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Sample records for abnormal glucose tolerance

  1. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Domenico Tricò; Simona Baldi; Silvia Frascerra; Elena Venturi; Paolo Marraccini; Danilo Neglia; Andrea Natali

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT) and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT), and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT), we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Re...

  2. Analysis of oral glucose tolerance test in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism

    YANG Hui-xia; GAO Xue-lian; DONG Yue; SHI Chun-yan

    2005-01-01

    Background Due to the controversy of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the world and researches on GDM remain undeveloped in China. American Diabetes Association recently recommended the clinicians to diagnose GDM by OGTT results without the third-hour glucose value. This new criteria has not been used in China. Research on the value and sensitivity of the criteria in detecting GDM is rare. The aim of our study is to analyze the characteristics of OGTT in Chinese women with GDM or gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) and to evaluate the effect of omission of the third-hour plasma glucose (PG) level in OGTT on the sensitivity of diagnosing GDM and GIGT, and the relationship between PG values of 50 g GCT or OGTT and insulin therapy. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on medical records of 647 cases with GDM from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 2002, and 233 with GIGT. Among 647 cases of GDM, 535 cases were diagnosed by 75 g OGTT. All OGTT results including 535 cases of GDM and 233 patients with GIGT were evaluated. Results There were 112 cases of GDM diagnosed by elevated fasting PG (FPG) without OGTT performed. Of 535 cases of GDM diagnosed by OGTT, 49.2% (263/535) women had FPG value ≥5.8 mmol/L; 90.1% (482/535) women with 1-hour PG values ≥10.6 mmol/L; 64.7% (359/535) with 2-hour PG levels ≥9.2 mmol/L. There were only 114 cases (21.3%) with abnormal 3-hour PG levels among 535 women with OGTT. Among those with abnormal 3-hour PG level, 49.1% (56/114) had abnormal glucose values in the other three points of OGTT, and 34.2% (39/114) with two other abnormal values of OGTT. Our study showed that omission of the 3-hour PG of OGTT only missed 19 cases of GDM and they would be diagnosed as GIGT. Among the 233 women with GIGT, only 4 cases had abnormal 3-hour PG. So, omission of the third-hour glucose value of OGTT only resulted in failure to diagnose 3.6% (19/535) women with

  3. Value of fructosamine measurement in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance

    LI Kui; YANG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Background The concentration of serum fructosamine is correlated with plasma glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of serum fructosamine can be diagnostic for abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnant women.Methods Serum samples were collected from 161 pregnant women between November 2004 and April 2005.The women were divided into three groups according to the gestational age (16-20 weeks group, 56 patients; 28-34 weeks group, 72; and 37-41 weeks group, 33). Each group was subdivided into normal and abnormal glucose tolerance subgroups. The levels of serum fructosamine were measured. Differences among the groups were assessed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Correlations between the level of fructosamine and other variables including the results of glucose challenge test (GCT), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, and infant's birth weight were analyzed by Pearson correlation.Results The level of serum fructosamine decreased with gestational age [(223.25 ±48.90) μmol/L, (98.44±29.57)μmol/L, and (53.99±29.94) μmol/L, respectively. P<0.05]. It was higher in women with abnormal glucose tolerance than that in women with normal glucose tolerance, however, the difference reached statistical significance only in the 28-34 weeks group (P<0.05). In this group, the level of serum fructosamine correlated positively with the GCT result (r=0.28, P<0.05). No correlation was found between fructosamine level and OGTT result, HbA1c level, or neonatal weight.Conclusions Fructosamine can be used to monitor the glucose level of pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance, and to identify the patients at high risk of abnormal glucose tolerance, but can not be used to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early stage of pregnancy.

  4. Prenatal depressive symptoms and abnormalities of glucose tolerance during pregnancy among Hispanic women

    Ertel, Karen A.; Silveira, Marushka; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Manson, JoAnn E.; Solomon, Caren G.; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in mid-pregnancy. We evaluated this association among 934 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed in early pregnancy using the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depres...

  5. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

    Haskins Amy E; Bertone-Johnson Elizabeth R; Pekow Penelope; Carbone Elena; Fortner Renée T; Chasan-Taber Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Western Massach...

  6. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  7. High prevalence of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in the middle-aged Finnish population

    Vanhala Mauno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and disturbances in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in Finnish population, and to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and abnormal glucose tolerance. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in Finland during October 2004 and January 2005. A total of 4500 randomly selected individuals aged 45–74 years were invited to a health examination that included an oral glucose tolerance test. The participation rate was 62% in men and 67% in women. Results The prevalence of obesity was 23.5% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 21.1–25.9 in men, and 28.0% (95% CI 25.5–30.5 in women. The overall prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (including type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glucose was 42.0% (95% CI 39.2–44.8 in men and 33.4% (95% CI 30.9–36.0 in women. The prevalence of previously unknown, screen-detected type 2 diabetes was 9.3% (95% CI 7.7–11.0 in men and 7.3% (95% CI 5.9–8.7 in women. Central obesity was associated with abnormal glucose tolerance within each of the three BMI categories normal (2, overweight (25–29 kg/m2, and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2. Conclusion In a population-based random sample of Finnish population, prevalences of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance were found to be high. A remarkably high number of previously undetected cases of type 2 diabetes was detected. Waist circumference is a predictor of abnormal glucose tolerance in all categories of obesity.

  8. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

    Haskins Amy E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Western Massachusetts. Women reported pre- and early pregnancy smoking at recruitment (mean = 15 weeks and mid pregnancy smoking at a second interview (mean = 28 weeks. AGT was defined as > 135 mg/dL on the routine 1-hour glucose tolerance test (1-hr OGTT. We used multivariable regression to assess the effect of pre, early, and mid-pregnancy smoking on risk of AGT and screening plasma glucose value from the 1-hr OGTT. Results In age-adjusted models, women who smoked > 0-9 cigarettes/day in pre-pregnancy had an increased risk of AGT (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.02-3.55 compared to non-smokers; this was attenuated in multivariable models. Smoking in early (OR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.21-1.10 and mid pregnancy (OR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.13-1.11 were not associated with AGT in multivariable models. Smoking during early and mid pregnancy were independently associated with lower glucose screening values, while smoking in pre-pregnancy was not. Conclusions In this prospective cohort of Hispanic women, we did not observe an association between smoking prior to or during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Findings from this study, although based on small numbers of cases, extend prior research to the Hispanic population.

  9. Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but associations with hyperglycemia in pregnancy have not been well studied. Methods: We studied Boston, Massachusetts–area pregnant women without known diabetes. We identified impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy from clinical glucose tolerance tests at median 28.1 weeks gestation. We used residential addresses to...

  10. The Impact of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance and Obesity on Fetal Growth

    Erin Graves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Factors linked with insulin resistance were examined for their association with large-for-gestational-age (LGA infant birth weight and gestational diabetes. Study Design. Data came from a longitudinal cohort study of 2,305 subjects without overt diabetes, analyzed using multinomial logistic and linear regression. Results. High maternal BMI (OR=1.53 (1.11, 2.12, height (1.98 (1.62, 2.42, antidepressant use (1.71 (1.20, 2.44, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds (1.79 (1.25, 2.57, and high blood sugar (2.68, (1.53, 5.27 were all positively associated with LGA birth. Strikingly, the difference in risk from diagnosed and treated gestational diabetes compared to women with a single abnormal glucose tolerance test (but no diagnosis of gestational diabetes was significant (OR=0.65, p=0.12 versus OR=2.84, p<0.01. When weight/length ratio was used instead, different factors were found to be significant. BMI and pregnancy weight-gain were found to influence the development of gestational diabetes, through an additive interaction. Conclusions. High prepregnancy BM, height, antidepressant use, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds, and high blood sugar were associated with LGA birth, but not necessarily infant weight/length ratio. An additive interaction between BMI and pregnancy weight-gain influenced gestational diabetes development.

  11. Effect of number of abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT values on birthweight in women with gestational diabetes

    Nermin Kösüs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: To examine the effect of abnormal oral glucose loading (OGL and number of abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT values on foetal weight in Turkish pregnant women. Methods: This retrospective study included 810 pregnant women between 24 and 28 wk of gestation who were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Women were grouped according to degree of glucose intolerance and compared for clinical, biochemical parameters. Women who delivered macrosomic infants were compared with those who delivered normal infants. Results: GDM was detected in 70 (8.6% women. Median age and infant birthweight of GDM cases were higher than the other groups. Infants of women with GDM weighted 200 g more than infants of non-GDM cases. No difference was found in terms of birthweight between diabetes cases with 2, 3 or 4 OGTT values abnormality. Interpretation & conclusions: The number of abnormal OGTT values in GDM cases had no effect on foetal weight. Macrosomia was observed more in GDM cases than in non-GDM cases. Birthweight was significantly higher in women with GDM despite the therapy used for regulation of blood glucose. This may be related to ethnical, dietary, nutritional differences, and treatment compliance in our study population.

  12. Hemoglobin A1c for Diagnosis of Postpartum Abnormal Glucose Tolerance among Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Meta-Analysis

    Su, Xudong; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Qu, Xinye; Tian, Yaqiang; Zhang, Guangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods After a systematic review of related studies, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and other measures about the accuracy of HbA1c in the diagnosis of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance were pooled using random-e...

  13. Prevalence of glucose tolerance test abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Leila J. Gracelyn

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of IGT and Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM in women with PCOS was observed than expected. They have accelerated conversion from IGT to NIDDM. IGT is often asymptomatic and is a known risk factor for type 2 DM and cardiovascular disease. OGTT with 75 gms of glucose is the best screening method for glucose intolerance and a good measure to diagnose type 2 DM in PCOS women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1739-1745

  14. The impact of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcome comparing different cut-off criteria for abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Anderberg, Eva; Källén, Karin; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To examine pregnancy outcomes in relation to different categories of glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Design. Prospective observational cohort study. Setting. Patient recruitment and data collection were performed in four delivery departments in southern Sweden. Population. Women delivering during 2003-2005; 306 with gestational diabetes mellitus, 744 with gestational impaired glucose tolerance and 329 randomly selected controls. Methods. All women were offered a 75 g o...

  15. A novel imaging platform for non-invasive screening of abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Jeong, Bosu; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Yong-Ho; Shin, Il-Hyung; Kim, Hansuk; Bae, Soo-Jin; Lee, Dae-Sic; Kang, Eun Seok; Kang, Uk; Kim, Jong Jin; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-06-01

    Optical measurement of skin auto-fluorescence (SAF), most likely emanating from accumulated advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), has been proposed for the noninvasive diagnosis of glucose intolerance in clinical settings. Here, we developed a novel imaging system with transmission geometry for SAF measurement and compared its diagnostic performance in a Korean population. PMID:27321320

  16. A randomised trial of salsalate for insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in persons with abnormal glucose tolerance

    Goldfine, A. B.; Conlin, P. R.; Halperin, F.; Koska, J.; Permana, P.; Schwenke, D.; Shoelson, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Chronic sub-acute inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. High doses of salicylate reduce inflammation, glucose and triacylglycerols, and may improve insulin sensitivity, suggesting therapeutic potential in impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect of salsalate vs placebo on insulin resistance and glycaemia in impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods We conducted a 12 week, two-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of salsalate (up to 4 g/day) vs placebo on systemic glucose disposal. Secondary objectives included treatment effects on glycaemia, inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors. Seventy-eight participants with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance from two VA healthcare systems were enrolled. Randomisation assignment was provided by the coordinating center directly to site pharmacists, and participants and research staff were blinded to treatment assignment. Results Seventy-one individuals were randomised to placebo (n = 36) or salsalate (n = 35). Glucose disposal did not change in either group (salsalate 1% [95% CI −39%, 56%]; placebo 6% [95% CI −20%, 61%], p = 0.3 for placebo vs salsalate). Fasting glucose was reduced by 6% during the study by salsalate (p = 0.006) but did not change with placebo. Declines in glucose were accompanied by declines in fasting C-peptide with salsalate. Insulin clearance was reduced with salsalate. In the salsalate group, triacylglycerol levels were lower by 25% (p = 0.01) and adiponectin increased by 53% (p = 0.02) at the end of the study. Blood pressure, endothelial function and other inflammation markers did not differ between groups. Adipose tissue nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity declined in the salsalate group compared with placebo (−16% vs 42%, p = 0.005), but was not correlated with metabolic

  17. Prevalence of undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. Results of a risk-stratified screening based on FINDRISC questionnaire

    Winkler, Gábor; Hidvégi, Tibor; Vándorfi, Győző; Balogh, Sándor; Jermendy, György

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing, worldwide and also in Hungary. Timely diagnosis and early treatment could be aided by targeted screening. Recognizing this, the Hungarian Diabetes Association initiated a risk-stratified screening with the involvement of primary care physicians. Material/Methods In the first phase of screening, the FINDRISC questionnaire was completed, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for those with a score of ≥12. Between September 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011, 70,432 non-diabetic adults, who visited their general practitioners for any reason, were involved in the screening. Of these, 68,476 questionnaires proved to be suitable for processing. Results From the questionnaires, 28,077 (41.0%) had a score of ≥12. A valid OGTT was performed in 22,846 cases; of this group 3,217 subjects (14.1%) had elevated fasting glucose levels, 5,663 (24.8%) had impaired glucose tolerance, and 1,750 (7.6%) had manifest, previously undiagnosed, diabetes mellitus. Overall, from the valid OGTT group, 46.5% subjects had some degree of glucose intolerance. Conclusions Based on the FINDRISC questionnaire, the risk-stratified screening for diabetes mellitus proved to be simple and cost-effective method for the early detection of carbohydrate metabolism disorders. Using this method, the prevalence rate of previously undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance was high in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. PMID:23344680

  18. Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in minipigs with reduced beta-cell mass

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla; Wilken, Michael; Deacon, Carolyn F; Svendsen, Ove; Gotfredsen, Carsten F; Carr, Richard David

    2003-01-01

    for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced beta-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)-treated minipig, using the DPPIV inhibitor, valine pyrrolidide (VP) (50 mg/kg). VP did not significantly affect...... levels of intact GLP-1 but increased levels of intact GIP (from 4543 +/- 1880 to 9208 +/- 3267 pM x min; P <.01), thus improving glucose tolerance (area under the curve [AUC] for glucose reduced from 1904 +/- 480 to 1582 +/- 353 mM x min; P =.05). VP did not increase insulin levels during the oral......; however, additional mechanisms for the effect of DPPIV inhibition cannot be excluded. The authors conclude that DPPIV inhibitors may be useful to treat type 2 diabetes, even when this is due to reduced beta-cell mass....

  19. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  20. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  1. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 Caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne;

    2004-01-01

    capillary blood glucose. RESULT(S): Two hundred one patients were diagnosed as having idiopathic hirsutism (IH) and 134 as having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). End diagnosis: prolactinoma: n = 1, Cushing's syndrome: n = 1, androgen-producing ovarian tumor: n = 1, late-onset 21-hydroxylase defects: n = 2...

  2. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... to diagnose diabetes in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed ...

  3. Estudio Parto: postpartum diabetes prevention program for hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial – study protocol

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Marcus, Bess H.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Katherine L. Tucker; Hartman, Sheri J.; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Solomon, Caren G.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Markenson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. with rates consistently higher among Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 50% will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years of the index pregnancy. Although randomised controlled trials among adults with impaired glucose tolerance have shown that diet and physical activity reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, such programs have ...

  4. Glucose abnormalities in hepatitis C virus infection.

    Huang, Jee-Fu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most important causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and has a tremendous impact on public health worldwide. HCV is both hepatotropic and lymphotropic. Replication of HCV in diseased extrahepatic organs and tissues may either trigger latent autoimmunity or induce autoimmune disorders. In addition to established liver injury, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important feature of extrahepatic metabolic disorders which is attributed to HCV infection. It also has some impact on the disease activity, disease course, clinical outcomes, and treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy. Previous experimental and clinical findings have highly suggested that HCV per se is diabetogenic. The cause-effect interaction between a common endocrine disorder and an infectious disease is an important issue to elucidate. Although the precise mechanisms whereby HCV infection leads to insulin resistance (IR) and glucose abnormalities are not entirely clear, it differs from the usual pathogenesis of T2DM in those with non-HCV liver diseases. This review initially highlights epidemiological and pathophysiological studies addressing the mutual link between chronic HCV infection (CHC) and T2DM. The characteristics of glucose abnormalities in this special population are depicted from the current evidence. The mutual roles of IR and CHC with respect to the prediction of treatment efficacy, how treatment response affects IR, and the role of pancreatic beta cell function in the entire suite are discussed. With the rapid progression of antiviral therapy for CHC in the past decade, we have also listed some points of future perspective in this issue. PMID:23347806

  5. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats.

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-05-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  6. Impaired glucose tolerance in acute pancreatitis

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas. In spite of the pivotal role of the endocrine pancreas in glucose metabolism, the impact of impaired glucose tolerance on AP has not been fully elucidated. A meta-analysis of seven observational studies showed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with an increased risk of AP. The increased risk of AP shown in the meta-analysis was independent of hyperlipidemia, alcohol use and gallstones. Anti-diab...

  7. Impaired glucose tolerance in sleep disorders.

    Marietta Keckeis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest a negative influence of shortened or disturbed night sleep on glucose tolerance. Due to the high prevalence of sleep disorders this might be a major health issue. However, no comparative studies of carbohydrate metabolism have been conducted in clinical sleep disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and assessed additional parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25, restless legs syndrome (RLS, N = 18 or primary insomnia (N = 21, and in healthy controls (N = 33. Compared to controls, increased rates of impaired glucose tolerance were found in OSAS (OR: 4.9 and RLS (OR: 4.7 patients, but not in primary insomnia patients (OR: 1.6. In addition, HbA1c values were significantly increased in the same two patient groups. Significant positive correlations were found between 2-h plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT and the apnea-arousal-index in OSAS (r = 0.56; p<0.05 and the periodic leg movement-arousal-index in RLS (r = 0.56, p<0.05, respectively. Sleep duration and other quantitative aspects of sleep were similar between patient groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that some, but not all sleep disorders considerably compromise glucose metabolism. Repeated arousals during sleep might be a pivotal causative factor deserving further experimental investigations to reveal potential novel targets for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  8. Assessment of prenatal and perinatal characteristics of pregnants with gestationel diabetes mellitus who have postnatal glucose abnormalities

    Bakıner, Okan; Bozkırlı, Emre; Serinsöz, Hülya; Sarıtürk, Çağla; Ertörer, Eda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the difference in terms of prenatal and perinatal characteristics between gestational diabetic (GDM) cases diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFG)and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during early postpartum period. Material and Methods: Cases who had no history of any glucose metabolism disorder and diagnosed as GDM due to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria were included. Subjects were inquired for pregestational characteristics(glucose abnormality ...

  9. 糖耐量异常对妊娠期糖尿病母儿并发症的影响%Investigation of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on Gestational Diabetes to Maternal and Neonatal Complications

    聂秀娟

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the occurrence of maternal and neonatal complications caused by gestational diabetes and abnormal factors of glucose tolerance tests .Methods The singleton primiparas who were accepted system antenatal examination and delivered in my hospital from 1st Jan,2009 to 1st Jan,2011 were studied.They were divided into two groups,the OGTT 84 abnormal pregnant women was observation group,the OGTT normal pregnant ones was control group .The outcomes of pregnancy of the two groups were :maternal compli-cations(polyhydramnios,hypertensive disorders in pregnancy ,premature delivery,fetal distress,cesarean section rate,postpartum hemorrhage) and neonatal complications (macrosomia,deformity,RDS,intrauterine fetal death).Results The rate of the complications (such as postpartum hemorrhage,macrosomia polyhydramnios ,malformations,fetal death in utero) of the observation group was obviously increased with significant differences(P <0.05).Conclusion Pregnant women should do OGTT test for the early diagnosis ,to strengthen their pregnant and gestation -al nutrition and health,in order to reduce the hazards of gestational diabetes on maternal -fetal.%  目的探讨妊娠期糖尿病母婴并发症的发生与糖耐量试验异常的相关因素.方法2009年1月~2011年1月在我院行系统产前检查并住院分娩的单胎初产妇.口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)异常孕妇84例为观察组,OGTT 正常孕妇84例为对照组.观察妊娠结局:包括孕产妇并发症(羊水过多、妊娠期高血压疾病、早产、胎儿窘迫、剖宫产率、产后出血)及新生儿并发症(巨大儿、畸形、RDS、胎死宫内,窒息).结果观察组孕妇的并发症如产后出血、巨大儿羊水过多、畸形、胎死宫内的发生率明显升高(P <0.05).结论孕妇应行 OGTT 试验进行早期诊断,加强孕期、孕后营养及保健,可降低妊娠期糖尿病对母儿的危害.

  10. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  11. Resveratrol supplementation does not improve metabolic function in non-obese women with normal glucose tolerance

    Yoshino, Jun; Conte, Caterina; Fontana, Luigi; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Imai, Shin-ichiro; Kenneth B Schechtman; Gu, Charles; Kunz, Iris; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to improve metabolic function in metabolically-abnormal rodents and humans, but has not been studied in non-obese people with normal glucose tolerance. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the metabolic effects of 12 weeks of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg/day) in non-obese, postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance. Although resveratrol supplementation increased plasma resveratrol concentration, it did not ch...

  12. Maternal Glucose Tolerance in Pregnancy Affects Fetal Insulin Sensitivity

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Delvin, Edgard; Fraser, William D.; Audibert, Francois; Deal, Cheri I.; Julien, Pierre; Girard, Isabelle; Shear, Roberta; Levy, Emile; Nuyt, Anne-Monique

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Offspring of mothers with impaired glucose tolerance are far more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that maternal glucose tolerance in pregnancy affects fetal insulin sensitivity or β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort study, we analyzed glucose, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in maternal blood at the 50-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28 weeks of gestation and in venous cord blood (n = ...

  13. 糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死患者血浆Hcy和血清hs-CRP水平的影响%The Influence of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on the Levels of Plasma Homocysteine and Serum High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction(ACI)

    赵红东; 陆敏; 唐冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of abnormal glucose tolerance on the levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with acute cerebral infarction( AGI). Methods 756 patients with AGI were divided into normal glucose tolerance group (NGT, 33 leases) , abnormal glucose tolerance group(IGT,142cases) ,and diabetes mellitus group (DM,283 scase) ac-cording to the result of oral glucose tolerance test( OGTT). The serum levels of Hcy and hs-GRP were measured in 24 hours after ad-mission. Result The both levels of Hey and hs-GRP in IGT group(19.17 9.35juno]/L,20.46 10.56μmol/L) and DM group (8.0 2.9 mg/L,7.7 2.3 mg/L) were higher than the NGT group with no difference between each other. Conclusion The levels of Hey and hs-GRP in patients with AGI and abnormal glucose tolerance rise significantly,which indicate the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis in the stage of abnormal glucose tolerance. The results showed abnormal glucose tolerance is the risk factor of atherosclerosis as diabetes mellitus,and the OGTT test is valuable in screening risk factors of AGI and stroke prevention.%目的:观察糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死(acute cerebral infarction,ACI)患者的同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平的影响.方法:756例ACI患者按葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)结果分为糖耐量正常组(NGT,331例)、单纯性糖耐量异常组(IGT,142例)、2型糖尿病组(DM2,283例).在入院24h之内测定血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平并进行组间比较.结果:IGT组及DM2组的Hcy水平(19.17±9.35)μmol/L、(20.46±10.56)μmol/L以及hs-CRP水平(8.0±2.9)mg/L、(7.7±2.3)mg/L明显高于NGT组(16.17±7.35)μmol/L、(3.5±1.2)mg/L.IGT组及DM2组两组之间的Hcy、hs-CRP水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05、P>0.05).结论:单纯性糖耐量异常的ACI患者血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平明显升高,表明在糖耐量异常阶段,已经出现了慢性低水平炎症和动脉粥样硬化的发生.提

  14. Specific insulin and proinsulin in normal glucose tolerant first-degree relatives of NIDDM patients

    R. Coifman; I.S. Dalbosco; E. M. K. RUSSO; R.S. Moisés

    1999-01-01

    In order to identify early abnormalities in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) we determined insulin (using an assay that does not cross-react with proinsulin) and proinsulin concentrations. The proinsulin/insulin ratio was used as an indicator of abnormal ß-cell function. The ratio of the first 30-min increase in insulin to glucose concentrations following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; I30-0/G30-0) was taken as an indicator of insulin secretion. Insulin resistance (R) w...

  15. Effect of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test on Bone Turnover Markers in Adults with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Xiang, Shou-Kui; Wan, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Hua; Ma, Jin-Hong; Hua, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well known that enteral nutrients result in acute suppression of bone turnover markers (BTMs), and incretin hormones are believed to play a significant role in this physiological skeletal response. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of parenteral nutrients on BTMs. Our aim was to assess the influence of intravenous glucose on BTMs in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Material/Methods We conducted 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in 24 subjects with NGT. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min after administration of glucose, then serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) were measured. Results During IVGTT, the fasting CTX level fell gradually and reached a nadir of 80.4% of the basal value at 60 min. Conversely, the fasting P1NP level decreased mildly and reached a nadir of 90.6% of the basal value at 15 min, then gradually increased and reached 96.6% at 60 min. The CTX-to-P1NP ratio increased slightly and reached a peak of 104.3% of the basal value at 10 min, then fell gradually and reached a nadir of 83% at 60 min. Conclusions Our study indicates that intravenous glucose results in an acute suppression of BTMs in the absence of incretin hormones. The mechanism responsible for this needs further investigation. PMID:27447783

  16. Oral glucose tolerance test in unstimulated saliva of healthy individuals

    Mohammad-Hossein Mirzaii-Dizgah; Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah; Mohammad-Reza Mirzaii-Dizgah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in unstimulated whole saliva as a diagnostic specimen in clinical practice for detection of diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: An interventional study was carried out in 30 apparently healthy individuals aged 24–59 years. Serum and saliva samples were obtained in fasting, 1 h and 2 h after glucose intake (75 g). Glucose concentration was determined by enzymatic colorimetric glucose oxidase-prost...

  17. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders; Jørgensen, T; Borch-Johnsen, K; Sandbaek, A; Lauritzen, T; Wasson, J; Permutt, M A; Glaser, B; Madsbad, S; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, variants in WFS1 have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine metabolic risk phenotypes of WFS1 variants in glucose-tolerant people and in individuals with abnormal glucose regulation. METHODS: The type 2 diabetes-associated WFS1 variant rs7...

  18. Oxidative Injury and Neuropathy in Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Russell, James W.; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Vincent, Andrea M.; Freimann, Catherine L.; Sullivan, Kelli A; Eva L Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with the development of neuropathy. The aim of the current study was to determine if neuropathy developed in the female Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of IGT and type 2 diabetes. The ZDF rat develops impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) when fed a control diet, and frank diabetes when fed a high fat diet. Following 10 weeks of hyperglycemia, sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) and compound motor acti...

  19. Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (karela).

    Leatherdale, B A; Panesar, R K; Singh, G; Atkins, T W; Bailey, C. J.; Bignell, A H

    1981-01-01

    The effect of karela (Momordica charantia), a fruit indigenous to South America and Asia, on glucose and insulin concentrations was studied in nine non-insulin-dependent diabetics and six non-diabetic laboratory rats. A water-soluble extract of the fruits significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations during a 50 g oral glucose tolerance test in the diabetics and after force-feeding in the rats. Fried karela fruits consumed as a daily supplement to the diet produced a small but significan...

  20. Glucose tolerance during pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

    John Widger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF are relatively insulinopenic and are at risk of diabetes, especially during times of stress. There is a paucity of data in the literature describing glucose tolerance during CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesised that glucose tolerance would be worse during pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF than during clinical stability. METHODS: Patients with CF, 10 years or older, admitted with a pulmonary exacerbation underwent an OGTT within 48 hours of admission. A repeat OGTT was performed 4 to 6 weeks post discharge when the patients were well. RESULTS: Nine patients completed the study. Four patients were found to have normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired and 2 with CF related diabetes during the exacerbation. Mean change in 2-hour glucose was 1.1 mmol (SD = 0.77. At the follow up OGTT, 8 of 9 (89% remained within their respective glucose tolerance status groupings. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is little difference in glucose tolerance during CF exacerbations compared to clinical stability in the majority of patients.

  1. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with clofibra

  2. Abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin as a predictive factor for glucose metabolism disorders in antipsychotic treatment

    XU Leping; JI Juying; DUAN Yiyang; SHI Hui; ZHANG Bin; SHAO Yaqin; SUN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the changes in glucose metabolism after antipsychotic(APS)therapy,to note the influencing factors,as well as to dicuss the relationship between the occurrence of glucose metabolism disorders of APS origin and abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c)levels.One hundred and fifty-two patients with schizophrenia,whose fasting plasma glucose(FPG)and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG)in the oral glucose tolerance test(2HPG)were normal,were grouped according to the HbA1c levels,one normal and the other abnormal,and were randomly enrolled into risperidone,clozapine and chlorpromazine treatment for six weeks.The FPG and 2hPG were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study.In the group with abnormal HbA1c and clozapine therapy,2HPG was higher after the study[(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than that before the study[(7.2±1.4)mmol/L]and the difierence was statistically significant(P<0.01).FPG had no statistically significant difference before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).HbA1c levels and drugs contributing to 2HPG at the end of study had statistical cross-action(P<0.01).In the abnormal HbA1c group,2HPG after the study was higher in the clozapine treatment group [(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than in the risperidone treatment group [(7.4±1.7)mmol/L]and the chlorpromazine treatment group[(7.3±1.6)mmol/L].The differences were statistically significant(P<0.01).In the normal HbA1c group there was no statistically significant difierence before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).2HPG before[(7.1±1.6)mmol/L]and after the study[(8.1±1.9)mmol/L]was higher in the abnormal HbA1c group than in the normal HbA1c group[(6.2±1.4)mmol/L vs(6.5±1.4)mmol/L]with the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.01 vs P<0.001).As compared with normal HbA1c group,the relative risk (RR)of glucose metabolism disease occurrence was 4.7 in the abnormal HDA1C group wlth the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.001).Patients with abnormal HbA1c

  3. Contraction-mediated glucose uptake is increased in men with impaired glucose tolerance

    Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Skovbro, Mette; Flint, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    stimulation alone and with superimposed exercise. Patients with type 2 diabetes, subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), healthy controls, and endurance-trained subjects were studied. The groups were matched for age and lean body mass (LBM), and differed in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), body fat......Exercise superimposed on insulin stimulation is shown to increase muscle glucose metabolism and these two stimuli have synergistic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate glucose infusion rates (GIR) in groups with a wide variation in terms of insulin sensitivity during insulin...... percentage, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose concentration, and oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT). Each subject underwent a two-step sequential hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. During the last 30 min of the 2nd clamp step, subjects exercised on a bicycle at 43% +/- 2% of VO2 peak. In...

  4. Effect of repaglinide on endothelial dysfunction during a glucose tolerance test in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Wascher Thomas C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking post-challenge hyperglycemia to accelerated atherosclerosis, however remain to be elucidated. Methods A prospective, open, randomised, cross-over study was performed to investigate the effect of 2 mg repaglinide on hyperglycemia and endothelial function during an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose in 12 subjects with diagnosed IGT. Blood samples for determination of plasma glucose were drawn fasting, 1 and 2 hours after glucose ingestion. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery with high-resolution ultrasound. Results Administration of repaglinide resulted in a significant reduction of plasma glucose at 2 hours (172.8+/-48.4 vs. 138.3+/-41.2 mg/dl; p Conclusion In subjects with IGT, the endothelial dysfunction observed after a glucose challenge is related to the extent of hyperglycemia. Reduction of hyperglycemia by repaglinide reduces endothelial dysfunction in a glucose dependent manner.

  5. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal...... newborn fat masses, but not to fat-free mass. Interventions targeting maternal postprandial glucose levels may induce more appropriate birth weight, thereby reducing the risk of subsequent morbidity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Assessment of prenatal and perinatal characteristics of pregnants with gestationel diabetes mellitus who have postnatal glucose abnormalities

    Okan Bakiner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the difference in terms of prenatal and perinatal characteristics between gestational diabetic (GDM cases diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFGand impaired glucose tolerance (IGT during early postpartum period. Material and Methods: Cases who had no history of any glucose metabolism disorder and diagnosed as GDM due to American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria were included. Subjects were inquired for pregestational characteristics(glucose abnormality in previous pregnancies, birth of macrosomic baby and history of diabetes in a first-degree relative, prenatal characteristics (age, body mass index BMI, features at diagnosis (BMI,weight-gain ,blood pressure and HbA1C, and perinatal characteristics (birth week and baby birth weight were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reperformed in the 6th postpartum week. Effects of pregestational, prenatal and perinatal features on postpartum glucose abnormalities were analysed. Results: Out of 80 cases who completed the study 58.7%(n=47 had normal glucose metabolism, 13.7%( n=11 had IFG and 27.5%(n=22 had IGT. No difference was found between pregestational, prenatal , perinatal characteristics, features at the time of diagnosis and postpartum OGTT results. Incidence of IFG in postpartum OGTT for those who had diabetes in a first degree relative was elevated when compared with other cases(p=0,042. The difference was preserved after adjustment for other characteristic features with multivariate analysis (p=0,037. Conclusion: Presence of diabetes in a first degree relative may be a risk factor for postnatal early IFG. In our study other pregestational, prenatal, perinatal factors and features at diagnosis didn’t affect early postpartum glucose metabolism. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 617-626

  7. Oral glucose tolerance test in unstimulated saliva of healthy individuals

    Mohammad-Hossein Mirzaii-Dizgah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in unstimulated whole saliva as a diagnostic specimen in clinical practice for detection of diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was carried out in 30 apparently healthy individuals aged 24–59 years. Serum and saliva samples were obtained in fasting, 1 h and 2 h after glucose intake (75 g. Glucose concentration was determined by enzymatic colorimetric glucose oxidase-prostatic acid phosphatase assay. Statistical analysis of the repeated ANOVA (followed Bonferroni post-hoc test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. Results: The mean serum glucose concentration was significantly higher 1 h after glucose intake (152.32 ± 31.06 than both fasting state (106.38 ± 41.08; P < 0.001 and 2 h after glucose intake (125.21 ± 51.71; P < 0.001. Saliva glucose was also significantly higher 1 h after glucose intake (5.46 ± 2.41 than both fasting state (2.84 ± 1.46; P < 0.001 and 2 h after glucose intake (4.01 ± 1.91; P < 0.001. There were significant positive correlation between saliva and serum glucose concentration in fasting state (r = 0.502; P = 0.044, 1 h (r = 0.756; P = 0.0001, and 2 h (r = 0.543; P = 0.023 after oral glucose intake. Conclusion: It seems that unstimulated saliva can be used as an alternative to serum for diagnosis of DM in OGTT.

  8. [Amylase in the mixed saliva of diabetics and nondiabetics on an empty stomach and during the glucose tolerance test].

    Fekete, Z; Gol'denberg, A; Lukach, I; Korets, R; Shval'b, O; Platilova, G; Bandura, A

    1989-01-01

    The catalytic activity of alpha-amylase is significantly elevated in salivary pool from 146 diabetics (2176 +/- 149.3 mu catal.l-1) vs. the salivary pool from 78 nondiabetics (1159 +/- 97.3 mu catal X l-1), the difference in the concentrations of the saliva condensation index (the chloride concentration) in the diabetics and nondiabetics being negligible. Glucose tolerance test has been carried out in 54 subjects. Glucose intake has increased the alpha-amylase catalytic activity and augmented glycosialia in 14 diabetics, in 13 subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance, and in 16 nondiabetics; a negligible rise of glycosialia and a reduction of alpha-amylase catalytic activity have been observed in 11 subjects with a flat glycemia curve. Basing on these data, the authors claim that oral glucose activates amylase and glucose secretion by the salivary glands. PMID:2481117

  9. Analysis of GPS Abnormal Conditions within Fault Tolerant Control Laws

    Al-Sinbol, Gahssan

    The Global Position System (GPS) is a critical element for the functionality of autonomous flying vehicles. The GPS operation at normal and abnormal conditions directly impacts the trajectory tracking performance of the autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) controllers. The effects of GPS parameter variation must be well understood and user-friendly computational tools must be developed to facilitate the design and evaluation of fault tolerant control laws. This thesis presents the development of a simplified GPS error model in Matlab/Simulink and its use performing a sensitivity analysis of GPS parameters effect under system normal and abnormal operation on different UAV trajectory tracking controllers. The model statistically generates position and velocity errors, simulates the effect of GPS satellite configuration on the position and velocity measurement accuracy, and implements a set of failures to the GPS readings. The model and its graphical user interface was integrated within the WVU UAV simulation environment as a masked Simulink block. The effects on the controllers' trajectory tracking performance of the following GPS parameters were investigated within normal operation ranges and outside: time delay, update rate, error standard deviation, bias, and major position and velocity failures. Several sets of control laws with fixed and adaptive parameters and of different levels of complexity have been used in this investigation. A complex performance index formulated in terms of tracking errors and control activity was used for control laws performance evaluation. The composition of various metrics within the performance index was performed using fixed and variable weights depending on the local characteristics of the commanded trajectory. This study has revealed that GPS error parameters have a significant impact on control laws performance. The proposed GPS model has proved to be a valuable, flexible tool for testing and evaluation of the fault

  10. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the influence of abnormal glucose metabolism on left ventricular (LV) function and prognosis in 203 patients with acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. This appears to be...... particularly attributable to an increased incidence of post-infarction congestive heart failure. A relationship between glucose metabolism and LV function could potentially explain this excess mortality. METHODS: In patients without known diabetes, glucose metabolism was determined using an oral glucose...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend) < 0.05) with the exception of left...

  11. Specific insulin and proinsulin in normal glucose tolerant first-degree relatives of NIDDM patients

    R. Coifman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify early abnormalities in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM we determined insulin (using an assay that does not cross-react with proinsulin and proinsulin concentrations. The proinsulin/insulin ratio was used as an indicator of abnormal ß-cell function. The ratio of the first 30-min increase in insulin to glucose concentrations following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; I30-0/G30-0 was taken as an indicator of insulin secretion. Insulin resistance (R was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA method. True insulin and proinsulin were measured during a 75-g OGTT in 35 individuals: 20 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and without diabetes among their first-degree relatives (FDR served as controls, and 15 with NGT who were FDR of patients with NIDDM. The FDR group presented higher insulin (414 pmol/l vs 195 pmol/l; P = 0.04 and proinsulin levels (19.6 pmol/l vs 12.3 pmol/l; P = 0.03 post-glucose load than the control group. When these groups were stratified according to BMI, the obese FDR (N = 8 showed higher fasting and post-glucose insulin levels than the obese NGT (N = 9 (fasting: 64.8 pmol/l vs 7.8 pmol/l; P = 0.04, and 60 min post-glucose: 480.6 pmol/l vs 192 pmol/l; P = 0.01. Also, values for HOMA (R were higher in the obese FDR compared to obese NGT (2.53 vs 0.30; P = 0.075. These results show that FDR of NIDDM patients have true hyperinsulinemia (which is not a consequence of cross-reactivity with proinsulin and hyperproinsulinemia and no dysfunction of a qualitative nature in ß-cells.

  12. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from the metagenome

    Taku eUchiyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidases (BGLs hydrolyze cellooligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (~mM concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (approximately 10,000 colonies and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7 was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0–6.5 and retained full or 1.5–2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1–0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 µM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose and high Vmax (91 µmol min-1 mg-1 with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 µmol min-1 mg-1 with cellobiose among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose.

  13. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  14. Social stress, obesity and glucose tolerance: a psychobiological investigation

    Sanghez, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Social stress, obesity and glucose tolerance: a psychobiological investigation Stress has been associated with changes in eating behavior and food preferences (Dallman et al. 2003). In humans psychosocial and socio-economical challenges have been related with neuroendocrine-autonomic dysregulation followed by visceral obesity and increased in body mass index (BMI) (Van Strien et al. 1986, Rosmond, Dallman and Björntorp 1998). The chronic activation of stress response system, leads to an i...

  15. Unpredictable feeding impairs glucose tolerance in growing lambs.

    Anne L Jaquiery

    Full Text Available Irregular eating is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disease in adults but may affect young, growing children differently. We investigated the metabolic effects of unpredictable feeding in female juvenile lambs randomly assigned to receive, for six weeks, maintenance feed given twice daily in equal portions (Control Group, C; n = 24 or the same weekly feed amount in aliquots of variable size at unpredictable times (Unpredictable Group, U; n = 21. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT, and measurement of diurnal plasma cortisol concentrations were performed pre and post the dietary intervention. Groups were compared using t test and RM ANOVA. Weight gain was similar in both groups (C 18 ± 2%; U 16 ± 2% of initial body weight. Glucose area under the curve (AUC was unchanged in C (AUC pre 818 ± 34, post 801 ± 33 mmol.min.l(-1, but increased by 20% in U (pre 830 ± 25, post 1010 ± 19 mmol.min.l(-1; p<0.0001, with an inadequate insulin response to glucose load (log(AUC insulin first 40 minutes post intervention C 1.49 ± 0.04 vs U 1.36 ± 0.04 ng.min.ml(-1; p = 0.03. Insulin tolerance and diurnal variation of plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Unpredictable feeding impairs insulin response to glucose in growing lambs despite high quality food and normal weight gain. Irregular eating warrants investigation as a potentially remediable risk factor for disordered glucose metabolism.

  16. DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN YOUNG WOMEN: IS IT RELATED TO EACH OTHER?

    A.M AMINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study we wanted to compare the means of area under the curve (AVC of glucose tolerance test in young women depending on dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA levels. Methods. Selected subjects were examined for DHEA and glucose tolerance test. At first, they were divided into two groups (under the mean of DHEA vs above the mean of DHEA and then into three groups (under the mean-SD, between the mean±SD, above the mean + SD. 37 young women with no abnormality whose 8MI was below 30 Kg/m2 they were refered to research center of endocrinology and metabolism of IUMSHS. Results. The mean of DHEA was 2895±1113 ng/ml. The mean of AUC was 745±104.7 mmol/l/min in women under the mean of DHEA and 670±51.9 mmol/l/min in women above the mean of DHEA (P < 0.05. In comparison of women based on mean±SD, the AVe was 786±88.3, 691. 7 ± 77.5 and 670.8±92.5 mmol/l/min, respectively. Results showed a significant decrease of AVC in women above the mean+ SO of DHEA (P < 0.05. Discussion. This study suggests that in young healthy women DHEA can increase the glucose tolerance.

  17. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  18. Resolving the sources of plasma glucose excursions following a glucose tolerance test in the rat with deuterated water and [U-13C]glucose

    Delgado, T.C.; Barosa, C.; Nunes, P.M.; Cerdán, S.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Jones, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Sources of plasma glucose excursions (PGE) following a glucose tolerance test enriched with [U-(13)C]glucose and deuterated water were directly resolved by (13)C and (2)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy analysis of plasma glucose and water enrichments in rat. Plasma water (2)H-enrichment att

  19. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  20. High and Low Glycemic Index Mixed Meals and Blood Glucose in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Gellar, Lauren; Nansel, Tonja R.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-over pilot study tested blood glucose response to low and high glycemic index meals in 12 obese youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants demonstrated significantly lower mean daytime blood glucose and a trend toward lower variability, suggesting a clinically relevant impact of reducing glycemic index.

  1. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  2. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  3. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  4. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek;

    2014-01-01

    , either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study...

  5. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    after RYGB is rapid entry of glucose into the systemic circulation due to modified gastrointestinal anatomy, causing hypersecretion of insulin and other hormones influencing glucose disappearance and endogenous glucose production. METHODS: We determined glucose absorption and metabolism and the rate of...... RYGB. Endogenous glucose production was similar before and after surgery. Postoperative glucagon secretion increased and showed a biphasic response after RYGB. Adipose tissue basal rate of lipolysis was higher after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A rapid rate of absorption of ingested glucose into...... lipolysis before and 3 months after RYGB in obese glucose-tolerant individuals using the double-tracer technique during a mixed meal. RESULTS: After RYGB, the postprandial plasma glucose profile changed, with a higher peak glucose concentration followed by a faster return to lower than basal levels. These...

  6. Engineering a novel glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase as supplementation to enhance the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at high glucose concentration

    Cao, Li-chuang; Wang, Zhi-jun; Ren, Guang-Hui; Kong, Wei; Li, Liang; XIE, Wei; Liu, Yu-huan

    2015-01-01

    Background Most β-glucosidases reported are sensitive to the end product (glucose), making it the rate limiting component of cellulase for efficient degradation of cellulose through enzymatic route. Thus, there are ongoing interests in searching for glucose-tolerant β-glucosidases, which are still active at high glucose concentration. Although many β-glucosidases with different glucose-tolerance levels have been isolated and characterized in the past decades, the effects of glucose-tolerance ...

  7. Prevalence of neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance using various electrophysiological tests

    Meena A Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropathy is often an associated feature woth long-standing type II diabetes mellitus. Neuropathy may occur even in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Objective: To study the prevalence of neuropathy using different electrophysiological techniques in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and no other identifiable cause of neuropathy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 age-matched controls and 58 subjects with impaired oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT attending diabetic awareness. Prediabetes was defined using World Health Organization (WHO criteria. All subjects had normal glycosylated hemoglobin HbA (1c, vitamin B12 levels, and thyroid function. Neuropathy was evaluated by nerve conduction studies (NCS performed on one upper and both lower limbs, dorsal sural nerve, medial and lateral planter nerve conductions using conventional techniques. Neuropathy was also evaluated by autononic function tests, and quantitative sensory testing (QST. The subjects were followed up for 4 years. Results: Out of 58 subjects, 19 (32.8% had neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies showed evidence of neuropathy in 14 (24.13% subjects, autonomic neuropathy was detected in 8 (13.8%, and QST was found to be abnormal in 16 (27.6% subjects. Twenty subjects (34.5% developed diabetes mellitus in the follow-up period. Conclusions: Neuropathy was detected in 32.8% subjects with IGT. Small fiber neuropathy was most common. Of all the three parameters studied, QST was found to be most sensitive technique for the detection of neuropathy. Assessment of medial plantar and dorsal sural NCS increases the sensitivity in the detection of neuropathy.

  8. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    Jensen, Dorte; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente;

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test.......This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test....

  9. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  10. Study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) : design and screening results

    Mensink, M; Corpeleijn, E; Feskens, EJM; Kruijshoop, M; Saris, WHM; de Bruin, TWA; Blaak, EE

    2003-01-01

    The study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) is a 3 years randomised clinical trial designed to evaluate the effect of a combined diet and physical activity intervention program on glucose tolerance in a Dutch population at increased risk for developing type 2

  11. Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in 481 obese glucose-tolerant women

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gestational weight gain in obese glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study of 481 women with prepregnancy BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 and a normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the third trimest...

  12. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  13. Hypothalamic POMC Deficiency Improves Glucose Tolerance Despite Insulin Resistance by Increasing Glycosuria.

    Chhabra, Kavaljit H; Adams, Jessica M; Fagel, Brian; Lam, Daniel D; Qi, Nathan; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J

    2016-03-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is essential for the physiological regulation of energy balance; however, its role in glucose homeostasis remains less clear. We show that hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc)POMC-deficient mice, which develop severe obesity and insulin resistance, unexpectedly exhibit improved glucose tolerance and remain protected from hyperglycemia. To explain these paradoxical phenotypes, we hypothesized that an insulin-independent pathway is responsible for the enhanced glucose tolerance. Indeed, the mutant mice demonstrated increased glucose effectiveness and exaggerated glycosuria relative to wild-type littermate controls at comparable blood glucose concentrations. Central administration of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan II in mutant mice reversed alterations in glucose tolerance and glycosuria, whereas, conversely, administration of the antagonist Agouti-related peptide (Agrp) to wild-type mice enhanced glucose tolerance. The glycosuria of ArcPOMC-deficient mice was due to decreased levels of renal GLUT 2 (rGLUT2) but not sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and was associated with reduced renal catecholamine content. Epinephrine treatment abolished the genotype differences in glucose tolerance and rGLUT2 levels, suggesting that reduced renal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is the underlying mechanism for the observed glycosuria and improved glucose tolerance in ArcPOMC-deficient mice. Therefore, the ArcPOMC-SNS-rGLUT2 axis is potentially an insulin-independent therapeutic target to control diabetes. PMID:26467632

  14. Association of cognitive function with glucose tolerance and trajectories of glucose tolerance over 12 years in the AusDiab study

    Anstey, Kaarin J.; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Magliano, Dianna J.; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the association between glucose tolerance status and trajectories of change in blood glucose, and cognitive function in adults aged 25 to 85. Methods The sample (n = 4547) was drawn from a national, population-based cohort study in Australia (AusDiab). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and general health were assessed at 0, 5 and 12 years. Covariates included age, education, body mass index, blood pressure and physical activity. At 12 year...

