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Sample records for abnormal glucose metabolism

  1. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the influence of abnormal glucose metabolism on left ventricular (LV) function and prognosis in 203 patients with acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. This appears to be...... particularly attributable to an increased incidence of post-infarction congestive heart failure. A relationship between glucose metabolism and LV function could potentially explain this excess mortality. METHODS: In patients without known diabetes, glucose metabolism was determined using an oral glucose...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend) < 0.05) with the exception of left...

  2. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Domenico Tricò; Simona Baldi; Silvia Frascerra; Elena Venturi; Paolo Marraccini; Danilo Neglia; Andrea Natali

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT) and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT), and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT), we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Re...

  3. Analysis of oral glucose tolerance test in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism

    YANG Hui-xia; GAO Xue-lian; DONG Yue; SHI Chun-yan

    2005-01-01

    Background Due to the controversy of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the world and researches on GDM remain undeveloped in China. American Diabetes Association recently recommended the clinicians to diagnose GDM by OGTT results without the third-hour glucose value. This new criteria has not been used in China. Research on the value and sensitivity of the criteria in detecting GDM is rare. The aim of our study is to analyze the characteristics of OGTT in Chinese women with GDM or gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) and to evaluate the effect of omission of the third-hour plasma glucose (PG) level in OGTT on the sensitivity of diagnosing GDM and GIGT, and the relationship between PG values of 50 g GCT or OGTT and insulin therapy. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on medical records of 647 cases with GDM from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 2002, and 233 with GIGT. Among 647 cases of GDM, 535 cases were diagnosed by 75 g OGTT. All OGTT results including 535 cases of GDM and 233 patients with GIGT were evaluated. Results There were 112 cases of GDM diagnosed by elevated fasting PG (FPG) without OGTT performed. Of 535 cases of GDM diagnosed by OGTT, 49.2% (263/535) women had FPG value ≥5.8 mmol/L; 90.1% (482/535) women with 1-hour PG values ≥10.6 mmol/L; 64.7% (359/535) with 2-hour PG levels ≥9.2 mmol/L. There were only 114 cases (21.3%) with abnormal 3-hour PG levels among 535 women with OGTT. Among those with abnormal 3-hour PG level, 49.1% (56/114) had abnormal glucose values in the other three points of OGTT, and 34.2% (39/114) with two other abnormal values of OGTT. Our study showed that omission of the 3-hour PG of OGTT only missed 19 cases of GDM and they would be diagnosed as GIGT. Among the 233 women with GIGT, only 4 cases had abnormal 3-hour PG. So, omission of the third-hour glucose value of OGTT only resulted in failure to diagnose 3.6% (19/535) women with

  4. Abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin as a predictive factor for glucose metabolism disorders in antipsychotic treatment

    XU Leping; JI Juying; DUAN Yiyang; SHI Hui; ZHANG Bin; SHAO Yaqin; SUN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the changes in glucose metabolism after antipsychotic(APS)therapy,to note the influencing factors,as well as to dicuss the relationship between the occurrence of glucose metabolism disorders of APS origin and abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c)levels.One hundred and fifty-two patients with schizophrenia,whose fasting plasma glucose(FPG)and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG)in the oral glucose tolerance test(2HPG)were normal,were grouped according to the HbA1c levels,one normal and the other abnormal,and were randomly enrolled into risperidone,clozapine and chlorpromazine treatment for six weeks.The FPG and 2hPG were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study.In the group with abnormal HbA1c and clozapine therapy,2HPG was higher after the study[(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than that before the study[(7.2±1.4)mmol/L]and the difierence was statistically significant(P<0.01).FPG had no statistically significant difference before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).HbA1c levels and drugs contributing to 2HPG at the end of study had statistical cross-action(P<0.01).In the abnormal HbA1c group,2HPG after the study was higher in the clozapine treatment group [(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than in the risperidone treatment group [(7.4±1.7)mmol/L]and the chlorpromazine treatment group[(7.3±1.6)mmol/L].The differences were statistically significant(P<0.01).In the normal HbA1c group there was no statistically significant difierence before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).2HPG before[(7.1±1.6)mmol/L]and after the study[(8.1±1.9)mmol/L]was higher in the abnormal HbA1c group than in the normal HbA1c group[(6.2±1.4)mmol/L vs(6.5±1.4)mmol/L]with the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.01 vs P<0.001).As compared with normal HbA1c group,the relative risk (RR)of glucose metabolism disease occurrence was 4.7 in the abnormal HDA1C group wlth the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.001).Patients with abnormal HbA1c

  5. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    Objective: People with epilepsy commonly report having problems with their memory. Many indicate that memory difficulties significantly hinder their functioning at work, in school, and at home. Besides, some studies have reported that memory performance as a prognostic factor is of most value in patients with risk of refractory epilepsy and when used in a multidisciplinary setting. However, the cerebral cortical areas involving memory impairment in epilepsy is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to access changes of cerebral glucose metabolism of epilepsy patients using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Method: Nine temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. Each patient was confirmed with lesions in right mesial temporal lobe by MRI, PET and EEG. Serial cognition function tests were performed. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) was measured by PET at 45 minutes after injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Parametric images were generated by grand mean scaling each scan to 50. The images were then transformed into standard stereotactic space. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was applied to find the correlations between verbal memory, figure memory, perception intelligent quotation (PIQ) and rCMRglc in epilepsy patients. The changes of rCMRglc were significant if corrected p value was less than 0.05. Results: There was no significant relationship between figure memory score and verbal memory score. FDG-PET scan showed changes of rCMRglc positive related with verbal memory score in precentral gyms of right frontal lobe (Brodmann area 4, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size 240) and cingulated gyms of right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 32, corrected p=0.002, voxel size 143). No negative relationship was demonstrable between verbal memory and rCMRglc in this study. Besides, significanfiy positive correlation between figure memory was shown in cuneus of right occipital lobe (Brodmann area 18, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size

  6. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 ±14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 ±8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness

  7. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 {+-}14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 {+-}8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness.

  8. Association of Serum Ferritin Level with Risk of Incident Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Southwestern China: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Zhou, Fangli; Zhao, Zhuoxian; Tian, Li; Zheng, Tianpeng; Gao, Yun; Chen, Tao; Yan, Fangfang; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to analyze the association between serum ferritin levels and the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) in Southwestern Chinese population. The 383 subjects who are aged ≥20 years and free of AGM at baseline between in 2007 and in 2008 were included in Southwestern China, and their baseline serum ferritin levels were measured. Among these subjects, 140 subjects were developed into AGM during the follow-up (2008-2012). In logistic regression models, the relative risk in the top versus that in the lowest quartile of serum ferritin levels was 2.86 (p = 0.013) in females and 3.50 (p = 0.029) in males after adjusting the age, gender, family history of diabetes, current smoking, and alcohol; however, serum ferritin levels were not significantly associated with incident of AGM after controlling for metabolic factors (waist circumference, systolic pressure (SBP), triglyceride (TG), and homeostasis model assessment formula insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with AGM but not an independent risk factor. PMID:26073512

  9. Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure

    Egstrup, M; Kistorp, C N; Schou, M;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between glucose metabolism, left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve, and exercise capacity in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: From an outpatient HF clinic, 161 patients with systolic HF were included (mean age 70 ± 10...... years, 69% male, 59% had ischaemic heart disease, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 37 ± 9%). Thirty-four (21%) patients had known diabetes mellitus (DM). Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) classified patients without a prior DM diagnosis as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance...... (467 m) (P <0.001). Differences in clinical variables, resting echocardiographic parameters or contractile reserve, did not explain the exercise intolerance related to diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes, known or newly detected by OGTT, is independently associated with reduced LV contractile reserve and...

  10. Metabolic abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Palacios Verd??, Mar??a Gabriela, 1983-; Segura Puimedon, Maria, 1985-; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Campo Casanelles, Miguel del, 1966-; Campuzano Uceda, Mar??a Victoria; P??rez Jurado, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83???Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ???30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ???75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well a...

  11. Glucose abnormalities in hepatitis C virus infection.

    Huang, Jee-Fu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most important causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and has a tremendous impact on public health worldwide. HCV is both hepatotropic and lymphotropic. Replication of HCV in diseased extrahepatic organs and tissues may either trigger latent autoimmunity or induce autoimmune disorders. In addition to established liver injury, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important feature of extrahepatic metabolic disorders which is attributed to HCV infection. It also has some impact on the disease activity, disease course, clinical outcomes, and treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy. Previous experimental and clinical findings have highly suggested that HCV per se is diabetogenic. The cause-effect interaction between a common endocrine disorder and an infectious disease is an important issue to elucidate. Although the precise mechanisms whereby HCV infection leads to insulin resistance (IR) and glucose abnormalities are not entirely clear, it differs from the usual pathogenesis of T2DM in those with non-HCV liver diseases. This review initially highlights epidemiological and pathophysiological studies addressing the mutual link between chronic HCV infection (CHC) and T2DM. The characteristics of glucose abnormalities in this special population are depicted from the current evidence. The mutual roles of IR and CHC with respect to the prediction of treatment efficacy, how treatment response affects IR, and the role of pancreatic beta cell function in the entire suite are discussed. With the rapid progression of antiviral therapy for CHC in the past decade, we have also listed some points of future perspective in this issue. PMID:23347806

  12. 脑梗死与糖代谢异常相关性研究%The Correlation Study of Cerebral Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Metabolism

    赵德成; 袁建喜

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同损害程度脑梗死患者的血糖水平,分析其糖代谢异常情况,探讨脑梗死与糖代谢异常的关系,为脑梗死的预防、诊断、治疗提供依据。方法:选取2010年1月-2013年8月入住本院脑病科的108例急性脑梗死患者,根据梗死范围将其分为轻度组41例、中度组40例、重度组27例,通过检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c),观察患者的糖代谢情况。结果:糖调节受损、糖尿病与正常血糖患者比较,中度及重度组脑梗死比率明显升高;糖尿病患者脑梗死中度组、重度组比率较糖调节受损患者明显升高;脑梗死中度组、重度组的HbA1c、FPG、2 h PG水平均明显高于脑梗死轻度组,重度组的HbA1c、FPG、2 h PG水平明显高于中度组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:糖代谢异常与脑梗死的发生及损害程度明显相关,良好的血糖控制有利于降低脑梗死的发生率,监测血糖并控制正常范围内可改善预后。%Objective:To observe blood glucose levels of cerebral infarction patients with different damage degrees, and to analyze the situation of abnormal glucose metabolism of patients with cerebral infarction,and to explore the relationship between cerebral infarction and glucose metabolism in order to provide the reference for prevention,diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarction.Method:108 cases of acute cerebral infarction were selected from January 2010 to August 2013 admitted to our hospital department of encephalopathy,according to the scope of infarction cerebral infarction the damage degrees, they were divided into the mild degree for 41 cases,the moderate degree for 40 cases and the severe degree for 27 cases,and the situation of glucose metabolism in patients were observed by detecting fasting plasma glucose(FPG),blood sugar 2 hours after meal(PG)and glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c

  13. Clinical observation of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular department of Internal Medicine%心血管内科住院患者糖代谢异常的临床观察

    李丽

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore cardiovascular department of internal medicine hospitalized patients with abnormal glucose metabolism,understanding of abnormal glucose metabolism oncardiovascular effects of patient health,and better treatment of patients with cardiovasculardisease.MethodsIn our hospital in 2013 June~2014 year in March treated 200 cases ofcardiovascular department of internal medicine hospitalized patients as the research object,including 50 cases with clinical diagnosed with diabetes,the remaining 150 patients,were used toobserve the cardiovascular department of internal medicine sugar glucose metabolism of patients hospitalized for observation and analysis of tolerance test and fasting blood glucose detection two experimental methods.ResultsThe two test results show,in 200 patients with fasting blood glucose detection,diagnosis of abnormal glucose metabolism in 50 patients,and oral glucose tolerance test on the remaining 150 patients,diagnosed with abnormal glucose metabolism in 100 cases(67%) of the number of sampling experiment,by comparing with the glucose tolerance,test of cardiovascular patients blood glucose were detected,the rate of missed diagnosis of patients with greatly reduced.ConclusionThe oral glucose tolerance test glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular disease than that of fasting blood glucose test to conifrm the diagnosis of glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular disease rate is high,is worth in clinicaldetection of glucose metabolism of the patients,and vigorously promote the use of.%目的:探究心血管内科住院患者的糖代谢异常,了解糖代谢异常对心血管患者身体健康的影响,从而更好的治疗患者的心血管疾病。方法选取我院2013年6月~2014年3月收治的200例心血管内科住院的患者为研究对象,其中50例经过临床各项检查确诊为糖尿病,对剩余150例患者,分别采用葡萄糖耐量试验和空腹血糖检测实验方法对患者的

  14. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    Christos; V; Rizos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro-and macrovascular disease.Moreover,increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance.As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical.However,the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism.Indeed,angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.Calcium channel blockers(CCBs)have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism.However,some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis.On the other hand,diuretics andβ-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism.Of note,carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of theβ-blockers class,being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis.The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may,to an extent,compromise their cardiovascular protective role.As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment,especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.

  15. 妊娠期糖代谢异常162例母儿预后分析%Analysis on the outcomes of 162 maternal and fetal with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy

    徐亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.Methods: 162 patients were diagnosed definitely in our hospital from June 2003 to August 2007.They were divided into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) group (58 cases) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (104 cases).150 pregnant women of normal blood glucose were taken as normal glucose tolerance (GNGT) group, maternal and fetal outcomes were compared in three groups.Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, pregnancy - induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, fatal macrosomia, premature delivery, neonatal hypoglycemia were higher in GDM group than in GNGT group (P < 0.05 ).The incidences of cesarean section, polyhydramnios, fatal acrosomia were higher in the GIGT group than in GNGT group (P <0.05).Conclusion: Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy can produce adverse effect on mothers and neonates.It is very important to positive treatment the pregnant women of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常对母儿预后的影响.方法:2003年6月~2007年8月在大同市第一人民医院诊断为妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕妇162例,其中妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组58例,妊娠期糖耐量减低(GIGT)组104例,另选择150例血糖值正常孕妇作为血糖正常(GNGT)组,比较3组的母儿预后.结果:GDM组孕妇产后即时出血、剖宫产、妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、巨大儿、早产儿和新生儿低血糖的发生率均显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05);GIGT组剖宫产、羊水过多、巨大儿的发生率显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期糖代谢异常对孕产妇和围生儿的预后有不良影响,应对妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇进行积极干预.

  16. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  17. Abnormal brain glucose metabolism and depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease: SPM analysis of F-18 FDG positron emission tomography

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD

  18. Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood%出生体重与成年期肥胖指标联合效应对糖代谢异常的影响

    席波; 程红; 陈芳芳; 赵小元; 米杰

    2016-01-01

    +成年期腹型肥胖组OR(95%CI)值为3.18(2.33~4.32),低出生体重+成年期腹型肥胖组的OR(95%CI)值为4.78(2.01~11.38),高出生体重+腹型肥胖组的OR(95%CI)值4.35(1.38~13.65);低出生体重和高出生体重与成年期腰围均存在正交互作用,交互作用归因比分别为38.5%和28.3%。结论低出生体重和高出生体重可能分别与成年期肥胖存在正交互作用,共同增强了对成年期糖代谢异常的影响。%Objective To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Methods Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. Results There were 972 subjects (males:50.7%, mean age:(46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data

  19. Glucose metabolism in ischemic myocardium

    We determined the myocardial metabolic rate for glucose (MMRGlc) in the ischemic or infarcted myocardium using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET), and studied energy metabolism in the ischemic myocardium. In some cases, we compared glucose metabolism images by 18-FDG with myocardial blood flow images using 15-oxygen water. Two normal subjects, seven patients with myocardial infarction and four patients with angina pectoris were studied. Coronary angiography was performed within two weeks before or after the PET study to detect ischemic areas. PET studies were performed for patients who did not eat for 5 to 6 hours after breakfast. Cannulation was performed in the pedal artery to measure free fatty acid, blood sugar, and insulin. After recording the transmission scan for subsequent correction of photon attenuation, blood pool images were recorded for two min. after the inhalation of carbon monoxide (oxygen-15) which labeled the red blood cells in vivo. After 20 min., oxygen-15 water (15 to 20 mCi) was injected for dynamic scans, and flow images were obtained. Thirty min. after this procedure, 18-FDG (5 to 6 mCi) was injected, and 60 min later, a static scan was performed and glucose metabolism images were obtained. Arterial blood sampling for the time activity curve of the tracer was performed at the same time. According to the method of Phelps et al, MMRGlc was calculated in each of the region of interest (ROI) which was located in the left ventricular wall. MMRGlc obtained from each ROI was 0 to 17 mg/100 ml/min. In normal subjects MMRGlc was 0.4 to 7.3 mg/100 ml/min. In patients with myocardial infarction, it ranged from 3 to 5 mg/100 ml/min in the infarcted lesion. In patients with angina pectoris and subendocardial infarction, MMRGlc was 7 to 17 mg/100 ml/min in the ischemic lesion. In this lesion, myocardial blood flow was relatively low by oxygen-15 imagings (so-called mismatch). (J.P.N.)

  20. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

    Haskins Amy E; Bertone-Johnson Elizabeth R; Pekow Penelope; Carbone Elena; Fortner Renée T; Chasan-Taber Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Western Massach...

  1. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Jones, John G

    2016-06-01

    The liver has a central role in the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid fluxes during feeding and fasting and also relies on these substrates for its own energy needs. These parallel requirements are met by coordinated control of carbohydrate and lipid fluxes into and out of the Krebs cycle, which is highly tuned to nutrient availability and heavily regulated by insulin and glucagon. During progression of type 2 diabetes, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis fluxes become elevated, thus contributing to hyperglycaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Over this interval there are also significant fluctuations in hepatic energy state. To date, it is not known to what extent abnormal glucose and lipid fluxes are causally linked to altered energy states. Recent evidence that the glucose-lowering effects of metformin appear to be mediated by attenuation of hepatic energy generation places an additional spotlight on the interdependence of hepatic biosynthetic and oxidative fluxes. The transition from fasting to feeding results in a significant re-direction of hepatic glucose and lipid fluxes and may also incur a temporary hepatic energy deficit. At present, it is not known to what extent these variables are additionally modified by type 2 diabetes and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, there is a compelling need to measure fluxes through oxidative, gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways and determine their relationship with hepatic energy state in both fasting and fed conditions. New magnetic resonance-based technologies allow these variables to be non-invasively studied in animal models and humans. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium entitled 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by Hannele Yki-Järvinen, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3944-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Michael

  2. Assessment of prenatal and perinatal characteristics of pregnants with gestationel diabetes mellitus who have postnatal glucose abnormalities

    Bakıner, Okan; Bozkırlı, Emre; Serinsöz, Hülya; Sarıtürk, Çağla; Ertörer, Eda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the difference in terms of prenatal and perinatal characteristics between gestational diabetic (GDM) cases diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFG)and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during early postpartum period. Material and Methods: Cases who had no history of any glucose metabolism disorder and diagnosed as GDM due to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria were included. Subjects were inquired for pregestational characteristics(glucose abnormality ...

  3. Evaluation of glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles

    Shulan Lü; Xiaoyan Guo; Zuansun Cao; Wenjun Mao

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles (MOF) and explore the relationship between glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and body weight. Methods:We evaluated 46 women with MFO and 30 nor mal women as controls. All the subjects were given 75g of glucose orally in order to perform the oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) and insulin releasing test(IRT), and they were also evaluated for insulin resistance using the insulin resistance index with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Results:The occurrence of impaired glucose tolerance in women with MOF was 10.87%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.33% ,P < 0.05). The rate of insulin resistance was 30.43% in the study group as compared to 10.00% in the control group. The results showed that there was significant difference between the two groups(P < 0.05). The levels of FSH,LH,PRL,E2,T and P between the two groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05). BMI in women with impaired glucose tolerance was correlated positively to insulin resistance (r =0.567, P < 0.05). Conclusion :Abnormal glucose metabolism was observed in women with unitary multiple ovarian follicles,and this could be attributed to obesity and insulin resistance. Women with MOF and associated obesity should be subjected to OGTT so that their glucose levels can be monitored as a preventive measure.

  4. 糖脂代谢异常对肝硬化患者疾病进展的影响%Impact of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism on the progression of disease in patients with cirrhosis

    岑光力; 岑柏春

    2015-01-01

    ,triglycerides (TG) in patients with different Child-Pugh score had no statistically significant difference,P =0.558,0.169.The level of serum albumin (ALB) of patients with DM in cirrhosis was significantly lower than those without DM,P =0.009.The patients with DM in liver cirrhosis had higher incidence of complications such as ascites,gastro esophageal variceal bleeding(GEVB) or hepatic encephalopathy than those without DM,P =0.000.Conclusion The patients with cirrhosis had higher incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism,and DM lead to progression of liver disease in turn.

