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Sample records for abnormal sputum cytology

  1. Serum alpha-antitrypsin in patients with lung cancer or abnormal sputum cytology

    Harris, C.C.; Cohen, M.H.; Connor, R.; Primack, A.; Saccomanno, G.; Talamo, R.C.

    1976-10-01

    Scrum alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin Pi types and trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC) were measured in 72 patients with lung cancer and in 196 patients with abnormal sputum cytology but no clinical evidence of lung cancer to determine if a genetic deficiency of alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin (AAT) predisposes to lung cancer. The distributions of Pi types in these two groups of patients and healthy adults are similar. Serum TIC and AAT concentrations are elevated in lung cancer patients. However, patients with abnormal sputum cytology and no clinical lung cancer have normal levels of serum TIC and AAT. A genetic deficiency of AAT probably does not produce a state of increased susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of respiratory carcinogens such as tobacco smoke.

  2. Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology

    Saccomanno, G.

    2000-06-30

    ''Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology'' was funded by the Department of Energy to monitor the health effects of radon exposure and/or cigarette smoke on uranium workers from the Colorado Plateau. The resulting Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive and data base has been used as a source of information to prove eligibility for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act and as the source of primary data tissue for a subcontract and other collaborations with outside investigators. The latter includes a study of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in a non-smoking cohort of uranium miners (subcontract); a study of genetic markers for lung cancer susceptibility; and a study of {sup 210}Pb accumulation in the skull as a biomarker of radon exposure.

  3. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology

    Jéssica Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik. Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls. From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00, as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83. Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99, whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00. Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples.

  4. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized......" the cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...... the "before" to the "after" period. This increase was significantly higher for exposed than non-exposed women regarding contacts to GP, admissions to hospitals, and drug use. CONCLUSION: Women with abnormal cytology results constitute a selected group with a higher health care use than other women even before...

  5. The importance of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung lancer

    Introduction: Worldwide lung cancer is the leading cause of death. The incidence of lung cancer is increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Mortality is more than 90 % in diagnosed cases and it is directly related to the stage of disease so it is important to diagnose at an early stage. Sputum cytology is a definite way to diagnose lung cancer. It is cost effective, non-invasive, does not need any instrumentation and free of investigating complications. Objective: To study the role of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Study Setting: This study was conducted at the Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital - A tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Study Design: Cross sectional evidence based study. Materials and Methods: Ninety seven patients (80 males, 17 females) with radiological suspicion of malignancy were included in the study. Three Consecutive morning sputum samples were collected after deep coughing. Two smears were made of each specimen and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and papanicolaou. All the specimens were examined by a consultant cytohistopathologist. Results: A total of 97 patients (80 males and 17 females) with clinical and radiological suspicion of lung cancer were included in the study. The patient's ages ranged between 50 - 83 years with mean age of 66.5 +- 14.5 years. Sputum cytology was positive in 46 (45.3%) patients. Amongst males 41 (51.25%) have positive cytology, while in females 5 (29.41%) have positive sputum cytology. Out of 46 patients with positive cytology 37 (80.43%) patients (33 males and 04 females) have non small cell carcinomas while 09 (19.56%) patients (08 males and 01 female) have small cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Sputum cytology is a definite way of lung cancer detection. It is cost effective, non invasive and free of investigating complications. (author)

  6. Anxiety and depression in COPD patients and correlation with sputum and BAL cytology

    Tetikkurt Cuneyt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Anxiety and depression are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The degree of lung function may not explain anxiety and depression. The aim of our study was to assess the psychological aspects of COPD, to test the BODE index (a composite score of body mass, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise capacity, and to evaluate the association between atypical cytologic findings of sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and the pyschological components of the disease. Methods COPD was classsified according to the GOLD stages based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 in 60 stable patients. The BODE index was calculated for grading COPD. The Hospital anxiety and depression (HAD scale was used to appraise the anxiety and depression symptoms. Cytologic examination of sputum and BAL samples were performed in each patient. The cytologic findings were classified as normal, mild, moderate or severe atypia. Results The overall prevalance of anxiety and depression symptoms was 41.7% and 46.7% respectively. The prevalance of these symptoms increased with increasing BODE stages and correlated well with the severity of atypical BAL cytology results (p Conclusions We conclude that the BODE index is superior to GOLD stratification for explaining anxiety and depression symptoms in COPD. BAL cytologic findings, which reflect the distal parenchymal lung structure, correlated significantly with the presence of the anxiety and depression symptoms.

  7. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  8. The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.

    Flannelly, Grainne

    2010-02-01

    The management of women with abnormal cytology in pregnancy represents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for colposcopists. The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer). Following an initial assessment, careful follow-up is essential. This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium. The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.

  9. The effect of the synthetic retinoid etretinate on sputum cytology: results from a randomised trial.

    Arnold, A.M.; Browman, G.P.; Levine, M. N.; D'Souza, T.; Johnstone, B.; Skingley, P.; Turner-Smith, L.; Cayco, R.; Booker, L.; Newhouse, M

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory studies, and one previous uncontrolled trial, have suggested that retinoids may reverse bronchial atypia, a putatively premalignant condition. Sputum sampling is a simple, non-invasive method of assessing atypia. Smokers with at least a 15 pack-year history were screened for sputum atypia. One hundred and fifty subjects' were randomised to receive the synthetic retinoid etretinate 25 mg orally or identical placebo daily for 6 months. Compliance was measured by performing pill count...

  10. Cytological and transcript analyses reveal fat and lazy persister-like bacilli in tuberculous sputum

    Garton, Natalie J.; Simon J Waddell; Sherratt, Anna L; Su-Min Lee; Smith, Rebecca J.; Claire Senner; Jason Hinds; Kumar Rajakumar; Adegbola, Richard A.; Gurdyal S Besra; Butcher, Philip D.; Barer, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Every year, nearly nine million people develop tuberculosis—a contagious infection usually of the lungs—and about two million people die from the disease. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacteria that are spread in airborne droplets when people with the disease cough or sneeze. The symptoms of tuberculosis include a persistent cough, weight loss, and night sweats. Diagnostic tests include chest X-rays, the tuberculin skin test, and sputum ana...

  11. Direct microscopy versus sputum cytology analysis and bleach sedimentation for diagnosis of tuberculosis: a prospective diagnostic study

    Hepple Pamela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic options for pulmonary tuberculosis in resource-poor settings are commonly limited to smear microscopy. We investigated whether bleach concentration by sedimentation and sputum cytology analysis (SCA increased the positivity rate of smear microscopy for smear-positive tuberculosis. Methods We did a prospective diagnostic study in a Médecins Sans Frontières-supported hospital in Mindouli, Republic of Congo. Three sputum samples were obtained from 280 consecutive pulmonary tuberculosis suspects, and were processed according to WHO guidelines for direct smear microscopy. The remainder of each sputum sample was homogenised with 2.6% bleach, sedimented overnight, smeared, and examined blinded to the direct smear result for acid-fast bacilli (AFB. All direct smears were assessed for quality by SCA. If a patient produced fewer than three good-quality sputum samples, further samples were requested. Sediment smear examination was performed independently of SCA result on the corresponding direct smear. Positivity rates were compared using McNemar's test. Results Excluding SCA, 43.2% of all patients were diagnosed as positive on direct microscopy of up to three samples. 47.9% were diagnosed on sediment microscopy, with 48.2% being diagnosed on direct microscopy, sediment microscopy, or both. The positivity rate increased from 43.2% to 47.9% with a case definition of one positive smear (≥1 AFB/100 high power fields of three, and from 42.1% to 43.9% with two positive smears. SCA resulted in 87.9% of patients producing at least two good-quality sputum samples, with 75.7% producing three or more. Using a case definition of one positive smear, the incremental yield of bleach sedimentation was 14/121, or 11.6% (95% CI 6.5-18.6, p = 0.001 and in combination with SCA was 15/121, or 12.4% (95% CI 7.1-19.6, p = 0.002. Incremental yields with two positive smears were 5/118, or 4.2% (95% CI 1.4-9.6, p = 0.062 and 7/118, or 5.9% (95

  12. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    Livia Bravo Maia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was detected in 91.13%, 78.26% and 47.82% of the samples with cytological abnormalities and in 47.54%, 6.89% and 3.44% of the negative samples, respectively. High-risk HPV infection was significantly more frequent in anal samples with cytological abnormalities than in negative samples (P = 0.0005, Fisher′s test, particularly multiple high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.0001 and HPV 16 infection (P = 0.0002. Conclusions: High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infections are significantly associated with anal cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of HPV infection in anal cytological samples suggests that high-risk HPV detection has high sensitivity, but low specificity for detection of anal cytological abnormalities, but multiple high-risk HPV typing and HPV 16 typing have a lower sensitivity and high specificity. Results suggest that HPV typing may be useful as an adjunct to cytology to screen patients for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy.

  13. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    Livia Bravo Maia; Larissa Cardoso Marinho; Tânia Wanderley Paes Barbosa; Lara Franciele Ribeiro Velasco; Patrícia Godoy Garcia Costa; Fabiana Pirani Carneiro; Paulo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women) and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was d...

  14. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    do Socorro Nobre, Maria; Jacyntho, Claudia Marcia; Eleutério, José; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64). Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5%) had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR=2.46; p=0.03). In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR=2.81; p=0.02). This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer. PMID:27037113

  15. Fluorescent microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen staining of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washings, bronchoscopic brushing and post bronchoscopic sputum along with cytological examination in cases of suspected tuberculosis

    Vijay Kumar Bodal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ever since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1882, many diagnostic methods have been developed. However "The gold standard" for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is still the demonstration of acid fast Bacilli (AFB by microscopic examination of smear or bacteriological confirmation by culture method. Materials and Methods: In suspected 75 patients with active pulmonary TB, the materials obtained bronchoscopically, were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, bronchial brushings, bronchial washings and post bronchoscopic sputum. Four smears were made from each of the specimen. Fluorescent Staining, Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN, Pap and May Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stains were carried out for cytological examination. Results: Fluorescent stain yielded maximum AFB positivity in all the methods, that is 36 (48% in post fibre-optic bronchoscopy (FOB sputum and 19 (25.33% by fluorescence microscopy in both bronchial brushings and bronchial washings. Maximum yield of AFB with ZN staining 12 (16% was equal to the post FOB sputum and bronchial brushings samples. It was followed by 6 cases (8% in BAL and 4 (5.3% in bronchial washings. The cytological examination was suggestive of TB in only 8 (10.66% cases in bronchial washings and 6 (8% cases in post FOB collection. It was equal in BAL and Bronchial brushings each that is 5 (6.67%. Conclusion: Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic tool and fluorescent microscopy is more sensitive than ZN and cytology. On X-ray examination, other diseases like malignancy or fungus can also mimick TB. So apart from ZN staining or fluorescence microscopy, Pap and MGG stain will be worthwhile to identify other microorganisms.

  16. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Gilbert G G Donders

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV an inducing factor for the development of (pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix? DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. SAMPLE: 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. METHODS: Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6. In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05, mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  17. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  18. Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities

    Hugo TB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25×106/L; B (25–100×106/L; and C (>100×106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of

  19. Correlative analysis between abnormal cervical cytology and pathology of vaginoscopic biopsy or conization

    Li Cai-juan; Lang Jing-he; Cheng Xue-mei; Wang You-fang

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the predictive value of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)Ⅲ/ carcinoma in situ (CIS) by correlating analysis between abnormal cervical cytologic findings and pathological diagnosis of vaginoscopic biopsies or conization.Methods: Routine cervical cytology screening was performed in 31,634 cases by fluid-based thin-layer method (ThinPrep cytology test, TCT), 948 patients had both abnormal squamous cell appearance by TCT and pathological diagnosis of vaginoscopic biopsies and /or cervical conization. The predictive value of CINⅢ/CIS were studied retrospectively by correlating analysis of different cytology abnormalities and pathology diagnosis.Results: Cytologically, 1,260 out of 31,634 TCT tests showed abnormal squamous cells appearance, including atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) 675 cases(2.13%), low squamous intraepithelial lesion (L-SIL) 379 cases(1.20%), high squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL)176 cases(0.56%),cancer 30 cases (0.09%). Among 948 patients with pathological diagnosis, there were CINⅡ-Ⅲ in 70 cases(7.38%) and CINⅢ/CIS in 56 cases.(5.91%). The relative risks (RR) of different precancerous TCT results in predicting CIN Ⅲ/CIS validated by pathology are as follow: AUSCUS 14.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.0-27.0), Lsil 13.9% (95% CI 6.3-30.9), Hsil 126.1 (95% CI 60.6-218.6). The RR of AUSCUS group is not significantly different from that of L-SIL group(P =0.951). However, the RR of CINⅢ/CIS morbidity between the H-SIL or cancer group and the ASCUS or L-SIL group are significantly different (all P value <0.01).Conclusion: Vaginoscopic biopsy could verify pathological CINⅡ-Ⅲ and CINⅢ/CIS from cases with abnormal TCT results. There is significantly greater risk of being CINⅢ/CIS validated by vaginoscopic biopsy in the H-SILpatients,while ASCUS and L-SIL group have the coequal risk.

  20. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in Italian women with cervical cytological abnormalities

    Angelo Meloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection and high-risk HPV types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical cancer. The present study investigated the HPV-type specific prevalence in 650 women, aged 15-76 years, with cytological abnormalities and the association between HPV infection and cervical disease in a subset of 160 women for whom cytological results for Pap-Test were available, during the period 2008-2011 in Cagliari (Southern Italy.Design and Methods. HPV-DNA extraction was performed by lysis and digestion with proteinase K and it was typed by using the INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping Assay.Results. Overall the HPV prevalence was 52.6%; high-risk genotypes were found in 68.9% of women and multiple-type infection in 36.1% of HPV-positive women. The commonest types were HPV-52 (23.4%, HPV-53 (15.7%, HPV-16 (15.4% and HPV-6 (12.4%. Among the women with cytological diagnosis, any-type of HPV DNA was found in 49.4% of the samples and out of these 93.7% were high-risk genotypes. Genotype HPV 53 was the commonest type among women affected by ASCUS lesions (21.4%, genotype 52 in positive L-SIL cases (22.5%, genotype 16 H-SIL (27.3%.Conclusions. This study confirmed the high prevalence of HPV infection and high-risk genotypes among women with cervical abnormalities while, unlike previously published data, genotype HPV-52 was the most common type in our series. These data may contribute to increase the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and designing adequate vaccination strategies.

  1. The importance of immediate verification of a cervical cytological abnormality with histology

    C Kabaca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A serious proportion of the patients with invasive cervical cancer can be women who have had abnormal smear findings known for at least 6 months. Aims: The aims of the study were to evaluate the cervical cytohistopathologic correlation in the population studied, and to discuss the acceptability of immediate histological verification for minor Papanicolaou smear abnormalities. Materials and Methods: A total of 443 patients who were admitted with abnormal smear results and had undergone immediate colposcopy, cervical biopsy and endocervical curretage in the gynecologic oncology clinic between the years of 2003-2009 were enrolled into the present retrospective study. One-way analysis of variance and independent t-tests were used to study the results. Results: The distribution of abnormal smear results were documented as 46.27%, 29.57%, 13.76%, 7.67%, 1.58%, 0.67%, and 0.45% for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, atypical glandular cell (AGC, and adenocarcinoma, respectively. The percentages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3 (CIN 2-3 and greater lesions were 70.49%, 35.29%, 15.26%, and 9.75% for HSIL, ASC-H, LSIL, and ASC-US, respectively. Moreover, 38.36% of all the CIN 2-3 or cancer (n = 104 cases originated from those with low grade referral diagnosis (ASC-US and LSIL. Conclusions: The majority of cases in the study were predominantly ASC-US and LSIL and approximately 40% of all the high grade lesions came from those with low grade referral diagnosis. This shows poor cytohistopathological correlation and calls the triage of minor cytological abnormalities into question.

  2. Anal cytological abnormalities and anal HPV infection in men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease.

    Palefsky, J. M.; Holly, E. A.; Ralston, M L; Arthur, S.P.; Hogeboom, C J; Darragh, T M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise risk factors for abnormal and cytology and anal human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in homosexual/bisexual men with advanced HIV related immunosuppression. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease. SETTING: The University of California San Francisco, AIDS Clinic. PATIENTS: 129 homosexual or bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered detailing tobacco, alcohol and recreational ...

  3. Anal cytological abnormalities and epidemiological correlates among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-1 infection

    Donà Maria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM. Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years. Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL. Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23, and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81. A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among

  4. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0%) patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7%) patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0%) patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31). Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future

  5. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology

    Vaughan Katie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. Methods 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. Results There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0% patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7% patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0% patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31. Conclusions Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future.

  6. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Yosuke Kawakami; Tamaki Toda; Toshinao Nishimura; Junichi Sakane; Kazuya Kuraoka; Kazuhiro Takehara; Tomoya Mizunoe; Kiyomi Taniyama

    2011-01-01

    Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC) that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 ca...

  7. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    Alessandra Latini; Maria Gabriella Dona; Livia Ronchetti; Amalia Giglio; Domenico Moretto; Manuela Colafigli; Valentina Laquintana; Mirko Frasca; Mauro Zaccarelli; Andrea Antinori; Antonio Cristaudo; Massimo Giuliani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 85% of anal cancers. Recently, anal cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytology may be a useful tool for the detection of anal precancerous lesions. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM. Materials and Methods: MSM ≥18-year-old attending an STI clinic in Rome (Italy) were enrolled. Anal cy...

  8. Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalences and Factors Associated with Abnormal Anal Cytology in HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Cambou, Mary C.; Luz, Paula M.; Lake, Jordan E.; Levi, José Eduardo; Coutinho, José Ricardo; de Andrade, Angela; Heinke, Thais; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Friedman, Ruth K; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Identifying factors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, associated with abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected women have implications for anal squamous cell cancer (SCC) prevention in HIV-infected women. Anal and cervical samples were collected for cytology, and tested for high-(HR-HPV) and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes in a cross-sectional analysis of the IPEC Women's HIV Cohort (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Multivariate log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios ...

  9. Comparison of three human papillomavirus DNA assays and one mRNA assay in women with abnormal cytology

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Ejegod, Ditte;

    2014-01-01

    no follow-up, 232 (63%) had cervical cancer. The sensitivity for ≥CIN3 was 95% (95% CI: 88-99) for HC2, 94% (95% CI: 87-98) for cobas, 93% (95% CI: 85-97) for CLART, and 87% (95% CI: 78-93) for APTIMA. In women of age above 30 years......, the sensitivities were 98% (95% CI: 87-100), 93% (95% CI: 80-98), 90% (95% CI: 77-97), and 93% (95% CI: 80-98), respectively. One woman with cervical cancer tested negative on CLART and one on cobas; HC2 and APTIMA were positive in all three cancer cases. The specificity for ...OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics of four human papillomavirus (HPV) assays: hybrid capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA in Danish women with abnormal cytology. METHODS: SurePath samples from 367 consecutive women from Copenhagen, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined...

  10. Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran

    M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

  11. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    Alessandra Latini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is responsible for 85% of anal cancers. Recently, anal cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM. Cytology may be a useful tool for the detection of anal precancerous lesions. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM. Materials and Methods: MSM ≥18-year-old attending an STI clinic in Rome (Italy were enrolled. Anal cytologic samples were collected in PreservCyt (Hologic using a Dacron swab. The Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics was used for the detection and genotyping of 37 mucosal HPV types. Liquid-based cytological slides were obtained using a ThinPrep2000 processor (Hologic. The morphology of the anal pap-test was classified following the Bethesda 2001 guidelines. Results: We enrolled 180 HIV-infected (median age 41 years, IQR 33–47 and 438 HIV-uninfected MSM (median age 32 years, IQR: 27–39. Most of the individuals were Caucasian (92.2% and 97.0%, respectively. HPV prevalence, both overall (93.3% vs 72.4%, p<.001 and by high-risk (HR HPV types (80.5% vs 56.0%, p<.001, was significantly higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals. HPV-multiple infections were evidenced in 48.2% of the HIV-uninfected and 76.1% of the HIV-infected MSM (p<.001. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype in both groups (23.3% in HIV-positive and 17.6% in HIV-negative MSM. HPV6 and 84 were the most frequent low-risk types in both cohorts. Anal cytologic abnormalities were found in a significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected MSM (46.1% vs 27.9%, p<.001. H-SILs (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were exclusively observed among the HIV-infected individuals, although at a low prevalence (1.2%. Conclusions: A high prevalence of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities was evidenced in both populations. Nonetheless, HIV-infected MSM showed a

  12. Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer

    Deb Prabal; Iyer Venkateswaran; Bhatla Neerja; Markovic O; Verma Kusum

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP) test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap) staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation ...

  13. THE SPECTRUM OF CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN KUWAIT USING THE REVISED 2001 BETHESDA SYSTEM

    Thoppil Reba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common female malignancies in developing countries. There are few reports describing the profile of abnormal Pap smears from countries in the Middle East. The pattern of cervical intraepithelial lesions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of women in Kuwait is reported. A total of 12800 cervical smears reported in the department of Pathology, Maternity Hospital, and ministry of Health were studied from January 2010 to December 2012. There were 523(4.12% abnormal Pap smears. They were further classified as Atypical Squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS (118 cases, 0.93%, Atypical Squamous cells cannot exclude a HSIL (ASC-H (24 cases, 0.19%, Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL (172 cases, 1.35%, High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL (91 cases, 0.72% Squamous cell carcinoma (21cases, 0.17% Atypical Glandular Cells (AGC-NOS (53cases, 0.42% Atypical Glandular Cells - favor neoplastic (23 cases, 0.18% Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (01 case, 0.01% Endocervical adenocarcinoma (01 case, 0.01% Endometrial adenocarcinoma (19 cases, 0.15%. This study reveals the wide range of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities present in the population. The information provided in this study emphasizes the need for a national cervical screening program to estimate the actual magnitude of the problem, identify ‘at risk ’women and decrease the mortality from cervical cancer.

  14. Mathematical Description with Fractals Dimensions of Normal Cells and Cytological Abnormality's of Uterine Neck

    Javier Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The fractal geometry has shownto be adapted in the mathematical description ofirregular objects; this measurement has denominatedfractal dimension. The application of thefractal analysis to measure the contours of thenormal cells as well as those that present sometype of abnormality, has shown the possibility of mathematical characterization of itsirregularity. Objectives. To measure, from thefractal geometry cells of the squamous epitheliumof uterine neck classified like normal,atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance(ASC-US and Low Grade IntraepitelialLesion (L-SIL, diagnosed by means of microscopicobservation, in search of mathematicalmeasurements that distinguish them. Methodology.This is an exploratory descriptive studyin which the fractal dimensions were calculated,with the simplified and the conventional boxcounting method, of the cellular and nuclearcontours of 13 normal and with abnormalitiescells of the scaly epithelium of uterine neck likeASC-US and L-SIL, from digital photographiesof 7 normal cells, 2 ASC-US and 4 L-SIL diagnosedwith cytomorphologic criteria by meansof microscopic conventional observation. Results.There developed a quantitative, objective and reproduciblemeasurement of the degree of irregularityin the cells of the scaly epithelium of uterineneck identified microscopically like normal, ASCUSy LEI BG. Conclusions an fractal organizationwas demonstrated in the cellular normal architecture,as well as in cells ASC-US and the injuriesintraepiteliales of low degree L-SIL. They did notfind differences between the cellular studied types.

  15. Polymerase chain reaction and conventional DNA tests in detection of HPV DNA in cytologically normal and abnormal cervical scrapes

    Kalia, A.; Jalava, T.; Nieminen, P.;

    1992-01-01

    Med.mikrobiologi, polymerase chain reaction, DNA tests, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical smear, hybridisation, cytologi, affiProbe HPV test, ViraType test......Med.mikrobiologi, polymerase chain reaction, DNA tests, human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical smear, hybridisation, cytologi, affiProbe HPV test, ViraType test...

  16. Human papillomavirus infection and anxiety: analyses in women with low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities unaware of their infection status.

    Candice Y Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV infection experience increased levels of anxiety that have been attributed to fears of stigmatization and developing cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and anxiety in women who were unaware they had been tested specifically for HPV, to determine if any anxiety experienced by HPV-positive women could be due to causes other than learning of test results. METHODS: This study was nested within a randomised controlled trial of management of women with abnormal cervical cytology conducted in the United Kingdom with recruitment between 1999 and 2002. At baseline, prior to having a sample taken for HPV testing, the results of which were not disclosed, women were assessed for anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and asked about fears of developing cervical cancer ("cancer worries"; this assessment was repeated at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of follow-up. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used for the cross-sectional (baseline and longitudinal analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Among the 2842 participants, there was no association between HPV status and anxiety among white women. Among non-white women, however, anxiety was less common among HPV-positive than HPV-negative women (adjusted odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.77. Among non-smokers, cancer worry was more common in HPV-positive than HPV-negative women; the opposite association was observed among ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between HPV status and anxiety may be explained by factors other than learning of test results and may vary by ethnicity and lifestyle factors.

  17. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities in breast cancer screening: results from the breast cancer screening programme in Oslo 1996-2001.

    Sauer, Torin; Myrvold, Kristina; Lømo, Jon; Anderssen, Karin Yvonne; Skaane, Per

    2003-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of nonpalpable mammographic lesions has been under attack from two sides for some years. There has been much discussion and controversy as to the ability to differentiate between in situ and invasive carcinomas in cytological material. A further issue is that of optimal sampling to obtain adequate cell material in sufficient quantity. We present the results of FNAC from 832 nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities detected in the course of the breast cancer screening programme in Oslo during 1996-2001. In 11.6% of cases the smears were inadequate, and there were 7% false negatives (FN) and 1.3% false positives. Of the FN, 64% represented microcalcifications and 86% were due to sampling errors. Absolute sensitivity was 74%, complete sensitivity 88% and specificity 88%. In 255 carcinomas a cytological diagnosis of them as in situ or invasive was made. In 93% of the invasive cases (190/205) these had been correctly identified as invasive on FNAC. In 78% of cases proper follow-up could be resolved by cytology/radiology alone. Suboptimal sampling and localization remains the main cause of FN FNAC results. Problems in differentiating between in situ and invasive breast carcinomas can be significantly reduced by applying strict criteria for in situ lesions. PMID:14659146

  18. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    Angela RI Meyrelles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample, re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples, and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples. An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30% or re-infection (20%. A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79. Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting.

  19. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  20. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

    Thamkhantho Manopchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+ among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times, and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count P = 0.043. There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.

  1. Association of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Abnormal Anal Cytology among HIV-Infected MSM in Beijing, China

    Yang, Yu; Li, Xiangwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Feng; Gao, Cong; Li, Mufei; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. Methods HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs we...

  2. Evaluation of adjunctive HPV testing by Hybrid Capture II® in women with minor cytological abnormalities for the diagnosis of CIN2/3 and cost comparison with colposcopy

    Kyi May S

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a proportion of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3 are associated with equivocal cervical smears, which show borderline or mild dyskaryosis, follow up with repeat smears, colposcopy and biopsy is required. Since infection with oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HR HPV has been found to be associated with the development of cervical cancer, HRHPV testing appears to be an alternative. Objective The present study assesses if HRHPV testing can predict CIN2/3 in women referred for mild dyskaryosis and borderline cytological changes in an health authority with a referral policy to colposcopy after one single mild dyskaryotic Pap smear. Study design The HPV DNA Hybrid Capture II (Digene/Abbott, Maidenhead was evaluated on 110 consenting women with mild dyskaryosis and 23 women with persistent borderline changes, who were referred for colposcopy between May and November 2001. A cost comparison between two referral policies was performed. Results CIN2/3 was diagnosed histologically in 30 of 133 women (22% with minor cytological abnormalities. As the Receiver Operator Characteristics plot suggested a cut-off of 3 pg/ml the HRHPV HCII was evaluated at 3 RLU (relative light units and at the manufacturer's recommendation of 1 RLU. At both cut-offs sensitivity and negative predictive value were high at 97%. Specificity was low at 37% at a cut-off of 1 pg/ml and 46% at a cut-off of 3 RLU. To remain cost neutral in comparison to immediate colposcopy the costs for one HR HPV HC II must not exceed £34.37 per test at a cut off of 3 pg/ml. Conclusion The negative likelihood ratio (NLR was of good diagnostic value with 0.089 at 1 RLU and 0.072 at 3 RLU, which reduces the post-test probability for CIN2/3 to 2% in this population. Women with minor cytological disorders can be excluded from colposcopy on a negative HR HPV result. Specificity can be improved by restricting HR HPV testing to women with persistent borderline

  3. Study of the abnormal cervical-vaginal cytology of sexually active young women living within the Waterloo region.

    Redmond, M; Schumacher, B

    1990-01-01

    618 women aged 13-36 attending a family planning clinic took part in a sexual health survey during 1985 and 1986. They were followed up for one year in order to ascertain whether an increase in atypical and dysplastic pap smears was linked to a certain lifestyle. The routine examination included a pap smear, a cervical swab for gonorrhea and other vaginal flora. Cultures for herpes and chlamydia were done. Benign atypia infection was treated followed by repeat pap smears 6-8 weeks and 2-3 months later. 7% of the women were virgins, 72% had smoked, and 62% presently smoked (an average of 9 cigarettes daily). Average age at first intercourse, was 16, and partners ranged from 1 to 35. Condom use was most prevalent: 15% used it "always", 20% "often", and 36% "occasionally". The oral contraceptive use pattern was: 60% "always" used it and 10% "often" relied on it. 1/4th used the rhythm method. 90% had never been pregnant, 9% had, and 1% were unsure. of 49 pregnancies 41 ended in abortion. After examining 581, 4 cases condylomata and 1 case of genital herpes were found. 60% of the women had normal cervical cytology, 32% showed atypia, and 8% displayed dysplasia. 22% of the atypias were linked to inflammation and 6% were related to yeast. 9% of repeat atypia or dysplasia was less severe by biopsy, while 54% turned out to be more severe than the pap smear results, although they tend to indicate more severe changes. 8% showed less severe cytology, and 59% more severe cytological changes. 78% of the group with mild dysplasia had smoked, as opposed to 22% that had "never smokes". Those with mild dysplasia were 4 times more likely to smoke at the time of their initial visit (79%) than nonsmokers (21%). 54% of those with normal pap smear reported "often" or "always" using condoms, whereas only 10% of the group with dysplasia reported similar use pattern. These findings uphold the practice of following the repeated atypical, or initial dysplastic pap smear results with

  4. Assessing airway inflammation in clinical practice – experience with spontaneous sputum analysis

    Magnussen Helgo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of airway inflammation for the diagnosis of asthma or COPD is still uncommon in pneumology-specialized general practices. In this respect, the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO, as a fast and simple methodology, is increasingly used. The indirect assessment of airway inflammation, however, does have its limits and therefore there will always be a need for methods enabling a direct evaluation of airway inflammatory cell composition. Sampling of spontaneous sputum is a well-known, simple, economic and non-invasive method to derive a qualitative cytology of airway cells and here we aimed to assess today's value of spontaneous sputum cytology in clinical practice. Methods Three pneumologists provided final diagnoses in 481 patients having sputum cytology and we retrospectively determined posterior versus prior probabilities of inflammatory airway disorders. Moreover, in a prospective part comprising 108 patients, pneumologists rated their confidence in a given diagnosis before and after knowing sputum cytology and rated its impact on the diagnostic process on an analogue scale. Results Among the 481 patients, 45% were diagnosed as having asthma and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. If patients showed sputum eosinophilia, the prevalence of this diagnosis was elevated to 73% (n = 109, p Thirty-three of the 108 patients were excluded from the prospective part (26 insufficient samples, 7 incomplete questionnaires. In 48/75 cases the confidence into a diagnosis was raised after knowing sputum cytology, and in 15/75 cases the diagnosis was changed as cytology provided new clues. Conclusion Our data suggest that spontaneous sputum cytology is capable of assisting in the diagnosis of inflammatory airway diseases in the outpatient setting. Despite the limitations by the semiquantitative assessment and lower sputum quality, the supportive power and the low economic effort needed can justify the use of this method

  5. Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Mulè, Antonino; Maggiore, Claudia; Miraglia, Antonella; Lauriola, Libero; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The major types of cytologic preparations used in most laboratories to detect the lesions of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) are examined. These methods include sputum, bronchial washing, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Sputum represents the simplest and most cost-effective sampling method even though fiberoptic bronchoscopy and radiologic guided FNAB are superseding it as the first diagnostic choice in most cases. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each technique:bronchial brushing and FNABs tend to preserve both the cellular details and their architectural arrangement whereas sputum and bronchial washing often cause a variable degree of cellular degeneration and fragmentation. As a result, most pulmonary lesions may be detected and correctly diagnosed if multiple techniques are used to acquire diagnostic material. CT-guided FNAB represents the most effective method to achieve a correct diagnosis in pulmonary tumors. PMID:15852720

  6. Impression Cytology

    Sevda Söker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology is fast, easy to perform, economical and non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of conjunctival eye diseases. Conjunctival impression cytology using cellulose acetate filter paper of the ocular surface epithelium with no side effects or contraindication. In this article, technique of conjunctival impression cytology is reviewed.

  7. A Novel Reading Scheme for Assessing the Extent of Radiographic Abnormalities and Its Association with Disease Severity in Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis: An Observational Study in Hyderabad/India

    Goyal, Surabhi; Hussain, Abid; Klassert, Tilman E.; Driesch, Dominik; Tokaryeva, Viktoriya; Löschmann, Yvonne Yi-Na; Sumanlatha, Gadamm; Ahmed, Niyaz; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi; Schumann, Ralf R.; Lala, Birgit; Slevogt, Hortense

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing reading schemes for chest X-ray (CXR) used to grade the extent of disease severity at diagnosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are often based on numerical scores that summate specific radiographic features. However, since PTB is known to exhibit a wide heterogeneity in pathology, certain features might be differentially associated with clinical parameters of disease severity. Objective We aimed to grade disease severity in PTB patients at diagnosis and after completion of DOTS treatment by developing a reading scheme based on five different radiographic manifestations and analyze their association with the clinical parameters of systemic involvement and infectivity. Methods 141 HIV-negative adults with newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive PTB were enrolled in a prospective observational study in Hyderabad, India. The presence and extent on CXRs of five radiographic manifestations, i.e., lung involvement, alveolar infiltration, cavitation, lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion, were classified using the new reading scheme by using a four-quadrant approach. We evaluated the inter-reader reliability of each manifestation, and its association with BMI and sputum smear positivity at diagnosis. The presence and extent of these radiographic manifestations were further compared with CXRs on completion of DOTS treatment. Results At diagnosis, an average lung area of 51.7% +/- 23.3% was affected by radiographic abnormalities. 94% of the patients had alveolar infiltrates, with 89.4% located in the upper quadrants, suggesting post primary PTB and in 34.8% of patients cavities were found. We further showed that the extent of affected lung area was a negative predictor of BMI (β value -0.035, p 0.019). No significant association of BMI with any of the other CXR features was found. The extent of alveolar infiltrates, along with the presence of cavitation, were strongly associated with sputum smear positivity. The microbiological cure rate in

  8. A Novel Reading Scheme for Assessing the Extent of Radiographic Abnormalities and Its Association with Disease Severity in Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis: An Observational Study in Hyderabad/India.

    Zarko Grozdanovic

    Full Text Available Existing reading schemes for chest X-ray (CXR used to grade the extent of disease severity at diagnosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB are often based on numerical scores that summate specific radiographic features. However, since PTB is known to exhibit a wide heterogeneity in pathology, certain features might be differentially associated with clinical parameters of disease severity.We aimed to grade disease severity in PTB patients at diagnosis and after completion of DOTS treatment by developing a reading scheme based on five different radiographic manifestations and analyze their association with the clinical parameters of systemic involvement and infectivity.141 HIV-negative adults with newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive PTB were enrolled in a prospective observational study in Hyderabad, India. The presence and extent on CXRs of five radiographic manifestations, i.e., lung involvement, alveolar infiltration, cavitation, lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion, were classified using the new reading scheme by using a four-quadrant approach. We evaluated the inter-reader reliability of each manifestation, and its association with BMI and sputum smear positivity at diagnosis. The presence and extent of these radiographic manifestations were further compared with CXRs on completion of DOTS treatment.At diagnosis, an average lung area of 51.7% +/- 23.3% was affected by radiographic abnormalities. 94% of the patients had alveolar infiltrates, with 89.4% located in the upper quadrants, suggesting post primary PTB and in 34.8% of patients cavities were found. We further showed that the extent of affected lung area was a negative predictor of BMI (β value -0.035, p 0.019. No significant association of BMI with any of the other CXR features was found. The extent of alveolar infiltrates, along with the presence of cavitation, were strongly associated with sputum smear positivity. The microbiological cure rate in our cohort after 6

  9. Routine sputum culture

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  10. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients. PMID:23722512

  11. 广州地区5~15岁健康儿童高渗盐水诱导痰细胞学检查及其分类正常参考值的初步建立%Preliminary establishment of cytological examination and the normal reference values for hypertonic saline solution-induced sputum of healthy children in Guangzhou

    陈德晖; 赖克方; 钟南山; 钟帼钰; 罗炜; 陈桥丽; 陈如冲; 林育能; 潘小安; 李瑾瑛; 吴上志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the method of cytological examination and the normal reference values for hypertonic saline solution-induced sputum of healthy children (age range from 5 to 15 years ) with physical examination in Guangzhou.Method A total of 352 children,5 to 15 years old,were enrolled from primary school and middle school in Guangzhou from January to December,2010.All subjects completed a standardized questionnaire on the presence of respiratory,allergic symptoms and family history,the medical history and the physical examination was performed by doctors,lung function (forced expiratory volume at 1 s in predicted normal,FEV1 % ) was determined.There were 266 healthy children (137 males,129 females) who were selected and undergone hypertonic saline solution induction of sputum,and cytological examination was performed. Hypertonic saline ( 5% ) was nebulized and inhaled for 15 - 30 min. No expectoration within 30 min was defined as failure,and the procedure was terminated.The part of opaque and higher density sputum samples was detected by cytology.The proportion of neutrophils,lymphocytes,eosinophils,macrophages and monocytes was calculated.This study was approved by the institutional Ethics Review Committee of First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College.Informed consent was obtained from the legal guardians of all participants following a detailed description of the purpose and potential benefits of the study.Result There were 175 subjects' induced sputum specimens ( 175/266,65.8% ),non-qualified sputum samples were obtained from 16 of the subjects.The proportions of median (IQR) of lymphocytes were 0.012(0.020),95% CI were ranged from 0.015 to 0.022 ;neutrophils 0.207 (0.330),95% CI 0.266 -0.356 macrophages 0.761 (0.327 ),95 % CI 0.607 -0.699; eosinophils 0.004 (0.019),95% CI 0.013 -0.022.There were no significant differences in proportions of cytological findings of female or male,different age groups and second-hand smoking or not

  12. Black-pigmented sputum

    Rafael Martínez-Girón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black-pigmented sputum, also called "melanoptysis," is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers′ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis. The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc. or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established.

  13. Induced Sputum Proteome in Health and Asthma

    Gharib, Sina A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth V.; Lai, Ying; Plampin, Jessica D.; Goodlett, David R.; Hallstrand, Teal S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by abnormal airway pathophysiology and susceptibility to different stimuli, as exemplified by a subset of individuals with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Induced sputum provides a noninvasive method to sample airway biofluids that are enriched in proteins. Objective We hypothesized that novel mechanisms in the pathogenesis of asthma may be revealed by studying the patterns of protein expression in induced sputum. Methods We used shotgun proteomics to analyze induced sputum from 5 normal individuals and 10 asthmatics, including 5 with EIB. Differential protein expression between asthmatics, asthma subphenotypes and control subjects was determined using spectral counting and computational methods. Results Using Gene Ontology analysis, we defined the functional landscape of induced sputum proteome and applied network analysis to construct a protein interaction map for this airway compartment. Shotgun proteomics analysis identified a number of proteins whose differential enrichment or depletion robustly distinguishedasthmatics from normal controls, and captured the effects of exercise on induced sputum proteome. Functional and network analysis identified key processes, including proteolytic activity that are known contributors to airway remodeling. Importantly, this approach highlighted previously unrecognized roles for differentially expressed proteins in pathways implicated in asthma, such as modulation of phospholipase A2 by secretoglobin, a putative role for S100A8/9 in human asthma, and selective upregulation of complement 3a in response to exercise in asthmatics. Conclusion Computationally-intensive analysis of induced sputum proteome is a powerful approach to understand the pathophysiology of asthma and a promising methodology to investigate other diseases of the airways. PMID:21906793

  14. Detection of DNA Aneuploidy in Exfoliated Airway Epithelia Cells of Sputum Specimens by the Automated Image Cytometry and Its Clinical Value in the Identification of Lung Cancer

    杨健; 周宜开

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the value of detecton of DNA aneuploidy in exfoliated airway epithelia cells of sputum specimens by the automated image cytometry for the identification of lung cancer, 100patients were divided into patient group (50 patients with lung cancer)and control group (30 patients with tuberculosis and 20 healthy people). Sputum was obtained for the quantitative analysis of DNA content of exfoliated airway epithelial cells with the automated image cytometry, together with the examinations of brush cytology and conventional sputum cytology. Our results showed that DNA aneuploidy (DI>2.5 or 5c) was found in 20 out of 50 sputum samples of lung cancer, 1 out of 30 sputum samples from tuberculosis patients, and none of 20 sputum samples from healthy people. The positive rates of conventional sputum cytology and brush cytology were 16 % and 32 %,which was lower than that of DNA aneuploidy detection by the automated image cytometry (P<0.01 ,P>0.05). Our study showed that automated image cytometry, which uses DNA aneuploidy as a marker for tumor, can detect the malignant cells in sputum samples of lung cancer and it is a sensitive and specific method serving as a complement for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  15. Rastreamento anterior para câncer de colo uterino em mulheres com alterações citológicas ou histológicas Previous screening for cervical cancer among women with cytological and histological abnormalities

    C Rama

    2008-06-01

    do último exame citológico anterior.OBJECTIVE: To examine previous Pap smear history in women screened for cervical cancer with cytological or histological abnormalities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of 5,485 women (15-65 years old who self-referred to cervical cancer screening in Sao Paulo and Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between February 2002 and March 2003. A behavioral questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for testing by Pap smears or liquid-based cytology. Women who had abnormal cytology were referred for colposcopic examination and, if abnormal, for cervical punch biopsy. To explore factors associated to cervical abnormalities Pearson's chi-was conduted square test at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Cytological abnormalities were found in 354 women (6.4% and included 41 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions and 3 carcinomas; 92.7% were normal results. Colposcopy was performed in 289 women, and 145 (50.2% showed abnormal results. Punch biopsies showed 14 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 and 4 carcinomas. Previous Pap smears were reported in all women who had cytology suspected of carcinoma, 97.6% of those with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions, all women with histological diagnosis of carcinoma and 92.9% of those who had cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 histologically. Previous Pap smear in the last tree years was reported by 86.5% and 92.8% of women with abnormal cytology and biopsy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference regarding the number of Pap tests and time since their last test between women with histologically diagnosed carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 compared with those with normal cytology.

  16. Conjunctival impression cytology in contact lens wearers.

    Simon Priya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the cytological changes in conjunctiva following regular contact lens wear and to determine the correlation, if any, between severity of cytological alteration and symptoms related to contact lens wear. METHODS: One hundred eyes (50 normal asymptomatic subjects who served as a control group were studied by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC. These subjects were fitted with rigid gas permeable (RGP or soft contact lenses and were followed up at the end of 3 and 6 months. At each follow-up visit the CIC was repeated. A filter paper with the impression specimen was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS and haematoxylin stain to study goblet cell loss. Papanicolaou stain was done to study squamous metaplasia. The cytological changes were graded using the system described by Natadisastra et al. RESULTS: Severity of cytological changes increased with the duration of contact lens wear (P = 0.00001. At the end of 6 months, 60% of symptomatic eyes wearing soft contact lens and RGP lens showed abnormal CIC changes. None of the asymptomatic RGP contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes whereas 33.4% of the asymptomatic soft contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes (P = 0.033. Epithelial changes occurred within 3-6 months of contact lens fitting. CONCLUSION: Severity of cytological changes increased with duration of lens wear (P = 0.00001. Prevalence and severity of cytological alteration is more in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Soft contact lens wearers although asymptomatic showed severe CIC changes.

  17. A method for double-labeling sputum cells for p53 and cytokeratin

    Molecular and immunological techniques may enhance the usefulness of sputum cytology as a screening tool for lung cancer. These techniques may also be useful in detecting and following the early progression of disease from metaplasia to dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and finally to invasive carcinoma. Longitudinal information on the evolution of these malignant changes in the respiratory epithelium can be gained by prospective study of populations at high risk for lung cancer. This work is significant because double-labeling of cells in sputum with p53 and cytokeratin antibodies facilitates rapid screening of p53 positive neoplastic and preneoplastic lung cells by brightfield and fluorescence microscopy

  18. A method for double-labeling sputum cells for p53 and cytokeratin

    Neft, R.E.; Tierney, L.A.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Molecular and immunological techniques may enhance the usefulness of sputum cytology as a screening tool for lung cancer. These techniques may also be useful in detecting and following the early progression of disease from metaplasia to dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and finally to invasive carcinoma. Longitudinal information on the evolution of these malignant changes in the respiratory epithelium can be gained by prospective study of populations at high risk for lung cancer. This work is significant because double-labeling of cells in sputum with p53 and cytokeratin antibodies facilitates rapid screening of p53 positive neoplastic and preneoplastic lung cells by brightfield and fluorescence microscopy.

  19. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Print A A A ...

  20. DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF SPUTUM GENEXPERT MTB/RIF FOR SMEAR NEGATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.

    Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Phetsuriyawong, Attawoot; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Ananta, Pimjai

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Gene-Xpert MTB/RIF sputum test for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear negative results in Thailand, a country with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied 151 patients who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand with a 2 week or more history of fever and/or cough and an abnormal chest radiograph between 2010 and 2014; these patients had at least 2 negative sputum AFB smear results. Of these, 76 were diagnosed as having either confirmed or probable pulmonary TB: the 32 confirmed cases were those with a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the 44 probable case were those with clinical and radiographic findings consistent with TB and who had a response to anti-TB therapy. Seventy-five cases were diagnosed as not having pulmonary TB. Of the 32 patients with a positive sputum culture for MTB, 26 had a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF sputum test. Compared to sputum culture for MTB the GeneXpert MTB/ RIF test gave a sensitivity of 83.9% (95% CI: 66.3-94.5) and a specificity of 92.1% (95% CI: 83.6-97), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.3% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.3% (95% CI: 85.1-97.8). The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test had a fair sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing smear negative pulmonary TB. It may be useful for diagnosing pulmonary TB in patients with a negative sputum AFB smear. The assay is faster than culture and can detect rifampicin resistant strains of MTB. PMID:27405129

  1. The value of chest CT scan and tumor markers detection in sputum for early diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    WANG Xu; CAO Aihong; PENG Mengqing; HU Chunfeng; LIU Delin; GU Tao; LIU Hui

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of chest CT scan combined with telomerase activity and p16 gene methylation from exfoliated cells of sputum in 55 cases of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN; ≤30 mm)suspected early peripheral lung cancer. Methods The sputum specimens from 34 cases of cancer nodules and 21 cases of benign lesion were detected for telomerase activity by TRAP-PCR-ELISA and p16 gene methylation by PCR-based methylation analysis. Results The qualitative diagnostic accuracy of CT scan was 61.8%(34/55) for SPN provided by pathology. Cytology analysis of sputum was positive in 13 cases (38.2%). Telomerase activity was positive in 29 cases: sensitivity was 79.4%, specificity was 90.5%, accuracy was 83.6%; p16 gene methylation was found in 11 cases: sensitivity was 32.4%, specificity was 100.0%, and accuracy was 58.2%. The sensitivity was increased to 86.1% by combination of telomerase activity and p16 gene methylation. Compared with nodules without malignant CT signs, expression of telomerase activity and p16 methylation of SPN with malignant CT signs (lobulation or spiculate protuberance or spicule sign) had a significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion The results suggest that chest CT scan combined with telomerase activity and p16 gene methylation detection in sputum for patients with peripheral lung cancer may enhance the diagnostic value of radiology and conventional cytology.

  2. A SENSITIVE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF P53 PROTEIN ACCUMULATION IN SPUTUM

    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in lung cancers and usually result in p53 protein accumulation in tumor cells. Sputum is noninvasive to collect and ideal for screening p53 abnormalities. This study was to determine the feasibility of detecting p53 protein accumulatio...

  3. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Tissue hyaluronan expression, as reflected in the sputum of lung cancer patients, is an indicator of malignancy

    Rangel, M.P.; Sá, V.K. de; Martins, V. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, J.R.M. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disciplina de Endocrinologia e Metabolismo, Laboratório de Endocrinologia Molecular e Translacional-LEMT, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Parra, E.R. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mendes, A. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, P.C. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.M. [Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimarães (Portugal); Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Longatto-Filho, A. [Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimarães (Portugal); Laboratório de Investigação Médica (LIM 14), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, C.Z. [Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Takagaki, T. [Divisão de Pneumologia, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carraro, D.M. [Centro Internacional de Pesquisa/CIPE, AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nader, H.B. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Capelozzi, V.L. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-08

    Hyaluronan (HA) shows promise for detecting cancerous change in pleural effusion and urine. However, there is uncertainty about the localization of HA in tumor tissue and its relationship with different histological types and other components of the extracellular matrix, such as angiogenesis. We evaluated the association between HA and degree of malignancy through expression in lung tumor tissue and sputum. Tumoral tissue had significantly increased HA compared to normal tissue. Strong HA staining intensity associated with cancer cells was significant in squamous cell carcinoma compared to adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. A significant direct association was found between tumors with a high percentage of HA and MVD (microvessel density) in tumoral stroma. Similarly significant was the direct association between N1 tumors and high levels of HA in cancer cells. Cox multivariate analysis showed significant association between better survival and low HA. HA increased in sputum from lung cancer patients compared to cancer-free and healthy volunteers and a significant correlation was found between HA in sputum and HA in cancer tissue. Localization of HA in tumor tissue was related to malignancy and reflected in sputum, making this an emerging factor for an important diagnostic procedure in patients suspected to have lung cancer. Further study in additional patients in a randomized prospective trial is required to finalize these results and to validate our quantitative assessment of HA, as well as to couple it to gold standard sputum cytology.

  5. Tissue hyaluronan expression, as reflected in the sputum of lung cancer patients, is an indicator of malignancy

    Hyaluronan (HA) shows promise for detecting cancerous change in pleural effusion and urine. However, there is uncertainty about the localization of HA in tumor tissue and its relationship with different histological types and other components of the extracellular matrix, such as angiogenesis. We evaluated the association between HA and degree of malignancy through expression in lung tumor tissue and sputum. Tumoral tissue had significantly increased HA compared to normal tissue. Strong HA staining intensity associated with cancer cells was significant in squamous cell carcinoma compared to adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. A significant direct association was found between tumors with a high percentage of HA and MVD (microvessel density) in tumoral stroma. Similarly significant was the direct association between N1 tumors and high levels of HA in cancer cells. Cox multivariate analysis showed significant association between better survival and low HA. HA increased in sputum from lung cancer patients compared to cancer-free and healthy volunteers and a significant correlation was found between HA in sputum and HA in cancer tissue. Localization of HA in tumor tissue was related to malignancy and reflected in sputum, making this an emerging factor for an important diagnostic procedure in patients suspected to have lung cancer. Further study in additional patients in a randomized prospective trial is required to finalize these results and to validate our quantitative assessment of HA, as well as to couple it to gold standard sputum cytology

  6. Cytological diagnosis in cervical cancer

    Mariana Bratu; Florentina Pricop; Ovidiu Toma; Dragos Crauciuc; Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The cytological test has multiple valences, allowing the early discovery and location of feminine genital cancer. Material and methods. In the period of time between 2001 and 2009, the study made within the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of „Sf. Apostol Andrei” Emergency Hospital in Galaţi, revealed that from 415 cases with a changed PAP smear, the cytological diagnosis showed cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions in 53 patients (12.8%). We harvested cytological smears fo...

  7. Informatics applied to cytology

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  8. [Clinical cytology: why and how?].

    Znidarcić, Zeljka

    2013-12-01

    Clinical cytology is a morphological diagnostic profession, which has not been properly utilized in current medicine, primarily due to inadequate awareness among physicians of its diagnostic possibilities and advantages. The purpose of this historical review of clinical cytology and its diagnostic role is to contribute to higher awareness of the current possibilities offered by cytologic diagnosis and its future development in the era of technological progress and medical striking into profitability, with its negative connotations. The main features of cytologic diagnosis, i.e. non-aggressiveness, simplicity, promptness and accuracy, should be maintained while following new technological possibilities. Standard cytomorphology provides a basis for deciding on using additional technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, molecular analysis and cytogenetics) after thorough microscopic analysis, on cytologic samples or/and cytologic smears. The conditio sine qua non for that purpose is appropriate education of cytologists and cytotechnologists as well as appropriate organization of cytology in the healthcare system. As in the historical development of clinical cytology, enthusiasts are necessary to maintain and even improve all its possibilities to the benefit of our patients. PMID:24979879

  9. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    A cytology exam of pleural fluid is a laboratory test to detect cancer cells and certain other cells in the area ... A cytology exam is used to look for cancer and precancerous cells. It may also be done for other conditions, such ...

  10. The merits of cytology in the workup for upper tract urothelial carcinoma - a contemporary review of a perplexing issue

    E.F. Sverrisson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The importance of upper tract cytology for evaluating tumors is unclear. We correlated upper tract cytology with histologic findings in patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC at a single tertiary care referral center. Materials and Methods 137 patients underwent nephroureterectomy between 2004 and 2012. 18 patients were excluded (benign tumors, atrophic kidneys with the remaining 119 patients serving as our study population. Upper tract cytology from the renal pelvis and/or ureter were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed with final pathology data in the remaining patients with UTUC. Results 57% (68/119 had preoperative upper tract cytology collected. 73% (50/68 patients had abnormal cytology (positive, suspicious with a sensitivity of 74% (which increased to 90% if atypical included, specificity of 50% and a positive predictive value of 98%. High grade tumors were more common than expected (77% high grade vs. 20% low grade. Abnormal cytology did not predict T stage or tumor grade. Interestingly, positive upper tract cytology was found in all of the UTUC CIS specimen. Conclusions Upper tract cytology has been utilized to support the diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Our data demonstrates that abnormal cytology correlates well with the presence of disease but does not predict staging or grading in these respective patients.

  11. Incremental yield of submitting three sputum specimens for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy and diagnostic yield of third sputum smear among pulmonary TB patients. Study type, settings and duration: This retrospective data analysis was done at PMRC TB Research Centre in collaboration with Institute of Chest Medicine, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2011. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with respiratory symptoms, having abnormal chest X-rays and having a clinical suspicion of tuberculosis were asked to submit three sputum samples on two consecutive days (1st spot, 2nd early morning, 3rd spot) for acid-fast bacilli smear microscopy. Smears were prepared and stained by Ziehl-Neelsen method. Results: A total of 7785 TB suspects submitted three sputum samples making a total of 23,355 slides for checking acid-fast bacilli using smear microscopy examinations. The smear positivity rate was 11.8%. About 12% suspects fulfilled the case definition of having one positive smear confirmed by a second smear, while, only 2.5% suspects fulfilled the case definition based on third smear in combination with first or second. A total 1164(15%) suspects had at least one positive smear; of these 896(77%) were positive in first smear, 190(16%) were negative in first smear but positive in second and 78(6.7%) were positive in third smear after two negative smears. Conclusion: Recently changed WHO criteria for examination of two sputum smears is based on evidences collected from the globe however, for Pakistan the value of third smear which picked almost 7% cases is quite significant and should still be practiced. Policy message: Checking AFB using 3 sputum smears should still be practiced in Pakistan especially, for those who are initially negative on 2 smears. (author)

  12. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    Møller, Johanne Cecilie Rask; Lynge, Elsebeth; Franzmann, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in ...... unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.......Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a...... technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6...

  13. Sputum ECP levels correlate with parameters of airflow obstruction.

    Virchow, J C; Hölscher, U; Virchow, C

    1992-09-01

    Growing evidence suggests that eosinophils play an important role as proinflammatory cells in asthma, possibly by releasing toxic cationic proteins. In this study concentrations of serum and sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) from 134 patients with productive cough and a history suggestive of airflow obstruction were measured by radioimmunoassay. Small sputum volumes were suspended in saline, vortexed, and centrifuged and ECP measured in the supernatant. Serum ECP levels ranged from 0.002 to 0.095 mg/L (0.016 +/- 0.0014), whereas sputum ECP concentrations were between 0.024 and 5.66 mg/L ECP per g sputum (0.878 +/- 0.092). Only 17 of the 134 patients (14 asthma, one cystic fibrosis, one bronchiectasis, and one bronchitis) had not been pretreated with corticosteroids. Sputum but not serum ECP levels of the 14 patients with asthma were inversely correlated with impairment of FEV1 (r = -0.73). Airway resistance (Raw) (r = 0.71) as well as the change in FEV1 (r = 0.79) and Raw (r = 0.84) after inhalation of 0.2 mg albuterol were positively correlated. This relationship was not observed in the remaining 117 patients on topical and/or systemic corticosteroids, suggesting that corticosteroid treatment influences sputum ECP levels. Also, sputum ECP levels and the degree of sputum eosinophilia were not correlated in any of the patient groups. Neither did serum ECP levels predict sputum ECP concentrations. We conclude that sputum ECP concentrations serve as a marker of eosinophil degranulation in the sputum, and this marker correlates with airflow obstruction. Sputum ECP levels are more closely related to lung function parameters than serum ECP concentrations and/or microscopic sputum analysis. PMID:1519835

  14. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  15. Acoustofluidic Transfer of Inflammatory Cells from Human Sputum Samples.

    Li, Sixing; Ren, Liqiang; Huang, Po-Hsun; Yao, Xianglan; Cuento, Rosemarie A; McCoy, J Philip; Cameron, Craig E; Levine, Stewart J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-06-01

    For sputum analysis, the transfer of inflammatory cells from liquefied sputum samples to a culture medium or buffer solution is a critical step because it removes the inflammatory cells from the presence of residual dithiothreitol (DTT), a reagent that reduces cell viability and interferes with further sputum analyses. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic platform for transferring inflammatory cells using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a SSAW field to actively transfer inflammatory cells from a solution containing residual DTT to a buffer solution. The viability and integrity of the inflammatory cells are maintained during the acoustofluidic-based cell transfer process. Our acoustofluidic technique removes residual DTT generated in sputum liquefaction and facilitates immunophenotyping of major inflammatory cells from sputum samples. It enables cell transfer in a continuous flow, which aids the development of an automated, integrated system for on-chip sputum processing and analysis. PMID:27183317

  16. Micronuclei in sputum from uranium workers: Epidemiologic application of an evolving cytogenetic technique

    The exfoliated-cell micronucleus assay is a relatively new cytogenetic technique which can provide a measure of the genetic effect of exposure to carcinogens and mutagens in target tissues where tumors arise among exposed populations. It is responsive to the effects of ionizing radiation and tobacco smoke in some in vivo human cell systems, but has not been extensively field tested as an indicator of lung cancer-related effects, despite the public health importance of exposure to occupational and environmental lung carcinogens. In this study the exfoliated-cell micronucleus assay was used to assess effects of exposure to radon progeny and cigarette smoke in a population of uranium industry workers (including employees in underground and open-pit mines, mills, laboratories, and administrative offices); underground uranium miners experience markedly elevated lung cancer risk because of exposure to ionizing radiation from radon progeny. Ninety-nine workers were selected at random from among workers in Colorado Plateau uranium-related facilities who participated in a workplace sputum cytology screening program from 1964-1988. The prevalence of cells with micronuclei was determined by a manual assay of one sputum specimen for each worker under a light microscope. Occupational and smoking data obtained by interview during screening were used to classify exposure and smoking status at the time the sputum specimen was taken and to obtain information on potential confounders and effect modifiers; underground miners were classified as exposed to radon progeny, and others were considered unexposed. Neither radon progeny exposure nor cigarette smoking had any appreciable effect on the prevalence of micronucleated cells. Crude prevalence ratios were 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.3), respectively, for radon exposure and smoking

  17. Induced sputum in asthma: from bench to bedside.

    Bakakos, P.; SCHLEICH, FLorence; Alchanatis, M.; Louis, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    During recent years there has been a growing interest in using non-invasive biomarkers to understand and monitor the airway inflammation in subjects with respiratory tract disorders and mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sputum induction is generally a well-tolerated and safe procedure and a European Respiratory Society Task Force has published a comprehensive review on sputum methodology. Induced sputum cell count and, to a lesser extent, mediator measurements ha...

  18. Simple method for quantifying viable bacterial numbers in sputum.

    Pye, A.; Stockley, R A; Hill, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To establish a simple method of quantitative culture for determining the viable bacterial numbers present in expectorated sputum samples. METHODS--Sputum samples were homogenised with dithiothreitol, sterile saline or glass beads to determine which method recovered the greatest number of viable bacteria. Culture broths were also incubated with dithiothreitol and sampled over time to determine its effect on bacterial viability. Sputum samples homogenised with dithiothreitol were diluted ...

  19. Identification and validation of nebulized aerosol devices for sputum induction

    Warren J. Davidson; John Dennis; Stephanie The; Belinda Litoski; Cora Pieron; Richard Leigh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Induced sputum cell counts are a noninvasive and reliable method for evaluating the presence, type and degree of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Currently, standard nebulizer devices used for sputum induction in multiple patients are labelled as single-patient devices by the manufacturer, which conflicts with infection prevention and control requirements. As such, these devices cannot feasibly be used in a clinical sputum induction program. Therefore, there is a need ...

  20. Contamination of specimen container surfaces during sputum collection.

    Allen, B W; Darrell, J H

    1983-01-01

    Sputum specimens from culture-positive tuberculosis patients were examined for the presence of Myobacterium tuberculosis on container surfaces. Although specimens were in transit for several days, M tuberculosis was isolated from 18 (6.5%) of 279 containers examined. Sputum specimens from local patients were examined for evidence of upper respiratory bacterial flora on the outside of containers as an indicator of contamination with sputum. Of 300 containers examined, 41 (14%) were contaminate...

  1. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum

  2. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  3. Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.

    Josyula, Arun B.; Poplin, Gerald S.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; McClellen, Hannah E.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Stürup, Stefan; Clark Lantz, R.; Jefferey L. Burgess

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: arsenic, creatinin, MMP levelsExposure/effect represented: arsenicStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 73 subjectsAnalytical technique: ELISA, HPLCTissue/biological material/sample size: urine samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): inorganic arsenic positively correlated with logMMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in sputum (Pearson's r Ό 0:351, P Ό 0:009) and negatively correlated with the log of s...

  4. Testicular cytology in azoospermia

    Usha Prasad

    2015-06-01

    Results: The commonest group with infertility were in the age group 21-30 years. The testicular size was normal in 87.17% of subjects and 12.82% had small testis. Out of 39 subjects with azoospermia 38.46% subjects had varicocele. Varicocele was commonly associated with duct obstruction. The commonest causes observed in cases with azoospermia were; hypospermatogenesis with maturation arrest (4/39,10.25%, duct obstruction (12/39,30.76%, maturation arrest (7/39,17.94%, testicular atrophy (10/39,25.64% and sertoli cell only syndrome (2/39,5.12%. In the present study diagnostic accuracy was 89.18%. Conclusions: Fine needle aspiration cytology is as informative as biopsy and can be done as a routine procedure. It helps us in ruling out obstructive and non-obstructive causes for azoospermia. In cases where FNAC shows normal spermatogenesis with azoospermia, biopsy and Doppler study is indicated to rule out duct obstruction which can be corrected surgically. It is a simple and cost effective. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 647-652

  5. CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT IN PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN

    Gui-fang He; Mei-lu Bian; Ying Wang; Xiao-yan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and follow up cervical cytology of pregnant and postpartum women and study their cytopathologic characteristics, so as to determine screening and managing programs for abnormal cervical cytology.Methods Totally 5296 patients in pregnancy and postpartum, in which 3729 by computer-assisted cytology test and 1567 by liquid-based monolayers cytology test, were examined and diagnosed by the Bethesda System made in 2001. Those proven epithelial abnormalities patients were followed up until the lesions regressed to normal. The remaining patients,who exhibited persistent abnormalities or progression, were given further examinations.Results The positive rate of cervical cytological test was 8.72% (462/5296), including squamous carcinoma (SCA) 1case (0.02%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 34 cases (0.64%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 145 cases (2.74%), atypical glandular cells (AGC) 5 cases (0.09%), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) 14 cases (0.26%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 263 cases (4.97%). The 419 proven cytological abnormality cases were followed up successfully. The total transnegative rate in three months was 73.74% (309/419), in which 303 cases (72.32%) persisted normal status for more than six months after regression. And the transnegative rate of ASC-US, ASC-H, AGC, LSIL, and HSIL were 79.56%, 64.29%, 100%,72.14% and 44.12%, respectively. Forty-six cases received biopsy directed by colposcopy. The distribution of coincidence of cytopathologic and histopathologic diagnosis was: SCA 1 case (100%), HSIL 10 cases (76.92%), LSIL 13 cases (65%), ASC-H 2 cases (50%), ASC-US 3 cases (37.50%), total 29 cases (63.04%).Conclusions We should cast more attention to screening cervix lesions in pregnant and postpartum women. Their cytopathologic characteristics are liable to make the clinician give a false positive diagnosis. So we propose to follow up them closely

  6. Bacterial pneumonias--evaluation of various sputum culture methods.

    Verenkar M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available With an objective of improving diagnostic value of sputum in bacterial pneumonias, 50 uncomplicated ′community′ acquired cases were studied using Gram staining of sputum along with bedside inoculation with/without dilution of the specimen. Gram staining of sputum samples collected before treatment revealed pneumococcal infection in 46% cases. The results were however inconclusive on samples sent by routine procedure involving logistic delay. Cultural analysis of sputum processed by three different techniques showed that bedside inoculation of sputum after dilution to be the most efficient technique yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae in 34% cases, Gram positive cocci in lesser number (20%, Gram negative rods (GNR in 18% cases. Sputum samples processed bedside without dilution yielded a lower number of pneumococci and other Gram positive cocci (24% & 16% cases respectively. Routine processing of sputum, involving logistic delay yielded a high number of Gram negative rods (62%, indicating their overgrowth. Thus bedside inoculation of sputum after dilution coupled with direct Gram staining serves as a simple and yet valuable laboratory aid in the diagnosis of uncomplicated ′community′ acquired bacterial pneumonias.

  7. Cost Analysis of Monitoring Asthma Treatment using Sputum Cell Counts

    Liesel D’silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a four-centre trial, the use of sputum cell counts (sputum strategy [SS] to guide treatment had resulted in fewer and less severe exacerbations without the need for a higher corticosteroid dose, compared with the use of symptoms and spirometry (clinical strategy [CS].

  8. Cytological causes of blond psyllium for male sterility

    Ashish G. Vala, Fougat. R.S. ,Roshni.S. and Vinay Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytological male sterility is a useful trait in plant breeding, especially in medicinal plants such as Cassia angustifolia, Commiphorawightii, Asparagus racemosus .Abnormalities appeared to be the cause of male sterility in plants, we carried out this research in anattempt to make clear the characteristics and inheritance of this male sterility. In Plantago ovata germplasm cytoplasmicabnormality was found to be the cause of abnormality. cytomixis varied from 2% to 48 % in plants. Maximum numbers of PMCscarrying B-chromosomes were recorded in male sterile plants of line JI-214(62%. No B-chromosomes were observed in fertile,sterile and partial male sterile line of JI-107 and maximum abnormal chromosomal segregation was recorded in JI-206. Thesecytological abnormality parameters can be used for hetrosis breeding and hybrid seed production to improve quality of psyllium.

  9. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  10. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Winey, Mark; Stemm-Wolf, Alexander J; Giddings, Thomas H; Pearson, Chad G

    2012-01-01

    Since their first detection in pond water, large ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila, have captivated school children and scientists alike with the elegance of their swimming and the beauty of their cortical organization. Indeed, cytology - simply looking at cells - is an important component of most areas of study in cell biology and is particularly intriguing in the large, complex Tetrahymena cell. Cytological analysis of Tetrahymena is critical for the study of the microtubule cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, complex nuclear movements and interactions, and the cellular remodeling during conjugation, to name a few topics. We briefly review previously reported cytological techniques for both light and electron microscopy, and point the reader to resources to learn about those protocols. We go on to present new and emerging technologies for the study of these marvelous cells. These include the use of fluorescent-protein tagging to localize cellular components in live cells, as well as for tracking the dynamic behavior of proteins using pulse labeling and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. For electron microscopy, cellular and antigenic preservation has been improved with the use of cryofixation and freeze-substitution. The technologies described here advance Tetrahymena cell biology to the cutting-edge of cytological analysis. PMID:22444152

  11. Identification and Validation of Nebulized Aerosol Devices for Sputum Induction

    Warren J Davidson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Induced sputum cell counts are a noninvasive and reliable method for evaluating the presence, type and degree of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Currently, standard nebulizer devices used for sputum induction in multiple patients are labelled as single-patient devices by the manufacturer, which conflicts with infection prevention and control requirements. As such, these devices cannot feasibly be used in a clinical sputum induction program. Therefore, there is a need to identify alternative nebulizer devices that are either disposable or labelled for multi-patient use.

  12. Association between Pulmonary Function and Sputum Biomarkers in Cystic Fibrosis

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Aitken, Moira L.; Accurso, Frank J.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Konstan, Michael W.; Burns, Jane L.; Sagel, Scott D.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Sputum biomarkers of infection and inflammation are noninvasive measures that enable quantification of the complex pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Validation of these biomarkers as correlates of disease severity is a key step for their application.

  13. Interrelationship between serum and sputum inflammatory mediators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    L. Bizeto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about airway inflammatory markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective of the present study was to identify and try to correlate pulmonary and peripheral blood inflammatory markers in COPD. In a cross-sectional study on patients with stable COPD, induced sputum and blood samples were collected for the determination of C-reactive protein, eosinophilic cationic protein, serum amyloid A protein, a-1 antitrypsin (a-1AT, and neutrophil elastase. Twenty-two patients were divided into two groups according to post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second (%FEV1: group 1 (N = 12, FEV1 <40% and group 2 (N = 10, FEV1 ³40%. An increase in serum elastase, eosinophilic cationic protein and a-1AT was observed in serum markers in both groups. Cytology revealed the same total number of cells in groups 1 and 2. There was a significantly higher number of neutrophils in group 1 compared to group 2 (P < 0.05. No difference in eosinophils or macrophages was observed between groups. Serum elastase was positively correlated with serum a-1AT (group 1, r = 0.81, P < 0.002 and group 2, r = 0.83, P < 0.17 and negatively correlated with FEV1 (r = -0.85, P < 0.03 and -0.14, P < 0.85, respectively. The results indicate the presence of chronic and persistent pulmonary inflammation in stable patients with COPD. Induced sputum permitted the demonstration of the existence of a subpopulation of cells in which neutrophils predominated. The serum concentration of all inflammatory markers did not correlate with the pulmonary functional impairment.

  14. Randomized trial interpreting sputum quality in a clinical laboratory.

    Mizrachi, H H; Valenstein, P N

    1987-01-01

    The role for laboratory interpretation of microbiologic results remains controversial, and many laboratories leave the interpretation of culture results entirely to physicians. We examined the effects of furnishing a laboratory interpretation of sputum quality on physician decision making. Quality of sputum was determined on Gram-stained smears by using a modification of the criteria of Bartlett (R. C. Bartlett, Medical Microbiology: Quality, Cost, and Clinical Relevance, p. 24-31, 1974). A t...

  15. Chlorhexidine decontamination of sputum for culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, after effective decontamination. Results: We evaluated squalamine and chlorhexidine to decontaminate sputum specimens for the culture of mycobacteria. Eight sputum specimens were artificially infected with 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans as contaminants. In the s...

  16. Thioredoxin liquefies and decreases the viscoelasticity of cystic fibrosis sputum.

    Rancourt, Raymond C; Tai, Shusheng; King, Malcolm; Heltshe, Sonya L; Penvari, Churee; Accurso, Frank J; White, Carl W

    2004-05-01

    The persistent and viscous nature of airway secretions in cystic fibrosis (CF) disease leads to airway obstruction, opportunistic infection, and deterioration of lung function. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a protein disulfide reductase that catalyzes numerous thiol-dependent cellular reductive processes. To determine whether Trx can alter the rheological properties of mucus, sputum obtained from CF patients was treated with TRX and its reducing system (0.1 microM thioredoxin reductase + 2 mM NADPH), and liquid phase-gel phase ratio (percent liquid phase) was assessed by compaction assay. Exposure to low Trx concentrations (1 microM) caused significant increases in the percentage of liquid phase of sputum. Maximal increases in percent liquid phase occurred with 30 microM Trx. Additional measurements revealed that sputum liquefaction by the Trx reducing system is dependent on NADPH concentration. The relative potency of the Trx reducing system also was compared with other disulfide-reducing agents. In contrast with Trx, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine were ineffective in liquefying sputum when used at concentrations mucus, we suggest that Trx alters sputum rheology by enzymatic reduction of glycoprotein polymers present in sputum. PMID:14695120

  17. CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GELATINOUS ASCITES

    Samith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a condition characte rized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the peritoneal cavity (gela tinous ascites. Pseudomyxoma peritonei is an uncommon condition in which mucinous ascites causes progressive abdominal distension and gastrointestina l dysfunction. We present a case of 44 year old female who presented with gradually progres sive abdominal distension since 6 months. An ascitic tap was performed and the fluid wa s sent for cytological study. Cytology showed pools of acellular mucin. On laparotomy there was mucinous material in the abdomen that was evacuated. Appendix and omentum were found t o be thickened, hence appendicectomy was done and omental biopsy taken. Histopathological diagnosis of well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix with rupture and mucinous ascitis was made.

  18. Vulval schwannoma: A cytological diagnosis

    Das Subhashish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumors, the frequent sites of involvement being the head and neck, the flexor aspect of the limbs, especially near the elbow, wrist, knee, and trunk. Involvement of the female genital tract is extremely rare. We present one such rare case of a solitary vulval schwannoma which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology in a 48 year-old female, and confirmed by histopathological examination.

  19. Impression Cytology with Transfer in xerophthalmia and conjunctival diseases.

    Resnikoff, S; Luzeau, R; Filliard, G; Amedee-Manesme, O

    1992-11-01

    During a countrywide survey, we assessed the prevalence of clinical signs of xerophthalmia and of major conjunctival diseases in a randomized sample of 2,445 subjects representative of the population of the Republic of Djibouti. On a part of this sample, conjunctival Impression Cytology with Transfer (ICT) test and a plasma retinol determination were performed. Xerophthalmia as a public health problem was displayed by clinical signs (Bitot's spots, corneal scars among preschool children), low plasma retinol levels and ICT test results: 9.3% with deficient cytology in the rural area and 12.3% in the urban one (age-standardized rates). Results of ICT were related to age (p children but also up to 15 years. Moreover, ICT results are influenced by conjunctival diseases: compared to age-matched controls, there were more abnormal cytologies among patients with trachomatous inflammation (p = 0.025), conjunctivitis (p = 0.024) or Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (p = 0.015). Thus ICT shouldn't be performed among children with conjunctival diseases. In the region under study conjunctival diseases had high rates of prevalence: 16.4% of trachomatous scarrings in the urban area (standardized rate), 8% of conjunctivitis among rural preschool children, and 5% of Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis among children between 5 and 14 years in both areas. PMID:1490836

  20. Inter-Rater Agreement of Anal Cytology

    Darragh, Teresa M.; Tokugawa, Diane; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; LaMere, Brandon J.; Schwartz, Lauren; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most anal cancers are caused by persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV). Similar to cervical carcinogenesis, the progression from HPV infection to anal cancer goes through precancerous lesions that can be treated to prevent invasion. In analogy to cervical cytology, anal cytology has been proposed as a screening tool for anal cancer precursors in high-risk populations. We analyzed the inter-observer reproducibility of anal cytology in a population of 363 HIV-infec...

  1. CSF cytology versus immunocytochemistry in meningeal carcinomatosis.

    Boogerd, W; Vroom, T M; van Heerde, P; Brutel de la Rivière, G; Peterse, J L; van der Sande, J J

    1988-01-01

    CSF immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies was compared with conventional cytology to determine its sensitivity in detecting malignant cells in patients with meningeal carcinomatosis. One hundred and eighteen samples were investigated. Cytology was tumour positive in 83 samples and immunocytochemistry in 85. Dissimilar results between the two diagnostic methods were noted in 12 specimens, invariably occurring in samples with a low cell count and obtained from treated patients. Combined use of the two methods led to a 9% increase of sensitivity in detecting malignant cells compared with cytology alone. It is concluded that immunocytochemistry is of minor help in the problem of false-negative cytology in meningeal carcinomatosis. PMID:2832546

  2. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography

  3. CORRELATION OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY WITH BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE AND BRUSH SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN PULMONARY LESIONS

    Surabhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL and Brush Cytology are important diagnostic tools for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. Considering the limitations of these procedures correlation of these cytological techniques may help in improving accuracy and increasing the diagnostic yield. AIM: To determine the role of FNAC, Brush and BAL Cytology in pulmonary lesions and to correlate the efficacy of FNAC with Brush and BAL Cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 78 patients with radiologically demonstrable pulmonary lesions in the department of pathology and Dr ML Chest Hospital, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur over a period from nov2011-july2013. The cases selected had to give consent for the procedure. Bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brush sample were taken and FNAC was done in the cases. RESULTS: In present study 78 cases of pulmonary lesions were subjected to FNAC and/ or Bronchoalveolar lavage and brush cytology. Among them 49 cases were selected in which all three procedures were done. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting lung tumors by FNAC was 96.29% and 95.45% which was more than that of BAL cytology (84.61%, 91.30% and Brush cytology (81.48%, 95.45%. FNA correlates with Brush and BAL cytology in 78.57% of malignant lesions. Among malignant lesions 84.61% of BAL and Brush cytology correlates with FNA for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. FNA correlates with 66.67% of brush and 83.37% of BAL fluid cytology for diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. BAL and Brush both correlates with FNA in 83.33% cases of small cell carcinoma. Overall 85.71% of BAL and 82.14% of brush smear cytology correlates with FNA cytology for diagnosis of lung cancers. CONCLUSIONS: FNA, BAL and Brush cytology provide a high yield for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. BAL fluid and brush cytology correlated well with FNAC for diagnosis of lung cancers.

  4. EXAMINATION OF SPUTUM SEDIMENT PARAFFIN SECTION OF DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG CANCER

    翁俊良; 申延琴; 黄杰雄; 马琼凤; 黄致治

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the rapid and accurate methods for detecting cancer cells from the sputum of patients with lung cancer. Methods: Sputum sediment section examination and sputum smear examination were performed. For 142 cases of lung cancer patients diagnosed by bronchia fibrous lens and confirmed by pathologic diagnosis. Results: (a) The positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer cell was 71.83% (102/142) when using sputum sediment examination while that was 32.39% (46/142) when using sputum smear examination, when using sputum sediment examination jointly with sputum smear examination, the positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer was 91.55% (130/142). According to the positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer, the sputum sediment examination was significantly higher than sputum smear examination (P<0.001), joint examination of both of them was significantly higher than the single sputum sediment examination (P<0.001); (b) As to the histopathological types of lung cancers, 66 cases could be identified among 102 cases whom were confirmed by sputum sediment examination, the identification rate was 64.71%; and 8 cases could be identified among 46 cases whom were confirmed by sputum smear examination, with an identification rate of 17.39%, it was significantly lower than that by sputum sediment examination (P<0.001); (c) Immunohistochemistry technique could be used in the sections of sputum sediment to identify some histopathological types which could not be identified by routine HE stain, with an identification rate of 94.44% (34/36). Conclusion: the sputum sediment examination has some advantages compared to the sputum smear examination such as the specimen may include more materials, the higher cancer cell identification positive rate and immunohistochemistry method can be used to identify the histopathological type.

  5. Sputum mediator profiling and relationship to airway wall geometry imaging in severe asthma

    Desai Dhananjay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease and the relationship between airway inflammation and airway remodelling is poorly understood. We sought to define sputum mediator profiles in severe asthmatics categorised by CT-determined airway geometry and sputum differential cell counts. Methods In a single centre cross-sectional observational study we recruited 59 subjects with severe asthma that underwent sputum induction and thoracic CT. Quantitative CT analysis of the apical segment of the right upper lobe (RB1 was performed. Forty-one mediators in sputum samples were measured of which 21 mediators that were assessable in >50% of samples were included in the analyses. Results Independent of airway geometry, sputum MMP9 and IL-1β were elevated in those groups with a high sputum neutrophil count while sputum ICAM was elevated in those subjects with a low sputum neutrophil count. In contrast, sputum CCL11, IL-1α and fibrinogen were different in groups stratified by both sputum neutrophil count and airway geometry. Sputum CCL11 concentration was elevated in subjects with a low sputum neutrophil count and high luminal and total RB1 area, whereas sputum IL1α was increased in subjects with a high sputum neutrophil count and low total RB1 area. Sputum fibrinogen was elevated in those subjects with RB1 luminal narrowing and in those subjects with neutrophilic inflammation without luminal narrowing. Conclusions We have demonstrated that sputum mediator profiling reveals a number of associations with airway geometry. Whether these findings reflect important biological phenotypes that might inform stratified medicine approaches requires further investigation.

  6. Differential cytology of cervical neoplasias

    Koenig, Rainer; Bergander, S.

    1990-11-01

    In the context of the early recognition of cervical cancer the cytology has to detect tumor positive cases among a bulk of un suspicious specimens. Unfortunately there is a group of cases with a vague diaxosis, the so called PAP-ill-group. There are many reasons for the recent impossibility of a safe conclusion from the PAP-Ill-smears to their histological diagnoses (Pig. 1). Today for an exact statement a cone biopsy and a microscopical investigation of its histological sections for such caseS are necessary. That results in a high medical and economical expense and, last not least, that means a higher risk of complications and of future family planning problems for the women affected.

  7. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis. PMID:26596046

  8. INCIDENTAL DETECTION OF MICROFILARAE IN CYTOLOGICAL SMEARS

    Parul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a major health problem in endemic areas like India. Detection of microfilaria in cytological smear is unusual and association with malignancy is more uncommon. We present ten cases where microfilaria detected incidentally during examination of cytologi cal samples. Eight of them are benign disease entities while two are malignant in nature. CONCLUSION : Microfilaria is public health problem in tropical region of South - East - Asia including Indian subcontinent. Cytology smear can be a very sensitive and cost effective tool for detection of helminthic etiology in unexplained infective pathology and to provide correct treatment.

  9. Measurement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazine pigments in sputum and assessment of their contribution to sputum sol toxicity for respiratory epithelium.

    Wilson, R.; Sykes, D A; Watson, D.; Rutman, A.; Taylor, G.W.; Cole, P J

    1988-01-01

    The phenazine pigments pyocyanin and 1-hydroxyphenazine were resolved by high-pressure liquid chromatography from the sputum sol phase from 9 of 13 patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The concentrations measured were each sufficient to inhibit ciliary beating in vitro and contributed a significant proportion of sol phase toxicity for respiratory epithelium.

  10. TB-SA antibody test for diagnosis and monitoring treatment outcome of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    Li, Xinxu; Xu, Hancheng; Jiang, Shiwen; Jing, Kuanhe; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Weibin; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lixia

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the TB-SA antibody test to diagnose tuberculosis in sputum smear negative (SS-) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and its applicability for monitoring treatment outcomes in these patients. This study was conducted in three counties/districts in Chongqing Municipality, Liaoning Province, China between June 2005 and June 2007. A total of 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients were recruited and their blood was collected prior to treatment, at the end of 1 month of treatment, 2 months of treatment and 6 months of treatment (E6MT). The serum samples were analyzed with a TB-SA antibody test kit. Of the 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients, serum samples were obtained at all time points in 316 patients and analyzed. The 316 patients were divided into three groups according to sputum smear and sputum culture results and the chest X-ray results before treatment and at E6MT. Ten point four percent were SS-/culture positive (C+), 73.1% were SS-/culture negative (C-) with X-rays abnormalities, and 16.5% were SS-/C- without X-rays abnormalities. The positive rates for TB-SA antibody in the three groups were 57.6, 44.6 and 44.2%, respectively, before treatment, and 18.2, 19.1 and 26.9%, respectively, at E6MT. There was a significant decrease in TB-SA antibody positivity with treatment for all 3 groups. The TB-SA antibody test may be a useful adjunct to diagnose tuberculosis in SS- pulmonary TB patients, and may be useful for monitoring treatment outcomes of SS- pulmonary TB patients. PMID:22299440

  11. Touch imprint cytology of prostate core needle biopsy specimens: A useful method for immediate reporting of prostate cancer

    Berna Aytac

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: TIC smears can provide an immediate and reliable cytological diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. It may clearly help the rapid detection of carcinoma, particularly in highly suspected cases that had negative routine biopsy results for malignancy with abnormal serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels and atypical digital rectal examination.

  12. Role of scrape cytology in ovarian neoplasms

    Rao Shalinee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the role of scrape cytology in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasm and its utilization for teaching pathology residents. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on 50 solid/solid-cystic ovarian neoplasms sent in 10% buffered formalin. Scrapings obtained from the fresh cut surface of tumors were smeared uniformly on to glass slides, immediately fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology has been satisfactory with 92% of cases correlating with the final diagnosis. Characteristic cytological pattern was noted in various types of surface epithelial, sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors. The technique had limited value in mucinous tumors to distinguish borderline cases from invasive carcinoma. Two mucinous carcinomas were diagnosed as borderline mucinous tumor and two endometrioid carcinomas were misinterpreted as cystadenocarcinoma on scrape cytology. Formalin did not interfere or produce any remarkable changes in cytomorphology. Conclusions: Scrape cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate, inexpensive adjunctive cytodiagnostic technique and its routine utilization in ovarian lesions could aid in expanding the cytological knowledge of ovarian neoplasms.

  13. Congenital Abnormalities

    ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase the risk that a baby will be born with abnormalities (e.g. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders ). Eating raw or uncooked foods during pregnancy can also be dangerous to health of the ...

  14. The cytological diagnosis and prognosis of malignization of cervical epithelium of uterus in pregnant women.

    Sumenko V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation is dedicated to the study of the pathological alterations of cervical epithelium of uterus, proliferative activity in the lesion focuses and the improvement of cytological diagnosis of the state of cervical epithelium of uterus. The correlation between the proliferative processes in abnormal epithelium of uterine cervix and some pathological factors of the pregnant women organism was studied. The criteria for prognosis of the cervical epithelial dysplasia in pregnant women w...

  15. Integrated cervical smear screening using liquid based cytology and bioimpedance analysis

    Das, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Tandra; Ashok K Maiti; Naskar, Sukla; Das, Soumen; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To minimize the false negativity in cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) test, there is a need to explore novel cytological technique and identification of unique and important cellular features from the perspectives of morphological as well as biophysical properties. Materials and Methods: The present study explores the feasibility of low-cost cervical monolayer techniques in extracting cyto-pathological features to classify normal and abnormal conditions. The cervica...

  16. Integrated cervical smear screening using liquid based cytology and bioimpedance analysis

    Lopamudra Das; Tandra Sarkar; Maiti, Ashok K.; Sukla Naskar; Soumen Das; Jyotirmoy Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To minimize the false negativity in cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) test, there is a need to explore novel cytological technique and identification of unique and important cellular features from the perspectives of morphological as well as biophysical properties. Materials and Methods: The present study explores the feasibility of low-cost cervical monolayer techniques in extracting cyto-pathological features to classify normal and abnormal conditions. The cer...

  17. The changes and significance of T cell subsets and cytokines in the induced sputum in children with asthma

    Zu-Hui Tian; Feng-Qiong Zuo; Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes and significance of T cell subsets and cytokines in the induced sputum in children with asthma.Methods:A total of 86 cases of children with asthma were selected as research objects in the observation group, while a total of 35 cases of healthy children were chosen as research objects in the control group. Lung function indexes including the ratio (FEV1%) of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) and the maximum peak expiratory flow (PEF), and inflammatory cytokines in the induced sputum including interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and T cell subsets including Th1 cells, CD8+CD28- Treg cells, CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, Th2 cells and Th17 cells, and T cell subsets related cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were all detected and compared between the two groups.Results:The levels of IL-8, TNF-α and IL-6 in the induced sputum in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), while FEV1% and PEF were significantly decreased in the observation group compared with the control group (P<0.05); the number of Th1 cells, CD8+CD28- Treg cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in the induced sputum was significantly lower, while the number of Th2 cells and Th17 cells was significantly higher in the observation group than that in the control group (P<0.05); the expression levels of IFN-γ from Th1 cells and TGF-β from Treg cells were significantly lower, while the expression levels of IL-4 from Th2 cells and IL-17A from Th17 cells were significantly higher in the observation group than those in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The number of T cell subsets in the induced sputum in children with asthma is abnormal, showing increases in the number of the Th2 cells and Th17 cells as well as their related cytokines, and decreases in the

  18. DETECTION OF GENE MUTATION IN SPUTUM OF LUNG CANCER PATIENT

    ZHANG He-long; WANG Wen-liang; CUI Da-xiang

    1999-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor, which has ahigh incidence and mortality rate. Therefore, it is necessary to seek a new method for the diagnosis, especially the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The development of molecular biology makes the gene diagnosis of lung cancer possible.PCR-SSCP was applied to detect p53 gene mutation of lung cancer patients' sputum cells and we have achieved good results.

  19. Acid-fast microscopy on polycarbonate membrane filter sputum sediments.

    Smithwick, R W; Stratigos, C B

    1981-01-01

    Polycarbonate membrane filters were used to concentrate 916 sputum specimens for detecting acid-fast bacilli by microscopic examination. These results were compared with those of smears prepared from centrifugates and direct smears of the same specimens. Culture isolation, the control procedure, demonstrated the presence of acid-fast bacilli in 76 specimens. The number of positive specimens detected by microscopy was 82 on polycarbonate membrane filter concentrates, with an 80.2% sensitivity;...

  20. Evaluation of a safe sputum processing method for detecting tuberculosis.

    Rattan, A; K. Kishore; Singh, S; Jaber, M; Xess, I; Kumar, R.

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate a safe sputum processing method for detection of tuberculosis in developing countries. METHODS--A sample processing method was developed in which acid fast bacilli were killed with 1% sodium hypochlorite and concentrated by flotation on a layer of xylene before staining by the Ziehl Neelsen or auramine O methods. RESULTS--Best results were obtained by auramine O staining after flotation. Staining by the Ziehl Neelsen method after flotation gave better results than direct Zie...

  1. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Catherine Tribouley; Zuzana Diamant; J. Diderik Boot; Cohen, Adam F; K. Van Dyck; De Lepeleire, I; Veronica M. Rivas; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Jacobus Burggraaf; Marcella K. Ruddy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects. Objectives: To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints meas...

  2. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Tribouley, Catherine; Diamant, Zuzana; Boot, J. Diderik; Cohen, Adam F; K. Van Dyck; De Lepeleire, I; Veronica M. Rivas; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Marcella K. Ruddy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects.Objectives: To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints measu...

  3. Spontaneous and induced sputum values in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis

    Katayoun Haji Bagheri; Shahla Afrasiabian; Behzad Mohsenpour; Naser Reshadmanesh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The quality of sputum samples is important for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Unfortunately, it is not always possible to get a proper sputum sample. Now, sputum induction (SI) has been found to be useful for the diagnosis of many lung diseases. Therefore, this study compares the role of spontaneous sputum and induced sputum in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB among suspected pulmonary TB patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 27 patients admitted with suspected p...

  4. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  5. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  6. Cytology of 2n Pollen Formation in Nonastringent Persimmon

    TANG Xian-ying; LUO Zheng-rong

    2002-01-01

    Cytological mechanisms of 2n pollen formation in ‘Zenjimaru' nonastringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. ) were studied. The following abnormalities in meiosis were found to be responsible for the production of 2n pollens: (1) disoriented spindles, including parallel, fused and tripolar spindles, were formed at metaphase Ⅱ and anaphase Ⅱ; (2) the nuclei at telophase Ⅱ were arranged to two poles, each of which contained two nuclei, or to three poles, one of which contained two nuclei, the other two contained one nucleus respectively; (3) dyads and triads were produced at the tetrad stage. The dyad would develop into two 2n pollens, and the triad would develop into one 2n and two n pollens. The 2n pollens produced by this mechanism were genetically equivalent to FDR (first division restitution) gametes, thus providing a potential value for sexual polyploidization.

  7. On the analysis of tuberculosis studies with intermittent missing sputum data

    Scharfstein, Daniel; Rotnitzky, Andrea; Abraham, Maria; McDermott, Aidan; Chaisson, Richard; Geiter, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    In randomized studies evaluating treatments for tuberculosis (TB), individuals are scheduled to be routinely evaluated for the presence of TB using sputum cultures. One important endpoint in such studies is the time of culture conversion, the first visit at which a patient's sputum culture is negative and remains negative. This article addresses how to draw inference about treatment effects when sputum cultures are intermittently missing on some patients. We discuss inference under a novel be...