  15. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  16. Impact of newly diagnosed abnormal glucose regulation on long-term prognosis in low risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up study

    Abdelnoor Michael

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction and newly detected abnormal glucose regulation have been shown to have a less favourable prognosis compared to patients with normal glucose regulation. The importance and timing of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose regulation classified by an OGTT in-hospital and at three-month follow-up on clinical outcome in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI without known diabetes. Methods Patients (n = 224, age 58 years with a primary percutanous coronary intervention (PCI treated STEMI were followed for clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial re-infarction, recurrent ischemia causing hospital admission, and stroke. The patients were classified by a standardised 75 g OGTT at two time points, first, at a median time of 16.5 hours after hospital admission, then at three-month follow-up. Based on the OGTT results, the patients were categorised according to the WHO criteria and the term abnormal glucose regulation was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes. Results The number of patients diagnosed with abnormal glucose regulation in-hospital and at three-month was 105 (47% and 50 (25%, respectively. During the follow up time of (median 33 (27, 39 months, 58 (25.9% patients experienced a new clinical event. There were six deaths, 15 non-fatal re-infarction, 33 recurrent ischemia, and four strokes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival free of composite end-points showed similar results in patients with abnormal and normal glucose regulation, both when classified in-hospital (p = 0.4 and re-classified three months later (p = 0.3. Conclusions Patients with a primary PCI treated STEMI, without previously known diabetes, appear to have an excellent

  17. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  18. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S;

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjec...... with IGT, when adiposity is controlled for in relation to NGT, defective early insulin secretion after oral glucose is a key factor. This defective beta-cell function is associated with, and may be caused by, a reduced early GLP-1 response.......Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... with IGT and we also examined this interrelation in relation to the 2 main incretins, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). To that end, 13 women with IGT and 17 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurements...

  19. The effect of fat removal on glucose tolerance is depot specific in male and female mice.

    Shi, Haifei; Strader, April D; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2007-10-01

    Energy is stored predominately as lipid in white adipose tissue (WAT) in distinct anatomical locations, with each site exerting different effects on key biological processes, including glucose homeostasis. To determine the relative contributions of subcutaneous and visceral WAT on glucose homeostasis, comparable amounts of adipose tissue from abdominal subcutaneous inguinal WAT (IWAT), intra-abdominal retroperitoneal WAT (RWAT), male gonadal epididymal WAT (EWAT), or female gonadal parametrial WAT (PWAT) were removed. Gonadal fat removal in both male and female chow-fed lean mice resulted in lowered glucose levels across glucose tolerance tests. Female lean C57BL/6J mice as well as male and female lean FVBN mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, indicated by decreased areas under glucose clearance curves. For the C57BL/6J mice maintained on a high-fat butter-based diet, glucose homeostasis was improved only in female mice with PWAT removal. Removal of IWAT or RWAT did not affect glucose tolerance in either dietary condition. We conclude that WAT contribution to glucose homeostasis is depot specific, with male gonadal EWAT contributing to glucose homeostasis in the lean state, whereas female gonadal PWAT contributes to glucose homeostasis in both lean and obese mice. These data illustrate both critical differences among various WAT depots and how they influence glucose homeostasis and highlight important differences between males and females in glucose regulation. PMID:17652151

  20. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Glucose Control in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2...

  1. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Nielsen, Lene Buch-Krogh; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...... men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. Predictive factors of non-deterioration of glucose tolerance following a 2-year behavioral intervention

    Almeida-Pititto Bianca

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To identify predictive factors associated with non-deterioration of glucose metabolism following a 2-year behavioral intervention in Japanese-Brazilians. Methods 295 adults (59.7% women without diabetes completed 2-year intervention program. Characteristics of those who maintained/improved glucose tolerance status (non-progressors were compared with those who worsened (progressors after the intervention. In logistic regression analysis, the condition of non-progressor was used as dependent variable. Results Baseline characteristics of non-progressors (71.7% and progressors were similar, except for the former being younger and having higher frequency of disturbed glucose tolerance and lower C-reactive protein (CRP. In logistic regression, non-deterioration of glucose metabolism was associated with disturbed glucose tolerance - impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance - (p Conclusion The whole sample presented a homogeneous behavior during the intervention. Lower CRP levels and diagnosis of glucose intolerance at baseline were predictors of non-deterioration of the glucose metabolism after a relatively simple intervention, independent of body adiposity.

  3. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    URITA, Yoshihisa; Ishihara, Susumu; Akimoto, Tatsuo; Kato, Hiroto; HARA, Noriko; Honda, Yoshiko; Nagai, Yoko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Shimada, Nagato; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Miki, Kazumasa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.

  4. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    disposition index, a measure of compensatory pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity, in subjects representing the entire range of the glucose tolerance continuum. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of subjects (N = 313) with heterogeneous age, sex, BMI, and glycemic control...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... fitness and compromised pancreatic β-cell compensation across the entire glucose tolerance continuum provides additional evidence highlighting the importance of fitness in protection against the onset of a fundamental pathophysiological event that leads to type 2 diabetes....

  5. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL.) LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-01-01

    Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW) and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/...

  6. Impact of a high intensity training program on glucose tolerance in people with multiple sclerosis

    Patyn, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent research reported a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in MS patients than in healthy people. The influence of high intensity exercise on IGT in MS was never investigated before. Objective: To investigate the effect of high intensity aerobic interval (HIIT) or continuous endurance (CT) training, both in combination with resistance training, on glucose tolerance muscle strength and body composition. Methods: 34 subjects were randomly as...

  7. Reduced glucose tolerance is associated with poor memory performance and hippocampal atrophy among normal elderly

    Convit, Antonio; Wolf, Oliver T.; Tarshish, Chaim; de Leon, Mony J.

    2003-01-01

    Poor glucose tolerance and memory deficits, short of dementia, often accompanies aging. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether, among nondiabetic, nondemented middle-aged and elderly individuals, poorer glucose tolerance is associated with reductions in memory performance and smaller hippocampal volumes. We studied 30 subjects who were evaluated consecutively in an outpatient research setting. The composition of the participant group was 57% female and 68.6 ± 7.5 years of age; the...

  8. MR Quantification of Total Liver Fat in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Healthy Subjects

    Dong, Zhi; Luo, Yanji; Zhang, Zhongwei; Cai, Huasong; Li, Yanbing; Chan, Tao; Wu, Ling; Li, Zi-ping; Feng, Shi-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlations between liver fat content and clinical index in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods 56 subjects were enrolled and each of them underwent upper-abdominal MRI examination that involved a T1 VIBE Dixon sequence. 14 was clinically diagnosed with IGT (collectively as IGT group ) while 42 showed normal glucose tolerance,(collectively as NGT group). NGT group was further divided into NGTFat (BMI≥25, 18 subje...

  9. Newly detected abnormal glucose regulation and long-term prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    Pararajasingam, Gokulan; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal;

    2016-01-01

    .07-2.30]) compared to patients categorized as normal/impaired fasting glycaemia/impaired glucose tolerance by OGTT and HbA1c <6.5%. Approximately 50% of the patients with newly diagnosed DM by OGTT were only detected due to 2-hour post-load glucose values. CONCLUSION: An OGTT is recommended in AMI patients without......BACKGROUND: An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and/or glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) identify patients with increased mortality risk, but no comparison of the long-term prognostic values has yet been investigated. METHODS: This study was a......, when adjusting for known DM, no significance was detected. An OGTT did not show a significantly increased mortality, if used separately. A combined estimate showed a significantly increased mortality in patients categorized as newly diagnosed DM by OGTT and HbA1c<6.5% (HR 1.56 [95% CI 1...

  10. A Novel EPO Receptor Agonist Improves Glucose Tolerance via Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Diabetes

    Michael S. Scully

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients treated with recombinant human Epo demonstrate an improvement in insulin sensitivity. We aimed to investigate whether CNTO 530, a novel Epo receptor agonist, could affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. A single administration of CNTO 530 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the area under the curve in a glucose tolerance test in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice after 14, 21, and 28 days. HOMA analysis suggested an improvement in insulin sensitivity, and this effect was confirmed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Uptake of 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose indicated that animals dosed with CNTO 530 transported more glucose into skeletal muscle and heart relative to control animals. In conclusion, CNTO530 has a profound effect on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant rodents likely because of improving peripheral insulin sensitivity. This effect was observed with epoetin-α and darbepoetin-α, suggesting this is a class effect, but the effect with these compounds relative to CNTO530 was decreased in duration and magnitude.

  11. Mechanisms of the incretin effect in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and patients with type 2 diabetes

    Mari, Andrea; Bagger, Jonatan I; Ferrannini, Ele; Holst, Jens Juul; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2013-01-01

    The incretin effect on insulin secretion was investigated in 8 subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 8 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), using 25, 75, and 125 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusions (IIGI). The ß-cell response was evaluated using a...

  12. Utility of hemoglobin A1c to screen for impaired glucose tolerance

    Edy K. Ginting

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is associated with an increased likelihood for having impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c has emerged as a recommended diagnostic tool for identifying diabetes and persons at risk for the disease. This recommendation was based on data in adults, showing the relationship between HbA1C and the future development of diabetes. However, studies in the pediatric population have been limited and no standard values of HbA1c levels in children have been established. Objective To evaluate HbA1c as a test for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents and to identify the optimal HbA1c threshold level (cut off point. Methods We studied 65 obese and 4 overweight children (BMI ≥ +2 SD for age and gender aged 10-15 years in Palembang. All subjects underwent HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance tests. Results Nineteen out of 69 subjects (28% had impaired glucose tolerance. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut off point of HbA1c related to impaired glucose tolerance as diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test was found to be 5.25%, with 63% sensitivity and 64% specificity, 40% positive predictive value, and 82% negative predictive value. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.687 (95%CI 0.541–0.833; P < 0.001. Conclusion A HbA1c cut off value of 5.25% may be used as a screening tool to identify children and adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:223-6.].

  13. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects. PMID:23982154

  14. Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure

    Egstrup, M; Kistorp, C N; Schou, M;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between glucose metabolism, left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve, and exercise capacity in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: From an outpatient HF clinic, 161 patients with systolic HF were included (mean age 70 ± 10...... years, 69% male, 59% had ischaemic heart disease, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 37 ± 9%). Thirty-four (21%) patients had known diabetes mellitus (DM). Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) classified patients without a prior DM diagnosis as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance...... (467 m) (P <0.001). Differences in clinical variables, resting echocardiographic parameters or contractile reserve, did not explain the exercise intolerance related to diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes, known or newly detected by OGTT, is independently associated with reduced LV contractile reserve and...

  15. The influence on cognition of the interaction between the macro-nutrient content of breakfast and glucose tolerance.

    Nabb, Samantha; Benton, David

    2006-01-30

    Previously it has been found that both missing breakfast and having poorer glucose tolerance were associated with better memory. The present study therefore examined the impact of eight breakfasts, in a factorial design, that contained either high or low levels of carbohydrate, fat or protein. The meals were designed to vary the rate of release of glucose into the blood stream. Memory, reaction times and vigilance were assessed 30, 75 and 120 min following breakfast. Using fasting blood glucose levels as a measure of glucose tolerance, better memory was found to be associated with better glucose tolerance and the consumption of meals that more slowly release glucose into the blood. The effects of the meals on reaction times and vigilance were opposite to those with memory in that higher levels of blood glucose tended to be associated with better performance. It was concluded that individual differences in glucose tolerance interact with the glycaemic load of a meal to influence cognitive functioning. PMID:16225896

  16. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

    Theresa Schöttl

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance.

  17. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.;

    2013-01-01

    .RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  18. One-Hour plasma glucose identifies insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in individuals with normal glucose tolerance: cross-sectional data from the relationship between insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk (RISC) study

    Manco, M.; S. Panunzi; Macfarlane, D.Y.; Golay, A.; Melander, O; Konrad, T; Petrie, J. R.; Mingrone, G

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Some individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) exhibit a 1-h excursion of plasma glucose during oral glucose tolerance testing as high as that of individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The aim of this study was to characterize their metabolic phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,205 healthy volunteers (aged 29–61 years) underwent assessment of 1) oral glucose tolerance and 2) insulin sensitivity (standardized euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp), a...

  19. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  20. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...... (DIOGTT) that is a measure of pancreatic β-cell insulin secretory compensation for changing insulin sensitivity. We conducted an observational study of n = 187 subjects, representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity...... (SI OGTT) was calculated using a novel multiple-regression model derived from insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp as the independent variable. We also validated the novel SI OGTT in n = 40 subjects from an independent data set. Plasma C-peptide responses during OGTT were...

  1. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder affecting 5-20% of women in reproductive age. Only limited follow-up data exist regarding the prognosis for glucose tolerance and metabolic risk factors in hirsutism. Sixty-nine Caucasian hirsute women underwent a clinical examination and an oral glucose tolerance...... unchanged BMI compared to baseline but increased fasting and 2 hour glucose levels. Impaired OGTT outcome during follow-up was seen in 14/66 (21.2%) women, 5/66 (7.6%) developed diabetes. Women who took oral contraceptives had a significantly decreased area under the curve (AUC) for insulin during follow......-up, whereas AUC glucose levels increased. The present data supported a high risk of diabetes in only moderately overweight hirsute women....

  2. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. PMID:26347060

  3. Personalized Metabolomics for Predicting Glucose Tolerance Changes in Sedentary Women After High-Intensity Interval Training

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Gibala, Martin J.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after...

  4. Metabolic profiling of the response to an oral glucose tolerance test detects subtle metabolic changes.

    Suzan Wopereis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. METHODOLOGY: To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men.

  5. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Jordaens, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures in....... Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 µg/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates....

  6. Modulation of Coronary Heart Disease Risk by Insulin Resistance in Subjects With Normal Glucose Tolerance or Prediabetes

    Ariel, Danit; Reaven, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis This study is based on the hypothesis that: 1)coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is accentuated in the insulin resistant subset of persons with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes (PreDM); 2)the prevalence of insulin resistance, and associated abnormalities, is greater in subjects with PreDM; and 3)insulin resistance is the major contributor to increased CHD risk in these individuals. Methods A 75 g oral glucose challenge was used to classify volunteers as having NGT or PreDM. Steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test subdivided both groups into insulin sensitive (IS=SSPG <8.4 mmol/L) or resistant (IR=SSPG ≥8.4 mmol/L). Measurements were made of demographic characteristics, blood pressure, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and comparisons made between the subgroups. Results Subjects with PreDM (n=127) were somewhat older, more likely to be non-Hispanic men, with increased adiposity than those with NGT (n=315). In addition, they had higher FPG concentrations, were insulin resistant (SSPG concentration; 11.4 vs. 7.2 mmol/L), with higher blood pressures, and a significantly more adverse CHD risk lipid profile (p<0.001). Twice as many subjects with PreDM were IR (72% vs. 35 %), and the CHD risk profile was significantly worse in the IR subgroups in those with either NGT or PreDM. Conclusions/interpretation CHD risk profile is significantly more adverse in subjects with PreDM as compared to individuals with NGT. However, glucose tolerance status is not the only determinant of CHD risk in nondiabetic individuals, and differences in degree of insulin resistance significantly modulate CHD risk in subjects with NGT or PreDM. PMID:25358836

  7. Possibility to predict early postpartum glucose abnormality following gestational diabetes mellitus based on the results of routine mid-gestational screening

    Bartáková, Vendula; Malúšková, Denisa; Mužík, Jan; Bělobrádková, Jana; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have increased risk of developing glucose abnormality, but current diagnostic criteria are evidence-based for adverse pregnancy outcome. The aims of our study were: (i) to ascertain a frequency of early conversion of GDM into permanent glucose abnormality, (ii) to determine predictive potential of current GDM diagnostic criteria for prediction of postpartum glucose abnormality and (iii) to find optimal cut-off values of ora...

  8. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with decompensated cirrhosis being evaluated for liver transplantation: the utility of oral glucose tolerance test

    Ana Carolina Costa Bragança

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and protein calorie malnutrition are important issues in cirrhotic patients because they can increase the progression of liver disease and worsen its prognosis. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in cirrhotic patients being evaluated for liver transplantation and their impacts on a 3-month follow-up, and to compare fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in consecutively included adult patients. Diabetes mellitus was established through fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosing diabetes mellitus in this population. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indexes were calculated, and nutritional assessment was performed by subjective global assessment, anthropometry and handgrip strength through dynamometry. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was found in 40 patients (64.5%, 9 (22.5% of them by fasting glycemia and 31 (77.5% of them by oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin resistance was found in 40 (69% of the patients. There was no relationship between diabetes mellitus and the etiology of cirrhosis. Protein calorie malnutrition was diagnosed in a range from 3.22% to 45.2% by anthropometry, 58.1% by subjective global assessment and 88.7% by handgrip strength. Diabetes mellitus identified by oral glucose tolerance test was related significantly to a higher prevalence of infectious complications and deaths in a 3-month period (P = 0.017. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and protein calorie malnutrition is high in cirrhotic patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation. There were more infectious complications and/or deaths in a 3-month follow-up period in patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. Oral glucose tolerance test seems to be

  9. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help...... to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. METHODS: In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted...... volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were...

  10. Effects of oral administration of benzylamine on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in rats.

    Bour, S; Visentin, V; Prévot, D; Daviaud, D; Saulnier-Blache, J S; Guigne, C; Valet, P; Carpéné, C

    2005-06-01

    Repeated administration of benzylamine plus vanadate have been reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effects in different models of diabetic rats. Likewise oral treatment with Moringa oleifera extracts which contain the alkaloïd moringine, identical to benzylamine, has also been shown to prevent hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. With these observations we tested whether prolonged oral administration of benzylamine could interact with glucose and/or lipid metabolism. Seven week old male Wistar rats were treated for seven weeks with benzylamine 2.9 g/l in drinking water and were submitted to glucose tolerance tests. A slight decrease in water consumption was observed in benzylamine-treated animals while there was no change in body and adipose tissue weights at the end of treatment. Blood glucose and plasma insulin, triacylglycerol or cholesterol levels were not modified. However, benzylamine treatment resulted in a decrease in plasma free fatty acids in both fed and fasted conditions. Benzylamine treatment improved glucose tolerance as shown by the reduction of hyperglycemic response to intra-peritoneal glucose load. Oral benzylamine treatment did not alter the response of adipocytes to insulin nor to insulin-like actions of benzylamine plus vanadate, via in vitro activation of glucose transport or inhibition of lipolysis. This work demonstrates for the first time that oral administration of benzylamine alone influences glucose and lipid metabolism. However, these results obtained in normoglycemic rats require to be confirmed in diabetic models. PMID:16180335

  11. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/kg BW 30 minutes later. Blood glucose levels were assessed using glucometer kit, from zero to 3 hours, at ½ hourly interval. These results analysed by one way ANOVA showed there were significant difference (p<0.05 between Ethanol extract of avocado leaves treated with mice (0.490, 0.980 g/kg BW and control groups. Furthermore, when Tukey’s test was performed, avocado treated mice (1.960g/kg BW reduce glucose level to 64.27%. The effectiveness of this treatment was not significantly different to those treated with glipizide (68.50%.

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Forms of Self-Management Group Education in Japanese People with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Imai, Saeko; Kozai, Hana; Naruse, Yuko; WATANABE, Kanji; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education on diabetes prevention in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. A total of 100 subjects of impaired glucose tolerance with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels ≥5.5 to

  13. Using the 100-g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test to Predict Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This 5-year cohort study investigated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMusing new diagnostic criteria and predictive factors for maternal and fetaloutcomes.Methods: From March 2001 to February 2006, 8557 pregnant women underwent a 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. A diagnosis ofGDM was based on a a one-hour plasma glucose level ≧ 140 mg/dl on the50 g GCT, followed by at lease two abnormal values on a 100-g oral glucosetolerance test (OGTT, according to the Carpenter and Coustan modificationof the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG criteria. Maternal and fetaloutcomes were compared with women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Results: The incidence of GDM was 7.4%. After excluding women with twin pregnancies,617 women with GDM and 1250 women with NGT were enrolledfor comparison. Older age (33.7 ± 4.1 vs. 32.2 ± 4.1, p 90mg/dL is anticipated to improve outcomes effectively.

  14. Skin Autofluorescence Based Decision Tree in Detection of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes

    Smit, Andries J.; Smit, Jitske M.; Botterblom, Gijs J.; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We compare

  15. Cocoa, glucose tolerance, and insulin signaling: cardiometabolic protection.

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mai, Francesca; Martella, Letizia; De Feo, Martina; Soddu, Daniele; Fellini, Emanuela; Veneri, Mariangela; Stamerra, Cosimo A; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-11-18

    Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states. Glucose and insulin actions in the skeletal muscle are improved by insulin-dependent production of nitric oxide, favoring capillary recruitment, vasodilatation, and increased blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction, with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance has been described, at least in part, to negatively affect endothelial function. Consistent with this, conditions of insulin resistance are usually linked to endothelial dysfunction, and the exposure of the endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia is associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting in impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction has been described as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and cocoa flavonoids may positively affect the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction with possible benefits in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:26126077

  16. Long-term effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets on glucose tolerance in mice with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a deficiency

    Nyman, L R; Tian, L; Hamm, D A; Schoeb, T R; Gower, B A; Nagy, T R; Wood, P A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Abnormal fatty acid metabolism is an important feature in the mechanisms of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a, liver isoform) has a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We investigated the role of CPT-1a in the development of impaired glucose tolerance using a mouse model for CPT-1a deficiency when challenged by either a high-carbohydrate (HCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for a total duration of up to 46 weeks. Methods: Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed in heterozygous CPT-1a-deficient (CPT-1a+/−) male mice after being fed either a HCD or a HFD for durations of 28 weeks and 46 weeks. Both glucose and insulin tolerance tests were used to investigate β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Differences in islet insulin content and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by morphological analysis. Results: CPT-1a+/− mice were more insulin-sensitive than CPT-1a+/+ mice when fed either HCD or HFD. The increased insulin sensitivity was associated with an increased expression of Cpt-1b (muscle isoform) in liver, as well as increased microvesicular hepatic steatosis compared with CPT-1a+/+ mice. CPT-1a+/− mice were more glucose tolerant than CPT-1a+/+ mice when fed the HCD, but there was no significant difference when fed HFD. Moreover, CPT-1a+/− mice fed HFD or HCD had fewer and smaller pancreatic islets than CPT-1a+/+ mice. Conclusions: CPT-1a deficiency preserved insulin sensitivity when challenged by long-term feeding of either diet. Furthermore, CPT-1a-deficient mice had distinct phenotypes dependent on the diet fed demonstrating that both diet and genetics collectively have a role in the development of impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:22229081

  17. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Neda Roshanravan; Mohammad Alizadeh; Mehdi Hedayati; Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi; Naimeh Mesri Alamdari; Farideh Anari; Ali Tarighat-Esfanjani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus are complications of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns are typically at increased risk for complications. This study sought to determine effect of zinc supplementation on serum glucose levels, insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: In this clinical trial 44 pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance, from December 2012 –April 2013 were randomly divided ...

  18. PREVALENCE OF IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN FIRST DEGREE RELATIVES (>30YRS OF TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS: ORIGINAL REPORT

    Shailendra Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patients with impaired glucose tolerance are diagnosed with difficulty in the clinical setting because of the absence of classical symptoms of the disease. Due to recent introduction of this class of glucose intolerance, and relative lack of knowledge of its clinical significance impaired glucose tolerance is still the subject of research to determine its course and prognostic implications. AIMS: To study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in first degree relatives of type II diabetic patients, above 30 years of age. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Inclusion of persons above the age of 30 years who are first degree relatives of type II diabetic, admitted in indoor or attending as outpatients in Department of Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh. METHODS AND MATERIAL: A complete general and systemic examination and Oral GTT to be carried out on selected subjects. RESULTS: More than one-fourth of the subjects were found to have an impaired Oral Glucose tolerance test. None of them previously knew their oral glucose tolerance state. Total prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance found in this study was 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Testing for impaired glucose tolerance should be considered in all individuals at age 45 years and above and if normal it should be repeated at three year interval. Keeping in mind the results of this study, this testing should be carried out at an earlier age group, especially for the ‘at risk’ population

  19. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  20. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  1. Natural history of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance: the Inter99 study

    Faerch, Kristine; Vaag, Allan; Holst, Jens J; Hansen, Torben; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the development of isolated impaired fasting glycemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and combined IFG/IGT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline and 5-year...... beta-cell compensation is associated with the development of i-IGT. Thereby, i-IFG and i-IGT appear to result from different underlying mechanisms, which may have implications for the prevention and treatment of the diabetes that succeeds them....

  2. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  3. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from a Kusaya gravy metagenome.

    Uchiyama, Taku; Yaoi, Katusro; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    β-glucosidases (BGLs) hydrolyze cello-oligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (∼mM) concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (∼10,000 colonies) and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue) colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v) glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa) and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7) was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0-6.5 and retained full or 1.5-2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1-0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 μM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose) and high V max (91 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with cellobiose) among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose) inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose. PMID:26136726

  4. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  5. The effect of the interaction between glucose tolerance and breakfasts varying in carbohydrate and fibre on mood and cognition.

    Nabb, Samantha L; Benton, David

    2006-01-01

    As a glucose containing drink has been reported to improve memory, and missing breakfast has been reported to adversely influence memory late in the morning, meals designed to differ in their ability to release glucose into the blood stream were contrasted. Using a factorial design, breakfasts containing 15, 30 or 50 g of carbohydrate and 1.5, 6 or 13 g of fibre were compared. The glucose tolerance of participants proved to be an important factor. Those with better tolerance reported better mood. Those eating breakfasts containing greater amounts of carbohydrate reported feeling tired rather than energetic. The amount of carbohydrate did not negatively affect memory in those with better glucose tolerance, however, the consumption of more carbohydrate resulted in more forgetting in those with poorer glucose tolerance. The effect with reactions times differed from memory in that a greater intake of carbohydrate resulted in faster responses later in the morning. PMID:17176639

  6. Neuropatia vegetativa em pacientes com tolerância diminuída à glicose Autonomic neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance test

    Karla Freire Rezende

    1997-01-01

    individuals (Group 2. Every patient in each group underwent anamnesis and standardized autonomic tests which consisted of hear frequency test, Valsalva maneuver, postural test and sinus arrythmia. Routine hematologic exams as well as GTT were also made. RESULTS: Patients in group 1 had more systemic arterial hypertension, centripetal obesity, fasting and post-feeding hyperglicemia and dyslipidemia when compared with group 2. When we analysed the autonomic tests, the sinus arrythmia test was abnormal in 54.5% of the patients in group 1 and in 32.5% in group 2 (p=0.0039 and the Valsalva maneuver was abnormal in 34.1% of group 1 and in 7% of group 2 (p=0.004. The postural test was not different in both groups (p=0.334. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the involvement of the autonomic nervous system was more frequent in patients with IGT when compared to controls. These findings can explair the increased lethality due to vasculopathies observed in this group of patients and also alert physicians to care for patients with impaired glucose tolerance test.

  7. Follow-up of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Basic Health Survey 2007 in Jakarta in 2009

    Laurentia Mihardja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar Belakang:Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu (TGT atau Pre Diabetes merupakan keadaan yang belum termasuk kategori diabetes tetapi glukosa darah lebih tinggi dari normal. TGT merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya diabetes mellitus (DM, penyakit jantung koroner, stroke. Metode: Dilakukan penelitian follow up responden TGT Riskesdas 2007 pada tahun 2009 untuk mengetahui status hiperglikemianya apakah telah menjadi DM, tetap TGT atau Normal. Hasil:Didapatkan setelah 2 tahun 7,2% telah menjadi DM, 47,8% tetap TGT, 4,3% berubah menjadi gangguan glukosa puasa dan 40,7% menjadi normal toleransi glukosa. Kebiasaan perilaku, keadaan biologis seperti indeks massa tubuh, obesitas sentral, dislipidemia tidak berbeda signifikan antara tahun 2009 dibandingkan 2007. Dari analisis didapatkan pada kelompok TGT yang menjadi DM lingkar pinggang meningkat tapi tidak signifikan dan Homa IR (resistensi insulin lebih tinggi (p < 0,05 dibandingkan kelompok lainnya. Saran:Disarankan agar pembuat program melakukan intervensi pada kelompok TGT agar tidak menjadi DM dan mencegah timbulnya komplikasi penyakit degeneratif.Kata kunci: Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu, obesitas sentral, DKI JakartaABSTRACTBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or pre diabetes is not categorized as diabetes yet but blood glucose level is more than normal. IGT is the risk factor for diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and stroke. Methods: In 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted in DKI Jakarta to follow up 78 subjects identified as IGT in Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007. It aimed to assess the hyperglycemia status of the IGT subjects, whether developing into diabetes mellitus or becoming normal glucose tolerance or just remained IGT. Results: We found over two years for IGT subjects, 7.2% progressed to diabetes mellitus, 47.8% remained impaired glucose tolerance, 4.3% changed to impaired fasting glucose and 40.7% reverted to normal glucose tolerance. Life style and biological factors

  8. Intake of Lactobacillus reuteri Improves Incretin and Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant Humans

    Simon, Marie-Christine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ingestion of probiotics can modify gut microbiota and alter insulin resistance and diabetes development in rodents. We hypothesized that daily intake of Lactobacillus reuteri increases insulin sensitivity by changing cytokine release and insulin secretion via modulation of the release of...... production. Muscle and hepatic lipid contents were assessed by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and immune status, cytokines, and endotoxin were measured with specific assays. RESULTS: In glucose-tolerant volunteers, daily administration of L. reuteri SD5865 increased glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and GLP-2...

  9. Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs

    van Eyk, Gregory Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs Abstract A pig model of childhood obesity was used to study the effects of dietary energy on body adiposity, and blood parameters associated with impaired glucose clearance. Prepubertal female pigs weaned at 21 d of age were fed control (CON), refined sugar (SUG), fat (FAT), and sugar-fat (SUGFAT) diets in a completely randomized arrangement for 16 wk. Calories from fat were 8.9% for CON, 5.6% for SU...

  10. Clinical observation of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular department of Internal Medicine%心血管内科住院患者糖代谢异常的临床观察

    李丽

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore cardiovascular department of internal medicine hospitalized patients with abnormal glucose metabolism,understanding of abnormal glucose metabolism oncardiovascular effects of patient health,and better treatment of patients with cardiovasculardisease.MethodsIn our hospital in 2013 June~2014 year in March treated 200 cases ofcardiovascular department of internal medicine hospitalized patients as the research object,including 50 cases with clinical diagnosed with diabetes,the remaining 150 patients,were used toobserve the cardiovascular department of internal medicine sugar glucose metabolism of patients hospitalized for observation and analysis of tolerance test and fasting blood glucose detection two experimental methods.ResultsThe two test results show,in 200 patients with fasting blood glucose detection,diagnosis of abnormal glucose metabolism in 50 patients,and oral glucose tolerance test on the remaining 150 patients,diagnosed with abnormal glucose metabolism in 100 cases(67%) of the number of sampling experiment,by comparing with the glucose tolerance,test of cardiovascular patients blood glucose were detected,the rate of missed diagnosis of patients with greatly reduced.ConclusionThe oral glucose tolerance test glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular disease than that of fasting blood glucose test to conifrm the diagnosis of glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular disease rate is high,is worth in clinicaldetection of glucose metabolism of the patients,and vigorously promote the use of.%目的:探究心血管内科住院患者的糖代谢异常,了解糖代谢异常对心血管患者身体健康的影响,从而更好的治疗患者的心血管疾病。方法选取我院2013年6月~2014年3月收治的200例心血管内科住院的患者为研究对象,其中50例经过临床各项检查确诊为糖尿病,对剩余150例患者,分别采用葡萄糖耐量试验和空腹血糖检测实验方法对患者的

  11. Macrosomia in non-gestational diabetes pregnancy:glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto-maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia

    Algenes Aranha; Usman H Malabu; Venkat Vangaveti; Elham Saleh Reda; Yong Mong Tan; Kunwarjit Singh Sangla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To look into the glucose tolerance test characteristics and determine complications in non-gestational diabetes pregnant subjects.Methods:who delivered macrosomia at the North Australia’s Townsville Hospital were retrospectively reviewed by extracting data from clinical record. Glucose tolerance tests results were analysed in the light of an earlier diagnosis of non-GDM. From 2006 to 2009 all non-gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM) pregnant women Results: Ninety-one non-GDM mothers with macrosomia were studied and compared with 41 normoglycemic subjects without macrosomia. Of the subjects with non-GDM macrosomia, 45 (49.4%) had normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) without further testing, another 8 (8.8%) had abnormal GCT but normal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 4 (4.4%) subjects had normal GCT and OGTT. Interestingly, 14 out of 16 (87.5%) subjects who were tested with OGTT owing to past history of macrosomia had normal results but delivered macrosomic babies. Only 12 subjects had both GCT and OGTT, the rest of the cohort had either of the two tests. Subjects with non-GDM macrosomia had higher frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia 34% as compared to 10% in non-macrosomic babies (P=0.003). Other feto-maternal complications were similar in both groups.Conclusions:No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  12. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential in pregnancy-induced impaired glucose tolerance in rats

    Taiwo I.A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy induced diabetes also known as gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an insulin resistant state that may induce impaired glucose tolerance and often gestational diabetes in susceptible women. Gestational diabetes causes serious problems to the mother and the baby. Therefore, the use of herbal remedies such as Bridelia ferruginea with the potential ability to improve glucose tolerance during pregnancy will definitely improve pregnancy outcome in gestational diabetes. Aim: This paper presents an evaluation of possible therapeutic potential of B. ferruginea in gestational diabetes by assessing the anti-glycaemic effects of the plant’s aqueous extracts on pregnancy-induced glucose intolerance in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult virgin, timed-pregnant and non-pregnant rats were subjected to brief ether anaesthesia after 18-hour overnight fasting period to allow for oro-gastric administration of glucose load at 3.0g/kg body weight as 30% solution. The oral glucose load was given at an administration volume of 1.0ml/100g bw. Results: Oral glucose tolerance test showed that pregnancy induced glucose intolerance in the rats. However, B. ferruginea caused a reduction in glycaemic response to glucose challenge and an increased glucose tolerance in rats that had pregnancy-induced glucose intolerance. Thus, diabetogenic effect of pregnancy was ameliorated by oral administration of aqueous extracts of B. ferruginea to pregnant albino rats.

  13. Relationship of body fat with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors among normal glucose-tolerant subjects

    K Gokulakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The amount of body fat, rather than the amount of excess weight, determines the health risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Aims : To look at the association of body fat percentage with cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Settings and Design : Cross-section study from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Materials and Methods : Body fat was measured by Beurer body fat analyzer. Metabolic syndrome (MS was diagnosed based on modified ATPIII guidelines. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test or one-way ANOVA (with Tukey′s HSD was used to compare groups for continuous variables. Results : Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HOMA IR, serum cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with increasing tertiles of body fat (P<0.001. There was a linear increase in the percentage of body fat with increase in number of components of MS (no metabolic abnormality: 25±11, one metabolic abnormality: 28±10, two metabolic abnormalities: 33±8, and three and more metabolic abnormalities: 35±7 (P<0.001. Regression models showed significant association of body fat with MS after adjusting for age, gender, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin (Odds ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 - 1.08, P<0.001. In linear regression analysis, body fat showed a significant association with insulin resistance after adjusting for age, gender, and glycated hemoglobin (β=0.030, P<0.001. Conclusions : A significant association exists between body fat, MS, and cardiometabolic risk factors even among subjects with NGT.

  14. Circulating ZBED3 level is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance

    罗涌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the plasma zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3(ZBED3)levels in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance,and to explore the relationship between ZBED3 and insulin resistance.Methods There were 109 patients with newly diagnosed type 2diabetes mellitus(T2DM),89 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT),113 sex-,age-,and body mass index(BMI)-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)included in this study.Plasma ZBED3 level

  15. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte;

    2015-01-01

    Context: Regional fat distribution rather than overall obesity has been recognized as important tounderstanding the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Objective:We examined the associations of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominalsubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT......) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound....... The associations of VAT and SATwith blood pressure and lipids were examined by linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex,smoking, alcohol, physical activity, glucose tolerance status (GTS), medication use, and body massindex. Effect modification by GTS and sex was examined, and stratified analyses performed...

  16. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test. STUDY DESIGN: A historical cohort study of 2459 pregnant women systematically examined for gestational diabetes was.......0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese women (BMI >or= 30.0 kg/m(2)) compared with women who were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The frequencies of shoulder dystocia, preterm delivery, and infant morbidity other than macrosomia were not significantly associated with maternal BMI. CONCLUSION: Prepregnancy...... overweight and obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women....

  17. Glucose tolerance by 13CO2 breath test methodology and utilization

    Full text: The glucose tolerance test is a valuable diagnostic aid. The ability to utilize carbohydrate is decreased in diabetics and increased in hypopituitarism, hyperinsulinism, and adrenocortical hypofunction. Developments in mass spectrometric technology and availability of 13C-enriched substrates for clinical research have enabled the clinician to perform 13CO2 breath tests in normal and patients with various diseases. In this paper, we planned to evaluate the applicability of the non-invasive 13CO2 breath test for glucose tolerance studies and for the diagnosis of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in adults using natural glucose. The methodology for breath sample collection, storage and analysis was developed and experimental conditions were designed and optimized. Static absorption of breath CO2 was carried out by having the subject exhale through a Tygon tube attached with glass adapter into an empty 250 ml flat bottom flask. Flask was closed by stopper after adding 10 ml 1.5 N NaOH solution and was shaken for 5 minutes. Samples were stored in plastic lined screw-cap vials for analysis. Analysis of same breath sample (δ 13C value -25.63, n=3) and laboratory internal standard (δ 13C value -3.56, n=4) show precision 0.10 and 0.03 respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed on normal volunteers using naturally labeled glucose (glaxose-D) in fasting and non fasting conditions using standard test meal. MS Excel software template for trioctanoic acid breath test, got from W. A. Coward, Dunn Nutrition Center, U. K. was modified for calculations of cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered from natural glucose. Mean glucose tolerance test data from Marcel Lacroix (1973) was used to the modified template and cumulative percentage of 13C dose was calculated and compared with our experiments' results. Marcel Lacroix fasted data shows percentage dose recovered 30.53 ± 4.06, n=8, 20-32 years. PINSTECH fasted data shows percentage dose recovered 31.28

  18. Dosakaya Juice Assuages Development of Sucrose Induced Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Imbalance in Antioxidant Defense

    Kumar, Dommati Anand; Pisupati S.R Sweeya; Shukla, Srishti; Anusha, Sanga Venkata; Akshara, Dasari; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to explore the effect of Dosakaya (DK) (Cucumis melo var. chito) juice on sucrose induced dysglycemia and disturbances in antioxidant defense in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were preconditioned with DK juice before administration of sucrose beverage continuously for 1-month. Blood glucose tolerance test and glutathione (GSH) homeostasis pathways in kidney were analyzed in different group of animals at the end of the study. Results: DK juice diffused (P < 0.00...

  19. An Informatics Model for Clinical Research – Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study

    Tsui, Circe W.; Caudle, Jane M.; Ziemer, David C.; Phillips, Lawrence S.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for large scale, multi-site research studies is the time-sensitive tracking of numerous subjects, samples and results through multiple encounters and processes, by many team members in several different locations. This may be compounded by collaborations with other studies to share samples, data collection and subjects. The Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance (SIGT) study has met this challenge by developing a secure, informatics system with web and client server interf...

  20. Effect of Parenteral Antioxidant Supplementation During the Dry Period on Postpartum Glucose Tolerance in Dairy Cows

    Abuelo, A.; Alves‐Nores, V.; Hernandez, J.; Muiño, R.; J.L. BENEDITO; C. CASTILLO

    2016-01-01

    Background Exacerbated postparturient insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with several pathologic conditions in dairy cattle. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in IR in humans, and an association, but not direct relationship, between OS and IR recently has been reported in transition dairy cattle. Hypothesis Supplementation with antioxidants shortly before calving improves glucose tolerance after parturition in dairy cattle. Animals Ten late‐pregnant Holstein cows entering ...

  1. Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Pelgrim, Koen; Deldicque, Louise; Hesselink, Matthijs; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Hespel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-calo...

  2. ATLANTIC DIP: The Impact of Obesity on Pregnancy Outcome in Glucose-Tolerant Women

    Owens, Lisa A.; O'Sullivan, Eoin P; Kirwan, Breeda; Avalos, Gloria; Gaffney, Geraldine; Dunne, Fidelma; ,

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [...

  3. Long-term effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets on glucose tolerance in mice with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a deficiency

    Nyman, L R; Tian, L.; Hamm, D A; Schoeb, T R; Gower, B. A.; Nagy, T.R.; P A Wood

    2011-01-01

    Background: Abnormal fatty acid metabolism is an important feature in the mechanisms of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a, liver isoform) has a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We investigated the role of CPT-1a in the development of impaired glucose tolerance using a mouse model for CPT-1a deficiency when challenged by either a high-carbohydrate (HCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for a total duration of up to...

  4. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To estimate the 1-year progression rates from both IFG and IGT to diabetes in individuals identified in a pragmatic diabetes screening programme in general practice (the ADDITION Study, Denmark [Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes......-examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  5. β2-Adrenergic receptor ablation modulates hepatic lipid accumulation and glucose tolerance in aging mice.

    Shi, Yun; Shu, Zhen-Ju; Xue, Xiaoling; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Katz, Michael S; Kamat, Amrita

    2016-06-01

    Catecholamines acting through β-adrenergic receptors (β1-, β2-, β3-AR subtypes) modulate important biological responses in various tissues. Our previous studies suggest a role for increased hepatic β-AR-mediated signaling during aging as a mediator of hepatic steatosis, liver glucose output, and insulin resistance in rodents. In the current study, we have utilized β2-AR knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) control mice to define further the role of β2-AR signaling during aging on lipid and glucose metabolism. Our results demonstrate for the first time that age-related increases in hepatic triglyceride accumulation and body weight are attenuated upon β2-AR ablation. Although no differences in plasma triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids or insulin levels were detected between old WT and KO animals, an age-associated increase in hepatic expression of lipid homeostasis regulator Cidea was significantly reduced in old KO mice. Interestingly, we also observed a shift from reduced glucose tolerance in young adult KO animals to significantly improved glucose tolerance in old KO when compared to age-matched WT mice. These results provide evidence for an important role played by β2-ARs in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism during aging. The effect of β2-AR ablation on caloric intake during aging is currently not known and requires investigation. Future studies are also warranted to delineate the β2-AR-mediated mechanisms involved in the control of lipid and glucose homeostasis, especially in the context of a growing aging population. PMID:26952573

  6. PPARα Agonist Fenofibrate Reduced the Secreting Load of β-Cells in Hypertriglyceridemia Patients with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Jia Liu; Rui Lu; Ying Wang; Yanjin Hu; Yumei Jia; Ning Yang; Jing Fu; Guang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor associated with insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. This study investigated the effects of hypertriglyceridemia and fenofibrate treatment on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. A total of 1974 subjects with normal glucose tolerance were divided into the normal TG group (NTG group, n = 1302) and hypertriglyceridemia group (HTG group, n = 672). Next, 92 patients selected randomly from 672 pati...

  7. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential in pregnancy-induced impaired glucose tolerance in rats

    Taiwo I.A; Adewumi O.O; Odeigah P.G.C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy induced diabetes also known as gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an insulin resistant state that may induce impaired glucose tolerance and often gestational diabetes in susceptible women. Gestational diabetes causes serious problems to the mother and the baby. Therefore, the use of herbal remedies such as Bridelia ferruginea with the potential ability to improve glucose tolerance during pregnancy will definitely improve pregnancy outcome in ges...

  8. Effects of exercise intervention on vascular endothelium functions of patients with impaired glucose tolerance during prediabetes mellitus

    Liu, Yiping; Li, Jianwei; ZHANG, ZHENGHONG; TANG, YEDONG; CHEN, ZUOSONG; Wang, Zhengchao

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an early pathophysiological change in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during prediabetes mellitus. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that exercise intervention contributes to the reversal of vascular endothelium-dependent dysfunction in middle-aged patients with IGT. Following exercise intervention, significant changes in endothelin (ET)-1, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), ΔDia-P, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)2h, fasting insuli...

  9. Abnormal release of incretins and cortisol after oral glucose in subjects with insulin-resistant myotonic dystrophy

    Johansson, Asa; Olsson, Tommy; Cederquist, Kristina;

    2002-01-01

    interesting model for the study of hormonal perturbations accompanying marked insulin resistance without concomitant diabetes is myotonic dystrophy (DM1). DESIGN: The work was carried out in an out-patient setting. METHODS: An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 18 males with DM1 and 18 controls to...... examine the release of incretins and counter-regulatory hormones. Genetic analyses were also performed in patients. RESULTS: We found that the increment in GLP-1 after oral glucose was significantly greater in patients, while there was no significant difference in GIP or glucagon responses between...... patients and controls, although long CTG repeat expansions were associated with a more pronounced GIP response. Interestingly, the GLP-1 response to oral glucose correlated with the insulin response in patients but not in controls whereas, in controls, the insulin response closely correlated with the GIP...

  10. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and coronary artery disease in non-diabetic men

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but is not always recognized in the clinical setting. An anti-atherogenic adipocytokine, adiponectin, is decreased in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its role in non-diabetic subjects has not been clarified. The hypothesis investigated in the present study was that plasma adiponectin levels correlate with IGT and coronary artery disease (CAD) in non-diabetic men. Glucose intolerance was evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test and plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 232 non-diabetic men who underwent coronary angiography. Patients with IGT (n=102) had significantly lower adiponectin levels than those with normal glucose tolerance (n=130) (4.47 [3.23-6.39] vs 5.85 [3.99-8.65] μg/ml, p=0.003). Plasma adiponectin levels were associated with IGT in multiple logistic regression analysis (odds ratio (OR) 0.623, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.397-0.980; p=0.041). Non-diabetic patients with CAD (n=122) had lower adiponectin levels than those without CAD (n=110) (4.60 [3.32-6.38] vs 6.08 [4.10-9.88] μg/ml, p<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated adiponectin independently correlated with the presence of CAD (OR 0.432, 95% CI 0.256-0.728; p=0.002). Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with IGT and CAD in non-diabetic men, suggesting that the adiponectin level can provide valuable information regarding the risk of CAD even in non-diabetic subjects. (author)

  11. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment

    Rayees Ahmad Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with antipsychotics increases the risk of developing diabetes in patients of schizophrenia but this diabetogenic potential of different antipsychotics seems to be different. Moreover, there may be an independent link between schizophrenia and diabetes. So we plan to study the prevalence of glucose dysregulation in patients of schizophrenia before and after treatment with various antipsychotics. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (32 males and 18 females diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated for glucose dysregulation using oral glucose tolerance test, initially (drug naive and after antipsychotic treatment. Age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer group of 50 subjects (35 males and 15 females was taken for comparison. Results were interpreted using American Diabetic Association criteria. Results: Though the glycemic status of the patient group was comparable with healthy controls initially but antipsychotic treatment was associated with glucose dysregulation. For first 6 weeks the antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol and aripiprazole-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with the olanzapine-treated group at the end of this study, 14 weeks. Conclusion: We conclude that antipsychotic treatment of nondiabetic drug naive schizophrenia patients was associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation. For initial 6 weeks the antipsychotic-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with olanzapine at the end of study, i.e. 14 weeks. Keeping this at the back of mind we can stabilize a patient initially with a more effective drug, olanzapine, and later on shift to one with less metabolic side effects.