  5. Study on the correlation of severity of acute pancreatitis with abnormal glucose metabolism and its prognosis%急性胰腺炎严重程度与糖代谢异常的相关性及其预后

    罗欣

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性胰腺炎严重程度与糖代谢异常的相关性及其预后.方法 选择2004年12月至2012年12月广西柳钢集团公司医院消化科收治入院的急性胰腺炎患者158例,按疾病严重程度分为轻症急性胰腺炎(MAP)组68例和重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)组90例;检测两组患者糖代谢指标空腹静脉血糖(FPG)、负荷2h静脉血糖(PPG)及评定两组患者急性生理及慢性健康评分Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ),对两组的糖代谢指标和APACHE Ⅱ评分进行相关性分析,并观察两组患者的预后.结果 SAP组患者FPG、PPG、胰岛素水平(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(IRI)明显高于MAP组,胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)低于MAP(P<0.01);急性胰腺炎(AP)患者的APACHE Ⅱ评分与FPG、PPG、FINS、IRI呈正相关(P <0.05,P<0.01),与ISI呈负相关(P<0.05);SAP组的假性囊肿、感染、脓肿、坏死、急性肺损伤或急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)、死亡发生率明显高于MAP组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 AP的严重程度与糖代谢异常存在密切的关系,两者相互影响,因此,在治疗AP时,应积极控制胰腺炎症,防止和减少胰腺坏死,将血糖降至正常范围,以降低并发症和死亡的发生率.%Objective To investigate correlation between severity of acute pancreatitis and abnormal glucose metabolism and its prognosis.Methods A total of 158 cases of patient admitted with acute pancreatitis in the Department of Digestion of our hospital from December 2004 and December 2012 were selected,and were divided into two groups:mild acute pancreatitis (MAP; n =68) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP; n =90) according to disease severity.The patient's sugar metabolism such as fasting plasma glucose (FPG),postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHEII) scores of two groups were detected.Correlation analysis was carried out between glucose metabolism index and APACHEII score.The prognosis of two groups was observed

  6. Evidence for Central Regulation of Glucose Metabolism*

    Carey, Michelle; Kehlenbrink, Sylvia; Hawkins, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for central regulation of glucose homeostasis is accumulating from both animal and human studies. Central nutrient and hormone sensing in the hypothalamus appears to coordinate regulation of whole body metabolism. Central signals activate ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, thereby down-regulating glucose production, likely through vagal efferent signals. Recent human studies are consistent with this hypothesis. The contributions of direct and central inputs to metabolic regulat...

  7. A clinical analysis of abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman%妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的临床分析

    米阳; 闫坤; 黄谱; 苟文丽

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationship between abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman. Methods 1 636 pregnant women who received antenatal examination in Shannxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital in a period from January to June, 2008 were screened at their 24~28 weeks of gestation with 50g glucose challenge test (GCT). Those pregnant women with abnormal GCT results further received oral 75g glucose tolerance test (OGTT). According to OGTT results, the pregnant women were divided into 2 groups: GDM group (n=69) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance group (GIGT group, n=124). 300 pregnant women with normal glucose metabolism were as controls. All of them were followed up untill delivery and the perinatal outcomes in the 3groups were compared. Results The incidence of GDM was 4.21% and that of GIGT was 7.58%. The incidences of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membrane and premature delivery in GDM group were higher than those in the control group (χ2=4.660,11.530,5.193,4.661 respectively,all P<0.05).In GIGT group ,the incidences of polyhydramnios and premature rupture of membrane were significantly higher than those in the control group(χ2=12.450,6.325,respectively,both P<0.05). Conclusion The pregnant women with GDM or GIGT have significantly high incidences of obstetric complications and rate of cesarean section. So, screening of GDM should be strengthened and early diagnosis, early treatment, gestational supervision and guidance should be carried out in order to reduce incidence rates of maternal and infantile complications.%目的 探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的关系.方法 选取2008年1~6月在陕西省妇幼保健院进行产前检查的1 636名孕妇,于24~28周进行50g葡萄糖筛查试验,异常者行75g糖耐量试验,按糖代谢异常情况分为妊娠期糖尿病组(69例)和妊娠期糖耐量受损组(124例);

  8. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25oC which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ≥ 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U-14C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  9. Glucose Metabolism in Mentally Retarded Children

    Glucose metabolism has been studied in normal, mentally retarded and hypothyroid children who exhibited subnormal I.Q. in spite of an adequate thyroxine dose. Two parameters, the breath and the blood, were examined. Continuous breath analysis following intravenous glucose-U-14C was carried out to examine its end product 14CO2. Blood was analysed half-hourly for the specific activity of glucose in this pool. Data are presented in terms of stable carbon dioxide expiration rate, the maximum specific activity of carbon dioxide attained, the glucose pool of the body and its turnover rate. (author)

  10. Resveratrol supplementation does not improve metabolic function in non-obese women with normal glucose tolerance

    Yoshino, Jun; Conte, Caterina; Fontana, Luigi; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Imai, Shin-ichiro; Kenneth B Schechtman; Gu, Charles; Kunz, Iris; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to improve metabolic function in metabolically-abnormal rodents and humans, but has not been studied in non-obese people with normal glucose tolerance. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the metabolic effects of 12 weeks of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg/day) in non-obese, postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance. Although resveratrol supplementation increased plasma resveratrol concentration, it did not ch...

  11. Sleep Control, GPCRs, and Glucose Metabolism.

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Modern lifestyles prolong daily activities into the nighttime, disrupting circadian rhythms, which may cause sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances have been implicated in the dysregulation of blood glucose levels and reported to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic complications. Sleep disorders are treated using anti-insomnia drugs that target ionotropic and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists, melatonin agonists, and orexin receptor antagonists. A deeper understanding of the effects of these medications on glucose metabolism and their underlying mechanisms of action is crucial for the treatment of diabetic patients with sleep disorders. In this review we focus on the beneficial impact of sleep on glucose metabolism and suggest a possible strategy for therapeutic intervention against sleep-related metabolic disorders. PMID:27461005

  12. 成都地区中老年高血压人群糖代谢异常流行状况及其影响因素%An epidemiological study of abnormal glucose metabolism and its risk factors among middle and aged population with hypertension in Chengdu area

    易延静; 刘燕; 李秀钧; 赵思勤; 冉迅; 黄晓波; 刘雅; 张廷杰; 欧阳凌云; 曾伟; 徐俊波; 杨雷

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiological status of abnormal glucose metabolism and its influential factors among middle and aged population with hypertension in Chengdu area. Methods In 2008, after adopting the methods of stratified cluster sampling, the authors investigated 4685 subjects of the middle and aged population between the age of 40-79 in Chengdu urban and rural area by checking blood pressure and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTY). Patients with previously known diabetes mellitus (DM) were only asked to perform fasting glucose and to carry out a questionnaire. Comparison of the prevalence rates of abnormal glucose metabolism in hypertensive and non-hypertensive subjects was carried out. The prevalence rates of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (I-IGT) and isolated postprandial hyperglycemia (IPH) among middle and aged subjects with hypertension were acquired and the influential factors of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged subjects with hypertension were analyzed. Results The prevalence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism in the hypertensive subjects was obviously higher than that in the non-hypertensive subjects; without using OGTT, 72.9% of the pre-diubetic and 54. 4% of the new diagnosed DM patients would remain undiagnosed if fasting plasma glucose detection was used alone. Age, diabetic history of first degree relatives ,overweight or obesity were the risk factors for the development of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged male subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area. Exercise training and high education level were the protective factors. Age, diabetic history of first degree relatives,abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the risk factors for the development of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged female subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area. Conclusions More than 50% of middle and aged subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area has accompanying abnormal glucose metabolism. OGTT easily

  13. High prevalence of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in the middle-aged Finnish population

    Vanhala Mauno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and disturbances in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in Finnish population, and to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and abnormal glucose tolerance. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in Finland during October 2004 and January 2005. A total of 4500 randomly selected individuals aged 45–74 years were invited to a health examination that included an oral glucose tolerance test. The participation rate was 62% in men and 67% in women. Results The prevalence of obesity was 23.5% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 21.1–25.9 in men, and 28.0% (95% CI 25.5–30.5 in women. The overall prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (including type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glucose was 42.0% (95% CI 39.2–44.8 in men and 33.4% (95% CI 30.9–36.0 in women. The prevalence of previously unknown, screen-detected type 2 diabetes was 9.3% (95% CI 7.7–11.0 in men and 7.3% (95% CI 5.9–8.7 in women. Central obesity was associated with abnormal glucose tolerance within each of the three BMI categories normal (2, overweight (25–29 kg/m2, and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2. Conclusion In a population-based random sample of Finnish population, prevalences of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance were found to be high. A remarkably high number of previously undetected cases of type 2 diabetes was detected. Waist circumference is a predictor of abnormal glucose tolerance in all categories of obesity.

  14. Uric acid as a modulator of glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Lima, William Gustavo; Martins-Santos, Maria Emília Soares; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2015-09-01

    In humans, uric acid is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism. The serum uric acid level is based on the balance between the absorption, production and excretion of purine. Uric acid is similarly produced in the liver, adipose tissue and muscle and is primarily excreted through the urinary tract. Several factors, including a high-fructose diet and the use of xenobiotics and alcohol, contribute to hyperuricaemia. Hyperuricaemia belongs to a cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities, called metabolic syndrome, characterised by abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Hyperuricaemia reduction in the Pound mouse or fructose-fed rats, as well as hyperuricaemia induction by uricase inhibition in rodents and studies using cell culture have suggested that uric acid plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome. These studies have shown that high uric acid levels regulate the oxidative stress, inflammation and enzymes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, suggesting a mechanism for the impairment of metabolic homeostasis. Humans lacking uricase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid degradation, are susceptible to these effects. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of the effects of uric acid on the regulation of metabolism, primarily focusing on liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. PMID:26133655

  15. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  16. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N;

    1984-01-01

    Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase in the...... presence of insulin is found. To determine whether these alterations and in particular those mediated by insulin are due to local or systemic factors, one hindlimb of an anesthetized rat was electrically stimulated, and both hindlimbs were perfused immediately thereafter. Glucose and glycogen metabolism in...... the stimulated leg closely mimicked that observed previously after voluntary exercise on a treadmill. With no insulin added to the perfusate, glucose incorporation into glycogen was markedly enhanced in muscles that were glycogen depleted as were the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O...

  17. Osteocalcin as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients with osteoporosis and diabetesis rapidly increasing all over the world. Bone is recentlyrecognized as an endocrine organ. Accumulatingevidence has shown that osteocalcin, which is specificallyexpressed in osteoblasts and secreted into the circulation,regulates glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulinexpression in pancreas and adiponectin expression inadipocytes, resulting in improving glucose intolerance.On the other hand, insulin and adiponectin stimulateosteocalcin expression in osteoblasts, suggesting thatpositive feedforward loops exist among bone, pancreas,and adipose tissue. In addition, recent studies haveshown that osteocalcin enhances insulin sensitivity andthe differentiation in muscle, while secreted factors frommuscle, myokines, regulate bone metabolism. Thesefindings suggest that bone metabolism and glucosemetabolism are associated with each other through theaction of osteocalcin. In this review, I describe the roleof osteocalcin in the interaction among bone, pancreas,brain, adipose tissue, and muscle.

  18. Metabolic Abnormalities Associated with the Use of Protease Inhibitors and Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Madhu N. Rao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS has been associated with multiple abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism. Specifically, these abnormalities include insulin resistance, increased triglycerides and increased LDL cholesterol levels. The metabolic disturbances are due to a combination of factors, including the direct effect of medications, restoration to health and HIV disease, as well as individual genetic predisposition. Of the available anti-retroviral medications, indinavir has been associated with causing the most insulin resistance and ritonavir with causing the most hypertriglyceridemia.

  19. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in patients with predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease using sup(18)F-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Preliminary results indicate the presence of asymmetric metabolic rates in the inferior basal ganglia. The structure comprising the largest portion of basal ganglia at this level is globus pallidus. These findings are consistent with metabolic studies on animals with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions in which pallidal hypermetabolism on the lesioned side has been demonstrated. Increased pallidal activity is likely secondary to a loss of inhibitory dopaminergic input to the striatum from substantia nigra

  20. Changes of myocardial glucose metabolism by starvation

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a fatal disease and high food intake is thought one of the important risk factor for IHD. Biochemical analyse of the relation between food and IHD is necessary. F-18-labeled 2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) is useful pharmaceutical for detection of myocardial glucose metabolism. The effect of starvation on myocardial uptake and retention of FDG was investigated. Control rats which were fed ad libitum were killed 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after the injection of FDG (10 uCi). The other rats were starved for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours each. The rats were killed 30 minutes after the injection of FDG. Myocardial uptakes of FDG were high enough 30 minutes after the injection of FDG. Decrease of myocardial uptake was showed in 12 hours starvation alrealdy and decrease was greater according to the starvation time. From this result myocardial glucose metabolism is considered to be suppressed early stage of starvation another energy metabolic pathway is considered to be used

  1. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders; Jørgensen, T; Borch-Johnsen, K; Sandbaek, A; Lauritzen, T; Wasson, J; Permutt, M A; Glaser, B; Madsbad, S; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, variants in WFS1 have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine metabolic risk phenotypes of WFS1 variants in glucose-tolerant people and in individuals with abnormal glucose regulation. METHODS: The type 2 diabetes-associated WFS1 variant rs7...

  2. Drug-Induced Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence for Statins and Other Drugs Affecting Glucose Metabolism.

    Anyanwagu, U; Idris, I; Donnelly, R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and glucose tolerance, either because of a reduction in tissue sensitivity to insulin (e.g., in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues) and/or a reduction in pancreatic insulin secretion, are associated with a number of unwanted health outcomes. Even small increases in circulating glucose levels (often described as dysglycemia or prediabetes) may confer an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression to overt type 2 diabetes. A number of drug therapies, many of them used long term in chronic disease management, have adverse effects on glucose metabolism, diabetes risk, and glycemic control among patients with preexisting diabetes. In this study, we review the evidence, underlying mechanisms, and the clinical significance of drug-related adverse effects on glucose metabolism. PMID:26440603

  3. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  4. Analysis the risk factors of coronary heart disease and clinical characters of coronary angiography in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism%冠心病合并糖代谢异常冠脉病变特点及其危险因素分析

    费利霞; 陈洁; 田刚

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨糖代谢异常冠状动脉病变特点和冠心病的危险因素.方法:74例拟诊冠心病患者行冠脉造影(CAG),57例空腹血糖正常者行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)检查.根据CAG结果分冠心病组(CAD)、非冠心病组(非CAD),分析危险因素的差异;冠心病组分为糖尿病组(DM)、糖调节受损组(IGR)、正常血糖组(NGT),观察冠状动脉病变的特点.结果:糖代谢异常在冠心病与非冠心病差异有统计学意义(χ2值为6.14,P<0.05).冠心病IGR组和DM组多支病变患病率,分别75%和50%,NGT组单支病变患病率55.6%,重度病变患病率DM组80%,NGT组77.8%.男性、DM、IGR、吸烟、危险因素累计数在CAD组与非CAD组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:冠心病合并糖代谢异常患病率高,48.6%通过OGTT诊断,OGTT应列为心血管病的常规检查;冠心病合并糖尿病和糖调节受损病变以多支病变为主,病变重而弥漫,正常血糖以单支病变多见,病变重而局限.%Objective: To analysis the risk factors of coronary heart disease and the clinical characters of coronary angiography in the patients who suffered with abnormal glucose metabolism. .Methods: 74 cases of patients who were preliminary diagnosed to coronary heart disease accepted coronary angiography (CAG),57 of them with normal fast blood glucose accepted the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All the patients were divided into the CAD group and without CAD group according to the results of CAG. The CAD divided into three groups (DM, IGR and NGT) was compared with the difference of the clinical characters of coronary lesions. Results: The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was 64% in patient with CAD.The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in CAD was significantly higher than that of without CAD(was 6. 14,P<0. 05)). The coronary multivessel changes were more frequent in the IGR group and in the DM group than the NGT group (75%, 50% vs. 16.7%). The cor onary single

  5. Analysis of Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Combined With Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Zhi-ping GAO; Li-wen LIE; Ying-ling ZHOU; Hao-jian DONG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the morbidity of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) combined with impaired glucose metabolism. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data about patients with CAD in 1997, 2002 and 2007, sepa-rately. A total of 2951 patients were enrolled, among whom had coexistence of 457 abnormal glycometabolism, inclu-ding impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results The prevalence of ab-normal glycometabolism in patients with CAD was increasing year by year. The morbidity raised from 3.8% and 16. 5% to 10. 8% in these three years. Contusion It is more and more common to detect CAD with impaired glucose metabolism, and it should be emphasized in the secondary prevention of CAD.

  6. Effect of metabolic abnormalities on cognitive performance and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia

    Wysokiński, Adam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of this study is to determine whether and how metabolic abnormalities are associated with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Methods. 46 adult patients with schizophrenia taking first- or second generation antipsychotics were included in the study. The following data were collected: BMI, abdominal circumference, lipid panel and blood glucose, blood pressure and treatment of comorbidities. Clinical symptoms were assessed using PANSS, CDSS, CGI and SAS scales. Cognitive performance was assessed using CNS Vital Signs computerized battery of tests: Verbal Memory test, Visual Memory test, Finger Tapping Test, Symbol Digit Coding, Stroop Test, Shifting Attention Test, and Continuous Performance Test. Results. Dyslipidemia, raised LDL and raised blood glucose levels were the best predictors of more severe clinical symptoms (PANSS, PANSS P, PANSS G, CGI and lower neurocognitive index, worse cognitive flexibility, executive functions, complex attention composite memory, verbal memory, slower reaction time and worse performance in SAT, CPT, ST tests. Obesity was associated with worse results in VBM, VIM, FTT, SDC tests. Raised blood pressure was associated with improvements in all cognitive domains and better performance in SAT, CPT, ST tests. Discussion. There are several weak associations between severity of clinical symptoms and metabolic abnormalities. Most of these were for blood glucose levels and raised blood glucose. Lipids and glucose abnormalities are the best predictors of deteriorated cognitive performance. Contrary to previous observations, raised blood pressure was associated with better results in cognitive tests. Conclusions. These findings indicate that cognitive impairment and metabolic abnormalities may be linked in patients with schizophrenia

  7. Effect of metabolic abnormalities on cognitive performance and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia

    Wysokiński, Adam; Dzienniak, Małgorzata; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The objective of this study is to determine whether and how metabolic abnormalities are associated with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Methods. 46 adult patients with schizophrenia taking first- or second generation antipsychotics were included in the study. The following data were collected: BMI, abdominal circumference, lipid panel and blood glucose, blood pressure and treatment of comorbidities. Clinical symptoms were assessed using PANSS, CDSS, CGI a...

  8. Assessment of prenatal and perinatal characteristics of pregnants with gestationel diabetes mellitus who have postnatal glucose abnormalities

    Okan Bakiner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the difference in terms of prenatal and perinatal characteristics between gestational diabetic (GDM cases diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFGand impaired glucose tolerance (IGT during early postpartum period. Material and Methods: Cases who had no history of any glucose metabolism disorder and diagnosed as GDM due to American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria were included. Subjects were inquired for pregestational characteristics(glucose abnormality in previous pregnancies, birth of macrosomic baby and history of diabetes in a first-degree relative, prenatal characteristics (age, body mass index BMI, features at diagnosis (BMI,weight-gain ,blood pressure and HbA1C, and perinatal characteristics (birth week and baby birth weight were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reperformed in the 6th postpartum week. Effects of pregestational, prenatal and perinatal features on postpartum glucose abnormalities were analysed. Results: Out of 80 cases who completed the study 58.7%(n=47 had normal glucose metabolism, 13.7%( n=11 had IFG and 27.5%(n=22 had IGT. No difference was found between pregestational, prenatal , perinatal characteristics, features at the time of diagnosis and postpartum OGTT results. Incidence of IFG in postpartum OGTT for those who had diabetes in a first degree relative was elevated when compared with other cases(p=0,042. The difference was preserved after adjustment for other characteristic features with multivariate analysis (p=0,037. Conclusion: Presence of diabetes in a first degree relative may be a risk factor for postnatal early IFG. In our study other pregestational, prenatal, perinatal factors and features at diagnosis didn’t affect early postpartum glucose metabolism. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 617-626

  9. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    Ma, Ya-Hong; Yu, Caiguo; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Guo, Xin; Ji, Zhili; Liu, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH. However, it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance. In this study, we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. ApoCIII transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia...

