed in 66.4% of the patients, while ethmoid sinus abnormalities were found in 63.6%. Of the ethmoid abnormalities, 21% were found in the anterior section, 9% in the middle ethmoid, and 8% in the posterior ethmoid. The most common abnormality found was mucosal thickening. Among our cases, 23.4% had septal deviation, which was significantly higher among those with sinusitis (29% versus 19.1%; P<0.01. Of those patients with sinus involvement, 16% were involved in the sphenoid sinus and 5% in the frontal sinus. The results obtained from the patients with sinus abnormality revealed that 85% suffered from cough, nasal obstruction, runny nose, facial pain and post nasal discharge and 24% had been diagnosed with chronic sinusitis by physician. Conclusion: Our results showed that there was a high rate of incidental abnormalities in the paranasal sinuses that are unrelated to the patient's presenting problems.

  15. Liver abnormalities and liver membrane autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kushimoto, K; Nagasawa, K; Ueda, A.; Mayumi, T.; Ishii, Y; Yamauchi, Y; Tada, Y; Tsukamoto, H.; Kusaba, T; Niho, Y

    1989-01-01

    The hepatic involvement of 57 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was studied with special reference to liver membrane autoantibody (LMA). Liver abnormalities were found predominantly in patients with active SLE (27/48 (56%) in active SLE v 3/20 (15%) in inactive SLE). They were, however, rather mild or moderate and tended to disappear as the disease activity of SLE decreased. In this respect the liver abnormalities observed in this study differed from those in patients with lupo...

  16. Spectrum of lithium induced thyroid abnormalities: a current perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kibirige Davis; Luzinda Kenneth; Ssekitoleko Richard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Lithium is an integral drug used in the management of acute mania, unipolar and bipolar depression and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. Thyroid abnormalities associated with treatment with lithium have been widely reported in medical literature to date. These include goitre, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis. This current review explores the varied thyroid abnormalities frequently encountered among patients on lithium therapy and their management,...

  17. Prediction of cytogenetic abnormalities with gene expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yiming; Zhang, Qing; Stephens, Owen; Heuck, Christoph J.; Tian, Erming; Sawyer, Jeffrey R.; Cartron-mizeracki, Marie-astrid; Qu, Pingping; Keller, Jason; Epstein, Joshua; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities are important clinical parameters in various types of cancer, including multiple myeloma. We developed a model to predict cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma using gene expression profiling and validated it by different cytogenetic techniques. The model has an accuracy rate up to 0.89. These results provide proof of concept for the hypothesis that gene expression profiling is a superior genomic method for clinical molecular diagnosis and/or pr...

  18. Prediction of cytogenetic abnormalities with gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Zhang, Qing; Stephens, Owen; Heuck, Christoph J; Tian, Erming; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Cartron-Mizeracki, Marie-Astrid; Qu, Pingping; Keller, Jason; Epstein, Joshua; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D

    2012-05-24

    Cytogenetic abnormalities are important clinical parameters in various types of cancer, including multiple myeloma. We developed a model to predict cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma using gene expression profiling and validated it by different cytogenetic techniques. The model has an accuracy rate up to 0.89. These results provide proof of concept for the hypothesis that gene expression profiling is a superior genomic method for clinical molecular diagnosis and/or prognosis. PMID:22496154

  19. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor sym...

  20. Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski, Jakob; Paus, Sebastian; Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subje...

  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michelle L

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common medical condition with several causes. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics published guidelines in 2011 to develop universally accepted nomenclature and a classification system. In addition, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recently updated recommendations on evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding and indications for endometrial biopsies. This article reviews both medical and surgical treatments, including meta-analysis reviews of the most effective treatment options. PMID:25681843

  2. Study of endometrial pathology in abnormal uterine bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Jignasha Parmar; Deepak Desai

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the commonest presenting symptom in gynaecology outpatient department. Endometrial sampling could be effectively used as a first diagnostic step in AUB, although at times, its interpretation could be quite challenging to the practicing obstetrician. This study was done to evaluate histopathology of endometrium for identifying endometrial causes of AUB. We observed the incidence of various pathology in different age groups presenting with abnormal...

  3. Classification of Heart Abnormalities Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor; Fadzlul Rahimi Ahmad Bustami; Ruzelita Ngadiran

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes heart abnormalities classification procedures utilising features obtained from Time-Frequency Spectogram and Image Processing Techniques. Enhanced spatial features of time-frequency spectogram were extracted and fed into a Multi-Layer, Back-Propagation trained Artificial Neural Network and the corresponding abnormalities were classified. A confidence factor is calculated for every classification result indicating the degre of belief that the classification is true. It was...

  4. Strain induced abnormal grain growth in nickel base superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzolo, Nathalie; Agnoli, Andrea; Souai, Nadia; Bernacki, Marc; Loge?, Roland E.

    2013-01-01

    Under certain circumstances abnormal grain growth occurs in Nickel base superalloys during thermomechanical forming. Second phase particles are involved in the phenomenon, since they obviously do not hinder the motion of some boundaries, but the key parameter is here the stored energy difference between adjacent grains. It induces an additional driving force for grain boundary migration that may be large enough to overcome the Zener pinning pressure. In addition, the abnormal grains have a hi...

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of abnormal grain growth in two dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Rene; Soucail, Michele; Kubin, Ladislas

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal grain growth in the presence of second phase particles is investigated with the help of a two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation. An aggregate of equiaxed grains is considered with constant grain boundary energy and mobility. The only driving force accounted for stems from the grain boundary curvature. The process of abnormal grain growth is investigated as a function of two governing parameters, the initial degree of pinning of the matrix grains by the particles an...

  6. A study of cluster behavioral abnormalities in down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya Ranjan; Sanyal Debasish; Roy Krishna; Saha Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Background :The behavioral phenotype in Down syndrome follows a characteristic pattern. Aims: To find the incidence of behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome, to compare these findings with other causes of intellectual disability and normal population and to cluster these abnormalities. Settings :One hundred forty mentally challenged people attending at tertiary care set up and from various non-governmental organizations were included in the study. Patients from both rural and urban set up...

  7. Adrenal Gland Abnormality Detection Using Random Forest Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Saiprasad, Ganesh; Chang, Chein-i; Safdar, Nabile; Saenz, Naomi; Siegel, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal abnormalities are commonly identified on computed tomography (CT) and are seen in at least 5 % of CT examinations of the thorax and abdomen. Previous studies have suggested that evaluation of Hounsfield units within a region of interest or a histogram analysis of a region of interest can be used to determine the likelihood that an adrenal gland is abnormal. However, the selection of a region of interest can be arbitrary and operator dependent. We hypothesize that segmenting the entir...