  12. EVALUATION OF HONEY INCORPORATED FOOD PREPARATION ON THE BASIS OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND THEIR ADVOCACY IN IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Rana Seema

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural sweetener and it is a nature’s gift to mankind. Honey is important edible substance, which contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins and sugars as major constituents. Honey is frequently used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as variety of the Ayurvedic preparations are taken along with or in combination with honey. The present study was conducted to determine the glycemic index of food products made with different natural sweeteners including honey. Normal healthy subjects (n = 10 and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 10 were included in the study and administered with equicarbohydrate quantity of glucose and a food preparation ‘sweet roll’ containing different sweeteners at fasted state on various days. Monitoring of blood glucose in normal healthy subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes indicated a significant difference in incremental area under the curve (IAUC of glucose and food preparations made with different sweeteners. The mean incremental area under the curve of food preparations was significantly lower (p = < 0.01 than that of glucose in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance as well as normal healthy subjects. At the same time honey incorporated sweet rolls were found to have lower glycemic index when compared to rolls prepared with cane sugar and jaggery. This indicated honey incorporated foods may be occasionally consumed by subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  13. Therapeutic effects of adropin on glucose tolerance and substrate utilization in diet-induced obese mice with insulin resistance

    Su Gao

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Adropin treatment of DIO mice enhances glucose tolerance, ameliorates insulin resistance and promotes preferential use of carbohydrate over fat in fuel selection. Skeletal muscle is a key organ in mediating adropin's whole-body effects, sensitizing insulin signaling pathways and altering fuel selection preference to favor glucose while suppressing fat oxidation.

  14. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose.

    Goossens, Gijs H; Moors, Chantalle C M; Jocken, Johan W E; van der Zijl, Nynke J; Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Diamant, Michaela; Blaak, Ellen E

    2016-03-01

    Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [²H₂]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids (FFA), whereas [U-(13)C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018) and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064) in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043), higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025), higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004), lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017) and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073) and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059) versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects. PMID:26985905

  15. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose

    Gijs H. Goossens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG and free fatty acids (FFA, whereas [U-13C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG, FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018 and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064 in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043, higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025, higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004, lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017 and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073 and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059 versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects.

  16. Poor sleep quality is associated with impaired glucose tolerance in women after gestational diabetes.

    Ferrari, U; Künzel, H; Tröndle, K; Rottenkolber, M; Kohn, D; Fugmann, M; Banning, F; Weise, M; Sacco, V; Hasbargen, U; Hutter, S; Parhofer, K G; Kloiber, S; Ising, M; Seissler, J; Lechner, A

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed the association of sleep quality and glucose metabolism in women after gestational diabetes (pGDM) and in women after normoglycemic pregnancy (controls). Data during pregnancy and a visit within the first 15 months after delivery were collected from 61 pGDM and 30 controls in a prospective cohort study. This included a medical history, physical examination, questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)), and 5-point oral glucose tolerance test with insulin measurements to determine indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We used Spearman correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models for analysis.9.3 ± 3.2 months after delivery, pGDM had significantly higher fasting and 2 h glucose levels and lower insulin sensitivity than controls. There was no significant difference in age, BMI and sleep quality as assessed with the PSQI between the two groups. The PSQI score correlated with the ogtt-2 h plasma glucose in pGDM (δ = 0.41; p = 0.0012), but not in controls. This association was confirmed with a multivariate linear regression model with adjustment for age, BMI and months post-delivery. Perceived stress was an independent risk factor (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.02-1.23) for impaired sleep. Our findings suggest that post-delivery sleep quality significantly influences glucose tolerance in women after GDM and that impaired sleep is associated with increased stress perception. Measures to improve of sleep quality and reduce perceived stress should therefore be tested as additional strategies to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes after GDM. PMID:25930074

  17. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    Objective: People with epilepsy commonly report having problems with their memory. Many indicate that memory difficulties significantly hinder their functioning at work, in school, and at home. Besides, some studies have reported that memory performance as a prognostic factor is of most value in patients with risk of refractory epilepsy and when used in a multidisciplinary setting. However, the cerebral cortical areas involving memory impairment in epilepsy is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to access changes of cerebral glucose metabolism of epilepsy patients using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Method: Nine temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. Each patient was confirmed with lesions in right mesial temporal lobe by MRI, PET and EEG. Serial cognition function tests were performed. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) was measured by PET at 45 minutes after injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Parametric images were generated by grand mean scaling each scan to 50. The images were then transformed into standard stereotactic space. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was applied to find the correlations between verbal memory, figure memory, perception intelligent quotation (PIQ) and rCMRglc in epilepsy patients. The changes of rCMRglc were significant if corrected p value was less than 0.05. Results: There was no significant relationship between figure memory score and verbal memory score. FDG-PET scan showed changes of rCMRglc positive related with verbal memory score in precentral gyms of right frontal lobe (Brodmann area 4, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size 240) and cingulated gyms of right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 32, corrected p=0.002, voxel size 143). No negative relationship was demonstrable between verbal memory and rCMRglc in this study. Besides, significanfiy positive correlation between figure memory was shown in cuneus of right occipital lobe (Brodmann area 18, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size

  18. Biochemical studies on gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Sudanese pregnant women

    To detect the effect of some maternal risk factors such as age, parity, previous heavy babies and family history of diabetes, in glucose tolerance impairment and to stand on the state of insulin resistance which occurs in pregnancy and the possible role of cortisol, human placental lactogen and prolactin in augmentation of this state of insulin resistance as well as to show the effect of glucose tolerance deterioration on lipid metabolism, a study was carried out on Sudanese pregnant women. The study included thirty gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women, thirty impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and thirty women with normal glucose tolerance as a control group. The GDM, IGT and the control group were screened from about 2000 Sudanese pregnant women in the different gestational weeks. The GDM and IGT women were all discovered in the third trimester of pregnancy, they found to be significantly older than the control group. The IGT group was found to have a first degree family history of diabetes incidence significantly more than that of the control group while the GDM group has significantly much higher results when compared with the normal control group. The incidence of previous heavy babies was significantly higher in the IGT group when compared with the control while that of GDM was significantly much higher. The GDM group was found to have significantly higher mean levels of fasting blood plasma glucose sugar than that of the IGT and the control groups. It was found that the serum cholestrol mean level and the serum triglycerides mean level of the IGT and that of the GDM were significantly higher than that of the control group. Also, there were no significant differences among serum fasting insulin mean levels of the three studied groups. Results of serum anti-insulin antibodies of the three studied groups were significantly different. Results of serum cortisol of the control group in the first, second and third trimesters revealed that cortisol

  19. Purification, Characterization, and Substrate Specificity of a Novel Highly Glucose-Tolerant β-Glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Riou, Christine; Salmon, Jean-Michel; Vallier, Marie-Jose; Günata, Ziya; Barre, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae was found to secrete two distinct β-glucosidases when it was grown in liquid culture on various substrates. The major form had a molecular mass of 130 kDa and was highly inhibited by glucose. The minor form, which was induced most effectively on quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone)-rich medium, represented no more than 18% of total β-glucosidase activity but exhibited a high tolerance to glucose inhibition. This highly glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase (designated HGT-B...

  20. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. PMID:25991720

  1. Impaired glucose tolerance after brief heat exposure: a randomized crossover study in healthy young men.

    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    A high demand on thermoregulatory processes may challenge homoeostasis, particularly regarding glucose regulation. This has been understudied, although it might concern millions of humans. The objective of this project was to examine the isolated and combined effects of experimental short-term mild heat exposure and metabolic level on glucoregulation. Two experimental randomized crossover studies were conducted. Ten healthy young men participated in study A, which comprises four sessions in a fasting state at two metabolic levels [rest and exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (O2) for 40 min] in two environmental temperatures (warm: 31°C and control: 22°C). Each session ended with an ad libitum meal, resulting in similar energy intake across sessions. In study B, 12 healthy young men underwent two 3 h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in warm and control environmental temperatures. Venous blood was sampled at several time points. In study A, repeated measure ANOVAs revealed higher postprandial serum glucose and insulin levels with heat exposure. Glycaemia following the OGTT was higher in the warm temperature compared with control. The kinetics of the serum glucose response to the glucose load was also affected by the environmental temperature (temperature-by-time interaction, P=0.030), with differences between the warm and control conditions observed up to 90 min after the glucose load (all P<0.033). These studies provide evidence that heat exposure alters short-term glucoregulation. The implication of this environmental factor in the physiopathology of Type 2 diabetes has yet to be investigated. PMID:26980346

  2. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  3. Feasibility of a lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance

    Schwab Ursula S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conjunction with the growing prevalence of obesity and the older age of pregnant women gestational diabetes (GDM is a major health problem. The aim of the study was to evaluate if a lifestyle intervention since early pregnancy is feasible in improving the glucose tolerance of women at a high-risk for GDM in Finland. Methods A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in early pregnancy (n = 102. Women at high risk for GDM (n = 54 were randomized at weeks 8-12 from Apr 2005 to May 2006 to a lifestyle intervention group (n = 27 or to a close follow-up group (n = 27. An OGTT was performed again at weeks 26-28 for the lifestyle intervention and close follow-up groups. Results The values of the OGTT during the second trimester did not differ between the lifestyle intervention and close follow-up groups. In the lifestyle intervention group three women had GDM in the second trimester and respectively one woman in the close follow up group. Insulin therapy was not required in both groups. The intervention resulted in somewhat lower weight gain 11.4 ± 6.0 kg vs. 13.9 ± 5.1 kg, p = 0.062, adjusted by the prepregnancy weight. Conclusions Early intervention with an OGTT and simple lifestyle advice is feasible. A more intensive lifestyle intervention did not offer additional benefits with respect to glucose tolerance, although it tended to ameliorate the weight gain. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01130012

  4. Neuregulin improves response to glucose tolerance test in control and diabetic rats.

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Niisuke, Katrin; Veiga, Catarina; Adrover, Anna; Manzano, Anna; Martínez-Redondo, Vicente; Camps, Marta; Bartrons, Ramon; Zorzano, Antonio; Gumà, Anna

    2016-03-15

    Neuregulin (NRG) is an EGF-related growth factor that binds to the tyrosine kinase receptors ErbB3 and ErbB4, thus inducing tissue development and muscle glucose utilization during contraction. Here, we analyzed whether NRG has systemic effects regulating glycemia in control and type 2 diabetic rats. To this end, recombinant NRG (rNRG) was injected into Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and their respective lean littermates 15 min before a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. rNRG enhanced glucose tolerance without promoting the activation of the insulin receptor (IR) or insulin receptor substrates (IRS) in muscle and liver. However, in control rats, rNRG induced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in liver but not in muscle. In liver, rNRG increased ErbB3 tyrosine phosphorylation and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), thus indicating that rNRG activates the ErbB3/PI3K/PKB signaling pathway. rNRG increased glycogen content in liver but not in muscle. rNRG also increased the content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), an activator of hepatic glycolysis, and lactate in liver but not in muscle. Increases in lactate were abrogated by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, in incubated hepatocytes. The liver of ZDF rats showed a reduced content of ErbB3 receptors, entailing a minor stimulation of the rNRG-induced PKB/GSK-3 cascade and resulting in unaltered hepatic glycogen content. Nonetheless, rNRG increased hepatic Fru-2,6-P2 and augmented lactate both in liver and in plasma of diabetic rats. As a whole, rNRG improved response to the GTT in both control and diabetic rats by enhancing hepatic glucose utilization. PMID:26714846

  5. Juçara pulp supplementation improves glucose tolerance in mice

    L.M. Oyama; Silva, F. P.; Carnier, J.; de Miranda, D. A.; Santamarina, A. B.; E.B. Ribeiro; Oller do Nascimento, C. M.; de Rosso, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet is considered a major factor to promote obesity and the consumption of food with antioxidant properties, like Juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart), could be a tool to prevent the deleterious effect of high white adipose deposition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of administration of juçara pulp in mice fed a high-fat, high-calorie diet on glucose tolerance and adipose tissue inflammatory status. Methods Mice wer...

  6. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    Hellgren, Lars

    in epidemiological studies, where the typical fatty acid composition of milk-fat, i.e. a high level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been correlated to increased insulin-resistance. It is therefore essential to characterize the impact of milk......Background: In several recent studies, it has been shown that markers of milk-fat intake, are strongly correlated to a low fasting-insulin level, indicating a positive correlation between milk-fat intake and improved glucose-tolerance [1, 2]. This is in contradiction to the general findings...

  7. [Optimization of diet therapy in patients with gallstones complicated with obesity and impaired glucose tolerance].

    Kurbanov, S K

    2003-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of a diet with lower glycaemic index on clinico-metabolic parameters in obese patients with gallstones and impaired glucose tolerance. The results investigations indicated that the lowering of glycaemic index and the caloric reduction of diet have a beneficial effects on dynamic of parameters of functional status of liver and gallbladder. It was noted the increase of medical effect of diet in correction of obesity and impaired parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in this patients in process of dietotherapy. PMID:14619611

  8. Skin autofluorescence based decision tree in detection of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Andries J Smit

    Full Text Available AIM: Diabetes (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We compared SAF and a SAF-based decision tree (SAF-DM with fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c, and additionally with the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC questionnaire±FPG for detection of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT- or HbA1c-defined IGT and diabetes in intermediate risk persons. METHODS: Participants had ≥1 metabolic syndrome criteria. They underwent an OGTT, HbA1c, SAF and FINDRISC, in adition to SAF-DM which includes SAF, age, BMI, and conditional questions on DM family history, antihypertensives, renal or cardiovascular disease events (CVE. RESULTS: 218 persons, age 56 yr, 128M/90F, 97 with previous CVE, participated. With OGTT 28 had DM, 46 IGT, 41 impaired fasting glucose, 103 normal glucose tolerance. SAF alone revealed 23 false positives (FP, 34 false negatives (FN (sensitivity (S 68%; specificity (SP 86%. With SAF-DM, FP were reduced to 18, FN to 16 (5 with DM (S 82%; SP 89%. HbA1c scored 48 FP, 18 FN (S 80%; SP 75%. Using HbA1c-defined DM-IGT/suspicion ≥6%/42 mmol/mol, SAF-DM scored 33 FP, 24 FN (4 DM (S76%; SP72%, FPG 29 FP, 41 FN (S71%; SP80%. FINDRISC≥10 points as detection of HbA1c-based diabetes/suspicion scored 79 FP, 23 FN (S 69%; SP 45%. CONCLUSION: SAF-DM is superior to FPG and non-inferior to HbA1c to detect diabetes/IGT in intermediate-risk persons. SAF-DM's value for diabetes/IGT screening is further supported by its established performance in predicting diabetic complications.

  9. Nerve conduction abnormalities in untreated maturity-onset diabetes: relation to levels of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Graf, R J; Halter, J B; Halar, E; Porte, D

    1979-03-01

    The role of metabolic abnormalities in the development of diabetic neuropathy is controversial. To investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on nerve conduction, we studied 20 untreated maturity-onset diabetic patients and 23 normal control subjects of similar age. Nerve conduction velocity of motor (median, peroneal, and tibial) and sensory (median and sural) nerves in diabetic patients was significantly slowed and H-reflex latency time prolonged. Levels of fasting plasma glucose in diabetic subjects were correlated with slowed motor conduction velocity of the median, peroneal, and tibial nerves but not with sensory nerve conduction velocities. Levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, an index of long-term glycemia, were correlated with slowing of peroneal motor conduction velocity in diabetic patients. These associations could not be explained by patient age or duration of diabetes. These findings suggest that the degree of hyperglycemia of untreated maturity-onset diabetes contributes to the motor nerve conduction abnormalities in this disease. PMID:426398

  10. Hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to mutant proinsulin (Arg{sup 65}{yields}His) not associated with impaired glucose tolerance: The contribution of mutant proinsulin to insulin bioactivity

    Roder, M.E.; Vissing, H. [Health Care Discovery, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Nauck, M.A. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia is a genetic abnormality characterized by an increased proportion of proinsulin immunoreactivity in the circulation due to mutations affecting the posttranslational processing of proinsulin. In affected Japanese families, this has been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. A three-generation Caucasian family with hyperproinsulinemia was identified through unexplained hyperinsulinemia in a normal volunteer participating in a metabolic study. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fasting plasma revealed a major peak eluting close to the position of proinsulin. Direct sequencing of the proinsulin gene exon 3 showed a heterozygous point mutation (CGT{yields}CAT) resulting in the substitution of Arg{yields}His in position 65 (corresponding to the AC cleavage site) in the index case, his mother, and his maternal grandmother. All affected subjects had normal oral glucose tolerance. In the basal state and after oral glucose administration, their proinsulin responses were slightly reduced. However, when calculating insulin bioactivity by assuming 9% activity for mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin, responses in affected subjects were comparable to those in normal subjects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to heterozygous mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin. This was not associated with impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that this mutation in the heterozygous state per se does not affect glucose tolerance and that the biological activity of mutant proinsulin contributes to glucose homeostasis in this family. The association of the same mutation with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in previous studies may be the result of selection bias or associated conditions (e.g. the genetic background of the kindreds examined). 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. ATLANTIC DIP: the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women.

    Owens, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [95% CI 1.24-1.98]) and obese (OB) (2.65 [2.03-3.46]) women. Hypertensive disorders increased in OW (2.30 [1.55-3.40]) and OB (3.29 [2.14-5.05]) women. Reported miscarriages increased in OB (1.4 [1.11-1.77]) women. Mean birth weight was 3.46 kg in normal BMI (NBMI), 3.54 kg in OW, and 3.62 kg in OB (P < 0.01) mothers. Macrosomia occurred in 15.5, 21.4, and 27.8% of babies of NBMI, OW, and OB mothers, respectively (P < 0.01). Shoulder dystocia occur in 4% (>4 kg) compared with 0.2% (<4 kg) babies (P < 0.01). Congenital malformation risk increased for OB (2.47 [1.09-5.60]) women. CONCLUSIONS OW and OB glucose-tolerant women have greater adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  12. MR quantification of total liver fat in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and healthy subjects.

    Zhi Dong

    Full Text Available To explore the correlations between liver fat content and clinical index in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and healthy subjects.56 subjects were enrolled and each of them underwent upper-abdominal MRI examination that involved a T1 VIBE Dixon sequence. 14 was clinically diagnosed with IGT (collectively as IGT group while 42 showed normal glucose tolerance,(collectively as NGT group. NGT group was further divided into NGTFat (BMI≥25, 18 subjects and NGTLean (BMI<25, 24 subjects. The total liver fat contents was measured and compared with clinical findings and laboratory results in order to determine statistical correlations between these parameters. Differences among IGT, NGTFat and NGTLean groups were evaluated.For all the subjects, fat volume fractions (FVFs ranged from 4.2% to 24.2%, positive correlations was observed with BMI, waist hip ratio(WHR, low density lipoprotein(LDL, fasting plasma insulin(FPI, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and homeostasis model assessment β(HOMAβ. FVFs of IGT group (p = 0.004 and NGTFat group (p = 0.006 were significantly higher than those of NGTLean group.People with higher BMI, WHR and LDL levels tend to have higher liver fat content. Patients with BMI≥25 are more likely to develop IGT. Patients with higher FVF showed higher resistance to insulin, thus obtained a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. MR Quantification of Total Liver Fat in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Healthy Subjects

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Cai, Huasong; Li, Yanbing; Chan, Tao; Wu, Ling; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlations between liver fat content and clinical index in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods 56 subjects were enrolled and each of them underwent upper-abdominal MRI examination that involved a T1 VIBE Dixon sequence. 14 was clinically diagnosed with IGT (collectively as IGT group ) while 42 showed normal glucose tolerance,(collectively as NGT group). NGT group was further divided into NGTFat (BMI≥25, 18 subjects) and NGTLean (BMI<25, 24 subjects). The total liver fat contents was measured and compared with clinical findings and laboratory results in order to determine statistical correlations between these parameters. Differences among IGT, NGTFat and NGTLean groups were evaluated. Results For all the subjects, fat volume fractions (FVFs) ranged from 4.2% to 24.2%, positive correlations was observed with BMI, waist hip ratio(WHR), low density lipoprotein(LDL), fasting plasma insulin(FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment β(HOMAβ). FVFs of IGT group (p = 0.004) and NGTFat group (p = 0.006) were significantly higher than those of NGTLean group. Conclusions People with higher BMI, WHR and LDL levels tend to have higher liver fat content. Patients with BMI≥25 are more likely to develop IGT. Patients with higher FVF showed higher resistance to insulin, thus obtained a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25343445

  14. CMKLR1 deficiency influences glucose tolerance and thermogenesis in mice on high fat diet.

    Huang, Chen; Wang, Miaomiao; Ren, Lirong; Xiang, Liang; Chen, Jie; Li, Mengxia; Xiao, Tianxia; Ren, Peigen; Xiong, Likuan; Zhang, Jian V

    2016-04-29

    Obesity has become a global epidemic disease, contributing to increases in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. CMKLR1, one of the receptors for chemerin, has a wide range of functions in physiological and pathological activity, including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, metabolism and reproduction. In our study, CMKLR1 deficiency did not influence the gain of body weight but did exacerbate glucose intolerance, increase serum insulin level, and promote insulin resistance in mice on high fat diets. The expression of thermogenesis related genes was examined and indicated to decrease in CMKLR1 knockout (KO) mice in both normal and cold environments, which indicated CMKLR1 influence the thermogenesis process. Cold exposure induced significant body mass decrease and improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in wild type HFD mice but had no obvious effect on CMKLR1 KO HFD mice. In vitro, loss of CMKLR1 did not significantly influence the differentiation of stromal vascular fibroblasts (SVFs) derived from adipose tissue, but did suppress the expression of thermogenesis related genes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that CMKLR1 deficiency induces inbalance of glucose metabolism and impairs the cold induced-thermogenesis process in high diet models. PMID:26972253

  15. Impact of incretin hormones on beta-cell function in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Natali, Andrea;

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C-peptide deconvolu......The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C......-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide responses, total insulin secretion, and enhancement of beta-cell glucose sensitivity (OGTT/IV ratio = 1.73 +/- 0.24, P = NS vs. NGT). However, the time courses of incretin-mediated insulin secretion and potentiation were altered......, with a predominance of glucose-induced vs. incretin-mediated stimulation. We conclude that, under physiological circumstances, incretin-mediated stimulation of insulin secretion results from an enhancement of all dynamic aspects of beta-cell function, particularly beta-cell glucose sensitivity. In IGT, beta...

  16. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:3522147

  17. Gum Guar fiber associated with fructose reduces serum triacylglycerol but did not improve the glucose tolerance in rats

    Motoyama Caio SM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increased intake of dietary fructose can be associated with alterations on energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism, such as insulin resistance and dislipidemia. On the other hand, the ingestion of soluble fiber gum guar could improve benefic mechanism on glucose tolerance and lipids profile. Objective The aim of the present study were to investigate the effects of the supplemental feeding partially hydrolyzed gum guar on glucose and lipid homeostasis, in rats fed with fructose solution. Methods The study was performed on thirty day-old male Wistar rats randomly assigned into four groups: control(C or treated with fructose (F-20%, fiber (FB-5%, or fructose plus fiber (F-20% + FB-5% = FF solution for 30 days on glucose tolerance (OGTT, triacylglycerol concentration in the liver by chloroform/methanol method, glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol serum concentration by assayed by enzymatic colorimetric method, insulin receptor (IR concentration in the liver by Western Blotting. Results The total body weight gain was not different between groups; in regards of total caloric intake, in the F group was significantly higher and in the FB group was lower than other groups. The triacylglycerol concentration in the liver of FF group was significantly higher than F group, the triacylglycerol concentration in the serum was higher the F group compared with other groups. The OGTT reveal impaired on glucose tolerance in the F, FB, FF compared with C. The IR concentration in the liver was lower in the F, FB, FF compared with C, no significant difference was observed between groups for IR concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle. No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass fat content and serum total cholesterol. Conclusion Fructose induced important alterations on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, despite of fiber showed reversion of part this alterations. The association fructose plus

  18. Genetic epidemiology of adiposity and abnormal glucose tolerance in South Asian Indians

    Vasan, Senthil Kandaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors play a substantial role in susceptibility to common diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity-related disorders. The current investigation was undertaken to examine the association of genetic variants that indirectly affect diabetesrelated traits through their effects on birth weight and adiposity in South Asian Indians. Additionally, the thesis was extended to examine the plausibility of differences in body composition in Asian Indians, compared to th...

  19. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Yoshihisa Urita; Motonobu Sugimoto; Kazumasa Miki; Susumu Ishihara; Tatsuo Akimoto; Hiroto Kato; Noriko Hara; Yoshiko Honda; Yoko Nagai; Kazushige Nakanishi; Nagato Shimada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.METHODS: A standard 75-g OGTT was performed in 82 diabetic patients. The patients received 75 g of anhydrous glucose in 225 mL of water after an overnight fasting and breath samples were collected at baseline and up to 120 min afler ingestion. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations were measured. Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured before ingestion and at 30, 60, g0, 120 min post-ingestion.RESULTS: When carbohydrate malabsorption was defined as subjects with an increase of at least 10 ppm (parts per million) in hydrogen or methane excretion within a 2-h period, 28 (34%) had carbohydrate malabsorption. According to the result of increased breath test, 21 (75%) patients were classified as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and 7 (25%) as glucose malabsorption. Patients with carbohydrate malabsorption were older and had poor glycemic control as compared with those without carbohydrate malabsorption. The HOMA value, the sum of serum insulin during the test and the Ainsulin/Aglucose ratio were greater in patients with carbohydrate malabsorption.CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance may be overestimated by using these markers if the patient has carbohydrate malabsorption, or that carbohydrate malabsorption may be present prior to the development of insulin resistance.Hence carbohydrate malabsorption should be taken into account for estimating insulin resistance and β-cell function.

  20. How Fast Is Recovery of Impaired Glucose Tolerance after 21-Day Bed Rest (NUC Study in Healthy Adults?

    Martina Heer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We hypothesized that 4 days of normal daily activity after 21 days of experimental bed rest (BR will not reverse BR induced impaired glucose tolerance. Design. Glucose tolerance of seven male, healthy, untrained test subjects (age: 27.6 (3.3 years (mean (SD; body mass: 78.6 (6.4 kg; height: 1.81 (0.04 m; VO2 max: 39.5 (5.4 ml/kg body mass/min was studied. They stayed twice in the metabolic ward (crossover design, 21 days in bed and 7 days before and after BR each. Oral glucose tolerance tests were applied before, on day 21 of BR, and 5 and 14 days after BR. Results. On day 21 of BR, AUC120 min of glucose concentration was increased by 28.8 (5.2% and AUC120 min of insulin by 35.9 (10.2% (glucose: P<0.001; insulin: P=0.02. Fourteen days after BR, AUC120 min of serum insulin concentrations returned to pre-bed-rest concentrations (P=0.352 and AUC120 min of glucose was still higher (P=0.038. Insulin resistance did not change, but sensitivity index was reduced during BR (P=0.005. Conclusion. Four days of light physical workload does not compensate inactivity induced impaired glucose tolerance. An individually tailored and intensified training regime is mandatory in patients being in bed rest to get back to normal glucose metabolism in a reasonable time frame.

  1. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  2. Therapeutic effects of berberine in impaired glucose tolerance rats and its influence on insulin secretion

    San-hua LENG; Fu-er LU; Li-jun XU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anti-diabetic effects of berberine and its influence on insulin secretion. METHODS: Impaired glucose tolerance rats induced by iv injection of streptozotocin 30 mg/kg were treated with berberine 187.5 and 562.5 mg/kg while fed with high fat laboratory chow. After rats were treated for 4 weeks, oral glucose tolerance was determined, and for 8 weeks, the fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid series were determined. In insulin secretion experiments, berberine 93.75, 187.5, and 562.5 mg/kg was administered orally to BALB/c mice at a bolus. The murine serum was collected 2 h after the berberine administration for insulin determination. Insulin released from HIT-T 15 cells and pancreatic islets incubated with berberine 1-100 μmol/L for 12 h was determined. RESULTS:The levels of fasting blood glucose (7.4± 1.5 or 7.3± 1.3 vs 9.3± 1.3 mmol/L), triglycerides (0.61±0.22 or 0.63±0.17 vs 1.8±0.7 mmol/L), total cholesterol (1.8±0.3 or 1.9±0.3 vs 2.2±0.2 mmol/L), free fatty acid (456±93 or 460±72 vs 550± 113 μmol/L) and apolipoprotein B (0.37±0.02 or 0.42±0.05 vs 0.46±0.04 g/L) were reduced greatly in berberine-treated groups at doses of 187.5 and 562.5 mg.kg-1.d-l, respectively as compared with those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (1.5±0.3 or 1.4±0.3 vs 1.1±0.1 g/L), apolipoprotein A1 (0.80±0.08 or 0.87±0.08 vs 0.71±0.06 g/L) were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and oral glucose tolerance was improved. In vitro experiment showed that berberine 1-10 μmol/L facilitated insulin secretion of HIT-T15 cells and murine pancreatic islets in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile murine serum insulin level (27.5±2.7 or 29±4 or 29±4 vs 24.3±2.8 plU/L) was undoubtedly promoted and blood glucose (4.52±0.31 or 4.45±0.29 or 4.30±0.19 vs 4.87±0.21 mmol/L) was reduced after berberine administration at doses of 93.75, 187.5,and 562.5 mg/kg, respectively in the BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION

  3. Circulating soluble CD36 is a novel marker of liver injury in subjects with altered glucose tolerance

    Fernández-Real, Jose-Manuel; Handberg, Aase; Ortega, Francisco; Hoejlund, Kurt; Vendrell, Joan; Ricart, Wifredo

    2008-01-01

    indicators of liver health. We evaluated a cohort of men from the general population (n=117). As expected, serum (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were associated positively with body mass index (BMI) and age and negatively with SI (minimal model method). Circulating...... sCD36 was positively associated with ALT, AST and GGT in subjects with altered glucose tolerance, but not in those with normal glucose tolerance. The difference in the slope of the relationships was significant (P=.01). Age, BMI and triglycerides (but not sCD36) contributed independently to 29% of...

  4. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.;

    2013-01-01

    different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well as...

  5. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26092495

  6. 妊娠期糖代谢异常162例母儿预后分析%Analysis on the outcomes of 162 maternal and fetal with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy

    徐亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.Methods: 162 patients were diagnosed definitely in our hospital from June 2003 to August 2007.They were divided into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) group (58 cases) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (104 cases).150 pregnant women of normal blood glucose were taken as normal glucose tolerance (GNGT) group, maternal and fetal outcomes were compared in three groups.Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, pregnancy - induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, fatal macrosomia, premature delivery, neonatal hypoglycemia were higher in GDM group than in GNGT group (P < 0.05 ).The incidences of cesarean section, polyhydramnios, fatal acrosomia were higher in the GIGT group than in GNGT group (P <0.05).Conclusion: Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy can produce adverse effect on mothers and neonates.It is very important to positive treatment the pregnant women of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常对母儿预后的影响.方法:2003年6月~2007年8月在大同市第一人民医院诊断为妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕妇162例,其中妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组58例,妊娠期糖耐量减低(GIGT)组104例,另选择150例血糖值正常孕妇作为血糖正常(GNGT)组,比较3组的母儿预后.结果:GDM组孕妇产后即时出血、剖宫产、妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、巨大儿、早产儿和新生儿低血糖的发生率均显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05);GIGT组剖宫产、羊水过多、巨大儿的发生率显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期糖代谢异常对孕产妇和围生儿的预后有不良影响,应对妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇进行积极干预.

  7. Effects of Exercise Alone on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Youth

    SoJung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As with the dramatic increases in childhood obesity over the past decades, the incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased among children and adolescents in the United States. Insulin resistance is a common feature of childhood obesity and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherogenic lipoprotein profile in obese youth. Although cross-sectional studies report beneficial effects of physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness on insulin sensitivity, the role of regular exercise alone (e.g., no calorie restriction as a strategy to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes is unclear in obese children and adolescents. In this mini review, we examined the independent effects of various exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese youth.

  8. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M;

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here......, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation...... supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to...

  9. Secretory expression, characterization and docking study of glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from B. subtilis.

    Chamoli, Shivangi; Kumar, Piyush; Navani, Naveen Kumar; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The thermostable, glucose tolerant β-glucosidase gene (bgl) of Glycoside hydrolase family 1, isolated from Bacillus subtilis, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The bgl has open reading frame of 1407bp, encoding 469 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 53kDa. The recombinant protein (BGL) was purified 10.76 fold to homogeneity with specific activity of 54.04U/mg and recovery of 38.67%. The purified BGL was optimally active at pH 6.0 and temperature 60°C. The enzyme retained more than 85% of maximum activity after 1h preincubation at 60°C. The kinetic analysis indicated that BGL has highest catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) against p-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside (654.58mM(-1)s(-1)) followed by p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (292.53mM(-1)s(-1)) and p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (61.17mM(-1)s(-1)). The Ki value for glucose and δ-gluconolactone was determined to be 1.9mM and 0.018mM, respectively. The BGL exhibited high tolerance against detergents and organic solvents. The homology modeling revealed that protein has 19 α-helices and 4 β-sheets and adopted (α/β)8 TIM barrel structure. Substrate docking and LigPlot analysis depicted the amino acids of active site involved in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions with substrates. The efficient BGL secretion with exploration of structural and functional relationship offer vistas for large scale production and various industrial applications. PMID:26772920

  10. STUDY ON OBESITY RELATED FACTORS: FFA, LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN IN SUBJECTS WITH VARYING GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张翼飞; 宁光; 陈名道; 唐金凤

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the fasting serum levels of obesity related factors: FFA, leptin and adiponectin in subjects with varying glucose tolerance and their relationship with BMI, insulin sensitivity index and islet beta-cell function. Methods Serum levels of FFA, leptin and adiponectin in 24 normal, 32 simple obese, 34IGT and 36 T2DM subjects were measured by ACS-ACOD assay or RIA. Results The serum levels of leptin and FFA in three groups: simple obese, IGT and DM were much higher than those in normal control (P<0. 001 ). In contrast, serum level of adiponectin of simple obese, IGT and DM groups were significant lower than that of normal control, among them DM subjects had the lowest level ( P<0. 001 ). Correlation analysis showed that FFA was positively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, fasting insulin level and negatively correlated to SI; adiponectin was negatively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, PBG, but positively correlated to SI and AIRg; and leptin was positively correlated to BMI, fasting insulin and AIRg when negatively correlated to FBG and SI. None of them was correlated to age.Conclusion Subjects with insulin resistance have high serum FFA and leptin levels but low serum adiponectin level.With the glucose tolerance deterioration, serum FFA level increases much higher while the adiponectin deceases much lower. Unlike insulin, none of these obesity related factors can be used as the simple indicating or determining factor of SI, though each of them, to different extent, takes part in the development of insulin resistance.

  11. Changes of ghrelin following oral glucose tolerance test in obese children with insulin resistance

    Xiu-Min Wang; You-Jun Jiang; Li Liang; Li-Zhong Du

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To characterize changes in ghrelin levels in response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to correlate changes in ghrelin levels with changes in insulin and glucose following OGTT in Chinese obese children of Tanner I and Ⅱ stage with insulin resistance.METHODS: 22 obese children with insulin resistance state were divided into four groups according to their Tanner stage and gender: boys of Tanner I (BT-Ⅰ), boys of Tanner Ⅱ (BT- Ⅱ), girls of Tanner Ⅰ (GT-Ⅰ), girls of Tanner Ⅱ (GT-Ⅱ). Ghrelin, insulin and glucose were measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min following OGTT. The control children with normal BMI were divided into control boys of Tanner I (CBT-Ⅰ, n = 6), control boys of Tanner Ⅱ (CBT- Ⅱ, n = 5), control girls of Tanner I (CGT-1, n = 6), control girls of Tanner II (CGT- Ⅱ, n = 5). Fasting serum ghrelin levels were analyzed.RESULTS: Ghrelin levels were lower in obese groups. Ghrelin levels of control group decreased in Tanner Ⅱ stage (CGT-Ⅰ vs CGT-Ⅱ t = -4.703, P = 0.001; CBT-Ⅰ vs CBT-n t = -4.794, P = 0.001). Basal ghrelin levels in BT- Ⅱ decreased more significantly than that in BT-Ⅰ group (t = 2.547, P = 0.029). Ghrelin levels expressed a downward trend after OGTT among obese children. The decrease in ghrelin levels at 60 min with respect to basal values was 56.9% in BT-Ⅰ. Ghrelin concentrations at 0 min correlated directly with glucose level at 0 min in BT-Ⅰ (r = 0.898, P = 0.015). There wasn't a significant correlation of ghrelin changes with glucose changes and insulin changes during OGTT in obese children with insulin resistance.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in obese children with insulin resistance, ghrelin levels decreased with advancing pubertal stage. Ghrelin secretion suppression following OGTT was influenced by gender and pubertal stage. Baseline ghrelin levels and ghrelin suppression after OGTT did not significantly correlate with the degree of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity.

  12. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  13. Improved glucose tolerance after intensive life style intervention occurs without changes in muscle ceramide or triacylglycerol in morbidly obese subjects

    Helge, J. W.; Stallknecht, B.; Drachmann, Tue; Hellgren, Lars; Jimenez-Jimenez, R.; Andersen, J. L.; Richelsen, B.; Bruun, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the effect of a 15-week life style intervention (hypocaloric diet and regular exercise) on glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle lipids and muscle metabolic adaptations in 14 female and 9 male morbidly obese subjects (age: 32.5 +/- 2.3 years, BMI: 46.1 +/- 1.9 kg m(-2...

  14. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    Hennild, Ditte Egegaard; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twins may be at increased risk of dysglycaemic disorders due to adverse fetal conditions. Data from Africa regarding this association is limited. We studied impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and other types of dysglycemia among twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study...

  15. 25-hydroxyvitamin D in obese youth across the spectrum of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to type 2 diabetes

    The objective of this study was to 1) determine if plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations differ among obese youth with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) versus prediabetes versus type 2 diabetes and 2) assess the relationships between 25(OH)D and in vivo insulin sensitivity and Beta-cell ...

  16. EFFECT OF CHRONIC ACE INHIBITION ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND INSULIN SENSITIVITY IN HYPERTENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

    尹卫东; G.Seghieri; C.Boni,G,Sanna; R.Anichinl; G.Bartolomei; E.Ferrannini

    1994-01-01

    We studied 14 moderately overweight Type 2 diabetic patients with essential hypertension in stable metabolic control after a run-in period,and again after 3 months of antihypertensive treatment with the angiotensin-convert-ing enzyme(ACE)inhibitor captopril.Glucose tolerance was tested with a 75g oral glucose load (OGTT) and in-sulin sensitivity was measured by the insulin suppression test (IST)while dietary and drug treatment of the hyper-glycemia was maintained constant.In the whole group,mean blood pressure (MBP) fell progressively over 3 months from a baseline value of 123±3mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133kpa)to a final value of 115±2mmHg(P<0.005).After treatment,fasting plasma glucose,insulin,free fatty acid (FFA),potassium,and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations were unchanged from baseling.There were no significant differences in glucose toler-ance and insulin sensitivity between pre-and post-trearment values.Neither endogenous (oral glucose)nor exoge-nous(IST)insulin caused any change in plasma potassium concentration. This resistance to the hypokalemic action of insulin was not affected by captopril.

  17. 老年糖耐量减低患者记忆功能评价%Evaluation on the Memory Function of Elderly with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    赵翠; 李伟; 张海峰; 王璐; 林璨; 王兆鹏; 尹成淑; 张立娜; 朱玉清

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The memory function of the elderly patients with impaired glucose tolerance were evaluated , in order to provide clinical basis for early detection of memory dysfunction and timely intervention . Method :The health conditions of some elderly people were tested , 84 patients with IGT were selected after glucose tolerance test , 80 patients were chosen in the control group , the memory functions of the two groups were compared .Result:The memories reservation application of elderly patients with IGT , picture recogni-tion, delayed story recall and total scores differences were statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion:Screening the early memory function of elderly patient with abnormal glucose tolerance and timely interven-tion are of great importance in improving the quality of life .%目的:对老年糖耐量减低( impaired glucose tolerance , IGT)患者进行记忆功能进行评价,为早期发现糖耐量减低患者记忆功能减退并及时采取干预措施提供临床依据。方法:选取健康体检老年人群,行糖耐量试验后筛选出IGT患者84例,健康对照组80例,比较组间记忆功能的差异。结果:伴IGT的老年患者的回忆预约申请、图片再认、故事延迟回忆及总分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:对伴有糖耐量异常的老年人进行早期记忆功能筛查,及早发现记忆功能障碍并及时进行干预,对改善其生活质量有重要意义。

  18. The Association between HbA1c, Fasting Glucose, 1-Hour Glucose and 2-Hour Glucose during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and Cardiovascular Disease in Individuals with Elevated Risk for Diabetes

    Lind, Marcus; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Nerman, Olle; Eriksson, Johan; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Peltonen, Markku; Pivodic, Aldina; Lindström, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-hour (1 hPG) and 2-hour (2 hPG) glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and cardiovascular disease in individuals with elevated risk for diabetes. Design We studied the relationship between baseline, updated mean and updated (last) value of HbA1c, FPG, 1 hPG and 2 hPG after an oral 75 g glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and acute CVD events in 504 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at baseline enrolled in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Setting Follow-up of clinical trial. Participants 504 individuals with IGT were followed with yearly evaluations with OGTT, FPG and HbA1c. Main Outcome Measure Relative risk of CVD. Results Over a median follow-up of 9.0 years 34 (6.7%) participants had a CVD event, which increased to 52 (10.3%) over a median follow-up of 13.0 years when including events that occurred among participants following a diagnosis of diabetes. Updated mean HbA1c, 1 hPG and 2 hPG, HR per 1 unit SD of 1.57 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.11), p = 0.0032, 1.51 (1.03 to 2.23), p = 0.036 and 1.60 (1.10 to 2.34), p = 0.014, respectively, but not FPG (p = 0.11), were related to CVD. In analyses of the last value prior to the CVD event the same three glycaemic measurements were associated with the CVD events, with HRs per 1 unit SD of 1.45 (1.06 to 1.98), p = 0.020, 1.55 (1.04 to 2.29), p = 0.030 and 2.19 (1.51 to 3.18), pdiabetes onset updated 2 hPG (p = 0.003) but not updated mean HbA1c (p = 0.08) was related to CVD. Conclusions and Relevance Current 2 hPG level in people with IGT is associated with increased risk of CVD. This supports its use in screening for prediabetes and monitoring glycaemic levels of people with prediabetes. PMID:25285769

  19. Effects of bittergourd (Momordica Charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type-l l diabetic rats

    Kaushal Parmar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia or bittergourd commonly known as karella, (family: Cucurbitaceae, has been proved for hypoglycaemic effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of bittergourd (momordica charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocininduced type-II diabetic rat. Two days old neonatal pups (7–10 g were used & they were made diabetic by intraperitoneally (i.p. injection of 90 mg/kg STZ in citrate buffer solution. Different groups of animals were treated by 25% and 50% bitter gourd fruit juice (BFJ for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks treatment biochemical parameters from blood serum were analyzed. The significant differences of glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, in 50%BFJ treated group compare to diabetic group were found. So, from present study it is concluded that Bitter gourd fruit juice has beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced type-II diabetic rat.

  20. Circadian rhythms of GIP and GLP1 in glucose-tolerant and in type 2 diabetic patients after biliopancreatic diversion

    Mingrone, G; Nolfe, G; Gissey, G Castagneto; Iaconelli, A; Leccesi, L; Guidone, C; Nanni, G; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the reversibility of insulin resistance and diabetes observed after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is related to changes in circadian rhythms of gastrointestinal hormones. METHODS: Ten morbidly obese participants, five with normal glucose tolerance ...... diabetes. On the other hand, GIP secretion was blunted after the operation only in diabetic patients, suggesting a role in insulin resistance and diabetes.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the reversibility of insulin resistance and diabetes observed after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is related to changes in circadian rhythms of gastrointestinal hormones. METHODS: Ten morbidly obese participants, five with normal glucose tolerance...... (NGT) and five with type 2 diabetes, were studied before and within 2 weeks after BPD. Within-day variations in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) levels were assessed using a single cosinor model. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by euglycaemic...

  1. Long term effects of high fat or high carbohydrate diets on glucose tolerance in mice with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a) deficiency: Diet influences on CPT1a deficient mice.

    Nyman, Lara R; Tian, Liqun; Hamm, Doug A; Schoeb, Trenton R; Gower, Barbara A; Nagy, Tim R; Wood, Philip A

    2011-08-22

    BACKGROUND: Abnormal fatty acid metabolism is an important feature in the mechanisms of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a, liver isoform) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We investigated the role of CPT-1a in the development of impaired glucose tolerance using a mouse model for CPT-1a deficiency when challenged by either a high-carbohydrate (HCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for a total duration of up to 46 weeks. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed in heterozygous CPT-1a deficient (CPT-1a+/-) male mice after being fed either a HCD or a HFD for durations of 28 weeks and 46 weeks. Both glucose and insulin tolerance tests were used to investigate beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Differences in islet insulin content and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by morphological analysis. RESULTS: CPT-1a+/- mice were more insulin sensitive than CPT-1a+/+ mice when fed either HCD or HFD. The increased insulin sensitivity was associated with an increased expression of Cpt-1b (muscle isoform) in liver, as well as increased microvesicular hepatic steatosis compared to CPT-1a+/+ mice. CPT-1a+/- mice were more glucose tolerant than CPT-1a+/+ mice when fed the HCD, but there was no significant difference when fed HFD. Moreover, CPT-1a+/- mice fed HFD or HCD had fewer and smaller pancreatic islets than CPT-1a+/+ mice. CONCLUSIONS: CPT-1a deficiency preserved insulin sensitivity when challenged by long term feeding of either diet. Furthermore, CPT-1a deficient mice had distinct phenotypes dependent on the diet fed demonstrating that both diet and genetics collectively play a role in the development of impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:22229081

  2. Analysis of fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance in 1 157 subjects%1157例体检者空腹血糖及糖耐量分析

    王进

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the fasting blood glucose(FBG) and glucose tolerance in 1 157 subjects accepting health examination to understand level and metabolism of blood glucose of local residents. Methods Adopting the method of population proportional sampling(PPS) , 1 157 subjects of all residents accepting health examination were randomly selected and divided into three groups according to economic conditions for the detection of FBG, among which 926 cases were detected for glucose tolerance by determination of blood glucose level 2 hours after oral intaking of 75 g glucose. Results 198 cases with high level of blood glucose and 117 cases with impaired glucose tolerance, accounting for 12. 63% , were demonstrated, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 4. 86%. Conclusion The situation and prevalence of diabetes mellitus was serious in this region. Prevention of diabetes mellitus should be carried out from unban with better economic condition to other regions until the whole region.%目的 对1 157例体检者空腹血糖及糖耐量分析,掌握该区居民的血糖及其代谢情况.方法 采用人口成比例抽样(PPS)的方法,按经济条件分成3个层次,随机抽取1 157例研究对象采用葡萄糖氧化酶法测定空腹血糖,其中926例口服75 g无水葡萄糖2 h后测量血糖.结果 共计检出高血糖患者198例,检出糖耐量受损者117例,占12.63%,糖尿病患病率则为4.86%.结论 该区糖尿病患者及潜在者形势严峻,该区当前糖尿病防治应以经济较好的市区为重点向开发区辐射直至全区.