  8. Paraffin Sections of Sputum Block: Description of a New Method for Pathological and Molecular Study

    Rahmani, Arshad; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Khadri, Habeeb; Rizvi, Moshahid A; Mandal, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to enhance the scope of sputum analysis by using it as a clinical tool in gene/protein expression, by making the paraffin embedded blocks. Methodology: The specimens were prepared as smear and cell blocks for cytopathologic examination. The preparation of paraffin-embedded block from sputum samples employs fixation and dehydration of the cell specimens. The sputum specimen is first exposed to a suitable fixating agent, Formalin, and graded acetone was employed to ...

  9. NASAL cytology: practical aspects and clinical relevance.

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Quaranta, N; Landi, M; Passalacqua, G

    2016-06-01

    Nasal cytology is a simple and safe diagnostic procedure that allows to assess the normal and pathological aspects of the nasal mucosa, by identifying and counting the cell types and their morphology. It can be easily performed by a nasal scraping followed by May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining and optical microscopy reading. This procedure allows to identify the normal cells (ciliated and mucinous), the inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells), bacteria, or fungal hyphae/spores. Apart from the normal cell population, some specific cytological patterns can be of help in discriminating among various diseases. Viral infections, allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis and overlapping forms can be easily identified. According to the predominant cell type, various entities can be defined (named as NARES, NARESMA, NARMA). This implies a more detailed knowledge and assessment of the disease that can integrate the standard diagnostic procedures. Nasal cytology also represents a useful research tool for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27009397

  10. Cytology result entry without using the keyboard.

    Aller, R D; DeWitt, C

    1994-01-01

    Many keystrokes are needed to enter routine gynecologic cytology results into many computer systems. Not only is this quite time consuming, but typing errors cannot be avoided and are not always detected before the report is sent to the clinician. Because of continuing shortages of staff time and the desire to avoid transcription errors, we began using $400 bar code wands to enter cytology results and billing information. No changes in our laboratory information system software or tables were necessary. Accession number labels are preprinted on a stand-alone printer. Bar code sheets, containing common keystroke sequences, are printed using a standard Macintosh computer and Laserwriter printer. Scanning the bar codes exactly emulates those keystrokes typed on the keyboard. We have entered the results of > 99% of our gynecologic cytology cases in the past two years without touching the keyboard. PMID:8091908

  11. Dyspnea assessment and adverse events during sputum induction in COPD

    Moschandreas Joanna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of normal or hypertonic saline during sputum induction (SI may act as an indirect bronchoconstrictive stimulus leading to dyspnea and lung function deterioration. Our aim was to assess dyspnea and adverse events in COPD patients who undergo SI following a safety protocol. Methods Sputum was induced by normal and hypertonic (4.5% saline solution in 65 patients with COPD of varying severity. In order to minimize saline-induced bronchoconstriction a protocol based on the European Respiratory Society sputum induction Task group report was followed. Dyspnea change was scored using the Borg scale and lung function was assessed by spirometry and oximetry. Results Borg score changes [median(IQR 1.5(0–2] were observed during SI in 40 subjects; 16 patients required temporary discontinuation of the procedure due to dyspnea-general discomfort and 2 did not complete the session due to dyspnea-wheezing. The change in Borg dyspnea score was significantly correlated with oxygen saturation and heart rate changes and with discontinuation of the procedure due to undesired symptoms. 19 subjects presented an hyperresponsive reaction (decline>20% from baseline FEV1. No significant correlation between Borg changes and FEV1decline was found. Patients with advanced COPD presented significantly greater Borg and oxygen saturation changes than patients with less severe disease (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001, respectively. Baseline FEV1, oxygen saturation and 6MWT demonstrated significant diagnostic values in distinguishing subjects who develop an adverse physiologic reaction during the procedure. Conclusion COPD patients undergoing SI following a safety protocol do not experience major adverse events. Dyspnea and oxygen desaturation is more likely to occur in patients with disease in advanced stages, leading to short discontinuation or less frequently to termination of the procedure. Baseline FEV1, oxygen saturation and 6MWT may have a

  12. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased respiratory disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protects the lung against tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure is associated with changes in airway AAT concentration and whether...... selenium positively associated with sputum AAT (P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively). In analyses stratified by town, these relationships remained significant only in Ajo, with the higher arsenic exposure. Reduction in AAT may be a means by which arsenic induces respiratory disease, and selenium may protect...

  13. AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN PAP STAIN IN THE SPUTUM OF SUSPECTED PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND COMPARE WITH OTHER AFB STAINS

    Mani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affect lungs and can also affect intestine, meninges, bones and Joints, lymph node, skin and other tissues of the body. There are various methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, such as sputum examination of tubercular bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, demonstration of tubercular bacilli by Auramine–Rhodamine staining and culture in LJ medium. Papanicolaou stain is widely used in routine cytological evaluation of samples derived from the respiratory tract and eosin to be responsible for the autofluorescence. MATERIAL AND METHOD Present study was done clinically suspected tubercular patients from January to July 2015. On all received samples ZN stain, fluorescent stain and PAP stain was applied. RESULT Among the clinically suspected patients 650 (35.35% was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Male-to-female ratio was 2.76:1, Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 315 (16.75% cases with Ziehl-Neelsen staining with fluorescent staining in 611 (32.79% cases and Autofluorescence in 650 (35.35% cases. CONCLUSION In present study, fever was chief clinical complaint. Males are more diagnosed with tuberculosis than females. Autofluorescent staining is slightly more sensitive than the Auramine–Rhodamine and more ZN staining in demonstration of AFB in the samples.

  14.  A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules

    Prathvi Shetty; Divakar Shenoy; P. Sathyamoorthy Aithala; Celine George; Hilda Fernandes; Lobo, Geover J.; Leo F. Tauro

    2012-01-01

     Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC/FNA) is the primary investigation for thyroid nodules. Fine needle capillary cytology (FNCC/FNC) is an alternative technique not commonly used, though it is easy to perform. Both the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to compare these two cytological techniques for better specimen and cytological diagnosis.Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients attending the FR Muller Medical College ...

  15. Hybrid capture vs. PCR screening of cervical human papilloma virus infections. Cytological and histological associations in 1270 women

    We evaluated two molecular methods of HPV detection and their correlation with cytological and histological diagnosis in a large sample of Greek women. All women with liquid-based cytology performed at a University Hospital between 2000 and 2003 were included. The Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) kit and in house Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were used for HPV DNA detection. Cervical biopsy was performed for women with ASCUS+ cytology, HPV detection, or abnormal colposcopy. Positive (PLR) and negative (NLR) likelihood ratios were calculated for cytology and HPV molecular testing for the prediction of CIN2 and greater histology. Of the 1270 women evaluated 241 (18.5%) had abnormal cytology. Cytology diagnosed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or invasive carcinoma in 21(1.7%) cases whereas 26 (2%) women had CIN2+ or greater histology. PCR detected HPV in 397/1270 (31.3%) and HC2 in 260/1270 (20.4%) samples. Both molecular tests exhibited high reproducibility (Cohen's kappa value 0.691, 95% CI: 0.664 - 0.718). Positive likelihood ratios (PLR) of 9.4, 3.8 and 3.4 and negative likelihood ratios of 0.13, 0.21, and 0 were noted for ≥ LSIL, any positive HC2 or any positive PCR-HPV testing, for predicting CIN2+ histology, respectively. All CIN 3+ lesions harbored high risk oncogenic HPV type infections. HPV infection was found in a large proportion of this population and was associated with CIN 2/3 lesions and infiltrating carcinomas. Thin prep testing and HPV detection by HC2 or PCR performed very well with regards to identifying high grade lesions in an environment with experienced examiners

  16. Hybrid capture vs. PCR screening of cervical human papilloma virus infections. Cytological and histological associations in 1270 women

    Tsivilika Angeliki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated two molecular methods of HPV detection and their correlation with cytological and histological diagnosis in a large sample of Greek women. Methods All women with liquid-based cytology performed at a University Hospital between 2000 and 2003 were included. The Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 kit and in house Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR were used for HPV DNA detection. Cervical biopsy was performed for women with ASCUS+ cytology, HPV detection, or abnormal colposcopy. Positive (PLR and negative (NLR likelihood ratios were calculated for cytology and HPV molecular testing for the prediction of CIN2 and greater histology. Results Of the 1270 women evaluated 241 (18.5% had abnormal cytology. Cytology diagnosed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL or invasive carcinoma in 21(1.7% cases whereas 26 (2% women had CIN2+ or greater histology. PCR detected HPV in 397/1270 (31.3% and HC2 in 260/1270 (20.4% samples. Both molecular tests exhibited high reproducibility (Cohen's kappa value 0.691, 95% CI: 0.664 - 0.718. Positive likelihood ratios (PLR of 9.4, 3.8 and 3.4 and negative likelihood ratios of 0.13, 0.21, and 0 were noted for ≥ LSIL, any positive HC2 or any positive PCR-HPV testing, for predicting CIN2+ histology, respectively. All CIN 3+ lesions harbored high risk oncogenic HPV type infections. Conclusions HPV infection was found in a large proportion of this population and was associated with CIN 2/3 lesions and infiltrating carcinomas. Thin prep testing and HPV detection by HC2 or PCR performed very well with regards to identifying high grade lesions in an environment with experienced examiners.

  17. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise

  18. Cytologic diagnosis of diseases of hedgehogs.

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Garner, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on neoplastic diseases because they may be the most frequent disease processes in captive hedgehogs according to the literature and authors' case files and the most common cases submitted for cytologic diagnosis in these species, particularly the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). PMID:17198959

  19. Spill pleural: Clinical and cytological characteristics

    The spill pleural is a frequent entity in congestive heart failure. The congestive heart failure, is probable that the cause more common of pleural spill, an analysis of the spill causes is made, the pathology is revised from the clinical point of view, highlighting the most excellent characteristics in each entity and an cytological analysis is made

  20. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    Allison G. White

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb. To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteriodetes (12% were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%, Prevotellaceae (12% and Veillonellacea (7% being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  1. Microbiome diversity in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Krishna, P; Jain, A; Bisen, P S

    2016-07-01

    TB is a worldwide pandemic. India has the highest burden of TB, with WHO statistics for 2013 giving an estimated incidence figure of 2.1 million cases for India out of a global incidence of 9 million. Microbiota have been shown to be associated with many disease conditions; however, only few studies have been reported for microbiota associated with TB infection. For the first time, we characterized the composition of microbiota of TB patients of India, using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and compared it with healthy controls. Phylum-level analysis showed that the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was significantly higher in TB samples and Neisseria and Veillonella were two dominant genera after Streptococcus. In our study, significantly different core genera in TB and normal population were found as compared with the reported studies. Also, the presence of diverse opportunistic pathogenic microbiota in TB patients increases the complexity and diversity of sputum microbiota. Characterization of the sputum microbiome is likely to provide important pathogenic insights into pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:27142586

  2. 液基细胞学检测在肺癌诊断中的价值%Clinical Value of Liquid-based Cytology Test in Brushing Examination of Patients with Lung Cancer

    陈玉娟

    2011-01-01

    液基细胞学检测(LCT)是在传统细胞涂片的基础上,从标本收集、保存、制片、染色到诊断等各方面进行了重大改进,已成功应用于宫颈细胞学诊断.用于肺癌的细胞学诊断报道并不多,液基细胞学可以检测肺癌患者不同标本(包括脱落细胞学、黏膜刷检细胞学、肺泡灌洗和针吸细胞学等)的敏感度和符合率,现就LCT在肺癌诊断中的价值予以综述.%Liquid-based cytology test ( LCT ) was developed greatly based on coventional smear in sample collection, sample preservation, staining method, preparation method and diagnosis. It has been applied for cervical cytological diagnosis successfully. However, there are few reports about LCT for cytological diagnosis of lung cancer at present. Here is to review the research progress of LCT applied in cytological diagnosis of patients with lung cancer by detecting sputum, pleural effusion, bronchial brushing specimen, bronchioalveolar lavage fluid and find needle aspiration cytology.

  3. A comparative analysis of conventional Pap smear cytology, liquid based cytology and colposcopy clinical impression with colposcopy biopsy histology as gold standard in women undergoing colposcopy in Kenyatta National Hospital

    Macharia H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Results: A total of 73 patients referred with abnormal pap smears were recruited into the study. The mean age of the patients was 38 yrs (SD ±10. About 45% of the patients interviewed did not have knowledge of Pap smear testing. Both the results of referral Pap smear and repeat pap smear were predominantly low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL or HGSIL. With biopsy results being the gold standard, Liquid based cytology had a higher specificity of 75% when compared with conventional pap smears’ 11%. Conclusions: Even though colposcopy clinical impression has the highest agreement with colposcopy biopsy it’s a diagnostic and not a screening test, hence Liquid based cytology showed better performance as a screening test compared to conventional Pap smear. In general, there was good agreement for cytological results of repeat CPAP and LBC. We therefore recommend that for patients referred with abnormal pap smears requiring a repeat pap smear, liquid based cytology is used due to its higher specificity compared to conventional Pap smear. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 58-63

  4. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  5. The dynamic motion of pseudo-sputum mucin solution on a vibrating plate.

    Tarao, Norio; Takagi, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    The motion of pseudo-sputum (20% solution of mucin) on a vibrating plate has been investigated using a function generator and an amplifier. Many finger-like liquid columns have appeared at appropriate frequencies (100-130 Hz) from a droplet of the solution on a vibrating plate. The viscosity of the mucin solution was measured using a capillary viscometer of the Maron-Krieger-Sisko type, and it was shown that the shear-thinning viscosity occurred in the lower frequency region contrary to the fact that the most abnormal viscosity of the rheological dilatancy fluid emerges in higher frequency than the frequency in which it behaves the normal one; the most important mechanical cause of this soliton-like phenomenon or the emergence of finger-like column and wrinkles on the surface of fluid is thought to be the rheological dilatancy (shear-thickening viscosity) of source liquid. In connection with this vibrating liquid column phenomenon, the spectrums of productive cough were also investigated, and it was proved that the effective low frequency vibration, which is a characteristic spectrum of productive cough, is essential for the expectoration and is a similar mechanism to the above-mentioned pug mechanism of the finger-like liquid columns seen on the vibrating plate. PMID:18367821

  6. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Decaprariis Donato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling. In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season, the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively, with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8% out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to

  7. Quantitative differences in sputum smear microscopy results for acid-fast bacilli by age and sex in four countries

    Rieder, H L; Lauritsen, Jens; Naranbat, N;

    2009-01-01

    To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results.......To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results....

  8. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double...... week of high-dose ICS therapy and increased with time. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that eosinophilic airway inflammation may be important in modifying the severity of EIB and the response to ICS therapy. Measurements of sputum eosinophil percentage may, therefore, be useful in predicting the...... and sputum analysis were performed. RESULTS: Data were pooled and demonstrated that 10 subjects had baseline sputum eosinophilia >or= 5%. Only high-dose ICS therapy (ie, 160 and 320 microg) significantly attenuated the sputum eosinophil percentage. Sputum eosinophil percentage significantly correlated...

  9. Detection of five tumor markers in lung cancer by trypsin digestion of sputum method

    To explore the detection of five tumor markers by trypsin digestion of sputum in the diagnosis of lung cancer, the samples of sputum in patients with lung cancer and benign lung disease were digested by trypsin and used to measure five tumor markers. The results showed that the sputum were well digested by 6% trypsin at pH8 and no affect on the determination of tumor markers. The CEA, CA125, CA153, CA211 and NSE levels in lung cancer group were significantly higher than that of in benign group (P<0.05). The sputum CEA and CA125 levels were significantly higher than that of the serum levels (P<0.05). The detection of sputum CEA, CA125, CA153, CA211 and NSE levels have clinical value in the diagnosis of lung cancer. When combined with other diagnostic methods,it might be helpful for further diagnosis in non confirmed lung cancer patients. (authors)

  10. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    Baraniuk JN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available James N Baraniuk,1 Begona Casado,1 Lewis K Pannell,2 Peter B McGarvey,3 Piera Boschetto,4 Maurizio Luisetti,5,† Paolo Iadarola6 1Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Mitchell Cancer Center, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, 3Innovation Center for Biomedical Informatics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA; 4Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 5SC Pneumologia, Dipartimento Medicina Molecolare, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 6Lazzaro Spallanzani Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy †Maurizio Luisetti passed away on October 20, 2014 Rationale: Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective: To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods: Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7 and smokers with normal lung function (n=13, mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11, obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15, and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10 were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results: Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of

  11. Effect of sputum processing with dithiothreitol on the detection of inflammatory mediators in chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis

    Woolhouse, I.; Bayley, D; Stockley, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Sputum analysis is used increasingly to assess airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including those with chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. However, it is not known whether dithiothreitol (DTT), a reducing mucolytic agent regularly used to homogenise sputum, affects the detection of inflammatory mediators in the sputum soluble phase from such patients.

  12. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Lesions

    Heo, Ilyeong; Park, Sunhoo; Jung, Chang Won; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Seol, Hyesil; Choi, Hee Seung; Cho, Soo Youn

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for the diagnosis of parathyroid lesions (PLs). Differentiation between a thyroid lesion and a PL is not easy because of their similar features. We reviewed parathyroid aspirates in our institution and aimed to uncover trends in diagnostic criteria. Methods We selected 25 parathyroid aspirates (from 6 men and 19 women) confirmed surgically or immunohistochemically from 2006 to 2011. Results Major archit...

  13. Pulmonary actinomycosis in fine needle aspiration cytology

    Patel Keyuri; Gupta Gurudutt; Shah Menka; Patel Purvesh

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months′...

  14. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    Meenal V Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality.

  15. Impression Cytology of the Lid Wiper Area.

    Muntz, Alex; van Doorn, Kevin; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon W

    2016-01-01

    Few reports on the cellular anatomy of the lid wiper (LW) area of the inner eyelid exist and only one report makes use of cytological methods. The optimization of a method of collecting, staining and imaging cells from the LW region using impression cytology (IC) is described in this study. Cells are collected from the inner surface of the upper eyelid of human subjects using hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, and stained with cytological dyes to reveal the presence of goblet cells, mucins, cell nuclei and various degrees of pre- and para-keratinization. Immunocytochemical dyes show cell esterase activity and compromised cell membranes by the use of a confocal scanning laser microscope. Up to 100 microscopic digital images are captured for each sample and stitched into a high-resolution, large scale image of the entire IC span. We demonstrate a higher sensitivity of IC than reported before, appropriate for identifying cellular morphologies and metabolic activity in the LW area. To our knowledge, this is the first time this selection of fluorescent dyes was used to image LW IC membranes. This protocol will be effective in future studies to reveal undocumented details of the LW area, such as assessing cellular particularities of contact lens wearers or patients with dry eye or lid wiper epitheliopathy. PMID:27584693

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Prasad PVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  17. Time for evidence-based cytology

    Dey Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed.

  18. Common gene therapy viral vectors do not efficiently penetrate sputum from cystic fibrosis patients.

    Kaoru Hida

    Full Text Available Norwalk virus and human papilloma virus, two viruses that infect humans at mucosal surfaces, have been found capable of rapidly penetrating human mucus secretions. Viral vectors for gene therapy of Cystic Fibrosis (CF must similarly penetrate purulent lung airway mucus (sputum to deliver DNA to airway epithelial cells. However, surprisingly little is known about the rates at which gene delivery vehicles penetrate sputum, including viral vectors used in clinical trials for CF gene therapy. We find that sputum spontaneously expectorated by CF patients efficiently traps two viral vectors commonly used in CF gene therapy trials, adenovirus (d∼80 nm and adeno-associated virus (AAV serotype 5; d∼20 nm, leading to average effective diffusivities that are ∼3,000-fold and 12,000-fold slower than their theoretical speeds in water, respectively. Both viral vectors are slowed by adhesion, as engineered muco-inert nanoparticles with diameters as large as 200 nm penetrate the same sputum samples at rates only ∼40-fold reduced compared to in pure water. A limited fraction of AAV exhibit sufficiently fast mobility to penetrate physiologically thick sputum layers, likely because of the lower viscous drag and smaller surface area for adhesion to sputum constituents. Nevertheless, poor penetration of CF sputum is likely a major contributor to the ineffectiveness of viral vector based gene therapy in the lungs of CF patients observed to date.

  19. Elevated sputum BPIFB1 levels in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a longitudinal study.

    Gao, J; Ohlmeier, S; Nieminen, P; Toljamo, T; Tiitinen, S; Kanerva, T; Bingle, L; Araujo, B; Rönty, M; Höyhtyä, M; Bingle, C D; Mazur, W; Pulkkinen, V

    2015-07-01

    A previous study involving a proteomic screen of induced sputum from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrated elevated levels of bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold-containing protein B1 (BPIFB1). The aim of the present study was to further evaluate the association of sputum BPIFB1 levels with smoking and longitudinal changes in lung function in smokers with COPD. Sputum BPIFB1 was characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The expression of BPIFB1 in COPD was investigated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry using sputum and lung tissue samples. BPIFB1 levels were also assessed in induced sputum from nonsmokers (n = 31), smokers (n = 169), and patients with COPD (n = 52) via an ELISA-based method. The longitudinal changes in lung function during the 4-year follow-up period were compared with the baseline sputum BPIFB1 levels. In lung tissue samples, BPIFB1 was localized to regions of goblet cell metaplasia. Secreted and glycosylated BPIFB1 was significantly elevated in the sputum of patients with COPD compared with that of smokers and nonsmokers. Sputum BPIFB1 levels correlated with pack-years and lung function as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) at baseline and after the 4-year follow-up in all participants. The changes in lung function over 4 years were significantly associated with BPIFB1 levels in current smokers with COPD. In conclusion, higher sputum concentrations of BPIFB1 were associated with changes of lung function over time, especially in current smokers with COPD. BPIFB1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of smoking-related lung diseases. PMID:25979078

  20. Outcomes in cervical screening using various cytology technologies

    Barken, Sidsel S; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike for human papillomavirus screening, little is known about the possible age-dependent variation in the outcomes of cervical cytology screening. The aim of our study was to describe age-related outcomes of five cytological technologies in a population-based screening program targeting women...... signed out as normal, (3) liquid-based cytology (LBC) with 50% automatically signed out as normal, (4) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal, and (5) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal and with 16 preselected areas for attention in manual reading. We calculated proportion of...... aged 23-59 years. All cervical cytology from women residing in Copenhagen has been analyzed in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre University Hospital. We studied five technology phases: (1) conventional cytology with manual reading, (2) conventional cytology with 50% automatically...

  1. A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules

    Tauro, Leo F.; Lobo, Geover J.; Fernandes, Hilda; George, Celine; Aithala, P. Sathyamoorthy; Shenoy, Divakar; Shetty, Prathvi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC/FNA) is the primary investigation for thyroid nodules. Fine needle capillary cytology (FNCC/FNC) is an alternative technique not commonly used, though it is easy to perform. Both the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to compare these two cytological techniques for better specimen and cytological diagnosis. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients attending the FR Muller Medical College Hospital from May 2006 to April 2008. The patients with thyroid nodules (diagnosed by palpation) were subjected to both the cytological techniques; FNA and FNC. The specimen and results were compared and then correlated with the final histopathological findings wherever surgical specimens were available (38 cases). Results The mean age of the patients was 39.16 with a female predominance. The majority of cases were diagnosed to have nodular goiters. The FNC technique yielded 88% diagnostic superiority and adequate specimens compared to 94% by FNA. Sensitivity was 50% for FNC and 100% for FNA while specificity was 100% for both techniques; accuracy score was 97.4% for FNC and 100% for FNA in predicting malignancy. While sensitivity was 75% for FNC and 100% for FNA; specificity was 100% for both techniques, and accuracy score was 97.4% for FNC and 100% for FNA in the prediction of neoplasia. Conclusion The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the two techniques; if done in tandem can give better and accurate cytological diagnosis. In highly cellular lesions, in which abundant material was obtained, FNC was more likely to be diagnostically superior, but FNA can diagnose most of the lesions. In less cellular lesions, FNA is more likely to be diagnostically superior to FNC. PMID:22496942

  2. ABC3 Part I: a review of the guidelines for terminology, classification and management of cervical cytology in England.

    Smith, J H F

    2012-12-01

    The provision of guidance on cytology reporting and evaluation, first outlined in 1995 with the publication of Achievable Standards, Benchmarks for Reporting, and Criteria for Evaluating Cervical Cytopathology (ABC), and subsequently revised and expanded in a second edition in 2000, has been pivotal to the success of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP), ensuring that standards are upheld, and that rigorous evaluation and quality assurance take place. In the last decade, major changes to the NHSCSP, notably the adoption of revised age ranges and screening intervals for all women in England, implementation of liquid-based cytology and, most recently, the decision to introduce high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing for triage of low-grade and borderline (equivalent to 'atypical') cytological abnormalities and test of cure after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) determined that an updated version of ABC was required. The third edition of ABC recommends adoption, with minor modification, of the revised British Society for Clinical Cytology terminology and provides guidance on the management of abnormal cytology results linked to this terminology taking account of HR-HPV testing. To accommodate these changes, expanded result codes, which are electronic codes used to transfer management information to central computers for follow-up, call and recall of individual women, have been developed. Further guidance on specimen adequacy is also provided. Revised performance indicators are described and explained in a separate article by R. Blanks in this issue of Cytopathology. All the changes in ABC3 are designed to support the mission statement of the NHSCSP that 'the objective of cervical screening is to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by screening with a high sensitivity for the detection of CIN2 or worse, whilst maintaining a high specificity'. PMID:23173804

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in sputum and nasal fluids increases in asthmatics during common colds

    Cho, Seong H.; Hong, Seung J.; Chen, Haimei; Habib, Ali; Cho, David; Lee, Sun H.; Kang, Joseph; Ward, Theresa; Boushey, Homer A.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Avila, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Capsule Summary This study showed that sputum and nasal lavage levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) rise during a common cold in asthmatic patients. This rise may contribute to the progression of airway remodeling. PMID:24373352

  4. Sputum-Based Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: Limitations and Promise

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, with an overall survival of 15% at five years. Biomarkers that can sensitively and specifically detect lung cancer at early stage are crucial for improving this poor survival rate. Sputum has been the target for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for lung cancer because it contains airway epithelial cells, and molecular alterations identified in sputum are most likely to reflect tumor-associated changes or field cancerization caused by smoking in the lung. Sputum-based molecular biomarkers include morphology, allelic imbalance, promoter hypermethylation, gene mutations and, recently, differential miRNA expression. To improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of sputum-based biomarkers, we recommend standardization of processing protocols, bronchial epithelial cell enrichment, and identification of field cancerization biomarkers

  5. INDUCED SPUTUM DERIVES FROM THE CENTRAL AIRWAYS: CONFIRMATION USING A RADIOLABELED AEROSOL BOLUS DELIVERY TECHNIQUE

    Indirect evidence suggests that induced sputum derives from the surfaces of the bronchial airways. To confirm this experimentally, we employed a radiolabeled aerosol bolus delivery technique that preferentially deposits aerosol in the central airways in humans. We hypothesized th...

  6. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. PMID:27553415

  7. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth. PMID:26712673

  8. 液基细胞学筛查宫颈癌临床研究应用%Liquid-based cytology screening for cervical cancer of clinical research and application

    李彩华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To make a comparative study between the Liquid-based cervical cytology and the Papanicolaou stain cytology,to evaluate the sensitivity of Liquid-based cytology to cervical pathology screening and its clinical value.Methods To apply the cytological analysis on 511 patients in two ways by using the TBS standards to let the two results be analyzed and compared with each other.Results Among the patients who are abnormal both in the Liquid-based cytology and the Papanicolaou cytology,the positive rate of the Liquid-based cytology is obviously higher than the Papanicolaou cytology' s,compared to the tissue biopsy.Conclusion Liquid-based cytology has a higher sensitivity compared with Papanicolaou cytology.It be can able to enhance the rate of detecting,thus achieve the goal of early detection,diagnosis and treatment.%目的 将宫颈液基细胞学与巴氏细胞学染色进行比较研究,评价液基细胞学对宫颈病变筛查的敏感性与临床价值.方法 对511例患者经过两种方法进行细胞学分析采用TBS标准,将其结果进行比较分析.结果 在液基细胞学与巴氏细胞学两种方法均见异常的患者中,以组织学活检做对照,液基细胞学阳性率明显高于巴氏细胞学.结论 液基细胞学与巴氏细胞学诊断相比,具有更高的敏感性,能提高检出率,从而使患者得到早发现、早诊断及早治疗.

  9. Paediatric nasopharyngeal cytology: a new diagnostic opportunity?

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Colombo, M R; Rosazza, C; Pignataro, L

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the first application of nasopharyngeal cytology (NPC), a new cytological technique to collect cellular material from the nasopharyngeal surface non-invasively in children with chronic adenoiditis associated with recurrent acute otitis media and/or otitis media with effusion. Cellular material was collected transorally using an extra-thin flexible wire nasopharyngeal swab and then examined under a light microscope. The diagnostic accuracy of NPC in detecting the presence of allergy and pathogens (compared to microbiological evaluation of nasopharyngeal aspirates, NPAs) was assessed. NPC was performed on 121 children (mean age 69.4 ± 15.5 months). Inflammatory cells and pathogens were detected in 61.1 % and 44.2 % of patients, respectively. The specificity of nasopharyngeal eosinophils in detecting allergy was good (91.9 %), as was the specificity of mast cells, but the sensitivities were less. The NPAs revealed bacterial colonisation in 84.7 % of the patients, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated (60.0 %). NPC revealed the presence of bacteria in 94.9 % of patients, including bacillary species in 33.9 %. NPC was highly sensitive in detecting pathogens (96.0 %). Its specificity in detecting bacillary species was fairly good (75.0 %), but the corresponding values of the specificity of NPC in detecting pathogens and its sensitivity in detecting bacillary species were poor. Our findings suggest the need for more structured studies that can test the real effectiveness and usefulness of NPC in defining nasopharyngeal cytological patterns in children with chronic nasopharyngeal diseases by comparing it with established diagnostic techniques. PMID:27039342

  10. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  11. Assessment of airway neutrophils by sputum colour: correlation with airways inflammation

    Stockley, R; Bayley, D; Hill, S.; A Hill; Crooks, S; Campbell, E.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Airway inflammation, with recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen, results in purulent secretions and a variety of potential adverse consequences for patients with chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. We hypothesised that gradations of sputum colour would correlate directly with the myeloperoxidase content of sputum and with various other indicators of the activity and consequences of bronchial diseases.
METHODS—To test this hypothesis, we quantified s...

  12. Early and Efficient Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sputum by Microscopic Observation of Broth Cultures

    Benson R Kidenya; Rodrick Kabangila; Peck, Robert N; Mshana, Stephen E; Webster, Lauren E.; Koenig, Serena P; Warren D Johnson; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured in liquid assay (micro broth cultur...

  13. Sputum PGP is reduced by azithromycin treatment in patients with COPD and correlates with exacerbations

    O'Reilly, Philip J.; Jackson, Patricia L; Wells, J. Michael; Dransfield, Mark T; Scanlon, Paul D.; Blalock, J Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Proline–glycine–proline (PGP), a neutrophil chemoattractant derived from the enzymatic breakdown of collagen, is elevated in sputum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may contribute to disease progression. Whether sputum levels of PGP respond to therapy for COPD or predict outcomes is unknown. Objectives We conducted a study ancillary to a multicenter trial of the efficacy of azithromycin treatment for 1 year in preventing COPD exacerbations to test wh...

  14. Evaluation of Biochip System in Determining Isoniazid and Rifampicin Resistances of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Sputum Samples

    Lu, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Shao, Yan; Shi, Jinyan; Zhong, Chongqiao; Yang, Dandan; Song, Honghuan; Li, Guoli; Ding, Xiaoyan; Peng, Hong; Zhu, Linyang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Limei

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a biochip system in determining isoniazid and rifampicin resistances of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples in a Chinese population. Methods We assembled 907 sputum smeared positive specimens of tuberculosis patients in total. Each sample would be separated into two parts for culture and biochip assay simultaneously. And those cultured positive and having full drug resistance results would be used as reference. The McNemar χ2 test was adopted for evaluating the ...

  15. Induced Sputum MMP-1, -3 & -8 Concentrations during Treatment of Tuberculosis

    Ugarte-Gil, CA; Elkington, P; Gilman, RH; Coronel, J; Tezera, LB; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Gotuzzo, E.; Friedland, JS; Moore, DAJ

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) destroys lung tissues and this immunopathology is mediated in part by Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs). There are no data on the relationship between local tissue MMPs concentrations, anti-tuberculosis therapy and sputum conversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Induced sputum was collected from 68 TB patients and 69 controls in a cross-sectional study. MMPs concentrations were measured by Luminex array, TIMP concentrations by ELISA and were correlated with ...

  16. Effect of exercise and physiotherapy in aiding sputum expectoration in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Salh, W; Bilton, D.; Dodd, M.; Webb, A K

    1989-01-01

    The role of exercise in aiding sputum expectoration in patients with cystic fibrosis and the comparative roles of exercise and physiotherapy in sputum expectoration were assessed in two studies. In the first study 19 adult patients undertook a two month programme of home exercise using a cycle ergometer. In the 12 patients completing the study peak work capacity, maximum oxygen consumption, and maximum minute ventilation had increased significantly by the end of the exercise programme; the in...

  17. The Most Common Detected Bacteria in Sputum of Patients with the Acute Exacerbation of COPD

    Cukic, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) may be triggered by infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants; the cause of about one-third of exacerbations cannot be identified. Objective: To determine the most common bacteria in sputum culture of patients with AECOPD hospitalized in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” in the 2012. Material and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of sputum bacterial cultures of patients wit...

  18. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Mitchell G Weiss; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. TRIAL DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. METHODS We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Ta...

  19. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Mitchell G Weiss; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. TRIAL DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. METHODS We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Da...

  20. Objective quantitative analysis of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells in induced sputum by laser scanning cytometry

    Woltmann, G; Ward, R.; Symon, F; Rew, D.; Pavord, I.; Wardlaw, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sputum induction is an important non-invasive technique for measuring airway inflammation in asthma. Cell numbers are often too low for flow cytometric analysis. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a novel technique that allows objective multicolour fluorescence analysis of cells on a microscope slide.
METHODS—LSC was used to determine sputum eosinophil and bronchial epithelial cell counts. We first confirmed that we could measure eosinophil counts accurately in ...

  1. Blood and sputum biomarkers in COPD and asthma: a review.

    Paone, G; Leone, V; Conti, V; De Marchis, L; Ialleni, E; Graziani, C; Salducci, M; Ramaccia, M; Munafò, G

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are lung inflammatory diseases that represent major public health problems. The primary, and often unique, method to evaluate lung function is spirometry, which reflects disease severity rather than disease activity. Moreover, its measurements strictly depend on patient's compliance, physician's expertise and data interpretation. The limitations of clinical history and pulmonary function tests have encouraged focusing on new possible tracers of diseases. The increase of the inflammatory response in the lungs represents an early pathological event, so biological markers related to inflammation may play key roles in earlier diagnosis, evaluation of functional impairment and prognosis. Biomarkers are measurable indicators associated with the presence and/or severity of a biological or pathogenic process, which may predict functional impairment, prognosis and response to therapy. The traditional approach based on invasive techniques (bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsies) may be replaced, at least in part, by using less invasive methods to collect specimens (sputum and blood), in which biomarkers could be measured. Proteomics, by the association between different protein profiles and pathogenic processes, is gaining an important role in pulmonary medicine allowing a more precise discrimination between patients with different outcomes and response to therapy. The aim of this review was to evaluate the use of biomarkers of airway inflammation in the context of both research and clinical practice. PMID:26957273

  2. Pepsin and bile acid concentrations in sputum of mustard gas exposed patients

    Ashraf Karbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM exposed cases compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. Result: The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23 compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003. Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls ( P = 0.5. Conclusion: Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients.

  3. Altered Sputum Microstructure as a Marker of Airway Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Duncan, Gregg; Jung, James; West, Natalie; Boyle, Michael; Suk, Jung Soo; Hanes, Justin

    In the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, highly viscoelastic mucus remains stagnant in the lung leading to obstructed airways prone to recurrent infections. Bulk-fluid rheological measurement is primarily used to assess the pathological features of mucus. However, this approach is limited in detecting microscopic properties on the length scale of pathogens and immune cells. We have shown in prior work based on the transport of muco-inert nanoparticles (MIP) in CF sputum that patients can carry significantly different microstructural properties. In this study, we aimed to determine the factors leading to variations between patients in sputum microstructure and their clinical implications. The microrheological properties of CF sputum were measured using multi-particle tracking experiments of MIP. MIP were made by grafting polyethylene glycol onto the surface of polystyrene nanoparticles which prior work has shown prevents adhesion to CF sputum. Biochemical analyses show that sputum microstructure was significantly altered by elevated mucin and DNA content. Reduction in sputum pore size is characteristic of patients with obstructed airways as indicated by measured pulmonary function tests. Our microstructural read-out may serve as a novel biomarker for CF.

  4. Morphological and cytological differences within the species Lupinus luteus L.

    T. Kazimierski; M. Kazimierska

    2015-01-01

    The Lupinus luteus L. from five different geographical proveniences were investigated morphologically and cytologically. The plants originating from Palestine differ from the rest in many morphological traits. Cytologically they differ by one chromosomal translocation. The Palestinian plants give semisterile F1 hybrids with the rest of the species. They are described as a new subspecies: Lupinus luteus L. ssp. orientalis Kazim. et. Kazim.

  5. Clinical, radiographic, and bronchial cytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986)

    Medical records, radiographs, and bronchial cytologic abnormalities of 65 cats with bronchial disease were reviewed. Bronchial disease was defined as abnormality of the lower airways to the exclusion of disease originating or mainly involving the alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, or pleura. Cats with bronchial disease were more likely to be female and older. Siamese cats were over represented and had more chronic disease. In order of frequency, the following clinical signs were reported: coughing, dyspnea, occasional sneezing, wheezing, and vomiting. Radiography revealed prominent bronchial markings, with some cats having collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung (n = 7), overinflation of the lungs (n = 9), or aerophagia (n = 13). Of 65 bronchial washes, 58 were considered exudative, with the predominant cell type being eosinophil in 24%, neutrophil in 33%, macrophage in 22%, and mixed population of cells in 21%. Cultures for bacteria were considered positive in 24% of the cats. Circulating eosinophilia was not helpful in predicting the predominant cell type in bronchial cytologic exudates. Hyperproteinemia without dehydration was present in a third of the cats, indicating an immunologic response. Half the cats had resolution of clinical signs, whereas half the cats required continuing medication with bronchodilators, antimicrobial agents, or corticosteroids

  6. Cytologic features of microcystic adnexal carcinoma

    Sasis Sirikanjanapong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC is an uncommon skin neoplasm with a predilection location around the lips. It is characterized by cords and nests of neoplastic cells forming ductular or glandular structures that are embedded in dense collagenous stroma. An eighty-seven year old Caucasian female patient presented with a painless, slowly enlarging mass measuring 3.3 x 2.7 x 1.0 cm on the lower lip for approximately 6 months. The patient underwent 2 fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAs. Smears made from both FNAs demonstrated similar features including low cellular smears, three dimensional cell clusters forming a glandular structure, round to oval cells with high N:C ratio, occasional cytoplasmic lumens, without distinct hyperchromasia, focal inconspicuous nucleoli, smooth regular nuclear membranes, abundant naked nuclei, occasional squamoid cells and focal acellular stromal fragments in the background. The cytologic differential diagnosis included skin adnexal carcinoma and low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the minor salivary gland. The mass was subsequently excised. The diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma was made. We report cytologic features of MAC and also suggest that MAC can possibly be diagnosed by FNA with the appropriate clinical vignette and immunohistochemical profile..

  7. Colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A diagnostic dilemma on cytology

    Shailja Puri Wahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST is mesenchymal tumors arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal (pace maker cells of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Stomach is the most common site (60-65% of these tumors. Large intestine and rectum constitute only 5-10% of GIT tumors. Pre-operative diagnosis helps in the management of this tumor as it responds well to c-kit inhibitors. The cytological diagnosis of GIST is characteristic, however, associated with many pitfalls leading to erroneous diagnosis. Morphological resemblance is seen with other spindle cell and epithelioid cell tumors. The differentiation between high grade and low grade GISTs is described but not reliable. Cytology combined with cell block and Immunocytochemistry helps in making a confident diagnosis. Here we present colonic GIST diagnosed as GIST on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. We report this case to describe the cytological features of GIST and pitfalls in the cytology.

  8. Evaluation of bleach-sedimentation for sterilising and concentrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens

    Valencia Teresa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bleach-sedimentation may improve microscopy for diagnosing tuberculosis by sterilising sputum and concentrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We studied gravity bleach-sedimentation effects on safety, sensitivity, speed and reliability of smear-microscopy. Methods This blinded, controlled study used sputum specimens (n = 72 from tuberculosis patients. Bleach concentrations and exposure times required to sterilise sputum (n = 31 were determined. In the light of these results, the performance of 5 gravity bleach-sedimentation techniques that sterilise sputum specimens (n = 16 were compared. The best-performing of these bleach-sedimentation techniques involved adding 1 volume of 5% bleach to 1 volume of sputum, shaking for 10-minutes, diluting in 8 volumes distilled water and sedimenting overnight before microscopy. This technique was further evaluated by comparing numbers of visible acid-fast bacilli, slide-reading speed and reliability for triplicate smears before versus after bleach-sedimentation of sputum specimens (n = 25. Triplicate smears were made to increase precision and were stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen method. Results M. tuberculosis in sputum was successfully sterilised by adding equal volumes of 15% bleach for 1-minute, 6% for 5-minutes or 3% for 20-minutes. Bleach-sedimentation significantly decreased the number of acid-fast bacilli visualised compared with conventional smears (geometric mean of acid-fast bacilli per 100 microscopy fields 166, 95%CI 68-406, versus 346, 95%CI 139-862, respectively; p = 0.02. Bleach-sedimentation diluted paucibacillary specimens less than specimens with higher concentrations of visible acid-fast bacilli (p = 0.02. Smears made from bleach-sedimented sputum were read more rapidly than conventional smears (9.6 versus 11.2 minutes, respectively, p = 0.03. Counting conventional acid-fast bacilli had high reliability (inter-observer agreement, r = 0.991 that was significantly reduced (p

  9. DIAGNOSTIC VALIDITY OF CYTOLOGICAL IMPRINT IN THYROID FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM

    I Pustaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy/FNAB examination, imprint cytology and frozen section intraoperative has big implications for diagnosis and surgical strategy of thyroid nodules with follicular neoplasm cytology. FNAB and frozen section has its limitations, it is difficultto detect the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Whereas imprint cytology can preserve cellular overview (especially the cell nucleus, including the capsular and/or vascular invasion. In addition, imprint cytology is faster than frozen section. Frozen sectionexamination could not indicate the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion in most cases so that imprint cytology is used to replace frozen section as an alternative.Method: This research is a diagnostic test study using a descriptive design. This is a prospective study to assess the sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of imprint cytology in patients with thyroid follicular neoplasm cytology. Results: In our study; sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of imprint cytology for follicular neoplasm was found as 84.21%, 95.45%, 94.12%, 87.50% and 90.24% respectively. The outcome was based on likelihood ratio value of 18.21 and the ROC curve, area under the curve obtained at 0.879 and Kappa value of 0.802.Conclusion: Imprint cytology has a value of a gooddiagnostic validity in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of thyroid nodules with sensitivity and specifity values of 84.21% and 95.45%. Imprint cytology is a technique that is simple, inexpensive, and has good reliability so that it can be used instead of frozen section.

  10. Pulmonary actinomycosis in fine needle aspiration cytology

    Patel Keyuri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months′ duration. A chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT of the thorax showed a right upper lobe mass lesion with hilar lymphadenopathy. CT-guided FNAC revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. The disease is commonly confused with other chronic suppurative lung diseases and malignancy. An early diagnosis by FNAC prevents difficulties in the management of the disease, as well as considerable physiological and physical morbidity, including unwarranted surgery.

  11. Letter: Contraceptive choice and cervical cytology.

    Leppaluoto, P

    1974-02-15

    In the evaluation of biological potentials of contraceptives in the genesis of cervical cancer, cytology seems to have been given due attention while information on the clinical condition and specific treatment of the target organ, the cervix, is repeatedly neglected. "Cancer does not develop in a healthy cervix" is an old dogma derived from impressions gained by clinical examination of the organ. This concept is supported by epidemiologic studies indicating that cancer is extremely rare in cervices restored to a normal condition by cauterization. It may be postulated that this type of treatment destroys the permissive target cells of the cervix, thus indirectly rendering possible coitus-associated and contraceptive-associated(?) mutagen(s) invalid. Also, in comparative studies, an evaluation should be made of the significance of a higher incidence of cervical ectopy reported in women receiving oral hormonal contraceptives. The importance of ectopy in the genesis of cervical malignancy has been derived from the presumption that permissive cervical cells are thus created and exposed to vaginal contents which may harbor the mutagens(s). Therefore, it would seem not only desirable but imperative to include the neglected parameters of clinical condition and of specific treatment (both past and present) of the uterine cervix in the structure of studies like the recent one in this Journal on "Contraceptive choice and cervical cytology", by Drs. Shulman and Merritt. Still another parameter which might prove to be of significance is the predominant type of vaginal flora, which can be assessed readily in the routine examination of Papanicolaou smears. It may be that vaginal contents, which would seem to be somewhat different in wearers of the intrauterine contraceptive device as compared to "pill" users, might play a part in the advent of cervical malignancy as a medium of or for coitus-associated mutagens(s). PMID:4855868

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  13. Significance of nuclear morphometry in cytological aspirates of breast masses

    Kalhan Shivani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy globally. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is largely subjective. Gradual progression of cells from normal to invasive involves nuclear changes that need to be viewed objectively. Aims : This study aims to apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates. It evaluates its utility in differentiating benign vs. malignant lesions and correlates it with cytologic grading in malignant cases. Setting and Design : Nuclear morphometric parameters of malignant and benign cases were compared. Parameters of malignant cases were correlated with cytologic grading. Materials and Methods : Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from breast lumps into malignant (53 cases and benign (29 cases. One hundred cells per case in both groups were mapped on DEBEL Cytoscan and six geometrical and three textural parameters obtained were compared. In malignant cases, morphometry was correlated with Robinson′s cytologic grading, which was further correlated in tissue sections (45 cases with modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. Statistical Analysis : Students "t"-test was applied for comparison between benign and malignant cases. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s post hoc comparison was applied to compare the three cytologic grades. Results were considered significant when P<0.05. Results : Nuclear morphometry successfully differentiated between benign and malignant aspirates and correlated significantly with cytologic grades. Morphometry was especially useful in the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Useful parameters were mean nuclear area, long axis, short axis and total run length. Cytohistologic correlation was 83.3%, 88.9% and 88.9% for cytological grades 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusions : Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in the evaluation of breast masses.