  8. Role of diagnostic hysteroscopy in abnormal uterine bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Singh; Bal Krishan Taneja; Prem Singh,; Ravinder Ahlawat

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to correlate hysteroscopic findings with histopathological findings in women with abnormal uterine bleeding and to study the accuracy of hysteroscopy in abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Settings: tertiary care hospital. Study design: prospective study. A prospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala, from May 2011 to September 2013. 100 cases were selected for this study from patie...

  9. Using Ensemble Models in the Histological Examination of Tissue Abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Crocetti, Giancarlo; Coakley, Michael; Dressner, Phil; Kellum, Wanda; Lamin, Tamba

    2015-01-01

    Classification models for the automatic detection of abnormalities on histological samples do exists, with an active debate on the cost associated with false negative diagnosis (underdiagnosis) and false positive diagnosis (overdiagnosis). Current models tend to underdiagnose, failing to recognize a potentially fatal disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of automatically identifying abnormalities in tissue samples through the use of an e...

  10. Fearful asymmetry: An analysis of pre-earnings abnormal returns

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Joa?o Tiago Mira Duarte

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the returns on a set of different strategies, which are based on the sign and magnitude of the pre-earnings announcement return for a group of US stocks and for some international markets which provides an additional measure of robustness. We also propose a new methodology for the evaluation of abnormal returns. Evidence is found that stocks with negative abnormal returns on the days prior to the earnings announcement have a subsequent higher return on th...

  11. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities, congenital abnormalities and transfusion syndrome in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Kiil, C

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of screening for structural malformations in twins and the outcome of screening for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) among monochorionic twins through a number of ultrasound scans from 12 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Enrolled into this prospective multicenter observational study were women with twin pregnancies diagnosed before 14 + 6 gestational weeks. The monochorionic pregnancies were scanned every second week until 23 weeks in order to rule out early TTTS. All pregnancies had an anomaly scan in week 19 and fetal echocardiography in week 21 that was performed by specialists in fetal echocardiography. Zygosity was determined by DNA analysis in all twin pairs with the same sex. RESULTS: Among the 495 pregnancies the prenatal detection rate for severe structural abnormalities including chromosomal aneuploidies was 83% by the combination of a first-trimester nuchal translucency scan and the anomaly scan in week 19. The incidence of severe structural abnormalities was 2.6% and two-thirds of these anomalies were cardiac. There was no significant difference between the incidence in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, nor between twins conceived naturally or those conceived by assisted reproduction. The incidence of TTTS was 23% from 12 weeks until delivery, and all those monochorionic twin pregnancies that miscarried had signs of TTTS. CONCLUSION: Twin pregnancies have an increased risk of congenital malformations and one out of four monochorionic pregnancies develops TTTS. Ultrasound screening to assess chorionicity and follow-up of monochorionic pregnancies to detect signs of TTTS, as well as malformation screening, are therefore essential in the antenatal care of twin pregnancies.

  12. A novel cerebello-ocular syndrome with abnormal glycosylation due to abnormalities in dolichol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A; Cantagrel, Vincent; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Schoots, Jeroen; van Rooij, Arno; Huijben, Karin; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Connie M A; Jongmans, Marjolein C J; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bluemel, Peter; Adamowicz, Maciej; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Ng, Bobby G; Bergman, Jorieke E H; van Bokhoven, Hans; Körner, Christian; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Willemsen, Michel A; Gleeson, Joseph G; Lehle, Ludwig; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Lefeber, Dirk J

    2010-11-01

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and slowly progressive ophthalmological symptoms are common features in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. In a group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I with unknown aetiology, we have previously described a distinct phenotype with severe, early visual impairment and variable eye malformations, including optic nerve hypoplasia, retinal coloboma, congenital cataract and glaucoma. Some of the symptoms overlapped with the phenotype in other congenital disorders of glycosylation type I subtypes, such as vermis hypoplasia, anaemia, ichtyosiform dermatitis, liver dysfunction and coagulation abnormalities. We recently identified pathogenic mutations in the SRD5A3 gene, encoding steroid 5?-reductase type 3, in a group of patients who presented with this particular phenotype and a common metabolic pattern. Here, we report on the clinical, genetic and metabolic features of 12 patients from nine families with cerebellar ataxia and congenital eye malformations diagnosed with SRD5A3-congenital disorders of glycosylation due to steroid 5?-reductase type 3 defect. This enzyme is necessary for the reduction of polyprenol to dolichol, the lipid anchor for N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dolichol synthesis is an essential metabolic step in protein glycosylation. The current defect leads to a severely abnormal glycosylation state already in the early phase of the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. We detected high expression of SRD5A3 in foetal brain tissue, especially in the cerebellum, consistent with the finding of the congenital cerebellar malformations. Based on the overlapping clinical, biochemical and genetic data in this large group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation, we define a novel syndrome of cerebellar ataxia associated with congenital eye malformations due to a defect in dolichol metabolism. PMID:20852264

  13. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. The report, the twelfth in the series, covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1978. The following incidents or events in that time period were determined by the Commission to be significant and reportable: (1) There was one abnormal occurrence at the 68 nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The event involved insulation failures in containment electrical penetrations. (2) There were no abnormal occurrences at fuel cycle facilities (other than nuclear power plants). (3) There were no abnormal occurrences at other license facilities. (4) There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State Licensee. The event involved an overexposure of a radiographer. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  14. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report, the thirteenth in the series, covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1978. The following incidents or events in that period were determined by the Commission to be significant and reportable: (1) There were two abnormal occurrences at the 69 nuclear power plants licensed to operate. One involved a generic concern pertaining to fuel assembly control rod guide tube integrity. The second involved an overexposure of two radiation protection technicians. (2) There were no abnormal occurrences at fuel cycle facilities (other than nuclear power plants). (3) There were no abnormal occurrences at other licensee facilities. (4) There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an agreement state. The event involved willful violations of regulations and subsequent termination of a license. This report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  15. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July-September 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1986. The report states that for this reporting period, there were four abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The events were (1) a differential pressure switch problem in safety systems at LaSalle facility, (2) abnormal cooldown and depressurization transient at Catawba Unit 2, (3) significant safeguards deficiencies at Wolf Creek and Fort St. Vrain, and (4) significant deficiencies in access controls at River Bend Station. There was one abnormal occurrence at the other NRC licensees; it involved a therapeutic medical misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State; it involved a therapeutic medical misadministration. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  16. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1989. For this reporting period, there were five abnormal occurrences. One abnormal occurrence took place at a licensed nuclear power plant and involved significant deficiencies associated with the containment recirculation sump at the Trojan facility. The other four abnormal occurrences took place under other NRC-issued licenses: the first involved a medical diagnostic misadministration; the second involved a medical therapy misadministration; the third involved a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; and the fourth involved a significant breakdown and careless disregard of the radiation safety program at three of a licensee's manufacturing facilities. The Agreement States reported no abnormal occurrences during the reporting period. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences. 17 refs