  3. Dietary Patterns Predict Changes in Two-Hour Post-Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Plasma Glucose Concentrations in Middle-Aged Adults

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge;

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period and...... whether a potential association was dependent on baseline glucose tolerance status. Through principal component analysis, a score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of high-fat sandwich spreads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, sandwich meat, and sauces......) and a score for a modern dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, vegetable oil/vinegar dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals) were estimated for each person at baseline. Random effect models adjusting for relevant confounders were used to estimate changes in...

  4. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 {+-}14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 {+-}8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness.

  5. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 ±14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 ±8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness

  6. Acute hyperglycemia alters von Willebrand factor but not the fibrinolytic system in elderly subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance.

    Coppola, Ludovico; Coppola, Antonino; Grassia, Antonio; Mastrolorenzo, Luigia; Lettieri, Biagio; De Lucia, Domenico; De Nanzio, Annarita; Gombos, Giorgio

    2004-10-01

    To assess whether acute hyperglycemia affects fibrinolytic balance in elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 40 non-obese elderly subjects (20 NGT, age 68 +/- 8 years; and 20 IGT, age 69 +/- 11 years) were studied. On two experimental days, randomly allocated and spaced 1 week apart, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured in each subject at baseline (0) and 30, 60, 90, 120 min after the ingestion of 75 g glucose or a similarly sweet dose of aspartame (250 mg) (control test). In both NGT and IGT elderly subjects, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and fibrinogen plasma levels did not significantly change after both oral aspartame and glucose load. In IGT subjects, vWF plasmatic levels decreased after glucose (not aspartame) oral load, reaching the minimum level at 90 min after load (82.7 +/- 7.8 versus 93.7 +/- 10.2, P <0.01). These results demonstrate that acute hyperglycemia does not modify plasma fibrinolysis in elderly subjects. The decrease of plasma concentration of vWF in IGT elderly subjects requires cautious interpretation and further extensive investigations. PMID:15613917

  7. The long-term follow up study of acute pancreatitis by means of pancreatic scintigraphy, secretin test and oral glucose tolerance test

    Morphologic and functional alternations of the pancreas following acute pancreatitis were studied in 29 patients. At the time of attack a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had been confirmed by laparotomy in 27 cases, and by clinical picture and by serum amylase levels in 2 cases. The average duration of follow up was 56.3 months. Normal images were obtained in 17 of 29 cases. According to secretin tests, 4 of these had slight to moderately decreased exocrine function; the test were within normal limits. 12 cases with normal image had abnormal oral glucose tolerance curves similar to those fund in mild to moderate diabetes. 10 of the 12 cases with abnormal scintigrams showed decreased isotope uptake in all or part of the pancreas, while 2 showed no uptake at all. These changes were mast apparent in the tail of the pancreas. Ten of the 12 cases with abnormal images had some degree of decreased exocrine function. All 12 had the abnormal GTT curve of diabetes, 4 who had severe diabetes with markedly decreased exocrine function and poor image of the pancreas. In 4 cases the histopathological findings obtained at the time of laparotomy, were shown to be very consistent with the scintigraphic features. It was demonstrated by both scintigraphs and function tests that the alcoholic factor plays a very important role in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis resulted in chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases, (14 %) of the remaining 8 cases with abnormal scintigram, it is postulated that the inflamatory process subsided allowing time for cicatrical fibrosis to occur. Follow-up to trace and study of these alternations of the pancreas necessary in future. (Evans, J.)

  8. The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on incretin effect, glucose tolerance, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal in healthy subjects

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Østoft, Signe Harring; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    effect, glucose tolerance, gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) and gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Design Randomised, controlled, open-label. Methods Ten healthy subjects (6 women) (age: 40±5 years (mean±SEM); BMI: 24±3 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose: 5.1±0.2 mmol/l; HbA1c: 34±1 mmol......Objective Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), is thought to intensify the physiological effects of the incretin hormones. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibition on plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), the incretin....../mol [5.3±0.1%]) were randomised to two paired study days comprising a 4h 50 g-OGTT with paracetamol (A) and an isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (IIGI) (B), with (A1+B1) and without (A2+B2) preceding administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. Results Isoglycaemia was obtained in all subjects on...

  9. Enhanced glucose tolerance in pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) knockout C57BL/6 mice.

    Moak, Shari L; Dougan, Grace C; MarElia, Catherine B; Danse, Whitney A; Fernandez, Amanda M; Kuehl, Melanie N; Athanason, Mark G; Burkhardt, Brant R

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER; also known as FAM3B) is a uniquely structured protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. PANDER has been hypothesized to regulate fasting and fed glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipogenesis and insulin signaling, and to serve a potential role in the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite having potentially pivotal pleiotropic roles in glycemic regulation and T2D, there has been limited generation of stable animal models for the investigation of PANDER function, and there are no models on well-established genetic murine backgrounds for T2D. Our aim was to generate an enhanced murine model to further elucidate the biological function of PANDER. Therefore, a pure-bred PANDER knockout C57BL/6 (PANKO-C57) model was created and phenotypically characterized with respect to glycemic regulation and hepatic insulin signaling. The PANKO-C57 model exhibited an enhanced metabolic phenotype, particularly with regard to enhanced glucose tolerance. Male PANKO-C57 mice displayed decreased fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels, whereas leptin levels were increased as compared with matched C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Despite similar peripheral insulin sensitivity between both groups, hepatic insulin signaling was significantly increased during fasting conditions, as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of hepatic PKB/Akt and AMPK, along with mature SREBP-1 expression. Insulin stimulation of PANKO-C57 mice resulted in increased hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In summary, the PANKO-C57 mouse represents a suitable model for the investigation of PANDER in multiple metabolic states and provides an additional tool to elucidate the biological function and potential role in T2D. PMID:25217499

  10. Chromium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolation of glucose tolerance factor from yeast biomass

    Vlatka Gulan Zetic; Vesna Stehlik-Tomas; Slobodan Grba; Lavoslav Lutilsky; Damir Kozlek

    2001-06-01

    Fermentations with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in semiaerobic and in static conditions with the addition of chromic chloride into the used molasses medium were analysed. It was proved that the addition of optimal amounts of CrCl3 into the basal medium enhanced the kinetics of alcohol fermentations. The addition of 200 mg/l CrCl3 into the medium stimulated both the yeast growth and the ethanol production in all experimental conditions. On the other hand, the results showed that Cr3+ ions were incorporated into yeast cells during fermentation. Under these conditions the accumulation of Cr3+ ions was performed by yeast cells during the exponential growth phase, and with enriched amounts of 30–45 g/gd.m. of cells. Yeast biomass enriched with chromium ions was extracted with 0.1 mol/l NH4OH assuming that the extracts had the glucose tolerance factor (GTF). Then the extracts were passed through a gel-filtration column in order to isolate and purify the GTF. The presence of GTF in the purified fractions was determined by measuring the absorbance at 260 nm. It is evident from the obtained results that the added purified fractions enhanced the rates of CO2 production as well as the glucose utilization during alcoholic fermentation. As expected, the enhancement of both rates depended on the amounts of extracts added to the fermentation substrate. Thus, it is evident that purified extracts contained the GTF compound, and that Cr3+ ions were bonded to the protein molecule.

  11. Enhanced glucose tolerance in pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER knockout C57BL/6 mice

    Shari L. Moak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER; also known as FAM3B is a uniquely structured protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. PANDER has been hypothesized to regulate fasting and fed glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipogenesis and insulin signaling, and to serve a potential role in the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Despite having potentially pivotal pleiotropic roles in glycemic regulation and T2D, there has been limited generation of stable animal models for the investigation of PANDER function, and there are no models on well-established genetic murine backgrounds for T2D. Our aim was to generate an enhanced murine model to further elucidate the biological function of PANDER. Therefore, a pure-bred PANDER knockout C57BL/6 (PANKO-C57 model was created and phenotypically characterized with respect to glycemic regulation and hepatic insulin signaling. The PANKO-C57 model exhibited an enhanced metabolic phenotype, particularly with regard to enhanced glucose tolerance. Male PANKO-C57 mice displayed decreased fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels, whereas leptin levels were increased as compared with matched C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Despite similar peripheral insulin sensitivity between both groups, hepatic insulin signaling was significantly increased during fasting conditions, as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of hepatic PKB/Akt and AMPK, along with mature SREBP-1 expression. Insulin stimulation of PANKO-C57 mice resulted in increased hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In summary, the PANKO-C57 mouse represents a suitable model for the investigation of PANDER in multiple metabolic states and provides an additional tool to elucidate the biological function and potential role in T2D.

  12. Abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity associated with illness course, symptoms and fasting blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Suijing Cui; Jinhua Qiu; Weiliang Luo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity during onset of diabetes mellitus is not related to age and sex, but to symptoms, illness course and level of fasting blood glucose.OBJECTIVE: To measure correlation of abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with various illness courses, symptoms and levels of fasting blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Central People's Hospital of Huizhou.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from Central People's Hospital of Huizhou from September 2001 to October 2005. There were 75 males and 53 females aged 32-83 years and the illness course ranged from 1 month to 20 years.METHODS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received neuro-electrophysiological study and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to measure peripheral nerve conduction velocity and fasting blood glucose so as to investigate the correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms,illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms, illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.RESULTS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were involved in the final analysis. ① Among 128patients, 114 patients had abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 110 patients had clinical symptoms, including 102 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 18 patients did not have clinical symptoms, including 12 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity.There were significant differences between them (x2=8.275, P=0.04). ② Among 128 patients, illness course of 75 patients was equal to or less than 5 years, including 27 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity

  13. Peptide hormones in saliva. I. Insulin in saliva during the oral glucose tolerance test in female patients.

    Simionescu, L; Aman, E; Muşeţeanu, P; Dinulescu, E; Giurcăneanu, M

    1985-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) of insulin was performed in the serum and saliva of 27 female patients during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The patients were divided into two groups: 19 non-diabetic patients and 8 patients diagnosed as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) disease. In one patient in each group, the OGTT was performed twice at intervals of 3-5 days. The results show that immunoreactive insulin (IRI) is present in saliva and its concentration increases during the glucose stimulation test from 6.48 +/- 1.13 microU/ml (means +/- SEM) in basal conditions at peak values of 45.46 +/- 10.14 microU/ml at 2 hrs after glucose intake. In patients with IGT salivary IRI increases from 5.18 +/- 1.39 microU/ml in basal conditions to peak values of 83.34 +/- 25.85 microU/ml at 3 hrs after glucose administration. Great response variations were observed either inter-individual or intraindividual in both groups of patients. Some patients had unusual high salivary IRI concentration especially in those with gastrointestinal troubles. Further, some hypotheses and experimental models, are advanced, considered useful for the explanation of the physiologic significance of the salivary IRI or of the IRI-like material. PMID:3901231

  14. β-Cell Function, Incretin Effect, and Incretin Hormones in Obese Youth Along the Span of Glucose Tolerance From Normal to Prediabetes to Type 2 Diabetes

    Michaliszyn, Sara F.; Mari, Andrea; Lee, SoJung; Bacha, Fida; Tfayli, Hala; Farchoukh, Lama; Ferrannini, Ele

    2014-01-01

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired β-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled β-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. β-Cell function parameters were derived from established mathematical models yielding β-cell glucose sensitivity (βCGS), rate sensitivity, and insulin sensitivity in 255 obese adolescents (173 with normal glucose tolerance [NGT], 48 with impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and 34 with type 2 diabetes [T2D]). The incretin effect was calculated as the ratio of the OGTT-βCGS to the 2-h hyperglycemic clamp-βCGS. Incretin and glucagon concentrations were measured during the OGTT. Compared with NGT, βCGS was 30 and 65% lower in youth with IGT and T2D, respectively; rate sensitivity was 40% lower in T2D. Youth with IGT or T2D had 32 and 38% reduced incretin effect compared with NGT in the face of similar changes in GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in response to oral glucose. We conclude that glucose sensitivity deteriorates progressively in obese youth across the spectrum of glucose tolerance in association with impairment in incretin effect without reduction in GLP-1 or GIP, similar to that seen in adult dysglycemia. PMID:24947360

  15. Serum Levels of Osteocalcin and Insulin Resistance in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance or New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Liver Transplantation.

    Martínez-Díaz-Guerra, G; Guadalix, S; Aramendi, M; Librizzi, S; García, E; Jiménez, C; Hawkins, F

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) patients are at high risk of developing new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Osteocalcin has been proposed as a mediator between bone tissue and glucose metabolism, but its role in the pathogenesis of diabetes is not defined yet. Our objective was to assess the relationship between serum osteocalcin and glucose metabolism parameters in liver transplantation recipients. A total of 187 liver transplantation patients were cross-sectionally studied, 54 of them developed NODAT. None had been diagnosed of diabetes mellitus prior to transplant. In 133 nondiabetic patients, a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to assess blood glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels at baseline and 120 min. Serum total osteocalcin was measured at baseline in all patients.After OGTT, 10.5% of LT patients had NODAT criteria, 51.9% showed impaired glucose tolerance, and 37.6% had normal glucose tolerance. Overall, NODAT prevalence was 36.3%. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in NODAT compared with impaired glucose tolerance and normal glucose tolerance groups (pliver transplantation patients and is associated with insulin resistance. In these patients total osteocalcin is inversely associated with plasma glucose level and insulin resistance indexes. PMID:26743527

  16. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  17. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance.

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 10⁵ Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C) ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment of

  18. Clinical Observation on Senile Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance Treated by Point Application

    Wu Yuquan; Fei Mingfeng; He Yongsheng; Zhang Cunhai; Zheng Wei; Wu Yajun; Li Weihong

    2006-01-01

    In order to observe and evaluate the therapeutic effects of point application on senile impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 64 senile IGT patients were randomly divided into two groups with 32 cases in each group.The control group was treated with interference therapy of controlling diet, while the observation group was given point application at Yishu (胰俞 1.5 cun lateral to the Du Channel, at the level of the lower border of the spinous process of the eighth thoracic vertebra), Pishu (BL 20), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36) and other points in addition to interference therapy of controlling diet. After 2 courses of treatment, the postprandial blood sugar was detected. As a result, the postprandial blood sugar obviously reduced in both groups (P<0.05, P<0.01) with a lower level in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05), indicating that point application in combination with interference therapy of controlling diet has a reliable therapeutic effect on senile IGT patients.

  19. Effect of inoculating C57BL/6NTac mice with different gut microbiotas on gut colonization and glucose tolerance

    Ellekilde, Merete; Viscardi, Monika; Rune, Ida;

    females) were given oral ampicillin for three weeks to eliminate their GM. At the age of eight weeks, the mice were then split in four groups receiving an oral suspension of GM from a BALB/c mouse, a DBA mouse, a B6-Lepob mouse or PBS as control. GM composition was analyzed prior to antibiotic treatment...... (the original GM of the mice), after three weeks of ampicillin treatment (to ensure the GM was eliminated) and five weeks after inoculation. A test for glucose tolerance and HbA1c% was performed prior to inoculation and after five weeks of inoculation to investigate if changing the GM influenced...... glucose tolerance. The results are still preliminary but demonstrate no significant difference in GM composition five weeks after inoculation, at which time the mice did not cluster according to type of GM received. These results indicate that it was not possible to completely change the GM of eight week...

  20. Intake of St John's wort improves the glucose tolerance in healthy subjects who ingest metformin compared with metformin alone

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pedersen, Rasmus Steen; Damkier, Per;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Our objective was to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between the antidepressive herbal medicine St John's wort and the antidiabetic drug metformin. METHODS: We performed an open cross-over study in 20 healthy male subjects, who received 1 g...... of metformin twice daily for 1 week with and without 21 days of preceding and concomitant treatment with St John's wort. The pharmacokinetics of metformin was determined, and a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test was performed. RESULTS: St John's wort decreased the renal clearance of metformin but did not affect...... significant increase in the acute insulin response. CONCLUSIONS: St John's wort improves glucose tolerance by enhancing insulin secretion independently of insulin sensitivity in healthy male subjects taking metformin....

  1. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Ghamarian Abdolreza; Abdollahi Mohammad; Su Xiaogang; Amiri Azita; Ahadi Ali; Nowrouzi Azin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i...

  2. Impact of 24 Weeks of Resistance and Endurance Exercise on Glucose Tolerance in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    Wens, Inez; Hansen, Dominique; Verboven, Kenneth; Deckx, Nathalie; KOSTEN, Lauren; STEVENS, An; Cools, Nathalie; OP 'T EIJNDE, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the authors reported an elevated prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), compared with matched healthy controls, indicating metabolic defects that may increase comorbidity. MS also leads to a more inactive lifestyle, increasing the likelihood to develop fat accumulation, muscle wasting/weakness, and exercise intolerance. In other populations, these health complications can partly be reversed by physical exercise. Object...

  3. Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors Associated With Weight Gain and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Among Pregnant Latinas123

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy has been proposed as a critical period for the development of subsequent maternal overweight and/or obesity. Excessive gestational weight gain is, in turn, associated with maternal complications such as cesarean delivery, hypertension, preeclampsia, impaired glucose tolerance, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Although there is substantial evidence that targeting at-risk groups for type 2 diabetes prevention is effective if lifestyle changes are made, relatively little attention ha...

  4. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test

    Møller, Jonas Bech; Overgaard, R.V.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of ...... obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method is concluded to have high relevance not only in theory but also in practice....

  5. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats

    Ji-yeon Kim; Mi Jung Choi; Byunghun So; Hee-jae Kim; Je Kyung Seong; Wook Song

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. Methods Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zuc...

  6. Effects of bittergourd (Momordica Charantia) fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type-l l diabetic rats

    Kaushal Parmar; Subhashchandra Patel; Japan Patel; Brijesh Patel; Patel, Mandev B

    2011-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) or bittergourd commonly known as karella, (family: Cucurbitaceae), has been proved for hypoglycaemic effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of bittergourd (momordica charantia) fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocininduced type-II diabetic rat. Two days old neonatal pups (7–10 g) were used & they were made diabetic by intraperitoneally (i.p.) injection of 90 mg/kg STZ in citrate buffer solution. Diff...

  7. Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of swietenia macrophylla king (meliaceae) seed extracts in normoglycaemic rats undergoing glucose tolerance tests

    Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Yam, Mun Fei; Hor, Sook Yee; Lim, Chung Pin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin

    2013-01-01

    Background Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) is used to treat diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. This study aims to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE) and methanol (ME) extracts of S. macrophylla seeds, in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Following treatment of normoglycaemic rats with S. macrophylla seed extracts, hypoglycaemic and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed, and blood ...

  8. Relationship of body fat with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors among normal glucose-tolerant subjects

    Gokulakrishnan, K.; Deepa, M; F Monickaraj; Mohan, V

    2011-01-01

    Background : The amount of body fat, rather than the amount of excess weight, determines the health risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Aims : To look at the association of body fat percentage with cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Settings and Design : Cross-section study from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Materials and Methods : Body fat was measured by Beurer body fat analyzer. Metabolic syndrome ...

  9. Association of Serum Ferritin Level with Risk of Incident Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Southwestern China: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Zhou, Fangli; Zhao, Zhuoxian; Tian, Li; Zheng, Tianpeng; Gao, Yun; Chen, Tao; Yan, Fangfang; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to analyze the association between serum ferritin levels and the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) in Southwestern Chinese population. The 383 subjects who are aged ≥20 years and free of AGM at baseline between in 2007 and in 2008 were included in Southwestern China, and their baseline serum ferritin levels were measured. Among these subjects, 140 subjects were developed into AGM during the follow-up (2008-2012). In logistic regression models, the relative risk in the top versus that in the lowest quartile of serum ferritin levels was 2.86 (p = 0.013) in females and 3.50 (p = 0.029) in males after adjusting the age, gender, family history of diabetes, current smoking, and alcohol; however, serum ferritin levels were not significantly associated with incident of AGM after controlling for metabolic factors (waist circumference, systolic pressure (SBP), triglyceride (TG), and homeostasis model assessment formula insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with AGM but not an independent risk factor. PMID:26073512

  10. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats

    Ji-yeon Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats.MethodsFive-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con, non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con, and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition.ResultsFasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats.ConclusionOur results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats.

  11. Six weeks' sebacic acid supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and glucose tolerance in db/db mice

    Membrez, M; Chou, C. J.; Raymond, F.; Mansourian, R; Moser, M; Monnard, I; Ammon-Zufferey, C; Mace, K; Mingrone, G; Binnert, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the impact of chronic ingestion of sebacic acid (SA), a 10-carbon medium-chain dicarboxylic acid, on glycaemic control in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Three groups of 15 db/db mice were fed for 6 weeks either a chow diet (Ctrl) or a chow diet supplemented with 1.5 or 15% (SA1.5% and SA15%, respectively) energy from SA. Fasting glycaemia was measured once a week and HbA1c before and after supplementation. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was perform...

  12. Weight status of the first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes based on the glucose tolerance test

    Noureddin Soltanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to compare different body mass index (BMI categories in individuals with diabetes, prediabetes and normal glucose tolerance among the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2005-2007 in Isfahan, Iran. It evaluated 3323 first-degree relatives of diabetic patients selected by consecutive convenient sampling method. Participants were classified as diabetic, prediabetic, and normal glucose tolerance test groups according to the results of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for comparison of quantitative variables, and chi square test for comparison of categorical parameters. Results: The study population consisted of 3323 individuals including 306 diabetics (98 males and 208 females, 1309 prediabetics (337 males and 972 females, and 1708 normal subjects (430 males and 1278 females. Among diabetic patients, the prevalence of obesity was 48.5% in women and 27.6% in men. Among prediabetics, the corresponding figures were 45.6% and 27.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that men are diagnosed with T2DM at lower BMI than women. Moreover, the alarming high prevalence of overweight and obesity among females necessitates preventing and controlling this underlying problem among females.

  13. Expression and characterization of a novel highly glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from a soil metagenome

    Jian Lu; Liqin Du; Yutuo Wei; Yuanyuan Hu; Ribo Huang

    2013-01-01

    A β-glucosidase gene unbgl1A was isolated by the functionbased screening of a metagenomic library and the enzyme protein was expressed in Escherichia coli,purified,and biochemically characterized.The enzyme Unbgl1A had a Km value of 2.09 ± 0.31 mM,and a Vmax value of 183.90 ± 9.61 μmol min-1 mg-1 under the optimal reaction conditions,which were pH 6.0 at 50℃.Unbgl1A can be activated by a variety of monosaccharides,disaccharides,and NaCl,and exhibits a high level of stability at high concentration of NaCl.Two prominent features for this enzyme are:(i) high glucose tolerance.It can be tolerant to glucose as high as 2000 mM,with Ki =1500 mM; (ii) high NaCl tolerance.Its activity is not affected by 600 mM NaCl.The enzyme showed transglucosylation activities resulting in the formation of cellotriose from cellobiose.These properties of Unbgl1A should have important practical implication in its potential applications for better industrial production of glucose or bioethanol started from lignocellulosic biomass.

  14. Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity following 2 weeks of daily cinnamon ingestion in healthy humans

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Cinnamon can improve fasting glucose in humans yet data on insulin sensitivity are limited and controversial. Eight male volunteers (aged 25 +/- 1 years, body mass 76.5 +/- 3.0 kg, BMI 24.0 +/- 0.7 kg m(-2); mean +/- SEM) underwent two 14-day interventions involving cinnamon or placebo...... supplementation (3 g day(-1)). Placebo supplementation was continued for 5 days following this 14 day period. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on days 0, 1, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Cinnamon ingestion reduced the glucose response to OGTT on day 1 (-13.1 +/- 6.3% vs. day 0; P <0.05) and day 14 (-5...

  15. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter; Overgaard, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates th...

  16. A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin prevents abnormality of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in salt-treated obese rats.

    Takeshige, Yui; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ohmori, Koji; Kohno, Masakazu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effects of the selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin on urinary sodium excretion and circadian blood pressure in salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fifteen-week-old obese OLETF rats were treated with 1% NaCl (in drinking water), and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, n=10) or empagliflozin (10 mg kg(-1)per day, p.o., n=11) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry system. Glucose metabolism and urinary sodium excretion were evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and high salt challenge test, respectively. Vehicle-treated OLETF rats developed non-dipper type blood pressure elevation with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, empagliflozin-treated OLETF rats showed an approximately 1000-fold increase in urinary glucose excretion and improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Furthermore, empagliflozin prevented the development of blood pressure elevation with normalization of its circadian rhythm to a dipper profile, which was associated with increased urinary sodium excretion. These data suggest that empagliflozin elicits beneficial effects on both glucose homeostasis and hypertension in salt-replete obese states. PMID:26818652

  17. Altered or Impaired Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in WNIN/GR-Ob Rat: An Obese Rat Model with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Bandaru, Prathibha; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Nappanveettil, Giridharan

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is shown to increase the incidence and severity of infectious diseases and individuals seem to exhibit poor antibody response to vaccination due to several inherent immune defects. With the increasing prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) seen in obese individuals, the present study was aimed to investigate the basal immune response and immune response upon Hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) in an obese rat model WNIN/GR-Ob with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Decreased proporti...

  18. Long-term inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV improves glucose tolerance and preserves islet function in mice

    Reimer, M Kvist; Holst, Jens Juul; Ahrén, B

    2002-01-01

    such mice rendered glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant by feeding a high-fat diet. DESIGN: In mice fed a standard diet (11% fat) or a high-fat diet (58% fat), NVP DPP728 (0.12 micromol/g body weight) was administered in the drinking water for an 8 week period. RESULTS: DPPIV inhibition reduced...... plasma DPPIV activity to 0.01+/-0.03 mU/ml vs 3.26+/-0.19 mU/ml in controls (P<0.001). Glucose tolerance after gastric glucose gavage, as judged by the area under the curve for plasma glucose levels over the 120 min study period, was increased after 8 weeks by NVP DPP728 in mice fed normal diet (P=0.......029) and in mice fed a high-fat diet (P=0.036). This was accompanied by increased plasma levels of insulin and intact GLP-1. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets isolated from NVP DPP728-treated animals after 8 weeks of treatment was increased as compared with islets from control animals at 5...

  19. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I;

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  20. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and its correlates among police personnel in Bankura district of west Bengal

    Pranav Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted among police personnel (N = 1817 in Bankura District, West Bengal, India to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and its correlates during July-November, 2011. Participants were enquired about their age, gender, physical activity, and predominant occupational activity. Diagnosis of DM, IFG, and IGT was based on a history, fasting, and 2-h post-load blood glucose estimation as per World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Body mass index, waist circumference (WC, and blood pressure (BP were estimated. Out of 1817 subjects, DM was found in 15%, 1.1% had IFG and 5.7% had IGT. Age >50 years, family history of diabetes, hypertension, and abdominal obesity were found to be significantly associated with DM and IGT, whereas IFG was significantly associated with the family history of diabetes and hypertension. High prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetic condition warrants early effective intervention to keep the police force healthy and agile.

  1. The influence of diet with reduction in calorie intake on metabolic syndrome parameters in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Polovina Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Current therapy of metabolic syndrome includes the assessment of cardiovascular risk together with control of high blood pressure, hyperlipidaemia and prevention of type 2 diabetes with adequate diet and increase in physical activity. Aim of the study. To investigate the influence of medical nutritive therapy in obese people with impaired glucose tolerance risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and potential consecutive lowering of cardio-metabolic risk. Material and methods. The 55 obese (body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 subjects were divided into two groups, the study group A (n=35, and the control group B (n=20. Group A was on diet for a period of 12 weeks (1200-1500kcal/day diet with 55-65% carbohydrates, 15-18% proteins and 22-23% predominantly unsaturated fats, and 20-40g fibers/day.. Before and after 12 weeks the following parameters were determined: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, Index HOMA-IR, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Results. After 12 weeks on low calorie diet in Group A there was a decrease in the waist circumference (p=0.001; systolyc blood pressure (p=0.001; diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.01; fasting blood glucose (p=0.001; Index HOMA IR (p<0.001; triglycerides (p<0.001 and increase in HDL cholesterol (p<0.05. Conclusion. These results suggest that implementation of low callorie-high fibers diet with balanced nutritive elements have a positive effect on visceral obesity, fasting glucose, lipid profile, and hypertension in obese people with impaired glucose tolerance and lead to consecutive lowering of cardiometabolic risk.

  2. Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 improves glucose tolerance and reduces body weight gain in rats by stimulating energy expenditure.

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Umegatani, Minami; Shiraishi, Aya; Morita, Yukiko; Kai, Shunichi; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Sato, Masao

    2016-08-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduces postprandial TAG absorption and exerts anti-obesity effects in rats and humans; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we addressed the mechanistic insights of the anti-obesity activity of LG2055 by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats diets containing skimmed milk fermented or not by LG2055 for 4 weeks and by analysing energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, the levels of SCFA in the caecum and serum inflammatory markers. Rats fed the LG2055-containing diet demonstrated significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation in the dark cycle (active phase for rats) compared with the control group, which resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditure. LG2055 significantly reduced cumulative blood glucose levels (AUC) compared with the control diet after 3 weeks and increased the molar ratio of butyrate:total SCFA in the caecum after 4 weeks. Furthermore, the LG2055-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of serum amyloid P component - an indicator of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, the intake of probiotic LG2055 enhanced energy expenditure via carbohydrate oxidation, improved glucose tolerance and attenuated inflammation, suggesting multiple additive and/or synergistic actions underlying the anti-obesity effects exerted by LG2055. PMID:27267802

  3. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  4. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial

    Considine Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions. Methods Fourteen impaired glucose tolerant (IGT adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA, almond butter (AB, defatted almond flour (AF, almond oil (AO or no almonds (vehicle - V were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch. Results WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (AUCI and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose AUCI was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater second-meal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments. Conclusions Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in adults with IGT. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.

  5. Amantadine reduces glucagon and enhances insulin secretion throughout the oral glucose tolerance test: central plus peripheral nervous system mechanisms

    Fuad Lechin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuad Lechin1, Bertha van der Dijs1, Betty Pardey-Maldonado1, Jairo E Rivera1, Marcel E Lechin2, Scarlet Baez11Department of Physiological Sciences, Sections of Neuroendocrinology, Neuropharmacology, and Neurochemistry, Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, TX, USAObjective: The purpose of the trial was to examine the effects of amantadine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA antagonist, on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT plus insulin, glucagon and neurotransmitters circulating levels. Previous findings showed that hyperinsulinism and type 2 diabetes are positively associated with neural sympathetic and adrenal sympathetic activities, respectively. These peripheral sympathetic branches depend on the pontine (A5-noradrenergic and the rostral ventrolateral (C1-adrenergic medullary nuclei. They are excited by glutamate axons which act at NMDA postsynaptic receptors.Research design and methods: One OGTT plus placebo and one OGTT plus oral amantadine test were carried out two weeks apart in 15 caucasic normal voluntary humans. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, plasma-free serotonin, platelet serotonin, glucose, glucagon, and insulin were measured throughout the 180-minute testing period.Results: Maximal reductions of plasma glucose and glucagon plus exacerbated insulin rises were significantly greater throughout the oral glucose plus amantadine test than those registered throughout the oral glucose plus placebo challenge. The above findings were paralleled by greater than normal noradrenaline/adrenaline plasma ratio increases. In addition, maximal reductions of the platelet serotonin and plasma serotonin circulating values contrasted with the normal rises of these parameters, always registered during the glucose load plus placebo challenge.Conclusion: This study supports the theory that

  6. Synergistic effect of calcium and zinc on glucose/xylose utilization and butanol tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Wu, Youduo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Lijie; Yuan, Wenjie; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol outperforms bioethanol as an advanced biofuel, but is not economically competitive in terms of its titer, yield and productivity associated with feedstocks and energy cost. In this work, the synergistic effect of calcium and zinc was investigated in the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum using glucose, xylose and glucose/xylose mixtures as carbon source(s). Significant improvements associated with enhanced glucose/xylose utilization, cell growth, acids re-assimilation and butanol biosynthesis were achieved. Especially, the maximum butanol and ABE production of 16.1 and 25.9 g L(-1) were achieved from 69.3 g L(-1) glucose with butanol/ABE productivities of 0.40 and 0.65 g L(-1) h(-1) compared to those of 11.7 and 19.4 g/L with 0.18 and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1) obtained in the control respectively without any supplement. More importantly, zinc was significantly involved in the butanol tolerance based on the improved xylose utilization under various butanol-shock conditions (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g L(-1) butanol). Under the same conditions, calcium and zinc co-supplementation led to the best xylose utilization and butanol production. These results suggested that calcium and zinc could play synergistic roles improving ABE fermentation by C. acetobutylicum. PMID:26850441

  7. Impaired glucose tolerance and coronary heart disease%葡萄糖耐量受损与冠心病

    何国祥

    2013-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is closely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), and significantly affects the incidence and outcome of CHD. This paper reviewed the definition and status of postprandial blood glucose, its monitoring and indications. This paper also discussed detection rates of IGT and relevant factors, the harm of IGT on cardiovascular system, and the intervention measures and effects.%葡萄糖耐量受损(IGT)与冠心病关系密切,显著地影响冠心病的发病和转归。本文介绍餐后血糖定义及状态、监测及适应证、IGT的检出率与相关因素、对心血管系统的危害、干预措施和效果。

  8. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  9. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.;

    2013-01-01

    termination, expressions of mRNA coding for tumor necrosis factor, serum amyloid A, and lactase were upregulated, while the expression of tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 15 was downregulated in the ileum of Ampicillin-treated mice. Higher dendritic cell percentages were found systemically in...... high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well as...... development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning....

  10. Reduced Progression to Type 2 Diabetes From Impaired Glucose Tolerance After a 2-Day In-Hospital Diabetes Educational Program

    Kawahara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Inazu, Tetsuya; Arao, Tadashi; Kawahara, Chie; Tabata, Takahiro; MORIYAMA, Hiroyuki; Okada, Yosuke; Morita, Emiko; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—We assessed the effects of a 2-day in-hospital diabetes educational program in preventing or delaying progression of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes, including analysis of changes in serum lipids, body weight, and blood pressure after the program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 426 subjects (51 ± 9 years, BMI 24.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2) with newly diagnosed IGT were randomly assigned to three groups, 143 as the short-term hospitalization with diabetes education and...

  11. The effect of PCSK1 variants on waist, waist-hip ratio and glucose metabolism is modified by sex and glucose tolerance status

    Gjesing, Anette P; Vestmar, Marie A; Jørgensen, Torben; Heni, Martin; Holst, Jens J; Witte, Daniel R; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2011-01-01

    = 0.008) and increased waist-to-hip ratio of 0.004 (0.0005–0.008, p = 0.027). In the meta-analyses where men and women were combined, the rs6232 G-allele associated with increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.02) and the rs6235 C-allele associated with increased waist circumference (p = 0...... variants was also investigated in a subset of 62 glucose-tolerant men during a meal challenge including measures of serum incretins. In men we found an effect on body composition in sex-stratified analyses where the rs6235 C-allele conferred an increased waist circumference of 0.8 cm per allele (0.2–1.5, p...

  12. Improved tolerance to sequential glucose loading (Staub-Traugott effect): size and mechanisms

    Bonuccelli, Sandra; Muscelli, Elza; Gastaldelli, Amalia;

    2009-01-01

    second load (P = not significant). Fasting endogenous glucose production [13.3 +/- 0.6 micromol x min(-1) x kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1)] averaged 6.0 +/- 3.8 micromol x min(-1) x kg FFM(-1) between 0 and 180 min and 1.7 +/- 2.6 between 180 and 360 min (P < 0.03). Glucose potentiation and stronger...

  13. Fufang Cangzhu Tang for Treatment of Senile Obesity or Overweight Complicated with Impaired Glucose Tolerance--A Clinical Observation in 32 Cases

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of Fufang Cangzhu Tang (复方苍术汤 Composite Atractylodes Decoction) on senile obesity or overweight with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Methods: 32 cases of senile obesity or overweight with IGT were treated with Composite Atractylodes Decoction, with another 30 cases treated with dimethyldiguanide as the controls. Changes of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist hip circumference ratio (WHR), glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid before and after treatment were compared. Results: After treatment, the body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR, glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid in the Composite Atractylodes Decoction treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with no significant difference as compared with the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Composite Atractylodes Decoction can obviously decrease the body weight,waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid in the senile patients with obesity or overweight with impaired glucose tolerance.

  14. Ethanol production from high-glucose industrial substrates using ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Cunha, M. R. M.; Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; Teixeira, J.A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is well known as a toxic metabolite for yeast cells. Thus, strains that can grow well under high ethanol stress condition are highly desirable. This work aims to select and characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved ethanol tolerance. Moreover, it aims to evaluate the feasibility of industrial residues as fermentation media and to optimize the composition of such media. The ethanol production and tolerance of the yeast strains have been evaluated, carrying out batc...

  15. Effect of glucose on Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation, and assessment of the biofilm's sanitation tolerance.

    Kyoui, Daisuke; Hirokawa, Eri; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important cause of human foodborne infections and its ability to form biofilms is a serious concern to the food industry. To reveal the effect of glucose conditions on biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes, 20 strains were investigated under three glucose conditions (0.1, 1.0, and 2.0% w v(-1)) by quantifying the number of cells in the biofilm and observing the biofilm structure after incubation for 24, 72, and 168 h. In addition, the biofilms were examined for their sensitivity to sodium hypochlorite. It was found that high concentrations of glucose reduced the number of viable cells in the biofilms and increased extracellular polymeric substance production. Moreover, biofilms formed at a glucose concentration of 1.0 or 2.0% were more resistant to sodium hypochlorite than those formed at a glucose concentration of 0.1%. This knowledge can be used to help design the most appropriate sanitation strategy. PMID:27353113

  16. Purification, characterization, and substrate specificity of a novel highly glucose-tolerant beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Riou, C; Salmon, J M; Vallier, M J; Günata, Z; Barre, P

    1998-10-01

    Aspergillus oryzae was found to secrete two distinct beta-glucosidases when it was grown in liquid culture on various substrates. The major form had a molecular mass of 130 kDa and was highly inhibited by glucose. The minor form, which was induced most effectively on quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone)-rich medium, represented no more than 18% of total beta-glucosidase activity but exhibited a high tolerance to glucose inhibition. This highly glucose-tolerant beta-glucosidase (designated HGT-BG) was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and anion-exchange chromatography. HGT-BG is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa and a pI of 4.2 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Using p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside as the substrate, we found that the enzyme was optimally active at 50 degreesC and pH 5.0 and had a specific activity of 1,066 micromol min-1 mg of protein-1 and a Km of 0.55 mM under these conditions. The enzyme is particularly resistant to inhibition by glucose (Ki, 1. 36 M) or glucono-delta-lactone (Ki, 12.5 mM), another powerful beta-glucosidase inhibitor present in wine. A comparison of the enzyme activities on various glycosidic substrates indicated that HGT-BG is a broad-specificity type of fungal beta-glucosidase. It exhibits exoglucanase activity and hydrolyzes (1-->3)- and (1-->6)-beta-glucosidic linkages most effectively. This enzyme was able to release flavor compounds, such as geraniol, nerol, and linalol, from the corresponding monoterpenyl-beta-D-glucosides in a grape must (pH 2.9, 90 g of glucose liter-1). Other flavor precursors (benzyl- and 2-phenylethyl-beta-D-glucosides) and prunin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-glucoside), which contribute to the bitterness of citrus juices, are also substrates of the enzyme. Thus, this novel beta-glucosidase is of great potential

  17. Purification, Characterization, and Substrate Specificity of a Novel Highly Glucose-Tolerant β-Glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Riou, Christine; Salmon, Jean-Michel; Vallier, Marie-Jose; Günata, Ziya; Barre, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae was found to secrete two distinct β-glucosidases when it was grown in liquid culture on various substrates. The major form had a molecular mass of 130 kDa and was highly inhibited by glucose. The minor form, which was induced most effectively on quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone)-rich medium, represented no more than 18% of total β-glucosidase activity but exhibited a high tolerance to glucose inhibition. This highly glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase (designated HGT-BG) was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and anion-exchange chromatography. HGT-BG is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa and a pI of 4.2 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Using p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucoside as the substrate, we found that the enzyme was optimally active at 50°C and pH 5.0 and had a specific activity of 1,066 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 and a Km of 0.55 mM under these conditions. The enzyme is particularly resistant to inhibition by glucose (Ki, 1.36 M) or glucono-δ-lactone (Ki, 12.5 mM), another powerful β-glucosidase inhibitor present in wine. A comparison of the enzyme activities on various glycosidic substrates indicated that HGT-BG is a broad-specificity type of fungal β-glucosidase. It exhibits exoglucanase activity and hydrolyzes (1→3)- and (1→6)-β-glucosidic linkages most effectively. This enzyme was able to release flavor compounds, such as geraniol, nerol, and linalol, from the corresponding monoterpenyl-β-d-glucosides in a grape must (pH 2.9, 90 g of glucose liter−1). Other flavor precursors (benzyl- and 2-phenylethyl-β-d-glucosides) and prunin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-glucoside), which contribute to the bitterness of citrus juices, are also substrates of the enzyme. Thus, this novel β-glucosidase is of great potential interest in wine and

  18. PICK1 and ICA69 control insulin granule trafficking and their deficiencies lead to impaired glucose tolerance.

    Mian Cao

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin, which is secreted by pancreatic beta cells, is recognized as the critical regulator of blood glucose, but the molecular machinery responsible for insulin trafficking remains poorly defined. In particular, the roles of cytosolic factors that govern the formation and maturation of insulin granules are unclear. Here we report that PICK1 and ICA69, two cytosolic lipid-binding proteins, formed heteromeric BAR-domain complexes that associated with insulin granules at different stages of their maturation. PICK1-ICA69 heteromeric complexes associated with immature secretory granules near the trans-Golgi network (TGN. A brief treatment of Brefeldin A, which blocks vesicle budding from the Golgi, increased the amount of PICK1 and ICA69 at TGN. On the other hand, mature secretory granules were associated with PICK1 only, not ICA69. PICK1 deficiency in mice caused the complete loss of ICA69 and led to increased food and water intake but lower body weight. Glucose tolerance tests demonstrated that these mutant mice had high blood glucose, a consequence of insufficient insulin. Importantly, while the total insulin level was reduced in PICK1-deficient beta cells, proinsulin was increased. Lastly, ICA69 knockout mice also displayed similar phenotype as the mice deficient in PICK1. Together, our results indicate that PICK1 and ICA69 are key regulators of the formation and maturation of insulin granules.

  19. Serum glycated albumin is inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

    Feifei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that body mass index (BMI inversely influenced serum glycated albumin (GA, which may cause an underestimation of GA-monitored short-term hyperglycemic control. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the association between anthropometric variables (BMI and waist circumference (W and accurate adiposity variables (percentage of body fat (%fat, fat mass, free fat mass (FFM, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and visceral fat area (VFA with serum GA. DESIGN: A total of 2563 subjects (1037 men, 593 premenopausal women, and 933 postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance underwent bioelectrical impedance body fat content measurement and magnetic resonance imaging. Serum GA and absolute value of GA (aGA were measured by enzymatic assay. RESULTS: Compared to the BMI <25.0 kg/m(2 group, the BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2 group had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and body fat parameters including W, %fat, fat mass, FFM, SFA, and VFA, but significantly lower aGA, and GA in all the three sex- and menopause-stratified groups (all P<0.05. GA decreased with the increment of fat mass for all three groups (all P for trend <0.001. In the same BMI category, men and postmenopausal women with elevated %fat (men, ≥25%; women, ≥35% still had significantly lower GA than those with normal %fat (men, <25%; women, <35% (all P<0.05. Multiple stepwise regression showed that %fat, fat mass, and VFA were independently associated with GA. CONCLUSIONS: Serum GA was inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

  20. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses.

    Elin Manell

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW. Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research.

  1. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses.

    Manell, Elin; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Svensson, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW) and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW). Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research. PMID:26859145

  2. Treatment of Abnormal Glucose Regulation and Huge Ovarian Cysts with High Dose Insulin Glargine in an Infant with Leprechaunism - Case Report

    Ayşe Yasemin Çelik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the insulin receptor gene. In this report; we present a 75 days old infant with leprecahunism treated by high dose insulin glargine.Case Report: Yetmiş day old girl was diagnosed as leprechaunism because of the hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and dysmorphic appearance. Huge cysts with multiple septa were determined in her ovaries. High dose insulin glargine were adjusted to achieve target blood glucose regulation. Huge ovarian cysts resolved by this treatment.Conclusion: Leprechaunism is characterized by intra-uterine and postnatal growth restriction, lipo-atrophy, characteristic facial features, severe acanthosis nigricans, abnormal glucose homeostasis, clitoromegaly and hirsutism. It is usually fatal within the 1st year of life because of diabetic ketoacidosis or recurrent infections. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 119-22

  3. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 3260 Danish women

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B;

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk....../l than in women with 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for several maternal and perinatal complications increased with the diagnostic threshold for 2-h glucose. Large-scale blinded studies are needed to clarify the question of a clinically meaningful diagnosis of gestational diabetes...... mellitus. Until these results are available, a 2-h threshold level of 9.0 mmol/l after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test seems acceptable....

  4. Overexpression and characterization of a glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from T. aotearoense with high specific activity for cellobiose.

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhe; Du, Chenyu; Wang, Jufang; Li, Shuang

    2015-11-01

    Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense P8G3#4 produced β-glucosidase (BGL) intracellularly when grown in liquid culture on cellobiose. The gene bgl, encoding β-glucosidase, was cloned and sequenced. Analysis revealed that the bgl contained an open reading frame of 1314 bp encoding a protein of 446 amino acid residues, and the product belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 with the canonical glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) (β/α)8 TIM barrel fold. Expression of pET-bgl together with a chaperone gene cloned in vector pGro7 in Escherichia coli dramatically enhanced the crude enzyme activity to a specific activity of 256.3 U/mg wet cells, which resulted in a 9.2-fold increase of that obtained from the expression without any chaperones. The purified BGL exhibited relatively high thermostability and pH stability with its highest activity at 60 °C and pH 6.0. In addition, the activities of BGL were remarkably stimulated by the addition of 5 mM Na(+) or K(+). The enzyme showed strong ability to hydrolyze cellobiose with a K m and V max of 25.45 mM and 740.5 U/mg, respectively. The BGL was activated by glucose at concentration varying from 50 to 250 mM and tolerant to glucose inhibition with a K i of 800 mM glucose. The supplement of the purified BGL to the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis mixture containing a commercial cellulase resulted in about 20 % enhancement of the released reducing sugars. These properties of the purified BGL should have important practical implication in its potential applications for better industrial production of glucose or bioethanol started from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:25957152

  5. Need for testing glucose tolerance in the early weeks of pregnancy

    Seshiah Veeraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This observational study aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of glucose intolerance in the early weeks of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: New World Health Organization 2013 guidelines recommends “A Single Step Procedure”(SSP as an option for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Pregnant women attending 131 prenatal clinics across India for the first time underwent SSP consisting of administration of 75 goral glucose irrespective of the last meal timing and to diagnose GDM with 2 h plasma glucose (PG value≥7.8 mmol/L (7.8 mmol/L. Results: In a cohort of n = 11,785, the number of pregnant women who underwent the test in first, second, and third trimesters were 4300, 4632, and 2853, respectively. Documented blood glucose values were available for 9282 pregnant women and in them, diagnosis of GDM was made in 740 (8%. Among them, 233 (31.5%, 320 (43.2%, and 187 (25.3% were in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Positive family history of diabetes (43% and history of fetal loss in previous pregnancy (27% was more common in women diagnosed with GDM in the first trimester compared to GDM diagnosed in the second or third trimester. Conclusion: Manifestation of GDM in the early weeks of gestation is quite common.

  6. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, A K

    2007-01-01

    Various spices display insulin-potentiating activity in vitro, and in particular, cinnamon spice and its phenolic extracts have been shown to exhibit these capabilities. In vivo study shows that cinnamon may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis; therefore the aim of this study was to...

  7. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance. PMID:20660065

  8. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Márquez-Ibarra, Adriana; Huerta, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I.; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn; Trujillo, Xóchitl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Materials and Methods Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the ...

  9. Assessment of incretins in oral glucose and lipid tolerance tests may be indicative in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome aggravation.