  14. Differences in plasma and sputum biomarkers between COPD and COPD-asthma overlap.

    Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Gao, Jing; Koskela, Jukka; Kinnula, Vuokko; Kobayashi, Hideo; Laitinen, Tarja; Mazur, Witold

    2014-02-01

    The pathophysiological features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-asthma overlap are poorly understood and there has been no study of plasma or sputum biomarkers in overlap patients. In order to clarify the similarity and differences between overlap and COPD or asthma, we have investigated four potential biomarkers of COPD: surfactant protein A (SP-A), soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). SP-A and sRAGE are pneumocyte-derived markers. MPO and NGAL are neutrophil-derived molecules, but NGAL can also be expressed by respiratory epithelial cells. Plasma levels of SP-A and sRAGE and induced sputum levels of MPO and NGAL were measured by enzyme immunoassay/ELISA in 134 subjects: nonsmokers (n=26), smokers (n=23), asthma (n=32), COPD (n=39) and COPD-asthma overlap patients (n=14). In patients with COPD-asthma overlap, sputum MPO and plasma SP-A were significantly elevated whereas plasma sRAGE levels were reduced compared with asthma patients. Only sputum NGAL was significantly elevated in COPD-asthma overlap compared with COPD (p=0.00016) and could be used to differentiate patients with overlap from those with COPD. Increased induced sputum levels of NGAL might be a characteristic feature of overlap, suggesting enhanced neutrophilic airway inflammation and/or airway epithelial injury in COPD-asthma overlap. PMID:23794464

  15. Endothelin-1 As A Biochemical Marker in Asthmatic Children Using Induced Sputum Method

    Endothelin-1 is a physiological normal potent bronchoconstrictor peptide produced in the respiratory airways and increase excessively their inflammation. Endothelin-1 (Et-1) level was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in saliva, sputum and plasma of thirty children suffering from mild to moderate asthma with age ranged from 6-12 years. Ten healthy children of matching age and sex were used as control group. The patients were further classified according to previous regular treatment into 21 steroid dependent and 9 non-steroid dependent. The results revealed that the saliva, sputum and plasma levels of ET-1 in asthmatic patients were significantly higher than that of control children. In both control and asthmatic children, ET-1 levels were more pronounced in the order of saliva>sputum>plasma. On the other hand, the saliva, sputum and plasma levels of ET-1 were significantly lower in steroid dependent asthmatic children than that of the non-steroid dependent ones. High levels of ET-1 in mild to moderate asthmatic children clarify the implication of this biochemical mediator marker in the pathology of the disease. The regular inhaled steroid therapy reduced the level of this mediator but did not return to the basal levels of controls, so, ET-1 antagonist may be useful in management of bronchial asthma in children. Moreover, ET-1 in sputum was more valuable biochemical indicator to monitor airway inflammation than in plasma

  16. Sputum smear microscopy result: a predictor for drug-resistant tuberculosis?

    Dean, A S; Zignol, M; Lumb, R; Lalor, M; Skrahina, A; Floyd, K

    2016-07-01

    Until countries establish capacity for continuous surveillance systems, representative surveys of tuberculosis (TB) patients continue to improve our understanding of the burden of drug-resistant TB and help ensure appropriate allocation of resources. Although the available data are limited, the current recommendation of restricting surveys to sputum smear-positive patients is justified, given the greatly simplified logistics and only limited evidence in specific settings of an association between drug resistance and sputum smear status. Nonetheless, the relationship between drug resistance and sputum smear microscopy results may vary according to the setting and population under study. With the increasing availability and use of molecular diagnostics and the drive for universal drug susceptibility testing under the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy, substantially more data on drug resistance in the whole TB patient population should become available in the near future. PMID:27287635

  17. Smoking status and anti-inflammatory macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum in COPD

    Rabe Klaus F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. M1 and M2 macrophages constitute subpopulations displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that smoking cessation affects macrophage heterogeneity in the lung of patients with COPD. Our aim was to study macrophage heterogeneity using the M2-marker CD163 and selected pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and induced sputum from current smokers and ex-smokers with COPD. Methods 114 COPD patients (72 current smokers; 42 ex-smokers, median smoking cessation 3.5 years were studied cross-sectionally and underwent sputum induction (M/F 99/15, age 62 ± 8 [mean ± SD] years, 42 (31-55 [median (range] packyears, post-bronchodilator FEV1 63 ± 9% predicted, no steroids past 6 months. BAL was collected from 71 patients. CD163+ macrophages were quantified in BAL and sputum cytospins. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were measured in BAL and sputum supernatants. Results Ex-smokers with COPD had a higher percentage, but lower number of CD163+ macrophages in BAL than current smokers (83.5% and 68.0%, p = 0.04; 5.6 and 20.1 ×104/ml, p = 0.001 respectively. The percentage CD163+ M2 macrophages was higher in BAL compared to sputum (74.0% and 30.3%, p + BAL macrophages (Rs = 0.38, p = 0.003. No significant differences were found between smokers and ex-smokers in the levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8, and anti-inflammatory (elafin, and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor [SLPI] mediators in BAL and sputum. Conclusions Our data suggest that smoking cessation partially changes the macrophage polarization in vivo in the periphery of the lung towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, which is not accompanied by a decrease in inflammatory parameters.

  18. Lung Microbiome Analysis in Steroid-Naїve Asthma Patients by Using Whole Sputum

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Park, In-Won; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Background Although recent metagenomic approaches have characterized the distinguished microbial compositions in airways of asthmatics, these results did not reach a consensus due to the small sample size, non-standardization of specimens and medication status. We conducted a metagenomics approach by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the induced whole sputum representing both the cellular and fluid phases in a relative large number of steroid naïve asthmatics. Methods Induced whole sputum samples obtained from 36 healthy subjects and 89 steroid-naїve asthma patients were analyzed through T-RFLP analysis. Results In contrast to previous reports about microbiota in the asthmatic airways, the diversity of microbial composition was not significantly different between the controls and asthma patients (p=0.937). In an analysis of similarities, the global R-value showed a statistically significant difference but a very low separation (0.148, p=0.002). The dissimilarity in the bacterial communities between groups was 28.74%, and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) contributing to this difference were as follows: OTU 789 (Lachnospiraceae), 517 (Comamonadaceae, Acetobacteraceae , and Chloroplast), 633 (Prevotella), 645 (Actinobacteria and Propionibacterium acnes), 607 (Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus otakiensis, Lactobacillus sunkii, and Rhodobacteraceae), and 661 (Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Leptotrichiaceae), and they were significantly more prevalent in the sputum of asthma patients than in the sputum of the controls. Conclusion Before starting anti-asthmatic treatment, the microbiota in the whole sputum of patients with asthma showed a marginal difference from the microbiota in the whole sputum of the controls. PMID:27433177

  19. Cytological diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cutaneous involvement

    Sushama A Chandekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease affecting predominantly children. The course of the disease varies, from spontaneous resolution to a progressive multisystem disorder with organ dysfunction and potential life-threatening complications. Diagnosis of LCH is often difficult and may be delayed because of its rarity and especially so if it occurs with unusual presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a 4 year old male child, a case of LCH is presented with a purpose of highlighting the characteristic cytological features. A high index of suspicion, awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH and its differential diagnoses is necessary. This can obviate the need of biopsy and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry if available can be performed on cytology smear and cell block.

  20. Early detection of lung adenocarcinoma in sputum by a panel of microRNA markers

    Yu, Lei; Todd, Nevins W.; Xing, Lingxiao; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Howard; Liu, Zhenqiu; Fang, HongBin; Zhang, Jian; Katz, Ruth L; Jiang, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Early detection is the key to improve the survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients. We have previously shown that microRNAs were stably present in sputum and could be applied to diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a panel of microRNAs that can be used as highly sensitive and specific sputum markers for early detection of lung adenocarcinoma. This study contained t...

  1. Taking sputum samples from small children with cystic fibrosis: a matter of cooperation

    Pehn, Mette; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: An important part of the disease control in Danish guidelines for care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monthly sputum sample by tracheal suchtion. Coping to this unpleasant procedure in small children depends heavily on the support from parents and nurse. The objective of...... this study was to develop a tool to help parents and children to cope with tracheal suctioning. Methods: Three short videos showing how nurses perform tracheal suctioning to get a sputum sample from small children with cystic fibrosis were made. The videos were shown to and discussed with parents and...

  2. Nitric oxide production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in infected cystic fibrosis sputum consumes oxygen

    Kolpen, Mette; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus Ernst;

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by persisting mucoid biofilms in hypoxic endobronchial mucus. These biofilms are surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), which consume a major part of present molecular oxygen (O(2...... reactive oxygen species, the PMNs in CF sputum also consume O(2) for production of NO.......)) due to production of superoxide (O(2)(-)). In this study, we show that the PMNs also consume O(2) for production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in the infected endobronchial mucus. Fresh expectorated sputum samples (n = 28) from chronically infected CF patients (n = 22) were...

  3. Morphological and cytological differences within the species Lupinus luteus L.

    T. Kazimierski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lupinus luteus L. from five different geographical proveniences were investigated morphologically and cytologically. The plants originating from Palestine differ from the rest in many morphological traits. Cytologically they differ by one chromosomal translocation. The Palestinian plants give semisterile F1 hybrids with the rest of the species. They are described as a new subspecies: Lupinus luteus L. ssp. orientalis Kazim. et. Kazim.

  4. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules

    Ayper KAÇAR; İrem PAKER; Gülşah KABAÇAM BAYRAM; Fatma DEMİREL; Şenel, Emrah; Murat KIZILGÜN

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast major...

  5. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    Divakar Sullery Raghupathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence.

  6. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    Raghupathi, Divakar Sullery; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Kakoti, Lopa Mudra

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence. PMID:25948945

  7. Human papillomavirus infection in honduran women with normal cytology

    Tábora, N.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Quint, W G V; Massuger, L. F. A. G.; MATUTE, J. A.; Melchers, W J G; Ferrera, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at estimating type-specific HPV prevalence and its cofactors among Honduran women with normal cytology in order to provide valuable information to health policymakers about the epidemiology of this important sexually transmitted infection. Methods A total of 591 women with normal cytology from Tegucigalpa, Honduras were interviewed and tested for HPV using the SPF10 LiPA25. A structured epidemiological questionnaire was administered to each woman. Results The ov...

  8. Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations

    Neelima Tirumalasetti; Prema Latha, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clin...

  9. Diagnosis of Thymic Clear Cell Carcinoma by Cytology

    Lale, Seema A.; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G.; Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the thymus is a rare tumor. Few cases of clear-cell carcinoma of thymus have been documented (Truong et al., 1990 and Wolfe III et al., 1983). All these cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the tissue. Diagnosis of thymic clear cell carcinoma on cytology is extremely challenging. Here we report the first case of thymic clear cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytological examination of the pericardial fluid with the help of immunocytochemistry. Differentia...

  10. Cytologic changes of ovarian epithelial cancer induced by neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Wang, Yiying; Wang, Yue; Zheng, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by cytoreduction has now become a part of standard care for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Cytologic changes of the cancer cells induced by NACT, however, sometimes may cause confusion in terms of pathologic diagnosis and therefore inappropriate management. The objective of this study was to characterize the histologic or cytologic features of the ovarian cancers from those patients who received NACT in order to improve the diagnosti...

  11. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Prey Marianne; Raab Stephen; Davey Diane; Mody Dina; Papillo Jacalyn; Solomon Diane; Austin R Marshall; Atkison Karen; Keebler Catherine; Schultz Brenda; Howell Lydia; Bibbo Marluce; Savaloja Lynnette; Birdsong George; Bonfiglio Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-gu...

  12. Imprint cytology in the diagnosis of ovarian lesions

    Sushma; Sathibhai Panicker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian neoplasms constitute a major bulk of surgical pathology specimens. Histopathology is the gold standard in diagnosis. Of the many options available for a rapid intra-operative diagnosis imprint cytology has many advantages. This study therefore aimed to study the imprint cytology of ovarian lesions and compare with the histopathology findings and analyze the statistical effectiveness of this study as a rapid intra-operative diagnostic tool. Methods: 200 lesions resected...

  13. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of superficial lymph nodes.

    Cardillo, M R

    1989-01-01

    A series of 244 enlarged superficial lymph nodes was examined by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Twenty-nine smears (11.9%) were inadequate for study. Of the remaining 215, 108 were negative, 13 suspicious for malignancy, and 94 positive. Forty-five excisional biopsies were performed correlating the cytologic and histologic findings. There were two cytologic false-negative results; both were patients who had been treated for carcinoma and whose aspirates were cytologically negative. Of the 13 samples reported as suspicious for malignancy, there were three epidermoid carcinomas, nine reactive hyperplasias, and one non-Hodgkin's lymphocytic lymphoma. Of the positive cases, 83 were metastatic tumors, and 11 were malignant lymphomas (two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and nine Hodgkin's lymphomas). The criteria used in the interpretation of these aspirates and the problems of differential cytological diagnosis are discussed. In spite of the drawbacks of inadequate and false-negative smears, fine-needle aspiration cytology is valuable in preliminary diagnosis of diseased lymph nodes and subsequent management. PMID:2776599

  14. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate: Cytological analyses of four cases with emphasis on the usefulness of cytological examination

    Yoshida, Keiko; ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; Kagotani, Akiko; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Iwai, Muneo; OKABE, HIDETOSHI

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of small cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder and prostate is rare. Only a few reports on the cytological features of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in the urine specimen have been documented and, moreover, the urinary cytological features of prostate small cell carcinoma have been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed the cytological features of four cases of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate, and discussed the usefulness of cytologic...

  15. The cytological diagnosis and prognosis of malignization of cervical epithelium of uterus in pregnant women.

    Sumenko V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation is dedicated to the study of the pathological alterations of cervical epithelium of uterus, proliferative activity in the lesion focuses and the improvement of cytological diagnosis of the state of cervical epithelium of uterus. The correlation between the proliferative processes in abnormal epithelium of uterine cervix and some pathological factors of the pregnant women organism was studied. The criteria for prognosis of the cervical epithelial dysplasia in pregnant women were elaborated on this basis of our data. The pathological processes in cervical epithelium were revealed in 309 pregnant women in the first trimester (mean age of women was 26,17±0,83 years. The hormonal state of pregnant women was studied on the basis of colpocytological picture and the colpocytological types which indicate the unfavorable prognosis with a certain degree of validity were determined. The mathematic model for all cytological groups of pregnant women for prognosis of inflammatory processes, epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was created. The simple and comprehensible prognostic scheme for diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer was developed.

  16. Cytological study and PCD assay on pollen development of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile rice

    2008-01-01

    A systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile (PSGMS) rice with its normal fertility counterpart was conducted.The results showed that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice occurred first no later than the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage and continued during the entire process of pollen development till pollen degradation.This abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of tapetum.Although tapetum degeneration in the PSGMS rice initiated as early as at the PMC stage,it proceeded slowly and did not complete until the breakdown of the pollen,in sharp contrast to the rapid disintegration of the tapetal layer during the late microspore to the bicellular pollen stage in the fertile rice.Such cytological observation was supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT2 mediated dU TP Nick End Labeling)assay that detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD),indicating that the tapetum degeneration occurs in the process of PCD.

  17. Fluorescent microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen staining of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washings, bronchoscopic brushing and post bronchoscopic sputum along with cytological examination in cases of suspected tuberculosis

    Vijay Kumar Bodal; Manjit S Bal; Sunita Bhagat; Jai Kishan; Deepika; Rupinder K Brar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ever since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1882, many diagnostic methods have been developed. However "The gold standard" for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is still the demonstration of acid fast Bacilli (AFB) by microscopic examination of smear or bacteriological confirmation by culture method. Materials and Methods: In suspected 75 patients with active pulmonary TB, the materials obtained bronchoscopically, were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), bronchial brushin...

  18. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  19. CYTOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF CONJUNCTIVA IN VERNAL KERATO CONJUNCTIVITIS AND ITS CLINICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Sathyendranath B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the cytological epithelial modification of conjunctiva in VKC and correlate with its various clinical features, hematological. Investigations and response to treatment. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This was a prospective study of 50 consecutive patients of VKC presenting to M.S Ramaiah Hospital, who were willing to undergo laboratory Investigations. A detailed preliminary eye examination, including Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA, Tear film examination including Schirmer’s test, Tear Break Up Time, Mucin ferning patterns, Tears pH, Conjunctival Impression Cytology (CIC, Skin Prick Test and Blood Investigations like Hemoglobin, Complete Blood Count, ESR, Absolute Eosinophil Count(AEC, Serum IgE Levels (S.IgE were done. RESULT: Patients belonged to the age group of 4 to 25 years and M:F ratio was 4:1.Total number of patients with Palpebral VKC & mixed VKC were 13 And 37 respectively and none had limbal VKC. Total number of patients with VKC was 50 out of which Patients with normal AEC and normal S.IgE were 4(8%, with raised AEC & normal S.IgE Were 4(8% and with raised or normal AEC & raised IgE were 42 (84%. All patients had alkaline tear film, abnormal ferning patterns were observed in 49 (98%, and abnormal TBUT in 37(74% patients. 28(56% had abnormal CIC grading.89.28 % (25/28 patients of abnormal CIC had Raised S.IgE levels. Only 37.5% (3/8 of VKC cases with normal S.IgE levels showed abnormal CIC. Only in 52.38% of patients with severe VKC could the allergen (skin prick test be identified. 80. 95 b% of severe VKC cases had raised S.IgE. 59.95% (N: 25 cases had positive skin prick test out of 42 cases with raised S.IgE. VKC patients with Normal AEC &IgE levels were easily cured with mast cell stabilizers, antihistaminics and artificial tears VKC patients with raised AEC levels & Normal IgE levels were treated with topical steroids during the attacks and mast cell stabilizers and artificial tears, VKC patients with raised AEC &Ig

  20. Chromosomal gains and genomic loss of p53 and p16 genes in Barrett's esophagus detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytology specimens.

    Fahmy, Mona; Skacel, Marek; Gramlich, Terry L; Brainard, Jennifer A; Rice, Thomas W; Goldblum, John R; Connor, Jason T; Casey, Graham; Legator, Mona S; Tubbs, Raymond R; Falk, Gary W

    2004-05-01

    Endoscopic brush cytology is a promising surveillance technique for Barrett's esophagus. Ancillary markers are sought to increase the sensitivity of cytology and allow identification of patients at increased risk for disease progression. To determine if there are specific genetic changes in Barrett's esophagus with associated high-grade dysplasia/intramucosal adenocarcinoma compared to those without dysplasia, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on cytologic specimens using probes to chromosomes and genomic regions previously described as altered in this disease. We studied archival brush cytology slides from 40 Barrett's esophagus patients: 21 with biopsy-proven high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma and 19 with no dysplasia and a minimum 5 years of negative follow-up. Centromeric enumeration probes (CEP) for chromosomes 6, 7, 11, and 12, and locus-specific probes (LSI) for 9p21 (p16 gene), and 17p13.1 (p53 gene) loci along with their corresponding CEP (9 and 17, respectively) were used in this study. A positive FISH result was defined as the presence of cells with >2 CEP signals or with a loss of the LSI signals relative to their corresponding CEP. p53 locus loss and/or aneusomy of chromosomes 6, 7, 11, and 12 abnormalities could be detected by FISH in routinely processed endoscopic brush cytology specimens from 95% of biopsy-positive cases with a specificity of 100%. Interestingly, all five cases with cytologic changes classified as indefinite for dysplasia from patients with a positive biopsy showed changes by FISH. Loss of the p16 locus was seen commonly in patients both with and without dysplasia/carcinoma. Selected biomarkers from this study merit further investigation to determine their potential to detect genetic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus prior to the development of high-grade dysplasia. PMID:15017433

  1. Short-term storage does not affect the quantitative yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum in early-bactericidal-activity studies

    Kolwijck, E.; Mitchell, M.; Venter, A.; Friedrich, S.O.; Dawson, R.; Diacon, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Early-bactericidal-activity (EBA) studies measure the change in mycobacterial load in sputum over time to evaluate antituberculosis drugs. We investigated whether a delay in sputum processing influences the quantitative results of sputum mycobacterial culture. We identified pretreatment smear-positi

  2. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the

  3. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Jeremiah, Kidola; PrayGod, George; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel;

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of 63 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Recovered from Cystic Fibrosis Sputum

    Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of 63 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, recovered in culture of sputum from 15 individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) receiving care in a single CF care center over a 13-year period. These sequences add value to studies of within-host evolution of bacterial pathogens during chronic infection.

  5. Automated Sputum Cytometry for Detection of Intraepithelial Neoplasias in the Lung

    Gerald Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the benefits of early lung cancer detection, no effective strategy for early screening and treatment exists, partly due to a lack of effective surrogate biomarkers. Our novel sputum biomarker, the Combined Score (CS, uses automated image cytometric analysis of ploidy and nuclear morphology to detect subtle intraepithelial changes that often precede lung tumours.

  6. Alterations in the sputum proteome and transcriptome in smokers and early-stage COPD subjects.

    Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Schneider, Thomas; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Dijon, Sophie; Luettich, Karsta; Guedj, Emmanuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peck, Michael J; Chaudhary, Nveed I; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-10-14

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent lung diseases. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. In this parallel-group clinical study we investigated to what extent the transitions in a chronic-exposure-to-disease model are reflected in the proteome and cellular transcriptome of induced sputum samples. We selected 60 age- and gender-matched individuals for each of the four study groups: current asymptomatic smokers, smokers with early stage COPD, former smokers, and never smokers. The cell-free sputum supernatant was analyzed by quantitative proteomics and the cellular mRNA fraction by gene expression profiling. The sputum proteome of current smokers clearly reflected the common physiological responses to smoke exposure, including alterations in mucin/trefoil proteins and a prominent xenobiotic/oxidative stress response. The latter response also was observed in the transcriptome, which additionally demonstrated an immune-cell polarization change. The former smoker group showed nearly complete attenuation of these biological effects. Thirteen differentially abundant proteins between the COPD and the asymptomatic smoker group were identified including TIMP1, APOA1, C6orf58, and BPIFB1 (LPLUNC1). In summary, our study demonstrates that sputum profiling can capture the complex and reversible physiological response to cigarette smoke exposure, which appears to be only slightly modulated in early-stage COPD. PMID:26306861

  7. The role and significance of sputum cultures in the diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Huis in 't Veld, D.; Wuthiekanun, V.; Cheng, A.C.; Chierakul, W.; Chaowagul, W.; Brouwer, A.E.; White, N.J.; Day, N.; Peacock, S.

    2005-01-01

    Pneumonia is a common manifestation of melioidosis, the disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In this study, we defined the prognostic significance of a positive sputum culture. A total of 712 patients presenting to Sappasithiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, with melioidosis betw

  8. Induced sputum MMP-1, -3 & -8 concentrations during treatment of tuberculosis.

    Cesar A Ugarte-Gil

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB destroys lung tissues and this immunopathology is mediated in part by Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs. There are no data on the relationship between local tissue MMPs concentrations, anti-tuberculosis therapy and sputum conversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Induced sputum was collected from 68 TB patients and 69 controls in a cross-sectional study. MMPs concentrations were measured by Luminex array, TIMP concentrations by ELISA and were correlated with a disease severity score (TBscore. 46 TB patients were then studied longitudinally at the 2nd, 8th week and end of treatment. RESULTS: Sputum MMP-1,-2,-3,-8,-9 and TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations are increased in TB. Elevated MMP-1 and -3 concentrations are independently associated with higher TB severity scores (p<0.05. MMP-1, -3 and -8 concentrations decreased rapidly during treatment (p<0.05 whilst there was a transient increase in TIMP-1/2 concentrations at week 2. MMP-2, -8 and -9 and TIMP-2 concentrations were higher at TB diagnosis in patients who remain sputum culture positive at 2 weeks and MMP-3, -8 and TIMP-1 concentrations were higher in these patients at 2nd week of TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: MMPs are elevated in TB patients and associate with disease severity. This matrix-degrading phenotype resolves rapidly with treatment. The MMP profile at presentation correlates with a delayed treatment response.

  9. Screening for TB by sputum culture in high-risk groups in Copenhagen, Denmark

    Jensen, Sidse Graff; Wrona Olsen, Nete; Seersholm, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence on screening high-risk groups for TB by mobile X-ray in low-incidence countries is building, but knowledge on other possible screening methods is limited. In this retrospective study we report results from a community based programme screening for TB by spot sputum culture....... infectious stage, which is essential in order to prevent transmission and gain infection control....

  10. Comparison of sputum acid-fast culture and chest radiography in pulmonary tuberculosis

    While it is still a common practice of some clinicians to rely on chest radiography examination alone for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, others still claim that absolute diagnosis of tuberculosis can firmly be established by bacteriological examination from secretions or tissues of the infected host. This study will evaluate the relationship between radiographic findings (CXR) and the likelihood of finding tubercle bacilli on sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture in pulmonary tuberculosis at Lung Center of the Philippines. Of 41 individuals who submitted their sputum for AFB culture, tubercle bacilli in the sputum was shown in 25 (60%) of cases and no growth of tubercle bacilli in 16 (40%) of cases. Chest radiography reading revealed tuberculosis in 100% of cases, of which when classified further, 22 (54%) has fibrohazed or hazy infiltrates on their CXR, 7 (17%) has cavitations or interpreted as moderate or far advanced TB, 12 (29%) has fibroid, nodular infiltrates or densities. In patients radiologically diagnosed as PTB minimal, sputum culture revealed tubercle bacilli in 15 (57%) among moderate, far advanced tuberculosis, and 6 (50%) among those with inactive or old tuberculosis. Therefore, the probability of detecting tubercle bacilli in pulmonary tuberculosis is not greatly influenced by radiographic findings. (auth.). 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Bone marrow cytology in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors 5 years following exposure

    Bone marrow aspiration smears obtained from 35 individuals, 5 years following exposure to the Hiroshima atomic bomb, were intensively evaluated for radiation related cytologic abnormalities. No definite radiation related changes were observed, but some findings were very suggestive. The most interesting of these was the occurrence of internuclear bridges joining erythroid precursors in the marrow smears of seven (20%) of the heavily exposed survivors. Although not specific it is likely that this lesion is indicative of residual stem cell damage and some degree of ineffectual erythropoiesis. The bone marrow morphologic lesions may be good markers of residual radiation damage but they are too infrequent in their occurrence to be of value as a biologic dosimeter. The findings in this study also suggest that a gradual disappearance of radiation induced late bone marrow changes continues for periods of 3 to 5 years or more following high dose acute radiation exposure. (author)

  12. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and

  13. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer

    Bożena Kędra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has
    led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,
    as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both
    typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any
    of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological
    features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the
    symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological
    picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with
    that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda
    system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological
    Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In
    both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the
    mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions
    typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and
    there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal
    cancer. (The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has
    led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The

  14. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Peter Daley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  15. Microbial, host and xenobiotic diversity in the cystic fibrosis sputum metabolome.

    Quinn, Robert A; Phelan, Vanessa V; Whiteson, Katrine L; Garg, Neha; Bailey, Barbara A; Lim, Yan Wei; Conrad, Douglas J; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs are filled with thick mucus that obstructs airways and facilitates chronic infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant pathogen of this disease that produces a variety of toxic small molecules. We used molecular networking-based metabolomics to investigate the chemistry of CF sputa and assess how the microbial molecules detected reflect the microbiome and clinical culture history of the patients. Metabolites detected included xenobiotics, P. aeruginosa specialized metabolites and host sphingolipids. The clinical culture and microbiome profiles did not correspond to the detection of P. aeruginosa metabolites in the same samples. The P. aeruginosa molecules that were detected in sputum did not match those from laboratory cultures. The pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) was readily detectable from cultured strains, but absent from sputum, even when its precursor molecules were present. The lack of PQS production in vivo is potentially due to the chemical nature of the CF lung environment, indicating that culture-based studies of this pathogen may not explain its behavior in the lung. The most differentially abundant molecules between CF and non-CF sputum were sphingolipids, including sphingomyelins, ceramides and lactosylceramide. As these highly abundant molecules contain the inflammatory mediator ceramide, they may have a significant role in CF hyperinflammation. This study demonstrates that the chemical makeup of CF sputum is a complex milieu of microbial, host and xenobiotic molecules. Detection of a bacterium by clinical culturing and 16S rRNA gene profiling do not necessarily reflect the active production of metabolites from that bacterium in a sputum sample. PMID:26623545

  16. Urine - abnormal color

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  17. Adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: fine-needle-aspiration cytology of 10 cases and review of literature.

    Ali, Sarfraz; Gattuso, Paolo; Howard, Allison; Mosunjac, Marina B; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2008-05-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is mostly diagnosed in postmenopausal women. They typically secrete estrogen, which stimulates the endometrium to proliferate and cause abnormal bleeding. This study reviews the cytologic features of adult GCT of the ovary diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). We reviewed slides from ten cases diagnosed by CT guided FNA from 1995 to 2007 at our institutions. Smears were stained with Diff-Quik and Papanicolaou stains. Patient's history and histologic diagnosis were also available and reviewed for all cases. The patients ranged in age from 39 to 83 yr. All 10 cases were hypercellular with both large and small overlapping cell clusters and individual cells. The cytologic features identified included: naked nuclei (10/10 cases), Call-Exner bodies (7/10 cases), blood vessels with prominent perivascular tumor cell growth (4/10 cases), spindle-shaped hyperchromatic stromal cells within cellular clusters (6/10 cases), mixed inflammation (3/10 cases), tumor cell necrosis (1/10 cases), and prominent metachromatic stroma seen in association with blood vessels (1/10 cases). Moderate to scant delicate cytoplasm was also seen (10/10 cases). Small, punctuate cytoplasmic vacuoles were also noted (7/10 cases) and were occasionally prominent (3/10 cases). In general nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios were high although lower than those typically seen in a lymphoma or small-cell carcinoma. Nuclei were generally centrally located although eccentrically located nuclei were consistently seen in a minority of cells. Nuclei were monotonous in size showing slightly convoluted (occasional rentiform and fetiform nuclei) to polygonal outlines. Prominent, central nucleoli were also seen (4/10 cases). Nuclear grooves were also seen (9/10 cases). No atypical mitotic activity was identified in any of the 10 cases (0/10 cases). In summary, the above cytologic features can also help in the cytologic diagnosis of adult GCTs. PMID:18418853

  18. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  19. Mannitol versus hypertonic saline: Safety and efficacy of mannitol and hypertonic saline in sputum induction and bronchial hyperreactivity assessment.

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; Vela, C; de Esteban, B

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophilic asthma phenotype predicts good response to corticosteroids and associates to asthmatic exacerbations. Sputum induction by hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation is technically demanding. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to osmotic agents indirectly mirrors active airway inflammation. We compared the safety and ability of HS and mannitol to induce sputum and measure BHR. We evaluated the stability of inflammatory phenotypes. We studied 35 non-smoking asthmatics randomized to undergo HS and mannitol challenges on 2 days 1 week apart. Sputum was sampled for cell analysis and phenotyped as eosinophilic (≥3% eosinophils) and non-eosinophilic (asthma. Nineteen subjects had BHR to mannitol and nine of them also had BHR to HS. Drops in forced expiratory volume in 1 s were higher from HS challenge than from mannitol challenge. Adequate sputum samples were obtained from 80% subjects (68% mannitol and 71% HS). Eosinophils and macrophages from both challenges correlated. Neutrophils were higher in sputum from HS. Ninety percent samples were equally phenotyped with HS and mannitol. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and BHR correlated in both challenges. HS and mannitol showed similar capacity to produce valuable sputum samples. BHR to both osmotic stimuli partially resembled airway eosinophilic inflammation but mannitol was more sensitive than HS to assess BHR. Eosinophilic phenotype remained stable in most patients with both stimuli. PMID:25761367

  20. PILOMATRIXOMA: A DIAGNOSTIC PITFALL IN FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY

    Manvi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Pilomatrixoma is an unusual, slowly growing benign tumor of the skin appendages. The histopathological features of pilomatrixoma are characteristic and well recognized, but the cytological diagnosis remains problematic. AIM : The study was undertaken to analyze the cytological features of pilomatrixoma, which are helpful in making a reliable preoperative diagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS : A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Guru Gobind Singh Medic al College and Hospital, Faridkot. All cases of pilomatrixoma reported on histopathology from April 2010 till March 2013 were retrieved. The cytological smears of these, histopathologically confirmed cases of pilomatrixoma were reviewed to ascertain the cy tological features which are helpful in making a diagnosis. RESULTS : During the study period 23 cases of pilomatrixoma were reported on histopathology. However, preoperative FNAC was done only in 9 cases. Out of these 9 cases, a cytological diagnosis of pi lomatrixoma was accurately made in 4 cases while, 5 cases were erroneously diagnosed. The most consistent features in the smears of accurately diagnosed cases were shadow cells, basaloid cells and multinucleate giant cells along with calcium deposits and n ucleated squamous cells. CONCLUSION : The cytological features of pilomatrixoma are characteristic but still the chances of misdiagnosis are high. Shadow cells, basaloid cells and giant cells along with presence of calcification and nucleated squamous cells are helpful for its diagnosis. However, non - representative smears and smears showing predominance of one component lead to erroneous diagnosis. A high degree of suspicion should be kept while evaluating aspirates from subcutaneous growths.

  1. Role of scrape cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis of tumor

    Kolte Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rapid diagnosis of surgically removed specimens has created many controversies and a single completely reliable method has not yet been developed. Histopathology of a paraffin section remains the ultimate gold standard in tissue diagnosis. Frozen section is routinely used by the surgical pathology laboratories for intraoperative diagnosis. The use of either frozen section or cytological examination alone has an acceptable rate (93-97% of correct diagnosis, with regard to interpretation of benign versus malignant. Aim : To evaluate the utility of scrape cytology for the rapid diagnosis of surgically removed tumors and its utilisation for learning cytopathology. Materials and Methods : 75 surgically removed specimens from various organs and systems were studied. Scrapings were taken from each specimen before formalin fixation and stained by modified rapid Papanicolaou staining. Results : Of the 75 cases studied, 73 could be correctly differentiated into benign and malignant tumors, with an accuracy rate of 97.3%. Conclusions : Intraoperative scrape cytology is useful for intraoperative diagnosis of tumor, where facilities for frozen section are not available. The skill and expertise developed by routinely practicing intraoperative cytology can be applied to the interpretation of fine needle aspirate smears. Thus, apart from its diagnostic role, intraoperative cytology can become a very useful learning tool in the field of cytopathology.

  2. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour: Cytological and immunocytochemical features

    Filho Adhemar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA. Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.

  3. [Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].

    Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocmăreanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Drăgan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

  4. CD-ROM transnational training program in cervical cytology (CYTOTRAIN).

    Marsan, C; Coleman, D V; Branca, M; Cochand-Priollet, B; Molinié, V

    2001-01-01

    The Transnational Training Programme in Cervical Cytology (CYTOTRAIN) is a 3-yr project funded by the European Commission to harmonize training and quality standards in cervical screening across the European Union. The aim of the program is to develop new approaches in initial and continuing vocational training, particularly in the area of life-long learning with the aim of meeting national, regional, and local needs. We present a new approach to training in cervical cytology, using an interactive program of cytological images. The method used to prepare the program and the problems encountered are described. The authors have the feeling that giving details of the organizational and management structure adopted for the project implementation might help other pathologists realize more or less similar CD-ROM training programs in their own field of activity. PMID:11135473

  5. Pilomatrixoma of the Arm: A Rare Case with Cytologic Diagnosis

    Ruchika Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, a benign skin appendageal tumor, is seen commonly in head and neck. Occurrence of pilomatrixoma in the upper extremities is not common and has been reported infrequently in the available literature. Only a few cases with preoperative aspiration cytology have been reported in the literature. A five-year-old girl underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA of a firm subcutaneous nodule on the lateral aspect of left arm. FNA smears showed scattered and few fragments of round to oval cells along with multinucleated giant cells. Few shadow cells were seen. A cytologic impression of pilomatrixoma was rendered, which was confirmed on histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, a common skin appendageal tumor in head and neck region, should be considered in the cytologic differential diagnoses of subcutaneous masses even in unusual locations like arm. The varied cytomorphology should be remembered to avoid misdiagnosis.

  6. Cytological diagnostic of canine transmissible venereal tumor - Case report

    Ulčar Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (CTVT is a benign reticuloendothelial (histiocytic tumor of the dog that mainly affects the external genitalia. This tumor was found in male 2 years old mongrel dog. According the anamnestic data, there was no visible change of its general clinical status, except spontaneous bleeding with blood drops on the praeputium and the presence of blood in the urine. With clinical examination a multilobular mass on radix penis mucosa was found, which actually caused pseudohemorrhagia. The material for cytological diagnostic was taken with the imprint method and 4 cytological films were prepared and strained. The conclusion of the cytological diagnosis was CTVT. The tumor cause only local disturbances, and the differential diagnosis of the other "round cells tumors", histiocytomas, plasmacytomas, lymphoma, some melanomas and especially lymphosarcomas, which could be located on the external genitalia, had a big significance. Although some authors are mentioning spontaneous regression, however, because this is invasive tumor, a complete chirurgical excision was made.

  7. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  8. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. Litherland, J.C. (2002)

  9. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. PMID:11977938

  10. Is Serum or Sputum Eosinophil Cationic Protein Level Adequate for Diagnosis of Mild Asthma?

    Mohammad Reza Khakzad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Spirometry has been used as a common diagnostic test in asthma. Most of the patients with a mild asthma have a FEV1 within normal range. Hence, other diagnostic methods are usually used. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP could be an accurate diagnostic marker of mild asthma.In this study diagnosis of asthma was made according to internationally accepted criteria. Asthma severity was evaluated according to frequency of symptoms and FEV1. Adequate sputum samples were obtained in 50 untreated subjects. A control group of 12 normal subjects that showed PC20 more than 8 mg/dl was also examined. Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline. Inflammatory cells in sputum smears were assessed semi-quantitatively. ECP and IgE concentrations, eosinophil (EO percentage and ECP/EO ratio in serum and sputum were also determined. The results revealed that Cough and dyspnea were the most frequent clinical findings. Dyspnea and wheezing were the symptoms that correlated with staging of asthma. FEV1 was within normal range (more than 80% of predicted in 22 (44% subjects.Asthmatic patients showed significantly higher numbers of blood eosinophils (4.5± 3.1% vs. 1.2±0.2%, P=0.009, and higher levels of serum ECP than control group (3.1± 2.6 % and 22.6± 15.8 ng/ml, respectively. Sputum ECP level in asthmatics was significantly higher than non- asthmatics (55.3±29.8ng/mL vs. 25.0±24.7ng/mL, P=0.045. Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between spirometric parameters and biomarkers, the only exception was significant correlation between FEF25-75 and serum ECP (r= 0.28, P 0.041. Regarding clinical symptoms, wheezing was significantly correlated with elevation of most of biomarkers. Since, serum and sputum ECP levels are elevated in untreated asthmatics, the ECP level could be used for accurate diagnosis of mild form of asthma in which spirometry is unremarkable.

  11. Particulate matter is associated with sputum culture conversion in patients with culture-positive tuberculosis

    Chen KY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kuan-Yuan Chen,1,* Kai-Jen Chuang,2,3,* Hui-Chiao Liu,4,5 Kang-Yun Lee,1,6 Po-Hao Feng,1,6 Chien-Ling Su,1,4 Chii-Lan Lin,1,4 Chun-Nin Lee,1,4 Hsiao-Chi Chuang1,4 1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, 2Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, 3School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, 4School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 5Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Sijhih Cathay General Hospital, 6Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to the study Abstract: Emerging risk factors for tuberculosis (TB infection, such as air pollution, play a significant role at both the individual and population levels. However, the association between air pollution and TB remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the association between outdoor air pollution and sputum culture conversion in TB patients. In the present study, 389 subjects were recruited from a hospital in Taiwan from 2010 to 2012: 144 controls with non-TB-related pulmonary diseases with negative sputum cultures and 245 culture-positive TB subjects. We observed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in particulate matter of ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 resulted in 4% higher odds of TB (odds ratio =1.04, 95% confidence interval =1.01–1.08, P<0.05. The chest X-ray grading of TB subjects was correlated to 1 year levels of PM10 (R2=0.94, P<0.05. However, there were no associations of pulmonary cavitation or treatment success rate with PM10. In subjects with TB-positive cultures, annual exposure to ≥50 µg/m3 PM10 was associated with an increase in the time required for sputum culture conversion (hazard ratio =1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.07–1.84, P<0.05. In conclusion, chronic exposure to ≥50 µg/m3 PM

  12. Contributions of cytology examination and methods in lung cancer diagnostic

    Background. Lung cancer (LC) is still the leading cause of cancer death according to published data worldwide and confirmed also by the data obtained from the central Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Early detection of LC has an important impact on the long-term survival rate of the patients. In spite of a great advance in imaging technology for a better visualization and early detection of the neoplasms and a variety of screening tests, only cytopathology examination finally define the neoplastic lesion. Methods. To evaluate the contribution of cytology examination in the diagnosis of LC we studied the cytology diagnoses, comparing them with histology reports in patients, who underwent the diagnostic procedure under suspicion of the LC during last 2 years. Results. Of a total 772 patients, in 241 patients cancer was microscopically confirmed. The most frequent diagnoses were adenocarcinoma (36.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (26.6%), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC) (12.9%). There were 22% of neoplasms classified as non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). From the clinician point of view considering the therapy it is very important to distinguish NSCLC from SCLC. And in our study the cytology-histology correlation between these two major types of carcinoma was almost 100%. Based only on cytology, 68 (28.2%) patients received microscopic diagnosis of malignoma, and the specimens for this group of patients were obtained mostly from transbronchial or transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies. Conclusions. Cytology is of great diagnostic value, a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Cytology specimens should be taken in cases where it is not possible to obtain samples for histology. (author)

  13. Cytological mechanisms of interspecific incrossability and hybrid sterility between Oryza sativa L. and O.alta Swallen

    FU XueLin; LU YongGen; LIU XiangDong; Li JinQuan; Feng JiuHuan

    2007-01-01

    Oryza sativa and O. alta belong to AA and CCDD genomes in Oryza, respectively. Interspecific reproductive isolation limits the transfer of favorable genes from O. alta into O. sativa. The cytological mechanisms of interspecific incrossability and hybrid sterility between O. sativa and O. alta were studied systematically in this paper. We indentified two cytological causes of interspecific incrossability. First, we observed embryo sac incompatibility that caused fertilization barriers of variable severity such as non-fertilization, fertilization stagnation and egg cell single-fertilization. Second, we observed hybrid inviability, the major cause for incrossability, apparent from hybrid embryo developmental stagnation and embryo abortion. Hybrid sterility included both embryo sac sterility and pollen sterility.The hybrid embryo sac was completely sterile and exhibited mainly embryo sac degeneration. Hybrid pollen was also sterile and mainly typical abortive. Hybrid sterility was mainly caused by severely abnormal meioses of megasporocytes and pollen mother cells; it is the most important abnormality, being chromosome sterility. Several methods are suggested to overcome the interspecific reproductive isolation between O. sativa and O. alta.

  14. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity.

    Lingappa, Hemalatha Anthanahalli; Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-05-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as "Intramuscular Sarcocystosis" and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  15. Role of cytology in fibroadenoma with clinging carcinoma

    N Swetha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in adolescent girls and young women with a peak incidence in the second and third decades of life. Carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is rare and is usually discovered incidentally. We describe a case of clinging type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS arising within a fibroadenoma. Clinging carcinoma, a variant of DCIS is an under recognized entity. Diagnosis of DCIS is made based on architecture and cytology. This case report highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of this entity coexisting in a fibroadenoma.

  16. Diagnosis of chordoma by cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Marigil, M A; Pardo-Mindan, F J; Joly, M

    1983-09-01

    This is a case report of a 44-year-old man with a chordoma of the clivus that caused dysphonia, low back pain, and urinary and fecal incontinence. The diagnosis was made by cytologic study of the CSF, which demonstrated vacuolated malignant cells. The patient was treated with intrathecal methotrexate, dexamethasone, and radiotherapy. At autopsy extensive dissemination of chordoma was found at the base of the brain, in the ventricles, and in the leptomeninges of the spinal cord. This is the sixth reported case of intrathecal dissemination of a chordoma and the first diagnosed by cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:6881106

  17. Cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation into Stevia

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ion with various doses. The cytological effect on M1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. However, there was no significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation was lower than that of γ-rays

  18. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Prey Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-guided screening technologies into the testing protocols is necessary for the testing protocol to be compliant with the law.

  19. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  1.  A Comparative Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Cytology in Thyroid Nodules

    Prathvi Shetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC/FNA is the primary investigation for thyroid nodules. Fine needle capillary cytology (FNCC/FNC is an alternative technique not commonly used, though it is easy to perform. Both the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to compare these two cytological techniques for better specimen and cytological diagnosis.Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients attending the FR Muller Medical College Hospital from May 2006 to April 2008. The patients with thyroid nodules (diagnosed by palpation were subjected to both the cytological techniques; FNA and FNC. The specimen and results were compared and then correlated with the final histopathological findings wherever surgical specimens were available (38 cases.Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.16 with a female predominance. The majority of cases were diagnosed to have nodular goiters. The FNC technique yielded 88�0diagnostic superiority and adequate specimens compared to 94�0by FNA. Sensitivity was 50�0for FNC and 100�0for FNA while specificity was 100�0for both techniques; accuracy score was 97.4�0for FNC and 100�0for FNA in predicting malignancy. While sensitivity was 75�0for FNC and 100�0for FNA; specificity was 100�0for both techniques, and accuracy score was 97.4�0for FNC and 100�0for FNA in the prediction of neoplasia.Conclusion: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the two techniques; if done in tandem can give better and accurate cytological diagnosis. In highly cellular lesions, in which abundant material was obtained, FNC was more likely to be diagnostically superior, but FNA can diagnose most of the lesions. In less cellular lesions, FNA is more likely to be diagnostically superior to FNC.

  2. Cytological diagnosis of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old man

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinicohistopathological study of a rare case of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old patient is presented. The cytological features when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic features are sufficiently diagnostic. The primary knowledge of its existence and knowledge of its cytological features are important for a correct preoperative cytological diagnosis.

  3. The changes of sputum IL-8 and TNF-α level in COPD patients and their clinical value

    To investigate the changes and role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the diagnosis and therapy of COPD, the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α in serum and sputum samples in 58 COPD cases during different therapy periods were detected by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the sputum IL-8 and TNF-α levels in COPD patients at the attack aggressive stage were significantly higher than those in the stable stage, which were in accord with those changes in serum samples. Furthermore, the changes of IL-8 and TNF-α levels in sputum samples were earlier than the changes in serum samples. The changes of sputum IL-8 and TNF-α levels in COPD patients may play a more important role than the changes of serum samples in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with COPD. (authors)

  4. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients

    Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G.; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke; Hansen, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity. PMID:27391160

  5. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  6. Sputum mast cell subtypes relate to eosinophilia and corticosteroid response in asthma.