  17. Characterization of abnormal grain coarsening in Alloy 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the phenomenon of abnormal grain coarsening (AGC or “exploded grains” has been known to occur in Alloy 718 industrial forgings there is still no satisfactory explanation for it. For this reason, detailed microstructure analysis has been carried out in normal and abnormal regions. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD was employed to determine grain size, boundary distribution and measure stored energy, while backscattered imagining in a FEGSEM was used to measure ? precipitate size and morphology. It was found that abnormal regions show almost 3 times as many twin boundaries compared to a normal region. In addition, the ? phase morphologies differ very significantly when comparing these two different regions. Normal regions display ? phase with a plate like nature, whereas in abnormal regions, ? particles appear to be more spherical. Furthermore, there are clear indications of differences in ? volume fractions between the two regions. Whilst in normal regions the ? phase is found predominantly at grain boundaries, in abnormal regions the ? is also found within grains. Both backscatter images and EBSD scans indicate that there are higher levels of stored energy within the normal regions, compared to the abnormal regions. These observations suggest that AGC occurs in regions where dynamic recrystallization does not happen and where recrystallization during solution heat treatment is affected by the local particle distribution.

  18. Age-dependent loss of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor immunoreactive cells in the supraoptic hypothalamus is reduced in calorically restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaie, F; Saeed, O; Garan, S A; Voelker, M A; Gouw, A M; Freitag, W; Sternberg, H; Timiras, P S

    2006-11-01

    Both life-long caloric restriction (CR) and the suppression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling reliably extend the mammalian lifespan. The neuroendocrine system, regulated by the hypothalamus, remains the most convincing site of action for both these modes of life extension. Yet, determining whether CR actions are mediated by the modulation of neuroendocrine IGF-1 signaling remains unclear. Of the hypothalamic nuclei that express the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), the cells of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) display some of the most robust IGF-1R expression. Taking IGF-1R immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to IGF-1, we counted IGF-1R immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the SON of young-ad-libitum fed (young-Al, 6 weeks), old-ad-libitum fed (Old-Al, 22 months), and old-calorie-restricted (Old-CR, 22 months) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each section of supraoptic hypothalamus. Results show that while the total number of cells in the SON of ad-libitum fed mice does not change significantly with aging, a significant reduction in IGF-1R immunoreactive cells does occur in ad-libitum fed mice with aging. In contrast to this, calorie restricted mice show both a decline in the total number of cells and IGF-1R immunoreactive cells in the SON with age, but with the decrease in the latter being notably attenuated when compared to the degree of loss seen in ad-libitum fed mice. Thus, while CR induces greater loss in the total number of cells in the SON with age, it reduces the degree of age-dependent loss seen in IGF-1R expressing cells. As a result, when compared to Old-AL mice, the SON of Old-CR mice displays a greater proportion of IGF-1R cells and thus possibly enhanced IGF-1 sensitivity with aging. PMID:17034982

  19. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Immunoreactive Neuronal Elements in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Chicken Spinal Cord: With Special Reference to Their Relationship with the Tachykinin-containing Central Axon Terminals in Synaptic Glomeruli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synaptic glomeruli that involve tachykinin-containing primary afferent central terminals are numerous in lamina II of the chicken spinal cord. Therefore, a certain amount of noxious information is likely to be modulated in these structures in chickens. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry with confocal and electron microscopy to investigate whether neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)-expressing neuronal elements are in contact with the central primary afferent terminals in synaptic glomeruli of the chicken spinal cord. We also investigated which neuronal elements (axon terminals, dendrites, cell bodies) and which neurons in the spinal cord possess NK-1R, and are possibly influenced by tachykinin in the glomeruli. By confocal microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivities were seen in a variety of neuronal cell bodies, their dendrites and smaller fibers of unknown origin. Some of the NK-1R immunoreactive profiles also expressed GABA immunoreactivities. A close association was observed between the NK-1R-immunoreactive neurons and tachykinin-immunoreactive axonal varicosities. By electron microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivity was seen in cell bodies, conventional dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites in laminae I and II. Among these elements, dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites made contact with tachykinin-containing central terminals in the synaptic glomeruli. These results indicate that tachykinin-containing central terminals in the chicken spinal cord can modulate second-order neuronal elements in the synaptic glomeruli

  20. Histone H1.2 is a substrate for denitrase, an activity that reduces nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Yasuyuki; Saeki, Makio; Kamisaki, Yoshinori; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Several reports have described an activity that modifies nitrotyrosine-containing proteins and their immunoreactivity to nitrotyrosine Abs. Without knowing the product of the reaction, this new activity has been called a “denitrase.” In those studies, some nonspecific proteins, which have multiple tyrosine residues, e.g., albumin, were used as a substrate. Therefore, the studies were based on an unknown mechanism of reaction and potentially a high background. To solve these problems, one of the most important things is to find a more suitable substrate for assay of the enzyme. We developed an assay strategy for determining the substrate for denitrase combining 2D-gel electrophoresis and an on-blot enzyme assay. The resulting substrate from RAW 264.7 cells was Histone H1.2, an isoform protein of linker histone. Histone H1.2 has only one tyrosine residue in the entire molecule, which ensures the exact position of the substrate to be involved. It has been reported that Histones are the most prominent nitrated proteins in cancer tissues. It was also demonstrated that tyrosine nitration of Histone H1 occurs in vivo. These findings lead us to the idea that Histone H1.2 might be an intrinsic substrate for denitrase. We nitrated recombinant and purified Histone H1.2 chemically and subjected it to an on-blot enzyme assay to characterize the activity. Denitrase activity behaved as an enzymatic activity because the reaction was time dependent and was destroyed by heat or trypsin treatment. The activity was shown to be specific for Histone H1.2, to differ from proteasome activity, and to require no additional cofactors. PMID:12719531