    Kiec-Klimczak, M; Malczewska-Malec, M; Razny, U; Zdzienicka, A; Gruca, A; Goralska, J; Pach, D; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A

    2016-04-01

    Incretins stimulated by oral meals are claimed to be protective for the pancreatic beta cells, to increase insulin secretion, to inhibit glucagon release, slow gastric emptying (glucagon-like peptide-1) and suppress appetite. Recently it has however been suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is putative early biomarker of metabolic consequences of the obesity associated proinflammatory state. The study was aimed to compare the release of incretins and some of early markers of inflammation at the fasting and postprandial period induced by functional oral glucose as well as lipid load in healthy controls and patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) to see if functional tests may be helpful in searching for the inflammatory status of patients. Fifty patients with MS and 20 healthy volunteers (C) participated in this study. The 3-hour oral glucose (OGTT) and the 8-hour oral lipid (OLTT) tolerance tests were performed. At fasting leptin and adiponectin, as well as every 30 minutes of OGTT and every 2 hours of OLTT blood concentration of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-6, sE-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) and visfatin were measured. At fasting and during both OGTT and OLTT the level of incretins did not differ between the MS and the C group. Both glucose and lipids reach food activated incretins secretion. Glucose was the main GLP-1 release activator, while the lipid load activated evidently GIP secretion. A significantly larger AUC-GIP after the lipid-rich meal over the carbohydrate meal was observed, while statistically bigger value of AUC-GLP-1 was noticed in OGTT than in OLTT (P fasting plasma GIP concentration (3(rd) tertile), IL-6, MCP-1, sE-selectin and visfatin blood levels were increased and correlated with glutathione peroxydase, leptin/adiponectin ratio, higher visfatin and interleukin-6 levels. The fat containing meals

  10. Boron-doped graphene quantum dots for selective glucose sensing based on the "abnormal" aggregation-induced photoluminescence enhancement.

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Liang, Ru-Ping; Li, Ya-Hua; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2014-05-01

    A hydrothermal approach for the cutting of boron-doped graphene (BG) into boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) has been proposed. Various characterizations reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully doped into graphene structures with the atomic percentage of 3.45%. The generation of boronic acid groups on the BGQDs surfaces facilitates their application as a new photoluminescence (PL) probe for label free glucose sensing. It is postulated that the reaction of the two cis-diol units in glucose with the two boronic acid groups on the BGQDs surfaces creates structurally rigid BGQDs-glucose aggregates, restricting the intramolecular rotations and thus resulting in a great boost in the PL intensity. The present unusual "aggregation-induced PL increasing" sensing process excludes any saccharide with only one cis-diol unit, as manifested by the high specificity of BGQDs for glucose over its close isomeric cousins fructose, galactose, and mannose. It is believed that the doping of boron can introduce the GQDs to a new kind of surface state and offer great scientific insights to the PL enhancement mechanism with treatment of glucose. PMID:24708154

  11. Association of the ACTN3 R557X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E.; Benziane, Boubacar; Chibalin, Alexander V; Juleen R. Zierath

    2015-01-01

    A common polymorphism (R577X) in the α-actinin (ACTN) 3 gene, which leads to complete deficiency of a functional protein in skeletal muscle, could directly influence metabolism in the context of health and disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that states of glucose tolerance are associated with the ACTN3 R577X genotype. We analyzed the prevalence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and measured muscle-specific α-actin...

  12. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes. Highlights and achievements

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora. HYPOTHESIS: The risk of diabetes in transitional populations of the African diaspora is directly related to the rate of anthropornetric change and physical activity. AIMS: - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to physical activity in two populations of the African Diaspora with widely different levels of obesity; - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to rate of rise in body weight and change in body composition

  13. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose to tolerance to Frank diabetes

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora, with a rate of about 1% in West Africa, 12% in Jamaica and 16% in the United States. A population-based survey was conducted in an urban community in Jamaica to document the risk factors for the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to frank diabetes. In a sample of 614 adults, 239 men and 375 women, oral glucose tolerance tests and examinations were conducted at Baseline and after 4-years of Follow-Up. There were significant increases in virtually all weight and adiposity variables for both men and women. Energy expenditure was also measured in a subset of participants at Follow-Up and was related significantly to glucose tolerance status. Among men, baseline age, weight, fat mass, body fat, waist circumference, and change in waist circumference were predictive of worsening glucose tolerance status. Among women, only age and change in waist circumference was a significant predictor. No physical activity parameter was predictive of change in tolerance status. These results provide support for the need to decrease adiposity as an important mechanism to control the rise in diabetes prevalence. (author)

  14. The performance of hemoglobin A1c against fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance test in detecting prediabetes and diabetes

    Karakaya, Jale; Akin, Safak; Karagaoglu, Ergun; Gurlek, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is accepted among the algorithms used for making diagnosis for diabetes and prediabetes since it does not require subjects to be prepared for giving a blood sample. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of HbA1c against fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in detecting prediabetes and diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 315 subjects were included in this study. The success of HbA1c in distinguishing the three diagnostic classes was examined by three-way receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The best cut-off points for HbA1c were found for discriminating the three disease status. Results: The performance of HbA1c, measured by the volume under the ROC surface (VUS), is found to be statistically significant (VUS = 0.535, P < 0.001). The best cut-off points for discriminating between normal and prediabetes groups and between prediabetes and diabetes groups are c1 = 5.2% and c2 = 6.4% respectively. Conclusion: The performance of HbA1c in distinguishing between the prediabetes and diabetes groups was higher than its ability in distinguishing between healthy and prediabetes groups. This study provides enough information to understand what proportion of diabetes patients were skipped with the HbA1c especially when the test result is healthy or prediabetes. If a subject was diagnosed as healthy or prediabetes by HbA1c, it would be beneficial to verify the status of that subject by the gold standard test (OGTT and FPG). PMID:25657750

  15. The performance of hemoglobin A1c against fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance test in detecting prediabetes and diabetes

    Jale Karakaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c is accepted among the algorithms used for making diagnosis for diabetes and prediabetes since it does not require subjects to be prepared for giving a blood sample. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of HbA1c against fasting plasma glucose (FPG and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in detecting prediabetes and diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 315 subjects were included in this study. The success of HbA1c in distinguishing the three diagnostic classes was examined by three-way receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. The best cut-off points for HbA1c were found for discriminating the three disease status. Results: The performance of HbA1c, measured by the volume under the ROC surface (VUS, is found to be statistically significant (VUS = 0.535, P < 0.001. The best cut-off points for discriminating between normal and prediabetes groups and between prediabetes and diabetes groups are c 1 = 5.2% and c 2 = 6.4% respectively. Conclusion: The performance of HbA1c in distinguishing between the prediabetes and diabetes groups was higher than its ability in distinguishing between healthy and prediabetes groups. This study provides enough information to understand what proportion of diabetes patients were skipped with the HbA1c especially when the test result is healthy or prediabetes. If a subject was diagnosed as healthy or prediabetes by HbA1c, it would be beneficial to verify the status of that subject by the gold standard test (OGTT and FPG.

  16. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance

    Sayers, Sophie R.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Parker, Helen; Zac-Varghese, Sagen; Bloom, Stephen R.; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in these cells. Method Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre) to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay. Results Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01) in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01) and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01) GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01). Conclusion AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27010458

  17. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Effect of fructose or sucrose feeding with different levels on oral glucose tolerance test in normal and type 2 diabetic rats

    Kwon, Sanghee; Kim, You Jin; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether acute fructose or sucrose administration at different levels (0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg body weight) might affect oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. In OGTT, there were no significant differences in glucose responses between acute fructose- and sucrose-administered groups. However, in normal rats, the AUCs of the blood glucose response for the fructose-administered groups tended to be lower than those of th...

  19. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P;

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet-induced o......Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet......-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue in...

  20. Chromium Supplementation Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    Abdourahman, Aicha; Edwards, John G

    2008-01-01

    Chromium supplementation (Cr) may be useful in the management of diabetes and appears to improve some aspects of glucose handling. However, several studies have used either high doses of Cr supplementation or have placed control animals on a Cr-deficient diet. We therefore wanted to test whether Cr dosages in the ranges that more closely approximate recommended levels of supplementation in humans are efficacious in glycemic control under normal dietary conditions. Euglycemic Wistar or diabeti...

  1. Tolerance

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  2. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Ida Rune

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota (GM in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis

  3. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Ali Ahadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats.MethodsLate stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days.ResultsDuring 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05. Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated earlystage diabetic rats.ConclusionsChicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and longterm (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  4. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Ghamarian Abdolreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and long-term (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  5. The Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Thalassemia Major in Iran: A systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    M Azami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is one of the most common endocrine complications in major thalassemia patients. IGT prevalence in patients with thalassemia major has been differently in different studies in Iran, about which no total estimate can be proposed. Hence, this meta analysis study aimed to investigate IGT prevalence in major thalassemia patients in Iran. Methods: This study was a systematic review based on electronic databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, Springer, Online Library Wiley as well as Google Scholar search engine without any time limitations up to 2015. All the potentially relevant papers were reviewed independently by two investigators using the standard key words. Then, all the reviewed studies that had inclusion criterion were evaluated. In order to statistically analyze the study data, random effect model was used via Stata software (Ver.11.1. Results: 1346 subjects were examined in 13 studies. IGT prevalence in patients with thalassemia major was estimated 9.6 %( CI: 95%, 6.6-12.5 in Iran. The IGT prevalence in male and female major thalassemia patients were 6.5 %( CI: 95%, 1.6-11.3 and 10.2 %( CI: 95% , 6.1-14.3, respectively. Conclusion: IGT Prevalence was demonstrated to be really high in patients with thalassemia major. As a result, implementing screening programs seems to be necessary in regard with early diagnosis of endocrine disorders especially IGT in these patients. Furthermore, it is recommended that annual glucose tolerance test be taken within such patients.

  6. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  7. Metabolic abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Palacios Verd??, Mar??a Gabriela, 1983-; Segura Puimedon, Maria, 1985-; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Campo Casanelles, Miguel del, 1966-; Campuzano Uceda, Mar??a Victoria; P??rez Jurado, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83???Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ???30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ???75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well a...

  8. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  9. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  10. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether genetic variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with type 2 diabetes and altered lipid or carbohydrate metabolism in glucose tolerant subjects. Mutation analyses of PPARalpha were performed in 56 t...

  11. Selective FFA2 Agonism Appears to Act via Intestinal PYY to Reduce Transit and Food Intake but Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance in Mouse Models.

    Forbes, Sarah; Stafford, Stuart; Coope, Gareth; Heffron, Helen; Real, Katia; Newman, Robert; Davenport, Richard; Barnes, Matt; Grosse, Johannes; Cox, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is expressed on enteroendocrine L cells that release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) when activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Functionally GLP-1 and PYY inhibit gut transit, increase glucose tolerance, and suppress appetite; thus, FFA2 has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, FFA2-selective agonists have not been characterized in vivo. Compound 1 (Cpd 1), a potent FFA2 agonist, was tested for its activity on the following: GLP-1 release, modulation of intestinal mucosal ion transport and transit in wild-type (WT) and FFA2(-/-) tissue, and food intake and glucose tolerance in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Cpd 1 stimulated GLP-1 secretion in vivo, but this effect was only detected with dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, while mucosal responses were PYY, not GLP-1, mediated. Gut transit was faster in FFA2(-/-) mice, while Cpd 1 slowed WT transit and reduced food intake and body weight in DIO mice. Cpd 1 decreased glucose tolerance and suppressed plasma insulin in lean and DIO mice, despite FFA2(-/-) mice displaying impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that FFA2 inhibits intestinal functions and suppresses food intake via PYY pathways, with limited GLP-1 contribution. Thus, FFA2 may be an effective therapeutic target for obesity but not for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26239054

  12. A common polymorphism in the promoter of the IGF-I gene associates with increased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose-tolerant subjects

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Lajer, Maria;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if absence of a common allele in a microsatellite polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) promoter was associated with type 2 diabetes and alterations in quantitative traits in glucose-tolerant subjects....

  13. Ectopic expression of ABSCISIC ACID 2/GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE 1 in Arabidopsis promotes seed dormancy and stress tolerance.

    Lin, Pei-Chi; Hwang, San-Gwang; Endo, Akira; Okamoto, Masanori; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Cheng, Wan-Hsing

    2007-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that plays a critical role in seed development, dormancy, and stress tolerance. 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase is the key enzyme controlling ABA biosynthesis and stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated the effect of ectopic expression of another ABA biosynthesis gene, ABA2 (or GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE 1 [GIN1]) encoding a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that ABA2-overexpressing transgenic plants with elevated ABA levels exhibited seed germination delay and more tolerance to salinity than wild type when grown on agar plates and/or in soil. However, the germination delay was abolished in transgenic plants showing ABA levels over 2-fold higher than that of wild type grown on 250 mm NaCl. The data suggest that there are distinct mechanisms underlying ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination under diverse stress. The ABA-deficient mutant aba2, with a shorter primary root, can be restored to normal root growth by exogenous application of ABA, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing ABA2 showed normal root growth. The data reflect that the basal levels of ABA are essential for maintaining normal primary root elongation. Furthermore, analysis of ABA2 promoter activity with ABA2::beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants revealed that the promoter activity was enhanced by multiple prolonged stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold, and flooding, but not by short-term stress treatments. Coincidently, prolonged drought stress treatment led to the up-regulation of ABA biosynthetic and sugar-related genes. Thus, the data support ABA2 as a late expression gene that might have a fine-tuning function in mediating ABA biosynthesis through primary metabolic changes in response to stress. PMID:17189333

  14. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul; Bjorck, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P < 0.05). At breakfast, the......Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose...

  15. Central sensibility of human cases with different body mass during oral glucose tolerance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of technique, there are few researches on regulating function of central hypothalamus by metabolism, especially the researches on real-time function.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of hypothalamus to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in different body-weighted subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) so as to investigate the relationship between the sensitivity of hypothalamus in glycoregulation and disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism.DESIGN: Paired design.SETTING: Department of Radiology and Beijing Geriatrics Institute, Beijing Hospital, National Public Health Bureau.PARTICIPANTS: A total of twenty healthy volunteers were selected from Beijing Geriatrics Institute,National Public Health Bureau, including 10 subjects with obesity (5 males and 5 females; body mass >28.0 kg/m2) and 10 subjects with normal body mass (5 males and 5 females; body mass from 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2). All subjects gave written informed consent before participating in the study.METHODS: fMRI study was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa Twinspeed Infinity with Excite. Each volunteer was ingested of glucose during the fMRI scan. T2* images were acquired using a single-shot gradient echo (EPI) technique. The parameters of EPI included: TR 3 000 ms, TE 40 ms, Flip angle 90 ° , field of view (FOV) 24 cm × 24 cm, thickness 5 mm, gap 0 mm, matrix 64 × 64, number of excitation 1. All 10 subjects with normal body mass underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for the fMRI scan with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data were processed with Intensity Averaging Method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The central response of hypothalamus and feedback orientation during OGTT in different body-weighted subjects.RESULTS: An acute transient decrease of fMRI intensity in posterior inferior and anterior inferior of hypothalamus was observed in all

  16. Effects of abnormal results of simple glucose screening test on pregnancy%单纯葡萄糖筛查试验异常对妊娠的影响

    甘嫦勋; 蔡鹏宇; 吴淑芳; 黎美金; 吴怡萍; 钟金华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of abnormal results of simple glucose screening test on pregnancy. Methods: The data of 2 473 pregnant women who gave birth to their babies in the hospital from January 2007 to June 2010 were analyzed retrospectively, 628 pregnant women with abnormal results of simple glucose screening test and normal results of oral glucose tolerance test ( OGTT) were selected as abnormal group, 1 845 pregnant women with normal results of simple glucose screening test were selected as control group. The gestation-al weeks at delivery, amniotic fluid index detected by ultrasonography before rupture of fetal membrane, birth weight, body height, and head circumference of neonates in the two groups were recorded; the incidences of polyhydramnios, premature delivery, macrosomia, fetal growth restriction, birth weight, body height, and head circumference of neonates in the two groups were compared. Results: The incidence of fetal growth restriction, birth weight, and head circumference of neonates in abnormal group were 2. 5% , (50. 8 ± 1. 4) cm, and (34. 2 ± 1. 5) cm, respectively; the incidence of fetal growth restriction, birth weight, and head circumference of neonates in normal group were 2, 9% , (50. 7 ± 1. 5) cm, and (34. 1 ± 1. 4) cm, respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The incidences of polyhydramnios, premature delivery, macrosomia, fetal growth restriction, and birth weight in abnormal group were 3.3%, 5.3%, 11.5% , and (3. 5 ±0.5) kg; the incidences of polyhydramnios , premature delivery, macrosomia, fetal growth restriction, and birth weight in normal group were 0. 6% , 2. 5% , 4. 7% , and (3. 2 ±0. 6) kg, there was statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The incidences of polyhydramnios, premature delivery, macrosomia, fetal growth restriction, and birth weight of neonates in the patients with abnormal results of simple glucose screening test were

  17. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity. PMID:26863933

  18. The relationship between dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a study on elderly patients%60岁及以上患者血脂异常与糖耐量减低的关系

    主理群; 崔会娣; 李詝

    2009-01-01

    The study is to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety elderly nondiabetic patients (60 -84 years old) were under long-term follow-up in outpatient department. Blood lipid measurement and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTr) were performed,the two-hour glucose levels (2 hPBG) between normal and abnormal blood lipid groups were compared. We found that patients with hypertriglyceridemia had a significantly higher 2 hPBG than patients with normal blood triglyceride(P<0. 01 ). But there were no differences in 2 hPBG levels between other dyslipidemias and normal lipid patients. OGTT screening in elderly patients with hypertriglyceridemia can be helpful in early detection and prevention of diabetes.%对90例60岁及以上非糖尿病患者行血脂检测及口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)检测,比较分析各血脂指标正常与异常者间葡萄糖负荷后2 h的血糖(2 hPBG)水平差异.高甘油三酯(TG)血症患者2 hPBG为(8.9±2.3)mmol/L,TG正常者为(7.2 ±1.6)mmol/L,两者比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);而其余血脂指标正常与异常者之间差异无统计学意义.对高TG老年患者进行OGTT筛查有助于及早发现单纯糖耐量减低和对糖尿病的早期预防.

  19. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    performed before and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... OGTT, in the Matsudas index, in body weight, or in body composition. CONCLUSION: A diet high in monounsaturated fat has a more favorable effect on glucose homeostasis than does the typical Western diet in the short term and may also be more beneficial than the official recommended low-fat diet during a...

  20. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS 30 YEARS ABOVE IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF KATIHAR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Shahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : 1 To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type - 2 in an urban population of age 30 year and above 2 To determine the prevalence of impaired an urban population of age 30 years and above 3 To study the association of various risk factors with diabe tes mellitus Type - 2 and Implored Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY : A community based cross section study will be carried out in population 30 years above at Sharifganj with District Katihar Bihar during January 2013 - June 2013. Population approximately 5000 i s an urban field practice area of Katihar Medical College Katihar , during the six months study period. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS was estimated to identify the diabetes and the Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT. Information from the study population was collected through pre tested questionnaire using several anthropometric measurements. RESULT : All of the 910 subjects examined far fasting blood glucose after overnight fast. FBS was detected by using standardized Glucometer (Accu - Check 32 cases were detected as Diabetic or having Impaired Glucose Tolerance (ITG prevalence of diabetes and IGT was higher among urban and is increasing with increase in age. Several long and short team steps should be taken for promotion of healthy life style modifications to present diabetes and emergence of its complications.

  1. Cigarette smoking increases levels of retinol-binding protein-4 in healthy men with normal glucose tolerance

    GAO Shan; WANG Yong-hui; LI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Retinol-binding protein-4 is a new adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance.We investigated the serum levels of a series of adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4 in smokers and non-smokers to explore the possible roles of adipocytokines on smoking induced insulin resistance.Methods A total of 136 healthy male subjects (92 smokers and 44 non-smokers) with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study.Adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4,visfatin,leptin,resistin,adiponectin were measured for the comparison between the two groups.Serum lipid profile,glucose,true insulin and proinsulin levels were measured as well in both groups.Food intake spectrum was also investigated.Results Both groups had similar profile of food consumption; visfatin,leptin,resistin and adiponectin,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,as well as blood pressure and body mass index,were similar in both groups.Triglycerides,retinol-binding protein-4 and homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance were higher in smoker group ((2.58±2.53) vs.(1.60±0.94)mmol/L,(26.05±8.50) vs.(21.83±8.40) μg/ml,and 2.25±2.08 vs.1.58±1.15,respectively).Conclusion Smoking may have effect on insulin sensitivity,which is correlated with retinol-binding protein-4.

  2. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  3. Analysis of glucose tolerance screening and its influence factors of 2 306 pregnant women%2306例孕妇糖耐量筛查及影响因素分析

    马轶

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解妊娠期糖代谢异常的发生率,探讨其相关因素,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法:对2 306例孕妇进行50 g葡萄糖筛查试验(GCT),50 g GCT结果≥7.8 mmol/L再行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)明确诊断,将临床资料进行统计分析.结果:妊娠期50 g GCT阳性率20.77%.其中葡萄耐量降低发生率4.16%,妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)检出率3.64%.高龄、孕前肥胖及糖尿病家族史为妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关因素.结论:GDM母儿并发症多,50 g GCT对GDM的及时发现和管理具有重要的意义.妊娠期糖耐量异常的发生率与孕妇的年龄、孕前体重指数及糖尿病家族史相关.做好孕前保健工作,按时对孕妇进行50 g GCT检测,特别是对GDM高危孕妇的筛查与管理有非常重要的临床意义.%Objective; To understand the incidence of abnormal gestation sugar metabolism, discuss its related factors, and provide scientific basis to intervention measures. Methods; 2 306 pregnant women were detecting by Sog glucose screening test ( GOT) , the pregnant women whose GCT result ≥7. 8 mmol/L were diagnosed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), then the clinical data were statistically analyzed . Results; The positive rate of 50g glucose screening test was 20. 77% , the incidence of lower glucose tolerance was 4. 16% , the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was 3. 64%. The senility, obesity before gestation and family diabetes history ware related factors of abnormal gestation sugar metabolism. Conclusion; The complications are a lot for the maternal and fetal with GDM. Sog GCT has a vital significance to GDMs timely discovery and management The incidence of abnormal gestation glucose tolerance is related to age, body mass index before gestation and family diabetes history of pregnant women. Its very important for screening and management of pregnant women with GDM to care before gestation, do GCT detection timely.

  4. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Allison Wara

    Full Text Available Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6 were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03 food intake (- 22% but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03 by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  5. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Regulation in Anoxia Tolerance of the Freshwater Crayfish Orconectes virilis

    Benjamin Lant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, the enzyme which catalyzes the rate determining step of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, controls the production of nucleotide precursor molecules (R5P and powerful reducing molecules (NADPH that support multiple biosynthetic functions, including antioxidant defense. G6PDH from hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish (Orconectes virilis showed distinct kinetic changes in response to 20 h anoxic exposure. Km values for both substrates decreased significantly in anoxic crayfish; Km NADP+ dropped from 0.015±0.008 mM to 0.012±0.008 mM, and Km G6P decreased from 0.13±0.02 mM to 0.08±0.007 mM. Two lines of evidence indicate that the mechanism involved is reversible phosphorylation. In vitro incubations that stimulated protein kinase or protein phosphatase action mimicked the effects on anoxia on Km values, whereas DEAE-Sephadex chromatography showed the presence of two enzyme forms (low- and high-phosphate whose proportions changed during anoxia. Incubation studies implicated protein kinase A and G in mediating the anoxia-responsive changes in G6PDH kinetic properties. In addition, the amount of G6PDH protein (measured by immunoblotting increased by ∼60% in anoxic hepatopancreas. Anoxia-induced phosphorylation of G6PDH could contribute to modifying carbon flow through the PPP under anoxic conditions, potentially maintaining NADPH supply for antioxidant defense during prolonged anoxia-induced hypometabolism.

  6. Acute disruption of glucagon secretion or action does not improve glucose tolerance in an insulin-deficient mouse model of diabetes

    Steenberg, Vivi R.; Jensen, Signe Marie; Pedersen, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    receptor antagonism, in order to evaluate the effect of these on glucose tolerance. Methods: Severe diabetes was induced in transgenic and wild-type mice by streptozotocin. Glucose metab. was investigated using OGTT in transgenic mice with the human diphtheria toxin receptor expressed in proglucagon...... producing cells allowing for diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced alpha cell ablation and in mice treated with either a specific high affinity glucagon antibody or a specific glucagon receptor antagonist. Results: Near-total alpha cell elimination was induced in transgenic mice upon DT administration and resulted...

  7. Seven-Day Caloric and Saturated Fat Restriction Increases Myocardial Dietary Fatty Acid Partitioning in Impaired Glucose-Tolerant Subjects.

    Noll, Christophe; Kunach, Margaret; Frisch, Frédérique; Bouffard, Lucie; Dubreuil, Stéphanie; Jean-Denis, Farrah; Phoenix, Serge; Cunnane, Stephen C; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Eric E; Carpentier, André C

    2015-11-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have increased myocardial partitioning of dietary fatty acids (DFAs) with left ventricular dysfunction, both of which are improved by modest weight loss over 1 year induced by lifestyle changes. Here, we determined the effects of a 7-day hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/day) low in saturated fat (R,S)-[18F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid positron emission tomography method after 7 days of an ISOCAL diet versus a LOWCAL diet using a randomized crossover design. The LOWCAL diet led to reductions in weight and postprandial insulin area under the curve. Myocardial DFA partitioning over 6 h was increased after the LOWCAL diet (2.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 mean standard uptake value, P < 0.04). However, the early (90-120 min) myocardial DFA fractional uptake was unchanged after the LOWCAL diet (0.055 ± 0.025 vs. 0.046 ± 0.009 min(-1), P = 0.7). Liver DFA partitioning was unchanged, but liver fractional uptake of DFA tended to be increased. Very short-term caloric and saturated fat dietary restrictions do not lead to the same changes in organ-specific DFA metabolism as those associated with weight loss in subjects with IGT. PMID:26224886

  8. Effect of Acarbose on Long-Term Prognosis in Acute Coronary Syndromes Patients with Newly Diagnosed Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Peng Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of acarbose therapy on the long-term prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS complicating newly diagnosed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Methodology. 135 patients hospitalized for ACS who had been newly diagnosed with IGT were randomly assigned to acarbose group (150 mg/day, n=67 or control group (no acarbose, n=68. All cases in each group were given the same elementary treatment. Mean follow-up was 2.3 years. The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE and carotid intima-middle thickness (CIMT were statistically analyzed. Results. During the mean follow-up of 2.3 years, the risk of recurrent MACE in acarbose group was decreased significantly compared with that in control group (26.67% versus 46.88%, P<0.05; at the same time, thickening of the CIMT was significantly slower than the control group ((1.28 ± 0.42 mm versus (1.51 ± 0.64 mm, P<0.05. Conclusions. Acarbose can effectively reduce the risk of MACE in ACS patients with newly diagnosed IGT, simultaneously retarding the progression of carotid intima-media thickness.

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG improves glucose tolerance through alleviating ER stress and suppressing macrophage activation in db/db mice.

    Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Bobae; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2015-05-01

    Although recent studies have reported that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), the most extensively studied probiotic strain, exerts an anti-hyperglycemic effect on several rodent models, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, twenty male C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice were divided into 2 groups, LGG-treated and control group, which received a daily dose of LGG (1 × 10(8) CFU per mouse) and PBS orally for 4 weeks, respectively. We observed that glucose tolerance was significantly improved in LGG-treated db/db mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation were higher in skeletal muscle of LGG-treated mice relative to their controls. It was also observed that LGG treatment caused significant reductions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in skeletal muscle and M1-like macrophage activation in white adipose tissues. Our results indicate that the anti-diabetic effect of LGG in db/db mice is associated with alleviated ER stress and suppressed macrophage activation, resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of probiotics for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26060355

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of a Short Message Service Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes from Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Carlos K. H. Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a short message service (SMS intervention to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the cost and effectiveness outcomes of the SMS intervention and usual clinical practice from the health provider’s perspective. The direct programme costs and the two-year SMS intervention costs were evaluated in subjects with IGT. All costs were expressed in 2011 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as cost per T2DM onset prevented, cost per life year gained, and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained. Results. Within the two-year trial period, the net intervention cost of the SMS group was $42.03 per subject. The SMS intervention managed to reduce 5.05% onset of diabetes, resulting in saving $118.39 per subject over two years. In the lifetime model, the SMS intervention dominated the control by gaining an additional 0.071 QALY and saving $1020.35 per person. The SMS intervention remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. The SMS intervention for IGT subjects had the superiority of lower monetary cost and a considerable improvement in preventing or delaying the T2DM onset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556880.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of a Short Message Service Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes from Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Wong, Carlos K H; Jiao, Fang-Fang; Siu, Shing-Chung; Fung, Colman S C; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wong, Ka-Wai; Yu, Esther Y T; Lo, Yvonne Y C; Lam, Cindy L K

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a short message service (SMS) intervention to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the cost and effectiveness outcomes of the SMS intervention and usual clinical practice from the health provider's perspective. The direct programme costs and the two-year SMS intervention costs were evaluated in subjects with IGT. All costs were expressed in 2011 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as cost per T2DM onset prevented, cost per life year gained, and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results. Within the two-year trial period, the net intervention cost of the SMS group was $42.03 per subject. The SMS intervention managed to reduce 5.05% onset of diabetes, resulting in saving $118.39 per subject over two years. In the lifetime model, the SMS intervention dominated the control by gaining an additional 0.071 QALY and saving $1020.35 per person. The SMS intervention remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. The SMS intervention for IGT subjects had the superiority of lower monetary cost and a considerable improvement in preventing or delaying the T2DM onset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556880. PMID:26798647

  12. 成都地区中老年高血压人群糖代谢异常流行状况及其影响因素%An epidemiological study of abnormal glucose metabolism and its risk factors among middle and aged population with hypertension in Chengdu area

    易延静; 刘燕; 李秀钧; 赵思勤; 冉迅; 黄晓波; 刘雅; 张廷杰; 欧阳凌云; 曾伟; 徐俊波; 杨雷

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiological status of abnormal glucose metabolism and its influential factors among middle and aged population with hypertension in Chengdu area. Methods In 2008, after adopting the methods of stratified cluster sampling, the authors investigated 4685 subjects of the middle and aged population between the age of 40-79 in Chengdu urban and rural area by checking blood pressure and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTY). Patients with previously known diabetes mellitus (DM) were only asked to perform fasting glucose and to carry out a questionnaire. Comparison of the prevalence rates of abnormal glucose metabolism in hypertensive and non-hypertensive subjects was carried out. The prevalence rates of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (I-IGT) and isolated postprandial hyperglycemia (IPH) among middle and aged subjects with hypertension were acquired and the influential factors of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged subjects with hypertension were analyzed. Results The prevalence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism in the hypertensive subjects was obviously higher than that in the non-hypertensive subjects; without using OGTT, 72.9% of the pre-diubetic and 54. 4% of the new diagnosed DM patients would remain undiagnosed if fasting plasma glucose detection was used alone. Age, diabetic history of first degree relatives ,overweight or obesity were the risk factors for the development of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged male subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area. Exercise training and high education level were the protective factors. Age, diabetic history of first degree relatives,abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the risk factors for the development of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged female subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area. Conclusions More than 50% of middle and aged subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area has accompanying abnormal glucose metabolism. OGTT easily

  13. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    H.-J. Kim; K.-H. Yoon; M.-J. Kang; H.-W. Yim; K.-S. Lee; Vuksan, V.; M.-K. Sung

    2012-01-01

    We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood bi...

  14. Lack of effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide on psoriasis in glucose-tolerant patients – a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Faurschou, A; Gyldenløve, M; Rohde, U; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Zachariae, Claus; Skov, Lone; Knop, Filip Krag; Vilsbøll, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists used for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes might also improve their psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide in glucose-tolerant patients with...... end points were improvement in PASI and dermatology life quality index (DLQI). Secondary end points included changes in weight and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, as well as adverse events. RESULTS: After 8 weeks of treatment, no significant change in PASI was found in the...... plaque psoriasis. METHODS: A total of 20 obese (body mass index > 25 kg/m(2)), glucose-tolerant patients with plaque psoriasis (psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) of at least 8) were randomized 1:1 to once-daily subcutaneous injections with liraglutide or placebo for an 8-week period. The primary...

  15. 脑梗死与糖代谢异常相关性研究%The Correlation Study of Cerebral Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Metabolism

    赵德成; 袁建喜

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同损害程度脑梗死患者的血糖水平,分析其糖代谢异常情况,探讨脑梗死与糖代谢异常的关系,为脑梗死的预防、诊断、治疗提供依据。方法:选取2010年1月-2013年8月入住本院脑病科的108例急性脑梗死患者,根据梗死范围将其分为轻度组41例、中度组40例、重度组27例,通过检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c),观察患者的糖代谢情况。结果:糖调节受损、糖尿病与正常血糖患者比较,中度及重度组脑梗死比率明显升高;糖尿病患者脑梗死中度组、重度组比率较糖调节受损患者明显升高;脑梗死中度组、重度组的HbA1c、FPG、2 h PG水平均明显高于脑梗死轻度组,重度组的HbA1c、FPG、2 h PG水平明显高于中度组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:糖代谢异常与脑梗死的发生及损害程度明显相关,良好的血糖控制有利于降低脑梗死的发生率,监测血糖并控制正常范围内可改善预后。%Objective:To observe blood glucose levels of cerebral infarction patients with different damage degrees, and to analyze the situation of abnormal glucose metabolism of patients with cerebral infarction,and to explore the relationship between cerebral infarction and glucose metabolism in order to provide the reference for prevention,diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarction.Method:108 cases of acute cerebral infarction were selected from January 2010 to August 2013 admitted to our hospital department of encephalopathy,according to the scope of infarction cerebral infarction the damage degrees, they were divided into the mild degree for 41 cases,the moderate degree for 40 cases and the severe degree for 27 cases,and the situation of glucose metabolism in patients were observed by detecting fasting plasma glucose(FPG),blood sugar 2 hours after meal(PG)and glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c

  16. [Activity of Vegetative Nervous System and Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines During Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects With Optimal and High Normal Blood Pressure].

    Mangileva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p glucose loading were blunted. In persons with optimal BP transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p glucose level 60 min after glucose intake were higher in patients from the main group (p optimal and high normal BP have different variants of vegetative nervous system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP. PMID:26320287

  17. Increased glucose tolerance despite low adiponectin levels in obesity resistent aP2-Ucp 1 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet

    Jeleník, Tomáš; Rossmeisl, Martin; Ogston, N. C.; Slámová, Kristýna; Jílková, Zuzana; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Ucp1 transgenic mice * glucose tolerance * adiponectin Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  18. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS 30 YEARS ABOVE IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF KATIHAR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Shahid

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES : 1) To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type - 2 in an urban population of age 30 year and above 2) To determine the prevalence of impaired an urban population of age 30 years and above 3) To study the association of various risk factors with diabe tes mellitus Type - 2 and Implored Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY : A community based cross section study will be carried out in population 30 years above at Sharifganj with Dist...

  19. The Use of Complex Assessment of Morphofunctional State of Pancreatic Microvasculature to Study the Adaptation of the Body to Motor Activity in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Nikonova L.G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider the possibility of using the assessment data of microvasculature to study morphofunctional state of terminal vessels of exocrine and endocrine parts of pancreas in dogs with impaired glucose tolerance after physical exertion. Materials and methods. 30 mature male dogs with impaired glucose tolerance were studied: the 1st group — with no physical exertion, the 2nd — with short-term physical exertion and the 3rd — with extreme physical exertion. Morphological changes of the microvasculature components of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine parts were studied after the single motor load actions on the organism using histological, histochemical, electron-microscopical and morphometric methods. Results. Complex assessment enabled to reveal various adaptive changes of pancreatic microvasculature in animals with impaired glucose tolerance when exposed to optimal and maximum physical exertion. The exposure to short-term load results in developing compensatory adaptive transformations in the terminal part of vasculature of the both parts of the pancreas. Extreme loads along with reactive changes caused by single physical exercise lead to destructive alterations of microvasculature elements of primarily exocrine part. The information can be taken into consideration when studying impairment mechanisms in physical exertion environment and when developing regimens of motor activity in prediabetic persons.

  20. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei;

    2011-01-01

    GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study...... was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  1. The “Lipid Accumulation Product” Is Associated with 2-Hour Postload Glucose Outcomes in Overweight/Obese Subjects with Nondiabetic Fasting Glucose

    Malavazos, Alexis Elias; Cereda, Emanuele; Ermetici, Federica; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Briganti, Silvia; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Morricone, Lelio

    2015-01-01

    “Lipid accumulation product” (LAP) is a continuous variable based on waist circumference and triglyceride concentration previously associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the accuracy of LAP in identifying oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) abnormalities and compared it to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a population of overweight/obese outpatients presenting with nondiabetic fasting glucose. We studied 381 (male: 23%) adult (age: 18–70 years) overweight/obese Caucasians (body mass index: 36.9 ± 5.4 Kg/m2) having fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/L. OGTT was used to diagnose unknown glucose tolerance abnormalities: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). According to OGTT 92, subjects had an IGT and 33 were diagnosed T2-DM. Logistic regression analysis detected a significant association for both LAP and HOMA-IR with single (IGT and T2-DM) and composite (IGT + T2-DM) abnormal glucose tolerance conditions. However, while the association with diabetes was similar between LAP and HOMA-IR, the relationship with IGT and composite outcomes by models including LAP was significantly superior to those including HOMA-IR (P = 0.006 and P = 0.007, resp.). LAP seems to be an accurate index, performing better than HOMA-IR, for identifying 2-hour postload OGTT outcomes in overweight/obese patients with nondiabetic fasting glucose. PMID:25792981

  2. The “Lipid Accumulation Product” Is Associated with 2-Hour Postload Glucose Outcomes in Overweight/Obese Subjects with Nondiabetic Fasting Glucose

    Alexis Elias Malavazos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Lipid accumulation product” (LAP is a continuous variable based on waist circumference and triglyceride concentration previously associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the accuracy of LAP in identifying oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT abnormalities and compared it to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in a population of overweight/obese outpatients presenting with nondiabetic fasting glucose. We studied 381 (male: 23% adult (age: 18–70 years overweight/obese Caucasians (body mass index: 36.9 ± 5.4 Kg/m2 having fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/L. OGTT was used to diagnose unknown glucose tolerance abnormalities: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM. According to OGTT 92, subjects had an IGT and 33 were diagnosed T2-DM. Logistic regression analysis detected a significant association for both LAP and HOMA-IR with single (IGT and T2-DM and composite (IGT + T2-DM abnormal glucose tolerance conditions. However, while the association with diabetes was similar between LAP and HOMA-IR, the relationship with IGT and composite outcomes by models including LAP was significantly superior to those including HOMA-IR (P=0.006 and P=0.007, resp.. LAP seems to be an accurate index, performing better than HOMA-IR, for identifying 2-hour postload OGTT outcomes in overweight/obese patients with nondiabetic fasting glucose.

  3. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    control diet increased these variables [1.4% (P = 0.014), 21.2% (P = 0.030), and 22.8% (P = 0.015), respectively], as did the LF diet [1.4% (P = 0.090), 13.1% (P = 0.078), and 15.5% (P = 0.095), respectively]. No significant group differences were detected in glucose or insulin concentrations during the......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... in monounsaturated fatty acids ( > 20% of energy); 2) LF diet (n = 18): low-fat diet (20-30% of energy), and 3) control diet (n = 12): 35% of energy as fat ( > 15% of energy as saturated fatty acids). Protein accounted for 15% of energy in all 3 diets. A 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was...

  4. Salinity stress effects on [14C-1]- and [14C-6]-glucose metabolism of a salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of wheat

    The effect of salt (sodium sulfate) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a salt-tolerant (Kharchia-65) variety and a salt-susceptible (Fielder) variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by comparing their responses under control and stress conditions. Leaf segments of Kharchia-65 showed increased activity through both the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation, with the former being comparatively more active in response to salt. In Fielder, there was an increase in PPP activity at the expense of glycolytic pathway activity. Label from glucose was found in the lipid, neutral sugar, amino acid, organic acid, and phosphate ester fractions in all treatments. On the basis of the label distribution patterns, it appears that Fielder leaves incubated with [14C-6]-glucose were not able to utilize glucose efficiently under saline conditions. This finding was further supported by decreased label incorporation into all the fractions, especially the amino acid and organic acid fractions. Adenosine phosphate and reduced pyridine nucleotide concentrations were consistent with these observations. We conclude therefore that the salt-tolerant variety had an enhanced metabolic activity compared with the salt-susceptible variety, which contributed to its ability to overcome the adverse effects of salt. (author)

  5. Oral treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by inhibiting inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Adipocyte and β-cell dysfunction and macrophage-related chronic inflammation are critical for the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which can be negatively regulated by Tregs. Our previous studies and those of others have shown that activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors inhibits inflammation in mice. However, whether GABA could modulate high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that although oral treatment with GABA does not affect water and food consumption it inhibits the HFD-induced gain in body weights in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, oral treatment with GABA significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice. More importantly, after the onset of obesity and T2DM, oral treatment with GABA inhibited the continual HFD-induced gain in body weights, reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition, oral treatment with GABA reduced the epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, and the frequency of macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice. Notably, oral treatment with GABA significantly increased the frequency of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs in mice. Collectively, our data indicated that activation of peripheral GABA receptors inhibited the HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity by inhibiting obesity-related inflammation and up-regulating Treg responses in vivo. Given that GABA is safe for human consumption, activators of GABA receptors may be valuable for the prevention of obesity and intervention of T2DM in the clinic.

  6. No impact of vitamin D on the CYP3A biomarker 4β-hydroxycholesterol in patients with abnormal glucose regulation.

    Buster Mannheimer

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on hepatic Cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP 3A4 in patients with abnormal glucose regulation using the endogenous marker 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio.The present study took advantage of a trial primarily aiming to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in patients with abnormal glucose regulation. 44 subjects were randomized to receive vitamin D3, 30000 IU given orally once weekly or placebo for 8 weeks. The two sample t-test was used to test the means of the intra-individual differences of 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio between the two groups.Mean (SD 4β-OHC in the whole group of patients before and after the intervention was 26 (11 ng/ml and 26 (12. Mean (SD 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio in the whole group of patients before and after the intervention was 0.12 (0.046 and 0.13 (0.047. In the Vitamin D group mean (SD serum 25-OH-vitamin D3 increased from 46 (16 to 85nM (13 during the corresponding time period. To investigate the impact of vitamin D3 on hepatic CYP3A4 we calculated the mean intra-individual differences in 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio (delta 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio before versus after the intervention in the two treatment groups. The difference (95% CI between delta 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio in the control group and intervention group was -0.0010 (-0.0093, 0.0072, a difference being not statistically significant (p = 0.80.We provide further evidence that vitamin D3 may not substantially affect hepatic CYP3A4. This does not exclude the possibility of an impact of intestinal first-pass metabolism of orally administered drugs which should be investigated.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01497132.

  7. A randomized trial comparing the effect of weight loss and exercise training on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in coronary artery disease

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Jürs, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The majority of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit abnormal glucose metabolism, which is associated with mortality even at non-diabetic glucose levels. This trial aims to compare the effects of a considerable weight loss and exercise with limited weight loss on glucose...... followed by 2-4 weeks' weight maintenance diet. Glucose tolerance, insulin action, β-cell function and suppression of lipolysis were assessed using a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. ISI-composite and ISI-HOMA (=1/HOMA-IR) were calculated as surrogate measures of whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity...

  8. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I.; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Materials and Methods Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups. Results Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats) further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable

  9. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio, E-mail: fujitani@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  10. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  11. A clinical analysis of abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman%妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的临床分析

    米阳; 闫坤; 黄谱; 苟文丽

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationship between abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman. Methods 1 636 pregnant women who received antenatal examination in Shannxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital in a period from January to June, 2008 were screened at their 24~28 weeks of gestation with 50g glucose challenge test (GCT). Those pregnant women with abnormal GCT results further received oral 75g glucose tolerance test (OGTT). According to OGTT results, the pregnant women were divided into 2 groups: GDM group (n=69) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance group (GIGT group, n=124). 300 pregnant women with normal glucose metabolism were as controls. All of them were followed up untill delivery and the perinatal outcomes in the 3groups were compared. Results The incidence of GDM was 4.21% and that of GIGT was 7.58%. The incidences of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membrane and premature delivery in GDM group were higher than those in the control group (χ2=4.660,11.530,5.193,4.661 respectively,all P<0.05).In GIGT group ,the incidences of polyhydramnios and premature rupture of membrane were significantly higher than those in the control group(χ2=12.450,6.325,respectively,both P<0.05). Conclusion The pregnant women with GDM or GIGT have significantly high incidences of obstetric complications and rate of cesarean section. So, screening of GDM should be strengthened and early diagnosis, early treatment, gestational supervision and guidance should be carried out in order to reduce incidence rates of maternal and infantile complications.%目的 探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的关系.方法 选取2008年1~6月在陕西省妇幼保健院进行产前检查的1 636名孕妇,于24~28周进行50g葡萄糖筛查试验,异常者行75g糖耐量试验,按糖代谢异常情况分为妊娠期糖尿病组(69例)和妊娠期糖耐量受损组(124例);

  12. Peripheral, but not central, GLP-1 receptor signaling is required for improvement in glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in mice.

    Carmody, Jill S; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Yin, Huali; Kaplan, Lee M

    2016-05-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes profound weight loss and remission of diabetes by influencing metabolic physiology, yet the mechanisms behind these clinical improvements remain undefined. After RYGB, levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone that enhances insulin secretion and promotes satiation, are substantially elevated. Because GLP-1 signals in both the periphery and the brain to influence energy balance and glucose regulation, we aimed to determine the relative requirements of these systems to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance following RYGB surgery in mice. By pharmacologically blocking peripheral or central GLP-1R signaling, we examined whether GLP-1 action is necessary for the metabolic improvements observed after RYGB. Diet-induced obese mice underwent RYGB or sham operation and were implanted with osmotic pumps delivering the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9-39) (2 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) peripherally; 0.5 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) centrally) for up to 10 wk. Blockade of peripheral GLP-1R signaling partially reversed the improvement in glucose tolerance after RYGB. In contrast, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, as well as body weight, were unaffected by GLP-1R antagonism. Central GLP-1R signaling did not appear to be required for any of the metabolic improvements seen after this operation. Collectively, these results suggest a detectable but only modest role for GLP-1 in mediating the effects of RYGB and that this role is limited to its well-described action on glucose regulation. PMID:27026085

  13. Abnormal fault-recovery characteristics of the fault-tolerant multiprocessor uncovered using a new fault-injection methodology

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1991-03-01

    An investigation was made in AIRLAB of the fault handling performance of the Fault Tolerant MultiProcessor (FTMP). Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once in every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles Byzantine or lying faults. Byzantine faults behave such that the faulted unit points to a working unit as the source of errors. The design's problems involve: (1) the design and interface between the simplex error detection hardware and the error processing software, (2) the functional capabilities of the FTMP system bus, and (3) the communication requirements of a multiprocessor architecture. These weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good line replacement unit (LRU) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software.

  14. Postchallenge responses of nitrotyrosine and TNF-alpha during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test are associated with the presence of coronary artery diseases in patients with prediabetes

    Chu Chih-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis has demonstrated an exponential relationship between 2-hr postchallenge hyperglycemia and coronary artery disease (CAD. Pulsatile hyperglycemia can acutely increase proinflammatory cytokines by oxidative stress. We hypothesized that postchallenge proinflammatory and nitrosative responses after 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (75 g-OGTT might be associated with CAD in patients without previously recognized type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods Serial changes of plasma glucose (PG, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and nitrotyrosine levels were analyzed during 75 g-OGTT in 120 patients (81 male; age 62 ± 11 years before coronary angiography. Patients were classified as normal (NGT; 42%, impaired (IGT; 34% and diabetic (T2DM; 24% glucose tolerance by 75 g-OGTT. Results Postchallenge hyperglycemia elicited TNF-α, IL-6 and nitrotyrosine levels time-dependently, and 2-hr median levels of TNF-α (7.1 versus 6.4 pg/ml; P μmol/l; P P Conclusions These results highlight postchallenge proinflammatory and nitrosative responses by 75 g-OGTT, rather than hyperglycemia per se, are associated with CAD in patients without previous recognized diabetes.