  10. Glycated albumin in screening the abnormal glucose metabolism in postpartum women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus%糖化白蛋白筛查妊娠期糖尿病患者产后糖代谢异常的意义

    方芳; 马宇航; 陈苏; 陈希; 任茜; 黄倩芳; 王煜非; 王育璠; 彭永德

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨糖化白蛋白(GA)筛查妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)患者产后发生糖代谢异常和糖尿病的最佳切点. 方法 2012年4月至2014年10月依据2010年国际妊娠合并糖尿病研究组织所提出的诊断标准,选取我院241例诊断为GDM的患者为研究对象,于产后6~8周复诊,予75 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),根据结果分为正常糖耐量组(NGT组)、糖调节受损组(IGR组)和糖尿病组(DM组).通过绘制受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线,寻找GA诊断GDM产后糖代谢异常(IGR+DM)和DM的最佳切点.三组间计量资料比较采用方差分析或Kruskal Wallis (K-W)方法,计数资料比较采用卡方检验. 结果 (1)241例患者中NGT组128例(53.1%),IGR组66例(27.4%),DM组为47例(19.5%).(2)GDM患者产后GA与产前体重、目前体重呈负相关(r=-0.226、-0.198,均P12.7%,尤其>13.03%的GDM患者,应进一步行OGTT明确其糖代谢情况.%Objective To investigate the optimal cut-off point of glycated albumin for abnormal glucose metabolism and diabetes postpartum with previous gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was underwent at 6-8 weeks after delivery in 241 GDM patients from Apr 2012 to Oct 2014. Diagnosis of GDM was based on International Association of Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group criteria. The clinical and biochemical characteristics were compared among normal glucose tolerance(NGT group), impaired glucose regulation(IGR group) and diabetes mellitus(DM group). Comparisons between three groups were performed using analysis of variance test (ANOVA) or Kruskal Wallis test. Chi square test was used in comparisons between proportions. The optimal cut-off point of glycated albumin(GA) for abnormal glucose metabolism(IGR+DM) and diabetes were obtained by drawing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results (1)We found that the rates of NGT (n=128), IGR (n=66) and DM (n=47) were 53.1%, 27.4%and 19.5%, respectively.(2)GA was negatively

  11. Effect of Metformin Intervention on Blood Sugar of Patients with Breast Cancer Chemotherapy with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响

    翟媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the effect of metformin intervention on blood sugar of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods 60 cases of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with ab-normal glucose metabolism in our hospital from February 2012 to August 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group received AC-T chemotherapy plan, and were treated with diet control and exercise, the observation group were given additional metformin on the basis of the control group, the blood sugar con-trol conditions of the two groups were observed. Results The case number of patients with normal blood sugar at the end of chemotherapy and in 3 months after chemotherapy in the observation group was obviously more than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Metformin for controlling the blood sugar levels of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism has an obvious effect and has a potential anti-tumor effect, which is further research.%目的 研究二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响.方法 整群选择2012年2月—2014年8月来该院行乳腺癌化疗,伴糖代谢紊乱的60例患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组. 对照组给予AC-T化疗方案,同时给予患者饮食控制和运动治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用二甲双胍,观察两组血糖控制情况. 结果 观察组化疗结束时和化疗结束后3个月正常血糖患者例数显著多于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). 结论 二甲双胍对于控制乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢紊乱患者血糖水平效果显著,且具有潜在抗肿瘤作用,值得进一步研究.

  12. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may

  13. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  14. [Metabolic abnormalities as a basis for age-dependent diseases and aging? State of the art].

    Tereshina, E V

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a number of certain criteria reflecting abnormalities in lipid and glucose metabolism. These abnormalities are considered to be a reason for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2. The prevalence of CVD among those with diabetes is 3-5 folds higher than without diabetes. MS demonstrates ethnic and gender variants, its frequency depends on the lifestyle and age. Attention to MS has been attracted in the last decades induced by the obesity epidemic in US. The adipose tissue and high triglyceride blood levels have been regarded as hallmark of MS. It has appeared that metabolic ways of cholesterol, fat and glucose were tightly connected and united in a system of energy expenditure and reproduction. The high prevalence of MS, heart attacks and diabetes in the elderly population makes the evidence of age to be an independent risk factor of the development of metabolic abnormalities. But this problem is still out of the field of interest in gerontology. There exist a number of unsolved questions concerning the function of visceral adipose tissue, the role of free fatty acids in the insulin resistance, mechanisms of inflammation in the old age and so on that can be an object of gerontology. So, a program of advanced researches in this field is discussed. PMID:19827683

  15. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

    Haskins Amy E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Western Massachusetts. Women reported pre- and early pregnancy smoking at recruitment (mean = 15 weeks and mid pregnancy smoking at a second interview (mean = 28 weeks. AGT was defined as > 135 mg/dL on the routine 1-hour glucose tolerance test (1-hr OGTT. We used multivariable regression to assess the effect of pre, early, and mid-pregnancy smoking on risk of AGT and screening plasma glucose value from the 1-hr OGTT. Results In age-adjusted models, women who smoked > 0-9 cigarettes/day in pre-pregnancy had an increased risk of AGT (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.02-3.55 compared to non-smokers; this was attenuated in multivariable models. Smoking in early (OR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.21-1.10 and mid pregnancy (OR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.13-1.11 were not associated with AGT in multivariable models. Smoking during early and mid pregnancy were independently associated with lower glucose screening values, while smoking in pre-pregnancy was not. Conclusions In this prospective cohort of Hispanic women, we did not observe an association between smoking prior to or during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Findings from this study, although based on small numbers of cases, extend prior research to the Hispanic population.

  16. Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome

    Surprisingly it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS) components as parameters to identify such persons. All participants received a standard 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance and 6 had diabetes on isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (Clinical history model): family history (FH), FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model): Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI); Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance. (author)

  17. Evaluation of regional metabolic abnormality and treatment effect in patients with narcolepsy

    The aim of the present study was to evaluated regional metabolic abnormalities in untreated narcoleptic patients and the changes in regional cerebral metabolism after treatment with modafinil. Eight drug free narcoleptic patients (mean age of 17±1 yr) participated in this study. Two [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans before and after a 2-week titrated modafinil treatment (target dose = 100∼400 mg/day). The PET data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping methods to identify the regional cerebral abnormalities compared with those of healthy young controls. In addition, treatment effect was evaluated by comparison between before and after treatment scan. In narcolepsy patients, a significant reduction of regional metabolism was demonstrated in the brain stem, bilateral hypothalamus, posterior thalamus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and adjacent perihinal area on pretreatment scans compared with those of healthy subjects. The decrease glucose metabolism was also found in the occipital cortex and cerebellum. The patients could control daytime sleepiness after treatment. Posttreatment scan showed a significant increase in regional metabolism in the left hippocampus. This study demonstrated the metabolic abnormalities and the effect of modafinil treatment in narcoleptic patients in the sleep associated regions. This results could be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of the narcolepsy and treatment mechanism

  18. Evaluation of regional metabolic abnormality and treatment effect in patients with narcolepsy

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Shin, Youn Kyung; Eo, Jae Sean; Won, Oh So; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluated regional metabolic abnormalities in untreated narcoleptic patients and the changes in regional cerebral metabolism after treatment with modafinil. Eight drug free narcoleptic patients (mean age of 17{+-}1 yr) participated in this study. Two [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans before and after a 2-week titrated modafinil treatment (target dose = 100{approx}400 mg/day). The PET data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping methods to identify the regional cerebral abnormalities compared with those of healthy young controls. In addition, treatment effect was evaluated by comparison between before and after treatment scan. In narcolepsy patients, a significant reduction of regional metabolism was demonstrated in the brain stem, bilateral hypothalamus, posterior thalamus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and adjacent perihinal area on pretreatment scans compared with those of healthy subjects. The decrease glucose metabolism was also found in the occipital cortex and cerebellum. The patients could control daytime sleepiness after treatment. Posttreatment scan showed a significant increase in regional metabolism in the left hippocampus. This study demonstrated the metabolic abnormalities and the effect of modafinil treatment in narcoleptic patients in the sleep associated regions. This results could be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of the narcolepsy and treatment mechanism.

  19. Low non-oxidative glucose metabolism and violent offending: an 8-year prospective follow-up study.

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-06-30

    Violent offenders have abnormalities in their glucose metabolism as indicated by decreased glucose uptake in their prefrontal cortex and a low blood glucose nadir in the glucose tolerance test. We tested the hypothesis that low non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOG) predicts forthcoming violent offending among antisocial males. Glucose metabolism was measured using the insulin clamp method among 49 impulsive, violent, antisocial offenders during a forensic psychiatric examination. Those offenders who committed at least one new violent crime during the 8-year follow-up had a mean NOG of 1.4 standard deviations lower than non-recidivistic offenders. In logistic regression analysis, NOG alone explained 27% of the variation in the recidivistic offending. Low non-oxidative metabolism may be a crucial component in the pathophysiology of habitually violent behavior among subjects with antisocial personality disorder. This might suggest that substances increasing glycogen formation and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia might be potential treatments for impulsive violent behavior. PMID:19446886

  20. Inhibition of Endothelial p53 Improves Metabolic Abnormalities Related to Dietary Obesity

    Masataka Yokoyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has suggested a role for p53 activation in various age-associated conditions. Here, we identified a crucial role of endothelial p53 activation in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Endothelial expression of p53 was markedly upregulated when mice were fed a high-calorie diet. Disruption of endothelial p53 activation improved dietary inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase that upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α in skeletal muscle, thereby increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption. Mice with endothelial cell-specific p53 deficiency fed a high-calorie diet showed improvement of insulin sensitivity and less fat accumulation, compared with control littermates. Conversely, upregulation of endothelial p53 caused metabolic abnormalities. These results indicate that inhibition of endothelial p53 could be a novel therapeutic target to block the vicious cycle of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity.

  1. Soy and cardio-metabolic abnormalities: an update

    Leila Azadbakht

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • Soy protein contains beneficial components like complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, vegetable protein, soluble fiber, oligosaccharides, vitamins, minerals, inositol-derived substances and phytoestrogens, particularly the isoflavones  genistein, diadzein, and glycitein, which might affect different cardio-metabolic abnormalities. Soy consumption has been reported to beneficially affect features of the metabolic syndrome in animal models and also in humans to some extent. There are inconsistent reports regarding the hypothesis of the effectiveness of soy protein on obesity. While some studies have shown that soy consumption can improve the features of the metabolic syndrome without affecting body weight, others showed that soy consumption has beneficial role in weight management and might improve the metabolic syndrome by affecting body weight control. Several studies have consistently reported the effects of soy on cardiovascular risks. Beneficial role of soy intake on diabetes is another aspect of soy inclusion in the diet. The present study discusses the effects of soy consumption on different cardio-metabolic abnormalities and provides information regarding the possible mechanisms by which soy protein might exert its beneficial roles.
    • KEY WORDS: Soy, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome.

  2. Geniposide regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion possibly through controlling glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells.

    Jianhui Liu

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS is essential to the control of metabolic fuel homeostasis. The impairment of GSIS is a key element of β-cell failure and one of causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Although the KATP channel-dependent mechanism of GSIS has been broadly accepted for several decades, it does not fully describe the effects of glucose on insulin secretion. Emerging evidence has suggested that other mechanisms are involved. The present study demonstrated that geniposide enhanced GSIS in response to the stimulation of low or moderately high concentrations of glucose, and promoted glucose uptake and intracellular ATP levels in INS-1 cells. However, in the presence of a high concentration of glucose, geniposide exerted a contrary role on both GSIS and glucose uptake and metabolism. Furthermore, geniposide improved the impairment of GSIS in INS-1 cells challenged with a high concentration of glucose. Further experiments showed that geniposide modulated pyruvate carboxylase expression and the production of intermediates of glucose metabolism. The data collectively suggest that geniposide has potential to prevent or improve the impairment of insulin secretion in β-cells challenged with high concentrations of glucose, likely through pyruvate carboxylase mediated glucose metabolism in β-cells.

  3. Value of fructosamine measurement in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance

    LI Kui; YANG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Background The concentration of serum fructosamine is correlated with plasma glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of serum fructosamine can be diagnostic for abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnant women.Methods Serum samples were collected from 161 pregnant women between November 2004 and April 2005.The women were divided into three groups according to the gestational age (16-20 weeks group, 56 patients; 28-34 weeks group, 72; and 37-41 weeks group, 33). Each group was subdivided into normal and abnormal glucose tolerance subgroups. The levels of serum fructosamine were measured. Differences among the groups were assessed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Correlations between the level of fructosamine and other variables including the results of glucose challenge test (GCT), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, and infant's birth weight were analyzed by Pearson correlation.Results The level of serum fructosamine decreased with gestational age [(223.25 ±48.90) μmol/L, (98.44±29.57)μmol/L, and (53.99±29.94) μmol/L, respectively. P<0.05]. It was higher in women with abnormal glucose tolerance than that in women with normal glucose tolerance, however, the difference reached statistical significance only in the 28-34 weeks group (P<0.05). In this group, the level of serum fructosamine correlated positively with the GCT result (r=0.28, P<0.05). No correlation was found between fructosamine level and OGTT result, HbA1c level, or neonatal weight.Conclusions Fructosamine can be used to monitor the glucose level of pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance, and to identify the patients at high risk of abnormal glucose tolerance, but can not be used to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early stage of pregnancy.

  4. Cerebral glucose metabolism change in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. A PET study

    The aim of this study was to examine abnormalities of the central nervous system in patients with chronic pain who were diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Brain activity was assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The data collected from 18 patients were compared with data obtained from 13 normal age-matched controls. Our results showed that glucose metabolism was bilaterally increased in the secondary somatosensory cortex, mid-anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) or posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) (or both), parietal cortex, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and cerebellum as well as in the right posterior insula and right thalamus in our patients. In contrast, glucose metabolism was reduced contralaterally in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex. Glucose metabolism was bilaterally elevated in the mid-ACC/PCC and the PPC, which correlated with pain duration. These data suggested that glucose metabolism in the brains of patients with CRPS changes dramatically at each location. In particular, glucose metabolism was increased in the areas concerned with somatosensory perception, possibly due to continuous painful stimulation. (author)

  5. Glucose Metabolism Disorders, HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy among Tanzanian Adults.

    Emmanuel Maganga

    Full Text Available Millions of HIV-infected Africans are living longer due to long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART, yet little is known about glucose metabolism disorders in this group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders among HIV-infected adults on long-term ART to ART-naïve adults and HIV-negative controls, hypothesizing that the odds of glucose metabolism disorders would be 2-fold greater even after adjusting for possible confounders.In this cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013, consecutive adults (>18 years attending an HIV clinic in Tanzania were enrolled in 3 groups: 153 HIV-negative controls, 151 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 150 HIV-infected on ART for ≥ 2 years. The primary outcome was the prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders as determined by oral glucose tolerance testing. We compared glucose metabolism disorder prevalence between each HIV group vs. the control group by Fisher's exact test and used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with glucose metabolism disorders.HIV-infected adults on ART had a higher prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders (49/150 (32.7% vs.11/153 (7.2%, p<0.001 and frank diabetes mellitus (27/150 (18.0% vs. 8/153 (5.2%, p = 0.001 than HIV-negative adults, which remained highly significant even after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity and socioeconomic status (OR = 5.72 (2.78-11.77, p<0.001. Glucose metabolism disorders were significantly associated with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. Awareness of diabetes mellitus was <25%.HIV-infected adults on long-term ART had 5-fold greater odds of glucose metabolism disorders than HIV-negative controls but were rarely aware of their diagnosis. Intensive glucose metabolism disorder screening and education are needed in HIV clinics in sub-Saharan Africa. Further research should determine how glucose metabolism disorders might be related to immune reconstitution.

  6. Limiting progressive hippocampal metabolic abnormalities after smoke inhalation injury.

    Tobe, Edward; Pradhan, Basant K

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old man had a smoke inhalation injury. Within 1 month, he developed neuropsychiatric problems including toxic encephalopathy, cognitive disorder, depression symptoms and personality change. From 3 to 14 years after the toxic inhalation injury, the patient received treatment with sertraline and methylphenidate. The (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan at 3 years after injury showed deterioration of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus and orbital frontal region; at 14 years after injury, the hippocampus had no significant change but the orbital frontal region had deterioration of glucose metabolism. It was hypothesised that sertraline may have provided selective hippocampal neuroprotection. Further study is justified to evaluate sertraline as a possible neuroprotective agent after smoke inhalation injury. PMID:24577174

  7. Regional glucose metabolism using PETT in normal and psychiatric populations

    Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of /sup 18/F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (/sup 18/FDG) in 150 subjects including normals, schizophrenics, senile dementias, and primary affective disorders was studied. Some of the data analyzed to date are discussed.

  8. Regional glucose metabolism using PETT in normal and psychiatric populations

    The metabolism of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) in 150 subjects including normals, schizophrenics, senile dementias, and primary affective disorders was studied. Some of the data analyzed to date are discussed

  9. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production

  10. Glucose deprivation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and cancer therapy

    Simons Andrean; Mattson David; Dornfeld Ken; Spitz Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells (vs. normal cells) demonstrate evidence of oxidative stress, increased glycolysis, and increased pentose cycle activity. The oxidative stress in cancer cells has been hypothesized to arise from mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased levels of hydroperoxides, and cancer cells have been proposed to compensate for this defect by increasing glucose metabolism. Glucose metabolism has also been shown to play a role in hydroperoxide detoxification via the formation of pyruvate (...

  11. Adult glucose metabolism in extremely birthweight-discordant monozygotic twins

    Frost, M; Petersen, I; Brixen, K;

    2012-01-01

    Low birthweight (BW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared glucose metabolism in adult BW-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins, thereby controlling for genetic factors and rearing environment.......Low birthweight (BW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared glucose metabolism in adult BW-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins, thereby controlling for genetic factors and rearing environment....

  12. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Methods: Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient w...

  13. Sleep deprivation induces abnormal bone metabolism in temporomandibular joint

    Geng, Wei; Wu, Gaoyi; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Yong; Nie, Jia; He, Yuhong; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of experimental sleep deprivation (SD) on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats and the possible mechanism related to abnormal bone metabolism. Material and methods: SD was induced by a modified multiple platform method and assessed by serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. TMJs were detached and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), osteo...

  14. Severe megaloblastic anaemia associated with abnormal azathioprine metabolism.

    Lennard, L; Murphy, M F; Maddocks, J L

    1984-01-01

    Severe anaemia is a rare, unexplained, side effect of azathioprine therapy. We report here such a case associated with a previously unreported abnormality in azathioprine metabolism. A 57 year old man on azathioprine therapy, for a presumed collagen vascular disease, developed severe megaloblastic anaemia. This resolved on cessation of azathioprine treatment. A very high concentration of an azathioprine metabolite, 6-thioguanine nucleotide, was found in the patient's red blood cells and this ...

  15. Plant oils were associated with low prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in Japanese workers.

    Kayo Kurotani

    Full Text Available Fatty acid has been suggested to be involved in development of diabetes. However, its association is unclear among Japanese populations, which consume large amounts of fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present cross-sectional study examined the association of individual dietary fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns with abnormal glucose metabolism among 1065 Japanese employees, aged 18-69 years. Impaired glucose metabolism is defined if a person has a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drug, fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dl (≥6.1 mmol/L or greater, or hemoglobin A1C of 6.0% (≥42 mmol/mol or greater. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary fatty acid patterns were extracted by principal component analysis. Odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism according to tertile categories of each fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding variables. A higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid was marginally significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.12. Of three fatty acid patterns identified, a higher plant oil pattern score, which characterized by high intake of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, was associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03. No association was observed for other patterns. In conclusion, plant source fatty acids might be protectively associated with development of diabetes in Japanese adults.

  16. Cell Cycle Abnormality in Metabolic Syndrome and Nuclear Receptors as an Emerging Therapeutic Target

    Nakatsuka,Atsuko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have emphasized the importance of metabolic syndrome based on its increasing prevalence and its adverse prognosis due to associated chronic vascular complications. Upstream of a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders is the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, which plays a central role in the pathophysiology. In the accumulation of adipose tissues, cell cycle regulation is tightly linked to cellular processes such as proliferation, hypertrophy and apoptosis. In addition, various cell cycle abnormalities have also been observed in other tissues, such as kidneys and the cardiovascular system, and they are critically involved in the progression of disease. Here, we discuss cell cycle abnormalities in metabolic syndrome in various tissues. Furthermore, we describe the role of nuclear receptors in cell growth and survival, and glucose and lipid metabolism in the whole body. Therapeutic strategies for modulating various cell cycles in metabolic disorders by targeting nuclear receptors may overcome obesity and its chronic vascular complications in the future.