    Wang, Gang; Baines, Katherine J; Fu, Juan Juan; Wood, Lisa G; Simpson, Jodie L; McDonald, Vanessa M; Cowan, Douglas C; Taylor, D Robin; Cowan, Jan O; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    Mast cells are a resident inflammatory cell of the airways, involved in both the innate and adaptive immune response. The relationship between mast cells and inflammatory phenotypes and treatment response of asthma is not clear.Clinical characteristics of subjects with stable asthma (n=55), inflammatory cell counts and gene expression microarrays in induced sputum were analysed. Sputum mast cell subtypes were determined by molecular phenotyping based on expression of mast cell biomarkers (tryptase (TPSAB1), chymase (CMA1) and carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3)). Effects of mast cell subtypes on steroid response were observed in a prospective cohort study (n=50).MCT(n=18) and MCT/CPA3(mRNA expression ofTPSAB1andCPA3; n=29) subtypes were identified, as well as a group without mast cell gene expression (n=8). The MCT/CPA3subtype had elevated exhaled nitric oxide fraction, sputum eosinophils, bronchial sensitivity and reactivity, and poorer asthma control. This was accompanied by upregulation of 13 genes. Multivariable logistic regression identifiedCPA3(OR 1.21, p=0.004) rather thanTPSAB1(OR 0.92, p=0.502) as a determinant of eosinophilic asthma. The MCT/CPA3subtype had a better clinical response and reduced signature gene expression with corticosteroid treatment.Sputum mast cell subtypes of asthma can be defined by a molecular phenotyping approach. The MCT/CPA3subtype demonstrated increased bronchial sensitivity and reactivity, and signature gene expression, which was associated with airway eosinophilia and greater corticosteroid responsiveness. PMID:26699720

  7. Effect of Yogic Breathing Techniques in New Sputum Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    A Mooventhan; Vitthal Khode; L Nivethitha

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old, unmarried woman diagnosed of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) visited our hospital out-patient department in the month of August-2013. Patient came with the complaint of sever cough with expectoration; evening raise of temperature; gradual loss of appetite and weight since 2-weeks. We referred the patient to our hospital′s Revised National Tuberculosis Program, direct observed treatment short-course center for sputum fluorescence microscopic examination (FME). FME report suggested ...

  8. Nitrous oxide production in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    Mette Kolpen

    Full Text Available Chronic lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major severe complication in cystic fibrosis (CF patients, where P. aeruginosa persists and grows in biofilms in the endobronchial mucus under hypoxic conditions. Numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs surround the biofilms and create local anoxia by consuming the majority of O2 for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa acquires energy for growth in anaerobic endobronchial mucus by denitrification, which can be demonstrated by production of nitrous oxide (N2O, an intermediate in the denitrification pathway. We measured N2O and O2 with electrochemical microsensors in 8 freshly expectorated sputum samples from 7 CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection. The concentrations of NO3(- and NO2(- in sputum were estimated by the Griess reagent. We found a maximum median concentration of 41.8 µM N2O (range 1.4-157.9 µM N2O. The concentration of N2O in the sputum was higher below the oxygenated layers. In 4 samples the N2O concentration increased during the initial 6 h of measurements before decreasing for approximately 6 h. Concomitantly, the concentration of NO3(- decreased in sputum during 24 hours of incubation. We demonstrate for the first time production of N2O in clinical material from infected human airways indicating pathogenic metabolism based on denitrification. Therefore, P. aeruginosa may acquire energy for growth by denitrification in anoxic endobronchial mucus in CF patients. Such ability for anaerobic growth may be a hitherto ignored key aspect of chronic P. aeruginosa infections that can inform new strategies for treatment and prevention.

  9. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Mugusi Ferdinand M; Swai Hedwiga F; Mbwambo Jessie K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm u...

  10. Andrographis Paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees Induces Clinical and Sputum Conversion in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    Widhawati, Riswahyuni; Hanani, Endang; Zaini, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe aim of this study was to determine whether Andrographus paniculata capsule induces clinical and sputum conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study was conducted to pulmonary tuberculosis patient who admitted to Pulmonology Polyclinic of Persahabatan Central General Hospital, Jakarta. A total of 44 pulmonary TB patients were randomly divided into two groups including one group received standard antituberculosis drugs ...

  11. Effect of inhaled endotoxin on induced sputum in normal, atopic, and atopic asthmatic subjects

    Nightingale, J.; Rogers, D.; Hart, L.; Kharitonov, S; Chung, K.(The University of Iowa, Iowa City, U.S.A); Barnes, P.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes an inflammatory response in the lungs. To explore this response, inflammatory indices were measured in induced sputum from atopic asthmatic patients and compared with atopic and non-atopic subjects after inhalation of LPS.
METHODS—The effects of inhaled LPS (60 µg) or placebo (0.9% saline) were examined in a randomised, double blind, crossover trial in 11 non-atopic normal subjects, seven atopic, non-asthmatic indiv...

  12. Sputum Candida albicans presages FEV₁ decline and hospital-treated exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H

    2010-11-01

    The role of Candida albicans in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway is underexplored. Considered a colonizer, few question its pathogenic potential despite high isolation frequencies from sputum culture. We evaluated the frequency and identified the strongest predictors of C albicans colonization in CF. Independent associations of colonization with clinical outcomes were determined, and the longitudinal effects of C albicans acquisition on BMI and FEV₁ were evaluated.

  13. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients

    Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G;

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma w....... We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity....

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by EasyNAT diagnostic kit in sputum samples from Tanzania.

    Mhimbira, Francis A; Bholla, Maira; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Mukurasi, William; Hella, Jerry J; Jugheli, Levan; Reither, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    The EasyNAT assay was evaluated for the detection of tuberculosis in sputum smears from presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in an African high-TB and high-HIV setting. The sensitivity of the EasyNAT assay was 66.7%, and the specificity and positive predictive value were 100% for the culture-positive patients. The sensitivity was only 10% in the smear-negative and culture-positive patients. PMID:25609720

  15. 从痰论治心悸验案4则%4 Cases of Palpitation Treated from Sputum

    童舜华

    2012-01-01

    温胆汤为行气化痰的名方,对于痰浊扰心所致心悸病症的治疗,笔者习用加味温胆汤,每收良效.%Wendan Decoction is a famous formula for promoting Qi to remove sputum; to palpitation caused by phlegm and sputum harassing heart,the author uses revised Wendan Decoction with good cure effect.

  16. Mixed infection and clonal representativeness of a single sputum sample in tuberculosis patients from a penitentiary hospital in Georgia.

    Portaels Françoise; Willery Eve; Sadradze Nikoloz; Jugheli Levan; Shamputa Isdore C; Supply Philip; Rigouts Leen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on recurrent tuberculosis (TB), TB molecular epidemiology and drug susceptibility testing rely on the analysis of one Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from a single sputum sample collected at different disease episodes. This scheme rests on the postulate that a culture of one sputum sample is homogeneous and representative of the total bacillary population in a patient. Methods We systematically analysed several pre-treatment isolates from each of 199 smear-posit...

  17. Inflammatory Mediators in Induced Sputum and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Cough Variant Asthma during Long-Term Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment

    Meixuan Liu; Kaixiong Liu; Ning Zhu; Jingwen Xia; Xiaodong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate improvements in inflammatory mediator levels in induced sputum and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in cough variant asthma (CVA) during long-term inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. Patients and Methods. Patients with CVA ( = 3 5 ) and classic asthma ( = 2 6 ) and healthy subjects ( = 2 4 ) were recruited into this study. All patients were treated with budesonide (400 μg/day). Measurement of inflammatory mediators in induced sputum and PD2...

  18. Comparison of Six Methods of Extracting Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from Processed Sputum for Testing by Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Aldous, Wade K.; Pounder, June I.; Cloud, Joann L.; Woods, Gail L.

    2005-01-01

    Six methods of extracting Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from sputum for testing by quantitative PCR were compared: Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer, PrepMan Ultra, 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-10% Triton X with and without sonication, Infectio Diagnostics, Inc. (IDI) lysing tubes, and QIAGEN QIAamp DNA mini kit; all included a 15-min boiling step. Pooled digested and decontaminated sputum was spiked with M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294. Each extraction method was repeated eight times. Quantitative PCR wa...

  19. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    Dave Singh

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01 between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  20. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    Al-Momani, H; Perry, A; Stewart, C J; Jones, R; Krishnan, A; Robertson, A G; Bourke, S; Doe, S; Cummings, S P; Anderson, A; Forrest, T; Griffin, S M; Brodlie, M; Pearson, J; Ward, C

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  1. Educational intervention for collecting sputum for tuberculosis: a quasi-experimental study 1

    Sicsú, Amélia Nunes; Salem, Julia Ignez; Fujimoto, Luciana Botinelly Mendonça; Gonzales, Roxana Isabel Cardozo; Cardoso, Maria do Socorro de Lucena; Palha, Pedro Fredemir

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the quality of the sputum sample before and after the Nursing guidance to patients. Methods: this is a quasi-experimental research design, single group type, before and after, non-randomized study. The study enrolled patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis, respiratory symptomatic patients for over three weeks, aged over 18 years, of both genders and without tuberculosis history in the last two years. The educational intervention consisted of individualized guidance on the collection of sputum sample, which was based on the guidelines of the Ministry of Health of Brazil and on the explanatory folder delivery. Results: in this study participated 138 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The results showed significant increase of the samples with purulent particles, volume greater than 5 mL and increased rate of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, after the educational intervention. Conclusion: it was shown that after the educational intervention, it was observed sputum samples with better quality, with satisfactory aspect and volume for the effectiveness of the bacilloscopic examination. PMID:27276015

  2. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  3. Contribution by polymorphonucleate granulocytes to elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase in cystic fibrosis sputum.

    Alessandro Corti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a chronic neutrophilic airways inflammation, increasing levels of oxidative stress and reduced levels of antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, an enzyme induced by oxidative stress and involved in the catabolism of GSH and its derivatives, is increased in the airways of CF patients with inflammation, but the possible implications of its increase have not yet been investigated in detail. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study was aimed to evaluate the origin and the biochemical characteristics of the GGT detectable in CF sputum. We found GGT activity both in neutrophils and in the fluid, the latter significantly correlating with myeloperoxidase expression. In neutrophils, GGT was associated with intracellular granules. In the fluid, gel-filtration chromatography showed the presence of two distinct GGT fractions, the first corresponding to the human plasma b-GGT fraction, the other to the free enzyme. The same fractions were also observed in the supernatant of ionomycin and fMLP-activated neutrophils. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of a single band of GGT immunoreactive peptide in the CF sputum samples and in isolated neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that neutrophils are able to transport and release GGT, thus increasing GGT activity in CF sputum. The prompt release of GGT may have consequences on all GGT substrates, including major inflammatory mediators such as S-nitrosoglutathione and leukotrienes, and could participate in early modulation of inflammatory response.

  4. Detection of sputum eicosanoids in cystic fibrosis and in normal saliva by bioassay and radioimmunoassay.

    Zakrzewski, J T; Barnes, N C; Piper, P J; Costello, J F

    1987-01-01

    We have measured arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, leukotrienes (LTs) and prostanoids (Ps), in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and in normal saliva using bioassay and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Almost three times as much LTB4 is present in CF extracts compared with slow reacting substances (SRSs). Leukotrienes were not detected in normal saliva. In CF sputum there is a three-fold increase in the level of the vasodilator prostanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the stable metabolite of prostacyclin, 6-oxo PGF1 alpha compared with the vasoconstrictor prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a hydrolysis product of thromboxane A2. Experiments with BW755c (25 micrograms ml-1, n = 3) indicated that the majority of this activity was not produced during the extraction procedure. The detection of LTs and Ps in sputum of CF patients shows that these substances are present at biologically active concentrations and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:3028454

  5. Psychosocial impact of alternative management policies for low-grade cervical abnormalities: results from the TOMBOLA randomised controlled trial.

    Linda Sharp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care and a hospital-based colposcopy examination. METHODS: Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20-59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n = 1703 or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n = 1696. At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A subgroup (n = 2354 completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (≥ 8 and significant anxiety (≥ 11; "30-month percentages". Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (≥ 9. Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.80-1.21 or anxiety (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.81-1.16 between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR = 0.67 95% CI 0.54-0.84. Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time

  6. Pilot study of a rapid and minimally instrumented sputum sample preparation method for molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis.

    Ferguson, Tanya M; Weigel, Kris M; Lakey Becker, Annie; Ontengco, Delia; Narita, Masahiro; Tolstorukov, Ilya; Doebler, Robert; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Niemz, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) enables rapid and sensitive diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), which facilitates treatment and mitigates transmission. Nucleic acid extraction from sputum constitutes the greatest technical challenge in TB NAAT for near-patient settings. This report presents preliminary data for a semi-automated sample processing method, wherein sputum is disinfected and liquefied, followed by PureLyse(®) mechanical lysis and solid-phase nucleic acid extraction in a miniaturized, battery-operated bead blender. Sputum liquefaction and disinfection enabled a >10(4) fold reduction in viable load of cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) spiked into human sputum, which mitigates biohazard concerns. Sample preparation via the PureLyse(®) method and a clinically validated manual method enabled positive PCR-based detection for sputum spiked with 10(4) and 10(5) colony forming units (cfu)/mL M.tb. At 10(3) cfu/mL sputum, four of six and two of six samples amplified using the comparator and PureLyse(®) method, respectively. For clinical specimens from TB cases and controls, the two methods provided 100% concordant results for samples with 1 mL input volume (N = 41). The semi-automated PureLyse(®) method therefore performed similarly to a validated manual comparator method, but is faster, minimally instrumented, and can be integrated into TB molecular diagnostic platforms designed for near-patient low-resource settings. PMID:26785769

  7. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina

    GERMANA, MARIA ANTONIETTA; Aleza, Pablo; Carrera, Esther; Chen, Chunxian; Chiancone, Benedetta; Costantino, Gilles; Dambier, Dominique; Deng, Xiuxin; Federici, Claire T.; Froelicher, Yann; Guo, Wenwu; Ibanez, Victoria; Juarez, Jose; Kwok, Kevin; Luro, François

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow c...

  8. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events. PMID:26277352

  9. Human papillomavirus infection in Honduran women with normal cytology.

    Tabora, N.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Matute, J.A.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Ferrera, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at estimating type-specific HPV prevalence and its cofactors among Honduran women with normal cytology in order to provide valuable information to health policymakers about the epidemiology of this important sexually transmitted infection. METHODS: A total of 591 wome

  10. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses - Our experience

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Early pathological classification of retroperitoneal masses is important for pin-point diagnosis and timely management. Aims : This study was done to evaluate the usefulness and drawbacks of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of retroperitoneal masses covering a period of two years with an intention to distinguish between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions and to correlate with histologic findings. Materials and Methods : FNAC was done under radiological guidance in all cases using long needle fitted with disposable syringe. Appropriate staining was done and cytology was correlated with histology which was taken as the gold standard for comparison. Results : Fifty-one patients who presented with retroperitoneal masses were studied. Forty-four lesions were malignant cytologically and 7 were inflammatory (tuberculous. According to radiological and cytologic findings, we classified our cases into four groups: renal tumors, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, germ cell tumors, soft tissue tumors. Except for cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and metastatic lesions, we had sensitivity and specificity of 100%. In NHL the sensitivity and specificity were both 50%. In cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusions : Ignoring the pitfalls, guided FNAC is still an inexpensive and reliable method of early diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions.

  11. How do young and senior cytopathologists interact with digital cytology?

    Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis.

  12. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  13. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules

    Ayper KAÇAR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast majority of patients with thyroid nodules were cytopathologically diagnosed as benign (97.3%. Of these patients, 64.8% (24 patients were diagnosed as nodular goiter and 35.2% (13 patients as lymphocytic thyroiditis. Thyroid malignancy was found in two patients; one was diagnosed as follicular neoplasm/ minimal invasive follicular carcinoma on surgical evaluation while the other was a secondary tumor (Burkitt's lymphoma. The majority of our subjects were females (66.6%: the female/male ratio was 2:1 for nodular goiter and 3.3:1 for thyroiditis. Surgical resection was performed in 5 patients (4 cases of nodular goiter, 1 suspicious for malignancy and cytological diagnoses were confirmed by histology.Conclusion: Our study confirmed the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in childhood thyroid disorders along with a possible higher incidence of nodular thyroiditis in childhood. Nodular autoimmune thyroiditis, focal thyroiditis and thyroid cancer in children are discussed and attention is drawn to some special subtypes of thyroid cancer and some benign lesions that can cause difficulty in interpreting fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen sections at this age.

  14. Sputum inflammatory profile before and after specific inhalation challenge in individuals with suspected occupational asthma.

    Sara Sánchez-Vidaurre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish the sputum inflammatory profile and changes in levels of leukotriene B₄ (LTB₄ and a panel of Th1/Th2 cytokines in subjects with suspected occupational asthma (OA following specific inhalation challenge (SIC to high-molecular-weight (HMW and low-molecular-weight (LMW agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive subjects undergoing SIC for suspected OA were enrolled. Sputum induction was performed the day before and 24 h after exposure to the offending agent. Total and differential cell counts were assessed. LTB₄ and a 10 Th1/Th2 cytokines were measured in sputum supernatant. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients tested positive to SIC and were diagnosed with OA (in 10 due to HMW agents and in 24 to LMW agents. SIC was negative in 17 subjects. As compared to baseline an increase was found in the percentage of sputum eosinophils and neutrophils, and in IL-10 concentration after SIC (p = 0.0078, p = 0.0195, and p = 0.046, respectively, and a decrease was seen in LTB₄ level (p = 0.0078 in patients with OA due to HMW agents. An increase in the percentage of sputum neutrophils after SIC (p = 0.0040 was observed in subjects without OA exposed to LMW agents. IL-8 levels after SIC were higher in patients without OA compared with patients with OA (p = 0.0146. CONCLUSION: When conducting airway inflammation studies in OA, patients should be divided according to the causal agent (HMW or LMW. In OA patients exposed to HMW agents, an increase in the number of neutrophils can be found in parallel to the increase of eosinophils, although this does not contradict an IgE-mediated mechanism. Exposure to LMW agents can result in increased neutrophilic inflammation in patients with airway diseases unrelated to OA. There is variability in the responses observed in patients with OA exposed to LMW agents.

  15. Quantitation of leukotriene B(4) in human sputum as a biomarker using UPLC-MS/MS.

    Jian, Wenying; Edom, Richard W; Xue, Xiaohua; Huang, Mike-Qingtao; Fourie, Anne; Weng, Naidong

    2013-08-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent mediator of inflammation and has been recognized as an important target for therapeutic intervention for treatment of diseases such as asthma. In the current work, a highly selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed for quantitation of LTB4 in human sputum as a biomarker for LTB4 biosynthesis inhibition. A fit-for-purpose strategy for method development, assay qualification, and study support was adopted for this biomarker project. A surrogate matrix (protein buffer) was used for preparation of calibration samples and certain levels of quality control (QC) samples to avoid interference from endogenous analyte, while the low QC was prepared in authentic matrix, human sputum. The analytical methodology utilized a liquid-liquid extraction procedure in 96-well plate format. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a reversed-phase ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) column using gradient elution, and the run time was 4.5min per sample. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.2ng/mL, and the calibration curve range was 0.2-20ng/mL. Acceptable accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity, recovery, and matrix effect was obtained. Bench-top stability (6h), freeze-thaw stability (3 cycles at -20°C), and autosampler stability (97h at ambient temperature) all met acceptance criteria. Frozen long-term stability for 166 days at -20°C in sputum did not meet acceptance criteria by showing only ≥75% of nominal concentration and the information was taken into consideration for study support. Two important observations in the current work were: (1) LTB4 was unstable in sputum in the presence of liquification reagent dithiothreitol (DTT). Therefore, a non-DTT treatment method for sputum processing was developed and applied to the bioanalytical assay and clinical study support; and (2) chromatographic separation of LTB4 from its three non-enzymatically derived isomers, i.e. 6-trans-LTB4, 12-epi-LTB4, and 6-trans

  16. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination...... abnormality independently predicted transition to disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 1.53 (1.01-2.34)]. The hazard increased with increasing number of abnormalities. Among MRI lesions, only ARWMC of severe grade independently predicted disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 2.18 (1.37-3.48)]. In our cohort...

  17. Prediction of radiosensitivity of oral cancers by serial cytological assay of nuclear changes

    Background and purpose: To identify the relationship between the radiosensitivity of oral cancers and the induction of micronucleation, nuclear budding and multinucleation (polynucleation) evaluated by serial cytology during fractionated radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients with epidermoid cancer of the oral cavity receiving radiotherapy (60 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks) were studied. Serial scrape smears were taken from the tumour before and during radiotherapy and stained by Giemsa and the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC), nuclear budded cells (NBC) and multinucleated cells (PNC) was evaluated by light microscopy. After a minimum follow-up period of 30 months the patients were classified as having resistant or sensitive tumours, depending on whether the primary tumour had recurred or not within that time. Within-group and between-group analysis on the induction of the above individual parameters and two combined parameters, the micro- or multinucleated cell (MPC) count and the abnormally nucleated cell (ANC) count, was done. The counts were expressed per 1000 uni-nucleated cells. Results: In both groups each parameter showed a statistically significant increase with dose, the increase being higher in the sensitive group. The ANC count showed the greatest increase, the mean counts before treatment and after 28.8 Gy being 24.3 and 157.8 (P<0.0005), respectively, in the sensitive group and 21.0 and 65.2 (P<0.0005), respectively, in the resistant group. After 28.8 Gy the sensitive tumours had significantly higher ANC (P=0.01), MPC (P<0.05) and PNC (P<0.05) counts. Conclusion: The study shows that serial cytological assay of nuclear changes (SCANCing) during radiotherapy is a potentially useful test to predict radiosensitivity. The fact that multinucleation showed the greatest relation with radiosensitivity suggests that injury to the cytokinetic apparatus is important in determining tumour radiosensitivity. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier

  18. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer.

    Kędra, Bożena; Chomczyk, Monika; Złotkowski, Marcin; Stokowska, Wanda; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Bicz, Mieczysław; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Czajka, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech; Zimnoch, Lech; Kędra, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:23042267

  19. P16INK4a: a potential diagnostic adjunct for prediction of high-grade cervical lesions in liquid-based cytology: with HPV testing and histological correlation.

    Wong, Y P; Abdul Raub, S H; Mohd Dali, A Z H; Kassim, F; Visvalingam, V; Zakaria, Z; Kamaluddin, M A; Noor Akmal, S

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology. PMID:27568665

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic modality for cysticercosis: A clinicocytological study of 137 cases

    Pooja Kala

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same.

  1. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in sputum of allergic asthma patients.

    Sebastian Zukowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor (PAI-1 have been associated with asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum of house dust mite allergic asthmatics (HDM-AAs. The study was performed on 19 HDM-AAs and 8 healthy nonatopic controls (HCs. Concentration of uPA and PAI-1 was evaluated in induced sputum supernatants using ELISA method. In HDM-AAs the median sputum concentration of uPA (128 pg/ml; 95% CI 99 to 183 pg/ml and PAI-1 (4063 pg/ml; 95%CI 3319 to 4784 pg/ml were significantly greater than in HCs (17 pg/ml; 95%CI 12 to 32 pg/ml; p<0.001 and 626 pg/ml; 95%CI 357 to 961 pg/ml; p<0.001 for uPA and PAI-1 respectively. The sputum concentration of uPA correlated with sputum total cell count (r=0.781; p=0.0001 and with logarithmically transformed exhaled nitric oxide concentration (eNO (r=0.486; p=0.035 but not with FEV1 or bronchial reactivity to histamine. On the contrary, the sputum PAI-1 concentration correlated with FEV1 (r=-0,718; p=0.0005 and bronchial reactivity to histamine expressed as log(PC20 (r=-0.824; p<0.0001 but did not correlate with sputum total cell count or eNO. The results of this study support previous observations linking PAI-1 with airway remodeling and uPA with cellular inflammation. Moreover, the observed effect of uPA seems to be independent of its fibrynolytic activity.

  3. Distribution of high and low risk HPV types by cytological status: a population based study from Italy

    Pini Maria T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV type distribution by cytological status represents useful information to predict the impact of mass vaccination on screening programs. Methods women aged from 25 to 64 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3410 women had a valid HCII and Pap-test. The prevalence of HR and LR infections was 7.0% and 3.6%, 29.1% and 13.7%, 68.1% and 31.9%, 60.0% and 0.0%, 65.0% and 12.0%, for negative, ASC-US, L-SIL, ASC-H and H-SIL cytology, respectively. The fraction of ASC-US+ cytology due to HPV 16 and 18 ranged from 11.2 (HPV 16/18 alone to 15.4% (including HPV 16/18 in co-infection with other virus strains, and that due to HPV 6 and 11 ranged from 0.2% (HPV 6/11 alone to 0.7% (including HPV 6/11 in co-infection with other LR virus strains. Conclusions mass vaccination with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine would modestly impact on prevalence of abnormal Pap-test in screening.

  4. Feasibility and diagnostic utility of antigen-specific interferon-gamma responses for rapid immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis using induced sputum.

    Tamaryn J Cashmore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of smear-negative or sputum-scarce tuberculosis (TB is problematic as culture takes several weeks and representative biological samples are difficult to obtain. RD-1 antigen-specific interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs are sensitive and specific blood-based tests for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection. The feasibility and diagnostic utility of this rapid immunodiagnostic assay, using cells from induced sputum, is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cells isolated from induced sputum were co-cultured with ESAT-6 and CFP-10 antigens using a standardized enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assay (T-SPOT.TB in 101 consecutively recruited TB suspects or non-TB controls. An optimization phase using 28 samples was followed by a validation phase using samples from 73 participants (20 with definite or probable TB, and 48 with non-TB. Despite optimization of sputum processing 65/73 (89% of the IGRAs in the validation phase were inconclusive. 44/73 (60% tests failed due to sputum induction-related factors [sputum induction-related adverse events (n = 5, inadequate sputum volume (n = 8, non-homogenisable sputum (n = 7, and insufficient numbers of cells to perform the assay (n = 24], whilst 20/73 (27% tests failed due T-SPOT.TB assay-related factors [excessive debris precluding reading of spots in the ELISPOT well (n = 6, failure of the positive control (n = 11, or high spot count in the negative control (n = 3]. Only 8/73 (11% of the available samples could therefore be correctly categorized (7 definite or probable TB, and 1 non-TB patient. Thus, 13/20 (65% of the definite or probable TB cases remained undiagnosed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rapid immunodiagnosis of pulmonary TB by antigen-specific IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses, using cells from induced sputum, is possible. However, the test, in its current ELISPOT format, is not clinically useful because the majority of the assays are inconclusive.

  5. Endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsy in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Andreas Weber; Claus van Weyhern; Falko Fend; Jochen Schneider; Bruno Neu; Alexander Meining; Hans Weidenbach; Roland M Schmid; Christian Prinz

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the sensitivity of brush cytology and forceps biopsy in a homogeneous patient group with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.METHODS:Brush cytology and forceps biopsy were routinely performed in patients with suspected malignant biliary strictures.Fifty-eight consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) including forceps biopsy and brush cytology in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995-2005.RESULTS:Positive results for malignancy were obtained in 24/58 patients (41.4%) by brush cytology and in 31/58 patients (53.4%) by forceps biopsy.The combination of both techniques brush cytology and forceps biopsy resulted only in a minor increase in diagnostic sensitivity to 60.3% (35/58 patients).In 20/58 patients (34.5%),diagnosis were obtained by both positive cytology and positive histology,in 11/58 (19%) by positive histology (negative cytology) and only 4/58 patients (6.9%) were confirmed by positive cytology (negative histology).CONCLUSION:Brush cytology and forceps biopsy have only limited sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant hilar tumors.In our eyes,additional diagnostic techniques should be evaluated and should become routine in patients with negative cytological and histological findings.

  6. Cytological investigations in populations of D. melanogaster exposed to radiation

    The study described was carried out to investigate structural changes in the chromosomes of irradiated populations of D.melanogaster that can be analysed on the basis of cytological methods. It mainly dealt with two particular aspects of this subject: I. Different types of chromosomes (polytene chromosomes, mitotic and meiotic chromosomes) were used to examine whether and to which extent chromosomal variability would alter or remain unchanged under the influence of mutation. II. The prophase of the first division of female cells was analysed with respect to the role of resistance factor rar-2. In this connection, it was of interest whether the prophase of meiosis would show visible cytological changes in the interchromosomal structure that are caused by factor rar-2. (orig./MG)

  7. Coral Reef Monitoring: From Cytological Parameters to Community Indices

    Ofer Ben-Tzvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound-ecosystem-based management of coral reefs is largely based on indicators of reef health state. Currently there are various ecological parameters that serve as reef state indices; however, their practical implications are under debate. In the present study we examine an alternative parameter, the deterioration index (DI, which does not purport to replace the traditional indices but can provide a reliable, stand-alone indication of reef state. Patterns of cytological indices, which are considered as reliable indicators of environmental stressors, have been compared to ten selected reef community indices. The DI showed the highest correlations among community indices to the cytological indices in artificial reefs and high correlation in natural reefs as well. Our results suggest that in cases of lacking adequate monitoring abilities where a full set of community indices cannot be obtained, the DI can serve in many cases as the preferred, stand-alone indicator of coral reef state.

  8. Early and efficient detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum by microscopic observation of broth cultures.

    Benson R Kidenya

    Full Text Available Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured in liquid assay (micro broth culture in microplate wells and growth was detected by microscopic observation, or in Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ solid media where growth was detected by visual inspection for colonies. Sputum samples were collected from 321 tuberculosis (TB suspects attending Bugando Medical Centre, in Mwanza, Tanzania, and were cultured in parallel. Pulmonary tuberculosis cases were diagnosed using the American Thoracic Society diagnostic standards. There were a total of 200 (62.3% pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Liquid assay with microscopic detection detected a significantly higher proportion of cases than LJ solid culture: 89.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7% to 93.3% versus 77.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 82.8% (p = 0.0007. The median turn around time to diagnose tuberculosis was significantly shorter for micro broth culture than for the LJ solid culture, 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7-13, versus 21 days (IQR 14-28 (p<0.0001. The cost for micro broth culture (labor inclusive in our study was US $4.56 per sample, versus US $11.35 per sample for the LJ solid culture. The liquid assay (micro broth culture is an early, feasible, and inexpensive method for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in resource limited settings.

  9. N-acetylcysteine enhances cystic fibrosis sputum penetration and airway gene transfer by highly compacted DNA nanoparticles.

    Suk, Jung Soo; Boylan, Nicholas J; Trehan, Kanika; Tang, Benjamin C; Schneider, Craig S; Lin, Jung-Ming G; Boyle, Michael P; Zeitlin, Pamela L; Lai, Samuel K; Cooper, Mark J; Hanes, Justin

    2011-11-01

    For effective airway gene therapy of cystic fibrosis (CF), inhaled gene carriers must first penetrate the hyperviscoelastic sputum covering the epithelium. Whether clinically studied gene carriers can penetrate CF sputum remains unknown. Here, we measured the diffusion of a clinically tested nonviral gene carrier, composed of poly-l-lysine conjugated with a 10 kDa polyethylene glycol segment (CK(30)PEG(10k)). We found that CK(30)PEG(10k)/DNA nanoparticles were trapped in CF sputum. To improve gene carrier diffusion across sputum, we tested adjuvant regimens consisting of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) or NAC together with rhDNase. While rhDNase alone did not enhance gene carrier diffusion, NAC and NAC + rhDNase increased average effective diffusivities by 6-fold and 13-fold, respectively, leading to markedly greater fractions of gene carriers that may penetrate sputum layers. We further tested the adjuvant effects of NAC in the airways of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucus hypersecretion. Intranasal dosing of NAC prior to CK(30)PEG(10k)/DNA nanoparticles enhanced gene expression by up to ~12-fold compared to saline control, reaching levels observed in the lungs of mice without LPS challenge. Our findings suggest that a promising synthetic nanoparticle gene carrier may transfer genes substantially more effectively to lungs of CF patients if administered following adjuvant mucolytic therapy with NAC or NAC + rhDNase. PMID:21829177

  10. Comparison of Overnight Pooled and Standard Sputum Collection Method for Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northern Tanzania

    Stellah G. Mpagama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania sputum culture for tuberculosis (TB is resource intensive and available only at zonal facilities. In this study overnight pooled sputum collection technique was compared with standard spot morning collection among pulmonary TB suspects at Kibong’oto National TB Hospital in Tanzania. A spot sputum specimen performed at enrollment, an overnight pooled sputum, and single morning specimen were collected from 50 subjects and analyzed for quality, quantity, and time to detection in Bactec MGIT system. Forty-six (92% subjects’ overnight pooled specimens had a volume ≥5 mls compared to 37 (37% for the combination of spot and single morning specimens (P<0.001. Median time to detection was 96 hours (IQR 87–131 for the overnight pooled specimens compared to 110.5 hours (IQR is 137 right 137–180 for the combination of both spot and single morning specimens (P=0.001. In our setting of limited TB culture capacity, we recommend a single pooled sputum to maximize yield and speed time to diagnosis.

  11. Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia.

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Mölling, Paula; Herrmann, Björn

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. PMID:23541117

  12. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum using combined solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Dang, Ngoc A; Mourão, Marta; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Walters, Elisabetta; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Kolk, Arend H J

    2015-04-01

    Recently, thermally-assisted hydrolysis and methylation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (THM-GC-MS) in combination with chemometrics has been used to develop a 20-compound model for fast differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in bacterial cultures. This model provided better than 95% accuracy. In our current work a hexane/methanol/water extraction followed by a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure was developed for use before THM-GC-MS, to make the test suitable for the identification of mycobacteria in sputum. The 20 biomarker model had to be adapted since many compounds were also found in the sputum of non-tuberculosis patients. An algorithm was established based on tuberculostearic acid, hexacosanoic acid and mycoserosates. The detection limit of the method was approximately 1×10(4) bacteria/mL sputum. Sputum specimens from 32 patients from South Africa who were suspected of having tuberculosis were blindly tested using the new method. Eight of the nine culture-positive sputum specimens were detected by the new SPE-THM-GC-MS method, resulting in a sensitivity of 89%. The specimen that was missed by the new method was also microscopy negative. The specificity of the test was 100%; all 23 microscopy- and culture-negative specimens were correctly identified as negative by SPE-THM-GC-MS. PMID:25728368

  13. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    张文娟; 安宇

    2015-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70%as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models.

  14. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts a...

  15. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Francesca Simonato

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC. Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205 in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg. Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94. miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  16. Role of gastric brush cytology in the diagnosis of giardiasis

    Varma Deepali; Jain Shyama; Khurana Nita

    2008-01-01

    Background: Giardiasis, common in developing countries, has mostly nonspecific clinical symptoms, resulting in a limited role for preliminary tests. Aims: The present study aims to highlight the utility of endoscopic brush cytology (EBC) in the diagnosis of giardiasis in clinically unsuspected cases. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic brush smears (EBS) are routinely obtained in all patients presenting with gastric symptoms. The present study is a retrospective analysis of EBS, consis...

  17. Colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A diagnostic dilemma on cytology

    Shailja Puri Wahal; Reetika Sharma; Neelam Gupta; Anchana Gulati

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is mesenchymal tumors arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal (pace maker cells) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Stomach is the most common site (60-65%) of these tumors. Large intestine and rectum constitute only 5-10% of GIT tumors. Pre-operative diagnosis helps in the management of this tumor as it responds well to c-kit inhibitors. The cytological diagnosis of GIST is characteristic, however, associated with many pitfalls leading to erroneo...

  18. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series.

    Saxena, R B

    2010-07-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus - series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus - series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification. PMID:22131743

  19. "Comparison of ultrasound findings with cytologic results in Thyroid nodules "

    "Razmpa E

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The nodular thyroid diseas is one of the most common disturbances o the thyroid gland wheras malignant tumors are among the most unusual entities of it. Not only differentiation of these two spectra but also the problems to achieve early diagnosis and treatment, have been a matter of concern, research, and controversy. Two hundred patients were assessed at the Cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital as a retrospective research, considering the aim of evaluating and comparing the results of ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology with the postoperative histopathologic report. The ultrosound findings included location, number, size, feature, echogenicity, and presence of calcification; and those of the fine needle aspiration cytology consisted of benign, malignant, and suspicious samples. The cases mentioned as recurrent cancer or metastases of previous thyroid cancer were omitted from the study. In this research we found a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 92.3% , 76.4% and 88.1%, respectively , for fine needle aspiration cytology and also showed that the sensitivity and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of malignant lesions of solid nodules was more than in cystic or mixed nodules of thyroid. Moreover, the incidence of false negatives in malignant cases of the studied sample was 7.7% (11/43. This rate was very higher in mixed and cystic lesions compared to benign ones (20% versus 5.7%. According to ultrasound findings, we showed that micro-calcificantion had a significant higher frequency in malignant nodules in comparision with the benign ones (4% in benign lesions versus 35% in malignant ones. The rate of malignancy in solid lesions revealed a significant increment compared to cystic and mixed nodules (P<0.0001. Moreover, the potential for malignancy in nodules with low echogenicity was very higher than high echogenicity producting nodules.

  20. Optimal z-axis scanning parameters for gynecologic cytology specimens

    Amber D Donnelly; Mukherjee, Maheswari S.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Bridge, Julia A.; Subodh M Lele; Najia Wright; Mary F McGaughey; Culberson, Alicia M.; Adam J. Horn; Whitney R Wedel; Stanley J Radio

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of virtual microscopy (VM) in clinical cytology has been limited due to the inability to focus through three dimensional (3D) cell clusters with a single focal plane (2D images). Limited information exists regarding the optimal scanning parameters for 3D scanning. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal number of the focal plane levels and the optimal scanning interval to digitize gynecological (GYN) specimens prepared on SurePath™ glass slides while m...

  1. Comparative cervical cytology and conception rate in postpartum dairy cows

    Rahim Ahmadi, Mohammad; NAZIFI, Saeed; Reza Ghaisari, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    During the early postpartum period, multiple bacterial species invade the uterus of cows. Phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells is a primary mechanism involved in the elimination of bacteria and improvement of conception rate. Therefore, a relationship could exist between endometrial cytology and conception rate of postpartum dairy cows. In this study 50 postpartum healthy Holstein Frisian dairy cows were selected. They had a normal parturition history and had no mucopurulent discharge from...

  2. Impression Cytology in Different Types of Contact Lens Users

    ISKELELI, Guzin; Arici, Ceyhun; DEGER BILGEC, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Cuyan; SERAP ARSLAN, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    This study compared tear function tests and cytologic changes on the conjunctival surface in asymptomatic patients wearing contact lens of different materials. Included in this study were 40 eyes wearing daily wear 4 week replacement hydrogel (H) lenses, 32 eyes wearing silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses, 18 eyes wearing rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses, and 21 healthy eyes (no lenses) as the control group. Epithelial morphology of the conjunctival surface was evaluated, based on Nelson classific...

  3. Sputum biomarkers and the prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Theodore G Liou

    Full Text Available Lung function, acute pulmonary exacerbations (APE, and weight are the best clinical predictors of survival in cystic fibrosis (CF; however, underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Biomarkers of current disease state predictive of future outcomes might identify mechanisms and provide treatment targets, trial endpoints and objective clinical monitoring tools. Such CF-specific biomarkers have previously been elusive. Using observational and validation cohorts comprising 97 non-transplanted consecutively-recruited adult CF patients at the Intermountain Adult CF Center, University of Utah, we identified biomarkers informative of current disease and predictive of future clinical outcomes. Patients represented the majority of sputum producers. They were recruited March 2004-April 2007 and followed through May 2011. Sputum biomarker concentrations were measured and clinical outcomes meticulously recorded for a median 5.9 (interquartile range 5.0 to 6.6 years to study associations between biomarkers and future APE and time-to-lung transplantation or death. After multivariate modeling, only high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1, mean=5.84 [log ng/ml], standard deviation [SD] =1.75 predicted time-to-first APE (hazard ratio [HR] per log-unit HMGB-1=1.56, p-value=0.005, number of future APE within 5 years (0.338 APE per log-unit HMGB-1, p<0.001 by quasi-Poisson regression and time-to-lung transplantation or death (HR=1.59, p=0.02. At APE onset, sputum granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, mean 4.8 [log pg/ml], SD=1.26 was significantly associated with APE-associated declines in lung function (-10.8 FEV(1% points per log-unit GM-CSF, p<0.001 by linear regression. Evaluation of validation cohorts produced similar results that passed tests of mutual consistency. In CF sputum, high HMGB-1 predicts incidence and recurrence of APE and survival, plausibly because it mediates long-term airway inflammation. High APE-associated GM

  4. Regulatory T cells in induced sputum of asthmatic children: association with inflammatory cytokines

    Hamzaoui Agnès; Ammar Jamel; Hamzaoui Kamel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether the induced sputum (IS) pool and the function of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells are altered in asthma pediatric patients. Methods Treg activity was studied in the IS of 40 asthmatic children. CD3+ cells were analyzed for the expression of FoxP3 mRNA by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IS cells from asthm...

  5. Beta-carotene supplementation in smokers reduces the frequency of micronuclei in sputum.

    Poppel, G. van; Kok, F. J.; Hermus, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    beta-carotene has been hypothesised to reduce lung cancer risk. We studied the effect of 14 weeks of beta-carotene supplementation (20 mg d-1) on the frequency of micronuclei in sputum in 114 heavy smokers in a double-blind trial. Micronuclei reflect DNA damage in exfoliated cells and may thus provide a marker of early-stage carcinogenesis. Pre-treatment blood levels of cotinine, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins C and E were similar in the placebo group (n = 61) and the treatment group (n ...

  6. Denitrification by cystic fibrosis pathogens - Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is dormant in sputum

    Kolpen, Mette; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Bjarnsholt, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    estimated by the Griess Assay. All isolates were assayed during 2 days of incubation in anaerobic LBbroth with NO3(-) or NO2(-). PNA FISH staining of 16S rRNA was used to estimate the amount of ribosomes per bacterial cells and thereby the in situ growth rate of S. maltophilia in sputum. RESULTS......: Supplemental NO3(-) caused increased production of N2O by P. aeruginosa, A. xylosoxidans and B. multivorans and increased growth for all pathogens. Growth was, however, lowest for S. maltophilia. NO3(-) was metabolized by all pathogens, but only P. aeruginosa was able to remove NO2(-). S. maltophilia had...

  7. Ultrasonography of splenic abnormalities

    Ming-Jen Chen; Ming-Jer Huang; Wen-Hsiung Chang; Tsang-En Wang; Horng-Yuan Wang; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This report gives a comprehensive overview of ultrasonography of splenic abnormalities. Certain ultrasonic features are also discussed with pathologic correlation.METHODS: We review the typical ultrasonic characteristics of a wide range of splenic lesions, illustrating them with images obtained in our institution from 2000 to 2003.One hundred and three patients (47 men, 56 women),with a mean age of 54 years (range 9-92 years), were found to have an abnormal ultrasonic pattern of spleen.RESULTS: We describe the ultrasonic features of various splenic lesions such as accessory spleen, splenomegaly,cysts, cavernous hemangiomas, lymphomas, abscesses,metastatic tumors, splenic infarctions, hematomas, and rupture, based on traditional gray-scale and color Doppler sonography.CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is a widely available, noninvasive,and useful means of diagnosing splenic abnormalities. A combination of ultrasonic characteristics and clinical data may provide an accurate diagnosis. If the US appearance alone is not enough, US may also be used to guide biopsy of suspicious lesions.

  8. [THE MORPHOMETRY IN CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXUDATIVE FLUIDS].

    Snikhovskaya, K V; Shabalova, I P

    2015-08-01

    The cytological technique takes a leading position in diagnostic of tumor processes according exudative fluids. However, its results depend on large number of subjective factors. The morphometry is one of techniques by virtue of which objectification of data of cytological analysis is possible. The study was carried out to establish differences of morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cells of pleural effusion. The morphometric analysis of cells of mesothelium, breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach was implemented. The parameters characterizing size (area, perimeter) and form (form factor) of nucleus and cell, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio. The results demonstrated that in pleural effusion between cells of proliferating mesothelium and malignant neoplasms exist significant differences in morphometric parameters (p<0.001). The differences between area of nuclei and cells are especially significant. The comparison of data of morphometry of cells of breast cancer; adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach demonstrated that despite of some morphological similarities, analysis of morphometric parameters can provide important data for proper establishment of cytological diagnosis. PMID:26596045

  9. The Application of Molecular Diagnostics to Stained Cytology Smears.

    Oktay, Maja H; Adler, Esther; Hakima, Laleh; Grunblatt, Eli; Pieri, Evan; Seymour, Andrew; Khader, Samer; Cajigas, Antonio; Suhrland, Mark; Goswami, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    Detection of mutational alterations is important for guiding treatment decisions of lung non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid nodules with atypical cytologic findings. Inoperable lung tumors requiring further testing for staging and thyroid lesions often are diagnosed using only cytology material. Molecular diagnostic tests of these samples typically are performed on cell blocks; however, insufficient cellularity of cell blocks is a limitation for test performance. In addition, some of the fixatives used while preparing cell blocks often introduces artifacts for mutation detection. Here, we applied qClamp xenonucleic technology and quantitative RT-PCR to cells microdissected directly from stained cytology smears to detect common alterations including mutations and translocations in non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid lesions. By using this approach, we achieved a 1% molecular alteration detection rate from as few as 50 cells. Ultrasensitive methods of molecular alteration detection similar to the one described here will be increasingly important for the evaluation of molecular alterations in clinical scenarios when only tissue samples that are small are available. PMID:26921541

  10. Imprint cytology of osteosarcoma of the jaw: a case report

    Almeida Janete

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteosarcomas are highly malignant bone-forming neoplasms that account for about 20% of all sarcomas. In light of their aggressive behavior, early diagnosis is crucial for determining adequate treatment. Dental professionals may be the first to detect jaw osteosarcomas in their initial stages. The aim of this case report is to draw attention to the possibility of diagnosing this tumor based on clinical, radiographical and cytological characteristics before confirmation by histology. Case presentation A 24-year-old Afro-Brazilian man presented with swelling and pain on the left side of the mandible in the region of the third molar (tooth 38. Radiography showed a poorly delimited intraosseous lesion with radiolucent and radiopaque areas. The cytological aspects were consistent with the diagnosis of osteosarcoma, which was confirmed by biopsy. Conclusion Imprint cytology was found to be a reliable, rapid and easy complementary examination. An early diagnosis of osteosarcoma of the jaw is fundamental to the early determination of an adequate treatment.