  15. Improved metabolic response after 16 weeks of calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin in impaired glucose tolerance subjects

    Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzed the metabolic effects of dietary advice to follow calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet with metformin in overweight / obese impaired glucose tolerance subjects. Methods: Sixteen subjects with body mass index between 27-38 kg/m² were followed monthly for 16 weeks and treated with metformin (1 g/day and dietary prescription for low-glycaemic index diet with energy reduction of 25-30% their total energy expenditure. Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition, and food intake parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences from baseline, with a statistical significance criterion of p < 0.05. Results: There were significant reductions in anthropometric and body composition parameters, decrease in HOMA2-%β and triglycerides concentrations, and increase in Cederholm index. These results show enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity and preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Conclusion: Calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin was benefit to metabolic and anthropometric parameters in overweight/obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  16. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART.We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA insulin sensitivity was measured using homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2), and adipose tissue was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to quantitate fasting plasma branched chain and aromatic amino acids predictive of incident diabetes, and C3 and C5 acylcarnitinines and organic acids indicative of impaired energy metabolism.HIV-infected women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P insulin sensitivity compared with men (P < 0.01), and lower plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine (P < 0.01 for all), and lower C3 and C5 acylcarnitines (P < 0.01 for all), in multivariable regression models after adjusting for DEXA fat mass index, age, race, CD4+ count, smoking, and ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status.HIV-infected women on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART had superior glucose tolerance and lower plasma metabolites associated with the development of diabetes compared with men with similar metabolic disease risk profiles. The relationship between sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status among obese subjects

  17. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study

    Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E;

    2011-01-01

    The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area.......The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....

  18. Bivariate genetic modelling of the response to an oral glucose tolerance challenge : A gene x environment interaction approach

    Liu, G. F.; Riese, H.; Spector, T. D.; Mangino, M.; O'Dell, S. D.; Stolk, R. P.; Snieder, H.

    2009-01-01

    Twin and family studies have shown the importance of genetic factors influencing fasting and 2 h glucose and insulin levels. However, the genetics of the physiological response to a glucose load has not been thoroughly investigated. We studied 580 monozygotic and 1,937 dizygotic British female twins

  19. Association of the ACTN3 R557X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Benziane, Boubacar; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2015-01-01

    A common polymorphism (R577X) in the α-actinin (ACTN) 3 gene, which leads to complete deficiency of a functional protein in skeletal muscle, could directly influence metabolism in the context of health and disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that states of glucose tolerance are associated with the ACTN3 R577X genotype. We analyzed the prevalence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and measured muscle-specific α-actinin 2 and 3 mRNA and protein abundance in skeletal muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we investigated the protein abundance of the myosin heavy chain isoforms and the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in skeletal muscle from people with NGT or T2D. mRNA of selected sarcomeric z-disk proteins was also assessed. Although the prevalence of the ACTN3 577XX genotype was higher in T2D patients, genotype distribution was unrelated to metabolic control or obesity. ACTN2 and ACTN3 mRNA expression and protein abundance was unchanged between NGT and T2D participants. Protein abundance of mitochondrial complexes II and IV was related to genotype and glucose tolerance status. Gene expression of sarcomeric z-disk proteins was increased in skeletal muscle from NGT participants with the ACTN3 577XX genotype. While genetic variation in ACTN3 does not influence metabolic control, genotype does appear to influence gene expression of other sarcomeric proteins, which could contribute to the functional properties of skeletal muscle and the fatigue-resistant phenotype associated with the R577X polymorphism. PMID:25780092

  20. Association of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle.

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Benziane, Boubacar; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2015-03-01

    A common polymorphism (R577X) in the α-actinin (ACTN) 3 gene, which leads to complete deficiency of a functional protein in skeletal muscle, could directly influence metabolism in the context of health and disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that states of glucose tolerance are associated with the ACTN3 R577X genotype. We analyzed the prevalence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and measured muscle-specific α-actinin 2 and 3 mRNA and protein abundance in skeletal muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we investigated the protein abundance of the myosin heavy chain isoforms and the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in skeletal muscle from people with NGT or T2D. mRNA of selected sarcomeric z-disk proteins was also assessed. Although the prevalence of the ACTN3 577XX genotype was higher in T2D patients, genotype distribution was unrelated to metabolic control or obesity. ACTN2 and ACTN3 mRNA expression and protein abundance was unchanged between NGT and T2D participants. Protein abundance of mitochondrial complexes II and IV was related to genotype and glucose tolerance status. Gene expression of sarcomeric z-disk proteins was increased in skeletal muscle from NGT participants with the ACTN3 577XX genotype. While genetic variation in ACTN3 does not influence metabolic control, genotype does appear to influence gene expression of other sarcomeric proteins, which could contribute to the functional properties of skeletal muscle and the fatigue-resistant phenotype associated with the R577X polymorphism. PMID:25780092

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of thermostable glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase of Penicillium funiculosum NCL1 in Pichia pastoris and its characterization.

    Ramani, Gurusamy; Meera, Balasubramanian; Vanitha, Chinnathambi; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2015-04-01

    A partial peptide sequence of β-glucosidase isoform (Bgl4) of Penicillium funiculosum NCL1 was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The cDNA (bgl4) encoding Bgl4 protein was cloned from P. funiculosum NCL1 RNA by consensus RT-PCR. The bgl4 gene encoded 857 amino acids that contained catalytic domains specific for glycoside hydrolase family 3. The cDNA was over-expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71H and the recombinant protein (rBgl4) was purified with the specific activity of 1,354.3 U/mg. The rBgl4 was a glycoprotein with the molecular weight of ~130 kDa and showed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme was thermo-tolerant up to 60 °C for 60 min. The rBgl4 was highly active on aryl substrates with β-glucosidic, β-xylosidic linkages and moderately active on cellobiose and salicin. It showed remarkably high substrate conversion rate of 3,332 and 2,083 μmol/min/mg with the substrates p-nitrophenyl β-glucoside and cellobiose respectively. In addition, the rBgl4 showed tolerance to glucose concentration up to 400 mM. It exhibited twofold increase in glucose yield when supplemented with crude cellulase of Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 in cellulose hydrolysis. These results suggested that rBgl4 is a thermo- and glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase and is a potential supplement for commercial cellulase in cellulose hydrolysis and thereby assures profitability in bioethanol production. PMID:25626525

  2. Maternal dietary protein supplement confers long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of obesity resistance and glucose tolerance to the offspring in Brandt's voles.

    Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Maternal under- or over-nutrition not only alters neonatal body mass but also increases the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Little is known about how maternal dietary protein affects offspring fitness in wild rodents. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that maternal dietary protein supplement has a long-term beneficial effect on offspring fitness in Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii), a herbivorous rodent model. The vole dams were fed either a control (18% protein) or high-protein (36% protein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all offspring received a control diet till 14 weeks old. Energetic parameters, serum leptin concentration and glucose tolerance were measured. The adult offspring were fed high-fat diet for 8 weeks, and body weight and food intake were measured. No difference was observed in litter size, litter mass or pup mass before weaning. Maternal protein supplement increased body mass and the mass of reproductive organ but decreased digestibility and fat deposition and alleviated HFD-induced obesity especially in the males. Glucose tolerance was elevated in the offspring from maternal protein supplement, especially in the females. The accelerated growth may be associated with high serum leptin concentration at weaning, a state of leptin resistance, and the low digestibility may predispose obesity resistance especially in male offspring from maternal high-protein diet. These data demonstrate that maternal protein supplement confers the long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of accelerated growth and improved obesity resistance and glucose tolerance of their offspring. PMID:25499237

  3. Differences by sex in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Esayas Haregot Hilawe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess differences between men and women in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods In September 2011, the PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for community-based, cross-sectional studies providing sex-specific prevalences of any of the three study conditions among adults living in parts of sub-Saharan Africa (i.e. in Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa according to the United Nations subregional classification for African countries. A random-effects model was then used to calculate and compare the odds of men and women having each condition. Findings In a meta-analysis of the 36 relevant, cross-sectional data sets that were identified, impaired fasting glycaemia was found to be more common in men than in women (OR: 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.20–2.03, whereas impaired glucose tolerance was found to be less common in men than in women (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72–0.98. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus – which was generally similar in both sexes (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91–1.11 – was higher among the women in Southern Africa than among the men from the same subregion and lower among the women from Eastern and Middle Africa and from low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa than among the corresponding men. Conclusion Compared with women in the same subregions, men in Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa were found to have a similar overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus but were more likely to have impaired fasting glycaemia and less likely to have impaired glucose tolerance.

  4. Increased glucose tolerance despite low adiponectin levels in obesity-resistent aP2-Ucp1 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Jeleník, Tomáš; Ogston, N. C.; Slámová, Kristýna; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 755-755. ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /42./. 14.09.2006-17.09.2006, Copenhagen-Malmoe] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adiponectin * transgenic mice * obesity * mitochondria * glucose tolerance * hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  5. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to obese-prone rats impairs glucose and insulin tolerance

    Hamilton, Melissa; Hopkins, Loren E.; AlZahal, Ousama; MacDonald, Tara L; Cervone, Daniel T.; Wright, David C.; McBride, Brian W.; Dyck, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We recently demonstrated that feeding a natural CLAt10,c12-enriched butter to lean female rats resulted in small, but significant increases in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and impaired insulin tolerance. Our goal was to extend these findings by utilizing the diabetes-prone female fatty Zucker rat. Rats were fed custom diets containing 45 % kcal of fat derived from control and CLAt10,c12-enriched butter for 8 weeks. Methods CLA t10,c12-enriched butter was prepared fro...

  6. 糖化血红蛋白与血糖、血脂及心电图异常的相关性分析%Correlation analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood lipid and electrocardiographic abnormality

    王晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose, blood lipid and electrocardiographic abnormality, in order to reveal the influence of blood glucose on atherosclerosis.Methods According to the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria for diabetes and the results of physical examination of 408 subjects, the subjects were divided into normal blood glucose group and abnormal glucose metabolism group. According to the level of HbA1c, the abnormal glucose metabolism group was divided into three groups as group A, group B, and group C, they were HbA1c0.05). The difference of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) between group A and group B was statistically significant (P0.05). The differences between group B and group C were statistically significant (P0.05),高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)在A组与B 组间差异具有统计学意义(P0.05),在B 组与 C组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。分析组和对照组比较, HbA1c 、FBG、PBG、HDL-C、CHOL、TG以及心电图异常发生率各项差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血糖升高可导致血脂异常,从而导致动脉粥样硬化,血糖升高可产生“代谢记忆效应”,应该重视血糖监测以便尽早发现糖代谢异常而进行尽早干预,以减少糖尿病和动脉粥样硬化的发生。

  7. Evaluation of fasting state-/oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin release for the detection of genetically impaired β-cell function.

    Silke A Herzberg-Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05. The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30 as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, corrected insulin response (CIR, AUC(C-Peptide(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120, two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0-30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI(2 and IGI(1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05. AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120 was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With AUC(Insulin(0

  8. Glycated albumin in screening the abnormal glucose metabolism in postpartum women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus%糖化白蛋白筛查妊娠期糖尿病患者产后糖代谢异常的意义

    方芳; 马宇航; 陈苏; 陈希; 任茜; 黄倩芳; 王煜非; 王育璠; 彭永德

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨糖化白蛋白(GA)筛查妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)患者产后发生糖代谢异常和糖尿病的最佳切点. 方法 2012年4月至2014年10月依据2010年国际妊娠合并糖尿病研究组织所提出的诊断标准,选取我院241例诊断为GDM的患者为研究对象,于产后6~8周复诊,予75 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),根据结果分为正常糖耐量组(NGT组)、糖调节受损组(IGR组)和糖尿病组(DM组).通过绘制受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线,寻找GA诊断GDM产后糖代谢异常(IGR+DM)和DM的最佳切点.三组间计量资料比较采用方差分析或Kruskal Wallis (K-W)方法,计数资料比较采用卡方检验. 结果 (1)241例患者中NGT组128例(53.1%),IGR组66例(27.4%),DM组为47例(19.5%).(2)GDM患者产后GA与产前体重、目前体重呈负相关(r=-0.226、-0.198,均P12.7%,尤其>13.03%的GDM患者,应进一步行OGTT明确其糖代谢情况.%Objective To investigate the optimal cut-off point of glycated albumin for abnormal glucose metabolism and diabetes postpartum with previous gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was underwent at 6-8 weeks after delivery in 241 GDM patients from Apr 2012 to Oct 2014. Diagnosis of GDM was based on International Association of Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group criteria. The clinical and biochemical characteristics were compared among normal glucose tolerance(NGT group), impaired glucose regulation(IGR group) and diabetes mellitus(DM group). Comparisons between three groups were performed using analysis of variance test (ANOVA) or Kruskal Wallis test. Chi square test was used in comparisons between proportions. The optimal cut-off point of glycated albumin(GA) for abnormal glucose metabolism(IGR+DM) and diabetes were obtained by drawing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results (1)We found that the rates of NGT (n=128), IGR (n=66) and DM (n=47) were 53.1%, 27.4%and 19.5%, respectively.(2)GA was negatively

  9. Evaluation of glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles

    Shulan Lü; Xiaoyan Guo; Zuansun Cao; Wenjun Mao

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles (MOF) and explore the relationship between glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and body weight. Methods:We evaluated 46 women with MFO and 30 nor mal women as controls. All the subjects were given 75g of glucose orally in order to perform the oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) and insulin releasing test(IRT), and they were also evaluated for insulin resistance using the insulin resistance index with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Results:The occurrence of impaired glucose tolerance in women with MOF was 10.87%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.33% ,P < 0.05). The rate of insulin resistance was 30.43% in the study group as compared to 10.00% in the control group. The results showed that there was significant difference between the two groups(P < 0.05). The levels of FSH,LH,PRL,E2,T and P between the two groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05). BMI in women with impaired glucose tolerance was correlated positively to insulin resistance (r =0.567, P < 0.05). Conclusion :Abnormal glucose metabolism was observed in women with unitary multiple ovarian follicles,and this could be attributed to obesity and insulin resistance. Women with MOF and associated obesity should be subjected to OGTT so that their glucose levels can be monitored as a preventive measure.

  10. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  11. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was ...

  12. Glucose allostasis

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert;

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose...... chronic stress (insulin resistance), we propose to use the term "glucose allostasis." Allostasis (stability through change) ensures the continued homeostatic response (stability through staying the same) to acute stress at some cumulative costs to the system. With increasing severity and over time, the...

  13. Association of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Benziane, Boubacar;

    2015-01-01

    A common polymorphism (R577X) in the α-actinin (ACTN) 3 gene, which leads to complete deficiency of a functional protein in skeletal muscle, could directly influence metabolism in the context of health and disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that states of glucose tolerance are associated...... with the ACTN3 R577X genotype. We analyzed the prevalence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and measured muscle-specific α-actinin 2 and 3 mRNA and protein abundance in skeletal muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we investigated the...... protein abundance of the myosin heavy chain isoforms and the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in skeletal muscle from people with NGT or T2D. mRNA of selected sarcomeric z-disk proteins was also assessed. Although the prevalence of the ACTN3 577XX genotype was higher in T2D...

  14. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS......: Observational prospective study, 34 obese patients (T2D (n = 14)/IGT (n = 4), and NGT (n = 16)) were investigated before and six and 12months after RYGB. RESULTS: Mean carotid IMT was significantly reduced 12months after RYGB in patients with T2D/IGT (-0.041 mm (95% CI -0.069; -0.012, p = 0.005)) but not in...... patients with NGT (-0.010 mm (-0.039; 0.020, p = 0.52)). The between-group difference was not significant (p=0.13). Twelve months after RYGB, patients with respectively T2D/IGT and NGT demonstrated changes in weight: -29.9 kg, p<0.001/-30.6 kg, p < 0.001, HbA1c: -0.7%, p < 0.001/-0.1%, p = 0.33, systolic...

  15. Association of pregnancy management with fetal weight, amniotic fluid volume, and placental function in gestational impaired glucose tolerance%妊娠期糖耐量异常的孕期管理与胎儿体重、羊水及胎盘功能的关系研究

    张兰珍; 吴爱华

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠期糖耐量异常孕期管理对胎儿生长发育的影响,以便获得恰当、有效的处理方法 和监护措施.方法 对我院2006年1月-2008年1月常规产检,并在本院分娩的、材料完整的妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇80例,进行OGTY检查,并对胎儿体重、羊水情况及胎盘成熟度进行追踪.结果 GDM组孕妇空腹血糖异常者占20%,GIGT组中3小时血糖异常占44%;血糖管理组胎儿体重及羊水指数较未管理组明显下降;管理组低体重儿较未管理组明显增多,未管理组巨大儿明显增多;巨大儿组羊水过多明显增多,低体重儿组羊水过少及胎盘Ⅲ级者明显增多.结论 OGTT中3小时血糖检查在GIGT诊断中具有重要意义,血糖管理在减少巨大儿、羊水过多发生的同时增加了低体重儿的发生率,且进行血糖管理时要考虑胎盘的功能,减少低体重儿的发生.%Objective To obtain proper,effective therapies and monitoring approach by exploring the effect of pregnancy management on fetal growth and development in women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance.Methods Oral glucose tolerance test was performed on eighty women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance who had had regular prenatal vists during January 2006 to January 2008.Fetal weight,amniotic fluid indices,and placental maturation were determined.Results Abnormal levels of fasting plasma glucose developed in 20% of the women in GDM group and abnormal 3—hour glucose levels occurred in 44% of the women in GIGT group.Fetal weight and amniotic fluid indices were markedly lower in the group with management of glucose than in the group without management.The incidence of polyhydramnios and fetal macrosomia increased signifiantly in the group without managemnet.Conclusions 3—our OGTT plays an important role in the incidence of polyhydramnios and fetal macrosomia diagnosis of gestational impaired glucose tolerance.Management of glucose reduces but increase

  16. The importance of glucose for the freezing tolerance/intolerance of the anuran amphibians Rana catesbeiana and Bufo paracnemis

    STEINER A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of terrestrially hibernating frogs, turtles and insects have developed mechanisms, such as increased plasma glucose, anti-freeze proteins and antioxidant enzymes that resist to freezing, for survival at subzero temperatures. In the present study, we assessed the importance of glucose to cryoresistance of two anuran amphibians: the frog Rana catesbeiana and the toad Bufo paracnemis. Both animals were exposed to -2ºC for measurements of plasma glucose levels, liver and muscle glycogen content, haematocrit and red blood cell volume. Frogs survived cold exposure but toads did not. Blood glucose concentration increased from 40.35 ± 7.25 to 131.87 ± 20.72 mg/dl (P < 0.01 when the frogs were transferred from 20 to -2ºC. Glucose accumulation in response to cold exposition in the frogs was accompanied by a decrease (P < 0.05 in liver glycogen content from 3.94 ± 0.42 to 1.33 ± 0.36 mg/100 mg tissue, indicating that liver carbohydrate reserves were probably the primary carbon source of glucose synthesis whereas muscle carbohydrate seems unimportant. In the toads, the cold-induced hyperglycaemia was less (P < 0.05 pronounced (from 27.25 ± 1.14 to 73.72 ± 13.50 mg/dl and no significant change could be measured in liver or muscle glycogen. Cold exposition had no effect on the haematocrit of the frogs but significantly reduced (P < 0.01 the haematocrit of toads from 20.0 ± 2.1% to 5.8 ± 1.7% due to a decreased red blood cell volume (from 1532 ± 63 to 728 ± 87 mm³. When toads were injected with glucose, blood glucose increased to levels similar to those of frogs and haematocrit did not change, but this failed to make them cryoresistent. In conclusion, the lack of cold-induced glucose catabolism may not be the only mechanism responsible for the freeze intolerance of Bufo paracnemis, a freeze-intolerant species.

  17. The Effect of Metformin and Metformin-Testosterone Combination on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men with Late-onset Hypogonadism and Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Krysiak, R; Gilowski, W; Okopien, B

    2015-11-01

    No previous study has investigated the effect of metformin, administered alone or together with testosterone, on cardiometabolic risk factors in men with hypogonadism. The study included 30 men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had been complying with lifestyle intervention. After 12 weeks of metformin treatment (1.7 g daily), the participants were allocated to one of 2 groups treated for the following 12 weeks with oral testosterone undecanoate (120 mg daily, n=15) or not receiving androgen therapy (n=15). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, as well as plasma levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen were determined before and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy with the final dose of metformin. Patients with LOH and IGT had higher levels of hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen than subjects with only LOH (n=12) or only IGT (n=15). Metformin administered alone improved insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose and triglycerides. Testosterone-metformin combination therapy decreased also total and LDL cholesterol, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased plasma testosterone. The effect of this combination therapy on testosterone, insulin sensitivity, hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen was stronger than that of metformin alone. The obtained results indicate that IGT men with LOH receiving metformin may gain extra benefits if they are concomitantly treated with oral testosterone. PMID:26600057

  18. Hepatic and Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Are Differentially Regulated: Results From a Novel Model-Based Analysis of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Data.

    Polidori, David C; Bergman, Richard N; Chung, Stephanie T; Sumner, Anne E

    2016-06-01

    Insulin clearance is a highly variable and important factor that affects circulating insulin concentrations. We developed a novel model-based method to estimate both hepatic and extrahepatic insulin clearance using plasma insulin and C-peptide profiles obtained from the insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Data from 100 African immigrants without diabetes (mean age 38 years, body weight 81.7 kg, fasting plasma glucose concentration 83 mg/dL, and fasting insulin concentration 37 pmol/L) were used. Endogenous insulin secretion (calculated by C-peptide deconvolution) and insulin infusion rates were used as inputs to a new two-compartment model of insulin kinetics and hepatic and extrahepatic clearance parameters were estimated. Good agreement between modeled and measured plasma insulin profiles was observed (mean normalized root mean square error 6.8%), and considerable intersubject variability in parameters of insulin clearance among individuals was identified (the mean [interquartile range] for hepatic extraction was 25.8% [32.7%], and for extrahepatic insulin clearance was 20.7 mL/kg/min [11.7 mL/kg/min]). Parameters of insulin clearance were correlated with measures of insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response to glucose. The method described appears promising for future research aimed at characterizing variability in insulin clearance and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of insulin clearance. PMID:26993071

  19. A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status

    You Jeong Hwang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWomen with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD; continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period.MethodsWe performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=100, pre-diabetes (n=73, and diabetes mellitus (DM (n=11. Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery.ResultsEating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups.ConclusionAlthough diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM.

  20. Analysis the risk factors of coronary heart disease and clinical characters of coronary angiography in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism%冠心病合并糖代谢异常冠脉病变特点及其危险因素分析

    费利霞; 陈洁; 田刚

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨糖代谢异常冠状动脉病变特点和冠心病的危险因素.方法:74例拟诊冠心病患者行冠脉造影(CAG),57例空腹血糖正常者行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)检查.根据CAG结果分冠心病组(CAD)、非冠心病组(非CAD),分析危险因素的差异;冠心病组分为糖尿病组(DM)、糖调节受损组(IGR)、正常血糖组(NGT),观察冠状动脉病变的特点.结果:糖代谢异常在冠心病与非冠心病差异有统计学意义(χ2值为6.14,P<0.05).冠心病IGR组和DM组多支病变患病率,分别75%和50%,NGT组单支病变患病率55.6%,重度病变患病率DM组80%,NGT组77.8%.男性、DM、IGR、吸烟、危险因素累计数在CAD组与非CAD组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:冠心病合并糖代谢异常患病率高,48.6%通过OGTT诊断,OGTT应列为心血管病的常规检查;冠心病合并糖尿病和糖调节受损病变以多支病变为主,病变重而弥漫,正常血糖以单支病变多见,病变重而局限.%Objective: To analysis the risk factors of coronary heart disease and the clinical characters of coronary angiography in the patients who suffered with abnormal glucose metabolism. .Methods: 74 cases of patients who were preliminary diagnosed to coronary heart disease accepted coronary angiography (CAG),57 of them with normal fast blood glucose accepted the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All the patients were divided into the CAD group and without CAD group according to the results of CAG. The CAD divided into three groups (DM, IGR and NGT) was compared with the difference of the clinical characters of coronary lesions. Results: The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was 64% in patient with CAD.The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in CAD was significantly higher than that of without CAD(was 6. 14,P<0. 05)). The coronary multivessel changes were more frequent in the IGR group and in the DM group than the NGT group (75%, 50% vs. 16.7%). The cor onary single

  1. Production, purification, and characterization of a highly glucose-tolerant novel beta-glucosidase from Candida peltata.

    Saha, B C; Bothast, R J

    1996-01-01

    Candida peltata (NRRL Y-6888) produced beta-glucosidase when grown in liquid culture on various substrates (glucose, xylose, L-arabinose, cellobiose, sucrose, and maltose). An extracellular beta-glucosidase was purified 1,800-fold to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of the yeast grown on glucose by salting out with ammonium sulfate, ion-exchange chromatography with DEAE Bio-Gel A agarose, Bio-Gel A-0.5m gel filtration, and cellobiose-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The enzyme was a...

  2. Evidence for threshold effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in black and white obese postmenopausal women.

    Sorkin, John D; Vasaitis, Tadas Sean; Streeten, Elizabeth; Ryan, Alice S; Goldberg, Andrew P

    2014-05-01

    We identified normal vs. abnormal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations by examining the relation of 25(OH)D to non-bone-related measures (plasma glucose, insulin resistance, lipids, blood pressure, fitness, obesity, and regional adiposity) and asking whether there is a 25(OH)D concentration above and below which the relation between 25(OH)D and outcome changes. We examined the relation between 25(OH)D and outcome by race to see whether race-specific normal ranges are needed, and we examined the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in modulating the relation between 25(OH)D and outcome. In a cross-sectional study of 239 overweight and obese, sedentary postmenopausal women without diabetes (83 black, 156 white), outcome measures included plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), IGF-1, parathyroid hormone (PTH), aerobic fitness, body composition, subcutaneous abdominal and visceral fat, and blood pressure. We identified threshold effects in the association between 25(OH)D and these variables using piecewise linear regressions. We found that 25(OH)D was inversely related to fasting glucose, fasting and 2-h insulin, HOMA-IR, visceral abdominal fat, percentage fat, PTH, and triglycerides. Evidence for a threshold effect of 25(OH)D was found for 2-h glucose, 2-h insulin, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. There was no evidence suggesting the need for race-specific normal 25(OH)D concentrations. IGF-1 modulated the relation between 25(OH)D and outcome but only below, and not above, a threshold 25(OH)D concentration. Our findings suggest a threshold effect of 25(OH)D on glucose-insulin metabolism such that 25(OH)D ≥ ∼26 μg/L (65.0 pmol/L) supports normal glucose homeostasis and that the same cut point defining normal 25(OH)D concentration can be used in black and white women. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01798030. PMID:24717362

  3. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorders

    Leopold, Karolina; Reif, Andreas; Haack, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the glucose metabolism cause nervous and organic damage and are a cardiovascular risk factor. They could be a main cause for the increased morbidity and mortality rates found in patients with bipolar disorders. The exact prevalence of diabetes and pre......-diabetic abnormalities, however, is not clear. METHODS: 85 euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorders from two university hospitals in Germany underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, laboratory screening and clinical measurements. Socio-demographic data, medication, severity of illness, global functioning and life...... significantly increased the likelihood for pre-diabetes/diabetes. LIMITATIONS: The low sample size did only allow limited assessment of impact of medication on the results. No healthy controls were assessed. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the patients with bipolar disorders showed abnormalities in the glucose...

  4. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians

    Ek, J; Andersen, G; Urhammer, S A; Hansen, L; Carstensen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K; Drivsholm, T; Berglund, Lars Erik; Hansen, T; Lithell, H; Pedersen, O

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) dia......-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus among Scandinavian Caucasians.......We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non...

  5. Effect of caffeine on glucose tolerance of healthy adults%咖啡因对健康成人糖耐量的影响

    梁艳; 陈充抒; 梁莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察口服400 mg咖啡因对正常成人糖耐量的影响.方法:采用单盲、安慰剂对照的随机临床研究.46位年龄在25~40岁的健康成人在4周观察期内需戒饮茶,咖啡,可口可乐或巧克力,并写下知情同意书.观察期结束后,随机分为两组分别服用1周咖啡因或安慰剂,进行葡萄糖耐量测试.结果:在前2h,两组受试者血糖值正常且相似,但到第3,4h,口服咖啡因组受试者与空白对照组比较,糖耐量曲线明显左移,血浆胰岛素水平略有增加.结论:健康成人口服咖啡因有降低血糖的作用,且伴有胰岛素水平轻微升高的依赖作用.%Objective; To investigate the effect of 400 mg oral caffeine on glucose tolerance. Methods; In a single-blind random clinical study, 46 healthy adults aged 25 ~40 years were treated with oral caffeine or placebo after getting their informed consents. They were abstained from coffee, tea, chocolate and cola for 4 weeks before testing. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed one week after taking caffeine or placebo. Results; The blood glucose curve was normal in all subjects, and was similar in the two groups until the second hour. In subjects taking caffeine, a shift in the curve towards the left was detected at the 3rd and 4th hours in comparison to those taking the placebo. Blood insulin levels were increased at 3rd and 4th hours after taking caffeine. Conclusion; Caffeine can reduce blood glucose levels in an insulin-dependent manner.

  6. Steroid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are both associated with a progressive decline of incretin effect in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    Jensen, D H; Aaboe, K; Henriksen, J E;

    2012-01-01

    .v. glucose test and a mixed meal to evaluate the incretin effect before and after treatment with dexamethasone to increase insulin resistance. Beta cell glucose sensitivity, beta cell index and fasting proinsulin were measured as indices of beta cell function. RESULTS: After dexamethasone, ten individuals...... had increased insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance (NGT), while 11 individuals with an equal increase in insulin resistance developed IGT. In the NGT and IGT groups, the incretin effects were 71¿±¿3.2% and 67¿±¿4.6% (p¿=¿0.4) before treatment, but decreased significantly in both groups...

  7. Removal of Intra-abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Improves Glucose Tolerance in Rats: Role of Hepatic Triglyceride Storage

    Foster, Michelle T.; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-vis...

  8. Therapeutic effects of adropin on glucose tolerance and substrate utilization in diet-induced obese mice with insulin resistance

    Su Gao; McMillan, Ryan P.; Qingzhang Zhu; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Butler, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The peptide hormone adropin regulates fuel selection preferences in skeletal muscle under fed and fasted conditions. Here, we investigated whether adropin treatment can ameliorate the dysregulation of fuel substrate metabolism, and improve aspects of glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity (DIO) with insulin resistance. Methods: DIO C57BL/6 mice maintained on a 60% kcal fat diet received five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the bioactive peptide adropin34-76 (450 nmol/k...

  9. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study...... the mRNA gene expression analysis was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We analyzed the mRNA expression changes of 44 genes before and after a 2hOGTT at the beginning and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: The healthy ND significantly down-regulated the expression...

  10. The changes in levels of C-P and insulin in glucose tolerance test in rats with experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    The changes in levels of C-P and insulin were investigated in the GT test in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In order to establish a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the authors injected rats with small dose streptozocoi (i.v.). Two weeks after the injection, the rats developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Then, they were fed with high energy diet for eight weeks to form NIDDM. The results showed that the highest peak time of C-P and insulin in NIDDM was remarkably later than that in normal subjects, the highest peak time was in two hours (P < 0.05). The data suggest that level of C-P could accurately respond to level of insulin, and this experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model is ideal

  11. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2009-01-01

    between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending with a...... single counselling session. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 3 and 5 years. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, an extensive cardio-metabolic risk factor reduction was demonstrated in the intensive intervention group, along with a 70% decrease of progress to type 2 diabetes. At 5-year follow-up, most of these...... beneficial effects had disappeared. Reported physical activity and fibre intake as well as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were still increased, and fasting insulin and proinsulin were lower. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention affected several important cardio-metabolic risk variables beneficially, and...

  12. Evidence for Threshold Effects of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Resistance in Black and White Obese Postmenopausal Women12

    Sorkin, John D.; Vasaitis, Tadas Sean; Streeten, Elizabeth; Ryan, Alice S.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    We identified normal vs. abnormal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations by examining the relation of 25(OH)D to non-bone–related measures (plasma glucose, insulin resistance, lipids, blood pressure, fitness, obesity, and regional adiposity) and asking whether there is a 25(OH)D concentration above and below which the relation between 25(OH)D and outcome changes. We examined the relation between 25(OH)D and outcome by race to see whether race-specific normal ranges are needed, and we examined the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in modulating the relation between 25(OH)D and outcome. In a cross-sectional study of 239 overweight and obese, sedentary postmenopausal women without diabetes (83 black, 156 white), outcome measures included plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), IGF-1, parathyroid hormone (PTH), aerobic fitness, body composition, subcutaneous abdominal and visceral fat, and blood pressure. We identified threshold effects in the association between 25(OH)D and these variables using piecewise linear regressions. We found that 25(OH)D was inversely related to fasting glucose, fasting and 2-h insulin, HOMA-IR, visceral abdominal fat, percentage fat, PTH, and triglycerides. Evidence for a threshold effect of 25(OH)D was found for 2-h glucose, 2-h insulin, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. There was no evidence suggesting the need for race-specific normal 25(OH)D concentrations. IGF-1 modulated the relation between 25(OH)D and outcome but only below, and not above, a threshold 25(OH)D concentration. Our findings suggest a threshold effect of 25(OH)D on glucose–insulin metabolism such that 25(OH)D ≥ ∼26 μg/L (65.0 pmol/L) supports normal glucose homeostasis and that the same cut point defining normal 25(OH)D concentration can be used in black and white women. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01798030. PMID:24717362

  13. Feed withdrawal abate regimens lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome symptoms, such as glucose tolerance, are associated with the diameter of retroperitoneal adipocytes in rats.

    He, Mao L; Sharma, Ranjana; Mir, Priya S; Okine, Erasmus; Dodson, Michael V

    2010-02-01

    Adipocyte numbers were increased by feed withdrawal (FW) regimens in cattle; thus, the effect of FW regimens was studied in male Wistar and fa/fa obese rats, as models for humans, in 2 completely randomized design experiments to abate lipodystrophy and progression of metabolic syndrome symptoms. The hypothesis was that application of FW regimens could alter adipose tissue cellularity, adipocyte size, and affect area under the curve (AUC) during glucose tolerance tests. Objectives were to determine associations among retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue adipocyte number, diameter, and AUC, as affected by fortnightly or a single (at age 50 days) 24-hour FW regimen. Adipocyte marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression was elevated (P = .054) in the retroperitoneal tissue of fa/fa obese rats in the fortnightly FW treatment because of a 13% increase in tissue cell density (cells per gram; P = .13). Average cell diameter in retroperitoneal adipose and AUC were negatively corelated. Regression analyses after including the square of average cell diameter indicated that average retroperitoneal adipocyte diameter (between 65 and 135 mum) and the AUC were related in a quadratic manner (R(2) = 0.14; n = 49; P = .03) for Wistar rats. Cell number of the inguinal and retroperitoneal adipocytes tended to be positively corelated (r = 0.24; P = .09 and r = 0.26; P = .07, n = 49, respectively) to the AUC and are indexes of adiposity. Results suggest that maintenance of retroperitoneal adipocytes at appropriate diameters may control progression of metabolic syndrome symptoms such as glucose tolerance. PMID:20226998

  14. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes

    The effect of obesity on glucose intolerance is a mixture of impact of body composition on glucose-insulin relationships as well as the modulation of this metabolism by physical activity. In this project, we seek to measure the energy expenditure on activity, the rate of weight gain and changes in body composition in a free-living population, and to relate these variables to changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We have enrolled a cohort of 280 adults in Idikan, a poor urban community in lbadan, Nigeria, selected by simple random sampling from a population database. In this communication, we report characteristics of the study cohort, findings on evaluation of a physical activity questionnaire and changes in body size, body composition and measures of insulin resistance over a one-year period. Mean age of the men is 49.7 (SD 12.7) years and of the women 44.7 (SD 10.7) years. Mean fasting blood glucose was 4.57 (SD 4.75) mmol/L among men and 3.54 (SD 1.02) mmol/L among women. The modified HIP physical activity (PA) questionnaire was evaluated in a subset of participants for whom scale reliability coefficients of 0.57 and 0.33 were obtained for the occupational and leisure scales of HIP respectively. Two-week test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.53. On validation against doubly-labelled water measurements, the HIP occupational score showed a positive correlation (r=0.37, p=0.01) with activity energy expenditure per kg body weight (AEE per kg) and a similar correlation of 0. 37 with physical activity level (PAL). Thus, the HIP occupational scale showed adequate consistency, good test-retest reliability and good correlations with measures of physical activity by doubly-labelled water. Over a one-year follow-up period, the participants showed increases in weight, BMI, waist circumferences, fat mass, fasting insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio. However, HOMA-IR did not significantly change. Overweight increased from 21.3% to 23.9% while

  15. Prehepatic secretion and disposal of insulin in obese adolescents as estimated by three-hour, eight-sample oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Vogt, Josef A; Domzig, Christian; Wabitsch, Martin; Denzer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The body compensates for early-stage insulin resistance by increasing insulin secretion. A reliable and easy-to-use mathematical assessment of insulin secretion and disposal could be a valuable tool for identifying patients at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Because the pathophysiology of insulin resistance is incompletely understood, assessing insulin metabolism with minimal assumptions regarding its metabolic regulation is a major challenge. To assess insulin secretion and indexes of insulin disposal, our marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) was applied to a sparse sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) protocol measuring the insulin and C-peptide concentrations. Identifiability and potential bias of metabolic parameters were estimated from published data with dense sampling. The MRA was applied to OGTT data from 135 obese adolescents to demonstrate its clinical applicability. Individual prehepatic basal and dynamic insulin secretion and clearance levels were determined with a precision and accuracy greater than 10% of the nominal value. The intersubject variability in these parameters was approximately four times higher than the intrasubject variability, and there was a strong negative correlation between prehepatic secretion and plasma clearance of insulin. MRA-based analysis provides reliable estimates of insulin secretion and clearance, thereby enabling detailed glucose homeostasis characterization based on restricted datasets that are obtainable during routine patient care. PMID:27143555

  16. Activation of GPR119 by fatty acid agonists augments insulin release from clonal β-cells and isolated pancreatic islets and improves glucose tolerance in mice.

    Moran, Brian M; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; McKillop, Aine M

    2014-04-01

    G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is emerging as a potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. This study assessed the insulin-secreting properties of various GPR119 agonists and the distribution of GPR119 in pancreatic islets. Endogenous ligands [oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamine (PEA)] and chemically synthetic analogues (AS-1269574, PSN-375963) were investigated in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. Secondary messenger assays such as intracellular Ca²⁺ and cAMP in response to agonists at normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic conditions were assessed. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release. AS-1269574 was the most potent and selective agonist tested in isolated islets, with an EC₅₀ value of 9.7×10⁻⁷ mol/l, enhancing insulin release maximally by 63.2%. Stimulation was also observed with GPR119 ligands; OEA (3.0×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 37.5%), PSN-375963 (2.4×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 28.7%) and PEA (1.2×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 22.2%). Results were corroborated by studies using BRIN-BD11 cells, which revealed augmentation of intracellular Ca²⁺ and cAMP. Both OEA and AS-1269574 enhanced insulin release and improved glucose tolerance in vivo in NIH Swiss mice. These results demonstrate the cellular localisation of GPR119 on islet cells (β and pancreatic polypeptide cells), its activation of the β-cell stimulus-secretion coupling pathway and glucose lowering effects in vivo. PMID:24323890

  17. Male mice retain a metabolic memory of improved glucose tolerance induced during adult onset, short-term dietary restriction

    Cameron, Kerry M; Miwa, Satomi; Walker, Cornelia; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. These factors show rapid and robust improvements when rodents were crossed over from an ad libitum (AL) diet to DR in mid life. We aimed to determine whether the beneficial effects induced by short-term exposure to DR can be retained as a ‘metabolic memory’ when AL feeding is resumed (AL-DR-AL) and vice versa: whether the effects of long-term DR can be reversed...

  18. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and foetal outcomes in glucose tolerant women classified using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria

    Dennedy, MC

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Raised maternal body mass index (BMI), in association with hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Whether BMI has an independent effect on adverse pregnancy outcome is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effects of raised maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome in glucose tolerant women, classified using the IADPSG criteria.\\r\

  19. Profile of liver enzymes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and newly detected untreated type 2 diabetes

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The perception of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD as an uncommon and benign condition is rapidly changing. Approximately, 70% type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients have a fatty liver, which may follow an aggressive course with necroinflammation and fibrosis. Aims: To assess the profile of liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, new onset treatment naive T2DM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without NAFLD. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinic-based study. Subjects and Methods: 152 IGT and 158 recently detected T2DM subjects aged between 30 and 69 years, along with 160 age and gender matched controls with NGT. An ultrasonography scan of the upper abdomen was done in all patients in order to examine presence of fatty liver. Anthropometry, lipid profile, liver enzymes were also analyzed in all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test, Chi-square/Fisher Exact test (for categorical variables, Pearson/Spearmen correlation test to find significant difference, association and correlation between two or more groups respectively. Results: NAFLD was significantly associated with higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT but not ALP levels in IGT and T2DM patients. ALT, GGT significant correlated with waist circumference, body mass index, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment- insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride. 57% of NAFLD patients had normal ALT between 25 and 40 U/L, 53% of NAFLD subjects had normal GGT between 15 and 30 U/L. ALT 40 U/L and GGT > 30 U/L had highest positive predictivity for presence of NAFLD in our study sample. Conclusions: Mild elevations of liver enzymes in the upper normal range are associated with features of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD even in IGT and recently detected T2DM patients. Novel cut-offs for liver enzymes are warranted in order to prevent unnecessary

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORAL OLANZAPINE AND ORAL HALOPERIDOL ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    G N S Sangeetha Lakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by persistent defects in the perception, thinking or the expression of reality. The term “schizophrenia” translates roughly as “shattered mind,” and comes from the Greek (schizo, “to split” or “to divide” and (phrēn, “mind”. Material and Methods: The study was designed to be a prospective control study. Schizophrenic patients taking Olanzapine and Haloperidol were selected and follow up at three weeks and six weeks was done. Results: In this prospective control study, Olanzapine and Haloperidol were associated with an increase in Blood Glucose Levels. The mean changes in Glucose remained within clinically normal range in this six week study. Conclusion: Antipsychotic treatmemt leads to the development of Diabetes mellitus in a significant 10.1% of patients within 6 weeks. Given the serious implications for morbidity and mortality attributable to diabetes mellitus, clinicians need to be aware of these risk factors when treating patients with chronic schizophrenia

  1. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T;

    2014-01-01

    development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release. METHODS: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance...... test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined. RESULTS: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ≤ .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs......AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness in the...

  2. Treatment of Abnormal Glucose Regulation and Huge Ovarian Cysts with High Dose Insulin Glargine in an Infant with Leprechaunism - Case Report

    Ayşe Yasemin Çelik; Özgür Pirgon; Dursun Odabaş

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the insulin receptor gene. In this report; we present a 75 days old infant with leprecahunism treated by high dose insulin glargine.Case Report: Yetmiş day old girl was diagnosed as leprechaunism because of the hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and dysmorphic appearance. Huge cysts with multiple septa were determined in her ovaries. High dose insulin glargine were adjusted to achieve target blood glucose regul...

  3. The Preventive Effect of Zuogui Wan on Offspring Rats' Impaired Glucose Tolerance Whose Mothers Had Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Feng, Qianjin; Niu, Xin; Xu, Kaixia; Wang, Yingli; Wang, Jinlong; Mao, Yingqiu; Gao, Shuangrong

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, we used streptozotocin (STZ) to establish a model of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) rats, where Zuogui Wan was given to GDM rats. After pregnancy, offspring rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, high fat and sugar as the control group, GDM group, and Zuogui Wan GDM group. Rats in high fat and sugar as the control group, GDM group, and Zuogui Wan GDM group were fed with high fat and sugar diet. Rats in control group were fed the basic diet. The means of 2hPG were higher than 7.8 mmol·L−1 and lower than 11.1 mmol·L−1 on the rats of GDM group on week 15, and IGT models were successful. Body weight, abdominal fat weight, the ratio of abdominal fat weight and body weight, fasting plasma glucose, 2hPG, insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) of Zuogui Wan GDM group were significantly lower than GDM group. The level of adiponectin in Zuogui Wan GDM group was significantly higher than GDM group. And we concluded that giving Zuogui Wan to GDM rats can have a preventive effect on the offsprings' IGT induced by high fat and sugar diet. PMID:27034700

  4. Short-term lifestyle intervention significantly increases fasting adiponectin and induces a decline in serum adiponectin during oral glucose tolerance test, without changes in insulin resistance

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance (IR and low concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine that improves insulin sensitivity and has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. An increase in circulating adiponectin may, therefore, have beneficial effects in terms of reduction of cardiovascular risk. We aimed to establish whether short-term (two-week lifestyle intervention alters serum concentrations of adiponectin, and whether there are changes in adiponectin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Material and methods: We measured adiponectin levels during 75.0 gram OGTT before and after two weeks of a hospital-based lifestyle modification programme that consisted of hypocaloric diet and moderate exercise in 16 severely obese, non-diabetic subjects (4 males, aged 42.0±14.18 years, BMI 42.65±7.82 kg/m2 (mean ±SD. IR indices were assessed before and after intervention. Results: Exercise and diet programme resulted in a decline of BMI (to 40.21±7.14 kg/m2, p<0.001 and fasting glucose (p=0.002, although without significant improvement in IR. There was, however, a significant rise in fasting adiponectin (from 32.1±13.2 nmol/l to 35.38±11.04 nmol/l, p=0.008. Furthermore, though initially there was no change in serum adiponectin levels during OGTT, there was a significant decline in serum adiponectin during OGTT at the end of the study (p<0.001. Conclusions: A two-week period of lifestyle modification (hypocaloric diet and moderate exercise increases fasting adiponectin and induces a decline in serum adiponectin during OGTT in severely obese subjects. Favourable changes in serum adiponectin in subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease are observed after a relatively short period and precede significant changes in insulin resistance.

  5. Cumulative glycemia and microangiopathy in subjects with impaired glucose regulation in the Inter99 study

    Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line;

    2011-01-01

    subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, most prominently in subjects with IFG+IGT and in subjects with screen-detected diabetes. These results provide the first objective evidence that cumulative glycemic load is increased at the earliest stage of impaired glucose regulation.......AIMS: To assess cumulative glycemia, microvascular characteristics, and associated risk factors for diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study comprising systemic characteristics in 6487 participants and ocular characteristics in 970...... participants. RESULTS: Lens fluorescence, a quantitative index of life-long cumulative glycemia, was increased by 7.5% (CI(95) 0.37-15.1%) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, by 13.0% (CI(95) 5.5-21%) in subjects with combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT), and by 11...

  6. A novel cobiotic containing a prebiotic and an antioxidant augments the glucose control and gastrointestinal tolerability of metformin: a case report.