  1. Muscarinic and opioid receptor modulation of release of [Met5-enkephalin immunoreactive material and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrogradely perfused bovine adrenal glands were stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh) and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP), with or without: hexamethonium (C-6), atropine, imipramine, methacholine, pilocarpine, etorphine, or diprenorphine. Stimulation by either ACh DMPP resulted in an increased release of both [Met5]-enkephalin immunoreactive material (ME-IRM) and catecholamines as measured by radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, respectively. ACh (5 x 10-5 M) and DMPP (5 x 10-5 M) stimulated the release of norepinephrine greater than the release of epinephrine. The action of these agents was antagonized by C-6(5 x 10-4 M). Atropine (5 x 10-7 M) antagonized the action of ACh to stimulate norepinephrine and MI-IRM release while having no effect on DMPP-stimulated release. Imipramine (5 x 10-6 M) had no effect on either ACh or DMPP-stimulated release. Methacholine (4 x 10-5 M) potentiated the DMPP (1 x 10-5 M) stimulation of ME-IRM and catecholamine release; pilocarpine (4 x 10-5 M) significantly potentiated only the DMPP-stimulated release of norepinephrine. Pilocarpine (5 x 10-5 M) and muscarine (5 x 10-5 M) had no effect on the secretion of MI-IRM and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland. Etorphine (5 x 10-7 M) significantly decreased the ACh and DMPP stimulation ME-IRMreased the ACh and DMPP stimulation ME-IRM and catecholamine release. The activity of a muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the bovine adrenal medulla in stimulus-secretion coupling has been controversial. The binding of 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate to chromaffin granule membranes was investigated to further characterize muscarinic receptors in the bovine adrenal gland

  2. Topography and associations of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neuronal systems in the human diencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudás, B; Mihály, A; Merchenthaler, I

    2000-11-27

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) potentiates the effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on luteinizing hormone secretion in several species, including human. In addition to the pituitary sites, the interactions of the NPY and LHRH systems may involve diencephalic loci. However, the morphologic basis of this putative communication has not yet been elucidated in the human brain. To discover interaction sites, the distribution and connections of LHRH and NPY-immunoreactive (IR) neuronal elements in the human hypothalamus were investigated by means of light microscopic single- and double-label immunocytochemistry. NPY-IR perikarya and fibers were found to be widely distributed in the ventral diencephalon, with high densities in the preopticoseptal, periventricular, and tuberal regions. Small neuronal cell groups were infiltrated with a dense network of varicose NPY-IR fibers in the lateral preoptic area. The LHRH-IR perikarya were located mainly in the preopticoseptal region, diagonal band of Broca, lamina terminalis, and periventricular and infundibular nuclei. A few LHRH-IR neurons and fibers were scattered in the mamillary region. The overlap between the NPY and LHRH systems was apparent in the periventricular, paraventricular, and infundibular nuclei. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry showed NPY-IR axon varicosities in contact with LHRH-IR perikarya and main dendrites. The putative innervation of LHRH neurons by NPY-IR fibers was also seen in 1-microm-thick plastic sections and with confocal laser scanning microscope, thus further supporting the functional impact of NPY-IR terminals on LHRH-IR neurons. The present findings suggest that the hypophysiotropic LHRH-synthesizing neurons may be innervated by intrahypothalamic NPY-IR fibers. Confirmation by ultrastructural analysis would demonstrate that the LHRH system in the human hypothalamus is regulated by NPY, as has been demonstrated in nonhuman species. PMID:11056466

  3. Intra-VTA adenosine A1 receptor activation blocks morphine stimulation of motor behavior and cortical and limbic Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gary B; Leite-Morris, Kimberly A; Klufas, Michael A; Fan, Wenying

    2009-01-14

    Drugs of abuse produce psychomotor stimulation as one of their characteristic behavioral effects. Single administration of opiates stimulates motor activity via effects on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Adenosine A(1) receptor agonists inhibit VTA GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission and are predicted to alter the behavioral effects of opiates. This study examined the effects of intra-VTA administration of selective adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dimethylxanthine (CPT) on morphine-induced motor stimulation in C57BL/6 mice. It also examined the effects of CPA on morphine's activation of VTA neurons projecting to limbic and cortical regions including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), anterior cingulate cortex (ACg) and prelimbic cortex (PrL) via quantitation of immediate-early gene c-Fos protein in these regions. Mice received subcutaneous morphine and intra-VTA administration of CPA and then automated motor activity was measured. Morphine treatment induced both motor activity and Fos immunoreactivity in the NAc, ACg and PrL suggesting that behavioral stimulation is produced by neural activation in these regions. Intra-VTA CPA administration produced a dose-dependent inhibition of morphine-induced motor stimulation and blocked c-Fos induction in all three regions. Intra-VTA CPT treatment had no effects on motor activity or on morphine-induced motor stimulation. VTA adenosine A(1) agonist inhibition of morphine's effects on motor activity and of neural activation of VTA projections suggests that these neurons and their regulation are critical to morphine's stimulant effects. Adenosine A(1) receptor agonists and purinergic modulators may represent useful treatment approaches for blocking the behavioral effects of opiates. PMID:19027733

  4. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H

    2010-01-01

    Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function, was suggested as potential target for transmitting immune-mediated repression of the gonadotropic axis during acute inflammation, and yet key facets of such a phenomenon remain ill defined. Using lipopolysaccharide S (LPS)-treated male rats as model of inflammation, we document herein the pattern of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity (IR) and hormonal responses to kisspeptin during the acute inflammatory phase. LPS injections induced a dramatic but transient drop of serum LH and testosterone levels. Suppression of gonadotropic function was associated with a significant decrease in kisspeptin-IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center for the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Our results also suggest that suppressed gonadotropic function following inflammatory challenges might involve a reduction in absolute responsiveness to kisspeptin that is independent of the anorectic effects of inflammation.

  5. Distribution of orexin-A immunoreactive neurons and their terminal networks in the brain of the rock hyrax, Procavia capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Fuxe, Kjell; Manger, Paul R

    2011-03-01

    The present study describes the distribution of orexin-A immunoreactive neurons and terminal networks in relation to the previously described catecholaminergic, cholinergic and serotonergic systems within the brain of the rock hyrax, Procavia capensis. Adult female rock hyrax brains were sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with an antibody to orexin-A. The staining revealed that the neurons were mainly located within the hypothalamus as with other mammals. The orexinergic terminal network distribution also resembled the typical mammalian plan. High-density orexinergic terminal networks were located within regions of the diencephalon (e.g. paraventricular nuclei), midbrain (e.g. serotonergic nuclei) and pons (locus coeruleus), while medium density orexinergic terminal networks were evident in the telencephalic (e.g. basal forebrain), diencephalic (e.g. hypothalamus), midbrain (e.g. periaqueductal gray matter), pontine (e.g. serotonergic nuclei) and medullary regions (e.g. serotonergic and catecholaminergic nuclei). Although the distribution of the orexinergic terminal networks was typically mammalian, the rock hyrax did show one atypical feature, the presence of a high-density orexinergic terminal network within the anterodorsal nucleus of the dorsal thalamus (AD). The dense orexinergic innervation of the AD nucleus has only been reported previously in the Nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus and Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, both diurnal mammals. It is possible that orexinergic innervation of the AD nucleus might be a unique feature associated with diurnal mammals. It was also noted that the dense orexinergic innervation of the AD nucleus coincided with previously identified cholinergic neurons and terminal networks in this particular nucleus of the rock hyrax brain. It is possible that this dense orexinergic innervation of the AD nucleus in the brain of the rock hyrax may act in concert with the cholinergic neurons and/or the cholinergic axonal terminals, which in turn may influence arousal states and motivational processing. PMID:21126575

  6. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TeresaAMilner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS, males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals.