  11. Imaging and cytological analysis of 92 patients with Japanese encephalitis

    Qi Meng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus and demonstrates high mortality and serious sequelae. Imaging and cytological examinations are important for the diagnosis of JE. We performed this study to analyze the imaging and cytological characteristics of JE. Methods: This study enrolled 92 JE patients with 108 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF samples. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive immunoglobulin M antibodies against JE virus, which were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients received detailed neurological examinations, relevant cerebrospinal fluid tests, and brain neuroimaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or both. Results: Prominent involvement in the hippocampus was observed in 10 patients on neuroimaging, in addition to classic involvement in the thalamus and basal ganglia. Lumbar puncture pressure was normal in 61 CSF samples. White cell count increased in 81.19% of CSF samples, 67.65% and 83.33% of CSF samples demonstrated normal chloride and glucose concentrations, respectively, and 82.52% of CSF samples demonstrated >0.4 g/L protein content. JE patients demonstrate mixed-cell reaction on cerebrospinal fluid cytology in the early phase, which subsequently mainly develop as mainly lymphocyte reaction or typical lymphocyte reaction. Conclusion: JE imaging is characterized by bilateral thalamic involvement, and the basal ganglia and hippocampus are also commonly affected. The mixed-cell reaction in JE lasts longer than in general viral encephalitis. This may facilitate the differential diagnosis of JE.

  12. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  13. Pure choriocarcinoma of ovary diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

    Naniwadekar M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pure ovarian choriocarcinoma is extremely rare and can develop as a germ cell tumor or as a metastasis from uterine or tubal gestational choriocarcinoma or rarely from an ovarian pregnancy. The cytomorphologic findings have been reported previously in different sites. However, this is the first case of pure ovarian choriocarcinoma diagnosed on cytology to the best of our knowledge. The distinction between a gestational and nongestational choriocarcinoma is difficult. A 19-year-old female patient presented with an irregular per-vaginal bleeding and a mass in lower abdomen. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears of the mass were hypocellular and showed large, multinucleated giant cells and malignant mononucleated cells. Background was hemorrhagic. Serum β hCG level was 3,80,000 mIU/ml. A diagnosis of choriocarcinoma was offered which was later confirmed by histopathology. The diagnosis of choriocarcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology is based on the presence of large, multinucleated giant cells and malignant mononucleated cells. A high index of suspicion should be maintained and estimation of serum β hCG plays a key role in supporting the diagnosis.

  14. Radiological abnormalities associated with Aspergillus colonization in a cystic fibrosis population

    Objective: To determine if sputum colonization with Aspergillus species in patients with cystic fibrosis (PWCF) correlates with radiological abnormalities and/or a reduction in pulmonary function (FEV1). Methods: We prospectively evaluated 32 PWCF utilizing high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax and pulmonary function testing (PFT). The cohort was assessed as two groups: Aspergillus positive (n = 16) and Aspergillus negative (n = 16) based on sputum culture for Aspergillus species. A modified Bhalla scoring system was applied to each HRCT scan by two blinded radiologists. Results: Aspergillus positive patients had more severe and significant bronchiectasis compared to those Aspergillus negative (p < 0.05). This was most marked in the right upper and lower lobes (RUL, RLL). Total Bhalla score was clinically significant in both groups and approached statistical significance between groups (p = 0.063). No difference in pulmonary function between the groups was detected. Conclusion: PWCF colonized by Aspergillus species have greater radiological abnormalities undetectable by PFTs. Early radiological evaluation of Aspergillus colonized PWCF is therefore warranted.

  15. TEKNIK SENTRIFUGASI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PENEMUAN BAKTERI TAHAN ASAM (BTA DARI SPUTUM PENDERITA TBC MELALUI METODE ZIELH-NEELSEN

    Merryani Girsang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available TBC adalah salah satu penyakit menular yang dapat menularkan bakteri tuberculosis kepada orang lain disekitar penderita, penyakit ini banyak ditemukan pada masyarakat dengan tingkat sosio ekonomi rendah dan lemah. Untuk itu diperlukan suatu tindakan dalam membantu penderita TBC, agar kuman tuberculosis penyebab penyakit dapat dengan segera diketemukan, dan penderita cepat diobati dan sembuh sehingga tidak menular kepada orang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan metode altematif pemeriksaan laboratorium melalui teknik sentrifugasi pada sampel sputum penderita TBC di Rumah Sakit Paru Cisarua Bogar. Tujuan penelitian meningkatkan perolehaan jumlah BTA (Bakteri Tahan Asam dengan pertimbangan teknik pemeriksaannya mudah, murah dengan tingkat akurasi hasil yang memadai. Penelitian dilaksanakan tahun 2000/2001, dari populasi suspek TB-paru dengan pengambilan sputum pagi dan siang dari 112 orang, dengan metode eksperimen study melalui cara konvensional dan teknik sentrifugasi, analisis data dengan t-test pada P=0,05, peningkatan perolehan jumlah BTA (Bakteri Tahan Asam menunjukkan adanya perbedaan bermakna antara kedua uji yaitu Fhitung > Ftabel, dengan teknik sentrifugasi perolehan bakteri tahan asam lebih meningkat daripada cara konvensional. Hasil penelitian digambarkan melalui tabulasi frekwensi dengan prosentase dan histogram. Teknik sentrifugasi menunjukkan peningkatan penemuan Bakteri Tahan Asam (BTA pada laki-laki lebih besar dari pada perempuan, yaitu sebesar 68 (61,71% dan 44 (39,29% perempuan, yang diikuti dengan peningkatan pada usia produktif kerja antara usia 30-44 tahun sebanyak 53 orang (46,43%. Pengambilan sputum pagi lebih baik daripada sputum siang. Pada sputum pagi meningkat sebesar 52 (46,43% dan siang sebesar 32 (28,57%. Penelitian ini sebagai preliminary study untuk penelitian lanjutan, dan sebagai informasi bagi program TB-paru untuk kebijakan dalam peningkatan pengetahuan terhadap mutu pemeriksaan BTA di puskesmas atau

  16. Sputum and BAL Clara cell secretory protein and surfactant protein D levels in asthma.

    Emmanouil, P; Loukides, S; Kostikas, K; Papatheodorou, G; Papaporfyriou, A; Hillas, G; Vamvakaris, I; Triggidou, R; Katafigiotis, P; Kokkini, A; Papiris, S; Koulouris, N; Bakakos, P

    2015-06-01

    Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is associated with Th2 modulation. Surfactant protein D (SPD) plays an important role in surfactant homeostasis and eosinophil chemotaxis. We measured CC16 and SPD in sputum supernatants of 84 asthmatic patients and 12 healthy controls. In 22 asthmatics, we additionally measured CC16 and SPD levels in BAL and assessed smooth muscle area (SMA), reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness, and epithelial detachment (ED) in bronchial biopsies. Induced sputum CC16 and SPD were significantly higher in patients with severe asthma (SRA) compared to mild-moderate and healthy controls. BAL CC16 and SPD levels were also higher in SRA compared to mild-moderate asthma. CC16 BAL levels correlated with ED, while SPD BAL levels correlated with SMA and RBM. Severity represented a significant covariate for these associations. CC16 and SPD levels are upregulated in SRA and correlate with remodeling indices, suggesting a possible role of these biomarkers in the remodeling process. PMID:25728058

  17. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide: comparison between portable devices and correlation with sputum eosinophils.

    Yune, Sehyo; Lee, Jin Young; Choi, Dong Chull; Lee, Byung Jae

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to compare the 2 different portable devices measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to see the correlation between FeNO and induced sputum eosinophil count (ISE). Forty consecutive subjects clinically suspected to have asthma underwent FeNO measurement by NIOX-MINO® and NObreath® concurrently. All also had induced sputum analysis, methacholine provocation test or bronchodilator response test, and spin prick test. Agreement between the 2 devices was evaluated. The correlation between FeNO and ISE was assessed, as well as the cut-off level of FeNO to identify ISE ≥3%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between FeNO levels measured by NIOX-MINO® (FeNO(NIOX-MINO)) and NObreath® (FeNO(NObreath)) was 0.972 with 95% confidence interval of 0.948-0.985. The 95% limits of agreement were -28.9 to 19.9 ppb. The correlation coefficient between ISE and FeNO(NIOX-MINO) was 0.733 (Plevel and its correlation with ISE. The NIOX-MINO ® and NObreath® agree with each other to a high degree. Both devices showed close correlation with ISE with similar cut-off value in identifying ISE ≥3%. PMID:25749783

  18. Comparison of ThinPrep and conventional smears in head and neck fine needle aspiration cytology

    Fulya KÖYBAŞIOĞLU; Önal, Binnur; Gülçin Güler ŞİMŞEK; Yilmazer, Demet; Han, Ünsal

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The ThinPrep Processor has gained popularity as a collection and preparation technique for fine needle aspiration cytology in addition to Papanicolaou smear test. The aim of this study was to compare the various cytologic features of ThinPrep and conventional smear in head and neck masses.Material and Methods: We reviewed 71 consecutive fine needle aspiration cytology specimens and the conventional smear and ThinPrep slides diagnosed without knowledge of histopathologic diagnosis. Statis...

  19. Juvenile xanthogranuloma-diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Arghya Bandyopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG is a rare cutaneous lesion with paucity of literature on its cytological features. We report one such case which on fine-needle aspiration cytology yielded a mixed population of foamy histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells and variable admixture of lymphocytes and eosinophils causing diagnostic dilemma with other differentials, especially Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, clinical correlation followed by histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Hence, JXG has characteristic and diagnostic cytologic features.

  20. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pleomorphic Carcinomas of the Lung

    Choi, Hee Seung; Seol, Hyesil; Heo, Il Yeong; Jung, Chang Won; Cho, Soo Youn; Park, Sunhoo; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Background Pleomorphic carcinoma (PC) is a rare pulmonary malignancy. Because of its rarity and histological heterogeneity, cytopathologists might suspect PC only rarely on the basis of its cytological specimen. In addition, cytological findings from fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens have rarely been described. Hence, we investigated the cytological features of FNA in the cases of PC. Methods We reviewed 7 FNA specimens of PC. The patients had undergone surgical resection at the Korea Ca...

  1. Liquid-Based Cytology of Villoglandular Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix: A Report of 3 Cases

    Choi, Younghwa; Kim, Haeryoung; Choi, Haiyoung; Hwang, Daehyun; Choe, Gheeyoung; Chung, Jin-Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Hye Seung; Paik, Jin Ho; Park, Hyo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Villoglandular adenocarcinoma (VGA) is a rare subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma with a more favorable prognosis compared to conventional adenocarcinomas. Although the tumors are usually recognized on colposcopic examination due to the mainly exophytic growth pattern, they may be underdiagnosed as benign lesions by cytology because of their minimal cytologic atypia. We report the liquid-based cytology (LBC) findings of three histologically confirmed VGAs which we have recently identified. The...

  2. Surrogate indicators of sensitivity in gynecologic cytology: Can they be used to improve the measurement of sensitivity in the laboratory?

    Renshaw Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring the sensitivity of screening in gynecologic cytology in real life is problematic. However, other quality measures may correlate with sensitivity, including the atypical squamous cells (ASC/squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL ratio. Whether these other measures can function as "surrogate indicators" for sensitivity and improve the assessment of sensitivity in the laboratory is not known. Materials and Methods: We compared multiple quality measures with true screening sensitivity in a variety of situations. Results: The abnormal rate, ASC rate, and ASC/SIL ratio were all highly correlated (r = .83 or greater with sensitivity when the overall laboratory sensitivity was low (85% but became less correlated (.64 or less or uncorrelated when the screening sensitivity was higher (88% or 95%, respectively. Sensitivity was more highly correlated with the abnormal rate than the ASC/SIL ratio at low screening sensitivity. While thresholds could be set that were highly sensitive and specific for suboptimal screening, these thresholds were often less than one standard deviation away from the mean. Conclusion: The correlation of the abnormal rate and the ASC/SIL ratio with sensitivity depends on overall sensitivity. Standards to define minimum screening sensitivity can be defined, but these standards are relatively narrow. These features may limit the utility of these quality measures as surrogates for sensitivity.

  3. Role of brush cytology in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of eight cases.

    Padmavathy, Femila; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sistla, Sarath Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Although debatable, role of cytology in diagnosing Barrett's esophagus has been stressed by some authors. Our brief report analyses the role of brush cytology (BC) in its diagnosis. Eight patients who presented with upper gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations and subsequently diagnosed to have Barrett's esophagus with or without adenocarcinoma on brush cytology (BC) or, endoscopic biopsy (EB) or, a combination of both the techniques were included in the study. In all the cases routine cytologic smears and histologic sections with relevant special stains (when essential) were studied. On cytology, the diagnosis of "Barrett's esophagus" was made when the esophageal brushings obtained from a region beyond 3 cm from the gastroesophageal junction showed closely intermingled clusters of squamous and columnar cells, or when there was evidence of intestinal metaplasia. Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus was diagnosed by the usual criteria for malignancy with features of adenocarcinoma. Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the histologic diagnoses. Of the eight cases, seven had histopathologic correlation of which six had evidence of BE on BC; four had cytohistologic concordance, of which three cases revealed adenocarcinoma arising in BE. Two endoscopic biopsies were nonrepresentative. In one case, cytology missed Barrett's esophagus. For two cases in which cytology detected Barrett's mucosa, biopsies were nonrepresentative. Our study showed brush cytology (BC) to be a fairly reliable test for detecting Barrett's esophagus. Owing to its inherent advantage of sampling a wider and circumferential area, a technically well performed brushing procedure is likely to be more representative and superior than multiple endoscopic biopsies. PMID:21162095

  4. APPLICATION OF THE 2014 BETHESDA SYSTEM FOR REPORTING OF CERVICAL/VAGINAL CYTOLOGICAL LESIONS

    Pratima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pap smear (Conventional smear is the most widely used cervical cancer screening test in the world. Negative intraepithelial lesion for malignancy, squamous intraepithelial lesion and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. In developing countries like India, there is a great need for mass screening program for cervical lesion. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To assess the clinician utility of The 2014 Bethesda System Reporting of cervical and vaginal epithelial abnormalities. MATERIAL AND METHODS All the cervical/vaginal cytology smears reported were retrieved and reviewed in the duration from 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2014. RESULTS A total number of 1700 cases of Pap smears were retrieved during period of study, out of which 90.0% were satisfactory for evaluation; 35.5% were within normal limit and 55.6% were NILM. A few (8.14% of the cases were reported as squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5% as atypical squamous cells and 0.19% were reported as atypical glandular cells. CONCLUSION Pap smear is a proven tested tool for making an early diagnosis and treating cervical cancer in early stage. Thus, Pap smear is simple, less expensive diagnostics tool suitable for implementation in India.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CYTOLOGIC AND COLPOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PRECLINICAL CERVICAL CANCER

    Penagaluru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The cytologic diagnosis of cervical smears has become a very important screening test for the detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical epithelial abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study conducted for a period of 1 year in 100 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Colposcopy, PAP smear and biopsy were done. RESULTS Majority 70.5% i.e., (12/17 of CIN occurred in the age group of 30-49 years. Among the 9 women who took OCP, 12% (2/17 had CIN. Incidence of CIN in the permanently sterilized group was 59% (10/17 and among IUCD user was 5.9% (1/17. Among women who were diagnosed to have CIN, 70.5% (12/17 complained of excessive vaginal discharge 11.7% (2/17 of women had post-coital bleeding. PAP smear had a sensitivity of 29% and a specificity of 88% which was attributed to the high number of false, negative smears. Colposcopy showed a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 81%. Sensitivity was more than pap smear but specificity was less than pap smear. Accuracy of Colposcopy was found to be 82% which was comparatively more accurate than pap smear (78%. CONCLUSIONS COLPOSCOPY offers an excellent tool in evaluating cervical lesions. It is an easy and perspective method and its importance lies in teaching, diagnosis and management of cervical lesions, both neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

  6. Concentration of CCL11, CXCL8 and TNF-alpha in sputum and plasma of patients undergoing asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation

    M.B. Daldegan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common respiratory illnesses characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways. The characterization of induced or spontaneously produced sputum is a useful technique to assess airway inflammation. In the present study, we compared the concentrations of CCL2, CCL11, CXCL8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha in plasma and induced sputum of patients with severe asthma or COPD and correlated the levels of these mediators with inflammatory cells in sputum. Asthmatic patients had elevated levels of eosinophils (40.1 ± 6.24% in sputum whereas neutrophils (63.3 ± 4.66% predominated in COPD patients. The levels of the chemokine CCL11 were markedly increased in sputum (708.7 ± 330.7 pg/ml and plasma (716.6 ± 162.2 pg/ml of asthmatic patients and correlated with the percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum. The concentrations of CXCL8 (817.0 ± 105.2 pg/ml and TNF-alpha (308.8 ± 96.1 pg/ml were higher in sputum of COPD patients and correlated with the percentage of neutrophils in induced sputum. There was also an increase in the concentrations of CXCL8 (43.2 ± 6.8 pg/ml in sputum of asthmatic patients. These results validate that sputum is a suitable method to assess chemokines and cytokines associated with asthma and COPD. Moreover, the mechanisms involved in the synthesis of CCL11 and CXCL8/TNF-alpha would be helpful to better understand the inflammatory profile associated with asthma and COPD, respectively.

  7. Optimal z-axis scanning parameters for gynecologic cytology specimens

    Amber D Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of virtual microscopy (VM in clinical cytology has been limited due to the inability to focus through three dimensional (3D cell clusters with a single focal plane (2D images. Limited information exists regarding the optimal scanning parameters for 3D scanning. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal number of the focal plane levels and the optimal scanning interval to digitize gynecological (GYN specimens prepared on SurePath™ glass slides while maintaining a manageable file size. Subjects and Methods: The iScanCoreo Au scanner (Ventana, AZ, USA was used to digitize 192 SurePath™ glass slides at three focal plane levels at 1 μ interval. The digitized virtual images (VI were annotated using BioImagene′s Image Viewer. Five participants interpreted the VI and recorded the focal plane level at which they felt confident and later interpreted the corresponding glass slide specimens using light microscopy (LM. The participants completed a survey about their experiences. Inter-rater agreement and concordance between the VI and the glass slide specimens were evaluated. Results: This study determined an overall high intra-rater diagnostic concordance between glass and VI (89-97%, however, the inter-rater agreement for all cases was higher for LM (94% compared with VM (82%. Survey results indicate participants found low grade dysplasia and koilocytes easy to diagnose using three focal plane levels, the image enhancement tool was useful and focusing through the cells helped with interpretation; however, the participants found VI with hyperchromatic crowded groups challenging to interpret. Participants reported they prefer using LM over VM. This study supports using three focal plane levels and 1 μ interval to expand the use of VM in GYN cytology. Conclusion: Future improvements in technology and appropriate training should make this format a more preferable and practical option in clinical cytology.

  8. Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations

    Neelima Tirumalasetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%, reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%, suppurative (n=16, 12.4% lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%, and Hodgkin′s lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%. Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of

  9. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a new consideration for an old vaccine?

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Praygod, George Amani; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Grewal, Harleen M S; Friis, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...

  10. Nitrous oxide production in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    Kolpen, Mette; Kühl, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    local anoxia by consuming the majority of O2 for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa acquires energy for growth in anaerobic endobronchial mucus by denitrification, which can be demonstrated by production of nitrous oxide (N2O), an intermediate in the...... denitrification pathway. We measured N2O and O2 with electrochemical microsensors in 8 freshly expectorated sputum samples from 7 CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection. The concentrations of NO3(-) and NO2(-) in sputum were estimated by the Griess reagent. We found a maximum median concentration of 41.......8 µM N2O (range 1.4-157.9 µM N2O). The concentration of N2O in the sputum was higher below the oxygenated layers. In 4 samples the N2O concentration increased during the initial 6 h of measurements before decreasing for approximately 6 h. Concomitantly, the concentration of NO3(-) decreased in sputum...

  11. SEROLOGY VERSUS SPUTUM MICROSCOPY AFTER THE INTENSIVE PHASE OF DOTS THERAPY: EVALUATION OF A MPT64 BASED ASSAY

    Tamonud Modak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast, sensitive, specific yet inexpensive methods for detection of tuberculosis remain elusive. In spite of its limitations sputum smear microscopy remains the most widely used method for it’s detection. Various commercial antigen based serological tests are being promoted as an alternative to sputum microscopy. These tests offer an economically viable pragmatic alternative to smear microscopy. Few studies exist evaluating the performance of serological tests after the intensive phase of DOTS. We believe to be an effective alternative to sputum microscopy; serology must perform reasonably well in all the stages of therapy. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of a single serological test after two months of intensive phase drug therapy in previously seropositive and smear positive patients attending the DOTS clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Our results showed a sensitivity of 0.5 (0.17-0.82 95% CI and a specificity of 0.25 (0.11-0.46 95% CI taking sputum smear microscopy as the gold standard. We concluded that the present formats of serological tests are not useful in differentiating an active infection from a recently cured infection. Further research must be done on detecting antibodies which reflect the true infection load.

  12. HPV-DNA testing and Ki-67 immunocytochemistry in liquid based cervical cytology in prostitute women

    Esin ATİK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available HPV causes several changes in the function of host genes, and these interactions cause deregulation of the cell cycle manifested by abnormal expression of cell cycle associated proteins, such as Ki-67. The detection of Ki-67 can play a role in screening and diagnosis of HPV infection with risk of progression towards dysplasia and carcinoma. To show this relation in prostitute women, cervical cells were collected in the PapSpin Collection Fluid. A starting volume of 1000 µl for each sample, and a 200 µl cell suspension were used to prepare each sample for thin layer liquid based cytology and then they were stained by Papanicolaou method. The cytological results were classified according to the Bethesda 2001 system. From the remaining cell suspension of 800 µl, a 400 µl sample was used for HPV-DNA detection by PCR, a 50 µl alliquot was used to make thin layer preparations for immunocytochemistry. Single antigen staining was performed with Ki-67 protein. Cells were considered immunopositive if the nuclei were stained. All cells in one high power field (x400 were counted, and the fraction of immunopositive cells on the slide was calculated. This fraction was expressed as the number of positive cells per 1000 cells to facilitate comparisons of differential cell counts. HPV types 6 and 32 in the study, and HPV types 6 and 51 in the control group were detected. The mean Ki-67 values were 2.7±1.2 and 3.6±4.1 in HPV positive and negative cases respectively. There was a positive correlation only with nuclear changes and HPV positivity (x2=28.8, p<0.001. There was not any significant correlation between HPV or Ki-67 and leukocytosis. An association with HPV and contraception, smoking, and concurrent genital infection was not found. The prevalence of HPV types in different geographical locations and races may indicate different etiologies of cervical cancer. Our results suggest that Ki-67 immunocytochemistry is not useful as a surrogate marker for

  13. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    Yufeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES, a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  14. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  15. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    M.O.L.P. Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases. The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001. The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02, and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

  16. Accurate assessment of cell density in low cellular liquid-based cervical cytology

    Siebers, A.G.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Huberts-Manders, R.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    A. G. Siebers, J. A. W. M. van der Laak, R. Huberts-Manders, J. E. M. Vedder and J. Bulten Accurate assessment of cell density in low cellular liquid-based cervical cytology Objective: Scant cellularity is the most important source of unsatisfactory liquid-based cytology. Although still being debate

  17. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar;

    2013-01-01

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections...

  18. Urine cytology in the evaluation of urological malignancy revisited: is it still necessary?

    Falebita, Opeyemi Adegboyega

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. METHODS: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000-2005) were retrieved from our institution\\'s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients for age, sex, flexible cystoscopy and radiological imaging results. The cost of urine cytology was retrieved from the pathology department. RESULTS: There were a total of 2,568 urine cytological examinations. Of these, 25 were positive for malignant cells. There were 19 male (76%) and 6 female (24%) patients with a mean age of 72 years (range: 49-97). In 21 patients with positive cytology, a bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy and\\/or imaging studies. For a positive cytology yield of 1%, EUR 210,000 was spent. CONCLUSIONS: Routine urine cytology was not cost effective and did not add to the diagnostic yield beyond cystoscopy and diagnostic imaging. It may be omitted in the initial evaluation of urological malignancy.

  19. Combined cytological and transcriptomic analysis reveals a nitric oxide signaling pathway involved in cold-inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth

    Weidong eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca2+, ROS, pH, actin, cell wall and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca2+, ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension.

  20. Combined Cytological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Involved in Cold-Inhibited Camellia sinensis Pollen Tube Growth.

    Wang, Weidong; Sheng, Xianyong; Shu, Zaifa; Li, Dongqin; Pan, Junting; Ye, Xiaoli; Chang, Pinpin; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule plays crucial roles in many abiotic stresses in plant development processes, including pollen tube growth. Here, the signaling networks dominated by NO during cold stress that inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen tube growth are investigated in vitro. Cytological analysis show that cold-induced NO is involved in the inhibition of pollen tube growth along with disruption of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) gradient, increase in ROS content, acidification of cytoplasmic pH and abnormalities in organelle ultrastructure and cell wall component distribution in the pollen tube tip. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-related to signaling pathway, such as NO synthesis, cGMP, Ca(2+), ROS, pH, actin, cell wall, and MAPK cascade signal pathways, are identified and quantified using transcriptomic analyses and qRT-PCR, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above cytological results. Taken together, these findings suggest that a complex signaling network dominated by NO, including Ca(2+), ROS, pH, RACs signaling and the crosstalk among them, is stimulated in the C. sinensis pollen tube in response to cold stress, which further causes secondary and tertiary alterations, such as ultrastructural abnormalities in organelles and cell wall construction, ultimately resulting in perturbed pollen tube extension. PMID:27148289

  1. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace...... cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management...... decisions. Objectives To determine women's preferences for the follow-up of low-grade cervical screening abnormalities. Search strategy Using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, PubMed was searched for articles published up to December 2010. The reference lists of the retrieved studies were consulted...

  2. Analysis of the Sputum and Inflammatory Alterations of the Airways in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Bronchiectasis

    Pereira, Andrea Cristina; Kokron, Cristina M.; Romagnolo, Beatriz Mangueira Saraiva; Yagi, Claudia Simeire Albertini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Filho, Geraldo Lorenzi; Negri, Elnara Marcia

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Common variable immunodeficiency is characterized by defective antibody production and recurrent pulmonary infections. Intravenous immunoglobulin is the treatment of choice, but the effects of Intravenous immunoglobulin on pulmonary defense mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on the physical properties of the sputum and on inflammatory alterations in the airways of patients with Common variable immunodeficiency associated with bronchiectasis. METHOD: The present study analyzed sputum physical properties, exhaled NO, inflammatory cells in the sputum, and IG titers in 7 patients with Common variable immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis with secretion, immediately before and 15 days after Intravenous immunoglobulin. A group of 6 patients with Common variable immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis but no sputum was also studied for comparison of the basal IgG level and blood count. The 13 patients were young (age=36±17 years) and comprised predominantly of females (n=11). RESULTS: Patients with secretion presented significantly decreased IgG and IgM levels. Intravenous immunoglobulin was associated with a significant decrease in exhaled NO (54.7 vs. 40.1 ppb, p<0.05), sputum inflammatory cell counts (28.7 vs. 14.6 cells/mm3, p<0.05), and a significant increase in respiratory mucus transportability by cough (42.5 vs. 65.0 mm, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that immunoglobulin administration in Common variable immunodeficiency patients results in significant improvement in indexes of inflammation of the airways with improvement in the transportability of the respiratory mucus by cough. PMID:20037702

  3. Analysis of the sputum and inflammatory alterations of the airways in patients with common variable immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis

    Andrea Cristina Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Common variable immunodeficiency is characterized by defective antibody production and recurrent pulmonary infections. Intravenous immunoglobulin is the treatment of choice, but the effects of Intravenous immunoglobulin on pulmonary defense mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on the physical properties of the sputum and on inflammatory alterations in the airways of patients with Common variable immunodeficiency associated with bronchiectasis. METHOD: The present study analyzed sputum physical properties, exhaled NO, inflammatory cells in the sputum, and IG titers in 7 patients with Common variable immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis with secretion, immediately before and 15 days after Intravenous immunoglobulin. A group of 6 patients with Common variable immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis but no sputum was also studied for comparison of the basal IgG level and blood count. The 13 patients were young (age=36±17 years and comprised predominantly of females (n=11. RESULTS: Patients with secretion presented significantly decreased IgG and IgM levels. Intravenous immunoglobulin was associated with a significant decrease in exhaled NO (54.7 vs. 40.1 ppb, p<0.05, sputum inflammatory cell counts (28.7 vs. 14.6 cells/mm³, p<0.05, and a significant increase in respiratory mucus transportability by cough (42.5 vs. 65.0 mm, p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: We concluded that immunoglobulin administration in Common variable immunodeficiency patients results in significant improvement in indexes of inflammation of the airways with improvement in the transportability of the respiratory mucus by cough.

  4. Diabetes Reduces the Rate of Sputum Culture Conversion in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Salindri, Argita D; Kipiani, Maia; Kempker, Russell R; Gandhi, Neel R; Darchia, Lasha; Tukvadze, Nestani; Blumberg, Henry M; Magee, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Background.  Diabetes is a risk factor for active tuberculosis (TB), but little is known about the relationship between diabetes and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. We aimed to assess risk factors for primary MDR TB, including diabetes, and determine whether diabetes reduced the rate of sputum culture conversion among patients with MDR TB. Methods.  From 2011 to 2014, we conducted a cohort study at the National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Tbilisi, Georgia. Adult (≥35 years) patients with primary TB were eligible. Multidrug-resistant TB was defined as resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid. Patients with capillary glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% or previous diagnosis were defined to have diabetes. Polytomous regression was used to estimate the association of patient characteristics with drug resistance. Cox regression was used to compare rates of sputum culture conversion in patients with and without diabetes. Results.  Among 318 patients with TB, 268 had drug-susceptibility test (DST) results. Among patients with DST results, 19.4% (52 of 268) had primary MDR TB and 13.4% (36 of 268) had diabetes. In multivariable analyses, diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.31) and lower socioeconomic status (aOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.56-8.20) were associated with primary MDR TB. Among patients with primary MDR TB, 44 (84.6%) converted sputum cultures to negative. The rate of sputum culture conversion was lower among patients with diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.34; 95% CI, .13-.87) and among smokers (aHR, 0.16; 95% CI, .04-.61). Conclusions.  We found diabetes was associated with an increased risk of primary MDR TB; both diabetes and smoking were associated with a longer time to sputum culture conversion. PMID:27419188

  5. Fibrinogen and inflammatory cytokines in spontaneous sputum of sulfur-mustard-exposed civilians--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

    Yaraee, Roya; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Rezaei, Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Ardestani, Sussan K; Kazemi, Hadi; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Foroutan, Abbas; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) causes late complications in respiratory system of exposed individuals. In this preliminary study, the levels of IL-1α and β, TNF, IL-1Ra, IL-6 and fibrinogen in the spontaneous sputum of SM-exposed individuals were examined 20 years after exposure and the correlation with pulmonary function was tested. The participants were categorized into two major subgroups (hospitalized and non-hospitalized) based on the severity of the clinical complications immediately after exposure. Every participant was visited by a physician; the respiratory functions were checked using spirometry and were categorized as normal, mild, moderate or severe pulmonary complications. The levels of cytokines in the sputum and serum samples were measured using ELISA method. The mean values of TNF, IL-1α and IL-1β were 524.15, 115.15, 1951.33 pg/ml respectively, and the mean levels of IL-1Ra and IL-6 were 6410.52 and 124.44 pg/ml respectively; fibrinogen was 71.59 ng/ml and index of IL-Ra/IL-1β was 7.78. There was more TNF-α and IL-1β and less IL-1Ra and fibrinogen in the sputum of the hospitalized subgroup. The level of TNF-α and IL-1β also increased in moderate and severe pulmonary status comparing with the group with mild disorders, while fibrinogen was lower or decreased significantly in problematic patients. IL-1β and TNF showed positive correlation (r=0.5, and r=0.59, respectively); fibrinogen and IL1Ra/IL-1β have negative correlation with lung function according to the GOLD classification (r=-0.4, and r=-0.61, respectively). It is concluded that sputum cytokines and fibrinogen, reflect the degree of the severity of airway inflammation and the cytokine levels in the sputum might be completely different from the serum fluctuations. PMID:23375935

  6. CYTOLOGICAL TYPING OF LIVER TUMORS AND ITS HISTOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Sharda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evaluation and management of discrete hepatic masses is a clinical problem. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a rapid, accurate and safe diagnostic procedure that can be used in various neoplastic and non‑neoplastic diseases of the liver. AIM: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound guided FNAC of liver tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrasound‑guided fine needle aspiration and true cut liver biopsies were performed on 52 patients clinically suspected of having hepatic lesion. Results of cytology were compared with histology. RESULTS: Malignancy was detected in 50 cases. The primary malignancies consisted of 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 4 cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 2 of hepatoblastoma. There were 29 metastatic lesions, which included 26 cases of adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 1 of lymphoma. The sensitivity and specificity of FNA for malignancies was found to be 96% and 100% respectively. Accuracy of FNAC was found to be 96.1 % with no false positive diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: FNA of hepatic lesions is an effective, safe and well accepted practice with good sensitivity and specificity. It is recommended that image directed FNAC should be the primary diagnostic modality for assessing potential malignancy in any patient with a localized hepatic mass.

  7. Role of gastric brush cytology in the diagnosis of giardiasis

    Varma Deepali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardiasis, common in developing countries, has mostly nonspecific clinical symptoms, resulting in a limited role for preliminary tests. Aims: The present study aims to highlight the utility of endoscopic brush cytology (EBC in the diagnosis of giardiasis in clinically unsuspected cases. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic brush smears (EBS are routinely obtained in all patients presenting with gastric symptoms. The present study is a retrospective analysis of EBS, consisting of 12 cases whose smears had revealed trophozoites of Giardia lamblia . Biopsy correlation was available in five cases. Results: The patients ranged in age from 15 to 78 years (mean age: 34.08 years with a 1:1 sex ratio. Stool examination in all 12 cases yielded negative results for giardiasis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was normal in all these cases. EBS from these cases revealed Giardia trophozoites, which were identified by their typical morphology. Conclusions: Endoscopic brush cytology can be used as a reliable screening tool in the diagnosis of gastro-duodenal giardiasis in clinically unsuspected cases, especially in developing countries where parasitic infections are common.

  8. Intrathyroidal oxyphilic parathyroid carcinoma: A potential diagnostic caveat in cytology?

    Wong, Yin Ping; Sharifah, Noor Akmal; Tan, Geok Chin; Gill, Anthony James; Ali, Syed Z

    2016-08-01

    Oxyphilic (oncocytic) parathyroid lesions are very uncommon and their cytological features are rarely described. Due to the similarities in anatomical location and indistinguishable cytomorphological features, these lesions are easily confused with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration (FNA). The diagnosis becomes more challenging in cases of unusual intrathyroidal location of the parathyroid lesions in the absence of clinical evidence of hyperparathyroidism, which simulate thyroid nodules clinically. We describe a case of intrathyroidal oxyphilic parathyroid carcinoma in a 66-year-old female, who presented with a dominant left "thyroid" nodule. FNA smears were cellular, comprising predominantly of oxyphilic cells arranged in papillary-like architecture with occasional nuclear grooves, which was mistaken for oncocytic variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The histological diagnosis of oxyphilic parathyroid "adenoma" was made following total thyroidectomy. The tumor, unfortunately, recurred 7 years later with associated multiple lung metastases. When dealing with thyroid lesions comprising predominantly of oncocytic cells, one should consider oxyphilic parathyroid neoplasms as one of the differential diagnosis. In difficult equivocal cases, a panel of immunocytochemical stains (PTH, GATA3, TTF-1, PAX8, and thyroglobulin) can be helpful. In addition, a combination of valuable clinical, radiological, and laboratory data, including serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels are key to arriving at an accurate cytological diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:688-692. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27229757

  9. Cytological effect of γ-radiation on vicia faba pollen

    To study the radiation cytological effect on pollen grain function, fresh pollen samples shed from Vicia faba were exposed to 60Co γ-ray in doses ranging from 0 to 837 Gy, and immediately permitted to germinate in vitro. It was shown that with increasing dose of γ-irradiation, both the rate of pollen germination and the rate of sperm nucleus that migrating into pollen tube were reduced, concurrently, the rate of aberrant nuclei was elevated. Cytological examination showed that formation of the nuclei and organella in the pollen tube appeared to be normal by irradiation of 93 Gy, while with γ-radiation of 279 Gy and up subcellular structure of the germinating pollen cells exhibited various degrees of distortion: mitochondria and immature plastids vacuolated, nuclear membrane disrupted, sperm nucleus fractured, occasionally, and photo-chemo-ferritin accumulated in the immature plastids. With the doses of above 465 Gy, multi-vesicular bodies presented in the pollen tube, suggesting that 465 Gy could be marked as the semi-lethal dose

  10. Amyloidoma secondary to insulin injection: Cytologic diagnosis and pitfalls

    Dianne Grunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidomas are rare tumors composed of deposits of amyloid protein not associated with systemic amyloidosis. They can present as an initial manifestation of a systemic disease process or can be a completely localized phenomenon. We present a case of amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site found incidentally in an 80-year-old male with multiple co-morbidities who presented with diverticulitis associated bleeding. A subcutaneous abdominal mass was found on physical examination. Imaging revealed a 5 cm Χ 1.6 cm homogenous subcutaneous lesion. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA and core biopsy were performed under ultrasound guidance to reveal amorphous material proven to be amyloidosis at insulin injection sites (AIns type amyloid. The patient had no treatment for this lesion and has had his care triaged to his more serious health problems. This is the first case of AIns type amyloidoma associated with insulin injection site reported in cytology literature. We highlight the cytologic findings and diagnostic pitfalls. As the incidence of diabetes is increasing, cytopathologists may encounter this lesion more often on FNA.

  11. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology

    Sandra Morelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS in the hospital information system (HIS through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS. Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD. Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM, introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA, has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  12. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  13. Testicular touch preparation cytology in the evaluation of male infertility

    Isil Z Yildiz-Aktas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male infertility is traditionally evaluated by tissue core biopsies of the testes. Touch preparations (TP of these biopsies have been infrequently used. The aim of this study is to report our experience with using testicular biopsy TP for the evaluation of male infertility. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was performed for cases of testes biopsies with concurrent TP. These cases were evaluated for clinical information, specimen adequacy, and cytological-histological correlation. Results: A total of 39 cases were identified from men with a mean age of 34 years (range 23 to 50 years. TP slides were satisfactory for evaluation in 31 (89% cases, and less than optimal in four due to low cellularity, obscuring blood or air drying artifact. Cytopathology showed concordance with the biopsy in almost all cases. In one discordant case where the biopsies showed no active spermatogenesis, a rare sperm were identified on the TP. Conclusions: TP of the testis is a helpful adjunct to biopsy because of its ability to clearly evaluate all stages of spermatogenesis. These data demonstrate that TP cytopathology of the testes in our experience has an excellent correlation with both normal testicular biopsies and those showing pathological spermatogenesis, and in rare cases may provide added benefit in evaluating the presence of spermatogenesis for male infertility. Albeit uncommon, cytopathologists may be required to identify and evaluate spermatogenic elements in cytology specimens being submitted from men with infertility.

  14. Neoplastic and nonneoplastic ovarian masses: Diagnosis on cytology

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the distinction between neoplastic and nonneoplastic ovarian masses. Materials and Methods : One hundred and twenty patients with ovarian masses were studied. After detailed history and clinical examination, ultrasound (USG-guided FNAC was performed in 92 clinical benign cases while FNAC and/or imprints of surgically resected ovarian masses was performed in 28 clinically suspected malignant cases. The smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and histopathological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain with inclusion of special stain whenever required. Serum b-human chorionic gonadotrophin and a-fetoprotein estimations were carried out in cytologically diagnosed germ cell tumors. Results : The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing various ovarian masses were 79.2%, 90.6% and 89.9%, respectively. Conclusions : The clinical examination, pelvic ultrasound and FNAC were complementary and none of the methods was, in itself, diagnostic. However, USG-guided FNAC was found to be a fairly specific and accurate technique and should be employed as a routine, especially in young females with clinically benign ovarian lesions. The reasons for false diagnosis and limitations of USG and FNAC have been analyzed.

  15. Cytological Findings of the Micropapillary Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma: A Comparison with Typical High-Grade Urothelial Carcinoma

    Kim, Kyu-Ho; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Han, Jee-Young; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, In-Suh; Kim, Joon-Mee; Chu, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background Micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (MPUC) showed distinct pathologic features and aggressive behavior. The cytologic findings of MPUC are still indistinct. In this study, we evaluated the cytological findings of MPUC compared with those of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). Methods The voided urine cytology of 8 cases of MPUC and 8 cases of HGUC was reviewed. Following cytological parameters were evaluated: cellularity, background, number of small, tight papillary ...

  16. DETECTION OF ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY BY PAP’S SMEAR AND COMPARISON BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN WOMEN

    Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in department of ob stetrics and gynaecology G.R. Medical College Gwalior (MP. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of malignant and pre malignant cases of cancer cervix in women attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college Gwalior. To find out the role of PAP's smear in early detection of premalignant and early carcinoma cervix and to compare the results between urban and rural women. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a total of 400 subjects were selected attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college G walior with equal number of urban and rural areas. Information about age, parity, age at marriage, complaints, clinical findings, Pap’s smears were prepared and histological interpretations were recorded. RESULTS : Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 31 - 40 years. Mean age at marriage was 17.5 years for woman of rural areas and that for urban woman was 21.5 years. In the rural patients highest number were P2 - P4 (53% followed by > P4 (46.5%. In urban patients too maximum number of patients had parity between P2 - P4 (69.5% followed by > P4 (28.5%. Grand multiparity was seen in 20.5% among rural women as compared to 1.5 % among urban women. Among the rural patients use of barrier method of contraception was only 12% while in urban areas it was 3 0%. Percentage of couples who were not using any contraception was 47.5% in rural area and 33% in urban area. The most common presenting complaint was white discharge among both rural and urban groups (75% vs. 72%. The most common clinical finding was cer vical erosion (57.5% Histopathological interpretation of Pap’s smear revealed cervical squamous epithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL in 10.5% smears of rural and 4.5% smears of urban women. A total of 4% smears were found positive for malignancy in rural wo men as compared to 1.5% smears in urban women

  17. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Anxiety: Analyses in Women with Low-Grade Cervical Cytological Abnormalities Unaware of Their Infection Status

    Johnson, Candice Y; Sharp, Linda; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Harris, Cheryl A.; Gray, Nicola M; Little, Julian; ,

    2011-01-01

    Background Women testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection experience increased levels of anxiety that have been attributed to fears of stigmatization and developing cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and anxiety in women who were unaware they had been tested specifically for HPV, to determine if any anxiety experienced by HPV-positive women could be due to causes other than learning of test results. Methods Th...

  18. A comparative analysis of fine-needle capillary cytology vs. fine-needle aspiration cytology in superficial lymph node lesions.

    Sajeev, Suraj; Siddaraju, Neelaiah

    2009-11-01

    Fine-needle capillary cytology (FNCC) has been attempted in various organs and studies have shown this procedure to yield qualitatively superior material compared with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Studies evaluating the efficacy of this technique in lymph nodes are rare. The present study has attempted to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the FNCC technique in comparison to the more widely applied FNAC technique.Thirty enlarged lymph nodes from 26 patients were sampled by both the FNCC and FNAC techniques. The smears obtained were routinely stained by May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou staining. The quality of smears was evaluated using an objective scoring system originally devised by Mair et al., for various organs. The score of individual parameters in each case as well as the total scores for FNAC and FNCC procedures were calculated separately and Mann-Whitney's test was performed; a P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical results showed smears obtained by FNCC to be qualitatively better than those obtained by FNAC. Though, individual parameters were not statistically significant, FNCC smears showed better scores as compared with those of FNA smears. Also, the technique was found to be easier to perform and less apprehensive to the patient.Our study convincingly proved the technical superiority of the FNCC technique in cellular lymph node lesions, emphasizing the need for this less publicized procedure to be more widely applied. PMID:19526570

  19. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

  20. Distribution of Major Pathogens from Sputum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis: A Systematic Review

    Xia-Yi Miao; Xiao-Bin Ji; Hai-Wen Lu; Jia-Wei Yang; Jin-Fu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Noncystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis remains as a common health problem in Asia.Pathogens' distribution in airways of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis is important for doctors to make right decision.Data Sources:We performed this systematic review on the English language literatures from 1966 to July 2014,using various search terms included "pathogens" or "bacteria" or "microbiology" and "bronchiectasis" or "non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis" or "non-CF bronchiectasis" or "NCFB."Study Selection:We included studies of patients with the confirmed non-CF bronchiectasis for which culture methods were required to sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).Weighted mean isolation rates for Haemophilus influenzae,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Streptococcus pneumoniae,Stapylococcus aureus,Moxarella catarrhails were compared according to different methodology.Results:The total mean bacterial culture positive rates were 63%.For studies using sputum samples,the mean positive culture rates were 74%.For studies using BALF alone or BALF and sputum,it was 48%.The distributions of main bacterial strains were 29% for H.influenzae,28% for P.aeruginosa,1 1% for S.pneumoniae,12% for S.aureus,and 8% for M.catarrhails with methodology of sputum.Meanwhile,the bacterial distributions were 37% for H.influenzae,8% for P.aeruginosa,14% for S.pneumoniae,5% for S.aureus,and 10% for M.catarrhails with methodology of BALF alone or BALF and sputum.Analysis of the effect of different methodology on the isolation rates revealed some statistically significant differences.Conclusions:H.influenzae accounted for the highest percentage in different methodology.Our results suggested that the total positive culture rates and the proportion of P aeruginosa from sputum and BALF specimens had significant differences,which can be used in further appropriate recommendations for the treatment ofnon-CF bronchiectasis.

  1. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: A puzzling entity on fine needle aspiration cytology

    Jitendra Nasit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT is a rare unique but controversial thyroid neoplasm, characterized by prominent trabecular growth pattern and stromal hyalinization. Whether HTT is a benign tumor or a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is still unclear. Cytology findings of HTT have been described in few reports. Cytological features of HTT frequently overlap with those of PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, which can lead to frequent misdiagnosis. In order to avoid overtreatment like total thyroidectomy, pathologist should be aware of cytological features of HTT. We present a case of 35-year-old female with a right-side thyroid swelling for three years. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. According to The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, cytological diagnosis of benign thyroid neoplasm was made. Histopathology of the right thyroidectomy specimen showed HTT. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of HTT requires a very meticulous and cautious approach in the evaluation of cytological features. Trabecular pattern of cells, vague curved nuclear palisading, radiating arrangement of cells around hyaline material, spindled to elongated cells, filamentous cytoplasmic processes with ill-defined cell border and yellow bodies are important diagnostic features of HTT. Nuclear features alone are insufficient for the diagnosis of HTT. Any suspicious cytology of thyroid lesion should follow hemithyroidectomy and histopathological evaluation.

  2. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  3. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  4. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  5. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy

  6. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnosis of an Urachal Adenocarcinoma.