    Greenway, F; Wang, S; Heiman, M

    2014-03-01

    The gut microbiome plays an important role in regulation of metabolic processes, including digestion, absorption, and synthesis of bioactive molecules that signal physiological host mechanisms. Changes in the human gut microbiome are associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Water-soluble dietary fibres like inulin and beta-glucan are fermented in the colon, and beta-glucan increases viscosity. Blueberries improve insulin sensitivity through an antioxidant effect. A cobiotic, consisting of purified inulin, sugar-free blueberry pomace extract, and an oat preparation of purified beta-glucan was developed for twice a day (bid) consumption as a smoothie drink to repair the gastrointestinal dysbiosis in type 2 diabetes. A 30-year-old man presented with new onset type 2 diabetes and a fasting glucose (FBS) of 375 mg/dl. Metformin 500 mg bid was initiated and increased to 1 g bid after 1 week. During the first 9 days of metformin treatment, he developed diarrhoea, but his FBS only dropped to 325 mg/dl. The cobiotic bid was added on the 9th day of metformin treatment, and after 2 days, his FBS dropped to 175 mg/dl. After 8 weeks on metformin and the cobiotic, his blood sugar was 100 mg/dl and he lost 5.5 kg. His stools became soft and formed on the cobiotic, reverted to diarrhoea when off of it for 2 days, and returned to normal on resuming the cobiotic formulation. Metformin is a safe, effective and inexpensive generic medication favouring weight loss, recommended as initial treatment of type 2 diabetes by the American Diabetes Association. However, a 20% incidence of diarrhoea limits its tolerability. A safe food supplement that can increase the efficacy of metformin and its tolerability, as occurred in this case report, would have significant positive public health consequences. A controlled clinical trial of the cobiotic with metformin is planned. PMID:23685372

  7. Prolonged treatment of genetically obese mice with conjugated linoleic acid improves glucose tolerance and lowers plasma insulin concentration: possible involvement of PPAR activation

    Einerhand Alexandra WC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in rodents and some studies in humans have shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, especially its trans-10, cis-12 isomer, reduces body fat content. However, some but not all studies in mice and humans (though none in rats have found that CLA promotes insulin resistance. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are unclear, and there are conflicting reports on the effects of CLA on peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ activation and expression. We have conducted three experiments with CLA in obese mice over three weeks, and one over eleven weeks. We have also investigated the effects of CLA isomers in PPARγ and PPARα reporter gene assays. Results Inclusion of CLA or CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer in the diet of female genetically obese (lepob/lepob mice for up to eleven weeks reduced body weight gain and white fat pad weight. After two weeks, in contrast to beneficial effects obtained with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, CLA or CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer raised fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations, and exacerbated glucose tolerance. After 10 weeks, however, CLA had beneficial effects on glucose and insulin concentrations. At this time, CLA had no effect on the plasma TNFα concentration, but it markedly reduced the plasma adiponectin concentration. CLA and CLA enriched with either isomer raised the plasma triglyceride concentration during the first three weeks, but not subsequently. CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer, but not with its cis-9, trans-11 isomer, stimulated PPARγ-mediated reporter gene activity; both isomers stimulated PPARα-mediated reporter gene activity. Conclusions CLA initially decreased but subsequently increased insulin sensitivity in lepob/lepob mice. Activation of both PPARγ and PPARα may contribute to the improvement in insulin sensitivity. In the short term, however, another mechanism

  8. Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood%出生体重与成年期肥胖指标联合效应对糖代谢异常的影响

    席波; 程红; 陈芳芳; 赵小元; 米杰

    2016-01-01

    +成年期腹型肥胖组OR(95%CI)值为3.18(2.33~4.32),低出生体重+成年期腹型肥胖组的OR(95%CI)值为4.78(2.01~11.38),高出生体重+腹型肥胖组的OR(95%CI)值4.35(1.38~13.65);低出生体重和高出生体重与成年期腰围均存在正交互作用,交互作用归因比分别为38.5%和28.3%。结论低出生体重和高出生体重可能分别与成年期肥胖存在正交互作用,共同增强了对成年期糖代谢异常的影响。%Objective To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Methods Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. Results There were 972 subjects (males:50.7%, mean age:(46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient epithelial cells are less tolerant to infection by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Yi-Ting Hsieh

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and provides reducing energy to all cells by maintaining redox balance. The most common clinical manifestations in patients with G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. The effects of microbial infection in patients with G6PD deficiency primarily relate to the hemolytic anemia caused by Plasmodium or viral infections and the subsequent medication that is required. We are interested in studying the impact of bacterial infection in G6PD-deficient cells. G6PD knock down A549 lung carcinoma cells, together with the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, were employed in our cell infection model. Here, we demonstrate that a lower cell viability was observed among G6PD-deficient cells when compared to scramble controls upon bacterial infection using the MTT assay. A significant increase in the intracellular ROS was detected among S. aureus-infected G6PD-deficient cells by observing dichlorofluorescein (DCF intensity within cells under a fluorescence microscope and quantifying this signal using flow cytometry. The impairment of ROS removal is predicted to enhance apoptotic activity in G6PD-deficient cells, and this enhanced apoptosis was observed by annexin V/PI staining under a confocal fluorescence microscope and quantified by flow cytometry. A higher expression level of the intrinsic apoptotic initiator caspase-9, as well as the downstream effector caspase-3, was detected by Western blotting analysis of G6PD-deficient cells following bacterial infection. In conclusion, we propose that bacterial infection, perhaps the secreted S. aureus α-hemolysin in this case, promotes the accumulation of intracellular ROS in G6PD-deficient cells. This would trigger a stronger apoptotic activity through the intrinsic pathway thereby reducing cell viability when compared to wild type cells.

  10. CLINICAL STUDY OF GESTATIONAL IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN 140 CASES%妊娠糖耐量受损140例临床研究

    张英玲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect on the outcome of pregnancy women and fatus in gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT). [Methods] Pregnancy women 2515 cases oral 50g glucose senitiv lest (GST) , glucose challenge test is abnomai, fasting again 75g oraglucose toerance test (OGTT) dignoses gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gesta-tional impaired glucose.and be compaired on the outcome pregnancy and fetus in GIGT group. in GDM group and normal group. [Results] Complication during the pregnancy and delivery, the dysklocia rate and the incidence in perint newbom.in the normal group, GIGT group, GDM group of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, premature delivery, polyhydramnios, neonatal asphyxia, neonatal hypoglycemia, cesarean section, fetal macrosomia difference was statistically significant (P 0.05) ; hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy、neonatal asphyxia, neonatal glucopenia, cesarean section, fatal raacrosomia of GDM and GIGT group were higher significantly than normal group (P 0.05 > 0.017) ; GIGT group with GDM between neonatal asphyxia complications significantly higher than GIGT group (P 0.05 > 0.017). [Conclusion] To trent-ment of GIGT in time. Prognosis of pregnant women and fetus Inprove in gestational glucose metabolic disorder%[目的]探讨妊娠糖耐量受损(GIGT)对母儿结局的影响.[方法]对2 515例孕妇进行口服50g葡萄糖筛查试验,对异常者,再空腹口服75 9葡萄糖进行糖耐量试验(OGTT)以确诊妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)及妊娠糖耐量受损.并分正常组、GIGT组及GDM组进行比较母儿结局.[结果]孕期及分娩过程中的合并症,难产率及围产儿患病率中,在正常组、GIGT组、GDM组的妊娠期高血压疾病、早产、胎膜早破、羊水过多、新生儿窒息、新生儿低血糖、剖宫产、巨大儿差异有统计学意义(P< 0.01).而胎膜早破的并发症差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在GDM组与GIGT组中,妊娠期高血压疾病、新

  11. Glucose homeostasis in Egyptian children and adolescents with β-Thalassemia major: Relationship to oxidative stress

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in children with β-thalassemia may contribute to shortened life span of erythrocytes and endocrinal abnormalities. Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate glucose homeostasis in Egyptian children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major and its relation to oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Sixty children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major were studied in comparison to 30 healthy age and sex-matched subjects. Detailed medical history, thorough clinical examination, and laboratory assessment of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, serum ferritin, alanine transferase (ALT, fasting insulin levels, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA as oxidant marker and serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC were performed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of abnormal OGTT. Results: The prevalence of diabetes was 5% (3 of 60 and impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT was 8% (5 of 60. Fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, serum ferritin, ALT, fasting insulin level, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and MDA levels were significantly elevated while TAC level was significantly decreased in thalassemic patients compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001 for each. The difference was more evident in patients with abnormal OGTT than those with normal oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.001 for each. We also observed that thalassemic patients not receiving or on irregular chelation therapy had significantly higher fasting, 2-h post-load plasma glucose, serum ferritin, ALT, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, oxidative stress markers OSI and MDA levels and significantly lower TAC compared with either those on regular chelation or controls. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with age, serum ferritin, ALT, MDA, and negatively correlated with TAC. Conclusions: The development of abnormal glucose tolerance in Egyptian children and adolescents with β--thalassemia is associated with

  12. Analysis of Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Combined With Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Zhi-ping GAO; Li-wen LIE; Ying-ling ZHOU; Hao-jian DONG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the morbidity of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) combined with impaired glucose metabolism. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data about patients with CAD in 1997, 2002 and 2007, sepa-rately. A total of 2951 patients were enrolled, among whom had coexistence of 457 abnormal glycometabolism, inclu-ding impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results The prevalence of ab-normal glycometabolism in patients with CAD was increasing year by year. The morbidity raised from 3.8% and 16. 5% to 10. 8% in these three years. Contusion It is more and more common to detect CAD with impaired glucose metabolism, and it should be emphasized in the secondary prevention of CAD.

  13. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Katz, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. PMID:27042132

  14. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin-metformin.

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Katz, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. PMID:27042132

  15. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene PsG6PDH from Freezing-tolerant Populus suaveolens

    Lin Yuan-zhen; Lin Shan-zhi; Zhang Wei; Zhang Qian; Zhang Zhi-yi; Guo Huan

    2005-01-01

    A 1207 hp cDNA fragment (PsG6PDH) was amplified by PT-PCR from cold-induced total Pna of the freexing-tolerant P. Suaveolens, using primers based on the highly comserved region of published plant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH)genes. The sepuence analysis showed that PsG6PDH coding region had 1 101 bp and encoded 367 predicted aminoacid residues. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence of psG6PDH showed 83%,82%,79%,79% and 78% identity, and the derived amino acid sequence shared 44.2%,44.7%,42.0%,40.5% and 43.9% identity with those of the Solanum tuberosum, Nicotiana tabacum, Triticum aestivum, Oryxa sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The results show that PsG6PDH is a new member of G6PDH gene family and belongs to cytosolic G6PDH gene. This is the first report on clonign of the G6PDH gene from woody plants.

  16. The Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (DETECT-2) update of the Finnish diabetes risk score for prediction of incident type 2 diabetes

    Alssema, M; Vistisen, D; Heymans, M W;

    2011-01-01

    endpoint and by considering additional predictors. METHODS: Data from 18,301 participants in studies of the Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (DETECT-2) project with baseline and follow-up information on oral glucose tolerance status......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Finnish diabetes risk questionnaire is a widely used, simple tool for identification of those at risk for drug-treated type 2 diabetes. We updated the risk questionnaire by using clinically diagnosed and screen-detected type 2 diabetes instead of drug-treated diabetes as an...... of the original Finnish risk questionnaire could be improved by adding information on sex, smoking and family history of diabetes. The DETECT-2 update of the Finnish diabetes risk questionnaire is an adequate and robust predictor for future screen-detected and clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes in...

  17. Effects of lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance related to beta-3 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism Trp64Arg(C/T): Results from the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Sakane, Naoki; Sato, Juichi; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tsujii, Satoru; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawazu, Shoji; Sato, Yuzo; Usui, Takeshi; Kamae, Isao; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sato, Shigeaki; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Kuzuya, Hideshi

    2016-05-01

    The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), primarily expressed in adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. The present study hypothesized that ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) polymorphisms modulate the effects of lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Data were analyzed from 112 patients with impaired glucose tolerance in the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention trial, randomized to either an intensive lifestyle intervention group or usual care group. Changes in weight and metabolic parameters were measured after the 6-month intervention. The ADRB3 polymorphisms were determined using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Non-carriers showed a greater weight reduction compared with the carriers in both the lifestyle intervention group and usual care group, and a greater increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the carriers only in the lifestyle intervention group. ADRB3 polymorphisms could influence the effects of lifestyle interventions on weight and lipid parameters in impaired glucose tolerance patients. PMID:27330719

  18. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  19. Comparison of 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography coronary angiography between asymptomatic, type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance patients

    Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death and disability for diabetic patients, and patients with diabetes are more likely to have silent ischemia. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) allows non-invasive assessment of coronary artery stenosis and plaque properties. In this study, we investigated whether 64-slice MDCT can non-invasively identify significant coronary artery stenosis in asymptomatic, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients. The study population consisted of 154 consecutive asymptomatic patients [IGT (n=93), T2DM (n=61)]. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced 64-slice MDCT. The number of diseased coronary segments was classified as showing obstructive (≥50% luminal narrowing) disease or not. Significant coronary stenosis was detected in 43 (27.9%) of 154 enrolled patients. Patients with T2DM showed significantly more coronary stenosis than patients with IGT (41% vs. 19.4%; p<0.01). Twenty-three patients [14.9%; IGT (n=9), T2DM (n=14)] underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for severe stenosis. Patients with T2DM showed significantly more calcified plaque than IGT (47.5% vs. 29%; p<0.05), but not significantly more soft plaque (19.7% vs. 15.1%; ns), or significantly different remodeling index (1.05±0.18 vs. 1.04±0.21; ns), respectively. 64-Slice MDCT can non-invasively identify significant coronary artery stenosis in asymptomatic, T2DM and IGT patients. (author)

  20. Prevention of type 2 diabetes in a primary healthcare setting: Three-year results of lifestyle intervention in Japanese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Usui Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomized control trial was performed to test whether a lifestyle intervention program, carried out in a primary healthcare setting using existing resources, can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. The results of 3 years' intervention are summarized. Methods Through health checkups in communities and workplaces, 304 middle-aged IGT subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI of 24.5 kg/m2 were recruited and randomized to the intervention group or control group. The lifestyle intervention was carried out for 3 years by public health nurses using the curriculum and educational materials provided by the study group. Results After 1 year, the intervention had significantly improved body weight (-1.5 ± 0.7 vs. -0.7 ± 2.5 kg in the control; p = 0.023 and daily non-exercise leisure time energy expenditure (25 ± 113 vs. -3 ± 98 kcal; p = 0.045. Insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index was improved by the intervention during the 3 years. The 3-year cumulative incidence tended to be lower in the intervention group (14.8% vs.8.2%, log-rank test: p = 0.097. In a sub-analysis for the subjects with a BMI > 22.5 kg/m2, a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence was found (p = 0.027. Conclusions The present lifestyle intervention program using existing healthcare resources is beneficial in preventing diabetes in Japanese with IGT. This has important implications for primary healthcare-based diabetes prevention. Trial registration number UMIN000003136

  1. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz SS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stanley S Schwartz,1,2 Arie Katz3 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Main Line Health System, Ardmore, PA, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, USA Abstract: In type 2 diabetes (T2D, early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2 inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. Keywords: combination therapy, dapagliflozin, metformin

  2. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  3. Abnormal brain glucose metabolism and depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease: SPM analysis of F-18 FDG positron emission tomography

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD

  4. Drug-Induced Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence for Statins and Other Drugs Affecting Glucose Metabolism.

    Anyanwagu, U; Idris, I; Donnelly, R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and glucose tolerance, either because of a reduction in tissue sensitivity to insulin (e.g., in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues) and/or a reduction in pancreatic insulin secretion, are associated with a number of unwanted health outcomes. Even small increases in circulating glucose levels (often described as dysglycemia or prediabetes) may confer an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression to overt type 2 diabetes. A number of drug therapies, many of them used long term in chronic disease management, have adverse effects on glucose metabolism, diabetes risk, and glycemic control among patients with preexisting diabetes. In this study, we review the evidence, underlying mechanisms, and the clinical significance of drug-related adverse effects on glucose metabolism. PMID:26440603

  5. Low non-oxidative glucose metabolism and violent offending: an 8-year prospective follow-up study.

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-06-30

    Violent offenders have abnormalities in their glucose metabolism as indicated by decreased glucose uptake in their prefrontal cortex and a low blood glucose nadir in the glucose tolerance test. We tested the hypothesis that low non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOG) predicts forthcoming violent offending among antisocial males. Glucose metabolism was measured using the insulin clamp method among 49 impulsive, violent, antisocial offenders during a forensic psychiatric examination. Those offenders who committed at least one new violent crime during the 8-year follow-up had a mean NOG of 1.4 standard deviations lower than non-recidivistic offenders. In logistic regression analysis, NOG alone explained 27% of the variation in the recidivistic offending. Low non-oxidative metabolism may be a crucial component in the pathophysiology of habitually violent behavior among subjects with antisocial personality disorder. This might suggest that substances increasing glycogen formation and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia might be potential treatments for impulsive violent behavior. PMID:19446886

  6. Effects of the herbal medicine Hachimi-jio-gan (Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan) on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Hirotani, Y; Ikeda, K; Myotoku, M

    2010-04-01

    Hachimi-jio-gan (HJ) is a Chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of nephrotic syndromes, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. We reported that HJ lowers plasma glucose in type 1 diabetic rats. We investigated the effects of HJ on diabetic hyperglycemia and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Eight-week-old diabetic GK rats were given free access to pellets containing 1% HJ extract powder for 14 weeks. HJ consumption increased the food intake and body weight of these rats in comparison to control rats. HJ may control the body weight loss observed in GK rats. HJ also reduced hyperglycemia in diabetic GK rats, and it significantly increased insulin secretion in non-fasting GK rats over the experimental period. In oral glucose tolerance tests, HJ significantly improved the insulin response at 30 min and reduced the plasma glucose level at 60 min after glucose administration (p < 0.05). Ten weeks after administration, the plasma leptin levels significantly increased in the HJ group rats. These results demonstrate that in diabetic GK rats, HJ decreased the level of postprandial glucose via enhanced insulin secretion coupled with the regulation of food intake by leptin. PMID:22491170

  7. Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome

    Surprisingly it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS) components as parameters to identify such persons. All participants received a standard 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance and 6 had diabetes on isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (Clinical history model): family history (FH), FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model): Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI); Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance. (author)

  8. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes. Highlights and achievements

    The effect of obesity on glucose intolerance is a mixture of the impact of body composition on glucose-insulin relationships as well as the modulation of this metabolism by physical activity. Populations of the African diaspora in the Caribbean and the United States have higher levels of obesity, glucose intolerance and diabetes than the ancestral population in West Africa. This is most likely a consequence of lifestyle changes, including an apparent decline in physical activity and dietary changes

  9. Clinical study of Telmisartan in treatment of elderly hypertension with impaired glucose tolerance%进口替米沙坦治疗老年高血压伴葡萄糖耐量异常的临床研究

    邹文淑; 周庆蓉; 彭良君; 张雪萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察进口替米沙坦对老年高血压伴葡萄糖糖耐量异常患者血糖及血压的影响.方法收集我院2008年9月至2010年9月60~80岁高血压伴糖耐量异常患者160例,随机数字表法分为两组.试验组采用替米沙进口坦80 mg口服,对照组采用进口雷米普利5mg口服,均1次/日,疗程6个月.观察两组降压效果、对糖代谢的影响、肝肾功能及血脂谱的变化、咳嗽及血管神经水肿等不良反应的发生率.结果 试验组患者血糖、血脂、胰岛素抵抗较对照组有明显改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 进口替米沙坦除具有降压作用外,还能改善糖脂代谢,预防糖尿病的发生,患者咳嗽发生率低,耐受性好.%Objective To observe the effect of Telmisartan on blood glucose and blood pressure of elderly patients with hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance. Methods A total of 160 60 to 80-year-old patients with hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance from September 2008 to September 2010 were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated with oral administration of Telmisartan 80 mg, q. D. The control group was treated with oral administration of Ramipril 5 mg q. D. The courses of treatment were both 6 months. We observed the incidence of adverse reactions such as antihypertensive effect, effect on glucose metabolism, changes in liver and kidney function, lipid profile changes, cough and angioneurotic edema etc.. Results In Telmisartan group, the patients' glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance significantly improved compared with that in control group. (P < 0.05). Conclusion Besides antihypertensive effect, Telmisartan can improve glucose and lipid metabolism and prevent diabetes, with low incidence of cough and good tolerance by patients.

  10. 糖脂代谢异常对肝硬化患者疾病进展的影响%Impact of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism on the progression of disease in patients with cirrhosis

    岑光力; 岑柏春

    2015-01-01

    ,triglycerides (TG) in patients with different Child-Pugh score had no statistically significant difference,P =0.558,0.169.The level of serum albumin (ALB) of patients with DM in cirrhosis was significantly lower than those without DM,P =0.009.The patients with DM in liver cirrhosis had higher incidence of complications such as ascites,gastro esophageal variceal bleeding(GEVB) or hepatic encephalopathy than those without DM,P =0.000.Conclusion The patients with cirrhosis had higher incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism,and DM lead to progression of liver disease in turn.

  11. Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Eriksson Johan G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  12. Study on the correlation of severity of acute pancreatitis with abnormal glucose metabolism and its prognosis%急性胰腺炎严重程度与糖代谢异常的相关性及其预后

    罗欣

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性胰腺炎严重程度与糖代谢异常的相关性及其预后.方法 选择2004年12月至2012年12月广西柳钢集团公司医院消化科收治入院的急性胰腺炎患者158例,按疾病严重程度分为轻症急性胰腺炎(MAP)组68例和重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)组90例;检测两组患者糖代谢指标空腹静脉血糖(FPG)、负荷2h静脉血糖(PPG)及评定两组患者急性生理及慢性健康评分Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ),对两组的糖代谢指标和APACHE Ⅱ评分进行相关性分析,并观察两组患者的预后.结果 SAP组患者FPG、PPG、胰岛素水平(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(IRI)明显高于MAP组,胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)低于MAP(P<0.01);急性胰腺炎(AP)患者的APACHE Ⅱ评分与FPG、PPG、FINS、IRI呈正相关(P <0.05,P<0.01),与ISI呈负相关(P<0.05);SAP组的假性囊肿、感染、脓肿、坏死、急性肺损伤或急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)、死亡发生率明显高于MAP组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 AP的严重程度与糖代谢异常存在密切的关系,两者相互影响,因此,在治疗AP时,应积极控制胰腺炎症,防止和减少胰腺坏死,将血糖降至正常范围,以降低并发症和死亡的发生率.%Objective To investigate correlation between severity of acute pancreatitis and abnormal glucose metabolism and its prognosis.Methods A total of 158 cases of patient admitted with acute pancreatitis in the Department of Digestion of our hospital from December 2004 and December 2012 were selected,and were divided into two groups:mild acute pancreatitis (MAP; n =68) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP; n =90) according to disease severity.The patient's sugar metabolism such as fasting plasma glucose (FPG),postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHEII) scores of two groups were detected.Correlation analysis was carried out between glucose metabolism index and APACHEII score.The prognosis of two groups was observed

  13. The Relationships between Metabolic Disorders (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Computed Tomography-Based Indices of Hepatic Steatosis or Visceral Fat Accumulation in Middle-Aged Japanese Men.

    Kazutoshi Fujibayashi

    Full Text Available Most studies on the relationships between metabolic disorders (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis (HS or visceral fat accumulation (VFA have been cross-sectional, and thus, these relationships remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationships between components of metabolic disorders and HS/VFA.The participants were 615 middle-aged men who were free from serious liver disorders, diabetes, and HS/VFA and underwent multiple general health check-ups at our institution between 2009 and 2013. The data from the initial and final check-ups were used. HS and VFA were assessed by computed tomography. HS was defined as a liver to spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1.0. VFA was defined as a visceral fat cross-sectional area of ≥100 cm2 at the level of the navel. Metabolic disorders were defined using Japan's metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria. The participants were divided into four groups based on the presence (+ or absence (- of HS/VFA. The onset rates of each metabolic disorder were compared among the four groups.Among the participants, 521, 55, 24, and 15 were classified as HS(-/VFA(-, HS(-/VFA(+, HS(+/VFA(-, and HS(+/VFA(+, respectively, at the end of the study. Impaired glucose tolerance was more common among the participants that exhibited HS or VFA (p = 0.05. On the other hand, dyslipidemia was more common among the participants that displayed VFA (p = 0.01.It is likely that VFA is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, while HS might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Unfortunately, our study failed to detect associations between HS/VFA and metabolic disorders due to the low number of subjects that exhibited fat accumulation. Although our observational study had major limitations, we consider that it obtained some interesting results. HS and VFA might affect different metabolic disorders. Further large-scale longitudinal studies

  14. Metabolomic analysis reveals amino-acid responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in women with prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    R. Bentley-Lewis, MD, MBA, MMSc

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Greater change in metabolite levels after a glucose challenge was significantly associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding and higher BMI. Further exploration of these preliminary observations and closer examination of the specific pathways implicated are warranted.

  15. Serum α-hydroxybutyrate (α-HB) predicts elevated 1 h glucose levels and early-phase β-cell dysfunction during OGTT

    Varvel, Stephen A.; Pottala, James V.; Thiselton, Dawn L.; Caffrey, Rebecca; Dall, Tara; Sasinowski, Maciek; McConnell, Joseph P; Warnick, G. Russell; Voros, Szilard; Graham, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Serum α-hydroxybutyrate (α-HB) is elevated in insulin resistance and diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that the α-HB level predicts abnormal 1 h glucose levels and β-cell dysfunction inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Research design and methods This cross-sectional study included 217 patients at increased risk for diabetes. 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30–120 min period...

  16. Dopaminergic drugs in type 2 diabetes and glucose homeostasis.

    Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Brie, Belen; Nogueira, Juan Patricio; Garcia Tornadu, Isabel; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2016-07-01

    The importance of dopamine in central nervous system function is well known, but its effects on glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β cell function are beginning to be unraveled. Mutant mice lacking dopamine type 2 receptors (D2R) are glucose intolerant and have abnormal insulin secretion. In humans, administration of neuroleptic drugs, which block dopamine receptors, may cause hyperinsulinemia, increased weight gain and glucose intolerance. Conversely, treatment with the dopamine precursor l-DOPA in patients with Parkinson's disease reduces insulin secretion upon oral glucose tolerance test, and bromocriptine improves glycemic control and glucose tolerance in obese type 2 diabetic patients as well as in non diabetic obese animals and humans. The actions of dopamine on glucose homeostasis and food intake impact both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Different central actions of the dopamine system may mediate its metabolic effects such as: (i) regulation of hypothalamic noradrenaline output, (ii) participation in appetite control, and (iii) maintenance of the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. On the other hand, dopamine inhibits prolactin, which has metabolic functions; and, at the pancreatic beta cell dopamine D2 receptors inhibit insulin secretion. We review the evidence obtained in animal models and clinical studies that posited dopamine receptors as key elements in glucose homeostasis and ultimately led to the FDA approval of bromocriptine in adults with type 2 diabetes to improve glycemic control. Furthermore, we discuss the metabolic consequences of treatment with neuroleptics which target the D2R, that should be monitored in psychiatric patients to prevent the development in diabetes, weight gain, and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:26748034

  17. Fingertip Blood Capillary Whole Blood Glucose and Venous Plasma Glucose test Results Contrast Analysis%指尖毛细血管全血糖与静脉血浆血糖检测结果对比分析

    邢美荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood glucose and blood glucose in the blood glucose and blood glucose of the finger tip blood glucose and to explore the accuracy of blood glucose detection in the blood glucose of finger tip capillary. Meth-ods From January 2014 to October 2015, 200 cases of blood glucose detection in the center of the disease control depart-ment of our CDC were studied. According to their blood glucose levels, the patients were divided into low blood sugar group, normal group, abnormal glucose tolerance group and diabetic group. Blood glucose was detected by using the automatic bio-chemical analyzer to measure blood glucose of blood and blood glucose in the blood and blood of the finger tip, which were collected from 200 cases of the patients. Results There were no significant differences in blood glucose levels between the blood glucose test results of the blood glucose test of the blood glucose and the blood glucose in the blood glucose of the patients with low blood glucose, glucose tolerance and glucose tolerance test in the patients with low blood glucose and glu-cose tolerance. Conclusion The method of blood glucose detection in blood glucose of finger tip has a high accuracy, and it is close to that of venous blood glucose detection. It can effectively reflect the blood glucose level of the subjects, and can be used as an effective method for the monitoring and management of the community and family.%目的:对比分析指尖毛细血管全血血糖与静脉血浆血糖的检测结果,以探讨指尖毛细血管全血糖检测血糖的准确性。方法于2014年1月-2015年10月,选取在该疾控中心体检科进行血糖检测的200例受检者进行研究,按照其血糖情况进行分组,分为低血糖组、血糖正常组、糖耐量异常组、糖尿病组。分别于空腹状态时和餐后2 h,采集这200例受检者的指尖毛细血管全血和外周静脉血液,使用全自动生化分析仪进行血糖测定,对比指尖毛细血

  18. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce...

  19. Congenital Abnormalities

    ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase the risk that a baby will be born with abnormalities (e.g. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders ). Eating raw or uncooked foods during pregnancy can also be dangerous to health of the ...

  20. Postprandial diabetic glucose tolerance is normalized by gastric bypass feeding as opposed to gastric feeding and is associated with exaggerated GLP-1 secretion

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Dorte L; Madsbad, Sten; Hvolris, Lisbeth E; Naver, Lars S; Holst, Jens Juul; Worm, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine after gastric bypass the effect of peroral versus gastroduodenal feeding on glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A type 2 diabetic patient was examined on 2 consecutive days 5 weeks after gastric bypass. A standard liquid meal was given on the first day into the...

  1. Development of a Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rat Model for Studies on the Effects of Cinnamon on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Secretion

    A streptozotocin (STZ) dose response protocol using graded doses of STZ was utilized to develop a diabetic rat model. In addition to the presence of severe basal hyperglycemia, insulin responses to oral glucose showed no change from basal in rats given more than 45 mg of STZ/kg body wt. Oral gluc...

  2. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  3. Assessment of quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance%糖尿病和糖耐量低减患者生命质量评价

    王文绢; 王克安; 施侣元

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To understand the quality of life ( QOL) in patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance, and investigate factors affecting their QOL.Methods Using the SF-36 instrument to assess QOL among 108 patients with diabetes mellitus, 109 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and 116 normal glucose tolerance subjects.Results In subjects with diabetes mellitus, the proportion of general perceived health assessed to be excellent or good was 12.04%; as compared with the same-age people, the proportion assessed to be good or fairly good was 62.04%.In subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, the two proportions was 13.76% and 69.72% respectively.The total score attained excellent or good level was 72.23% and 83.49% respectively in patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance.The mean score of multi-item dimensions assessment (ranged from 58.33 to 87.38) decreased in diabetes mellitus; the lowest score being emotional role functioning and the highest mean score being physical functioning.Compared with normal glucose tolerance subjects, the mean score of physical functioning, physical role functioning, general health perception, vitality and the total score in diabetes mellitus was significantly decreased;and compared with in impaired glucose tolerance patients, the mean score of vitality, mental health and the total score was significantly decreased in diabetes mellitus.The resulst of correlation analysis demonstrated that age, occupationl, duration of disease, number of symptoms and complications, level of fasting blood glucose and 2-hour past oral blood glucose affected the QOL of diabetes mellitus patients.Conclusions The results suggested that to enhance the QOL in patients with diabetes mellitus, control of plasma glucose, pay attention to psychological treatment and measures related to diabetes mellitus with different characteristics must be early adopted.%目的了解糖尿病和

  4. Sensory nerve desensitization by resiniferatoxin improves glucose tolerance and increases insulin secretion in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and is associated with reduced plasma activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Gram, Dorte X; Hansen, Anker J; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2005-01-01

    Sensory nerve desensitization by capsaicin has been shown to improve the diabetic condition in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. However, administration of capsaicin to adult rats is associated with an increased mortality. Therefore, in this experiment, we examined the influence of resiniferatoxin, a...... tolerable analogue of capsaicin suitable for in vivo use, on the diabetic condition of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. A single subcutaneous injection of resiniferatoxin (0.01 mg/kg) to these rats was tolerable, with no mortality. When administered to early diabetic rats at 15 weeks of age, the further...

  5. Glucose Tests

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  6. Impact of inoculum production conditions on stress tolerance and fermentation efficiency of natural xylose-fermenting yeasts presented xylose and glucose

    Efficient fermentation processes to produce ethanol from low-cost lignocellulosic biomass are sought to support the expansion of the biofuels industry. Stress-tolerant microorganisms are needed that are able to consume both hexose and pentose sugars and also withstand, survive, and function in the ...

  7. 不同糖耐量人群中胰岛素原、真胰岛素与胰岛β细胞功能的相关性研究%Correlation between proinsulin, true insulin and islet cell function in people with different glucose tolerance

    陆雷群; 马晓英; 陈玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the changes and significance of serum true insulin (TI),proinsulin (PI) and immune reactive insulin (IRI) in patients with different glucose tolerance.Methods The levels of serum TI,PI,IRI were tested by radioimmunoassay in 180 cases with different glucose tolerance,which were divided into normal control (NGT) group,abnormal glucose tolerance (IGT) group,diabetes mellitus (DM) group,with 60 cases in every group.The HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were calculated and analyzed with Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA).Results The fasting PI level and PI/IRI in DM group were higher than those in NGT and IGT group,and the TI/IRI were lower than that in NGT and IGT group.PI/IRI and TI/IRI showed statistically significant difference between the three groups (P<0.01).The HOMA-βIRI calculated by IRI in DM group was lower than that in IGT and NGT group (P<0.05).The calculation of the TI HOMA-βTI value in DM and IGT group was lower than that in NGT group (P<0.05).Insulin resistance index whether by IRI or by TI calculation HOMA-IR all showed that DM>IGT> NGT (P<0.05).Conclusion Determination of PI and TI,instead of IRI level,may reflect the true level and function of islet cells in patients with T2DM.%目的 探讨不同糖耐量人群中真胰岛素(TI)、胰岛素原(PI)与胰岛β细胞功能变化的临床意义.方法 检测正常对照组(NGT)、糖耐量减退(IGT)组,糖尿病(DM)组各60例的空腹及2h血糖、免疫反应性胰岛素(IRI)、胰岛素原(PI)及真胰岛素(TI),采用稳态模型(HOMA Model)评估法计算胰岛β细胞功能指数(HOMA-β)和胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).结果 DM组的空腹PI水平、PI/IRI高于NGT组及IGT组,同时其TI/IRI低于NGT组及IGT组,且PI/IRI及TI/IRI在各组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).β细胞功能指数由IRI计算HOMA-βIRI,在DM组低于IGT组和NGT组(P<0.05);由TI计算的HOMA-βTI值,DM组和IGT组低于NGT组(P<0.05).胰岛素抵抗指数无论是用IRI还是用TI

  8. Chronic exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide and high-fat feeding increases body mass without affecting glucose tolerance in female rats

    Dudele, Anete; Fischer, Christina W; Elfving, Betina;

    2015-01-01

    -related inflammation in females. Therefore, we addressed how experimentally induced chronic inflammation affects body mass, energy intake, and glucose metabolism in female rats. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with slow release pellets that delivered a constant daily dose of 53 or 207 μg of...... lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per rat for 60 days. Control rats were instrumented with vehicle pellets. Due to inflammatory nature of high-fat diet (HFD) half of the rats received HFD (60% of calories from lard), while the other half remained on control diet to detect possible interactions between two modes of induced...... inflammation. Our results showed that chronic LPS administration increased female rat body mass and calorie intake in a dose-dependent manner, and that HFD further exacerbated these effects. Despite these effects, no effects of LPS and HFD were evident on female rat glucose metabolism. Only LPS elevated...

  9. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Stanley S Schwartz,1,2 Arie Katz3 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Main Line Health System, Ardmore, PA, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, USA Abstract: In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good...

  10. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz SS; Katz A

    2016-01-01

    Stanley S Schwartz,1,2 Arie Katz3 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Main Line Health System, Ardmore, PA, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, USA Abstract: In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good opt...

  11. Saturated- and n-6 Polyunsaturated-Fat Diets Each Induce Ceramide Accumulation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Reversal and Improvement of Glucose Tolerance by Lipid Metabolism Inhibitors

    Frangioudakis, G.; J. Garrard; Raddatz, K.; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T. W.; Schmitz-Peiffer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a funct...

  12. Hepatic glucose sensing is required to preserve β cell glucose competence.

    Seyer, Pascal; Vallois, David; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Schutz, Frédéric; Metref, Salima; Tarussio, David; Maechler, Pierre; Staels, Bart; Lanz, Bernard; Grueter, Rolf; Decaris, Julie; Turner, Scott; Da Costa, Anabela; Preitner, Frédéric; Minehira, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and its glycolytic and lipogenic target genes was abnormally elevated. Feeding, energy expenditu...

  13. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  14. Pathophysiology and aetiology of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: does it matter for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, K; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    sensitivity as well as a progressive loss of beta cell function. The aetiologies of i-IFG and i-IGT also seem to differ, with i-IFG being predominantly related to genetic factors, smoking and male sex, while i-IGT is predominantly related to physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and short stature. Since...... the transition from the prediabetic states to overt type 2 diabetes is characterised by a non-reversible vicious cycle that includes severe deleterious effects on glucose metabolism, there are good reasons to use the well-established aetiological and pathophysiological differences in i-IFG, i-IGT and IFG...

  15. Glucose Sensing

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  16. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes

    In modem technological societies the requirement for physical work is diminished and access to food is unrestricted. Under these circumstances a large proportion of the population will gain weight and develop obesity and diabetes. At the individual level, genetic and behavioural factors must combine to lead to an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Weight gain, especially rapid weight gain in a population appears to increase the risk of diabetes sharply. Thus understanding the route to weight gain and obesity, and the modulatory effects of physical activity on development of glucose intolerance is critical to credible intervention strategies to reverse or prevent diabetes in populations especially those in transitional societies. In this proposal we will examine the quantitative importance of non-resting energy expenditure (EE) in populations with rising levels of obesity and high prevalence of diabetes. (author)

  17. 妊娠期糖耐量受损与Ghrelin基因多态性的关联性研究%Association of human Ghrelin gene polymorphism with gestational impaired glucose tolerance

    宗迪; 孙浩; 钱源; 姚宇峰; 史磊; 史荔; 黄小琴; 马润玫; 褚嘉祐

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the polymorphism of the Ghrelin gene is associated with gestational impaired glucose tolerance and its distribution in Chinese Han population. Methods We assessed common genetic variation of the Ghrelin ten single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)in 94 patients with gestational impaired glucose tolerance and 102 control by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method.. In addition, haplotype assays were conducted. Results The genotype distributions of these ten common polymorphisms in gestational impaired glucose tolerance patients were not significantly different from those of normal controls in statistics(x2=2.790,0.224,0.072,2.887,0.004,1.073,0.653,0.671;x2 =2.553,0.391,0. 108,4. 812,0. 005,3. 278,1. 308,3. 364, P > 0. 05), but three haplotypes(SNP-1500G - SNP-1062G -SNP-994C - SNP-604G;SNP + 408C - SNP + 2488G - SNP + 3056C;SNP + 408A - SNP + 2488G - SNP +3056C)of the Ghrelin gene were found to be significantly associated with it in statistics(x2 =4.336,4.308,5.327, P <0. 05). Conclusion The above mentioned ten common polymorphisms in the Ghrelin gene were not found to be significantly associated with susceptibility to gestational impaired glucose tolerance. However,one(SNP + 408C - SNP + 2488G - SNP + 3056C)of the Ghrelin haplotypes showed a protective role in gestational impaired glucose tolerance, and two(SNP-1500G- SNP-1062G - SNp-994C - SNP-604G ;SNP + 408A -SNP + 2488G - SNP + 3056C)showed higher susceptibility.%目的 研究Ghrelin基因的多态性在汉族妇女中的分布情况,并且探讨Ghrelin基因多态性与妊娠期糖耐量受损的相关性.方法 利用限制性片段长度多态性的方法检测Ghrelin基因常见的10个多态性位点在94例妊娠期糖耐量受损者及102例正常健康人中的分布情况,并构建单倍型.结果 这10个常见多态位点在妊娠期糖耐量受损组与正常对照组中的分布差异无统计学意义(两组间等位基因频率x2=2.790、0.224

  18. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  19. Impact of screening and early detection of impaired fasting glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in Canada: a Markov model simulation

    Badawi A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soroush Mortaz*, Christine Wessman*, Ross Duncan, Rachel Gray, Alaa Badawi Office of Biotechnology Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada*Both authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a major global health problem. An estimated 20%–50% of diabetic subjects in Canada are currently undiagnosed, and around 20%–30% have already developed complications. Screening for high blood glucose levels can identify people with prediabetic conditions and permit introduction of timely and effective prevention. This study examines the benefit of screening for impaired fasting glucose (IFG and T2DM. If intervention is introduced at this prediabetic stage, it can be most effective in delaying the onset and complications of T2DM.Methods: Using a Markov model simulation, we compare the cost-effectiveness of screening for prediabetes (IFG and T2DM with the strategy of no screening. An initial cohort of normoglycemic, prediabetic, or undiagnosed diabetic adults with one or more T2DM risk factors was used to model the strategies mentioned over a 10-year period. Subjects without known prediabetes or diabetes are screened every 3 years and persons with prediabetes were tested for diabetes on an annual basis. The model weighs the increase in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs associated with early detection of prediabetes and earlier diagnosis of T2DM due to lifestyle intervention and early treatment in asymptomatic subjects.Results: Costs for each QALY gained were $2281 for conventional screening compared with $2890 for no screening. Thus, in this base-case analysis, conventional screening with a frequency of once every 3 years was favored over no screening. Furthermore, conventional screening was more favorable compared with no screening over a wide range of willingness-to-pay thresholds. Changing the frequency of screening did not affect the overall results. Screening

  20. 糖耐量减低人群工作记忆的脑功能磁共振成像研究%A study on working memory of patients with impaired glucose tolerance by functional magnetic resonance imaging technique

    吴小娟; 庄晓明; 何悦明; 盛树力

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨糖耐量减低的认知功能以及在特定任务刺激下不同脑区的活动情况。方法对13例糖耐量减低(impaired glucose tolerance,IGT)患者和19名糖耐量正常(normal glucose tolerance,NGT)受试者进行认知、记忆评估及词语(文字、数字)工作记忆及客体(面孔)工作记忆任务下的功能性磁共振检查,分析脑激活图。结果①I GT患者的认知与N GT组相比,差异无统计学意义(t=0.459,P=0.635)。②与NGT组相比,IGT组在文字工作记忆中右侧颞叶、颞上回(brodmann area 22,BA22区)等脑区激活减弱(t=55.81,P=0.009);数字工作记忆中,右侧豆状核、壳核等脑区激活减弱(t=216.84,P=0.009);客体工作记忆中:右侧尾状核体激活减弱(t=5.09,P=0.008)。结论 IGT患者词语及客体工作记忆经典激活脑区可能存在损害。%Objective To investigate the working memory in the patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Methods Verbal and objective working memory tasks were performed in 1 3 patients with IGT and 1 9 persons with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)while performing fMRI.The cognitive function,memory function and the activation map were analyzed.Results ① There was no significant difference in cognition function between the NGT and IGT group (t=0.459,P=0.635).②Compared with NGT group,there was less activation of right temporal and superior temporal gyrus (BA22)area in IGT group during word working memory;less activation of right putamen,lenticular body in IGT group during number working memory;less activation of right caudate body in IGT group during object working memory (P<0.01 ).Conclusion IGT group may have lesions in the classic activation areas during verbal working memory and object memory.

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning induces tolerance against oxidative injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation by up-regulating heat shock protein 32 in rat spinal neurons.

    Guoyang Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO preconditioning (HBO-PC has been testified to have protective effects on spinal cord injury (SCI. However, the mechanisms remain enigmatic. The present study aimed to explore the effects of HBO-PC on primary rat spinal neurons against oxidative injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD and the relationship with heat shock proteins (HSPs. METHODS: Primary rat spinal neurons after 7 days of culture were used in this study. HSPs were detected in rat spinal neurons following a single exposure to HBO at different time points by Western blot. Using lactate dehydrogenase release assay and cell counting kit-8 assay, the injuries induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 insult or OGD were determined and compared among neurons treated with HBO-PC with or without HSP inhibitors. RESULTS: The results of Western blot showed that HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 have a slight but not significant increase in primary neurons following HBO exposure. However, HSP32 expression significantly increased and reached highest at 12 h following HBO exposure. HBO-PC significantly increased the cell viability and decreased the medium lactate dehydrogenase content in cultures treated with H2O2 or OGD. Pretreatment with zinc protoporphyrin IX, a specific inhibitor of HSP32, significantly blocked the protective effects of HBO-PC. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that HBO-PC could protect rat spinal neurons in vitro against oxidative injury and OGD mostly by up-regulating of HSP32 expression.

  2. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake,palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats

    Gitte HANSEN; Jacob JELSING; Niels VRANG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity.Methods:The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar.To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DlO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome,the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats.Liraglutide(200 μg/kg,sc) was administered bi-daily,and sibutramine (5 mg/kg,po) was administered once daily for 23 d.Results:Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake,body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance.Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubradiet,the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet,indicating a shift in food preference.Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index,primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.Conclusion:This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action.Moreover,the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference.

  3. Diabetes mellitus e intolerância à glicose são subdiagnosticados nas unidades de terapia intensiva Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are underdiagnosed in intensive care units

    Renata Teixeira Ladeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de diabetes mellitus e a intolerância à glicose em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes clínicos, em pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas e de urgência, e excluídos aqueles com história de diabetes mellitus. Para o diagnóstico de alterações prévias da glicemia, utilizou-se a dosagem da hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c na admissão do paciente, sendo classificado em normal (6,4%. Durante os 3 primeiros dias da internação, foram avaliados o controle glicêmico e as complicações clínicas. A evolução para óbito foi acompanhada por 28 dias. Para as análises estatísticas, utilizaram-se testes do qui-quadrado, ANOVA, teste t de Student, Kruskall-Wallis ou Mann Whitney. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 30 pacientes, 53% do gênero feminino, idade de 53,4±19,7 anos e APACHE II de 13,6±6,6. A maioria dos pacientes foi admitida por sepse grave ou choque séptico, seguido por pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas, oncológicas, politraumatismo e cirurgia de urgência. Ao classificar esses pacientes segundo a HbA1c, apesar da ausência prévia de história de diabetes mellitus, apenas 13,3% tinham HbA1c normal, 23,3% tinham níveis compatíveis com o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus e 63,3% eram compatíveis com intolerância à glicose. Houve associação significativa entre o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus ou intolerância a glicose e o uso de droga vasoativa (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: Foi encontrada alta prevalência de diabetes mellitus e intolerância à glicose, sem diagnóstico prévio, em pacientes internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva geral.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in intensive care unit inpatients. METHODS: The study included patients in post-surgical care for elective and emergency surgery and excluded those patients with known diabetes mellitus. To diagnose prior serum glucose

  4. Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows.

    Grünberg, W; Donkin, S S; Constable, P D

    2011-02-01

    Feeding rations with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) to dairy cows during late gestation is a common strategy to prevent periparturient hypocalcemia. Although the efficacy of low-DCAD rations in reducing the incidence of clinical hypocalcemia is well documented, potentially deleterious effects have not been explored in detail. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the effect of fully compensated metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, insulin responsiveness, and insulin sensitivity as well as on protein metabolism. Twenty multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups and fed a low-DCAD ration (DCAD = -9 mEq/100g, group L) or a control ration (DCAD = +11 mEq/100g, group C) for the last 3 wk before the expected calving date. Blood and urine samples were obtained periodically between 14 d before to 14 d after calving. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and 24-h volumetric urine collection were conducted before calving as well as 7 and 14 d postpartum. Cows fed the low-DCAD ration had lower urine pH and higher net acid excretion, but unchanged blood pH and bicarbonate concentration before calving. Protein-corrected plasma Ca concentration 1 d postpartum was higher in cows on the low-DCAD diet when compared with control animals. Urinary Ca and P excretion was positively associated with urine net acid excretion and negatively associated with urine pH. Whereas metabolic acidosis resulted in a 6-fold increase in urinary Ca excretion, the effect on renal P excretion was negligible. A more pronounced decline of plasma protein and globulin concentration in the periparturient period was observed in cows on the low-DCAD diets resulting in significantly lower total protein and globulin concentrations after calving in cows on low-DCAD diets. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests conducted before and after calving did not reveal group differences in insulin response or insulin sensitivity. Our

  5. Glucose metabolism in non-diabetic and insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with end-stage renal failure.