  17. 糖代谢异常的代谢综合征老年男性骨密度及体脂含量特点分析%The feature of bone mineral density and body fat in elderly males with metabolic syndrome of abnormal glucose metabolism

    刘敏燕; 李春霖; 肖彧君; 裴育; 张颖; 成晓玲; 李楠; 龚燕平; 肖海英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of bone mineral density and body fat in elderly males with metabolic syndrome (MS) of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods Elderly male patients were randomly selected to conduct the questionnaire, biochemical measurements, and measurement of factors related to bone metabolism. The bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patients were divided into the MS group and non-MS (NMS) group according to the diagnostic standard of Chinese Diabetes Society. They were also divided into the normal bone mass group, osteopenia group, and osteoporosis (OP) group according to the diagnostic standard of WHO. The differences among these groups were compared and the risk factors for MS were analyzed. Results MS, OP, and osteopenia prevalence in this study were 69.03%, 7.74 %, and 35.48%, respectively. The percentage of normal bone mass in MS group was higher than that in NMS group. The percentage of osteoporosis in MS group was lower than that in NMS group (P = 0.06). The percentage of fat of all parts in MS group was higher than that in NMS group (P <0. 01). The age gradually increased among normal bone mass, osteopenia, and OP groups ( P < 0. 01 ). Body mass index ( BMI) of patients in OP group was significantly lower than that in the other two groups. The rate of the fat percentage in Android area to Gynoid area (A/G) of patients in normal group was significantly higher than that in the OP group (P <0. 01). The results of Spearman correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients between MS and BMD of the neck of femur, hip, and lumbar were 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17, respectively, but only the correlation coefficient of lumbar was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between MS and the fat percentage of Android area, Gynoid area, total body, and A/G were 0-53, 0.33, 0.51, and 0.24, respectively (P < 0. 01). The results of logistic regressive analysis

  18. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  19. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  20. Peripheral glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Kilander, L; Boberg, M; Lithell, H

    1993-04-01

    Twenty-four patients with Alzheimer's disease and matched controls were examined with reference to metabolic parameters such as peripheral insulin and glucose metabolism, serum lipid concentrations and blood pressure levels. Blood glucose levels and insulin response were measured during an intravenous glucose tolerance test and peripheral insulin sensitivity was estimated with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. There were no differences recorded between the two groups in glucose metabolism, triglyceride, cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol levels. The patients with Alzheimer's disease had significantly lower blood pressure levels, which partly could be explained by ongoing treatment with neuroleptics and antidepressives. Previous findings of higher insulin levels in Alzheimer's disease could not be verified. PMID:8503259

  1. Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome

    Alemany Marià

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, which may derive, in the end, into insulin resistance. The available systems of energy disposal could not cope with the excess of substrates, since they are geared for saving not for spendthrift, which results in an unbearable overload of the storage mechanisms. Adipose tissue is the last energy sink, it has to store the energy that cannot be used otherwise. However, adipose tissue growth also has limits, and the excess of energy induces inflammation, helped by the ineffective intervention of the immune system. However, even under this acute situation, the excess of glucose remains, favoring its final conversion to fat. The sum of inflammatory signals and deranged substrate handling induce most of the metabolic syndrome traits: insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia and their compounded combined effects. Thus, a maintained excess of energy in the diet may result in difficulties in the disposal of glucose, eliciting

  2. Gamma-glutamyl transferase and C-reactive protein as alternative markers of metabolic abnormalities and their associated comorbidites: a prospective cohort study

    Melvin, Jennifer C; Rodrigues, Crystal; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Hammar, Niklas; Jungner, Ingmar; Walldius, Göran; Lambe, Mats; Jassem, Wayel; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggested that gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are good markers of metabolic abnormalities. We assessed the link between GGT, CRP and common metabolic abnormalities, as well their link to related diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: We selected 333,313 subjects with baseline measurements of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, GGT and CRP in the Swedish AMORIS study. Baseline measurement of...

  3. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism

  4. Cerebral glucose transport and metabolism with dynamic PET

    A comprehensive model describing the response of the steady-state tissue distribution of glucose to changes in plasma glucose concentration was developed. In the model, the steady-state glucose content can be used to predict the steady-state distribution spaces of both phosphorylatable and non-phosphorylatable glucose analogs, and thus the value of the lumped constant (LC) required to convert measured rates of analog metabolism to the desired rate of glucose metabolism. Models of the sensitivity of the kinetic rate constants for phosphorylatable glucose analogs to tissue glucose content were developed. The use of the measured distribution space of a non-phosphorylatable analog such as methyl glucose as an indicator of the LC, is only useful for hyperglycemia. We determined that a particular aspect of the kinetics of phosphorylatable analogs, the ratio of the phosphorylation rate constant to the membrane transport rate constant, is very sensitive to glucose content over the entire physiological range of values. Considerable effort is being made to optimize the use of venous blood that is ''arterialized'' by limb warming methods. Similarly, final refinements have been made to the non-linear least squares fitting routines, allowing for blood-borne radioactivity and for the loss of phosphorylation product

  5. Association of periodontal status with liver abnormalities and metabolic syndrome.

    Ahmad, Aisyah; Furuta, Michiko; Shinagawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Takeshita, Toru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between periodontal status and liver abnormalities has been reported, it has not been described in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS), which often coexists with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the association of a combination of liver abnormality and MetS with periodontal condition in Japanese adults, based on the level of alcohol consumption. In 2008, 4,207 males aged 45.4 ± 8.9 years and 1,270 females aged 45.9 ± 9.7 years had annual workplace health check-ups at a company in Japan. Periodontal status was represented as periodontal pocket depth at the mesio-buccal and mid-buccal sites for all teeth. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and metabolic components were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between deep pocket depth and the coexistence of elevated ALT and MetS in males with low alcohol consumption. Females showed no such relationship. In conclusion, the association between periodontal condition and the combination of elevated ALT and MetS was confirmed in males. That is, a clear association between liver abnormalities and periodontal condition was seen in male subjects with no or low alcohol consumption and MetS, providing new insights into the connection between liver function and periodontal health. PMID:26666857

  6. Prenatal depressive symptoms and abnormalities of glucose tolerance during pregnancy among Hispanic women

    Ertel, Karen A.; Silveira, Marushka; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Manson, JoAnn E.; Solomon, Caren G.; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in mid-pregnancy. We evaluated this association among 934 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed in early pregnancy using the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depres...

  7. The effects of hypoglycin on glucose metabolism in the rat

    The kinetics of glucose metabolism were evaluated in rats deprived of food 15 to 21 h after the administration of hypoglycaemic doses of hypoglycin (100 mg/kg body wt.) by following changes in the specific radioactivities of 14C and 3H in blood glucose after an intravenous dose of [U-14C,2-3H]glucose. During this time, recycling of glucose through the Cori cycle was virtually abolished, the rate of irreversible disposal of glucose and its total body mass were both decreased by about 70%, whereas there was little effect on the mean transit time for glucose. It was concluded that hypoglycaemia is due to inhibition of gluconeogenesis. (author)

  8. Abnormal sterol metabolism in holoprosencephaly: studies in cultured lymphoblasts

    Haas, D; Morgenthaler, J; Lacbawan, F; Long, B; Runz, H; Garbade, S F; Zschocke, J; Kelley, R I; Okun, J G; Hoffmann, G F; Muenke, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the developing forebrain in humans. The aetiology is heterogeneous and remains unexplained in approximately 75% of patients. Objective To examine cholesterol biosynthesis in lymphoblastoid cell lines of 228 patients with HPE, since perturbations of cholesterol homeostasis are an important model system to study HPE pathogenesis in animals. Methods An in vitro loading test that clearly identifies abnormal increase of C27 sterols in lymphoblast‐derived cells was developed using [2‐14C] acetate as substrate. Results 22 (9.6%) HPE cell lines had abnormal sterol pattern in the in vitro loading test. In one previously reported patient, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome was diagnosed, whereas others also had clearly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis of uncertain cause. The mean (SD) cholesterol levels were 57% (15.3%) and 82% (4.7%) of total sterols in these cell lines and controls, respectively. The pattern of accumulating sterols was different from known defects of cholesterol biosynthesis. In six patients with abnormal lymphoblast cholesterol metabolism, additional mutations in genes known to be associated with HPE or chromosomal abnormalities were observed. Conclusions Impaired cholesterol biosynthesis may be a contributing factor in the cause of HPE and should be considered in the evaluation of causes of HPE, even if mutations in HPE‐associated genes have already been found. PMID:17237122

  9. Islet glucose metabolism and insulin release in two animal models of glucose intolerance

    Ling, Zong-Chao

    1999-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a complex and heterogenous disease resulting from the interaction of defects of both genetic and environmental origin. Abnormalities contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes include impaired [beta]-cell function, peripheral insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. In the present study we have mainly used two animal models of glucose intolerance, i.e., spontaneously diabetic GK rats and transgenic mice with overexpressed gluco...

  10. [Bone metabolic markers and diagnosis of abnormal bone and calcium metabolism].

    Fukunaga, M; Sone, T

    2001-07-01

    Bone metabolic markers increase in blood or urine, when bone formation or bone resorption accelerates. Reference values of bone metabolic markers are determined in male or female, and in pre- or post-menopause, respectively. Values of bone metabolic markers in most patients with primary osteoporosis were distributed within a reference value, mean+/-1.96 SD. When measured values exceeded a reference values, we should survey a possibility of abnormal calcium or bone metabolism such as primary hyperparathyroidism, renal osteodystrophy, hyperthyroidism and Paget's disease of bone or bone metastasis associated with malignant tumor. PMID:15775589

  11. Nerve conduction abnormalities in untreated maturity-onset diabetes: relation to levels of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Graf, R J; Halter, J B; Halar, E; Porte, D

    1979-03-01

    The role of metabolic abnormalities in the development of diabetic neuropathy is controversial. To investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on nerve conduction, we studied 20 untreated maturity-onset diabetic patients and 23 normal control subjects of similar age. Nerve conduction velocity of motor (median, peroneal, and tibial) and sensory (median and sural) nerves in diabetic patients was significantly slowed and H-reflex latency time prolonged. Levels of fasting plasma glucose in diabetic subjects were correlated with slowed motor conduction velocity of the median, peroneal, and tibial nerves but not with sensory nerve conduction velocities. Levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, an index of long-term glycemia, were correlated with slowing of peroneal motor conduction velocity in diabetic patients. These associations could not be explained by patient age or duration of diabetes. These findings suggest that the degree of hyperglycemia of untreated maturity-onset diabetes contributes to the motor nerve conduction abnormalities in this disease. PMID:426398

  12. A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines

    H.G. Padilha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.

  13. Serum Visfatin Levels, Adiposity and Glucose Metabolism in Obese Adolescents

    Taşkesen, Derya; Kirel, Birgül; Us, Tercan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Visfatin, an adipokine, has insulin-mimetic effects. The main determinants of both the production and the physiologic role of visfatin are still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the relation of serum visfatin to adiposity and glucose metabolism. Methods: 40 pubertal adolescents (20 females, 20 males; age range: 9-17 years) with exogenous obesity and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents (10 females, 10 males) were enrolled in the study. Oral glucose tolerance te...

  14. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOEε4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the ε4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single ε4 allele. On the contrary the relation of ε4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection or statistical parametric mapping

  15. Positive Correlation between Severity of Blepharospasm and Thalamic Glucose Metabolism.

    Murai, Hideki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Kiyosawa, Motohiro; Wakakura, Masato; Mochizuki, Manabu; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with drug-related blepharospasm was followed up for 22 months. She had undergone etizolam treatment for 19 years for indefinite complaints. We examined her cerebral glucose metabolism 5 times (between days 149 and 688 since presentation), using positron emission tomography, and identified regions of interest in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and primary somatosensory area on both sides. The severity of the blepharospasm was evaluated by PET scanning using the Wakakura classification. Sixteen women (mean age 42.4 ± 11.7 years) were examined as normal controls. The thalamic glucose metabolism in our patient was significantly increased on days 149, 212, and 688. The severity of the blepharospasm was positively correlated with the thalamic glucose metabolism, suggesting that the severity of blepharospasms reflects thalamic activity. PMID:22110436

  16. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild;

    2015-01-01

    MRI was used to detect macro-structural damage (atrophy, white matter hyper-intensities, infarcts and/or micro-bleeds) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) to detect loss of micro-structural homogeneity that remains otherwise invisible on conventional MRI. Macro-structurally, higher fasted glucose......Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean...... age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain...

  17. Glucose metabolism in rats submitted to skeletal muscle denervation

    Wilton Marlindo Santana Nunes; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzed the local and systemic effects of immobilization by denervation of the skeletal muscle on glucose metabolism. The rats were submitted to section of the right paw sciatic nerve. A reduction was observed in glucose uptake by the isolated soleus muscle of the denervated paw after 3 and 7 days, but not after 28 days in relation to the control animals. There was no difference after 3 and 7 days in glucose uptake by the soleus muscle of the opposite intact paw in relation to the...

  18. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  19. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  20. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K;

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  1. Glucose regulates lipid metabolism in fasting king penguins.

    Bernard, Servane F; Orvoine, Jord; Groscolas, René

    2003-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether glucose intervenes in the regulation of lipid metabolism in long-term fasting birds, using the king penguin as an animal model. Changes in the plasma concentration of various metabolites and hormones, and in lipolytic fluxes as determined by continuous infusion of [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitate, were examined in vivo before, during, and after a 2-h glucose infusion under field conditions. All the birds were in the phase II fasting status (large fat stores, protein sparing) but differed by their metabolic and hormonal statuses, being either nonstressed (NSB; n = 5) or stressed (SB; n = 5). In both groups, glucose infusion at 5 mg.kg-1.min-1 induced a twofold increase in glycemia. In NSB, glucose had no effect on lipolysis (maintenance of plasma concentrations and rates of appearance of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids) and no effect on the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols (TAG), glucagon, insulin, or corticosterone. However, it limited fatty acid (FA) oxidation, as indicated by a 25% decrease in the plasma level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB). In SB, glucose infusion induced an approximately 2.5-fold decrease in lipolytic fluxes and a large decrease in FA oxidation, as reflected by a 64% decrease in the plasma concentration of beta-OHB. There were also a 35% decrease in plasma TAG, a 6.5- and 2.8-fold decrease in plasma glucagon and corticosterone, respectively, and a threefold increase in insulinemia. These data show that in fasting king penguins, glucose regulates lipid metabolism (inhibition of lipolysis and/or of FA oxidation) and affects hormonal status differently in stressed vs. nonstressed individuals. The results also suggest that in birds, as in humans, the availability of glucose, not of FA, is an important determinant of the substrate mix (glucose vs. FA) that is oxidized for energy production. PMID:12738609

  2. Glucose metabolism in critically ill patients

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    compared to normoglycemia. Insulin is used for treating hyperglycemia in the critically ill patients but may be complicated by hypoglycemia, which is difficult to detect in these patients and which may lead to serious neurological sequelae and death. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1...... glucose (BG). This is taken advantage of in the treatment of patients with T2DM, for whom GLP-1 analogs have been introduced during the recent years. Infusion of GLP-1 also lowers the BG level in critically ill patients without causing severe hypoglycemia. The T2DM and critical illness share similar...

  3. Glucose metabolism and effect of acetate in ovine adipocytes.

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-08-01

    Isolated ovine adipocytes were incubated in vitro with specifically labeled 14C-glucose in the presence or absence of acetate. The flux patterns of glucose carbon through major metabolic pathways were estimated. When glucose was added as the sole substrate, approximately equal portions of glucose carbon (10%) were oxidized to CO2 in the pentose phosphate pathway, in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction and in the citrate cycle. Fifteen percent of the glucose carbon was incorporated into fatty acids and 43% was released as lactate and pyruvate. Addition of acetate to the medium increased glucose carbon uptake by 1.5-fold. Most of this increase was accounted for by a sevenfold increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate increased glucose carbon fluxes via pentose phosphate pathway to triose phosphates, from triose phosphate to pyruvate, into glyceride glycerol, into lactate and pyruvate and into pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle CO2. Glucose carbon incorporated into fatty acids was decreased 50% by acetate while, carbon fluxes through the phosphofructokinase-aldolase reactions were not significantly increased. Results of this study suggest that, when glucose is the sole substrate, the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in ovine adipocytes may not be limited by the maximum capacity of hexokinase, the pentose phosphate pathway or enzymes involved in the conversion of triose phosphates to pyruvate and of pyruvate to fatty acid. Acetate increased glucose utilization apparently by increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a result of enhanced NADPH utilization for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:7142048

  4. Metabolic profiling of the response to an oral glucose tolerance test detects subtle metabolic changes.

    Suzan Wopereis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. METHODOLOGY: To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men.

  5. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum

  6. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L. (UCLA School of Medicine (USA))

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ({sup 14}C)-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the {sup 14}C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the {sup 14}C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum.

  7. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose.

    Ackermann, R F; Lear, J L

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum. PMID:2584274

  8. CMPF does not associate with impaired glucose metabolism in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome.

    Maria A Lankinen

    Full Text Available 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF is a metabolite produced endogenously from dietary sources of furan fatty acids. The richest source of furan fatty acids in human diet is fish. CMPF was recently shown to be elevated in fasting plasma in individuals with gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and mechanistically high level of CMPF was linked to β cell dysfunction. Here we aimed to study the association between plasma CMPF level and glucose metabolism in persons with impaired glucose metabolism.Plasma CMPF concentration was measured from plasma samples of the study participants in an earlier controlled dietary intervention. All of them had impaired glucose metabolism and two other characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Altogether 106 men and women were randomized into three groups for 12 weeks with different fish consumption (either three fatty fish meals per week, habitual fish consumption or maximum of one fish meal per week. Associations between concentration of CMPF and various glucose metabolism parameters at an oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and at the end of the study were studied.Fasting plasma CMPF concentration was significantly increased after a 12-week consumption of fatty fish three times per week, but the concentration remained much lower compared to concentrations reported in diabetic patients. Increases of plasma CMPF concentrations mostly due to increased fish consumption were not associated with impaired glucose metabolism in this study. Instead, elevated plasma CMPF concentration was associated with decreased 2-hour insulin concentration in OGTT.Moderately elevated concentration of CMPF in plasma resulting from increased intake of fish is not harmful to glucose metabolism. Further studies are needed to fully explore the role of CMPF in the pathogenesis of impaired glucose metabolism.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00573781.

  9. The impact of Vitamin D Replacement on Glucose Metabolism

    H, Parildar; O, Cigerli; DA, Unal; O, Gulmez; NG, Demirag

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism in Vitamin D-deficient patients with prediabetes. Methods: A total of 66 subjects with the mean ages 52.2±9.9 years were included in this prospective and a 6-month follow-up study between 2008-2010. Vitamin D deficient patients (

  10. Berberine Moderates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism through Multipathway Mechanism

    Qian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, but the mechanism is still under investigation. In this paper, we explored the effects of berberine on the weight, glucose levels, lipid metabolism, and serum insulin of KKAy mice and investigated its possible glucose and lipid-regulating mechanism. We randomly divided KKAy mice into two groups: berberine group (treated with 250 mg/kg/d berberine and control group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and fasting serum insulin were measured in both groups. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. RT2 PCR array gene expression analysis was performed using skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. Our data demonstrated that berberine significantly decreased FBG, area under the curve (AUC, fasting serum insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, TC, and TG, compared with those of control group. RT2 profiler PCR array analysis showed that berberine upregulated the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, MAPK8(c-jun N-terminal kinase, JNK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, and hepatic nuclear factor 4α(HNF4α, whereas it downregulated the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP, PPARγ coactivator 1α(PGC 1α, and resistin. These results suggest that berberine moderates glucose and lipid metabolism through a multipathway mechanism that includes AMP-activated protein kinase-(AMPK- p38 MAPK-GLUT4, JNK pathway, and PPARα pathway.

  11. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  12. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise in the rat

    Garetto, L P; Richter, Erik; Goodman, M N;

    1984-01-01

    Thirty minutes after a treadmill run, glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in perfused rat skeletal muscle are enhanced due to an increase in insulin sensitivity (Richter et al., J. Clin. Invest. 69: 785-793, 1982). The exercise used in these studies was of moderate intensity, and muscle...... glycogen was substantially repleted at the time (30 min postexercise) that glucose metabolism was examined. When rats were run at twice the previous rate (36 m/min), muscle glycogen was still substantially diminished 30 min after the run. At this time the previously noted increase in insulin sensitivity...... was evident. The data suggest that the restoration of muscle glycogen after exercise occurs in two phases. In phase I, muscle glycogen is depleted and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and glucose utilization in the absence of added insulin may both be enhanced. In phase II glycogen levels have...

  13. Post-operative Changes of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with Pre-operative Anxiety: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 FDG Brain PET

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Lim, Jong Min; Goh, Tae Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2011-01-01

    Study Design A prospective study. Purpose To assess postoperative changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in anxiety patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (SS). Overview of Literature Although an association between preoperative anxiety and abnormal cerebral glucose metabolism may exist, only a limited number of studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) have evaluated preoperative to postoperative changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in SS patients in detail...

  14. Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients

    Masanori Abe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of dialysis patients, as determined by risk factors such as hypertension, nutritional status, and chronic inflammation, is lower than that of the general population. In addition, disorders of bone mineral metabolism are independently related to mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in dialysis patients. Hyperphosphatemia is an important risk factor of, not only secondary hyperparathyroidism, but also cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, the risk of death reportedly increases with an increase in adjusted serum calcium level, while calcium levels below the recommended target are not associated with a worsened outcome. Thus, the significance of target levels of serum calcium in dialysis patients is debatable. The consensus on determining optimal parathyroid function in dialysis patients, however, is yet to be established. Therefore, the contribution of phosphorus and calcium levels to prognosis is perhaps more significant. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels have also been shown to be associated with cardiovascular events and death. In this review, we examine the associations between mineral metabolic abnormalities including serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone and mortality in dialysis patients.

  15. Peritoneal Dialysate Glucose Load and Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetics: Results from the GLOBAL Fluid Cohort Study

    Mark Lambie; James Chess; Jun-Young Do; Hyunjin Noh; Hi-Bahl Lee; Yong-Lim Kim; Angela Summers; Paul Ford Williams; Sara Davison; Marc Dorval; Nick Topley; Simon John Davies

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glucose control is a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. During PD, the local toxic effects of intra-peritoneal glucose are well recognized, but despite large amounts of glucose being absorbed, the systemic effects of this in non-diabetic patients are not clear. We sought to clarify whether dialysate glucose has an effect upon systemic glucose metabolism. Methods and Materials We analysed the Global Fluid Study cohort, a ...