  7. MUC5B Promoter Polymorphism and Interstitial Lung Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunninghake, Gary M.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Okajima, Yuka; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Nishino, Mizuki; Araki, Tetsuro; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Kurugol, Sila; Ross, James C.; Estépar, Raúl San José; Murphy, Elissa; Steele, Mark P.; Loyd, James E.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Schwartz, David A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A common promoter polymorphism (rs35705950) in MUC5B, the gene encoding mucin 5B, is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. It is not known whether this polymorphism is associated with interstitial lung disease in the general population. METHODS We performed a blinded assessment of interstitial lung abnormalities detected in 2633 participants in the Framingham Heart Study by means of volumetric chest computed tomography (CT). We evaluated the relationship between the abnormalities and the genotype at the rs35705950 locus. RESULTS Of the 2633 chest CT scans that were evaluated, interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%). Participants with such abnormalities were more likely to have shortness of breath and chronic cough and reduced measures of total lung and diffusion capacity, as compared with participants without such abnormalities. After adjustment for covariates, for each copy of the minor rs35705950 allele, the odds of interstitial lung abnormalities were 2.8 times greater (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 3.9; P<0.001), and the odds of definite CT evidence of pulmonary fibrosis were 6.3 times greater (95% CI, 3.1 to 12.7; P<0.001). Although the evidence of an association between the MUC5B genotype and interstitial lung abnormalities was greater among participants who were older than 50 years of age, a history of cigarette smoking did not appear to influence the association. CONCLUSIONS The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was found to be associated with interstitial lung disease in the general population. Although this association was more apparent in older persons, it did not appear to be influenced by cigarette smoking. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005121.) PMID:23692170

  8. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jaroudi Dania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Since cervical cancer is reportedly the seventh most frequent cancer in women in Saudi Arabia and the eighth most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 and 44 years, we wanted to determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile women attending the reproductive medicine unit of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Methods : This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. A Pap smear was done for 241 of 493 (48.9% subfertile women from January 2008 through February 2009. Results : The Pap smear was normal in 166 of 241 patients (67.9%, abnormal in 71 (29.5%, and unsatisfactory for evaluation in 4 (1.7%. According to the revised Bethesda system, epithelial cell abnormality was found in 7 (2.9%, inflammation in 55 (22.8%, and infection in 9 (3.7% patients. Epithelial cell abnormalities were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (n=3, 42.8%, atypical squamous cells of high grade (ASC-H (n=1, 14.3%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL (n=2, 28.5%, and glandular cell abnormalities (AGS (n=1, 14.3%. Conclusion : The high prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology in our subfertile women accentuates the need for screening in patients eligible for in vitro fertilization. In addition, a well-organized screening program for cervical cell abnormalities at the national level should be implemented to allow identification of subfertile women at risk so that potentially life-saving measures can be undertaken early.

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim You

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated cytogenetic results occurring with first trimester pregnancy loss, and assessed the type and frequency of chromosomal abnormalities after assisted reproductive treatment (ART and compared them with a control group. We also compared the rate of chromosomal abnormalities according to infertility causes in ICSI group. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was made of all patients who were referred to the Genetics Laboratory of Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center from 2005 to 2009 because of clinical abortion with a subsequent dilation and evacuation (D&E performed, and patients were grouped by type of conception as follows: conventional IVF (in vitro fertilization (n = 114, ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection (n = 140, and control (natural conception or intrauterine insemination [IUI] (n = 128. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results A total 406 specimens were referred to laboratory, ten abortuses were excluded, and in 14 cases, we did not get any spontaneous metaphase, chromosomal constitutions of 382 specimens were successfully obtained with conventional cytogenetic methods. Overall, 52.62% of the miscarriages were found to be cytogenetically abnormal among all patients, the frequency was 48.4% in the control group, 54.3% of miscarriages after ICSI and 55.3% after conventional IVF (p = 0.503. The most prevalent abnormalities were autosomal trisomy, however, nine (11.69% sex chromosome aneuploidy were noted in the ICSI group vs. four (6.45% and two (3.23% cases in the conventional IVF group and control group. We compared chromosomal abnormalities of miscarriages after ICSI according to infertility factor. 55.71% underwent ICSI due to male factors, 44.29% due to non-male factors. ICSI group having male factors showed significantly higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities than ICSI group having non-male factors (65.8% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.009, odds ratio = 1.529, 95% CI = 1.092-2.141. Conclusions There is no increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities due to ART was found with the exception of a greater number of sex chromosomal abnormalities in the ICSI group with male factor infertility. Therefore, these alterations could be correlated with the underlying parental risk of abnormalities and not with the ICSI procedure itself.

  10. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April-June 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1986. The report states that for this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. One involved an out of sequence control rod withdrawal and the other involved a boiling water reactor emergency core cooling system design deficiency. There were five abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. Two involved willful failure to report diagnostic medical misadministrations to the NRC; one involved a therapeutic medical misadministration; and two involved diagnostic medical misadministrations. There were two abnormal occurrences reported by the Agreement States. One involved an uncontrolled release of krypton-85 to an unrestricted area; the other involved a contaminated radiopharmaceutical used in diagnostic administrations. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  11. Hematological abnormalities in adult patients with Down's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLean, S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding hematological abnormalities in adults with Down\\'s syndrome (DS). AIMS: We aimed to characterize hematological abnormalities in adult patients with DS and determine their long-term significance. METHODS: We retrospectively studied a cohort of nine DS patients referred to the adult hematology service in our institution between May 2001 and April 2008. Data collected were: full blood count (FBC), comorbidities, investigations performed, duration of follow-up and outcome to most recent follow-up. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 26 months (9-71). Of the nine patients, two had myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) at presentation. Of these, one progressed, with increasing marrow failure, and requiring support with transfusions and gCSF. The remaining eight patients, with a variety of hematological abnormalities including leukopenia, macrocytosis, and thrombocytopenia, had persistently abnormal FBCs. However there was no evidence of progression, and no patient has evolved to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CONCLUSIONS: MDS is a complication of DS and may require supportive therapy. However, minor hematological abnormalities are common in adult DS patients, and may not signify underlying marrow disease.