    Schmitz, O

    1991-02-01

    Chronic uremia is frequently associated with an impaired carbohydrate tolerance. During the past decade considerable progress have been made in characterizing and quantifying this biochemical abnormality in end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Primarily, this has been possible by means of the glucose clamp technique which basically makes it possible to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Combined with the use of tracer dilution technique, hepatic vein catheterization technique, infusion of somatostatin, forearm or leg techniques and indirect calorimetry, insight into several other major parameters of glucose kinetics has been achieved; i.e. insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU), glucose-induced glucose uptake (GIGU), hepatic glucose production (HGP) splanchnic glucose uptake and oxidative and nonoxidative glucose disposal. Of course, these extra facets make the clamp procedure less feasible to accomplish for technical reasons and demand an extensive knowledge of the limitations of these methods. One major factor behind the reduced glucose tolerance in uremia is an impaired sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance) in peripheral tissues, mainly in skeletal muscle. In non-dialysed uremic patients the insulin dose-response curve is characterized by a decreased maximal response and by a rightward shift. In general, the insulin resistance is pronounced, but a few weeks on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are enough to improve insulin action significantly. Occasionally, IMGU has been found normal in patients on long-term HD. In contrast to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, basal glucose turnover is normal in patients with ESRF. The ability of glucose to enhance its own uptake is difficult to measure in human studies, because even small amounts of insulin is able to modulate GIGU profoundly. At basal insulinemia, however, GIGU is markedly impaired in uremia. Recently, it has been suggested

  6. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  7. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on fasting and postprandial inflammation-related parameters in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance and in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Jorgensen, Nils Bruun; Just, Rasmus; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Madsbad, Sten

    2015-01-01

    explored the hypothesis that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects. Methods: Thirteen obese subjects with T2D...... [weight; 129 +/- 14 kg, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); 7.0 +/- 0.9%, body mass index (BMI); 43.2 +/- 5.3 kg/m(2), mean +/- SD] and twelve matched obese NGT subjects [weight; 127 +/- 15 kg, HbA1c; 5.5 +/- 0.4%, BMI; 41.5 +/- 4.8 kg/m(2), mean +/- SD] were examined before, one week, three months, and one year...... between the two groups. Before surgery, HbA1c was higher and HOMA-IR lower in T2D patients, however, converged to the values of NGT subjects one year after surgery. Circulating cytokine concentrations did not differ between the two groups at any time point. One week after surgery, circulating IL-6 and IL...

  8. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of interleukin 1 beta induce glucose intolerance in normal rats

    Wogensen, L; Reimers, J; Mandrup-Poulsen, T;

    1991-01-01

    . An ip glucose tolerance test (0.2 g D-glucose/100 g) was performed 2 h after injection of rIL-1 beta. A single injection of rIL-1 beta caused a mild depression in blood glucose and an improved glucose tolerance. Multiple injections of rIL-1 beta induced a diminished weight gain, a 24-28% reduction in...... food intake, a lasting mild depression of blood glucose (7 days) and a transiently impaired glucose tolerance on day 5. We conclude that systemic IL-1 should be considered an important regulator of glucose homeostasis in vivo....

  9. Value of blood glycosylated hemoglobin detection in screening patients with impaired glucose tolerance%糖化血红蛋白在糖耐量受损筛查中的价值

    伍绍国; 黄钰君; 陈波; 李志海; 鲍蓓; 段传伟; 杨烈; 李婉媚; 孙燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of blood glycosylated hemoglobin detection in identifying patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) from those undergoing health examination.Methods 489 residents in Guangzhou region undergoing health examination suffered an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)as well as blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) detection.Based on the results of OGTT as diagnostic standards,receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed to obtain the Area under the ROC curve (AUC),the optimal thresholds,the thresholds of having about 95% sensibility and the thresholds of having about 95% specificity when using HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone as a diagnostic test,respectively.Some indexes,such as youden index (YI),sensitivity (Sn),specificity (Sp),positive predictive value (+PV),negative predictive value (-PV),positive likelihood ratio (+LR) and negative likelihood ratio (-LR),were computed when IGT was diagnosed with HbA1c alone,FPG alone and combination tests that one of the three thresholds metioned above from HbA1c was matched with that from FPG each other,respectively.Results The AUC for HbA1c and FPG to diagnose IGT was 0.605 and 0.679,respectively.At the optimal threshold of 6.05% for HbAlc and 5.465 mmol/L for FPG,YI was 0.186 and 0.265,Sn was 40.3% and 56.9%,Sp was 78.3% and 69.6%,+PV was 43.6% and 43.9%,-PV was 75.8% and 79.5%,+LR was 1.853 and 1.871,-LR was 0.763 and 0.619,for HbA1c and FPG,respectively.Of the combination tests the best one had a YI of 0.282,a Sn of 61.8%,a Sp of 66.4%,a +PV of 43.4%,a-PV of 80.6,a +LR of 1.838 and a-LR of 0.575.Conclusion Neither HbA1c alone nor HbAIc combined with FPG is available in screening patients with impaired glucose tolerance among subjects undergoing health examination.%目的 探讨糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)在健康体检人群中对糖耐量异常(IGT)的筛查价值.方法 对参加健康体检的489名广州户籍汉族人进行口服

  10. Effect of Metformin Intervention on Blood Sugar of Patients with Breast Cancer Chemotherapy with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响

    翟媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the effect of metformin intervention on blood sugar of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods 60 cases of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with ab-normal glucose metabolism in our hospital from February 2012 to August 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group received AC-T chemotherapy plan, and were treated with diet control and exercise, the observation group were given additional metformin on the basis of the control group, the blood sugar con-trol conditions of the two groups were observed. Results The case number of patients with normal blood sugar at the end of chemotherapy and in 3 months after chemotherapy in the observation group was obviously more than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Metformin for controlling the blood sugar levels of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism has an obvious effect and has a potential anti-tumor effect, which is further research.%目的 研究二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响.方法 整群选择2012年2月—2014年8月来该院行乳腺癌化疗,伴糖代谢紊乱的60例患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组. 对照组给予AC-T化疗方案,同时给予患者饮食控制和运动治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用二甲双胍,观察两组血糖控制情况. 结果 观察组化疗结束时和化疗结束后3个月正常血糖患者例数显著多于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). 结论 二甲双胍对于控制乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢紊乱患者血糖水平效果显著,且具有潜在抗肿瘤作用,值得进一步研究.

  11. Changes of Nerve Conduction Velocity and Sympathetic Skin Reflex in Patients with Impaired Glu-cose Tolerance%糖耐量减低患者神经传导速度及交感皮肤反应的研究

    张美娇; 程敏; 毛春燕; 赵静; 陈颖丽; 唐春花; 张秀英; 郭淮莲; 纪立农

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察糖耐量减低(IGT)患者神经传导速度(NCV)和交感皮肤反应(SSR)的变化。方法:对25例IGT患者(IGT组)、32例2型糖尿病(DM)患者(DM组)及18名对照者(对照组)进行一侧肢体NCV检测和四肢SSR检测。结果:与对照组相比,IGT组(除腓神经外)各根神经NCV均有不同程度减慢,但差异均无统计学意义;DM组(除胫神经外)各根神经NCV与对照组相比差异均减慢(P<0.05)。IGT组双下肢SSR起始潜伏期与对照组相比延长(P<0.05);与对照组相比,DM组四肢SSR起始潜伏期显著延长、波幅显著降低(P<0.01)。对照组、IGT组和DM组NCV异常率分别为5.56%、28.00%、65.63%,SSR异常率分别为33.33%、72.00%、93.75%,3组间NCV和SSR异常率均有显著差异(P<0.01)。在IGT和DM组中,SSR异常率均高于NCV异常率,且无症状者亦有一定的NCV和SSR异常率。结论:IGT患者存在临床或亚临床周围神经损害,以小纤维受累为主,大纤维受累较少且局限于感觉纤维;SSR对糖代谢紊乱相关的周围神经损害的早期诊断敏感性优于NCV,但其特异性较差。%Objective:To observe the changes of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and sympathetic skin reflex (SSR) in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods:NCV of bilateral side of the body and SSR of 4 limbs test were performed in 25 IGT patients(IGT group), 32 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients (DM group) and 18 controls(control group). Results:Compared with the control group, the NCV in the IGT group (except the peroneal nerve ) was slow but without statistical significance, while the NCV in the DM group of every nerves (except the tibial nerves) was significantly slow (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the onset latencies of the lower limbs were prolonged significantly in the IGT group (P<0.01). In the DM group, the on-set latencies of the 4 limbs were also prolonged

  12. Enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response to oral glucose in glucose-intolerant HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which are major regulators of glucose tolerance through the stimulation of insulin secretion, contribute to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among HIV...

  13. 新疆汉族和维吾尔族糖调节受损人群胰岛素分泌及其功能的比较研究%Secretion and action of insulin among Han and Uygur subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance,from Xinjiang

    王燕; 马艳荣; 李素丽; 玛依努; 吴岚; 赵力敏; 宋向欣; 葛家璞; 徐焱成

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较新疆地区汉族和维吾尔(维)族人群空腹血糖受损(IFG)、糖耐量减低(IGT)及混合性糖调节受损(CGI,IFG/IGT)阶段胰岛素分泌及其功能.方法 2007-2008年在新疆部分地区采用多中心横断面调查(中国第三次糖尿病流行病学调查),共计2203名研究对象(汉族111 8人,维族1085人)行口服75 g葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),用胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)评估胰岛素抵抗,胰岛β细胞功能指数(HOMA-β评估基础胰岛素分泌,OGTT中空腹和30 min胰岛素、血糖差值的比值(ΔI30/ΔG30)评价胰岛素早相分泌,ΔI30/ΔG30/HOMA-IR评估葡萄糖处置指数(DI).结果 腰围、体重指数、血脂水平、0及120 min胰岛素值在汉维两民族不同糖代谢组的差异有统计学意义.在糖调节正常(NGT)、IFG、CGI组,维族人群的腰围要显著高于汉族(P<0.01).在NGT、IFG、IGT组,汉族人群的120 min血清胰岛素水平则显著高于维族(P<0.01).汉族人群的HOMA-IR、HOMA-β在不同糖代谢组均显著高于维族(P<0 01).ΔI30/ΔG30、DI在两民族不同糖代谢组间的差异无统计学意义.结论 汉族人群较维族在糖调节受损阶段有显著的胰岛素抵抗,同时存在胰岛β细胞代偿性分泌以维持血糖水平.%Objective To compare insulin secretion and action with impaired fasting glucosc (IFG),impaircd glucose tolerance (IGT) and combined glucose intolerance (CGI,IFG and IGT) between Han and Uygur populations living in Xinjiang.Methods A multicenter cross-section survey (The Third Diabetes Epidemiological Survey in China) was conductcd in Xinjiang from 2007 to 2008 including 2203 subjects (Han 1118,Uygur 1085) underwent an oral glucosc test (OGTT).Homeostasis model assessment on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β cell function (HOMA-β)were calculated.The ratio of incrcmcntal insulin(Δ130 ) and glucose (ΔG30)response was used to evaluate the early insulin secretion.ΔI30/ΔG30/HOMA-IR was used to evaluate the

  14. Impact of team intervention for pregnant women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance on their pregnancy outcomes%团队干预对妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇妊娠结局的影响

    嵇秀明; 崔焱; 夏珊敏; 曹清; 徐莉莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨团队干预对妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇的血糖、体重指数、妊娠结局的影响.方法 将60例GIGT孕妇随机分为对照组和观察组各30例.对照组孕妇行常规产前检查、孕妇学校学习、产科营养门诊就诊;观察组在此基础上实施团队干预,由产科医师、内分泌科医师、营养师、护士组成的团队,根据每位孕妇的年龄、体重指数、孕周、血糖水平、胎儿宫内生长情况制定个性化的食谱、运动方案,利用各种渠道提供一对一咨询服务和个性化指导.结果 观察组分娩结束当天的餐后2 h血糖、体质量显著低于对照组,分娩孕周显著长于对照组,新生儿出生体质量显著重于对照组新生儿(P<0.05,P<0.01).观察组无一例妊娠糖尿病发生,胎膜早破仅2例;对照组发生妊娠糖尿病2例、妊娠高血压4例、早产7例、胎膜早破9例、娩出巨大儿3例.结论 团队干预可有效地控制妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇的血糖、体质量,减少妊娠并发症发生.%Objective To explore the effect of team intervention for pregnant women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) on their blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy outcomes. Methods A total of 60 GIGT pregnant women were randomized into a control group (n = 30) and an observation group (n = 30). The control were subjected to conventional antenatal examination, and they were asked to take a childbirth education program, and pay visits to obstetric nutrition clinic. The observation group additionally received team intervention; a team, which included an obstetrician, an endocrinologist, a nutritionist, and several nurses, was formed; the team worked together to offer individualized diet recipes and exercises plans for each pregnant woman based on their ages, BMI, gestation weeks, blood glucose, and fetal growth; the team also utilized all available routes to provide the women with one-to-one counseling service, and

  15. [Neonatal diarrhea due to congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption: report of seven cases].

    Chedane-Girault, C; Dabadie, A; Maurage, C; Piloquet, H; Chailloux, E; Colin, E; Pelatan, C; Giniès, J-L

    2012-12-01

    Congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption (CGGM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which presents as a protracted diarrhea in early neonatal life. We describe the clinical history, diagnostic evaluation, and management of 7 children with CGGM in western France. There were 4 girls and 3 boys from 5 families, born between 1984 and 2010. The principal complaint was a neonatal onset of watery and acidic severe diarrhea complicated by hypertonic dehydration. The diarrhea stopped with fasting. In 2 cases, the family history supported the diagnosis. In the other cases, elimination of glucose and galactose (lactose) from the diet resulted in the complete resolution of diarrhea symptoms. In 2 cases, the H2 breath tests were positive. In 2 cases, the HGPO or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) demonstrated an abnormal curve with glucose and a normal curve with fructose. DNA sequencing was not used. When glucose and galactose were eliminated from the diet, the infants had normal growth and development. In conclusion, CGGM is a rare etiology of neonatal diarrhea; however, the diagnosis is easy to make and the prognosis is excellent. PMID:23107089

  16. Fructose, but not glucose, impairs insulin signaling in the three major insulin-sensitive tissues.

    Baena, Miguel; Sangüesa, Gemma; Dávalos, Alberto; Latasa, María-Jesús; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Sánchez, Rosa María; Roglans, Núria; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Human studies support the relationship between high intake of fructose-sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes, but there is a debate on whether this effect is fructose-specific or it is merely associated to an excessive caloric intake. Here we investigate the effects of 2 months' supplementation to female rats of equicaloric 10% w/v fructose or glucose solutions on insulin sensitivity in target tissues. Fructose supplementation caused hepatic deposition of triglycerides and changed the fatty acid profile of this fraction, with an increase in monounsaturated and a decrease in polyunsaturated species, but did not cause inflammation and oxidative stress. Fructose but not glucose-supplemented rats displayed an abnormal glucose tolerance test, and did not show increased phosphorylation of V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) in white adipose tissue and liver after insulin administration. In skeletal muscle, phosphorylation of Akt and of Akt substrate of 160 kDA (AS160) was not impaired but the expression of the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the plasma membrane was reduced only in fructose-fed rats. In conclusion, fructose but not glucose supplementation causes fatty liver without inflammation and oxidative stress and impairs insulin signaling in the three major insulin-responsive tissues independently from the increase in energy intake. PMID:27194405

  17. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3-3H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6-3H]glucose rather than [3-3H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  18. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    Moore, Rebecca; Adler, Hugh; Jackson, Valerie; Lawless, Mairead; Byrne, Maria; Eogan, Maeve; Lambert, John S

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic complications, including diabetes mellitus, have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women. We conducted a retrospective review of all HIV-infected women attending a combined infectious disease and antenatal clinic between 2007 and 2013 who underwent a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks. We grouped the patients based on whether their OGTT result was normal or abnormal, and compared the groups using standard parametric tests (t-test and Fisher's exact test). Of 263 women with HIV who attended the clinic, 142 (53.9%) attended for OGTT and were eligible for inclusion. The mean age was 31 years (SD 5.37), all women were of European or African origin and 33.7% had a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) About 93.7% were on PI-based regimens. At delivery, the mean CD4 count was 526 cells/µL, and 13% of patients had a detectable viraemia. The prevalence of IGT was 2.8%, while the prevalence of GDM was 2.1%. Also, 71.4% (n = 5) of women with abnormal glucose metabolism were taking PIs versus 94.8% (n = 128) of normoglycaemic women (p = 0.06). We did not confirm an increased rate of GDM in HIV-infected women in our patient population and found no association between PI use and GDM. PMID:25999164

  19. 探析糖化血红蛋白和糖耐量检测在糖尿病诊治中的应用价值%The application value of detection in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes of glycosylated hemoglobin and glucose tolerance

    特留哈孜·瓦泰; 古丽娜尔·苏可坦汗

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the application of the glucose tolerance test in diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.Methods Choose from April 2012 - April 2013 in 59 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for the team, physical examination and the same period 65 cases as control group. Glycated hemoglobin and glucose tolerance tests respectively, and compare the result of the two groups. Results Team of glycosylated hemoglobin and glucose tolerance test were significantly higher than that of control group, two groups compare differences statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusion Glycated hemoglobin is one of the important indicators, to observe diabetes combined glucose tolerance test for diabetes clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis judgement and so on blood glucose control has important clinical value.%目的:分析糖化血红蛋白(Hba1c)和糖耐量检测在糖尿病诊治中的应用。方法选取我院2012年4月至2013年4月收治的59例确诊为2型糖尿病的患者为研究组,并选取同期健康体检者65例作为对照组。分别进行糖化血红蛋白和糖耐量检测,并对两组结果进行比较。结果研究组糖化血红蛋白和糖耐量检测均明显高于对照组,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论糖化血红蛋白是观察糖尿病的重要指标,临床上联合糖耐量检测对糖尿病诊断、治疗、预后判断及血糖控制等方面均有重要临床价值。

  20. Effect of Glucose Load on Attention and Seizures in Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    Thirteen patients with glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut-1 DS) had repeated measures of attention, memory, fine-motor coordination and well-being during a 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test in a study at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, and Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A WEARABLE GLUCOSE SENSOR - STUDIES IN HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS AND IN DIABETIC-PATIENTS

    AALDERS, AL; SCHMIDT, FJ; SCHOONEN, AJM; BROEK, IR; MAESSEN, AGFM; DOORENBOS, H

    1991-01-01

    A glucose sensor with a subcutaneous dialysis system was tested in six healthy volunteers during an oral glucose tolerance test and in ten diabetic patients with hyperglycemia during rapid decline of blood glucose levels. There was a good correlation between sensor and blood glucose values. During o

  3. 二甲双胍对糖耐量异常非酒精性脂肪性肝病患者 IL-6、TNF-α的影响%Effect of metformin on the level of serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-αof impaired glucose tolerance patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    曾红萍; 徐定婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of metformin on the level of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-αof impaired glucose tolerance patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease .Method 160 impaired glucose tolerance patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were firstly divided into an experimental group (n=90) and a control group(n=70). On the basis of strict diet control and physical exercise , the experimental group was given metformin 1500 mg per day for a period of 24 weeks.The control group was treated with polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules 456mg per day also for a period of 24 weeks.Results After 24 weeks of treatment, the level of body mass index (BMI), anine aminotrans-ferase (ALT), fasting blood glucose (FPG), insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA IR) of the experimental group decreased more significantly than those of the control group (P0.05).Conclusion The metformin treatment could improve the glucose metabolism indexes and insulin resistance of impaired glucose tolerance patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease , reduce liver enzyme and inflammatory cytokines , improve liver function , and lessen the degree of inflammation in liver .%目的:观察二甲双胍对糖耐量异常非酒精性脂肪性肝病( nonalcoholic fatty liver disease , NAFLD)患者IL-6、TNF-α的影响。方法将160例糖耐量异常NAFLD患者随机分为观察组( n=90)和对照组( n=70)。在严格控制饮食和运动的基础上,观察组加用二甲双胍1500 mg/d,对照组加用多烯磷脂酰胆碱胶囊456 mg/d,均治疗24周。结果治疗24周后,与对照组比较,观察疗组患者BMI、ALT、FPG、insulin、HOMA-IR、hs-CRP、TNF-α和IL-6水平均显著降低(P<0.05);两组间AST水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论二甲双胍能改善糖耐量异常NAFLD患者糖代谢指标和胰岛素抵抗,降低肝酶和炎症细胞因子水平。

  4. What is a normal blood glucose?

    Güemes, Maria; Rahman, Sofia A; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-06-01

    Glucose is the key metabolic substrate for tissue energy production. In the perinatal period the mother supplies glucose to the fetus and for most of the gestational period the normal lower limit of fetal glucose concentration is around 3 mmol/L. Just after birth, for the first few hours of life in a normal term neonate appropriate for gestational age, blood glucose levels can range between 1.4 mmol/L and 6.2 mmol/L but by about 72 h of age fasting blood glucose levels reach normal infant, child and adult values (3.5-5.5 mmol/L). Normal blood glucose levels are maintained within this narrow range by factors which control glucose production and glucose utilisation. The key hormones which regulate glucose homoeostasis include insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone. Pathological states that affect either glucose production or utilisation will lead to hypoglycaemia. Although hypoglycaemia is a common biochemical finding in children (especially in the newborn) it is not possible to define by a single (or a range of) blood glucose value/s. It can be defined as the concentration of glucose in the blood or plasma at which the individual demonstrates a unique response to the abnormal milieu caused by the inadequate delivery of glucose to a target organ (eg, the brain). Hypoglycaemia should therefore be considered as a continuum and the blood glucose level should be interpreted within the clinical scenario and with respect to the counter-regulatory hormonal responses and intermediate metabolites. PMID:26369574

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  6. Insulin resistance and decreased insulin response to glucose in lean type 2 diabetics

    Wajngot, Alexandre; Roovete, Arved; Vranić, Mladen; Luft, Rolf; Efendić, Suad

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the mechanism of decreased glucose tolerance in lean type 2 diabetics, glucose turnover in such subjects and controls was studied under basal conditions and during hyperglycemia induced by intravenous administration of glucose. The diabetics had decreased intravenous glucose tolerance and a fasting plasma glucose of 6-8 mM (108-144 mg/dl). Glucose was infused for 2 hr at 2 mg/kg per min in the controls (n = 16) and diabetics (n = 9). Furthermore, 11 healthy subjects...

  7. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Agnieszka Kozacz; Paulina Grunt; Marta Steczkowska; Tomasz Mikulski; Jan Dąbrowski; Monika Górecka; Urszula Sanocka; Andrzej Wojciech Ziemba

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < ...

  8. 55-Week Treatment of Mice with the Unani and Ayurvedic Medicine Pomegranate Flower Ameliorates Ageing-Associated Insulin Resistance and Skin Abnormalities

    Jianwei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PPARs play a pivotal role in regulating lipid and glucose homeostasis and are involved in diverse biological activities in skin. Pomegranate flower (PGF, an antidiabetic therapy in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines has been previously demonstrated to activate both PPARalpha/gamma. Here, we found that treatment of mice with the diet containing PGF powder over 55 weeks attenuated ageing-induced abnormal increases in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glucose concentrations during oral glucose tolerance test, and adipose insulin resistance index. The diet tended to decrease the excessive peri-ovary fat mass. It, however, increased the thinned subcutaneous fat thickness. In addition, the diet restored decreases in skin water content, epidermis thickness, and collagen density in corium. Thus, our results demonstrate that long-term treatment with the Unani and Ayurvedic therapy ameliorates ageing-induced insulin resistance, which is associated with reversal of ageing-induced fat redistribution. Further, PGF attenuates ageing-mediated undesirable skin abnormalities.

  9. Relationship between lifestyle interventions and glycemic level in adults with impaired glucose tolerance: A systematic review and meta-analysis%生活方式干预对成年糖耐量受损患者血糖影响的系统评价及meta分析

    龚清海; 应焱燕; 李辉; 许国章

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of lifestyle interventions in adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Methods MEDLINE (Pub Med),EMBASE,Science Citation Index (SCI),and Cochrane Database were retrieved for articles about the relations of lifestyle intervention and IGT.Searches were limited to English language publications.The RCTs outcome evaluated in this study included 2 h plasma glucose level and fasting plasma glucose,meta-analysis was carried oat by Stata 11.0 among articles for the inclusion and exclusion criteria.The difference of effects was expressed as standardized mean deviation(SMD).Results A total of 10 RCTs studies met the inclusion criteria.Lifestyle interventions were associated with a decline in 2 h plasma glucose and fasting plasma glucose level (SMD =-0.67,P<0.01 ;SMD =-0.33,P<0.01),but high heterogeneity was identified in this meta-analysis.Conclusion Physical,dietary and both combined interventions can reduce 2-h plasma glucose and fasting plasma glucose levels in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.As high heterogeneity was identified in this meta-analysis,more high quality research is needed.%目的 探讨生活方式干预对成年糖耐量受损患者血糖的影响.方法 检索MEDLINE(Pub Med)、EMBASE、Science Citation Index (SCI)及Cochrane数据库获取相关文献.以葡萄糖负荷后2h、空腹血糖水平为结局指标.仅限于英文文献.按照纳入和排除标准选择相关研究进行文献质量评价后,以标准化均数差(SMD)表示效应的差异,使用Stata 11.0进行meta分析.结果 共有10篇研究被纳入meta分析.生活方式干预对负荷后2h血糖和空腹血糖影响均有统计学意义(SMD:-0.67,P<0.01;SMD:-0.33,P<0.01),但均存在高异质性.结论 运动锻炼、饮食调节等生活方式干预可能降低糖耐量受损患者的血糖水平.由于研究间的异质性较大,生活方式干预对血糖水平的影响仍需要更多高质量的RCTs研究.

  10. Pectin and complications after gastric surgery: normalisation of postprandial glucose and endocrine responses.

    Jenkins, D J; Bloom, S. R.; Albuquerque, R H; Leeds, A R; Sarson, D L; Metz, G L; Alberti, K G

    1980-01-01

    Pectin has been shown to minimise the fall in blood glucose seen in patients who are troubled by hypoglycaemia attacks after gastric surgery. We therefore performed 50 g glucose tolerance tests with and without 14.5 g pectin on 11 post-gastric surgery patients. After pectin, the high postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, and enteroglucagon were significantly reduced as was the fall in blood glucose between 90 and 120 minutes. These effects of pectin may reflect slower uptake of glucose fro...

  11. Glucose challenge test (50-g GCT) in detection of glucose metabolism disorders in peritoneal dialysis patients: preliminary study

    Madziarska, Katarzyna; Zmonarski, Slawomir; Penar, Jozef; Krajewska, Magdalena; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Augustyniak-Bartosik, Hanna; Gołebiowski, Tomasz; Klak, Renata; Weyde, Waclaw; Klinger, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of the oral glucose tolerance screening test (50-g GCT—glucose challenge test) for the detection of glucose metabolism disorders (GMD) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with normal fasting glucose levels. Methods The 50-g GCT was performed in 20 prevalent patients without history of diabetes before PD treatment onset, who had been on dialysis for a median time of 15.34 months. In addition, other indicators of glucose metabolism were m...

  12. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  14. Effect of Global ATGL Knockout on Murine Fasting Glucose Kinetics

    Coelho, M.; Nunes, P.; Mendes, V.M.; Manadas, B.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL(-/-)) present elevated ectopic lipid levels but are paradoxically glucose-tolerant. Measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and Cori cycle activity provide insights into the maintenance of glycemic control in these animals. These paramet

  15. Islet glucose metabolism and insulin release in two animal models of glucose intolerance

    Ling, Zong-Chao

    1999-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a complex and heterogenous disease resulting from the interaction of defects of both genetic and environmental origin. Abnormalities contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes include impaired [beta]-cell function, peripheral insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. In the present study we have mainly used two animal models of glucose intolerance, i.e., spontaneously diabetic GK rats and transgenic mice with overexpressed gluco...

  16. Fish oil and argan oil intake differently modulate insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a rat model of dietary-induced obesity.

    Samane, Samira; Christon, Raymond; Dombrowski, Luce; Turcotte, Stéphane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Lavigne, Charles; Levy, Emile; Bachelard, Hélène; Amarouch, Hamid; Marette, André; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the potential metabolic benefits of fish oil (FO) or vegetable argan oil (AO) intake in a dietary model of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Rats were fed a standard chow diet (controls), a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, or an HFHS diet in which 6% of the fat was replaced by either FO or AO feeding, respectively. The HFHS diet increased adipose tissue weight and insulin resistance as revealed by increased fasting glucose and exaggerated glycemic and insulin responses to a glucose tolerance test (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test). Fish oil feeding prevented fat accretion, reduced fasting glycemia, and normalized glycemic or insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test as compared with HFHS diet. Unlike FO consumption, AO intake failed to prevent obesity, yet restored fasting glycemia back to chow-fed control values. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in adipose tissues, skeletal muscles, and liver was greatly attenuated in HFHS rats as compared with chow-fed controls. High-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance was also confirmed in isolated hepatocytes. Fish oil intake prevented insulin resistance by improving or fully restoring insulin signaling responses in all tissues and isolated hepatocytes. Argan oil intake also improved insulin-dependent phosphorylations of Akt and Erk; and in adipose tissue, these responses were increased even beyond values observed in chow-fed controls. Taken together, these results strongly support the beneficial action of FO on diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, an effect likely explained by the ability of FO to prevent HFHS-induced adiposity. Our data also show for the first time that AO can improve some of the metabolic and insulin signaling abnormalities associated with HFHS feeding. PMID:19394055

  17. A random plasma glucose method for screening for gestational diabetes.

    Maheshwari J; Mataliya M

    1989-01-01

    Low renal threshold for glucose during pregnancy renders glycosuria less specific for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Screening for gestational diabetes was done by utilising random plasma glucose (RPG). RPG was done at the first antenatal visit. In 12,623 patients who registered for antenatal care at the N.W.M. Hospital, 1371 patients had a RPG more than 100 mg%. An oral glucose tolerance test was advised in these patients. The pick-up rate of gestational diabetes correlated wi...

  18. GAD65 antibodies among Greenland Inuit and its relation to glucose intolerance

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2014-01-01

    fasting glycemia, (3) with impaired glucose tolerance and (4) with previously unknown diabetes based on oral glucose tolerance test and were enrolled in the study. Presence of circulating Glutamin-Acid-decarboxylase 65 antibodies were measured in all participants. A total of 484 persons were enrolled in...

  19. Impact of PTBP1 rs11085226 on glucose-stimulated insulin release in adult Danes

    Hansen, Tue H; Vestergaard, Henrik; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Lauritzen, Torsten; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Gjesing, Anette P

    2015-01-01

    Background: The variant rs11085226 (G) within the gene encoding polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) was reported to associate with reduced insulin release determined by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well as an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). The aim of the present...

  20. Angiotensin Receptor Blockade Increases Pancreatic Insulin Secretion and Decreases Glucose Intolerance during Glucose Supplementation in a Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    Rodriguez, Ruben; Viscarra, Jose A.; Minas, Jacqueline N.; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2012-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system blockade improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of impaired insulin secretion to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is not well defined. To assess the contributions of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) activation and high glucose intake on pancreatic function and their effects on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, an oral glucose tolerance test ...

  1. Alanine Aminotransferase Is Associated with an Adverse Nocturnal Blood Glucose Profile in Individuals with Normal Glucose Regulation

    Zhou, Jian; Mo, Yifei; Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; LI Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. Methods A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)...

  2. Safety and efficacy of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism%门冬胰岛素与人胰岛素对妊娠合并糖代谢异常患者的有效性及安全性

    李楠; 杨慧霞; 翟桂荣; 吴春凤

    2011-01-01

    异常孕妇中,相比人胰岛素,门冬胰岛素能更快、更有效地控制血糖,同时可明显降低低血糖事件的发生.对分娩结局的影响方面,Asp组有优于HI组的趋势.%Objective To analyze and compare the safety and efficacy of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism.Methods In this study,the data of 77 pregnant women with pre-pregnant diabetes mellitus( DM,n =22 ) or gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM,n =55 ) treated from January 2004 to May 2010 with insulin aspart ( Asp group) were investigated.And 77 pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism using regular human insulin in the mean time were selected as control ( HI group) in a ratio of 1 ∶ 1.The changes of glucose levels,time for reaching glucose targets,incidence of hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes after the treatment were compared between the two groups by using t or rank test.Results One week of treatment after,the 2 h post-breakfast and post-supper glucose levels in DM women in Asp group were (6.5 ± 1.1 ) and (7.1 ± 1.1 ) mmol/L and those were (8.0 ± 1.1 ) and (7.8 ±0.8) mmol/L DM women in HI group; the 2 h post-breakfast,postlunch and post-supper glucose levels in GDM women in Asp group were (6.5 ± 0.7 ),(6.8 ± 0.7 ) and (6.7 ± 0.7 ) mmol/L,and those were ( 7.1 ± 0.9),( 7.3 ± 0.9) and ( 7.4 ± 0.8 ) mmoL/L in GDM women in HI group.The postprandial glucose levels were all lower in Asp group than those in the HI group ( all P < 0.05 ).The time for 2 h post-breakfast glucose level to reach standard in DM women in Asp group was (3.0 ± 2.2) d,and it was ( 5.0 ± 2.1 ) d in DM women in HI group; and those were (2.3 ± 1.6) and (4.3 ±2.6)d in GDM women in Asp group and in HI group,respectively.The time for reaching glucose targets in Asp group were all shorter than those in HI group(P <0.05).The incidence of hypoglycemia in Asp group was 3.9% ( 1 case of DM and 2 eases of GDM) and it was 24.7% in HI

  3. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  4. Glucose test (image)

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  5. Performance of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Postprandial Urine Glucose in Screening for Diabetes in Chinese High-risk Population

    Bing-Quan Yang; Yang Lu; Jia-Jia He; Tong-Zhi Wu; Zuo-Ling Xie; Cheng-Hao Lei; Yi Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Background: The conventional approaches to diabetes screening are potentially limited by poor compliance and laboratory demand.This study aimed to evaluate the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial urine glucose (PUG) in screening for diabetes in Chinese high-risk population.Methods: Nine hundred and nine subjects with high-risk factors of diabetes underwent oral glucose tolerance test after an overnight fast.FPG, hemoglobin A 1 c, 2-h plasma glucose (2 h-PG), and 2 h-PUG were evaluated.Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the American Diabetes Association criteria.The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 h-PUG, and the optimal cut-offdetermined to provide the largest Youden index.Spearman correlation was used for relationship analysis.Results: Among 909 subjects, 33.4% (304/909) of subjects had prediabetes, and 17.2% (156/909) had diabetes.The 2 h-PUG was positively related to FPG and 2 h-PG (r =0.428 and 0.551, respectively, both P < 0.001).For estimation of 2 h-PG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L and 2 h-PG ≥ 1 1.1 mmol/L using 2 h-PUG, the area under the ROC curve were 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.738-0.806) and 0.885 (95% CI:0.850~.921), respectively.The corresponding optimal cut-offs for 2 h-PUG were 5.6 mmol/L and 7.5 mmol/L, respectively.Compared with FPG alone, FPG combined with 2 h-PUG had a higher sensitivity for detecting glucose abnormalities (84.1% vs.73.7%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (82.7% vs.48.1%, P < 0.001).Conclusion: FPG combined with 2 h-PUG substantially improves the sensitivity in detecting prediabetes and diabetes relative to FPG alone, and may represent an efficient layperson-oriented diabetes screening method.

  6. Performance of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Postprandial Urine Glucose in Screening for Diabetes in Chinese High-risk Population

    Yang, Bing-Quan; Lu, Yang; He, Jia-Jia; Wu, Tong-Zhi; Xie, Zuo-Ling; Lei, Cheng-Hao; Zhou, Yi; Han, Jing; Bian, Mei-Qi; You, Hong; Mei, De-Xian; Sun, Zi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The conventional approaches to diabetes screening are potentially limited by poor compliance and laboratory demand. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial urine glucose (PUG) in screening for diabetes in Chinese high-risk population. Methods: Nine hundred and nine subjects with high-risk factors of diabetes underwent oral glucose tolerance test after an overnight fast. FPG, hemoglobin A1c, 2-h plasma glucose (2 h-PG), and 2 h-PUG were evaluated. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the American Diabetes Association criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 h-PUG, and the optimal cut-off determined to provide the largest Youden index. Spearman correlation was used for relationship analysis. Results: Among 909 subjects, 33.4% (304/909) of subjects had prediabetes, and 17.2% (156/909) had diabetes. The 2 h-PUG was positively related to FPG and 2 h-PG (r = 0.428 and 0.551, respectively, both P < 0.001). For estimation of 2 h-PG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L and 2 h-PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L using 2 h-PUG, the area under the ROC curve were 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI ]: 0.738–0.806) and 0.885 (95% CI: 0.850–0.921), respectively. The corresponding optimal cut-offs for 2 h-PUG were 5.6 mmol/L and 7.5 mmol/L, respectively. Compared with FPG alone, FPG combined with 2 h-PUG had a higher sensitivity for detecting glucose abnormalities (84.1% vs. 73.7%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (82.7% vs. 48.1%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: FPG combined with 2 h-PUG substantially improves the sensitivity in detecting prediabetes and diabetes relative to FPG alone, and may represent an efficient layperson-oriented diabetes screening method. PMID:26668139

  7. Insulin secretion, insulin action, and hepatic glucose production in identical twins discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Vaag, A.; Henriksen, J E; Madsbad, S; Holm, N; Beck-Nielsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    12 identical twin pairs discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied for insulin sensitivity (euglycemic insulin clamp, 40 mU/m2 per min), hepatic glucose production (HGP, [3-3H]glucose infusion), and insulin secretion (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperglycemic [12 mM] clamp, including glucagon administration). Five of the nondiabetic twins had normal and seven had impaired glucose tolerance. 13 matched, healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes ...

  8. Effects of 16-Week Consumption of Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Instant Coffee on Glucose Metabolism in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Keizo Ohnaka; Mizuko Ikeda; Takako Maki; Tomoko Okada; Takao Shimazoe; Masahiro Adachi; Masatoshi Nomura; Ryoichi Takayanagi; Suminori Kono

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Observational studies have shown a protective association between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus whereas caffeine or caffeinated coffee acutely deteriorates glucose tolerance. We investigated the effects of chronic drinking of instant coffee on glucose and insulin concentrations during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Methods. Overweight men with a mild-to-moderate elevation of fasting plasma glucose were randomly allocated to a 16-week intervention of consuming...

  9. Free-Living Physical Activity Energy Expenditure Is Strongly Related to Glucose Intolerance in Cameroonian Adults Independently of Obesity

    Assah, Felix K; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—We examined the cross-sectional association between objectively measured free-living physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose tolerance in adult Cameroonians without known diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—PAEE was measured in 34 volunteers using the doubly labeled water method and indirect calorimetry (resting). Fasting blood glucose and 2-h postload blood glucose were measured during a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS—There was a significant ne...

  10. Characteristics of oral glucose tolerance test in 9 803 pregnant women of different pre-pregnancy body mass index and its relationship with the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus%不同孕前体质指数孕妇葡萄糖耐量试验血糖值的特点及妊娠期糖尿病的检出率

    魏玉梅; 郭琼; 孙伟杰; 杨慧霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the values and characteristics of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in women with different pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and to evaluate the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods Medical records of 9 803 pregnant women attending the Peking University First Hospital and delivered between July 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 were retrospectively analyzed.The frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes across different degrees pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated.We divided participants into 4 groups based on pre-pregnancy BMI, underweight: BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (1 221 cases), normal weight: 18.5-23.9 kg/m2 (6 594 cases), overweight: 24-27.9 kg/m2 (1 549 cases), obesity: ≥28.0 kg/m2 (439 cases).The diagnosis of GDM was made when any one of the values was met or exceeded in 75 g OGTT.The characteristics of 75 g OGTT and the incidence of GDM were analyzed.Results (1) The average age, pre-pregnancy weight, height and pre-pregnancy BMI of the participants was (30.5±3.7) years, (57.7±9.0) kg, (162.8±4.9) cm and (21.8±3.2) kg/m2, respectively.All the values of 75 g OGTT were presented normal distribution.(2)There was statistical difference in the glucose levels among women with different pre-pregnancy BMI.The fasting, 1-hour, 2-hour glucose were (4.55± 0.34), (7.31 ± 1.54), (6.38± 1.23) mmol/L in underweight women, (4.65 ±0.38), (7.70± 1.59), (6.70± 1.27) mmol/L in normal weight women, (4.82±0.47),(8.29±1.67),(7.04±1.29) mmol/L in overweight women and (4.94±0.48), (8.56 ± 1.64), (7.10 ± 1.35) mmol/L in obesity women (P<0.01).(3) The incidence of GDM was 21.76%(2 133/9 803) in our study.There were 1 374 cases (64.42%, 1 374/2 133)with only one abnormal OGTT value while 759 cases (35.58%, 759/2 133)with two or more abnormal values.The incidence of GDM in women with underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity was 12.53%(153/1 221),19.71%(1 300/ 6 594),32.73% (507/1 549) and 39.41% (173

  11. 不同孕前体质指数孕妇葡萄糖耐量试验血糖值的特点及妊娠期糖尿病的检出率%Characteristics of oral glucose tolerance test in 9 803 pregnant women of different pre-pregnancy body mass index and its relationship with the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus

    魏玉梅; 郭琼; 孙伟杰; 杨慧霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the values and characteristics of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in women with different pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and to evaluate the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods Medical records of 9 803 pregnant women attending the Peking University First Hospital and delivered between July 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 were retrospectively analyzed.The frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes across different degrees pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated.We divided participants into 4 groups based on pre-pregnancy BMI, underweight: BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (1 221 cases), normal weight: 18.5-23.9 kg/m2 (6 594 cases), overweight: 24-27.9 kg/m2 (1 549 cases), obesity: ≥28.0 kg/m2 (439 cases).The diagnosis of GDM was made when any one of the values was met or exceeded in 75 g OGTT.The characteristics of 75 g OGTT and the incidence of GDM were analyzed.Results (1) The average age, pre-pregnancy weight, height and pre-pregnancy BMI of the participants was (30.5±3.7) years, (57.7±9.0) kg, (162.8±4.9) cm and (21.8±3.2) kg/m2, respectively.All the values of 75 g OGTT were presented normal distribution.(2)There was statistical difference in the glucose levels among women with different pre-pregnancy BMI.The fasting, 1-hour, 2-hour glucose were (4.55± 0.34), (7.31 ± 1.54), (6.38± 1.23) mmol/L in underweight women, (4.65 ±0.38), (7.70± 1.59), (6.70± 1.27) mmol/L in normal weight women, (4.82±0.47),(8.29±1.67),(7.04±1.29) mmol/L in overweight women and (4.94±0.48), (8.56 ± 1.64), (7.10 ± 1.35) mmol/L in obesity women (P<0.01).(3) The incidence of GDM was 21.76%(2 133/9 803) in our study.There were 1 374 cases (64.42%, 1 374/2 133)with only one abnormal OGTT value while 759 cases (35.58%, 759/2 133)with two or more abnormal values.The incidence of GDM in women with underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity was 12.53%(153/1 221),19.71%(1 300/ 6 594),32.73% (507/1 549) and 39.41% (173

  12. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may

  13. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination...... abnormality independently predicted transition to disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 1.53 (1.01-2.34)]. The hazard increased with increasing number of abnormalities. Among MRI lesions, only ARWMC of severe grade independently predicted disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 2.18 (1.37-3.48)]. In our cohort...

  14. Glucose intolerance as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS

    Khalili D

    2010-02-01

    . Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance increased 56% the risk of CVD in women (HR: 1.56 with 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.45, just in the age adjusted model."n"nConclusion: All diabetic patients should receive primary prevention for CVD intensively, regardless of whether they are newly diagnosed or are known cases; specially, females who have abnormal glucose metabolism.

  15. Changes in Maternal Glucose Metabolism after the Administration of Dexamethasone for Fetal Lung Development

    Xu Jian Yun; Liang Zhaoxia; Chai Yun; Fang Qin; Chen Yuanyuan; Chen Danqing

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Antenatal dexamethasone administration for fetal lung development may impair maternal glucose tolerance. In this study, we investigated whether glucose and insulin levels differed among singleton and twin pregnancies and pregnancies with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after treatment with dexamethasone. Methods. Singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies, and pregnancies with IGT between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation whose mothers were treated with dexamethasone were enrolled in this stud...

  16. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France; Langenberg, Claudia;

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620)......Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6...... with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18))....

  17. 糖代谢异常孕妇体质量及相关因素对新生儿出生体质量的影响%Factors relevant to newborn birth weight in pregnancy complicated with abnormal glucose Metabolism

    杨延冬; 翟桂荣; 杨慧霞

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of neonatal birth body mass in women with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Methods A study was conducted on 1157 singleton gravidas, who were diagnosed and treated for abnormal glucose metabolism and delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Hospital, Peking University from January 2005 to December 2009, by reviewing the medical records. Based on the pre-pregnant body mass index, the selected cases were divided into 4 groups: low body mass group [ body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2, n =53], ideal body mass group ( BMI 18.5 - 23.9 kg/m2, n = 647 ), over body mass group ( BMI 24.0 - 27.9 kg/m2, n = 323 ),and obese group (BMI≥28.0 kg/m2, n = 134). 1157 newborns were divided by birth body mass into 3 groups: normal birth body mass group (body mass 2500 -4000 g, n =987), of which 545 cases of birth body mass 3000 -3500 g for the appropriate newborns, macrosomia group (body mass≥4000 g, n = 112);low birth body mass group (body mass < 2500 g, n = 58 ). The following information was collected,including pre-pregnancy body mass, height, gestational age of diagnosis and body mass gain after diagnosis,maternal serum level of cholesterol, history of adverse pregnancy, and family history of diabetes, gestational age, delivering body mass, neonatal birth body mass. The influence of pre-pregnant BMI, body mass gain during pregnancy, gestational age of diagnosis, body mass gain after diagnosis, maternal serum level of cholesterol, family history of diabetes on the newborns' birth body mass was analyzed. The appropriate ranges of gestational body mass gain were calculated in women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Results ( 1 )The average neonatal birth body mass for each group respectively were (3142 ±333) g for low body mass group, (3339 ±476) g for the ideal body mass group, (3381 ±581) g for over body mass group, and (3368 ± 644) g for obese group. The neonatal birth body mass was

  18. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  19. Glucose concentration in parotid saliva after glucose/food intake in individuals with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus.

    Borg Andersson, A; Birkhed, D; Berntorp, K; Lindgärde, F; Matsson, L

    1998-10-01

    The concentration of glucose in parotid saliva was measured after glucose/food intake in two separate studies (A and B). In Study A, 10 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 10 subjects with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy controls were included. Study B comprised 15 subjects with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes on insulin treatment, nine subjects with Type 2 diabetes on treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs and 12 healthy controls. After a 10-h overnight fast, the participants in Study A were given a 75 g oral glucose load, while those in Study B received a standardized breakfast. Citric acid-stimulated parotid saliva was collected up to two hours after the intake. Capillary blood and gingival exudate samples were also taken. On the basis of AUC values (area under the curve over baseline), the glucose concentration in parotid saliva increased significantly in individuals with IGT and Type 2 diabetes compared with controls in Study A and in diabetic patients on treatment with insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs compared with controls in Study B. No effect by the glucose/food intake on the glucose concentration in gingival exudate could be demonstrated in any of the studies. The correlation coefficient between the AUC values of glucose in saliva and blood, when all three groups were combined, was 0.38 in Study A and 0.52 in Study B. It is concluded that the concentration of glucose in parotid saliva is elevated at least 2 h after glucose/food intake in individuals with both IGT and manifest diabetes mellitus. PMID:9786322

  20. Blood Test: Glucose

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...