  16. Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints

    Picco, Agnese; Ferrara, Michela; Arnaldi, Dario; Brugnolo, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Largo P. Daneo, 3, 16132, Genoa (Italy); Polidori, M.C. [University of Cologne, Institute of Geriatrics, Cologne (Germany); Cecchetti, Roberta; Baglioni, Mauro; Bastiani, Patrizia; Mecocci, Patrizia [University of Perugia, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Perugia (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia; Bossert, Irene [University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Fiorucci, Giuliana; Dottorini, Massimo Eugenio [Nuclear Medicine, S. M. della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these subjects brain{sup 18}F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance. The study group comprised 85 subjects with cognitive disturbance of increasing degrees of severity including 23 subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 28 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 34 patients with mild AD. In all subjects brain FDG PET was performed and plasma activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (eSOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Voxel-based analysis (SPM8) was used to compare FDG PET between groups and to evaluate correlations between plasma antioxidants and glucose metabolism in the whole group of subjects, correcting for age and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Brain glucose metabolism progressively decreased in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal and cingulate cortices across the three groups, from SCI to mild AD. eSOD activity was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in a large area of the left temporal lobe including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest a role of oxidative stress in the impairment of glucose utilization in the left temporal lobe structures in elderly patients with cognitive abnormalities, including AD and conditions predisposing to AD. Further studies exploring the oxidative stress-energy metabolism axis are considered worthwhile in larger groups of these patients in order to identify pivotal pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic opportunities. (orig.)

  17. Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints

    The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these subjects brain18F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance. The study group comprised 85 subjects with cognitive disturbance of increasing degrees of severity including 23 subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 28 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 34 patients with mild AD. In all subjects brain FDG PET was performed and plasma activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (eSOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Voxel-based analysis (SPM8) was used to compare FDG PET between groups and to evaluate correlations between plasma antioxidants and glucose metabolism in the whole group of subjects, correcting for age and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Brain glucose metabolism progressively decreased in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal and cingulate cortices across the three groups, from SCI to mild AD. eSOD activity was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in a large area of the left temporal lobe including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest a role of oxidative stress in the impairment of glucose utilization in the left temporal lobe structures in elderly patients with cognitive abnormalities, including AD and conditions predisposing to AD. Further studies exploring the oxidative stress-energy metabolism axis are considered worthwhile in larger groups of these patients in order to identify pivotal pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic opportunities. (orig.)

  18. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often enc...

  19. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    Ya-Hong Ma; Caiguo Yu; Abudurexiti Kayoumu; Xin Guo; Zhili Ji; George Liu

    2015-01-01

    Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH.However,it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance.In this study,we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice.ApoCⅢ transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia were mated with non-transgenic control mice to obtain 4 types of offspring:maternal non-transgenic control and maternal transgenic offspring,and paternal control and paternal transgenic offspring.Plasma triglycerides (TG),total cholesterol (TC),fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured.ApoCⅢ overexpression caused severe hypertriglyceridemia,but the transgenic female mice had unaltered fertility with normal pregnancy and birth of pups.The 4 groups of offspring had similar birth weight and growth rate.The plasma TG of maternal and paternal transgenic offspring were nearly 40-fold higher than maternal and paternal control mice,but there was no difference in plasma TG between maternal and paternal transgenic offspring.Although the FPG of the 4 groups of animals had no difference,the maternal transgenic mice showed impaired glucose tolerance,increased FINS levels and higher homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the other 3 groups.In conclusion,maternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia in ApoCⅢ transgenic mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance,hyperinsulinemia and increased HOMA-R,while paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia did not have such impacts.

  20. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome predicted outcome in the LIFE study, independently of single risk markers, including obesity, diabetes and baseline ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined whether clusters of two or...

  1. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    Moore, Rebecca; Adler, Hugh; Jackson, Valerie; Lawless, Mairead; Byrne, Maria; Eogan, Maeve; Lambert, John S

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic complications, including diabetes mellitus, have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women. We conducted a retrospective review of all HIV-infected women attending a combined infectious disease and antenatal clinic between 2007 and 2013 who underwent a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks. We grouped the patients based on whether their OGTT result was normal or abnormal, and compared the groups using standard parametric tests (t-test and Fisher's exact test). Of 263 women with HIV who attended the clinic, 142 (53.9%) attended for OGTT and were eligible for inclusion. The mean age was 31 years (SD 5.37), all women were of European or African origin and 33.7% had a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) About 93.7% were on PI-based regimens. At delivery, the mean CD4 count was 526 cells/µL, and 13% of patients had a detectable viraemia. The prevalence of IGT was 2.8%, while the prevalence of GDM was 2.1%. Also, 71.4% (n = 5) of women with abnormal glucose metabolism were taking PIs versus 94.8% (n = 128) of normoglycaemic women (p = 0.06). We did not confirm an increased rate of GDM in HIV-infected women in our patient population and found no association between PI use and GDM. PMID:25999164

  2. A randomized trial comparing the effect of weight loss and exercise training on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in coronary artery disease

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Jürs, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The majority of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit abnormal glucose metabolism, which is associated with mortality even at non-diabetic glucose levels. This trial aims to compare the effects of a considerable weight loss and exercise with limited weight loss on glucose...... followed by 2-4 weeks' weight maintenance diet. Glucose tolerance, insulin action, β-cell function and suppression of lipolysis were assessed using a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. ISI-composite and ISI-HOMA (=1/HOMA-IR) were calculated as surrogate measures of whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity...

  3. Sex Differences in Associations Among Obesity, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese Men and Women

    Sakurai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Junji; Takeda, Yasuo; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Yamakawa, Junichi; Moriya, Junji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Aims The present study aimed to investigate relationships among abdominal obesity, metabolic abnormalities, and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relatively lean Japanese men and women. Participants and methods The participants included 8133 men and 15 934 women between 40 and 75 years of age recruited from the government health check-up center in Kanazawa City, Japan. The prevalence of abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and high fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed according to the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for the Japanese population, and participants with an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria were diagnosed with CKD. Results Overall, 23% of males and 14% of females met criteria for CKD. Having more numerous complicated metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) of CKD for men and women, irrespective of abdominal obesity. However, there was a sex difference in the OR of CKD for obese participants without metabolic abnormalities, such that abdominal obesity without metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher OR for men (multivariate-adjusted OR 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–2.28) but not for women (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71–1.44). Conclusions The present findings demonstrated that obesity without metabolic abnormalities was associated with a higher risk of CKD in men but not women in a relatively lean Japanese population. PMID:27087606

  4. Redox metabolism abnormalities in autistic children associated with mitochondrial disease.

    Frye, R E; Delatorre, R; Taylor, H; Slattery, J; Melnyk, S; Chowdhury, N; James, S J

    2013-01-01

    Research studies have uncovered several metabolic abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including mitochondrial disease (MD) and abnormal redox metabolism. Despite the close connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, the relation between MD and oxidative stress in children with ASD has not been studied. Plasma markers of oxidative stress and measures of cognitive and language development and ASD behavior were obtained from 18 children diagnosed with ASD who met criteria for probable or definite MD per the Morava et al. criteria (ASD/MD) and 18 age and gender-matched ASD children without any biological markers or symptoms of MD (ASD/NoMD). Plasma measures of redox metabolism included reduced free glutathione (fGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the fGSH/GSSG ratio and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT). In addition, a plasma measure of chronic immune activation, 3-chlorotyrosine (3CT), was also measured. Language was measured using the preschool language scale or the expressive one-word vocabulary test (depending on the age), adaptive behaviour was measured using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and core autism symptoms were measured using the Autism Symptoms Questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Children with ASD/MD were found to have lower scores on the communication and daily living skill subscales of the VABS despite having similar language and ASD symptoms. Children with ASD/MD demonstrated significantly higher levels of fGSH/GSSG and lower levels of GSSG as compared with children with ASD/NoMD, suggesting an overall more favourable glutathione redox status in the ASD/MD group. However, compare with controls, both ASD groups demonstrated lower fGSH and fGSH/GSSG, demonstrating that both groups suffer from redox abnormalities. Younger ASD/MD children had higher levels of 3CT than younger ASD/NoMD children because of an age-related effect in the ASD/MD group. Both ASD groups demonstrated significantly

  5. D-[U-11C]glucose uptake and metabolism in the brain of insulin-dependent diabetic subjects

    We used D-[U-11C]glucose to evaluate transport and metabolism of glucose in the brain in eight nondiabetic and six insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects. IDDM subjects were treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Blood glucose was regulated by a Biostator-controlled glucose infusion during a constant insulin infusion. D-[U-11C]-glucose was injected for positron emission tomography studies during normoglycemia as well as during moderate hypoglycemia [arterial plasma glucose 2.74 +/- 0.14 in nondiabetic and 2.80 +/- 0.26 mmol/l (means +/- SE) in IDDM subjects]. Levels of free insulin were constant and similar in both groups. The tracer data were analyzed using a three-compartment model with a fixed correction for 11CO2 egression. During normoglycemia the influx rate constant (k1) and blood-brain glucose flux did not differ between the two groups. During hypoglycemia k1 increased significantly and similarly in both groups (from 0.061 +/- 0.007 to 0.090 +/- 0.006 in nondiabetic and from 0.061 +/- 0.006 to 0.093 +/- 0.013 ml.g-1.min-1 in IDDM subjects). During normoglycemia the tracer-calculated metabolism of glucose was higher in the whole brain in the nondiabetic than in the diabetic subjects (22.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 15.6 +/- 1.1 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01). During hypoglycemia tracer-calculated metabolism was decreased by 40% in nondiabetic subjects and by 28% in diabetic subjects. The results indicate that uptake of glucose is normal, but some aspect of glucose metabolism is abnormal in a group of well-controlled IDDM subjects

  6. D-(U-11C)glucose uptake and metabolism in the brain of insulin-dependent diabetic subjects

    Gutniak, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Widen, L.; Stone-Elander, S.; Hamberger, B.; Grill, V. (Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-05-01

    We used D-(U-11C)glucose to evaluate transport and metabolism of glucose in the brain in eight nondiabetic and six insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects. IDDM subjects were treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Blood glucose was regulated by a Biostator-controlled glucose infusion during a constant insulin infusion. D-(U-11C)-glucose was injected for positron emission tomography studies during normoglycemia as well as during moderate hypoglycemia (arterial plasma glucose 2.74 +/- 0.14 in nondiabetic and 2.80 +/- 0.26 mmol/l (means +/- SE) in IDDM subjects). Levels of free insulin were constant and similar in both groups. The tracer data were analyzed using a three-compartment model with a fixed correction for 11CO2 egression. During normoglycemia the influx rate constant (k1) and blood-brain glucose flux did not differ between the two groups. During hypoglycemia k1 increased significantly and similarly in both groups (from 0.061 +/- 0.007 to 0.090 +/- 0.006 in nondiabetic and from 0.061 +/- 0.006 to 0.093 +/- 0.013 ml.g-1.min-1 in IDDM subjects). During normoglycemia the tracer-calculated metabolism of glucose was higher in the whole brain in the nondiabetic than in the diabetic subjects (22.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 15.6 +/- 1.1 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01). During hypoglycemia tracer-calculated metabolism was decreased by 40% in nondiabetic subjects and by 28% in diabetic subjects. The results indicate that uptake of glucose is normal, but some aspect of glucose metabolism is abnormal in a group of well-controlled IDDM subjects.

  7. 糖代谢异常孕妇体质量及相关因素对新生儿出生体质量的影响%Factors relevant to newborn birth weight in pregnancy complicated with abnormal glucose Metabolism

    杨延冬; 翟桂荣; 杨慧霞

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of neonatal birth body mass in women with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Methods A study was conducted on 1157 singleton gravidas, who were diagnosed and treated for abnormal glucose metabolism and delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Hospital, Peking University from January 2005 to December 2009, by reviewing the medical records. Based on the pre-pregnant body mass index, the selected cases were divided into 4 groups: low body mass group [ body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2, n =53], ideal body mass group ( BMI 18.5 - 23.9 kg/m2, n = 647 ), over body mass group ( BMI 24.0 - 27.9 kg/m2, n = 323 ),and obese group (BMI≥28.0 kg/m2, n = 134). 1157 newborns were divided by birth body mass into 3 groups: normal birth body mass group (body mass 2500 -4000 g, n =987), of which 545 cases of birth body mass 3000 -3500 g for the appropriate newborns, macrosomia group (body mass≥4000 g, n = 112);low birth body mass group (body mass < 2500 g, n = 58 ). The following information was collected,including pre-pregnancy body mass, height, gestational age of diagnosis and body mass gain after diagnosis,maternal serum level of cholesterol, history of adverse pregnancy, and family history of diabetes, gestational age, delivering body mass, neonatal birth body mass. The influence of pre-pregnant BMI, body mass gain during pregnancy, gestational age of diagnosis, body mass gain after diagnosis, maternal serum level of cholesterol, family history of diabetes on the newborns' birth body mass was analyzed. The appropriate ranges of gestational body mass gain were calculated in women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Results ( 1 )The average neonatal birth body mass for each group respectively were (3142 ±333) g for low body mass group, (3339 ±476) g for the ideal body mass group, (3381 ±581) g for over body mass group, and (3368 ± 644) g for obese group. The neonatal birth body mass was

  8. Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using 18F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC

  9. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Gjedsted, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind, p......CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single......-blind, placebo-controlled two-period crossover study. SETTING: The study was performed in a university clinical research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eight healthy men aged 27.2 +/- 0.9 yr with a body mass index of 23.4 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Subjects received infusion of ghrelin...... the final 2 h of each infusion. RESULTS: Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased with ghrelin [basal: 1.9 +/- 0.1 (ghrelin) vs. 2.3 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.03; clamp: 3.9 +/- 0.6 (ghrelin) vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.02], whereas endogenous glucose...

  10. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2001-01-01

    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction and...... observed using positron emission tomography and fluor-18-labeled fluorodesoxyglucose. The neuropsychological deficits are related to the location of deficits in glucose metabolism....

  11. Positive Correlation between Severity of Blepharospasm and Thalamic Glucose Metabolism

    Murai, Hideki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Kiyosawa, Motohiro; Wakakura, Masato; Mochizuki, Manabu; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with drug-related blepharospasm was followed up for 22 months. She had undergone etizolam treatment for 19 years for indefinite complaints. We examined her cerebral glucose metabolism 5 times (between days 149 and 688 since presentation), using positron emission tomography, and identified regions of interest in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and primary somatosensory area on both sides. The severity of the blepharospasm was evaluated by PET scanning using the Waka...

  12. Skeleton and Glucose Metabolism: A Bone-Pancreas Loop

    2015-01-01

    Bone has been considered a structure essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic function. Recent advances in bone biology have highlighted the importance of skeleton as an endocrine organ which regulates some metabolic pathways, in particular, insulin signaling and glucose tolerance. This review will point out the role of bone as an endocrine “gland” and, specifically, of bone-specific proteins, as the osteocalcin (Ocn), and proteins involved in bone remodeling, as osteopr...

  13. Glucose challenge test (50-g GCT) in detection of glucose metabolism disorders in peritoneal dialysis patients: preliminary study

    Madziarska, Katarzyna; Zmonarski, Slawomir; Penar, Jozef; Krajewska, Magdalena; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Augustyniak-Bartosik, Hanna; Gołebiowski, Tomasz; Klak, Renata; Weyde, Waclaw; Klinger, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of the oral glucose tolerance screening test (50-g GCT—glucose challenge test) for the detection of glucose metabolism disorders (GMD) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with normal fasting glucose levels. Methods The 50-g GCT was performed in 20 prevalent patients without history of diabetes before PD treatment onset, who had been on dialysis for a median time of 15.34 months. In addition, other indicators of glucose metabolism were m...

  14. Abnormal copper metabolism in Menke's steely-hair syndrome.

    Lott, I T; Dipaolo, R; Raghavan, S S; Clopath, P; Milunsky, A; Robertson, W C; kanfer, J N

    1979-07-01

    Copper (Cu) metabolism was selectively studied in seven infants with Menke's steely-hair syndrome (SHS). A daily oral regimen of CuSO4 (584 microgram Cu/kg) and L-histidine (100 mg/kg) in three infants produced an increase in serum Cu concentrations ranging from 33-95% of normal, but without the formation of ceruloplasmin. Cohn serum protein fractionation after oral Cu/L-histidine loading showed a disproportionate accumulation of Cu in the albumin fraction (V). The electron spin resonance spectrum of fraction V showed a heightened signal for the SHS patients, suggesting that an increased concentration of a radical Cu species is present after oral loading. The Sephadex G-150 chromatographic profile of serum fraction V in SHS did not differ significantly from controls. These results suggest that, in SHS, Cu absorbed in the presence of L-histidine is in an abnormal complex involving albumin, which does not allow for holoceruloplasmin biosynthesis. Cu and ceruloplasmin concentrations in the cord blood specimen of an infant who went on to develop SHS were normal, a finding which may account for the transient period of seemingly normal development after birth in SHS patients. An almost 6-fold difference in mean Cu concentration was observed in SHS fibroblasts compared to controls. Fibroblast Cu concentration was elevated in one to two possible maternal heterozygotes, a finding which may permit diagnosis of the carrier state for some SHS heterozygotes. PMID:481958

  15. Safety and efficacy of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism%门冬胰岛素与人胰岛素对妊娠合并糖代谢异常患者的有效性及安全性

    李楠; 杨慧霞; 翟桂荣; 吴春凤

    2011-01-01

    异常孕妇中,相比人胰岛素,门冬胰岛素能更快、更有效地控制血糖,同时可明显降低低血糖事件的发生.对分娩结局的影响方面,Asp组有优于HI组的趋势.%Objective To analyze and compare the safety and efficacy of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism.Methods In this study,the data of 77 pregnant women with pre-pregnant diabetes mellitus( DM,n =22 ) or gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM,n =55 ) treated from January 2004 to May 2010 with insulin aspart ( Asp group) were investigated.And 77 pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism using regular human insulin in the mean time were selected as control ( HI group) in a ratio of 1 ∶ 1.The changes of glucose levels,time for reaching glucose targets,incidence of hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes after the treatment were compared between the two groups by using t or rank test.Results One week of treatment after,the 2 h post-breakfast and post-supper glucose levels in DM women in Asp group were (6.5 ± 1.1 ) and (7.1 ± 1.1 ) mmol/L and those were (8.0 ± 1.1 ) and (7.8 ±0.8) mmol/L DM women in HI group; the 2 h post-breakfast,postlunch and post-supper glucose levels in GDM women in Asp group were (6.5 ± 0.7 ),(6.8 ± 0.7 ) and (6.7 ± 0.7 ) mmol/L,and those were ( 7.1 ± 0.9),( 7.3 ± 0.9) and ( 7.4 ± 0.8 ) mmoL/L in GDM women in HI group.The postprandial glucose levels were all lower in Asp group than those in the HI group ( all P < 0.05 ).The time for 2 h post-breakfast glucose level to reach standard in DM women in Asp group was (3.0 ± 2.2) d,and it was ( 5.0 ± 2.1 ) d in DM women in HI group; and those were (2.3 ± 1.6) and (4.3 ±2.6)d in GDM women in Asp group and in HI group,respectively.The time for reaching glucose targets in Asp group were all shorter than those in HI group(P <0.05).The incidence of hypoglycemia in Asp group was 3.9% ( 1 case of DM and 2 eases of GDM) and it was 24.7% in HI

  16. Angiotensin Receptor Blockade Increases Pancreatic Insulin Secretion and Decreases Glucose Intolerance during Glucose Supplementation in a Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    Rodriguez, Ruben; Viscarra, Jose A.; Minas, Jacqueline N.; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2012-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system blockade improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of impaired insulin secretion to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is not well defined. To assess the contributions of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) activation and high glucose intake on pancreatic function and their effects on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, an oral glucose tolerance test ...

  17. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. PMID:27001278

  18. Metabolism Kinetics of Glucose in Anchorage-dependent Cell Cultures

    孙祥明; 张元兴

    2001-01-01

    The kinetic model of glucose metabolism was established and successfully applied to batchcultures of rCHO and rBHK cells. It was found that a large amount of glucose was utilized for cellmaintenance, and the overwhelming majority of maintenance energy from glucose was by its anaerobicmetabolism in both rBHK and rCHO cell cultures. The overall maintenance coefficients from aerobicmetabolism were 1.9×10-13 mmol/(cell.h) for rCHO cells and 7×10-13 mmol/(cell.h) for rBHK cells. Inaddition, all Go/T and Eo/T gradually increased with the same trend as the cell growth in the culture ofboth rCHO and rBHK cells. The overall molecule yield coefficients of lactate to glucose were 1.61 for rCHO cells and 1.38 for rBHK cells. The yield coefficients of cell to glucose were 4.5×108 cells/mmol for rCHO cells and 1.9 × 108 cells/mmol for rBHK cells, respectively.

  19. Metabolic abnormalities in patients with prolactinoma: response to treatment with cabergoline

    Nazir A. Pala; Laway, Bashir A.; Raiz A Misgar; Rayees A Dar

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperprolactinemia has been associated with changes in body composition and metabolic abnormalities. Normalization of prolactin (PRL) with dopamine agonists has been found to reverse these abnormalities. This study was designed to assess the anthropometric and metabolic alterations associated with prolactinoma and response of these abnormalities to cabergoline treatment. Methods In a non-randomised matched prospective design, 19 consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median PRL 11...