  12. Incidence of legal abortions and congenital abnormalities in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual and monthly distributions of congenital abnormalities and pregnancy outcomes as confounding factors were evaluated in Hungary in reflection of the accident at the Chernobyl reactor. The different congenital abnormality entities and the components of fetal radiation syndrome did not show a higher rate after the Chernobyl accident in the data-set of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. Among confounding factors, the rate of induced abortions did not increase after the Chernobyl accident in Hungary. In the 9th month after the peak of public concern (May and June, 1986) the rate of livebirths decreased. Three indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies as indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations, Down syndrome as an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations, and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities as indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. Diagnoses were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the sporadic cases were evaluated. The analysis of indicator conditions did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effect of the Chernobyl accident in Hungary

  13. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  14. Myelin vs axon abnormalities in white matter in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

    2015-04-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ. PMID:25409595

  15. Spinal osteoblastoma: relationship between paravertebral muscle abnormalities and scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To illustrate the variety of paravertebral muscle abnormalities as seen on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in association with spinal osteoblastomas and correlate the findings with the presence of scoliosis. Design. In a retrospective study the clinical notes, plain radiographic, CT and/or MRI features were reviewed for the presence of scoliosis and paravertebral muscle abnormality (either inflammation or atrophy). Patients. Twelve patients (7 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 17 years were studied. Three lesions occurred in the cervical spine, five in the thoracic spine and four in the lumbar spine. Results and conclusions. Nine patients had scoliosis. All patients with a thoracic or lumbar lesion and scoliosis (n=8) had an associated abnormality of the paravertebral muscles (usually atrophy with fatty replacement). One patient with a lumbar lesion and no scoliosis had normal paravertebral muscles. One patient with a cervical lesion had thoracic scoliosis but no muscle abnormality in the cervical region, while two patients with cervical lesions and no scoliosis showed muscle abnormalities. The results support the clinical hypothesis that scoliosis in patients with spinal osteoblastoma is due to paravertebral muscle spasm, although this would not appear to be the case for cervical lesions. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1990. for this reporting period, there were 10 abnormal occurrences. One involved the loss of vital ac power with a subsequent reactor coolant system heat-up at the Vogtle Unit 1 nuclear power plant during shutdown. The event was investigated by an NRC Incident Investigation Team (IIT). The other nine abnormal occurrences involved nuclear material licensees and are described in detail under other NRC-issued licenses: eight of these involved medical therapy misadministrations; the other involved the receipt of an unshielded radioactive source at Amersham Corporation in Burlington, Massachusetts. The latter event was also investigated by an NRC IIT. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence

  17. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 to December 31, 1986. The report states that for this reporting period, there were three abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The events were (1) loss of low pressure service water systems at Oconee, (2) degraded safety systems due to incorrect torque switch settings on Rotors motor operators at Catawba and McGuire Nuclear Stations, and (3) a secondary system pipe break resulting in the death of four persons at Surry Unit 2. There were six abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. One involved release of americium-241 inside a waste storage building at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; three involved medical misadministrations, one therapeutic and two diagnostic; one involved a suspension of license for servicing teletherapy and radiography units; and one involved an immediately effective order modifying license and order to show cause issued to an industrial radiography company. There were no abnormal occurrences reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  18. Fibrillin abnormalities and prognosis in Marfan syndrome and related disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, T.; Furthmayr, H.; Francke, U.; Gasner, C. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)

    1995-08-28

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem autosomal-dominant disorder, is characterized by mutations of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene and by abnormal patterns of synthesis, secretion, and matrix deposition of the fibrillin protein. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of fibrillin protein abnormalities in the diagnosis of MFS, we studied dermal fibroblasts from 57 patients with classical MFS, 15 with equivocal MFS, 8 with single-organ manifestations, and 16 with other connective tissue disorders including homocystinuria and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism was identified in 70 samples that were classified into four different groups based on quantitation of fibrillin synthesis and matrix deposition. Significant correlations were found for phenotypic features including arachnodactyly, striae distensae, cardiovascular manifestations, and fibrillin groups II and IV, which included 70% of the MFS patients. In addition, these two groups were associated with shortened {open_quotes}event-free{close_quotes} survival and more severe cardiovascular complications than groups I and III. The latter included most of the equivocal MFS/single manifestation patients with fibrillin abnormalities. Our results indicate that fibrillin defects at the protein level per se are not specific for MFS, but that the drastically reduced fibrillin deposition, caused by a dominant-negative effect of abnormal fibrillin molecules in individuals defined as groups II and IV, is of prognostic and possibly diagnostic significance. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1987. The report states that for this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The first involved a significant degradation of plant safety at Oyster Creek; and the second involved a steam generator tube rupture at North Anna Unit 1. There were four abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. The first involved a therapeutic medical misadministration; the second involved a failure to report diagnostic medical misadministrations; the third involved the suspension of a well logging company's license; and the fourth involved the suspension of an industrial radiography company's license. There were two abnormal occurrences reported by an Agreement State (New York). The first involved a hospital contamination incident and the second involved therapeutic medical misadministrations. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  20. Retinal Image Analysis for Abnormality Detection-An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthikeyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Classification plays a major role in retinal image analysis for detecting the various abnormalities in retinal images. Classification refers to one of the mining concepts using supervised or unsupervised learning techniques. Approach: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the common complications of diabetes. Unfortunately, in many cases, the patient is not aware of any symptoms until it is too late for effective treatment. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy results in retinal disorders that include microaneursyms, drusens, hard exudates and intra-retinal micro-vascular abnormalities. Results: Automatic methods to detect various lesions associated with diabetic retinopathy facilitate the opthalmologists in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Abnormal retinal images fall into four different classes namely Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR, Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO, Choroidal Neo-Vascularization Membrane (CNVM and Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR.. Conclusion: In this study, we have analysed the various methodologies for detecting the abnormalities in retinal images automatically along with their merits and demerits and proposed the new framework for detection of abnormalities using Cellular Neural Network (CNN.