    Thirunavukkarasu, Balamurugan; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Yadav, Siddharth; Kumar, Rajeev; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-04-01

    Urachal Carcinoma (UC) is a rare malignancy of urinary bladder. It is usually found in adults in advanced stages because the tumour often grows outside the bladder without producing clinical symptoms. Most of the cases are mucinous, intestinal or signet ring cell adenocarcinoma and the diagnosis is usually made on biopsy. Radiographic images of this tumour may show characteristic features with a midline solid or cystic mass in the anterior wall of bladder associated with small calcification, which is considered as a pathognomonic sign for the diagnosis of UC. We report a case of UC in an adult, whose radiographic images suggested an urachal tumour and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) cytology revealed an adenocarcinoma. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy with umbilectomy and pelvic node dissection was done without further histopathological confirmation. Surgical intervention of UC on the basis of FNA diagnosis has not been reported in the literature. PMID:27190817

  7. Fibromatosis colli - a rare cytological diagnosis in infantile neck swellings.

    Khan, Sabina; Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

    2014-11-01

    Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

  8. Cytological Effects of Space Environment on Different Genotype of Rice

    WEI Li-jun; QIAN Yu; YANG Qian; XU Jian-long; WANG Jun-min; SUN Ye-qing

    2007-01-01

    For exploring the biological effect of space environment on different genotype of rice seeds, the cytological effects of M1 generation after space flight were studied.Twelve different genotypes of rice seeds which belong to different climate ecotype (early, medium and late) of indica and japonica were onboard "Shenzhou 4" spaceship for 162 h.After recovered the total number of mitosis cells and chromosomal aberration were observed.In all the lines the mitotic index (MIs) of space flight are much higher than control, which indicates the stimulate effect of space environment.The cell rate of chromosomal aberration (CRCA) of space flight is also much higher than control, but varies from line to line.It indicates that biological effect of space environment on rice seed dependents not only on flight duration but also on rice genotype.The radiosensitivities of different lines were also discussed according to CRCAs.

  9. Dynamics of conjunctival impression cytologic changes after vitamin A supplementation.

    Chowdhury, S; Kumar, R; Ganguly, N K; Kumar, L; Verma, M; Walia, B N

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the chronological changes in conjunctival epithelium after supplementation with a massive oral dose of vitamin A, conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) with transfer was carried out repeatedly among 200 children aged 6-120 months in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Chandigarh (India). Significant conversion to normal CIC started 71-80 d after vitamin A supplementation and by 101-110 d conversion had taken place in all children. Compared with the placebo group, plasma retinol concentration at 100 d post-supplement was found to be significantly higher in the vitamin A-supplemented group P = 0.04. This study demonstrates that CIC responds to a massive oral dose of vitamin A 3-4 months after supplementation. These findings should guide future studies and evaluations in which CIC is used to assess response to vitamin A interventions. PMID:9227184

  10. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy

    Bipin Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infection affecting mainly the skin and peripheral nerve. Pure neuritic form of this disease manifests by involvement of the nerve in the absence of skin lesions. Therefore, it can sometimes create a diagnostic problem. It often requires a nerve biopsy for diagnosis, which is an invasive procedure and may lead to neural deficit. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of an affected nerve can be a valuable and less invasive procedure for the diagnosis of such cases. We report five suspected cases of pure neuritic Hansen's disease involving the common and superficial peroneal, ulnar, and median nerve, who underwent FNAC. Smears revealed nerve fibers infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells in all cases, presence of epithelioid cells granulomas, and Langhans giant cells in three cases, and acid fast bacilli in two cases. In conclusion, FNAC is a safe, less invasive, and time saving procedure for the diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy.

  11. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    Deutsch, M. (Univ. Health Center of Pittsburgh, PA); Reigel, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy.

  12. Imprint cytology in the diagnosis of ovarian lesions

    Sushma

    2015-12-01

    Results: The 195 cases were classified broadly according to WHO system into 4 groups and the lesions were statistically analyzed. 122 surface epithelial tumors showed 97.5%sensitivity and 94.5%specificity in diagnosis with an overall accuracy of 96.4%. 8 sex cord stromal tumors had 98.5% diagnostic accuracy with a specificity of 99.5%. There was 100 % sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing the 25 germ cell tumors. The tumor like lesions showed a diagnostic accuracy of 97% with a specificity of 100%. Conclusions: Imprint cytology is an inexpensive and a fairly sensitive tool for rapid intra-operative diagnosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3770-3774

  13. Cyclospora cayetanensis in sputum and stool samples Cyclospora cayetanensis em amostra de escarro

    Angela Beatriz DI GLIULLO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of acid-fast Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts in a sputum sample. The patient, a 60 year-old, HIV negative man, was successfully treated for pulmonary tuberculosis during 1997. On February 1998, he was admitted to our center due to loss of weight, cough with purulent expectoration, dysphonia and a radiological picture of pulmonary fibrosis. Bacilloscopic study of sputum (negative for acid-fast bacilli stained with Ziehl-Neelsen technique showed large (8-10 µm spherical, acid-fast Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts. No other pathogens were isolated on cultures from this sample or from laryngeal biopsy. Serial parasitologic studies showed C. cayetanensis and also eggs of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana and of Entamoeba coli cysts. The patient lives in the outskirts of Buenos Aires in a brick-made house with potable water and works as builder of sewers. He travelled in several occasions to the rural area of province of Tucumán which has poor sanitary conditions. C. cayetanensis is an emergent agent of diarrhea and as far as we know this is the first time the parasite is observed in respiratory samples.Comunicamos a observação de grandes oocistos (8-10 µm de diâmetro esféricos, ácido-álcool-resistentes de Cyclospora cayetanensis em amostra de escarro corada com a técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen. Na amostra não foram observados nem cultivados outros agentes patogênicos. Trata-se de um paciente do sexo masculino, 60 anos de idade, HIV (-, tratado previamente para tuberculose pulmonar (1997. Em fevereiro de 1998 apresentou-se em nosso hospital com perda de peso, tosse com expectoração purulenta, disfonia e imagens radiológicas de fibrose pulmonar. As culturas das amostras de escarro e da biopsia de laringe foram negativas. O exame parasitológico seriado de fezes mostrou ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana e Trichuris trichiura e cistos de Entamoeba coli. O paciente mora nos

  14. Cytological features of Kimura's disease: A case report with histological correlation

    Nadeem Tanveer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kimura's disease and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE together form a spectrum of chronic inflammatory disorders of unknown etiology with similar and overlapping histological features. We report a case of Kimura's disease in a young Indian girl with its cytohistological correlation. The cytological features of these inflammatory disorders are fairly specific and in an appropriate clinical setting, a cytological diagnosis of Kimura's/ALHE is possible. However, it may not be possible to differentiate between the two based on cytology alone.

  15. Prospective study of fine needle aspiration cytology of clinically palpable breast lump with histopathological correlation

    Ashwin K. Hebbar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in differentiating the benign and malignant lesions of palpable breast lump with histopathological correlation and also to study the accuracy of the needle tip localizing the tumor during fine needle aspiration cytology procedure. Methods: Two years prospective study was conducted in our institution and in that 100 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology of the palpable breast lump after thorough physical examination. The cytological diagnosis was classified in to 3 groups benign, suspicious and malignant. After this reporting all the patients were later subjected to open/excision biopsy and its histopathological confirmation. Later diagnostic accuracy of cytology reporting was compared with that of histopathology. Accuracy of the needle tip in localizing the tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology was also studied by comparing the normal glandular cell aspirate with tumor cell aspirate. Repeat cytology was carried out before open/excision biopsy if the pathologist reports the cytology slide as “inadequate”. Results: We had accuracy rate of 100% for benign lesion and 93.10% for malignant lesion with false negative rate of 6.9% and false positive rate of zero with fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of palpable breast lump. The overall sensitivity of fine needle aspiration in diagnosing the palpable breast lump is 93.10%, specificity is 100%, positive predictive value is 100% and negative predictive value is 90.47%. Since inadequate sampling rate is 2% in our study, the accuracy rate of needle tip in localizing the tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology is 98%. Conclusion: Since our diagnostic accuracy rate and predictive values are very high and comparable to any other published series it can be advised that the patients in which fine needle aspiration cytology is unequivocally diagnostic for

  16. The Improvement Two Cases Coughing and Sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    Kim, Eun-Gon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Coughing and sputum are symptoms of sequela of Pneumonia. Oriental medicine call it Hae su. Hae su is common sign of lung disease. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. The nature of Hominis Placenta is warm and its taste sweet-salty. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, degenerative change and cerebrovascular disease. We treated two cases coughing and sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Hominis Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture. The symptoms was improved and the patients satisfied

  17. The quality of sputum smear microscopy in public-private mix directly observed treatment laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Almaw Manalebh

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS strategy for tuberculosis (TB control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6 m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9 slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97. Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92. Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93% compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories.

  18. Ageing and long-term smoking affects KL-6 levels in the lung, induced sputum and plasma

    Horimasu Yasushi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KL-6 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein classified as a human MUC1 mucin. It was hypothesized that KL-6 could be detectable in the circulating blood and especially in airway secretions in lung diseases associated with mucus production such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Additional aims of this study were to investigate whether the levels of KL-6 in plasma and sputum are related to ageing and smoking history. Methods The concentrations of KL-6 in plasma and induced sputum supernatants from young and/or middle aged/elderly non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD were assayed by ELISA (n = 201. The subjects were classified into five groups according to age, smoking status and presence of COPD. In addition, KL-6 expression in control and diseased lung i.e. samples from patients with COPD (n = 28, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis. Results The plasma levels of KL-6 increased with age both in non-smokers and smokers. Among middle aged/elderly subjects, plasma KL-6 levels in all smokers regardless of COPD were significantly higher than in non-smokers, whereas sputum levels of KL-6 were significantly higher in COPD compared not only to non-smokers but also to smokers. KL-6 was more prominently expressed in the bronchiolar/alveolar epithelium in COPD than in the control lungs. Plasma and sputum KL-6 levels correlated inversely with obstruction and positively with smoking history and ageing. The linear multiple regression analysis confirmed that age and cigarette smoking had independent effects on plasma KL-6. Conclusions KL-6 increases with ageing and chronic smoking history, but prospective studies will be needed to elucidate the significance of KL-6 in chronic airway diseases.

  19. Ageing and long-term smoking affects KL-6 levels in the lung, induced sputum and plasma

    Horimasu Yasushi; Rönty Mikko; Vuopala Katri; Toljamo Tuula; Mazur Witold; Ishikawa Nobuhisa; Kohno Nobuoki; Kinnula Vuokko L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background KL-6 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein classified as a human MUC1 mucin. It was hypothesized that KL-6 could be detectable in the circulating blood and especially in airway secretions in lung diseases associated with mucus production such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Additional aims of this study were to investigate whether the levels of KL-6 in plasma and sputum are related to ageing and smoking history. Methods The concentrations of KL-6 in plas...

  20. Whole Blood Interferon-γ Release Assay Is Insufficient for the Diagnosis of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Park, Heejin; Shin, Jung Ar; Kim, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Chul Min; CHANG, YOON SOO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the value of an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among sputum smear negative PTB suspects in an environment with intermediate burden of PTB and high Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination rate. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed IGRA, medical records, chest PA and CT scan of PTB suspects seen at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2013. "Active PTB" was diagnosed wh...

  1. Analysis of the Sputum and Inflammatory Alterations of the Airways in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Bronchiectasis

    Andrea Cristina Pereira; Cristina M. Kokron; Beatriz Mangueira Saraiva Romagnolo; Claudia Simeire Albertini Yagi; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Geraldo Lorenzi Filho; Elnara Marcia Negri

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Common variable immunodeficiency is characterized by defective antibody production and recurrent pulmonary infections. Intravenous immunoglobulin is the treatment of choice, but the effects of Intravenous immunoglobulin on pulmonary defense mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on the physical properties of the sputum and on inflammatory alterations in the airways of patients with Common variable...

  2. Low Serum Concentrations of Moxifloxacin, Prothionamide, and Cycloserine on Sputum Conversion in Multi-Drug Resistant TB

    Lee, Seung Heon; Seo, Kyung-Ah; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Je Hyeong; Shin, Chol; Ghim, Jong-Ryul; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Dong hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low serum concentrations of drugs used to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have occasionally been associated with treatment failure. We determined the frequencies of low serum concentrations of anti-MDR-TB drugs, and assessed the effects of these concentrations on 2-month sputum conversion. Materials and Methods The serum levels of moxifloxacin (MF), prothionamide (PTH), and cycloserine (CS) were determined for 89 serum samples by high-pressure liquid chromatography-ta...

  3. Reduction of ciliary beat frequency in vitro by sputum from patients with bronchiectasis: a serine proteinase effect.

    Smallman, L A; Hill, S. L.; Stockley, R A

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the effect of adding elastase positive sputum from six patients with purulent bronchiectasis on the ciliary beat frequency of nasal epithelium from normal subjects. Control studies of cilia suspended in tissue culture medium showed little change in ciliary beat frequency over six hours. Cilia incubated in elastase positive secretions, however, showed a considerable decrease in ciliary beat frequency over the period, falling from a mean of 13 X 40 beats/second to 6 X 78 beats/...

  4. A study on the relevance of airway inflammatory indices in induced sputum and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics

    厐亚敏

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlations between NO3-/NO2-,eosinophil counts in induced sputum and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and therefore to explore the clinical significance of these parameters in severity assessment and medication adjustment in patients with mild to moderate asthma. Methods From February 2003 to June 2004,35 outpatients with mild to moderate persistent asthma (mild:9, moderate:26) from Huaxi Hospital asthma clinic were treated with combined medi-

  5. Identification of Novel RD1 Antigens and Their Combinations for Diagnosis of Sputum Smear−/Culture+ TB Patients

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Qie, Shuang; Li, Lili; Xiu, Bingshui; Yang, Xiqin; Dai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xuhui; Duan, Cuimi; Que, Haiping; Zhao, Ping; Johnson, Heather; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an unresolved problem worldwide, especially for sputum smear− (S−) cases. In this study, five antigen genes including Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RD1 and overexpressed to generate antigen fragments. These antigens and their combinations were investigated for PTB serodiagnosis. 298 serum samples were collected from active PTB patients, including 117 sputum smear+ (S+) and sputum culture+ (C+) cases, 101 S−/C+ cases, and 80 S−/C− cases. The serum IgG levels of the five antigens were measured by ELISA. Based on IgG levels, the sensitivity/specificity of Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 for PTB detection was 81.21%/74.74%, 63.09%/94.78%, 32.21%/87.37%, 62.42%/85.26%, and 83.56%/83.16%, respectively. Furthermore, the optimal result for PTB diagnosis was achieved by combining antigens Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879. In addition, the IgG levels of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were found to be higher in S−/C+ PTB patients than in other PTB populations. More importantly, combination of the three antigens demonstrated superior diagnostic performance for both S−/C+ and S−/C− PTB. In conclusion, the combination of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 induced higher IgG response in sputum S−/C+ PTB patients and represents a promising biomarker combination for diagnosing of PTB. PMID:26885516

  6. Identification of Novel RD1 Antigens and Their Combinations for Diagnosis of Sputum Smear−/Culture+ TB Patients

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is an unresolved problem worldwide, especially for sputum smear− (S− cases. In this study, five antigen genes including Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb RD1 and overexpressed to generate antigen fragments. These antigens and their combinations were investigated for PTB serodiagnosis. 298 serum samples were collected from active PTB patients, including 117 sputum smear+ (S+ and sputum culture+ (C+ cases, 101 S−/C+ cases, and 80 S−/C− cases. The serum IgG levels of the five antigens were measured by ELISA. Based on IgG levels, the sensitivity/specificity of Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 for PTB detection was 81.21%/74.74%, 63.09%/94.78%, 32.21%/87.37%, 62.42%/85.26%, and 83.56%/83.16%, respectively. Furthermore, the optimal result for PTB diagnosis was achieved by combining antigens Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879. In addition, the IgG levels of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were found to be higher in S−/C+ PTB patients than in other PTB populations. More importantly, combination of the three antigens demonstrated superior diagnostic performance for both S−/C+ and S−/C− PTB. In conclusion, the combination of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 induced higher IgG response in sputum S−/C+ PTB patients and represents a promising biomarker combination for diagnosing of PTB.

  7. Frequency of sputum positive AFB cases among patients of pulmonary tuberculosis in tertiary care hospitals of northern Pakistan

    Objective: This study was aimed to find out the frequency of sputum positive Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) cases among pulmonary tuberculosis patients and to determine those patients who are the potential source of transmitting infection. Methods: This study was conducted in four medical units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar and Chest Unit, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad in collaboration with the pathology unit of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, and Kohat Institute of Medical Sciences, Kohat. Three specimens of sputum were collected for three consecutive days in the morning and were transported immediately to the laboratory along with full details of the patients. Results: Out of two hundred total patients studied, 104 patients (52%) were sputum AFB positive. Among the 104 patients 60 patients (57.4%) were females. Sixty-four (61.52%) individuals were between 20-50 years. Majority of the patients were from poor, deprived and lower social class. Fifty-two (50%) patients had monthly income of less than Rs. 4,000; only 8 patients (7.67%) had monthly income of more than Rs. 12,000). Forty-eight patients <46.12% were house wives, 10 patients (9.61%) were unemployed. Most of the patients were under weight for their age and height. 24 patients (23.06%) were below 42 kg. The maximum (53.84%) number of patients was in weight range of 43-50 kg. Conclusion: Sputum AFB positive pulmonary tuberculosis is more in individuals of low socioeconomic group and in females. The patients put their children and family members at risk of tuberculosis infection. For the control of this disease early diagnosis of active disease and their treatment under supervision is important. (author)

  8. Level of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5 Is Increased in Sputum of Allergic Asthmatics and Links to Airway Remodeling and Inflammation.

    Hille Suojalehto

    Full Text Available The inflammatory processes in the upper and lower airways in allergic rhinitis and asthma are similar. Induced sputum and nasal lavage fluid provide a non-invasive way to examine proteins involved in airway inflammation in these conditions.We conducted proteomic analyses of sputum and nasal lavage fluid samples to reveal differences in protein abundances and compositions between the asthma and rhinitis patients and to investigate potential underlying mechanisms.Induced sputum and nasal lavage fluid samples were collected from 172 subjects with 1 allergic rhinitis, 2 asthma combined with allergic rhinitis, 3 nonallergic rhinitis and 4 healthy controls. Proteome changes in 21 sputum samples were analysed with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, and the found differentially regulated proteins identified with mass spectrometry. Immunological validation of identified proteins in the sputum and nasal lavage fluid samples was performed with Western blot and ELISA.Altogether 31 different proteins were identified in the sputum proteome analysis, most of these were found also in the nasal lavage fluid. Fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5 was up-regulated in the sputum of asthmatics. Immunological validation in the whole study population confirmed the higher abundance levels of FABP5 in asthmatic subjects in both the sputum and nasal lavage fluid samples. In addition, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level was increased in the nasal lavage fluid of asthmatics and there were positive correlations between FABP5 and VEGF levels (r=0.660, p<0.001 and concentrations of FABP5 and cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT (r=0.535, p<0.001 in the nasal lavage fluid.FABP5 may contribute to the airway remodeling and inflammation in asthma by fine-tuning the levels of CysLTs, which induce VEGF production.

  9. Cycle ergometer and rebound exercises with chest physiotherapy - a useful adjunct for sputum expectoration in mild to moderately symptomatic hiv infected children.

    S.S. Maharaj; Jeena, P M

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sputum expectoration of lung secretionsin HIV  infected children with associated respiratory conditions is oftendifficult. Chest physiotherapy is often recommended to assist in thisprocess but is not always successful. A erobic exercises may have bene-ficial effects on sputum expectoration but its safety is uncertain. Aim: The primary aim of this study was to determine if cycle ergometerand rebound exercises are safe for mild to moderately symptomatic HIV  infected children and if...

  10. Comparison of methods for the analysis of airway macrophage particulate load from induced sputum, a potential biomarker of air pollution exposure

    Jary, Hannah; Rylance, Jamie; Patel, Latifa; Gordon, Stephen B.; Mortimer, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is associated with a high burden or morbidity and mortality, but exposure cannot be quantified rapidly or cheaply. The particulate burden of macrophages from induced sputum may provide a biomarker. We compare the feasibility of two methods for digital quantification of airway macrophage particulate load. Methods Induced sputum samples were processed and analysed using ImageJ and Image SXM software packages. We compare each package by resources and time required. Resul...

  11. Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance among New and Previously Treated Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Results of the First National Survey

    Lukoye, Deus; Adatu, Francis; Musisi, Kenneth; Kasule, George William; Were, Willy; Odeke, Rosemary; Kalamya, Julius Namonyo; Awor, Ann; Date, Anand; Joloba, Moses L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) have become major threats to control of tuberculosis globally. The rates of anti-TB drug resistance in Uganda are not known. We conducted a national drug resistance survey to investigate the levels and patterns of resistance to first and second line anti-TB drugs among new and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB cases. Methods Sputum samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of new and...

  12. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis; Gregory Clive; Brown Richard; Marchesi Julian Roberto; Hoogendoorn Bastiaan; Matthews Ian Price

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case cont...

  13. Effect of Qingqi Huatan decoction on serum indicators and induced sputum indicators in children with cough variant asthma

    Jing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of Qingqi Huatan decoction on serum indicators and induced sputum indicators in children with cough variant asthma.Methods:A total of 118 cases of children with cough variant asthma were included for study, and all were treated in our hospital from August 2012 to December 2014. According to random principle, included children were divided into observation group (n=59) and control group (n=59). Control group received conventional treatment, observation group received conventional treatment combined with Qingqi Huatan decoction treatment, and then serum, induced sputum and airway anatomy indicators were compared between two groups.Results:ECP, SP, NGF, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in induced sputum of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and TLR2 level was higher than that of control group; serum MIP-1α, Eotaxin, SAA, SIgE and TIgE values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4 and leukotriene D4 levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; AI, AO, T, WA and WA% values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group.Conclusion:Qingqi Huatan decoction for children with cough variant asthma can effectively reduce systemic inflammatory response and allergy-related factor generation and reverse airway remodeling process, and it has active clinical significance.

  14. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown's Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia.

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T Eoin

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown's medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of  B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis. PMID:25717370

  15. Effect of Yogic Breathing Techniques in New Sputum Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    A Mooventhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old, unmarried woman diagnosed of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB visited our hospital out-patient department in the month of August-2013. Patient came with the complaint of sever cough with expectoration; evening raise of temperature; gradual loss of appetite and weight since 2-weeks. We referred the patient to our hospital′s Revised National Tuberculosis Program, direct observed treatment short-course center for sputum fluorescence microscopic examination (FME. FME report suggested the new smear positive, 2+ PTB. Our patient received yogic breathing techniques (YBT for 45-min daily under the supervision for three alternate-days/week with anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT for the period of 8-weeks. After intervention our result showed better improvement in weight gain, body mass index, symptom scores, pulmonary function and health related quality of life with conversion of positive to negative FME for acid fast bacilli. It suggests YBT with ATT are effective in treating PTB and further studies required to warrant this effect.

  16. Trace incorporation of heavy water reveals slow and heterogeneous pathogen growth rates in cystic fibrosis sputum

    Kopf, Sebastian H.; Sessions, Alex L.; Cowley, Elise S.; Reyes, Carmen; Van Sambeek, Lindsey; Hu, Yang; Orphan, Victoria J.; Kato, Roberta; Newman, Dianne K.

    2016-01-01

    Effective treatment for chronic infections is undermined by a significant gap in understanding of the physiological state of pathogens at the site of infection. Chronic pulmonary infections are responsible for the morbidity and mortality of millions of immunocompromised individuals worldwide, yet drugs that are successful in laboratory culture are far less effective against pathogen populations persisting in vivo. Laboratory models, upon which preclinical development of new drugs is based, can only replicate host conditions when we understand the metabolic state of the pathogens and the degree of heterogeneity within the population. In this study, we measured the anabolic activity of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus directly in the sputum of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), by combining the high sensitivity of isotope ratio mass spectrometry with a heavy water labeling approach to capture the full range of in situ growth rates. Our results reveal S. aureus generation times with a median of 2.1 d, with extensive growth rate heterogeneity at the single-cell level. These growth rates are far below the detection limit of previous estimates of CF pathogen growth rates, and the rates are slowest in acutely sick patients undergoing pulmonary exacerbations; nevertheless, they are accessible to experimental replication within laboratory models. Treatment regimens that include specific antibiotics (vancomycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tobramycin) further appear to correlate with slow growth of S. aureus on average, but follow-up longitudinal studies must be performed to determine whether this effect holds for individual patients.

  17. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    RATIONALE: Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiinflammatory effect of hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment within the CF lung by focusing on IL-8. METHODS: Degradation of IL-8 in CF lung secretions after treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and HTS was analyzed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. The ex vivo chemotactic activity of purified neutrophils in response to CF airway secretions was evaluated post nebulization of HTS (7% saline). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In vivo CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-8 levels were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BALF displaced IL-8 from glycosaminoglycan matrices, rendering the chemokine susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. High sodium concentrations also liberate IL-8 in CF BALF in vitro, and in vivo in CF sputum from patients receiving aerosolized HTS, resulting in degradation of IL-8 and decreased neutrophil chemotactic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycans possess the ability to influence the chemokine profile of the CF lung by binding and stabilizing IL-8, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment disrupts the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis, thereby facilitating resolution of inflammation.

  18. Subunit structure of calgranulins A and B obtained from sputum, plasma, granulocytes and cultured epithelial cells.

    Longbottom, D; Sallenave, J M; van Heyningen, V

    1992-04-01

    The calcium-binding proteins calgranulins A and B co-purified with an elastase-specific inhibitor after the affinity and cation-exchange chromatography of the perchloric acid-soluble fraction of pooled sputum collected from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Sallenave, J.-M. and Ryle, A.P. (1991) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 372, 13-21). The calgranulins were separated from the inhibitor by reverse-phase FPLC. Protein blot analysis of the calgranulin fraction in the absence of reducing agent revealed a band of 25 kDa corresponding to the disulphide-bonded heterodimerization of the two monomer components. Similar results were obtained from the immunoprecipitation and protein blot analysis of plasma, granulocytes and cultured epithelial cells. This implies that the calgranulins exist in the heterodimeric form in secretions in vivo. Their association with pancreatic elastase during the affinity chromatography stage of purification implicates them in the tissue destruction elicited by the inflammatory response in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. PMID:1562590

  19. Metagenome and Metatranscriptome Profiling of Moderate and Severe COPD Sputum in Taiwanese Han Males

    Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disorder characterized by the progressive obstruction of airflow and is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. The pathogenesis of COPD is thought to involve bacterial infections and inflammations. Owing to advancement in sequencing technology, evidence is emerging that supports an association between the lung microbiome and COPD. However, few studies have looked into the expression profile of the bacterial communities in the COPD lungs. In this study, we analyzed the sputum microbiome of four moderate and four severe COPD male patients both at the DNA and RNA level, using next generation sequencing technology. We found that bacterial composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing may not directly translate to the set of actively expressing bacteria as defined by transcriptome sequencing. The two sequencing data agreed on Prevotella, Rothia, Neisseria, Porphyromonas, Veillonella, Fusobacterium and Streptococcus being among the most differentially abundant genera between the moderate and severe COPD samples, supporting their association with COPD severity. However, the two sequencing analyses disagreed on the relative abundance of these bacteria in the two COPD groups, implicating the importance of studying the actively expressing bacteria for enriching our understanding of COPD. Though we have described the metatranscriptome profiles of the lung microbiome in moderate and severe COPD, further investigations are required to determine the functional basis underlying the relationship between the microbial species in the lungs and pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:27428540

  20. Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sputum headspace through volatile organic compound analysis

    Goeminne Pieter C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic pulmonary infection is the hallmark of Cystic Fibrosis lung disease. Searching for faster and easier screening may lead to faster diagnosis and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. Our aim was to analyze and build a model to predict the presence of P. aeruginosa in sputa. Methods Sputa from 28 bronchiectatic patients were used for bacterial culturing and analysis of volatile compounds by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Data analysis and model building were done by Partial Least Squares Regression Discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. Two analysis were performed: one comparing P. aeruginosa positive with negative cultures at study visit (PA model and one comparing chronic colonization according to the Leeds criteria with P. aeruginosa negative patients (PACC model. Results The PA model prediction of P. aeruginosa presence was rather poor, with a high number of false positives and false negatives. On the other hand, the PACC model was stable and explained chronic P. aeruginosa presence for 95% with 4 PLS-DA factors, with a sensitivity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 86% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion Our study shows the potential for building a prediction model for the presence of chronic P. aeruginosa based on volatiles from sputum.

  1. Metagenome and Metatranscriptome Profiling of Moderate and Severe COPD Sputum in Taiwanese Han Males.

    Shih-Wei Lee

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an inflammatory lung disorder characterized by the progressive obstruction of airflow and is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. The pathogenesis of COPD is thought to involve bacterial infections and inflammations. Owing to advancement in sequencing technology, evidence is emerging that supports an association between the lung microbiome and COPD. However, few studies have looked into the expression profile of the bacterial communities in the COPD lungs. In this study, we analyzed the sputum microbiome of four moderate and four severe COPD male patients both at the DNA and RNA level, using next generation sequencing technology. We found that bacterial composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing may not directly translate to the set of actively expressing bacteria as defined by transcriptome sequencing. The two sequencing data agreed on Prevotella, Rothia, Neisseria, Porphyromonas, Veillonella, Fusobacterium and Streptococcus being among the most differentially abundant genera between the moderate and severe COPD samples, supporting their association with COPD severity. However, the two sequencing analyses disagreed on the relative abundance of these bacteria in the two COPD groups, implicating the importance of studying the actively expressing bacteria for enriching our understanding of COPD. Though we have described the metatranscriptome profiles of the lung microbiome in moderate and severe COPD, further investigations are required to determine the functional basis underlying the relationship between the microbial species in the lungs and pathogenesis of COPD.

  2. Axillary fine needle aspiration cytology for pre-operative staging of patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma.

    Hayes, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of radiologically abnormal axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer can identify patients suitable for primary axillary clearance (AC) rather than sentinel node biopsy, enabling surgical axillary staging by a single operation. This study assessed the accuracy of FNAC in predicting positive axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: 161 patients with screen-detected invasive carcinoma and who had pre-operative FNAC of a radiologically abnormal axillary lymph node were identified from two screening units, The axillary FNAC reports were correlated with sentinel node biopsy and AC reports, and sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated. RESULTS: FNAC had a moderate sensitivity (66.3%) and NPV (71.8%), and a high specificity (98.7%) and PPV (98.3%). Most patients (86%) had a single axillary operation. The sensitivity was highest in grade 3 (81.8%) and ductal type (77.8%) tumours. The sensitivity was lower in tumours of special type (34.8%), grade 1 tumours (50%) and those without lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (55.9%). The NPV was highest in pT1 (86.7%) and in grade 1 (84.5%) tumours, and lowest (44%) in tumours with LVI. The PPV was 100% in grade 1 and 3 tumours, stage pT2 and pT3 tumours and those without LVI, and was high (>96%) in all other groups. In lymph-node-positive patients, the mean number of lymph nodes involved was higher in the case of a positive (6.4) than negative FNAC (4.4). CONCLUSIONS: FNAC of ultrasonically abnormal axillary lymph nodes achieved surgical staging by a single operation in most patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma, with moderate sensitivity and high specificity.

  3. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  4. Comparative analysis of DNA quantitative cytology and TCT in cervical cancer screening%宫颈癌筛查中DNA定量分析与薄层液基细胞学检查对比分析

    钟萍萍; 顾依群; 王军; 周秋立; 王爱春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the cytology diagnostic accuracy of DNA quantitative cytology and thinprep cytology test(TCT) in cervical cancer screening for exploring effective method in cervical cancer screening.Methods TCT and DNA quantitative cytology were carried out in 7 470 women.Women with positive results additionally underwent high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection.Positive cytologic diagnosis included atypical squamous cells(ASC) or above in TCT and DNA index 2.5 or above in DNA quantitative cytology.Results The positive rate was 13.0% in method of DNA quantitative cytology and 13.7% in method of TCT in 7 470 cases.Positive rate of the two methods had no significant difference in cervical cancer screening(x2 =1.813,P =0.178).There was significant difference in positive rate of TCT between cases with DNA index≥2.5,<4.5,heteroploid cells more than 3 or DNA index≥4.5 and cases with DNA index≥2.5,<4.5,heteroploid cells less than 3.Every grade of TCT abnormality had abnormal DNA index.Abnormality of DNA index had an increasing trend with the severity of TCT.Infection rate of high risk HPVs had significant difference in different grades of DNA index (x2 =62.648,P =0.000).Conclusion Combination of DNA quantitative cytology and TCT is an effective method in cervical cancer screening,which can reduce misdiagnosis,guide cervical biopsy and suggest infection of high risk of HPVs.%目的 比较DNA定量分析与薄层液基细胞学(TCT)检查在宫颈癌中的应用价值,以提高细胞学诊断的准确性.方法 对7 470例妇女行宫颈薄层液基细胞学(TCT)及DNA定量分析,结果异常者用二代基因杂交捕获法(HC2)检测高危型人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV),TCT在ASC及以上病变为阳性,DNA指数≥2.5为阳性.结果 7470例患者,用DNA定量分析法检测阳性率为13.0%,TCT检查阳性率为13.7%,两种检查方法差异无统计学意义(x2 =1.813,P=0.178);≥3个细胞2.5≤DNA指数<4.5者及DNA指数≥4.5

  5. Comparison of Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnosis of Malignant Breast Lesions

    Takhellambam, Yumjaobabu Singh; Lourembam, Sunil Singh; Sapam, Opendro Singh; Kshetrimayum, Raju Singh; Ningthoujam, Bhubon Singh; Khan, Tousif

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women worldwide and usually presents as lump in the breast. Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) are two investigational tools often used to differentiate malignant breast lump from benign one.

  6. Pleomorphic adenoma with squamous and appendageal metaplasia mimicking mucoepidermoid carcinoma on cytology

    Batrani Meenakshi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histological diversity is the hallmark of pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor. It may cause difficulty in cytological interpretation, due to limited and selective sampling. Case presentation: A 16-year-old female patient presented with right cheek swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed squamous cells, basaloid cells, and foamy cells, along with extracellular keratin and foreign body giant cells. Characteristic metachromatic fibrillary chondromyxoid stroma, which is usually seen in pleomorphic adenoma, was not seen in the aspirate. A diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma was given on cytology. Subsequent resection revealed an encapsulated pleomorphic adenoma, with extensive squamous metaplasia and appendageal differentiation on histology. Conclusion: This case illustrates that pleomorphic adenoma with squamous metaplasia presents a potential for misinterpretation as mucoepidermoid carcinoma on cytology. We discuss the various pitfalls and the features that are helpful in distinguishing these two lesions.

  7. Exfoliative cytology in study of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer, (2)

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of cytological judgment of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer by comparison between pre- and post-irradiation smears given 1,000 rads by telecobalt external test irradiation. The estimation of radiation effects on nuclei and the cytological presumption of histological typing in pre-irradiation smears have brought about satisfactory results; agreement between histological and cytological judgements of radiosensitivity was about 96.8%. Cytological criteria of good sensitivity are as follows; Disparity in size of chromatin particles and irregular distribution. Irregularity of nuclear membrane with nuclear wrinkling with diminution of thickness of nuclear membrane. Mature squamous cell carcinoma without pearl formation. Those of poor sensitivity are as follows; Existence of many unchanged viable cells and less disturbances of chromatines. Existence of cells exibiting adenocarcinoma and carcinoma of intermediate type. Clusters of cyanophilic cells having lacy, indistinct cell borders. (auth.)

  8. Cytological Punctures in the Diagnosis of Renal Tumours: A Study on Accuracy and Reproducibility

    I.P.E.D. Kümmerlin; F Smedts; F.J.W. ten Kate; T Horn; F. Algaba; I. Trias; H. Wijkstra; J.J.M.C.H. de la Rosette; M.P. Laguna

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is under consideration as an auxiliary preoperative diagnostic technique in the diagnosis of renal masses. However, reports for FNA are contradictory with regard to diagnostic accuracy and applicability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy

  9. Radiological and cytological detection of renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinoma

    We evaluated US, CT, intraveneous urography, arteriography, retrograde pyelography and urine cytology results in a series of 23 patients with renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinomas, 14 of whom underwent US, 17 i.v. urography, 8 CT, 15 arteriography, 9 retrograde pyelography, and 17 patients urine cytology. A tumour was identified in 5 patients (36%) at US, in 11 patients (61%) at urography, in 7 (88%) at CT, in 10 patients (67%) at arteriography, and in 8 (89%) at retrograde pyelography. Urine cytology was assessed as showing changes consistent with Papanicolaou class III-V in 15 (88%) of 17 patients. When renal pelvic cancer is suspected, intravenous urography should be performed as the initial radiological examination and followed by CT, which may also identify tumour spread. Arteriography and retrograde pyelography are sometimes complementary investigations. Repeated urinary cytology is mandatory. Our results show that US alone is unreliable in detecting renal pelvic cancer. (orig.)

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of methyl mycocerosates released by thermochemolysis.

    Denise M O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis requires rapid diagnosis to prevent further transmission and allow prompt administration of treatment. Current methods for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis lack sensitivity are expensive or are extremely slow. The identification of lipids using gas chromatography- electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS could provide an alternative solution. We have studied mycocerosic acid components of the phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM family of lipids using thermochemolysis GC-EI/MS. To facilitate use of the technology in a routine diagnostic laboratory a simple extraction procedure was employed where PDIMs were extracted from sputum using petroleum ether, a solvent of low polarity. We also investigated a method using methanolic tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which facilitates direct transesterification of acidic components to methyl esters in the inlet of the GC-MS system. This eliminates conventional chemical manipulations allowing rapid and convenient analysis of samples. When applied to an initial set of 40 sputum samples, interpretable results were obtained for 35 samples with a sensitivity relative to culture of 94% (95%CI: 69.2,100 and a specificity of 100% (95%CI: 78.1,100. However, blinded testing of a larger set of 395 sputum samples found the assay to have a sensitivity of 61.3% (95%CI: 54.9,67.3 and a specificity of 70.6% (95%CI: 62.3,77.8 when compared to culture. Using the results obtained we developed an improved set of classification criteria, which when applied in a blinded re-analysis increased the sensitivity and specificity of the assay to 64.9% (95%CI: 58.6,70.8 and 76.2% (95%CI: 68.2,82.8 respectively. Highly variable levels of background signal were observed from individual sputum samples that inhibited interpretation of the data. The diagnostic potential of using thermochemolytic GC-EI/MS of PDIM biomarkers for diagnosis of tuberculosis in sputum has been established; however, further refinements in sample

  11. Cytological analysis of the periodontal pocket in patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis

    E Castro Cecilia; A Koss Myriam; E López María

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral exfoliative cytology includes the study and interpretation of the features cells exfoliated from the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to analyze cytological changes in the periodontal pocket of patients with different clinical stages of aggressive periodontitis (AP) and chronic periodontitis (CP). Materials and Methods: Patients aged 24-54 years, of whom 41 were diagnosed with AP, 40 with CP, sub-classified as mild, moderate and severe periodontitis, and 40 healthy indi...

  12. A comparison between cytology and histology to detect anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Ruiter, A.; Carter, P.; Katz, D. R.; Kocjan, G.; Whatrup, C; Northover, J; Mindel, A

    1994-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), which may be a precursor of anal carcinoma, has been identified on histology following minor anal surgical procedures, in particular the removal of perianal condylomata, in increasing numbers of homosexual and bisexual men. Anal cytology has recently been proposed as a useful method of identifying AIN lesions. OBJECTIVE--To compare anal cytology with histology as a method of detecting AIN. METHODS--215 homosexual and bisexual men attending a...

  13. Biphasic parapharyngeal synovial sarcoma: a cytologic and immunocytologic report of a case

    Mohammadianpanah Mohammad; Daneshbod Yahya; Negahban Shahrzad; Daneshbod Khosrow; Ashraf Mohammad; Khademi Bijan; Kaviani Massud

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Synovial sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma in the head and neck region and parapharyngeal space. There is no previous cytologic report of synovial sarcoma of parapharynx. The cytologic and immunocytochemical findings of a parapharyngeal biphasic synovial sarcoma together with diagnostic pitfalls are described. Case report A 21-year-old girl presented with a 6-month history of progressive right arm pain, neck mass and upper aerodigestive tract obstruction. On physical e...

  14. Significance of eosinophils in diagnosing Hashimoto′s thyroiditis on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Ekambaram Maheswari; Kumar Bipin; Chowdhary Nitlotpal; Siddaraju N; Kumar Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT) is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in those areas of the world where iodine levels are sufficient. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can accurately diagnose this lesion in most of the patients. However, a small percentage of cases may be missed due to inherent limitations of this procedure. Therefore, cytologic clues to increase sensitivity of diagnosis need to be searched for. Aims: To assess whether an eosinophilic infiltration of...

  15. Pleomorphic adenoma with squamous and appendageal metaplasia mimicking mucoepidermoid carcinoma on cytology

    Batrani Meenakshi; Kaushal Manju; Sen A; Yadav Rajbala; Chaturvedi N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Histological diversity is the hallmark of pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor. It may cause difficulty in cytological interpretation, due to limited and selective sampling. Case presentation: A 16-year-old female patient presented with right cheek swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed squamous cells, basaloid cells, and foamy cells, along with extracellular keratin and foreign body giant cells. Characteristic metachromatic fibrillary chondromyxoid ...

  16. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    Gülçin Güler Şimşek; Servet Güreşçi; Ural Oğuz; Ali Ünsal

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor.

  17. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    Gülçin Güler Şimşek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor.

  18. Unsuspected multiples myeloma presenting as bilateral pleural effusion – a cytological diagnosis

    Dhingra Kajal; Singhal Niti; Nigam Sonu; Jain Shayama

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple Myeloma presenting as a pleural effusion is extremely rare. It is usually a late complication and is associated with a poor prognosis. Case Presentation A 40-year-old male presented with dyspnea and fever of six months duration. Clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was considered. X-ray chest showed bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural cytology revealed numerous plasma cells, some of which were binucleated and atypical. Cytological differential diagnosis in...

  19. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Useful Technique for Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    Singhal, Niti; Raghubanshi, Gunjan; Handa, Uma; Punia, R. P. S.; Singhal, Surinder

    2013-01-01

    Mycotic infections are on the rise globally. Patients with invasive fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses often present with destructive mass lesions and mimic malignancy clinically and radiologically. To assess the utility of Fine needle aspiration cytology for early diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed from the maxillary/ethmoid sinus in patients with a destructive mass lesion in the maxilla. Differential diagnoses were malignancy an...

  20. Diagnostic dilemma: Diagnostic algorithm in fine needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal tumors

    Dey Pranab

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mediastinum harbors a mixed bag of tumors, which may create significant diagnostic dilemmas. These tumors have widely variable therapeutic and prognostic implications. Correct pre-operative cytological diagnosis may obviate the need of surgical excision of many of these lesions. A stepwise algorithmic approach such as clinical history, radiological localization, salient cytomorphology and ancillary test helps in correct diagnosis of these tumors. This paper discusses the stepwise diagnostic algorithm for fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of mediastinal tumors.

  1. The Use of Core Biopsy Imprint Cytology in the 'One-Stop' Breast Clinic.

    Kulkarni, D.; Irvine, T.; Reyes, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aims The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity; accuracy, usefulness and role of core biopsy imprint cytology (CBIC) in the one-stop breast clinic in a District General Hospital. Methods A retrospective study was made of symptomatic patients attending a district general hospital one-stop clinic over a five year period where a core biopsy had been performed and an imprint of the core had been made for cytological a...

  2. Combined radiology and cytology in the diagnosis of bone lesions : A study of 494 patients

    Söderlund, Veli

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of combining radiology and fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of bone lesions. Patients and Methods Radiological, cytological and histopathologic findings in 494 cases diagnosed 1993 through 1998 were collected from the original reports. The study included four overlapping series: 1) 52 consecutive high grade osteosarcomas, 2) 83 consecutive myelomas/lymphomas, 3) 29 unselected lesions analysed for sam...

  3. Diagnosis of High-Grade Osteosarcoma by Radiology and Cytology: A Retrospective Study of 52 Cases

    Andris Kreicbergs; Otte Brosjö; Franco Bertoni; Lambert Skoog; Unni, Krishnan K.; Veli Söderlund

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic value of combined radiology and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was retrospectively assessed in a consecutive series of 52 patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. The series was divided into typical and atypical osteosarcomas according to radiological features and site. Thirty-two of 33 radiologically typical osteosarcoma cases were correctly diagnosed by cytology; one lesion was diagnosed as sarcoma NOS. Nineteen osteosarcoma cases were radiographically atypical. Six of ...

  4. Cytological and architectural heterogeneity in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Quinn, C M; Ostrowski, J L

    1997-01-01

    AIM: The traditional architecture based classification system of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has been criticised on the grounds that individual lesions often show more than one pattern resulting in a large mixed category. New DCIS classification systems have emphasised the importance of cytological grade, which is reputed to be more uniformly expressed throughout a lesion. This study investigates the hypothesis that cytological heterogeneity is less common than architectural heterogeneity...

  5. Role of peritoneal washing cytology in ovarian malignancies: correlation with histopathological parameters

    Naz, Samreen; Hashmi, Atif Ali; Ali, Rabia; Faridi, Naveen; Hussian, Syed Danish; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Khan, Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dissemination of ovarian tumors is a major prognostic parameter in ovarian malignancies. Analysis of peritoneal washing cytology serves as a useful predictor of ovarian surface involvement and peritoneal metastasis even in the absence of clinical omental spread. The aim of the current study is to correlate peritoneal cytology with various histologic features of ovarian cancers in our setup. Methods A total of 60 cases of ovarian tumors were included in the study that und...