  20. Bone Regulates Glucose Metabolism as an Endocrine Organ through Osteocalcin

    Jin Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeleton was considered as a dynamic connective tissue, which was essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic niche. However more and more evidences indicate that skeleton works not only as a structural scaffold but also as an endocrine organ, which regulates several metabolic processes. Besides osteoprotegerin (OPG, sclerostin (SOST, and Dickopf (DKK which play essential roles in bone formation, modelling, remodelling, and homeostasis, bone can also secret hormones, such as osteocalcin (OCN, which promotes proliferation of β cells, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. Additionally OCN can also regulate the fat cells and male gonad endocrine activity and be regulated by insulin and the neural system. In summary, skeleton has endocrine function via OCN and plays an important role in energy metabolism, especially in glucose metabolism.

  1. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    after RYGB is rapid entry of glucose into the systemic circulation due to modified gastrointestinal anatomy, causing hypersecretion of insulin and other hormones influencing glucose disappearance and endogenous glucose production. METHODS: We determined glucose absorption and metabolism and the rate of...... RYGB. Endogenous glucose production was similar before and after surgery. Postoperative glucagon secretion increased and showed a biphasic response after RYGB. Adipose tissue basal rate of lipolysis was higher after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A rapid rate of absorption of ingested glucose into...... lipolysis before and 3 months after RYGB in obese glucose-tolerant individuals using the double-tracer technique during a mixed meal. RESULTS: After RYGB, the postprandial plasma glucose profile changed, with a higher peak glucose concentration followed by a faster return to lower than basal levels. These...

  2. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease with or without dementia

    By means of positron emission tomography, the cerebral glucose metabolism in 5 patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia was compared with that in 9 patients without dementia, and that in 5 normal volunteers. The metabolic rates for glucose were measured by placing one hundred regions of interest. In the demented patients, cerebral glucose metabolism was diffusely decreased compared with that of the non-demented patients and the normal controls. The most significant decrease in glucose metabolism was observed in the angular gyrus (49.7% of the normal controls). The glucose metabolism in the cingulate, pre- and postcentral, occipital and subcortical regions was relatively spared (62.1 to 85.5% of the normal controls). In the patients without dementia, the glucose metabolism in each region was not significantly different from that in the normal controls. These results suggest that diffuse glucose hypometabolism in the cerebral cortex may correlate with that of patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia. (author)

  3. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism.......Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism....

  4. Correlation of glucose metabolism in brain cells and brain morphological changes with clinical typing in children with cerebral palsy

    Qiongxiang Zhai; Huixian Qiao; Jiqing Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It is widely known that fluorino-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography(18F-FDG PET)is commonly used to evaluate and diagnose epilepsy;however,whether it is beneficial to understand functional metabolism of bra in cells so as to reflect injured site and degree of brain cells or not should be studied further.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the correlation between glucose metabolism and clinical typling as well as the conelation between active function of brain cells and degree of brain injury among children with cerbral palsy with 18F-FDG PET and MRI and compare the results of them.DESIGN:Case analysis.SETTING:Department of Pediatrics,People's Hospital of Guangdong Province.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 31 children with cerebral palsy were selected from Out-patient Clinic and In-patient Department of People's Hospital of Guangdong Province from July 2001 to August 2004.Based on clinical criteria of cerebral palsy,patients were classified into spasm(n=10),gradual movement(n=4),mixed type(n =13)and ataxia(n=4).There were 18 boys and 13 girls aged from 10 months to 4 years.All of them were met the diagnostic criteria of cerebral palsy and all parents of them were told the facts.Exclusion cdteria:Patients who had cerebral palsy caused by genetic metabolism disease were excluded.METHODS:①All children accepted MRI examination after hospitalization with Philips Acs NT 15T superconductling magnetic resonance scanner.②All children were fasted for 4 hours.And then,PET image of brain was collected based on T+EID type.If obvious hypermetabolism or hypometabolism region successively occurred on two layers, the image was regarded as abnormality. ③Different correlations of various abnormal greups of MRI and vadous types of cerebral palsy with PET image were compared and analyzed with Erusal-Willas rank sum test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①Results of 18F-FDG PET;②Results of MRI examination;③Correlation of variously abnormal groups of MRI and various types of cerebral

  5. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Purpose: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the third most common cause of dementia, following Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease. Four prototypic neuro behavioral syndromes can be produced by FTLD: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (MND), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive aphasia (PA). We investigated patterns of metabolic impairment in patients with FTLD presented with four different clinical syndromes. Methods: We analyzed glucose metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of FTLD (19 FTD, 6 MND, 6 SD, and 3 PA, according to a consensus criteria for clinical syndromes associated with FTLD) and 7 age-matched healthy controls using SPM99. Results: Patients with FTD had metabolic deficit in the left frontal cortex and bilateral anterior temporal cortex. Hypometabolism in the bilateral pre-motor area was shown in patients with MND. Patients with SD had metabolic deficit in the left posterior temporal cortex including Wernicke's area, while hypometabolism in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area and left angular gyrus was seen in patients with PA. These metabolic patterns were well correlated with clinical and neuropsychological features of FTLD syndromes. Conclusion: These data provide a biochemical basis of clinical classification of FTLD. FDG PET may help evaluate and classify patients with FTLD

  6. Glucose metabolism in rats submitted to skeletal muscle denervation

    Wilton Marlindo Santana Nunes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the local and systemic effects of immobilization by denervation of the skeletal muscle on glucose metabolism. The rats were submitted to section of the right paw sciatic nerve. A reduction was observed in glucose uptake by the isolated soleus muscle of the denervated paw after 3 and 7 days, but not after 28 days in relation to the control animals. There was no difference after 3 and 7 days in glucose uptake by the soleus muscle of the opposite intact paw in relation to the control. There was increased glucose uptake in the same paw 28 days after denervation. The rate of glucose removal in response to exogenous insulin after 28 days of denervation was significantly higher than in control animals and those observed after 3 and 7 days of denervation. These results suggest that immobilization by denervation interfered not only in glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle involved but also in other tissues.O estudo analisou os efeitos locais e sistêmicos da imobilização por desnervação do músculo esquelético sobre o metabolismo glicidico. Ratos foram submetidos à secção do nervo ciático da pata direita. Observou-se redução da captação de glicose pelo músculo sóleo isolado da pata desnervada após 3 e 7 mas não após 28 dias em relação a animais controle. Não houve diferença após 3 e 7 dias na captação de glicose pelo músculo sóleo da pata contralateral intacta em relação ao controle. Houve aumento da captação de glicose nesta mesma pata 28 dias após a desnervação. A taxa de remoção da glicose em resposta à insulina exógena após 28 dias de desnervação foi significantemente superior à do controle e àquelas observadas após 3 e 7 dias da desnervação. Esses resultados sugerem que a imobilização por desnervação interfere não só no metabolismo da glicose no músculo esquelético envolvido como também em outros tecidos.

  7. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D;

    2008-01-01

    . We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling networks...... implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with schizophrenia...

  8. Studies on glucose metabolism and blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure by positron emission CT

    To investigate the glucose metabolism and blood perfusion of the interictal epileptic focus, 15 positron emission tomography (PET) measurements were performed in 14 children with partial seizures (2 with simple partial seizures, 2 with complex partial seizures, and 10 with partial seizures evolving to secondary generalized seizures), comprising 7 males and 7 females aged 1 to 12 years old at the onset of the epileptic seizures. The intervals between the seizure onset and PET examinations were 1 month to 7 years (mean 3 1/4 years). Radiopharmaceuticals such as 11C-glucose, 11CO2 and 11CO were used as indicators of local cerebral glucose metabolism, blood perfusion and blood flow, respectively. Apart from 2 cases, none of the patients showed abnormal x-ray computed tomographic scans (X-CT). The abnormal X-CT findings included cortical atrophy of the cerebrum apart from the epiletic focus in one case and cavum vergae in the other. Hypometabolism and hypoperfusion at the epileptic focus were observed in 10 patients undergoing single examinations who had suffered from epileptic seizures for more than 1 year. Out of 4 patients who had suffered from epileptic seizures for 1 year or less, one revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the epileptic focus and expanded region larger than that of the epileptic focus on the electroencephalogram. Two other patients revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in an area contralateral to the epileptic focus. In the remaining one patient, PET examinations were performed twice. The initial PET pictures one year after seizure onset revealed a zone of hypermetabolism and hyperperfusion in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the epileptic focus, and the second PET at 6 months after the initial examination revealed hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the focus, similarly to the 10 cases mentioned above. (J.P.N.)

  9. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011) of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographi...

  10. Energetics of Glucose Metabolism: A Phenomenological Approach to Metabolic Network Modeling

    Frank Diederichs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new formalism to describe metabolic fluxes as well as membrane transport processes was developed. The new flux equations are comparable to other phenomenological laws. Michaelis-Menten like expressions, as well as flux equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, can be regarded as special cases of these new equations. For metabolic network modeling, variable conductances and driving forces are required to enable pathway control and to allow a rapid response to perturbations. When applied to oxidative phosphorylation, results of simulations show that whole oxidative phosphorylation cannot be described as a two-flux-system according to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, although all coupled reactions per se fulfill the equations of this theory. Simulations show that activation of ATP-coupled load reactions plus glucose oxidation is brought about by an increase of only two different conductances: a [Ca2+] dependent increase of cytosolic load conductances, and an increase of phosphofructokinase conductance by [AMP], which in turn becomes increased through [ADP] generation by those load reactions. In ventricular myocytes, this feedback mechanism is sufficient to increase cellular power output and O2 consumption several fold, without any appreciable impairment of energetic parameters. Glucose oxidation proceeds near maximal power output, since transformed input and output conductances are nearly equal, yielding an efficiency of about 0.5. This conductance matching is fulfilled also by glucose oxidation of β-cells. But, as a price for the metabolic mechanism of glucose recognition, β-cells have only a limited capability to increase their power output.

  11. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Soto-Montenegro, M L; Vaquero, Juan José; Arango, C.; Ricaurte, G.; García-Barreno, P; Desco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Methods Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated...

  12. Biochemical Hypermedia: Glucose as a Central Molecule in Metabolism

    J.K. Sugai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The technologies of information, together with education resources, have been pointed out as a solution to the improvement of teaching approach, but they still claim for programs to fulfill the demands of didactic materials. So, a biochemical software was developed aiming to contribute for the better understanding of the glycolysis. It was prepared with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. The introduction screen shows a teacher in a theater presenting glucose as a central molecule in the metabolism of animals, plants and many microorganisms. She invites for a better knowledge of glucose through a view of its discovery and its metabolism. A step by step animation process shows the interaction of glucose in aerobic conditions with the enzymes of the glycolytic pathways and its products. An explanation text of each enzyme catalytic process is provided by links. A static pathway is always available through a link. The fates of pyruvate yielding lactic acid and ethanol under anaerobic conditions are shown as well. The overall reactions of gluconeogenesis and the functional significance of this pathway are presented. The experimental treatment involved the presentation of this hypermedia for Nutrition undergraduate students (UFSC as a tool for better comprehension of the theme. The students revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in glycolysis. This suggests that there is a significant added value in employing the software as an instructional effort to enhance student’s abilities to understand biochemical pathways.

  13. Alterations in Glucose Metabolism on Cognition: A Possible Link Between Diabetes and Dementia.

    González-Reyes, Rodrigo E; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Ávila-Rodrigues, Marco; Barreto, George E

    2016-01-01

    The use of the carbohydrate glucose as an energetic source is essential for an adequate function of the human body. The complex regulation of this molecule involves the coordinated action of various organs such as pancreas, liver and brain. Any disruption of this physiological balance may result in a dangerous compromise of general metabolic activities increasing the possibility of developing T1DM, T2DM and possibly AD. Astrocytes convert glucose into lactate and transfer it to neurons. This lactate is essential for neuronal metabolism and for various processes including the formation of synapses, dendrites and the expression of genes involved in memory. The brain is highly susceptible to variations in glucose blood levels, and both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia can be dangerous. Pathological hyperglycemia induces changes in plasmatic osmotic pressure, mitochondrial production of free radicals, oxidative stress and activation of neuronal apoptosis, among others. Both AD and diabetes are chronic diseases having age as an important risk factor. As the brain ages, it seems to become much more susceptible to cellular damage induced by excess of circulating glucose and this could explain the appearance of cognitive changes observed in some patients with diabetes. Excessive circulation of pro-inflammatory agents has been observed in insulin resistance and is likely that some of these mediators may cross the bloodbrain barrier and induce abnormal neuroinflammation. GSK-3 is overexpressed in diabetes and also has been reported to regulate tau phosphorylation and production of Aβ peptides in the brain. Currently, diabetes (hyperglycemia) is considered as a risk factor for the development of AD. A novel therapeutic approach, using intranasal insulin and anti-diabetic medications in patients suffering from AD is being explored and is discussed in this review. PMID:26648470

  14. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism associated with mental deterioration in multi-infarct dementia

    Cerebral glucose metabolism of 18 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) and 10 age-matched normal subjects were examined with positron emission tomography and the 18-F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose technique. MID patients had significantly lower glucose metabolsim in all the grey matter regions measured and were also characterized by more individuality in metabolic pattern. MID patients were also evaluated as to intelligence quotient (IQ). A positive correlation between IQ as shown by the Tanaka-Binet test and glucose metabolism for the entire grey matter was found. The clinical applicability of this test for predicting cerebral metabolism is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Fructose modifies the hormonal response and modulates lipid metabolism in aerobic exercise after glucose supplementation

    Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; Ruano-Ruiz, Juan; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Tunez-Fiñana, Isaac; Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Pérez-Martinez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic response, when aerobic exercise is performed after the ingestion of glucose plus fructose, is unclear. To compare the hormonal and lipid responses provoked by the ingestion of glucose plus fructose in relation to glucose alone, during aerobic exercise and the recovery phase, we administered two beverages containing glucose plus fructose or glucose in a randomised crossover design, to twenty healthy, aerobically trained volunteers. After a 15-minute resting pe...

  16. Metabolic and mitogenic transduction cascades in skeletal muscle : Implications for exercise effects on glucose metabolism and gene regulation

    Yu, Mei

    2003-01-01

    Level of physical activity is linked to improved glucose homeostasis. The molecular signaling mechanisms by which insulin and exercise/muscle contractions lead to increased glucose transport and metabolism and gene expression have not been completely elucidated. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify novel regulatory mechanisms governing exercisesensitive signaling pathways to glucose metabolism and gene transcription in skeletal muscle. Components of the insulin (IR...

  17. [Metabolism of labeled exogenous glucose in fiber flax tissues].

    Chikov, V I; Avvakumova, N Iu; Bakirova, G G; Khamidullina, L A

    2005-01-01

    A labeled glucose solution was introduced into cut fiber flax plants (45-50 cm high) using a special unit under a pressure of 0.1 atm for 30 min, 1, and 2 h. The highest quantities of labeled carbon were revealed in the woody tissue. Sucrose made up a considerable proportion in low molecular weight products of [ [2-14C]-glucose transformation (23.5%). Metabolism of labeled glucose in the leaves exposed to sunlight yielded a set of metabolites similar to products of 14CO2 photoassimilation. In the shade, the pattern of 14C distribution in labeled compounds of the water/alcohol soluble fraction remained similar in mature leaves, while in juvenile leaves, 14C content decreased in sucrose and increased in organic and amino acids. In the shade, the incorporation of 14C into starch and hot water soluble polysaccharides increased at the expense of the acetone fraction (lipids and pigments), water/salt soluble proteins, and cellulose. Low light conditions increased the radioactivity ratio of sparingly soluble (KOH and Triton X-100 soluble) proteins to albumins and globulins. We propose that the synthesis of components of the photosynthetic apparatus in juvenile leaves is directly powered by photosynthesis and the photosynthesis of glucose and the polymers compete for ATP energy. Appearance of sucrose in the woody tissue is due to its release from the phloem to the stem apoplast and the radial transfer to the xylem, where it is transported to the upper shoot with the transpiration flow. PMID:16004260

  18. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75±0.34%, 0.65±0.25%, and 0.43±0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17±0.49%, 0.80±0.44% and 0.99±0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38±0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  19. 糖代谢与骨骼肌的关系%Relationship between glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle

    查爱云; 孙子林

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the principal site of glucose uptake under insulin-stimulated conditions,and it plays an important role in the glucose homeostasis. Under pathological state, the regulation of skeletal muscle on glucose metabolism is decreased. Muscle glycogen and the circulation glucose are essential for the physiological metabolism and function of skeletal muscle. The glucose metabolic disturbance, especially hyperglycemia, has profound impact on the skeletal muscle with regard to dysfunction, metabolic disturbance and structural changes, including insulin resistance, muscle glycogen metabolic disturbance, myatrophy and vascular abnormality. Myopathy may affect metabolism in turn,which may worsen the pathogenetic condition.%骨骼肌是体内胰岛素刺激下摄取葡萄糖的主要组织,在糖代谢平衡中发挥着重要的作用.病理状态下的骨骼肌这种代谢调节能力下降.肌糖原及循环中葡萄糖是维持骨骼肌细胞正常代谢及功能的主要物质.糖代谢紊乱尤其是高血糖对骨骼肌的代谢、结构及功能等都有明显影响,包括高血糖导致骨骼肌胰岛素抵抗、对肌糖原代谢的影响、肌萎缩以及血管异常等,肌组织病变反过来又影响代谢的控制,使病情加重.

  20. Prevalence of undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. Results of a risk-stratified screening based on FINDRISC questionnaire

    Winkler, Gábor; Hidvégi, Tibor; Vándorfi, Győző; Balogh, Sándor; Jermendy, György

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing, worldwide and also in Hungary. Timely diagnosis and early treatment could be aided by targeted screening. Recognizing this, the Hungarian Diabetes Association initiated a risk-stratified screening with the involvement of primary care physicians. Material/Methods In the first phase of screening, the FINDRISC questionnaire was completed, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for those with a score of ≥12. Between September 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011, 70,432 non-diabetic adults, who visited their general practitioners for any reason, were involved in the screening. Of these, 68,476 questionnaires proved to be suitable for processing. Results From the questionnaires, 28,077 (41.0%) had a score of ≥12. A valid OGTT was performed in 22,846 cases; of this group 3,217 subjects (14.1%) had elevated fasting glucose levels, 5,663 (24.8%) had impaired glucose tolerance, and 1,750 (7.6%) had manifest, previously undiagnosed, diabetes mellitus. Overall, from the valid OGTT group, 46.5% subjects had some degree of glucose intolerance. Conclusions Based on the FINDRISC questionnaire, the risk-stratified screening for diabetes mellitus proved to be simple and cost-effective method for the early detection of carbohydrate metabolism disorders. Using this method, the prevalence rate of previously undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance was high in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. PMID:23344680

  1. Possibility to predict early postpartum glucose abnormality following gestational diabetes mellitus based on the results of routine mid-gestational screening

    Bartáková, Vendula; Malúšková, Denisa; Mužík, Jan; Bělobrádková, Jana; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have increased risk of developing glucose abnormality, but current diagnostic criteria are evidence-based for adverse pregnancy outcome. The aims of our study were: (i) to ascertain a frequency of early conversion of GDM into permanent glucose abnormality, (ii) to determine predictive potential of current GDM diagnostic criteria for prediction of postpartum glucose abnormality and (iii) to find optimal cut-off values of ora...

  2. Emerging role of the brain in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism.

    Roh, Eun; Song, Do Kyeong; Kim, Min-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence from genetic animal models suggests that the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, has a key role in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. The brain integrates multiple metabolic inputs from the periphery through nutrients, gut-derived satiety signals and adiposity-related hormones. The brain modulates various aspects of metabolism, such as food intake, energy expenditure, insulin secretion, hepatic glucose production and glucose/fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Highly coordinated interactions between the brain and peripheral metabolic organs are critical for the maintenance of energy and glucose homeostasis. Defective crosstalk between the brain and peripheral organs contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we comprehensively review the above topics, discussing the main findings related to the role of the brain in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. PMID:26964832

  3. suPAR associates to glucose metabolic aberration during glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients on HAART

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian;

    2008-01-01

    extend these findings by investigating the association of suPAR to glucose metabolic insufficiency during an oral glucose challenge (OGTT). METHODS: In 16 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and 15 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (ISI......PAR associated to important glucose metabolic aberrations in HIV-infected patients on HAART. Moreover, suPAR was stable after a glucose challenge. Future research is required to confirm these findings and explore the potential of suPAR as marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients.......OBJECTIVE: We have recently shown that the level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which is associated with the immune status of HIV-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), correlates with the insulin action of such patients. Here we...