  1. Role of diagnostic hysteroscopy in abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to correlate hysteroscopic findings with histopathological findings in women with abnormal uterine bleeding and to study the accuracy of hysteroscopy in abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Settings: tertiary care hospital. Study design: prospective study. A prospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala, from May 2011 to September 2013. 100 cases were selected for this study from patients who were admitted with history of abnormal uterine bleeding. Hysteroscopic examination was done in all patients post-menstrually, whenever possible, except in those cases where menstrual cycles were grossly irregular or patients came with continuous bleeding per vaginum. The patients then underwent dilatation and curettage and curettings was sent for histopathological examination. The correlation between findings on hysteroscopy and histopathological examination was done. Results: On hysteroscopy, 48% of the patients had either proliferative or secretory picture which was grouped as normal. The rest 52% of patients had some abnormality. Hyperplasia was the most common finding which was seen in 26% patients. The other findings included endometrial polyp 8%, myoma or myomatous polyp 7%, atrophic endometrium 4%, endometrial carcinoma, misplaced IUCD, and synechiae comprising 2% each and tubercular endometritis 1%. Conclusions: Hysteroscopy has a high sensitivity i.e. it can supplement and enhance the accuracy of tissue diagnosis. So, hysteroscopically directed biopsy would be an ideal procedure in abnormal uterine bleeding wherever facilities are available. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 544-551

  2. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1988. For this reporting period, there were three abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate: a potential for common mode failure of safety-related components due to a degraded instrument air system at Fort Calhoun; common mode failures of main steam isolation valves at Perry Unit 1; and a cracked pipe weld in a safety injection system at Farley Unit 2. There were six abnormal occurrences at other NRC licensees: a diagnostic medical misadministration; a breakdown in management controls at the Georgia Institute of Technology reactor facility; release of polonium-210 from static elimination devices manufactured by the 3M Company; two therapeutic medical misadministrationS; and a significant widespread breakdown in the radiation safety program at Case Western Reserve University research laboratories. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving radiation injury to two radiographers. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences. 43 refs

  3. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1?hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors. PMID:25307782

  4. Immunoreactivity in pulmonary echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, T.; Dakov, I.; Kosturkova, M.; Tenev, S.; Dimitrov, A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison was made of the diagnostic value of five immunological tests—complement fixation (CF), latex agglutination (LA), bentonite flocculation (BF), passive haemagglutination (PHA), and intradermal (ID)—in patients operated on for pulmonary echinococcosis. The sensitivity of all five tests was significantly lower in the patients with pulmonary echinococcosis than in a comparable group with liver echinococcosis. Some 252 patients with miscellaneous nonhydatid diseases and parasitic infections were also tested; nonspecific reactions were highest in the ID and CF tests and lowest in the LA and BF tests. None of the serological tests was significantly more sensitive than the others, although the CF test was somewhat less sensitive and therefore probably has the least diagnostic value in pulmonary echinococcosis. The ID test showed a significantly higher sensitivity than any of the serological tests. The difficulties encountered in the immunodiagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease are discussed and it is recommended that at least two serological methods (PHA and either LA or BF) and the ID test should be used in each case. PMID:317251

  5. Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid

    2011-05-01

    Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

  6. Investment Strategy Based on Aviation Accidents: Are there abnormal returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an investment strategy based on aviation accidents can generate abnormal returns. We performed an event study considering all the aviation accidents with more than 10 fatalities in the period from 1998 to 2009 and the stock market performance of the respective airlines and aircraft manufacturers in the days after the event. The tests performed were based on the model of Campbell, Lo & MacKinlay (1997 for definition of abnormal returns, by means of linear regression between the firms’ stock returns and the return of a market portfolio used as a benchmark. This enabled projecting the expected future returns of the airlines and aircraft makers, for comparison with the observed returns after each event. The result obtained suggests that an investment strategy based on aviation accidents is feasible because abnormal returns can be obtained in the period immediately following an aviation disaster.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, R.; Rodriguez, E.; Requejo, I.; Fernandez, R. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruma (Spain); Raposo, I. [Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain)

    1998-05-01

    This article outlines the ability of MR imaging in the detection and presurgical evaluation of congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta (CATA). Congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta may be found incidentally on chest radiographs in patients without symptoms, or it can be associated with clinical findings which are very variable depending on the association with congenital cardiac malformations or vascular ring. When CATA is suspected as the cause of anomalies in the mediastinum in asymptomatic patients, confirmation of the abnormality should be by MR imaging allowing precise evaluation of the thoracic aorta and origin of the principal arteries. When CATA is considered because clinical findings indicate coarctation of the aorta, vascular ring or associated cardiac disorder, evaluation with ultrasound can be complemented by MR, which in most cases will replace the diagnostic catheterization. (orig.) With 12 figs., 24 refs.

  8. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined

  9. Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes by trajectory cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shifu; Zhang, Zhijiang; Zeng, Dan; Shen, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes has been a challenge due to volatility of the definitions for both normality and abnormality, the small number of pixels on the target, appearance ambiguity resulting from the dense packing, and severe inter-object occlusions. A novel framework was proposed for the detection of unusual events in crowded scenes using trajectories produced by moving pedestrians based on an intuition that the motion patterns of usual behaviors are similar to these of group activity, whereas unusual behaviors are not. First, spectral clustering is used to group trajectories with similar spatial patterns. Different trajectory clusters represent different activities. Then, unusual trajectories can be detected using these patterns. Furthermore, behavior of a mobile pedestrian can be defined by comparing its direction with these patterns, such as moving in the opposite direction of the group or traversing the group. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm could be used to reliably locate the abnormal events in crowded scenes.

  10. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  11. Abnormal transient analysis by using PWR plant simulator, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes results of abnormal transient analysis by using a PWR plant simulator. The simulator is on the basis of an existing 822MWe power plant with 3 loops, and designed to cover wide range of plant operation from cold shutdown to full power at EOL. In the simulator, malfunctions are provided for abnormal conditions of equipment failures, and in this report, 26 kinds of malfunctions for primary system were simulated. The abnormal conditions are primary coolant pump trip, pressurizer relief valve and heater failure, rod control system failure and detector failures of pressure, temperature and level. Transient behavior and annunciators caused by added malfunctions are observed and discussed. Simulated responses were reasonable, and dynamic characteristics of chemical and volume control system and residual heat removal system were obtained for long term transient. (author)

  12. Motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GianlucaEsposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs represent a complex group of behaviorally defined conditions with core deficits in social communication and the presence of repetitive and restrictive behaviors. To date, neuropathological studies have failed to identify pathognomonic cellular features for ASDs and there remains a fundamental disconnection between the complex clinical aspects of ASDs and the underlying neurobiology. Although not listed among the core diagnostic domains of impairment in ASDs, motor abnormalities have been consistently reported across the spectrum. In this perspective article, we summarize the evidence that supports the use of motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for ASDs. We argue that because these motor abnormalities do not directly depend on social or linguistic development, they may serve as an early disease indicator. Furthermore, we propose that stratifying patients based on motor development could be useful not only as an outcome predictor and in identifying more specific treatments for different ASDs categories, but also in exposing neurobiological mechanisms.