  6. The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: The Quest to Develop a Standardized Terminology.

    Barkan, Güliz A; Wojcik, Eva M; Nayar, Ritu; Savic-Prince, Spasenija; Quek, Marcus L; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of urine cytology is to detect high-grade urothelial carcinoma. With this principle in mind, The Paris System (TPS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and urologists, has proposed and published a standardized reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for the reliable diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This paper outlines the essential elements of TPS and the process that led to the formation and rationale of the reporting system. TPS Working Group, organized at the 2013 International Congress of Cytology, conceived a standardized platform on which to base cytologic interpretation of urine samples. The widespread dissemination of this approach to cytologic examination and reporting of urologic samples and the scheme's universal acceptance by pathologists and urologists is critical for its success. For urologists, understanding the diagnostic criteria, their clinical implications, and limitations of TPS is essential if they are to utilize urine cytology and noninvasive ancillary tests in a thoughtful and practical manner. This is the first international/inclusive attempt at standardizing urinary cytology. The success of TPS will depend on the pathology and urology communities working collectively to improve this seminal paradigm shift, and optimize the impact on patient care. PMID:27233050

  7. TCT联合DNA定量细胞学检查对宫颈病变临床诊断价值研究%The study of TCT and DNA quantitive cytology in the diagnosis of cervical lesions.

    刘桂依; 黄艳美

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价宫颈细胞学配合DNA定量细胞学检查对子宫颈病变的诊断价值.方法 2006年2月至2007年12月间在我们中心对2 800例患者行液基薄层细胞学检查(TCT)及DNA定量细胞学检查.TCT或DNA定量细胞学检查异常者,3个月后复查.TCT未明确诊断意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞(ASCUS)异常者行阴道镜下多点活组织病理检查.结果 TCT异常者302例,占10.79%(302/2 800).ASCUS 194例,占6.93%;低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL)34例,占1.21%;高度鳞状上皮(HSIL)内病变18例,占0.64%(18/2 800);鳞癌(SCC)3例,占0.10%.经阴道镜下多点活组织病理检查,诊断符合率较高.结论 采用TCT配合细胞DNA定量分析,因取材方便无创伤,是进行阴道镜下活检前筛查宫颈癌和癌前病变的好方法,可以帮助早发现宫颈癌和宫颈病变.%Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of cervical cytology combined with DNA quantitive cytology for cervical lesions.Methods From February 2006 to December 2007, 2,800 patients were examined with liquid - based ThinPrep cytologic test ( TCT ) and DNA quantitative cytology. The patients with abnormal TCT or DNA quantitative cytology results were re - examined after three months. The patients with abnormal TCT results and atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance ( ASCUS ) were further examined by colposcopy and multi - site biopsy examinations. Results Abnormal TCT results were found in 302 patients ( 10.79% ), ASCUS, low - grade squamous intraepithelial lesions ( LSIL ), high - grade squamous intraepithelial lesion ( HSIL ) and squamous cell carcinoma ( SCC ) were found in 194 ( 6.93% ), 34 ( 1.21% ),18 ( 0.64% ) and 3 patients ( 0. 10% ), respectively. Pathological examination confirmed inflammation in 198 cases, accounting for 65.56%( 198/302 ) of abnormal TCT. The difference in TCT and human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infection diagnosis was significant ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion The combined examinations of

  8. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  9. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection. PMID:26810061

  10. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Prasanna Byna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: AUB is a common but complicated clinical presentation and occurs in 15-20% of women between menarche to menopause and significantly affects the women's health. Women with thyroid dysfunction often have menstrual irregularities, infertility and increased morbidity during pregnancy. The objective of present study is to find the correlation between thyroid disorders and AUB in perimenopausal women attending gynecology OPD. Methods: In the present study, fifty five patients with AUB were included and were evaluated for the cause including thyroid abnormality. Thyroid function tests were done in all patients. Results: Among 55 patients, 12 patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism and 7 as hyperthyroidism, women with AUB 36 (65.4% were euthyroid. Among 19 women with thyroid abnormality, heavy menstrual bleeding was seen in 8 (42% women, 6 (31.57% had polymenorrhagia, 5 (26.31% had oligomenorrhoea. The frequent menstrual abnormality in women with hypothyroidism (12 women was heavy menstrual bleeding in 5 (41.6% women, 3 (25% had oligomennorhoea, 4 (33.3% had polymenorrhagia. Out of 7 women with hyperthyroidism, 2 (28.57% had oligomenorrhoea, 3 (42.8% had heavy menstrual bleeding, 2 (28.57% had polymenorrhagia. In a total of 55 patients with AUB, 11 (20% had structural abnormalities in uterus and ovaries. 5 (9% had adenomyosis, 3 (5.4% had ovarian cysts, 3 (5.4% had fibroids. Conclusions: It is important to screen all women for thyroid abnormality who are presenting with AUB especially with non-structural causes of AUB. Correction of thyroid abnormalities also relieves AUB. This will avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3250-3253

  11. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  12. 15q12 Variants, Sputum Gene Promoter Hypermethylation, and Lung Cancer Risk: A GWAS in Smokers

    Leng, Shuguang; Liu, Yushi; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Han, Younghun; Picchi, Maria A.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Willink, Randall P.; Gaither Davis, Autumn L.; Do, Kieu C.; Nukui, Tomoko; Zhang, Xiequn; Burki, Elizabeth A.; Van Den Berg, David; Romkes, Marjorie; Gauderman, W. James; Crowell, Richard E.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Stidley, Christine A.; Amos, Christopher I.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Detection of promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in exfoliated cells from the lung provides an assessment of field cancerization that in turn predicts lung cancer. The identification of genetic determinants for this validated cancer biomarker should provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying epigenetic reprogramming during lung carcinogenesis. Methods: A genome-wide association study using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression models was conducted in two geographically independent smoker cohorts to identify loci affecting the propensity for cancer-related gene methylation that was assessed by a 12-gene panel interrogated in sputum. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 15q12 (rs73371737 and rs7179575) that drove gene methylation were discovered and replicated with rs73371737 reaching genome-wide significance (P = 3.3×10–8). A haplotype carrying risk alleles from the two 15q12 SNPs conferred 57% increased risk for gene methylation (P = 2.5×10–9). Rs73371737 reduced GABRB3 expression in lung cells and increased risk for smoking-induced chronic mucous hypersecretion. Furthermore, subjects with variant homozygote of rs73371737 had a two-fold increase in risk for lung cancer (P = .0043). Pathway analysis identified DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination (DSBR-HR) as a major pathway affecting susceptibility for gene methylation that was validated by measuring chromatid breaks in lymphocytes challenged by bleomycin. Conclusions: A functional 15q12 variant was identified as a risk factor for gene methylation and lung cancer. The associations could be mediated by GABAergic signaling that drives the smoking-induced mucous cell metaplasia. Our findings also substantiate DSBR-HR as a critical pathway driving epigenetic gene silencing. PMID:25713168

  13. Regulatory T cells in induced sputum of asthmatic children: association with inflammatory cytokines

    Hamzaoui Agnès

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells play an essential role in maintaining immune homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether the induced sputum (IS pool and the function of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells are altered in asthma pediatric patients. Methods Treg activity was studied in the IS of 40 asthmatic children. CD3+ cells were analyzed for the expression of FoxP3 mRNA by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. IS cells from asthmatics and controls were stained for Treg markers and analyzed by flow cytometry. We also studied the ability of Treg cells to differentiate monocytes toward alternatively activated macrophages (AAM, and to suppress proinflammatory cytokines. Results (i Mild and moderate asthmatics had significantly decreased expression of FoxP3/β-actin mRNA and decreased proportions of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ cells compared to healthy children; (ii patients with moderate asthma had even lower proportions of FoxP3 expression compared to mild asthmatic patients; (iii monocytes cultured with Treg cells displayed typical features of AAM, including up-regulated expression of CD206 (macrophage mannose receptor and CD163 (hemoglobin scavenger receptor, and an increased production of chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18. In addition, Treg cells from asthmatics have a reduced capacity to suppress LPS-proinflammatory cytokine production from monocytes/macrophages (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusion Asthma pediatric patients display a decreased bronchial Treg population. The impaired bronchial Treg activity is associated with disease severity.

  14. Botanical and Cytological Studies of Monodora tenuifolia Benth.

    S.O. AZEEZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated branching pattern, ecology of occurrence, palynology, cytology and phenology of Monodora tenuifolia using standard techniques. The branching pattern determines the shape of the canopy, which may be irregular when growing in the shade, or round when growing in the open. The pollens are tetrads, 10.15 µm in diameter, with pollen fertility of 92.24% (determined by using Cotton Blue in Lactophenol and pollen tube germinability of 65.83%. Two simultaneous cytokineses were studied and the events of meiotic cell division were observed to synchronize. The chromosomes were well paired at pachynema as associations of regular bivalents, paired of ring 11 or rod 11, though univalents were occasionally observed. Monodora tenuifolia has the chromosome number equal to 2n = 16, showing a karyotypic formular of 1 acro (large + 2 submet (medium + 2 met (medium + 2 acro (medium + 1 met (small chromosome in the 2B Stebbins category. The results indicate that the tetrad pollen grain of Monodora tenuifolia is an advantage, since up to four pollen tubes could be seen developing from the some pollen grains, while the karyotype is asymmetrical.

  15. Synchronous Ipsilateral Parotid Tumors with Cytologic-Histologic Correlation.

    Gvozdjan, Kristina; Groth, John V; Patel, Tushar N; Guzman, Grace; David, Odile; Cabay, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Synchronous ipsilateral tumor formation within a major salivary gland is a very rare event. In this case, a 54-year-old female tobacco smoker presented with a slowly enlarging left parotid gland. Computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a solid mass superficial to a cystic mass in the deep lobe of the gland. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration yielded oncocytic cells, lymphoid cells, and granular debris along with rare cohesive groups of basaloid cells. Parotidectomy was performed, and the resected gland was found to contain two adjacent but distinct masses. One mass, a predominantly solid, well-circumscribed lesion composed of ribbons of double-layered oncocytic cells and a lymphoid stroma with germinal center formation, was a Warthin tumor. The other mass, a predominantly cystic lesion composed of cords and nests of basaloid cells with associated deposits of basement membrane-like material, was a basal cell adenoma of the membranous type. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous Warthin tumor and basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland with cytologic-histologic correlation attributable to each tumor. PMID:26440804

  16. Integrating a FISH imaging system into the cytology laboratory

    Denice Smith G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an interactive imaging system for the interpretation of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to improve throughput, productivity, quality control and diagnostic accuracy. We describe the Duet imaging system, our experiences with implementation, and outline the financial investment, space requirements, information technology needs, validation, and training of cytotechnologists needed to integrate such a system into a cytology laboratory. Before purchasing the imaging system, we evaluated and validated the instrument at our facility. Implementation required slide preparation changes, IT modifications, development of training programs, and revision of job descriptions for cytotechnologists. A darkened room was built to house the automated scanning station and microscope, as well as two imaging stations. IT changes included generation of storage for archival images on the LAN, addition of external hard drives for back-up, and changes to cable connections for communication between remote locations. Training programs for cytotechnologists, and pathologists/fellows/residents were developed, and cytotechnologists were integrated into multiple steps of the process. The imaging system has resulted in increased productivity for pathologists, concomitant with an expanded role of cytotechnologists in multiple critical steps, including FISH, scan setup, reclassification, and initial interpretation.

  17. ANALYSIS OF CELL BLOCK VS . CONVENTIONAL SMEAR IN FLUID CYTOLOGY

    Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cytological examination of aspirates of serous effusions is a routinely accepted , simple , safe and minimally invasive technique . Diagnosis in this investigation , especially in malignant effusions , helps in staging , prognosis and management of the patients . AIMS: To assess the utility and sensitivity of cell block method over conventional smear technique in cytodiagnosis of the serous effusions . METHODS: A total of 72 fluid specimens were subjected to simultaneous processing by conventional s mear and cell block technique . Each fluid specimen was divided into two equal parts and results compared for cellularity , cell architecture , cytoplasmic and nuclear features . Cell blocks were prepared using modified cell block technique using alcohol forma lin fixative . RESULTS: The utility of cell block technique in diagnosing malignant effusions is highly significant as compared to the conventional smear technique . Also , the technique using alcohol formalin fixative is simple , safe and these chemicals are routinely used in laboratory . CONCLUSION: Cell block technique is superior to conventional smear technique , especially for malignant effusions . It gives more information about the architectural arrangement and the likely source of primary . More important is that diagnostic material in cell blocks is available for special studies for . I mmunohistochemistry which can further supplement our knowledge about the primary source of metastasis

  18. Cytological Findings Suggesting Sexuality in Phytomonas davidi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available On few occasions, Phytomonas davidi (McGhee & Postell isolate cultures in LIT (liver infusion-tryptose medium around 27oC presented, as seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a set of peculiar morphological features, among them being noticeable the pairs of apposed cells attached by their posterior ends, where occurred a stained line and/or a dilatation, usually bulb-like in shape; sometimes this dilatation could occupy one of the cells or hold both together. In some pairs, the nucleus of each parasite seemed migrating towards the other, entering into such dilatation; in others, both nuclei were inside it, sometimes in close proximity or seeming fused; peculiar chromatin arrangements involving both nuclei were occasionally observed. Several mono or binucleate round forms bearing one or two flagella, as well as flagellate slender cells without nucleus were concomitantly seen there. In some instances, an intriguing small stained body occurred beside a single large nucleus, either in pairs presenting the bulb-like structure or in round cells. These cytological findings seemed steps of a dynamic process suggesting sexuality, since in several of them nuclear interactions following fusion of two parasites appeared to occur

  19. Cytological and reproductive aspects in the Caespitosa group of Paspalum

    Marisa Toniolo Pozzobon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosome numbers are reported for thirty four germplasm accessions of Paspalum, Caespitosa group, representing five different species. All five species have shown x=10 as the basic chromosome number. The diploid 2n=20 chromosome number was confirmed for P. chacoense and P. indecorum, as well as sexuality for the latter. This is the first report of the chromosome number and cytological behavior for P. ligulare (2n=20 and 40, P. pleostachyum (2n=20, 30 and 40 and P. redondense (2n=20 and 40. The present results document regular meiosis in diploid accessions, with primarily bivalent pairing at diakinesis and metaphase I. Polyploids of these species had irregular meiosis, with univalent, trivalent, and quadrivalent chromosome associations. Diploid accessions of P. pleostachyum and P. ligulare have shown a single meiotic embryo-sac, indicating sexual reproduction, while the triploid and one of the tetraploid accessions of P. pleostachyum have shown aposporic embryo-sacs of nucelar origin, and a few meiotic sacs, suggesting facultative apomixis. Identification of the new diploid accessions may prove useful for phylogenetic studies of Paspalum, as well as for breeding programs focusing on the forage potential of species of the Caespitosa group.

  20. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  1. Results of bacteriological and cytological examinations of the endometrium of subfertile mares in stud farms in Serbia.

    Urosevic, Miroslav; Lako, Branislav; Milanov, Dubravka; Urosevic, Ivana; Aurich, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Uterine microbiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and endometrial cytology were investigated in a total of 51 mares with fertility problems from 16 different stud farms in Serbia. Uterine cultures were performed after collection with a double guarded uterine swab, and endometrial cytology was evaluated after collection of endometrial cells with a special device (cytology brush). In 21 of 51 mares, at least one bacterial species was isolated from the uterus; the most frequent were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (13 isolates) and E. coli (four isolates). All isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were susceptible to penicillin. Results from endometrial cytology were inconsistent; in 17 animals with positive bacteriological culture, cytology was not altered. It can be concluded that in Serbia, as in many other contries, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is the main cause for equine endometritis. It can be easily diagnosed by uterine culture but endometrial cytology does not always prove the existence of an endometrial infection with this agent. PMID:21038807

  2. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  3. Knee loading for abnormal gait

    Hutchison, J.; Madsen, D.; Norman, T. L.; -Blaha, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a mathematical model for determining knee loads for abnormal gait. Abnormal gait was defined as a person with varus, i.e. “bowleggedness”, or a person who had an external rotation of the femur (or the inability to internally rotate the femur) which caused an indirect varus in the forward positions of gait. Conditions such as these have been observed clinically to result in increased wear on the medial condyle of total knee replacements. This problem was...

  4. The complex cytological features of synovial sarcoma in fine needle aspirates, an analysis of four illustrative cases

    Åkerman, Måns; Domanski, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The cytological features of conventional monophasic spindle cell and biphasic synovial sarcoma have been defined in detail in several large series. The cytology of rare morphological variants, especially the subtypes of poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma, are insufficiently evaluated and diagnostically difficult to define. The objective of the present study was to call attention to the variable cytology of rare variants of synovial sarcoma. Furthermore, adjunctive diagnostic me...

  5. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant anal lesions

    Tsigris Christos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma is a rather infrequent neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless its frequency is increasing lately especially in high risk groups of the population infected from HIV or HPV viruses. Squamous cell carcinoma is a slowly and locally growing neoplasm which metastasizes in advanced stages. Its diagnosis must be accomplished by the least traumatic examinations possible. In our study we reviewed our five years experience that included 116 cases. In 89 of them cytological material from ulcerated positions of the anal region was examined. In the rest 27 cytological material was obtained by fine needle aspiration of subcutaneous or submucosal anal lesions. All 116 case reports were retrospectively evaluated. Cytological evaluation revealed 29 cases of normal anal epithelium, 13 granulomas, 12 cases of HPV infection, 28 anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL, 17 post radiation injuries of the anal mucosa and 17 carcinomas. The neoplasms were further sub classified in 12 well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, 4 cloacogenic carcinomas and 1 leiomyosarcoma. Histological examination followed the initial cytological diagnosis in 75 cases. The correlation between cytological and histological reports did not reveal any false negative or any false positive result. The agreement between histological and cytological evaluation was absolute. Cytological examination is proved to be an easily accessible and totally reliable, low cost diagnostic method, not requiring any kind of anesthesia. It is well accepted by the patients and of paramount clinical utility for the initial diagnostic assessment, the long term follow up after treatment of anal cancer patients. It is also valuable for the differential diagnosis among benign, premalignant and malignant anal lesions.

  6. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  7. [Health technology assessment report. Use of liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer precursors screening].

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Confortini, Massimo; Maccallini, Vincenzo; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Sideri, Mario; Zappa, Marco; Zorzi, Manuel; Calvia, Maria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT: Purpose of this Report is to evaluate the impact of the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in cervical cancer screening in terms of efficacy, undesired effects, costs and implications for organisation. EFFICACY AND UNDESIRED EFFECTS: LBC WITH MANUAL INTERPRETATION: The estimates of cross-sectional accuracy for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or more severe and CIN3 or more severe) obtained by a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2008 were used. This review considered only studies in which all women underwent colposcopy or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with complete verification of test positives. A systematic search of RCTs published thereafter was performed. Three RCTs were identified. One of these studies was conducted in 6 Italian regions and was of large size (45,174 women randomised); a second one was conducted in another Italian region (Abruzzo) and was of smaller size (8,654 women randomised); a third RCT was conducted in the Netherlands and was of large size (89,784 women randomised). No longitudinal study was available. There is currently no clear evidence that LBC increases the sensitivity of cytology and even less that its introduction increases the efficacy of cervical screening in preventing invasive cancers. The Italian randomised study NTCC showed a decrease in specificity, which was not observed in the other two RCTs available. In addition, the 2008 meta-analysis observed a reduction - even if minimal - in specificity just at the ASC-US cytological cut-off, but also a remarkable heterogeneity between studies. These results suggest that the effect of LBC on specificity is variable and plausibly related to the local style of cytology interpretation. There is evidence that LBC reduces the proportion of unsatisfactory slides, although the size of this effect varies remarkably. LBC WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED INTERPRETATION: An Australian study, based on double testing, showed a statistically

  8. Sputum completion and conversion rates after intensive phase of tuberculosis treatment: an assessment of the Rwandan control program

    Kayigamba Felix R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Rwanda tuberculosis (TB is one of the major health problems. To contribute to an improved performance of the Rwandan National TB Control Program, we conducted a study with the following objectives: (1 to assess the completion rate of sputum smear examinations at the end of the intensive phase of TB treatment; (2 to assess the sputum conversion rate (SCR; (3 to assess associations between smear completion rate or SCR with key health facility characteristics. Methods TB registers in 89 health facilities in five provinces were reviewed. Data of new and retreatment smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+ cases registered between January and June 2006 were included in the study. Data on key characteristics of the selected health facilities were also collected. Results Among 1509 new PTB + cases, 32 (2.1% had died by 2 months, and 178 (11.8% had been transferred-out. Among the remaining 1299 patients, a smear examination at month 2 was done in 1039 (smear completion rate 80.0%. Among these 1039, 852 (82.0% had become smear-negative. The smear completion rate and SCR varied considerably between health facilities. A high number of new PTB cases at a health facility was the only significant predictor of a low completion rate, while the only independent factor associated with low sputum conversion rates was rural (vs. urban location of the health facility. Conclusions In Rwanda, too few patients get a smear examination after 2 months of TB treatment; the SCR among those with smear results was adequate at 82%. A high number of new TB patients at a health facility was a significant predictor of a low completion rate. The national TB control program should design strategies to improve completion rates.

  9. Induced sputum deposition improves diagnostic yields of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: A clinicopathological and methodological study of 17 cases.

    Huang, Ziling; Yi, Xianghua; Luo, Benfang; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Yunjin; Jiang, Wenxia; Chu, Haiqing; Yang, Zhongmin; Li, Shuai; Zhu, Hailong; Zhang, Suxia; Zhang, Lanjing; Zeng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare diffuse lung disease characterized by the accumulation of intra-alveolar lipoprotein-like surfactants. Lung core biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid are currently the two major sources of sampling for diagnosis. In the present study, we assessed the value of induced sputum in diagnosing PAP by transmission electron microscopy and examined the PAP 2-year death rate in Asians. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on the samples from 17 patients with PAP, 13 patients with inflammatory lung diseases, and 13 healthy adults. The PAP patients were followed up for 3-156 months, and inflammatory lung diseases patients or healthy adults for 12-36 months. The ultrastructural features including diagnostic lamellar bodies of induced sputum deposition (ISD) samples were similar to that of the BAL fluid sediment. However, the rates of lamellar bodies were 73.7% in the ISD group, significantly higher than the spontaneous sputum deposition (SSD) group (42.1%, P < .0487) and similar to the BAL sediment (76.2%) and the lung biopsy (54.5%) groups. The overall 2-year death rate of our PAP patients was 17.6% (3/17), not statistically different from the healthy adults and patients with inflammatory diseases (0/13, P = .237 for both). ISD may be the preferred non-invasive sampling method for diagnosing PAP by electronic microscopy because of the higher diagnostic yield than SSD. The diagnostic yields of this noninvasive method were similar to that of lung core biopsy and BAL. PMID:26583435

  10. Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Gene Xpert in Smear-Negative and Sputum-Scarce Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Objective: To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013. Methodology: BAL specimens of 93 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with smear-negative or sputumscarce disease, who presented to the Department of Pulmonology, FFH, Rawalpindi were inducted. A smear-negative case was one in whom three consecutive early morning sputum samples did not reveal acid fast bacilli when examined by microscopy with Zeihl Nelson (ZN) stain. Patients who had sputum amount less than 1 ml were defined to have sputumscarce disease. The same was evaluated with ZN stain, gene Xpert and mycobacterial cultures. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using culture as the gold standard. Results: The frequency of positive mycobacterial cultures was 85 (91.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of BAL gene Xpert to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 91.86%, 71.42%, 97.53% and 41.66% respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.33% and 100% to detect rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Bronchoalveolar lavage gene Xpert had a superior diagnostic yield in patients with either smear-negative or sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis. Hence a positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. (author)

  11. Congenital dyserythropoiesis and progressive alopecia in Polled Hereford calves: hematologic, biochemical, bone marrow cytologic, electrophoretic, and flow cytometric findings.

    Steffen, D J; Elliott, G S; Leipold, H W; Smith, J E

    1992-01-01

    Congenital dyserythropoiesis with dyskeratosis is a slow, progressive, and often fatal disease in Polled Hereford calves. Affected calves have a macrocytic normochromic anemia with a mild reticulocytosis. Studies indicate that calves are hyperferremic with increased saturation of serum total iron binding capacity, which rules out iron deficiency as a cause. Other secondary causes of dyserythropoiesis, including cobalamin and folate deficiencies, are unlikely because serum cobalamin and folate levels of affected calves were normal. Virus isolation was negative, and failure to identify bovine retroviral antigens or antibodies from several calves suggested that viral agents were not involved. Bone marrow cytologic findings were similar to those in congenital hereditary dyserythropoiesis in humans and included occasional multinucleate cells, internuclear chromatin bridging between nuclei of partially divided cells, and, more frequently, irregular nuclear shapes and chromatin patterns. DNA content and cell cycle distribution of erythroid cells appeared normal, and no electrophoretic abnormalities were detected in erythrocyte membrane proteins. The Polled Hereford syndrome is similar in many ways to type I congenital dyserythropoiesis in humans and may be an appropriate biomedical model for studying erythroid proliferation during dyserythropoiesis. PMID:1348189

  12. Imaging cervical cytology with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) coupled with an IR-FEL.

    Halliwell, Diane E; Morais, Camilo L M; Lima, Kássio M G; Trevisan, Julio; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Craig, Tim; Ingham, James; Martin, David S; Heys, Kelly A; Kyrgiou, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Theophilou, Georgios; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Cricenti, Antonio; Luce, Marco; Weightman, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women, especially in the developing world. Increased synthesis of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids is a pre-condition for the rapid proliferation of cancer cells. We show that scanning near-field optical microscopy, in combination with an infrared free electron laser (SNOM-IR-FEL), is able to distinguish between normal and squamous low-grade and high-grade dyskaryosis, and between normal and mixed squamous/glandular pre-invasive and adenocarcinoma cervical lesions, at designated wavelengths associated with DNA, Amide I/II and lipids. These findings evidence the promise of the SNOM-IR-FEL technique in obtaining chemical information relevant to the detection of cervical cell abnormalities and cancer diagnosis at spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit (≥0.2 μm). We compare these results with analyses following attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy; although this latter approach has been demonstrated to detect underlying cervical atypia missed by conventional cytology, it is limited by a spatial resolution of ~3 μm to 30 μm due to the optical diffraction limit. PMID:27406404

  13. Sperm abnormalities in exposed humans

    Šrám, Radim; Rubeš, J.

    Cambridge : Issue in Toxicology, Royal Society of Chemistry Publ.,, 2007, s. 247-258. ISBN 978-0-85404-847-2 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution exposure * sperm abnormalities * male reproductive health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  14. Comparison of Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube with Culture on RGM Selective Agar for Detection of Mycobacteria in Sputum Samples from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Eltringham, Ian; Pickering, Julie; Gough, Helen; Preece, Clair L; Perry, John D

    2016-08-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an important cause of pulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A new culture medium (RGM medium) for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients has recently been reported. The aim of this study was to compare culture of sputum samples on RGM medium with culture using a standard automated liquid culture method. Sputum samples were obtained from 187 distinct patients with CF attending King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Each sample was decontaminated with 3% oxalic acid and inoculated into a mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) that was monitored for 42 days using the Bactec MGIT 960 instrument. Each sample was also cultured, without decontamination, onto RGM medium, which was incubated for 10 days at 30°C. Mycobacteria were isolated from 28 patients (prevalence, 15%). Mycobacteria were detected in 24 samples (86%) using the MGIT and in 23 samples (82%) using RGM medium (P = 1.00). In this setting, RGM medium showed sensitivity equivalent to that of the MGIT for isolation of NTM from the sputum of patients with CF. RGM medium offers a simple, convenient tool that can be embedded into routine culture methods, allowing the culture of all sputum samples that are submitted from patients with CF. PMID:27225412

  15. 刘春荣,张文新%Investigation and Nursing of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Positive Sputum Smear Positive

    刘春荣; 张文新

    2015-01-01

    目的调查肺结核抗酸分枝杆菌阳性老年患者的自尊水平,采取相应的护理措施,提高老年传染性肺结患者的自尊水平,从而提高其生活质量。方法采取自尊量表进行问卷调查的方法,对200例痰菌阳性老年肺结核患者(实验组)和200例老年健康者(对照组)进行调查研究。分析老年肺结核痰菌阳性患者自尊水平低下的原因。结果痰菌阳性老年患者自尊水平较低,我们采取正确的护理措施,提高患者的自尊水平,从而提高痰菌阳性老年患者的生活质量。%Objective To investigate acid mycobacterium tuberculosis positive self-esteem level of elderly patients,cor esponding nursing measures,improve the old patients with infectious lung and levels of self-esteem,so as to improve their quality of life. Methods Self-esteem scale method,the questionnaire survey on 200 sputum positive bacteria in elderly patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (experimental group)and 200 healthy subjects (control group)study.Using self-designed scale,which are of low level in elderly patients with tuberculosis bacteria sputum positive self-esteem cause to investigate. Results The positive sputum bacteria elderly patients have a relatively low level of self-esteem,we adopt the right nursing measures,improve the patient's level of self-esteem,so as to greatly to promote positive sputum bacteria of elderly patients,living quality.

  16. Cytologic Phenotypes of B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-

    Ramyar Asghar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a malignant disorder of lymphoid precursor cells, which could be classified according to morphological and cytochemical methods as well as immunophenotyping. Twenty patients with ALL, who had been referred to the Children's Medical Center Hospital, during the year 2007, were enrolled in this study in order to evaluate the morphologic and immunophenotypic profile of these patients. Cytologic analysis of blood and bone marrow samples revealed that the frequency of ALL-L1 was 70%, followed by ALL-L2 and ALL-L3. The onset age of the patients with ALL-L1 was significantly lower than the patients with L2/L3. Severe anemia was significantly detected more in L1 group. Flow cytometic study of bone marrow showed that 10 cases had Pre-B1 ALL and 7 cases had Pre-B2 ALL, while three cases had Pro-B ALL. Comparisons of the characteristics and clinical manifestations among these groups did not show any appreciable difference. There were an increase percentage of CD20+ cells and a decrease CD10+ cells in pre-B2 group in comparison with pre-B1 group. Fifteen patients were in standard risk and five were in high risk. Although standard risk patients were more common in the group of pre-B1, this was not significant. Our results confirm the previous reports indicating heterogeneity of ALL. Immunophenotyping is not the only diagnostic test of importance, while morphological assessment still can be used in the diagnosis and classification of the disease.

  17. Detection of telornerase activity and cytology in diagnosis of cardiac cancer

    Qiang Wang; Qing Ming Wu; Sheng Bao Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic significance of cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells ofcardia obtained from endoscopic brushing in the cardiac cancer.METHODS The techniques of the qualitative TRAP-silver staining and quantitative TRAP-PCR-ELISAwere employed to detect telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells of cardia obtained from endoscopicbrushing in 72 cases with cardial lesions, cytological diagnosis was made at the same time.RESULTS Telomerase activity with cardiac cancer group (1.521 ± 0. 192) was significantly higher than thatwith cardialitis group (0.065± 0.014). Positive rate of telomerase activity detected in cardiac cancer group(88.89%) was significantly higher than that with cardialitis group (11.11%), the former was significantlyhiger than cytological examination (77.78%). The diagnostic rate of cardiac cancer reached 93.33% iftelomerase activity and cytology were examined at the same time.CONCLUSION Cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cardiac cells may be an effective andsensitive methods in the diagnosis of cardiac cancer. This research can be a basis for the mass screening ofcardiac cancer.

  18. Anal cytology in women with cervical intraepithelial or invasive cancer: interobserver agreement

    Sandra A. Heráclio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Incidence rates of anal cancer have been rising worldwide in the last 20 years. Due to embryological, histological and immunohistochemical similarities between the anal canal and the cervix, routine screening with anal cytology for precursor lesions in high-risk groups has been adopted. Objective: To determine interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of anal neoplasia by anal cytology.Material and methods:A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 324 women with cervical intraepithelial or invasive cancers, for screening of anal cancer, from December 2008 to June 2009. Three hundred twenty-four cytological samples were analyzed by three cytopathologists. Cytological evaluation was based on the revised Bethesda terminology; samples were also classified into negative and positive for atypical cells. We calculated the kappa statistic with 95% confidence interval (95% CI to assess agreement among the three cytopathologists.Results:Interobserver agreement in the five categories of the Bethesda terminology was moderate (kappa for multiple raters: 0.6. Agreement among cytopathologists 1, 2 and 3 with a consensus diagnosis was strong (kappa: 0.71, 0.85 and 0.82, respectively.Conclusion:Interobserver agreement in anal cytology was moderate to strong, indicating that cervical cytomorphological criteria are reproducible also in anal samples.

  19. Intranuclear Pseudo-inclusions and Grooves in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor.

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2016-02-01

    Cytologic findings of pulmonary carcinoid have been well described. We report new cytological findings in a case of carcinoid tumor. The patient is a 36-year-old man presenting with hemoptysis of about six months in duration. Chest CT scans showed a well-defined round polypoid lesion measuring 1 × 1 cm within the right upper lobe of the bronchus with hyperinflation of the right upper lobe. Trans-bronchial fine needle aspiration and biopsy were done. Cytologic smears showed isolated and loose clusters of uniform round to spindle shape cells with round centrally located nuclei, fine granular (salt and pepper) chromatin and pale cytoplasm. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves were seen in some tumor cells. No mitotic figures or necrosis were evident. A cytological diagnosis of carcinoid tumor was made and histopathologic examination and subsequent immunohistochemical study confirmed the diagnosis. Carcinoid tumor may be reliably diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology smears. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves may be evident in tumor cells. PMID:26838088

  20. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  1. Cytological study of palpable breast lumps presenting in an Indian rural setup

    Smita Balwantrao Sankaye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Benign as well as malignant breast lesions are quite common in Indian population. It is the second most common cancer site after cancer cervix. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is safe, reliable, and time saving outdoor procedure with little discomfort to the patient. FNAC is useful in diagnosis and further planning of treatment without need for biopsy. The current study was carried out with aims of studying the frequency of various breast lesions on FNAC in a rural area in India and its histopathological correlation. Materials and Methods: This was 2 years prospective study carried out from May 2010 to April 2012. Physical examination of breast mass by palpation was done. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and Papanicolaou stain. Results: Of the 225 cases, 131 were in the benign category and 65 belonged to the malignant category, while the cytology study of 13 cases was unsatisfactory. Seventy-six cases were available for histological correlation. Of 29 cytological benign cases, 26 were confirmed as benign, but 3 turned out to be malignant. Out of 36 cytological malignant cases, 35 were confirmed as malignant. FNAC was 88.37% sensitive and 96.42% specific in diagnosing malignant lesions. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a rapid and effective method for the primary categorization of palpable breast lumps into benign, malignant, atypical, suspicious, and unsatisfactory categories. Benign breast lesions are common than malignant lesions. Histological correlation indicated FNAC to be a good diagnostic tool.

  2. Detection and typing of human papillomaviruses by restriction fragment length polymorphism in women with different cytology

    Vesna Tripković,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim The aim of this study was to determine a percentage of high risk genotypes which are included in the current vaccines in women with different cytology and on the basis of obtained results to evaluatethe protective activity of the current vaccines. Methods Endocervical swabs were taken from 70 women with different cervical cytology (25 women with CIN 1, 25 women with CIN 2/3 and 20 women with negative cytology. The samples were tested by PCR method using MY09/MY11 primers to determinate the HPV status, especially the percentage of high risk genotypes which are not included in the current vaccines. Genotyping was done by RFLP method. Results In as much as 38.8% of all samples high risk genotypes (hrHPV, not included in the current vaccine, were detected; in a group of women with normal cytology hrHPV genotypes were found in 29.9% samples. HrHPV were found in 47%, and 64% of samples taken from women with normal cytology and CIN 1, respectively, while in women with CIN 2 /3 hrHPV were found in 94%. Conclusion These results indicate that in more than in one third of tested women the current available vaccines would be of minimal protective activity, but further studies which should include more women are needed.

  3. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case control study of asthma patients and control subjects drawn from the community in Wandsworth, London. Samples from both groups were pooled and then tested for eukaryotes. DNA was amplified using standard PCR techniques, followed by pyrosequencing and comparison of reads to databases of known sequences to determine in a semi-quantitative way the percentage of DNA from known species in each of the two pooled samples. Results A total of 136 fungal species were identified in the induced sputum samples, with 90 species more common in asthma patients and 46 species more common in control subjects. Psathyrella candolleana, Malassezia pachydermatis, Termitomyces clypeatus and Grifola sordulenta showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of asthma patients and Eremothecium sinecaudum, Systenostrema alba, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Vanderwaltozyma polyspora showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of control subjects. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of fungi that were present in the respective samples was demonstrated using the Phylogenetic (P test (P  Conclusion This study is novel in providing evidence for the widespread nature of fungi in the sputum of healthy and asthmatic individuals. Differences in the pattern of fungi present in asthma patients and controls merit further investigation. Of particular interest was the presence of Malassezia pachydermatis, which is known to be associated with atopic dermatitis.

  4. Five-Year Assessment of Time of Sputum Smears Conversion and Outcome and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Patients in Central Iran

    Fatemah Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate risk factors which influence sputum smear conversion, outcome, and trends of conversion of sputum smear during 5 years and compare outcomes in patients with different regimens. Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, all patients with sputum smear positive tuberculosis were evaluated for comorbidities and demographic, microbiological, and therapeutic data and outcome. Smear examinations were performed at the beginning, at 2 months for CAT I, at 3 months for CAT II, at the end of second month of maintenance phase, and at the end of treatment. Results. This study enrolled 211 sputum smear positive patients, but 189 patients who completed the intensive phase of treatment were evaluated. Sputum smear of 158 patients converted at the end of intensive phase (83.6. Univariate analysis indicated that the risk of a persistent positive smear at the end of intensive phase was greater in diabetic patients ((odds 4.038, 95% CI 1.123–14.516 P=0.033, and also a 3+bacillary load had risk of 2.933-fold ((95% CI 1.278–6.732 P=0.011. Overall rate of unfavorable outcome was 20.9%. Factors associated with unfavorable outcome were age (P value 0.000, male gender (P value 0.027, diabetes (P value 0.000, and delayed conversion of sputum at the end of intensive phase (P value 0.000. Outcome for different regimens was not different significantly. Two specimens were isoniazid resistant. Conclusions. We suggest supervised treatment and care for diabetic patients and those with higher bacillary load. Paying attention to early diagnosis of tuberculosis in the elderly to reduce poor outcome and further measures to prevent transfer-out could improve the success rate.

  5. Mixed infection and clonal representativeness of a single sputum sample in tuberculosis patients from a penitentiary hospital in Georgia

    Portaels Françoise

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on recurrent tuberculosis (TB, TB molecular epidemiology and drug susceptibility testing rely on the analysis of one Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from a single sputum sample collected at different disease episodes. This scheme rests on the postulate that a culture of one sputum sample is homogeneous and representative of the total bacillary population in a patient. Methods We systematically analysed several pre-treatment isolates from each of 199 smear-positive male adult inmates admitted to a prison TB hospital by standard IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, followed by PCR typing based on multiple loci containing variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs on a subset of isolates. Drug susceptibility testing (DST was performed on all isolates for isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol. Results We found mixed infection in 26 (13.1% cases. In contrast, analysis of a single pre-treatment isolate per patient would have led to missed mixed infections in all or 14 of these 26 cases by using only standard DNA fingerprinting or the PCR multilocus-based method, respectively. Differences in DST among isolates from the same patient were observed in 10 cases, of which 6 were from patients with mixed infection. Conclusion These results suggest that the actual heterogeneity of the bacillary population in patients, especially in high TB incidence settings, may be frequently underestimated using current analytical schemes. These findings have therefore important implications for correct interpretation and evaluation of molecular epidemiology data and in treatment evaluations.

  6. Comparison of Sputum Smear Microscopy and Rapid Tuberculosisantibody Detection Test Kits for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Abia State, Nigeria

    Emmanuel Olufemi Ekundayo[1; Sam D. Abbey[2; Onuka Okorie[3

    2014-01-01

    The SSM (sputum smear microscopy) and five immunochromatographic tuberculosis antibody detection tests (DiaSpot TB, Spodex TB, SD Rapid TB, Clinotech TB Screen and Precious One-step TB) were compared for diagnosis of active TB at the Leprosy and Tuberculosis Referral Hospital, Uzuakoli, Abia State, Nigeria. Sputum specimens from 150 study participants (male/female ratio, 0.81) were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen slopes and direct smears were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen technique and examined by light microscopy. Sera were tested for anti-TB antibodies using the rapid TB tests. A total of 91 participants were culture positive, 79 (86.8%) for M. tuberculosis and 12 (13.2%) for nontuberculous mycobacteria. The sensitivity of SSM was 50% (95% CI: 39.0-61.0) and specificity was 92.3% (95% CI: 86.4-98.2) in those culture positive for M. tuberculosis. The sensitivity and specificity of the Rapid TB tests ranged from 24.1-39.2% and 78.4-87.8%, respectively. None of the five rapid TB tests had acceptable level of accuracy for diagnosis of active TB. The sensitivity of SSM though moderate is inadequate for long term TB control in this setting.

  7. Direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum: A validation study using solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Mourão, Marta P B; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dang, Ngoc A; Walters, Elisabetta; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Kolk, Arend H J

    2016-02-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide health problem, especially in developing countries. Correct identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection is extremely important for providing appropriate treatment and care to patients. Here we describe a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (SPE-THM-GC-MS) for the detection of five biomarkers for M. tuberculosis. The method for classification is developed and validated through the analysis of 112 sputum samples from patients suspected of having TB. Twenty of twenty-five MTB culture-positive sputum samples were correctly classified as positive by our improved SPE-THM-GC-MS method. Eighty-five of eighty-seven MTB culture-negative samples were also negative by SPE-THM-GC-MS. The overall sensitivity of the new SPE-THM-GC-MS method is 80% (20/25) and the specificity is 98% (85/87) compared with culture. The method proved to be reliable and, although complex in principle, easy to operate due to the high degree of automation. PMID:26807702

  8. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  9. Influence of short distance transportation on tracheal bacterial content and lower airway cytology in horses.

    Allano, Marion; Labrecque, Olivia; Rodriguez Batista, Edisleidy; Beauchamp, Guy; Bédard, Christian; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Leclere, Mathilde

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short distance transportation on airway mucus, cytology and bacterial culture to identify potential biases in the diagnosis of airway diseases in referral centres. Eight healthy adult horses were studied using a prospective cross-over design. Mucus scores, tracheal wash (cytology, bacterial culture) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; cytology) were obtained while stabled and following 2.5 h transportation (with and without hay). Neutrophil counts, percentages and BALF neutrophilia frequency increased following transport without hay (P  0.05). BALF neutrophilia could develop solely as a result of transportation or due to interactions between repeated transports, ambient temperature, head position or other environmental factors. PMID:27387726

  10. Role of cytology, colposcopy and biopsy in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Pooja H. Khakhla

    2013-08-01

    Results: Colposcopy was well-correlated with histology in 69.70% cases. Cytology was well-correlated with histology in 65.15% of cases & with major discrepancy in 18.18% cases. Conclusion: The incidence of cervical cancer will continue to be very high in our population because of the constant high incidence of early marriage, multiparity, poor nutrition, poor hygiene, and low living standards. Thus there is a need for screening of these patients for cervical cancer and till date exfoliative Cytology has been found to be the Gold Standard for detection of early malignancy. Universal cytologic screening of all sexually active women should be done, especially in cases of parous women in lower socio-economic groups. Treatment & follow-up of dysplasia could prevent malignancies in future. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 550-554

  11. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To adapt a method enabling utilization of most of the harvest from a fine needle aspirate in an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of a renal tumor in a single histologic slide. Study Design In a series of 43 renal tumors, 2 fine needle aspirations were performed, 4...... smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain...

  12. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological diagnosis of an uncommon tumor.

    Bhat, Amoolya; Rao, Madhuri; Geethamani, V; Shetty, Archana C

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland, displaying monomorphic basaloid cells without a myxochondroid component, representing 1-3% of all salivary gland neoplasms seen predominantly in women over 50 years of age. It is uncommon in young adults. Cytodiagnosis of basaloid tumors chiefly basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland, is extremely challenging. The cytological differential diagnoses range from benign to malignant, neoplastic to non- neoplastic lesions. Histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis, as these entities differ in prognosis and therapeutic aspects. We present a 22-years-old male with this uncommon diagnosis with a discussion on the role of cytological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, minimally invasive method for the preoperative diagnosis of various types of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The knowledge of its pitfalls and limitations contributes to a more effective approach to treatment. PMID:26097318

  13. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological diagnosis of an uncommon tumor

    Amoolya Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma (BCA is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland, displaying monomorphic basaloid cells without a myxochondroid component, representing 1-3% of all salivary gland neoplasms seen predominantly in women over 50 years of age. It is uncommon in young adults. Cytodiagnosis of basaloid tumors chiefly basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland, is extremely challenging. The cytological differential diagnoses range from benign to malignant, neoplastic to non- neoplastic lesions. Histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis, as these entities differ in prognosis and therapeutic aspects. We present a 22-years-old male with this uncommon diagnosis with a discussion on the role of cytological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, minimally invasive method for the preoperative diagnosis of various types of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The knowledge of its pitfalls and limitations contributes to a more effective approach to treatment.

  14. Efficacy of cytology for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women

    Maria da Conceição de Mesquita Cornetta

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of Papanicolaou staining for the initial diagnosis of Chlamydial infection in pregnant women. A hundred thirteen patients were examined with a Papanicolaou test, independent of gestational age, parity or maternal age. Three endocervical samples were collected; the first two were collected with a brush (Cytobrush plus, Mediscand, Sweden and the third with Ayre's spatula. The first specimen was used for McCoy cell culture and the other two were examined cytologically. Chlamydial infection was detected in 9 (7.9% patients. Only one (0.8% was diagnosed by cytological exam. The sensitivity and specificity of the cytological examination were 10 and 98%, respectively. The estimated positive predictive value was 33.3% and the negative predictive value was 92.7%. When Papanicolaou stain diagnosis suggests Chlamydia, a more specific complementary exam should be added to confirm infection; subsequently adequate treatment can be implemented, thereby preventing the frequent complications of untreated subclinical infections.

  15. Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?

    Fuzfa, A.; Alimi, J. -M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still accounting for the pr...

  16. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  17. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  18. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  19. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syndrome) that has been described after acute stress. It is a reversible cardiac dysfunction with distinct imaging features(the echocardiographic or left ventricular angiographic image resembles a Tak...

  20. Baseline predictors of sputum culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis: importance of cavities, smoking, time to detection and W-Beijing genotype.

    Marianne E Visser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Time to detection (TTD on automated liquid mycobacterial cultures is an emerging biomarker of tuberculosis outcomes. The M. tuberculosis W-Beijing genotype is spreading globally, indicating a selective advantage. There is a paucity of data on the association between baseline TTD and W-Beijing genotype and tuberculosis outcomes. AIM: To assess baseline predictors of failure of sputum culture conversion, within the first 2 months of antitubercular therapy, in participants with pulmonary tuberculosis. DESIGN: Between May 2005 and August 2008 we conducted a prospective cohort study of time to sputum culture conversion in ambulatory participants with first episodes of smear and culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis attending two primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Rifampicin resistance (diagnosed on phenotypic susceptibility testing was an exclusion criterion. Sputum was collected weekly for 8 weeks for mycobacterial culture on liquid media (BACTEC MGIT 960. Due to missing data, multiple imputation was performed. Time to sputum culture conversion was analysed using a Cox-proportional hazards model. Bayesian model averaging determined the posterior effect probability for each variable. RESULTS: 113 participants were enrolled (30.1% female, 10.5% HIV-infected, 44.2% W-Beijing genotype, and 89% cavities. On Kaplan Meier analysis 50.4% of participants underwent sputum culture conversion by 8 weeks. The following baseline factors were associated with slower sputum culture conversion: TTD (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02; 1.2, lung cavities (aHR = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02; 0.95, ever smoking (aHR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.1; 1.02 and the W-Beijing genotype (aHR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25; 1.07. On Bayesian model averaging, posterior probability effects were strong for TTD, lung cavitation and smoking and moderate for W-Beijing genotype. CONCLUSION: We found that baseline TTD, smoking, cavities and W-Beijing genotype were