  4. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu) and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites were measured in two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with different clinical courses. A marked decrease in rCMRglu was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly developing SSPE (3.6 - 4.2 mg/100 g brain tissue/min). However, the rCMRglu was preserved in the caudate and lenticular nuclei of the patient (7.7 mg/100 g/min). The rCMRglu in a patient with slowly developing SSPE revealed patterns and values similar to those of the control. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites ; homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in both rapidly and slowly developing SSPE. These data indicated that rCMRglu correlated better with the neurological and psychological status and that dopaminergic and serotonergic abnormalities have been implicated in pathophysiology of SSPE. (author)

  5. Specific inactivation of glucose metabolism from eucaryotic cells by pentalenolactone.

    Duszenko, M; Balla, H; Mecke, D

    1982-02-01

    Pentalenolactone, an antibiotic related to the class of the sesquiterpene-lactones and produced by the strain Streptomyces arenae Tü-469, inhibits specifically the glucose metabolism by inactivation of the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate: NAD oxidoreductase (phosphorylating) ED 1.2.1.1.2). The sensitivity of several eucaryotic cell-systems for pentalenolactone was shown under in vivo conditions. The glycolytic as well as the gluconeogenetic pathway of mammalian cells can be completely inhibited with low concentrations of the antibiotic. In all cases, the minimum inhibitory concentration is dependent on cell density. The inhibitory effect in vivo and in vitro does not seem to be species-specific. In erythrocytes from rats, in Ehrlich-ascites tumor cells and in Plasmodium vinckei infected erythrocytes from mice glycolysis can be inhibited with concentrations of 18--90 micrometers pentalenolactone. In hepatocytes, glycolysis as well as gluconeogenesis in prevented by the same concentrations. In contrast to these results, in yeast the inhibition depends on growth conditions. The inhibition in glucose medium is cancelled by precultivation on acetate-containing medium. PMID:7034785

  6. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow and...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation...

  7. The measurement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in patients with movement disorders

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism were evaluated in 34 patients with various movement disorders by using positron emission tomography with 18F-Dopa and 18F-FDG respectively. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum (the caudate head and the putamen) decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease but was relatively unaffected in the caudate. The cerebral glucose metabolism was normal in patients with Parkinson's disease. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum also decreased in cases of atypical parkinsonism and in cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, but there was no difference in the uptake between the caudate and the putamen. The glucose metabolism decreased in the cerebral hemisphere including the striatum; this finding was also different from those of Parkinson's disease. A normal 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum with a markedly decreased striatal glucose metabolism and a mildly decreased cortical glucose metabolism was observed in cases of Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum increased and the glucose metabolism was normal in cases of idiopathic dystonia. Various patterns of 18F-Dopa uptake and glucose metabolism were thus observed in the various movement disorders. These results suggest that the measurements of the 18F-Dopa uptake and the cerebral glucose metabolism would be useful for the evaluation of the striatal function in various movement disorders. (author)

  8. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    Moore, Rebecca

    2015-05-20

    Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women.

  9. Quantitative on-line monitoring of cellular glucose and lactate metabolism in vitro with slow perfusion

    Leegsma-Vogt, G; Venema, K; Brouwer, N; Gramsbergen, JB; Copray, S; Korf, J

    2004-01-01

    An on-line in vitro perfusion technique is described that allows the continuous quantification of cellular glucose metabolism in vitro. Using biosensor technology, we measure glucose and lactate metabolism at a minute-to-minute time resolution for periods up to several days. The application of our p

  10. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Is a Novel Stimulator of Glucose Uptake and Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Cells*

    Perdomo, German; Martinez-Brocca, Maria A.; Bhatt, Bankim A.; Brown, Nicholas F.; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Active hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is present in the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle. However, the effects of HGF on glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle are completely unknown. We therefore examined the effects of HGF on deoxyglucose uptake (DOGU), glucose utilization, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in skeletal muscle cells. HGF significantly enhanced DOGU in mouse soleus muscles in vitro. Furthermore, ...

  11. 2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Fatangare, Amol; Paetz, Christian; Saluz, Hanspeter; Svatoš, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) is glucose analog routinely used in clinical and animal radiotracer studies to trace glucose uptake but it has rarely been used in plants. Previous studies analyzed FDG translocation and distribution pattern in plants and proposed that FDG could be used as a tracer for photoassimilates in plants. Elucidating FDG metabolism in plants is a crucial aspect for establishing its application as a radiotracer in plant imaging. Here, we describe the metabolic fate of F...

  12. Resistance to chemotherapy is associated with altered glucose metabolism in acute myeloid leukemia

    SONG, KUI; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaojun; Xuan, Li; HUANG, GUINIAN; Liu, Qifa

    2016-01-01

    Altered glucose metabolism has been described as a cause of chemoresistance in multiple tumor types. The present study aimed to identify the expression profile of glucose metabolism in drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and provide potential strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant AML. Bone marrow and serum samples were obtained from patients with AML that were newly diagnosed or had relapsed. The messenger RNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, glucose tra...

  13. Implications of Hydrogen Sulfide in Glucose Regulation: How H2S Can Alter Glucose Homeostasis through Metabolic Hormones

    Pichette, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and its comorbidities continue to be a major health problem worldwide. Understanding the precise mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis and their dysregulation during diabetes are a major research focus. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose homeostasis. This is achieved through its production and action in several metabolic and hormone producing organs including the pancreas, liver, and adipose. Of importance, H2S production and signaling in these tissues are altered during both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review first examines how H2S is produced both endogenously and by gastrointestinal microbes, with a particular focus on the altered production that occurs during obesity and diabetes. Next, the action of H2S on the metabolic organs with key roles in glucose homeostasis, with a particular focus on insulin, is described. Recent work has also suggested that the effects of H2S on glucose homeostasis goes beyond its role in insulin secretion. Several studies have demonstrated important roles for H2S in hepatic glucose output and adipose glucose uptake. The mechanism of H2S action on these metabolic organs is described. In the final part of this review, future directions examining the roles of H2S in other metabolic and glucoregulatory hormone secreting tissues are proposed. PMID:27478532

  14. The therapeutic effect of curcumin derivatives L6H4 on rats with abnormalities of glucose and lipid me-tabolism and its mechanism%姜黄素衍生物L6H4对糖脂代谢异常大鼠的治疗作用及其机制

    陈四梅; 张森凯; 刘网网; 徐梦菲; 陈三妹; 陈国荣; 陈筱菲

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察姜黄素衍生物L6H4对糖脂代谢异常大鼠代谢指标的影响,并对其作用机制进行初步探讨。方法:24只8周龄雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常空白对照组(NC组,n=8),高脂组(HF组,n=8)和高脂治疗组(FT组,n=8),后2组高糖高脂饲料喂养12周。第5周时开始给予药物治疗8周,12周末检测各组大鼠血清生化指标、肝脏和骨骼肌的甘油三酯(TG),以及与糖脂代谢相关的多项指标,并观察光镜下肝脏与骨骼肌的病理学变化。结果:①HF组与NC组比较,体质量增加(P<0.05),肝湿质量、空腹血糖(FBG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOME-IR)、血清TG、肝脏TG、骨骼肌TG、血清ALT、血清游离脂肪酸(FFA)、高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)和白介素6(IL-6)水平均升高(均P<0.01),脂联素(ADP)、瘦素(LEP)下降(分别P<0.01,P<0.05),成纤维细胞生长因子21(FGF-21)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);②FT组与HF组比较,FINS、肝湿质量与肝指数差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),体质量、肝脏TG、血TG、ALT、FBG、HOME-IR、FFA、hs-CRP水平降低(P<0.01),骨骼肌TG、IL-6水平下降(P<0.05),FGF-21、ADP升高(P<0.01);③HF组肝脏可见明显脂肪变及炎症细胞浸润,骨骼肌细胞间质可见脂肪浸润,治疗后肝脏脂肪变以及骨骼肌脂肪浸润明显改善。结论:姜黄素衍生物L6H4对高脂高糖喂养大鼠具有控制体质量、保护肝功能、改善胰岛素抵抗的作用,可能与其调脂、抑制炎症、降低异位脂肪存积相关。%Objective: To observe the effect of curcumin derivatives L6H4 on rats with abnormalities of glucose and lipid metabolism, and preliminarily study the mechanism of it.Methods: Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly allocated into three groups: normal control group (NC group,n=8), high fatty group (HF

  15. Effect of number of abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT values on birthweight in women with gestational diabetes

    Nermin Kösüs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: To examine the effect of abnormal oral glucose loading (OGL and number of abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT values on foetal weight in Turkish pregnant women. Methods: This retrospective study included 810 pregnant women between 24 and 28 wk of gestation who were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Women were grouped according to degree of glucose intolerance and compared for clinical, biochemical parameters. Women who delivered macrosomic infants were compared with those who delivered normal infants. Results: GDM was detected in 70 (8.6% women. Median age and infant birthweight of GDM cases were higher than the other groups. Infants of women with GDM weighted 200 g more than infants of non-GDM cases. No difference was found in terms of birthweight between diabetes cases with 2, 3 or 4 OGTT values abnormality. Interpretation & conclusions: The number of abnormal OGTT values in GDM cases had no effect on foetal weight. Macrosomia was observed more in GDM cases than in non-GDM cases. Birthweight was significantly higher in women with GDM despite the therapy used for regulation of blood glucose. This may be related to ethnical, dietary, nutritional differences, and treatment compliance in our study population.

  16. Protective Effects of Quetiapine on Metabolic and Inflammatory Abnormalities in Schizophrenic Patients during Exacerbated Stage.

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Ko, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-04-30

    Inflammation has been considered important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increasing evidence reveals that patients with schizophrenia have abnormal expression of cytokines, which are related to development of metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormality has become a critical issue, though its longitudinal relationship with the disorder, such as the antipsychotics influence, is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether abnormalities of metabolic parameters and cytokine levels in acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients existed, and whether intervention of antipsychotic could help. The present study analyzed peripheral cytokines and metabolic/hemodynamic parameters in healthy controls and acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients hospitalized for three weeks under the unique treatment of quetiapine, a well-known second-generation antipsychotic. Our results showed that patients with schizophrenia were predisposed to metabolic abnormalities in acute exacerbation, including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The patients were also prone to dysglycemia, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, and higher blood pressure with concomitant of elevation of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in which IL-6 was associated with BMI. After quetiapine treatment, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 remained higher than the controls, but IL-10 was significantly decreased in follow-up comparison. Glycemic-related indexes, HDL-c and IL-10 levels were significantly changed by variance analysis. Results of the present study imply that acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients with metabolism abnormalities may involve disruption of expression of cytokines, and that quetiapine may have therapeutic effects. Nonetheless, metabolism parameters of patients undergoing treatment with quetiapine should be closely monitored. PMID:27080462

  17. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  18. Screening of inherited metabolic abnormalities in 56 children with intractable epilepsy

    LIU, XIAOMING; LI, RUI; CHEN, SHENGZHI; SANG, YAN; ZHAO, JIAQIANG

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common children's neural disease that is largely controlled by anti-epileptic drugs. Nevertheless, children experience repeated attacks that develop into intractable epilepsy (IE). The aim of the present study was to examine the inherited metabolic abnormalities in children with IE to provide early etiological and symptomatic treatment. Urine and blood samples of 56 children with IE served as the experimental group and 56 cases of children with IE, who were successfully treated served as the control group, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry for the metabolic screening of amino, organic, and fatty acids. Urine routine, hepatic function, blood biochemistry, imageology of encephalon and brain stem-evoked potential (auditory and optical) were also examined. Of the 27 IE children confirmed as abnormal in urine and blood screening, there were 19 cases (70.3%) of hypoevolutism or retrogression of intelligence and motor function, 15 cases (55.5%) of brain stem-evoked potential and of encephalic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality, 6 cases (22.2%) of abnormal family history and of abnormal blood biochemistry and blood gas analysis, and 5 cases (18.5%) with skin change and of abnormal hepatic function. Of the 27 cases, 11 cases (19.6%) were diagnosed with inherited metabolic diseases. Among the children in the control group, 3 cases showed abnormal urine test results, one of which had family history, one had hypoevolutism or retrogression of intelligence and motor function, one had brain stem-evoked potential and encephalic CT or MRI abnormality, while two of the 3 cases had inherited metabolic abnormalities. The correlation analysis revealed that abnormal urine test was significantly correlated with inherited metabolic abnormalities (P<0.05). Of the 56 IE patients, 25 cases (44.6%) were identified as abnormal under urine screening, and of the 25 cases, 6 cases had simple

  19. Peritoneal Dialysate Glucose Load and Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetics: Results from the GLOBAL Fluid Cohort Study

    Chess, James; Do, Jun-Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Lee, Hi-Bahl; Kim, Yong-Lim; Summers, Angela; Williams, Paul Ford; Davison, Sara; Dorval, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glucose control is a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. During PD, the local toxic effects of intra-peritoneal glucose are well recognized, but despite large amounts of glucose being absorbed, the systemic effects of this in non-diabetic patients are not clear. We sought to clarify whether dialysate glucose has an effect upon systemic glucose metabolism. Methods and Materials We analysed the Global Fluid Study cohort, a prospective, observational cohort study initiated in 2002. A subset of 10 centres from 3 countries with high data quality were selected (368 incident and 272 prevalent non-diabetic patients), with multilevel, multivariable analysis of the reciprocal of random glucose levels, and a stratified-by-centre Cox survival analysis. Results The median follow up was 5.6 and 6.4 years respectively in incident and prevalent patients. On multivariate analysis, serum glucose increased with age (β = -0.007, 95%CI -0.010, -0.004) and decreased with higher serum sodium (β = 0.002, 95%CI 0.0005, 0.003) in incident patients and increased with dialysate glucose (β = -0.0002, 95%CI -0.0004, -0.00006) in prevalent patients. Levels suggested undiagnosed diabetes in 5.4% of prevalent patients. Glucose levels predicted death in unadjusted analyses of both incident and prevalent groups but in an adjusted survival analysis they did not (for random glucose 6–10 compared with diabetic patients, random glucose levels at a diabetic level are under-recognised and increase with dialysate glucose load. Random glucose levels predict mortality in unadjusted analyses, but this association has not been proven in adjusted analyses. PMID:27249020

  20. Peritoneal Dialysate Glucose Load and Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetics: Results from the GLOBAL Fluid Cohort Study.

    Mark Lambie

    Full Text Available Glucose control is a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. During PD, the local toxic effects of intra-peritoneal glucose are well recognized, but despite large amounts of glucose being absorbed, the systemic effects of this in non-diabetic patients are not clear. We sought to clarify whether dialysate glucose has an effect upon systemic glucose metabolism.We analysed the Global Fluid Study cohort, a prospective, observational cohort study initiated in 2002. A subset of 10 centres from 3 countries with high data quality were selected (368 incident and 272 prevalent non-diabetic patients, with multilevel, multivariable analysis of the reciprocal of random glucose levels, and a stratified-by-centre Cox survival analysis.The median follow up was 5.6 and 6.4 years respectively in incident and prevalent patients. On multivariate analysis, serum glucose increased with age (β = -0.007, 95%CI -0.010, -0.004 and decreased with higher serum sodium (β = 0.002, 95%CI 0.0005, 0.003 in incident patients and increased with dialysate glucose (β = -0.0002, 95%CI -0.0004, -0.00006 in prevalent patients. Levels suggested undiagnosed diabetes in 5.4% of prevalent patients. Glucose levels predicted death in unadjusted analyses of both incident and prevalent groups but in an adjusted survival analysis they did not (for random glucose 6-10 compared with <6, Incident group HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.58, 1.46, Prevalent group HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.86, 2.34.In prevalent non-diabetic patients, random glucose levels at a diabetic level are under-recognised and increase with dialysate glucose load. Random glucose levels predict mortality in unadjusted analyses, but this association has not been proven in adjusted analyses.

  1. Functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities of the hippocampal formation in Williams syndrome

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Sarpal, Deepak; Koch, Paul; Steele, Sonya; Kohn, Philip; Marenco, Stefano; Morris, Colleen A.; Das, Saumitra; Kippenhan, Shane; Mattay, Venkata S.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Berman, Karen Faith

    2005-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), caused by microdeletion of some 21 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, is characterized by dysmorphic features, mental retardation or learning difficulties, elastin arteriopathy, and striking neurocognitive and social-behavioral abnormalities. Recent studies of murine knockouts of key genes in the microdeleted region, LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cytoplasmatic linker protein 2 (CYLN2), demonstrated significant functional and metabolic abnormalities, but grossly normal structure, ...

  2. Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery Reverses Insulin-Induced Increases in Brain Glucose Metabolism of the Morbidly Obese

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Henry K Karlsson; Hirvonen, Jussi; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Bucci, Marco; Helmiö, Mika; Ovaska, Jari; Soinio, Minna; Salminen, Paulina; Savisto, Nina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with altered brain glucose metabolism. Here, we studied brain glucose metabolism in 22 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Seven healthy subjects served as control subjects. Brain glucose metabolism was measured twice per imaging session: with and without insulin stimulation (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose scanning. We found that during fasting, brain glucose metabolism was not dif...

  3. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  4. [Relationships of glucose transporter 4 with cognitive changes induced by high fat diet and glucose metabolism in hippocampus].

    Zhang, Yun-Li; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-25

    The hippocampus not only plays a role in appetite and energy balance, but also is particularly important in learning and memory. Figuring out the relationships of hippocampal glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) with hippocampal glucose metabolism and hippocampus-dependent cognitive function is very important to clearly understand the pathophysiological basis of nutritional obesity and diabetes-related diseases, and treat obesity and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, this study reviewed recent researches conducted on hippocampal GLUT4, hippocampal glucose metabolism, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. In this review, we mainly discussed: (1) The structure of GLUT4 and the distribution and function of GLUT4 in the hippocampus; (2) The translocation of GLUT4 in the hippocampus; (3) The relationships of the PI3K-Akt-GLUT4 signaling pathway with the high fat diet-induced changes of cognitive function and the glucose metabolism in the hippocampus; (4) The associations of the PI3K-Akt-GLUT4 signaling pathway with the diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction in the hippocampus; (5) The potential mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction induced by glucose metabolic disorder. PMID:27350206

  5. The Impact of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance and Obesity on Fetal Growth

    Erin Graves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Factors linked with insulin resistance were examined for their association with large-for-gestational-age (LGA infant birth weight and gestational diabetes. Study Design. Data came from a longitudinal cohort study of 2,305 subjects without overt diabetes, analyzed using multinomial logistic and linear regression. Results. High maternal BMI (OR=1.53 (1.11, 2.12, height (1.98 (1.62, 2.42, antidepressant use (1.71 (1.20, 2.44, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds (1.79 (1.25, 2.57, and high blood sugar (2.68, (1.53, 5.27 were all positively associated with LGA birth. Strikingly, the difference in risk from diagnosed and treated gestational diabetes compared to women with a single abnormal glucose tolerance test (but no diagnosis of gestational diabetes was significant (OR=0.65, p=0.12 versus OR=2.84, p<0.01. When weight/length ratio was used instead, different factors were found to be significant. BMI and pregnancy weight-gain were found to influence the development of gestational diabetes, through an additive interaction. Conclusions. High prepregnancy BM, height, antidepressant use, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds, and high blood sugar were associated with LGA birth, but not necessarily infant weight/length ratio. An additive interaction between BMI and pregnancy weight-gain influenced gestational diabetes development.

  6. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  7. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  8. Myocardial metabolic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic significance of reversible thallium-201 abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Exercise-induced abnormalities during thallium-201 scintigraphy that normalize at rest frequently occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are indicative of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise 201Tl scintigraphy and, during the same week, measurement of myocardial lactate metabolism and hemodynamics during pacing stress. Thirty-seven patients (74%) had one or more 201Tl abnormalities that completely normalized after 3 hours of rest; 26 had regional myocardial 201Tl defects, and 26 had apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation with exercise, with 15 having coexistence of these abnormal findings. Of the 37 patients with reversible 201Tl abnormalities, 27 (73%) had metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia during rapid atrial pacing compared with four of 13 patients (31%) with normal 201Tl scans (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients had apparent cavity dilatation as their only 201Tl abnormality; their mean postpacing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly higher than that of the 13 patients with normal 201Tl studies (33 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). There was no correlation between the angiographic presence of systolic septal or epicardial coronary arterial compression and the presence or distribution of 201Tl abnormalities. Patients with ischemic ST segment responses to exercise had an 80% prevalence rate of reversible 201Tl abnormalities and a 70% prevalence rate of pacing-induced ischemia. However, 69% of patients with nonischemic ST segment responses had reversible 201Tl abnormalities, and 55% had pacing-induced ischemia. Reversible 201Tl abnormalities during exercise stress are markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most likely identify relatively underperfused myocardium

  9. Lack of significant metabolic abnormalities in mice with liver-specific disruption of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Lavery, Gareth G

    2012-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome, and patients with GC excess share many clinical features, such as central obesity and glucose intolerance. In patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes, systemic GC concentrations seem to be invariably normal. Tissue GC concentrations determined by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and local cortisol (corticosterone in mice) regeneration from cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in mice) by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme, principally expressed in the liver. Transgenic mice have demonstrated the importance of 11β-HSD1 in mediating aspects of the metabolic syndrome, as well as HPA axis control. In order to address the primacy of hepatic 11β-HSD1 in regulating metabolism and the HPA axis, we have generated liver-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout (LKO) mice, assessed biomarkers of GC metabolism, and examined responses to high-fat feeding. LKO mice were able to regenerate cortisol from cortisone to 40% of control and had no discernible difference in a urinary metabolite marker of 11β-HSD1 activity. Although circulating corticosterone was unaltered, adrenal size was increased, indicative of chronic HPA stimulation. There was a mild improvement in glucose tolerance but with insulin sensitivity largely unaffected. Adiposity and body weight were unaffected as were aspects of hepatic lipid homeostasis, triglyceride accumulation, and serum lipids. Additionally, no changes in the expression of genes involved in glucose or lipid homeostasis were observed. Liver-specific deletion of 11β-HSD1 reduces corticosterone regeneration and may be important for setting aspects of HPA axis tone, without impacting upon urinary steroid metabolite profile. These discordant data have significant implications for the use of these biomarkers of 11β-HSD1 activity in clinical studies. The paucity of metabolic abnormalities in LKO points to important compensatory effects by HPA

  10. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  11. Increased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness of glucose metabolism in adipocytes from female versus male rats.