  13. Multimodal evoked potential abnormalities in patients with Wilson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ili? Tihomir V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the following functional systems: somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP, visual evoked potentials (VEP, and event related potentials (ERP, in twenty patients with Wilson's disease (WD. VEP and SSEP abnormalities were discovered in S patients respectively (40%, whereas ERP were either absent or, in the case of 10 patients (50%, had significantly prolonged P-300 latencies. Taken together, at least one evoked potential abnormality was discovered in 17 patients (85%]. Only in 3 patients (15%, involving either the isolated hepatic type of disease or short illness duration of the neurological type, were normal evoked potential findings observed. Our findings suggest the usefulness of multimodal evoked potential abnormalities in the evaluation of subclinical manifestations in patients with WD.

  14. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period April through June 1993, and discusses four abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities, three involving medical brachytherapy misadministrations and one involving a research reactor that operated without a safety system. One pool irradiation facility contamination event, two medical misadministrations (one ''sodium iodide'' and one brachytherapy), and one industrial radiographer overexposure event that were reported by NRC Agreement States are also discussed. The report also contains information updating one previously reported abnormal occurrence and information on three other events of interest

  15. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntaner, L. [Department of Radiology, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]|[Avda Alejandro Rossello 27, E-07002 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Perez-Ferron, J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Herrera, M. [Department of Radiology, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Rosell, J. [Department of Genetics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Taboada, D. [Clinica Femenia, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Climent, S. [Department of Pediatrics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    1997-08-01

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  16. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs

  17. Mixed pattern matching-based traffic abnormal behavior recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng

    2014-01-01

    A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity. PMID:24605045

  18. Hypothalamic resistin immunoreactivity is reduced by obesity in the mouse: co-localization with alpha-melanostimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Wilkinson, Diane; Wiesner, Glen; Morash, Barbara; Ur, Ehud

    2005-01-01

    Resistin is a new adipokine expressed in mouse, rat and human adipose tissue. Resistin may be an important link between obesity and insulin resistance, though this controversial view is complicated by the discovery of multiple sites of resistin expression, including human macrophages, placenta and pancreas. In previous studies we demonstrated that the mouse hypothalamo-pituitary system was also a site of resistin production. Pituitary resistin is developmentally regulated, reduced in the ob/ob mouse and severely down-regulated by food deprivation (24 h). An unexpected finding was that hypothalamic resistin mRNA remained unaffected by fasting. The present experiments examined the localization and possible regulation of hypothalamic resistin protein. Using immunohistochemistry we observed a complex network of resistin+ fibres extending rostrally from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) to the preoptic area. Labelled cell bodies occurred only in the ARC and in a periventricular region of the dorsal hypothalamus. Hypothalamic resistin immunoreactivity (ir) was unaffected by fasting (48 h) or by a high fat diet, but the periventricular staining was greatly increased in the lactating mouse. Marked reductions in resistin+ fibres were seen in brain tissue from: (a) ob/ob mice, (b) young mice made underweight for their age by raising them in large litters (20 pups per litter) and (c) mice with hypothalamic lesions induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) or gold thioglucose (GTG). We speculate that the resistin-ir deficit in genetically obese mice, and in severely underweight mice, could be due to low or absent leptin. In contrast, though MSG- and GTG-treated mice have high levels of circulating leptin, in the presence of excessive visceral fat deposits, we hypothesize that damage to the ARC destroys the resistin+ cell bodies. This latter supposition led us to an additional hypothesis, that resistin-ir would be contained in neurons expressing the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. This proved to be correct. Double label immunofluorescence histochemistry revealed that alpha-MSH-ir, a marker for POMC neurons, was co-localized with resistin-ir. In conclusion, our data reveal a second example of an adipocytokine co-localized with a hypothalamic neuropeptide. We reported previously that leptin was co-localized with oxytocin and vasopressin. RT-PCR analysis confirmed that resistin mRNA is readily detectable in ARC, but further work is required to determine whether the resistin gene is expressed in POMC neurons or if resistin is specifically accumulated by these cells. Nonetheless, our data suggest that the hypothalamus is a target tissue for resistin. PMID:15809509

  19. Abnormal colposcopic images in patients with preinvasive cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Babovi?

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to determine frequency and to compare frequency of the abnormal colposcopic images in patients with low and high grade pre-invasive lesions of cervix.Methods: Study includes 259 patients, whom colposcopic and cytological examination of cervix was done. The experimental group of patients consisted of patents with pre-invasive low grade squamousintraepithelial lesion (LSIL and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, and the control group consisted of patients without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN.Results: In comparison to the total number of satisfactory fi ndings (N=259, pathological findings were registered in N=113 (43.6 % and abnormal colposcopic fi ndings in N=128 (49.4%. The study did notinclude patients with unsatisfactory fi nding N=22 (8.5%. Abnormal colposcopic image is present most frequently in older patients but there are no statistically important difference between age categories(Pearson Chi-Square 0.47, df -3, p=0.923. Frequency of abnormal colposcopic fi ndings (N=128 is the biggest in pathological cytological (N=113 and HSIL 58 (45.3%, LSIL 36 (28.1%. There is statisticallysignifi cant difference in frequency of abnormal colposcopic images in patients with low-grade in comparison to patients with high-grade pre-invasive cervix lesions (Chi-Square test, Pearson Chi-Square 117.14,df-12 p<0.0001.Conclusion: Thanks to characteristic colposcopic images, abnormal epithelium is successfully recognized, but the severity grade of intraepithelial lesion cannot be determined.

  20. Abnormal colposcopic images in patients with preinvasive cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Babovi?

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to determine frequency and to compare frequency of the abnormal colposcopic images in patients with low and high grade pre-invasive lesions of cervix.Methods: Study includes 259 patients, whom colposcopic and cytological examination of cervix was done. The experimental group of patients consisted of patents with pre-invasive low grade squamousintraepithelial lesion (LSIL and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, and the control group consisted of patients without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN.Results: In comparison to the total number of satisfactory fi ndings (N=259, pathological findings were registered in N=113 (43.6 % and abnormal colposcopic fi ndings in N=128 (49.4%. The study did notinclude patients with unsatisfactory fi nding N=22 (8.5%. Abnormal colposcopic image is present most frequently in older patients but there are no statistically important difference between age categories(Pearson Chi-Square 0.47, df -3, p=0.923. Frequency of abnormal colposcopic fi ndings (N=128 is the biggest in pathological cytological (N=113 and HSIL 58 (45.3%, LSIL 36 (28.1%. There is statisticallysignifi cant difference in frequency of abnormal colposcopic images in patients with low-grade in comparison to patients with high-grade pre-invasive cervix lesions (Chi-Square test, Pearson Chi-Square 117.14,df-12 pConclusion: Thanks to characteristic colposcopic images, abnormal epithelium is successfully recognized, but the severity grade of intraepithelial lesion cannot be determined.