    Guerre-Millo, M.; Leturque, A.; Girard, J.; Lavau, M

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there were sex-associated differences in the action of insulin on glucose metabolism in adipocytes. Insulin binding and the dose-response curves for glucose transport (assessed by measuring the cell-associated radioactivity after 15-s incubation with 50 microM [6-14C]glucose) and [U-14C]glucose (5 mM) metabolism into CO2 and lipids were compared in retroperitoneal adipocytes from age-matched (84 d) male and female rats. In addition, the activity of...

  12. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enactment behaviour and loss of REM atonia, and is considered a prodromal symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Wu et al. identify an abnormal brain metabolic network associated with the disorder, and show that evolution of this network occurs with progression to Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Association of Pulmonary Function with Adiposity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Urban Minority Adolescents

    Rastogi, Deepa; Bhalani, Kshitij; Hall, Charles B.; Isasi, Carmen R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Childhood obesity is a known risk factor for pulmonary diseases, likely due to obesity-mediated alteration of pulmonary function. Inflammation and mechanical fat load are two proposed causative mechanisms for altered pulmonary function among obese children; however, the association of metabolic abnormalities with pulmonary function among children is poorly understood.

  14. Characterization of glucose-related metabolic pathways in differentiated rat oligodendrocyte lineage cells.

    Amaral, Ana I; Hadera, Mussie G; Tavares, Joana M; Kotter, Mark R N; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Although oligodendrocytes constitute a significant proportion of cells in the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about their intermediary metabolism. We have, therefore, characterized metabolic functions of primary oligodendrocyte precursor cell cultures at late stages of differentiation using isotope-labelled metabolites. We report that differentiated oligodendrocyte lineage cells avidly metabolize glucose in the cytosol and pyruvate derived from glucose in the mitochondria. The labelling patterns of metabolites obtained after incubation with [1,2-(13)C]glucose demonstrated that the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is highly active in oligodendrocytes (approximately 10% of glucose is metabolized via the PPP as indicated by labelling patterns in phosphoenolpyruvate). Mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses of metabolites after incubation of cells with [1-(13)C]lactate or [1,2-(13)C]glucose, respectively, demonstrated that anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation, which was thought to be exclusive to astrocytes, is also active in oligodendrocytes. Using [1,2-(13)C]acetate, we show that oligodendrocytes convert acetate into acetyl CoA which is metabolized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Analysis of labelling patterns of alanine after incubation of cells with [1,2-(13)C]acetate and [1,2-(13)C]glucose showed catabolic oxidation of malate or oxaloacetate. In conclusion, we report that oligodendrocyte lineage cells at late differentiation stages are metabolically highly active cells that are likely to contribute considerably to the metabolic activity of the CNS. PMID:26352325

  15. The importance of glucose metabolism in the hypoxic cytotoxicity of Misonidazole

    The authors are investigating the mechanism of inhibition of glucose metabolism and its role in the hypoxic cytotoxicity of Misonidazole (Miso). Preincubation of hypoxic exponential EMT6/Ro cells with Miso and 5.5 mM glucose containing media caused a time-dependent inhibition of both glucose consumption and lactate formation. This inhibition began after 90 min, 45 min, and 15 min preincubation with 1mM, 2.5mM, and 5mM Miso respectively. The inhibition closely correlated with the kinetics and extent of decreased viability of these cells as measured by dye exclusion and colony forming efficiency. Miso does not inhibit glucose transport in these phloretin-sensitive cells. Transport was measured by the uptake of 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, a non-metabolized glucose analog. The initial rate was determined to be the same (1.66 +- 0.18 nmoles cell/second at 250C)

  16. Effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant cell model

    To evaluate the effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in an insulin-resistant (IR) cell model which was established by the way of high concentration of insulin induction with HepG2 cell in vitro culture. The IR cells were treated by turtle oil, the glucose consumption and 3H-D-glucose incorporation rate in IR cells were detected by the way of glucose oxidase and 3H-D-glucose incorporation assay respectively. The state of cell proliferation was tested by MTT method. The results showed that the incorporation rate of 3H-D-glucose in IR cells was significantly lower than that in the control cells(P3H-D-glucose incorporation rate in either IR cells or control cells was increased with the increase of insulin concentration. Moreover, the 3H-D-glucose incorporation rate of IR cells increased slower than that of control cells. The MTT assay showed that turtle oil can promote the proliferation of IR cell and control cell. The glucose uptake and glucose consumption in IR cell which treated with turtle oil was significantly increase than that in the control cells (P<0.05). Turtle oil can improve the insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in the IR cell model. (authors)

  17. Associations between red meat intake and biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women123

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Wu, Kana; Pan, An; Grodstein, Fran; Hu, Frank B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Greater red meat intake is associated with an increased type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. However, the relation of red meat intake to biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism has not been investigated thoroughly.

  18. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  19. Clinical observation of glucose metabolism disorders in elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea disorder

    张蔷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between obstructive sleep apnea hypoventilation syndrome (OSAHS) and glucose metabolism disorders in patients without diabetes mellitus.Methods A total of 88 patients with OSAHS but without diabetes mellitus from 2009 to 2011 in

  20. Influence of tacrolimus on glucose metabolism before and after renal transplantation : a prospective study

    Duijnhoven, E M; Boots, J M; Christiaans, M H; Wolffenbuttel, B H; Van Hooff, J P

    2001-01-01

    Most studies concerning the influence of tacrolimus on glucose metabolism have been performed either in animals or after organ transplantation. These clinical studies have largely been transversal with patients who were using steroids. Therefore, this prospective, longitudinal study investigated the

  1. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

    Shengxi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  2. A randomised trial of salsalate for insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in persons with abnormal glucose tolerance

    Goldfine, A. B.; Conlin, P. R.; Halperin, F.; Koska, J.; Permana, P.; Schwenke, D.; Shoelson, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Chronic sub-acute inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. High doses of salicylate reduce inflammation, glucose and triacylglycerols, and may improve insulin sensitivity, suggesting therapeutic potential in impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect of salsalate vs placebo on insulin resistance and glycaemia in impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods We conducted a 12 week, two-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of salsalate (up to 4 g/day) vs placebo on systemic glucose disposal. Secondary objectives included treatment effects on glycaemia, inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors. Seventy-eight participants with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance from two VA healthcare systems were enrolled. Randomisation assignment was provided by the coordinating center directly to site pharmacists, and participants and research staff were blinded to treatment assignment. Results Seventy-one individuals were randomised to placebo (n = 36) or salsalate (n = 35). Glucose disposal did not change in either group (salsalate 1% [95% CI −39%, 56%]; placebo 6% [95% CI −20%, 61%], p = 0.3 for placebo vs salsalate). Fasting glucose was reduced by 6% during the study by salsalate (p = 0.006) but did not change with placebo. Declines in glucose were accompanied by declines in fasting C-peptide with salsalate. Insulin clearance was reduced with salsalate. In the salsalate group, triacylglycerol levels were lower by 25% (p = 0.01) and adiponectin increased by 53% (p = 0.02) at the end of the study. Blood pressure, endothelial function and other inflammation markers did not differ between groups. Adipose tissue nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity declined in the salsalate group compared with placebo (−16% vs 42%, p = 0.005), but was not correlated with metabolic

  3. Muscle glucose metabolism following exercise in the rat

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N;

    1982-01-01

    perfusion of their isolated hindquarters. Glucose utilization by the hindquarter was the same in exercised and control rats perfused in the absence of added insulin; however, when insulin (30-40,000 muU/ml) was added to the perfusate, glucose utilization was greater after exercise. Prior exercise lowered...... both, the concentration of insulin that half-maximally stimulated glucose utilization (exercise, 150 muU/ml; control, 480 muU/ml) and modestly increased its maximum effect. The increase in insulin sensitivity persisted for 4 h following exercise, but was not present after 24 h. The rate-limiting step...... in glucose utilization enhanced by prior exercise appeared to be glucose transport across the cell membrane, as in neither control nor exercised rats did free glucose accumulate in the muscle cell. Following exercise, the ability of insulin to stimulate the release of lactate into the perfusate was...

  4. Metabolic and Endocrine Profiles in Response to Systemic Infusion of Fructose and Glucose in Rhesus Macaques

    Adams, Sean H.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Grant, Ryan W.; Cummings, Bethany P.; Havel, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of circulating leptin concentrations are attenuated after consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, likely a result of limited postprandial glucose and insulin excursions after fructose. Differences in postprandial exposure of adipose tissue to peripheral circulating fructose and glucose or in adipocyte metabolism of the two sugars may also be involved. Thus, we compared plasma leptin concentrations after 6-h iv infusions of saline...

  5. Glucose-independent glutamine metabolism via TCA cycling for proliferation and survival in B-cells

    Le, Anne; Lane, Andrew N.; Hamaker, Max; Bose, Sminu; Gouw, Arvin; Barbi, Joseph; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Rojas, Camilio J.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Zhang, Haixia; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K.; Higashi, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Because MYC plays a causal role in many human cancers, including those with hypoxic and nutrient-poor tumor microenvironments, we have determined the metabolic responses of a MYC-inducible human Burkitt lymphoma model P493 cell line to aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and to glucose deprivation, using Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics. Using [U-13C]-glucose as the tracer, both glucose consumption and lactate production were increased by MYC expression and hypoxia. Using [U-13C,15N]-glutamin...

  6. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats

    DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either [1-14C] glucose or [6-14C] glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO2 production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats

  7. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats

    Finan, A.; Cleary, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either (1-/sup 14/C) glucose or (6-/sup 14/C) glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO/sub 2/ production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of brown adipose tissue during cold exposure reveals extensive regulation of glucose metabolism

    Hao, Qin; Yadav, Rachita; Basse, Astrid L.;

    2015-01-01

    exposure, we propose a model for the intermediary glucose metabolism in activated BAT: 1) fluxes through glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway are induced, the latter providing reducing equivalents for de novo fatty acid synthesis; 2) glycerol synthesis from glucose is increased, facilitating...

  9. Neuronal LRP1 Regulates Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Signaling in the Brain

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Jin; Tsai, Chih-Wei; Yue, Mei; Melrose, Heather L.; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by profound memory loss and progressive dementia. Accumulating evidence suggests that Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, significantly increases the risk for developing AD. Whereas amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and neurofibrillary tangles are major histological hallmarks of AD, impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism precedes these pathological changes durin...

  10. Nur77 coordinately regulates expression of genes linked to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Chao, Lily C.; Zhang, Zidong; Pei, Liming; Saito, Tsugumichi; Tontonoz, Peter; Pilch, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    Innervation is important for normal metabolism in skeletal muscle, including insulin-sensitive glucose uptake. However, the transcription factors that transduce signals from the neuromuscular junction to the nucleus and affect changes in metabolic gene expression are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a regulator of gene expression linked to glucose utilization in muscle. In vivo, Nur77 is preferentially expressed in glycolytic compared to oxidativ...

  11. Effect of epinephrine and insulin on glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells

    Since epinephrine and insulin are known to counteract each other in several metabolic respects, it was found of interest to evaluate the interaction of these hormones on glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells. Results indicate that in spite of reduced lipolysis, insulin potentiates the conversion of glucose to glyceride-glycerol. This means that a certain degree of esterification of fatty acids must take place. So the low rate of lipolysis is sufficient to provide fatty acids for this esterification. (author)

  12. Effect of epinephrine and insulin on glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells

    Zewail, M.A. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)); Fahmy, N.M. (National Organisation for Drug Control and Research, Cairo (Egypt)); Nielsen, J.H. (Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1984-08-01

    Since epinephrine and insulin are known to counteract each other in several metabolic respects, it was found of interest to evaluate the interaction of these hormones on glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells. Results indicate that in spite of reduced lipolysis, insulin potentiates the conversion of glucose to glyceride-glycerol. This means that a certain degree of esterification of fatty acids must take place. So the low rate of lipolysis is sufficient to provide fatty acids for this esterification.

  13. A Novel 3D Liver Organoid System for Elucidation of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Guoliang; Shen, Chong; Uygun, Korkut; Yarmush, Martin L.; Meng, Qin

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic glucose metabolism is a key player in diseases such as obesity and diabetes as well as in antihyperglycemic drugs screening. Hepatocytes culture in two-dimensional configurations is limited in vitro model for hepatocytes to function properly, while truly practical platforms to perform three-dimensional (3D) culture are unavailable. In this work, we present a practical organoid culture method of hepatocytes for elucidation of glucose metabolism under nominal and stress conditions. Empl...

  14. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Composition on the Metabolism of Glucose by Brochothrix thermosphacta

    Pin, Carmen; García de Fernando, Gonzalo D.; Ordóñez, Juan A.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of atmosphere composition on the metabolism of Brochothrix thermosphacta was studied by analyzing the consumption of glucose and the production of ethanol, acetic and lactic acids, acetaldehyde, and diacetyl-acetoin under atmospheres containing different combinations of carbon dioxide and oxygen. When glucose was metabolized under oxygen-free atmospheres, lactic acid was one of the main end products, while under atmospheres rich in oxygen mainly acetoin-diacetyl was produced. Th...

  15. Comparative Metabolic Flux Analysis of Lysine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Cultured on Glucose or Fructose

    Kiefer, Patrick; Heinzle, Elmar; Zelder, Oskar; Wittmann, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to 13C tracer studies, labeling measurements by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, metabolite balancing, and isotopomer modeling, was applied for comparative metabolic network analysis of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum on glucose or fructose. Significantly reduced yields of lysine and biomass and enhanced formation of dihydroxyacetone, glycerol, and lactate in comparison to those for glucose resulted on fructose. Metabolic flux analysis revealed drasti...

  16. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Swedo, S.E.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Cheslow, D.L.; Leonard, H.L.; Kumar, A.; Friedland, R.; Rapoport, S.I.; Rapoport, J.L.

    1989-06-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system.

  17. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system

  18. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx)-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism revealed by 1H-NMR-based metabonomics

    Dan Yue; Zhang, Yuwei; Cheng, Liuliu; Ma, Jinhu; Xi, Yufeng; Yang, Liping; Su, Chao; Shao, Bin; Huang, Anliang; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis; however, mechanisms underlying HBx-mediated carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to systematically investigate the effects of HBx on cell metabolism. EdU incorporation assay was conducted to examine the effects of HBx on DNA synthesis, an important feature of nucleic acid metabolism. The results revealed that HBx disrupted metabolism of glucose, lipids, and amino acids, especially nucleic acids. To understand the potential mechanism of HBx-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism, gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells expressing HBx were investigated. The results showed that 29 genes involved in DNA damage and DNA repair were differentially expressed in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells. HBx-induced DNA damage was further demonstrated by karyotyping, comet assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analyses. Many studies have previously reported that DNA damage can induce abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism. Thus, our results implied that HBx initially induces DNA damage, and then disrupts nucleic acid metabolism, which in turn blocks DNA repair and induces the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These findings further contribute to our understanding of the occurrence of HCC. PMID:27075403

  19. Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism during and after exercise

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Richter, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of carbohydrate in the form of intramuscular glycogen stores and glucose delivered from plasma becomes an increasingly important energy substrate to the working muscle with increasing exercise intensity. This review gives an update on the molecular signals by which glucose transport i...... the post-exercise period which can result in an overshoot of intramuscular glycogen resynthesis post exercise (glycogen supercompensation)....

  20. Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism during seizure in spontaneously epileptic El mice

    Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism were examined in spontaneously epileptic El mice using autoradiography with 125I-IMP and 14C-DG in the interictal phase and during seizure. El (+) mice that developed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and El (-) mice that received no stimulation and had no history of epileptic seizures were examined. The seizure non-susceptible, maternal strain ddY mice were used as control. Uptake ratios for IMP and DG in mouse brain were calculated using the autoradiographic density. In the interictal phase, the pattern of local cerebral blood flow of El (+) mice was similar to that of ddY and El (-) mice, and glucose metabolism in the hippocampus was higher in El (+) mice than in El (-) and ddY mice, but flow and metabolism were nearly matched. During seizure, no significant changed blood flow and increased glucose metabolism in the hippocampus, the epileptic focus, and no markedly changed blood flow and depressed glucose metabolism in other brain regions were observed and considered to be flow-metabolism uncoupling. These observations have never been reported in clinical or experimental studies of epilepsy. Seizures did not cause large regional differences in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, only glucose metabolism is useful for detection of the focus of secondary generalized seizures in El mice, and appeared possibly to be related to the pathophysiology of secondary generalized epilepsy in El mice. (author)

  1. Comparison of clinical types of Wilson's disease and glucose metabolism in extrapyramidal motor brain regions.

    Hermann, W; Barthel, H; Hesse, S; Grahmann, F; Kühn, H-J; Wagner, A; Villmann, T

    2002-07-01

    In Wilson's disease a disturbed glucose metabolism especially in striatal and cerebellar areas has been reported. This is correlated with the severity of extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS). These findings are only based on a small number of patients. Up to now it is unknown whether EPS are caused by various patterns of disturbed basal ganglia glucose metabolism. We investigated 37 patients and 9 normal volunteers to characterize the disturbed glucose metabolism in Wilson's disease more precisely. The glucose metabolism was determined in 5 cerebellar and cerebral areas (putamen, caput nuclei caudati, cerebellum, midbrain and thalamic area) by using (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography ( [(18)F]FDG-PET). The database was evaluated by a cluster analysis. Additionally, the severity extrapyramidal motor symptoms were judged by a clinical score system. Three characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism in basal ganglia were obtained. Two of them may be assigned to patients with neurological symptoms whereas the third cluster corresponds to most patients without EPS or normal volunteers. The clusters can be identified by characteristic consumption rates in this 5 brain areas. The severity of EPS can not clearly be assigned to one of the clusters with disturbed glucose metabolism. However, the most severe cases are characterized by the lowest consumption in the striatal area. When there is marked improvement of EPS impaired glucose consumption reveals a persistent brain lesion. Finally, the neurological symptoms in Wilson's disease are caused by (at least) two different patterns of disturbed glucose metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum. The severity of EPS seems to be determined by a disturbed consumption in the striatal area. PMID:12140675

  2. Direct neuronal glucose uptake Heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John D R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two......, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus...

  3. JNK1 Deficiency Does Not Enhance Muscle Glucose Metabolism in Lean Mice*

    Witczak, CA; Hirshman, MF; Jessen, N.; Fujii, N; Seifert, M.; Brandauer, J; Hotamisligil, GS; Goodyear, LJ

    2006-01-01

    Mice deficient in c‐jun‐NH2‐terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) exhibit decreased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and protection against obesity‐induced insulin resistance, suggesting increased glucose disposal into skeletal muscle. Thus, we assessed whether JNK1 deficiency enhances muscle glucose metabolism. Ex vivo insulin or contraction‐induced muscle [³H]‐2‐deoxyglucose uptake was not altered in JNK1 knockout mice, demonstrating that JNK1 does not regulate blood glucose levels via direct a...

  4. Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography

    Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities

  5. Antilipolytic drug boosts glucose metabolism in prostate cancer

    Introduction: The antilipolytic drug Acipimox reduces free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the blood stream. We examined the effect of reduced FFAs on glucose metabolism in androgen-dependent (CWR22Rv1) and androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts. Methods: Subcutaneous tumors were produced in nude mice by injection of PC3 and CWR22Rv1 PCa cells. The mice were divided into two groups (Acipimox vs. controls). Acipimox (50 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1 h before injection of tracers. 1 h after i.v. co-injection of 8.2 MBq (222 ± 6.0 μCi) 18 F-FDG and ∼ 0.0037 MBq (0.1 μCi) 14C-acetate, 18 F-FDG imaging was performed using a small-animal PET scanner. Counting rates in reconstructed images were converted to activity concentrations. Quantification was obtained by region-of-interest analysis using dedicated software. The mice were euthanized, and blood samples and organs were harvested. 18 F radioactivity was measured in a calibrated γ-counter using a dynamic counting window and decay correction. 14C radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting using external standard quench corrections. Counts were converted into activity, and percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) tissue was calculated. Results: FDG biodistribution data in mice with PC3 xenografts demonstrated doubled average %ID/g tumor tissue after administration of Acipimox compared to controls (7.21 ± 1.93 vs. 3.59 ± 1.35, P = 0.02). Tumor-to-organ ratios were generally higher in mice treated with Acipimox. This was supported by PET imaging data, both semi-quantitatively (mean tumor FDG uptake) and visually (tumor-to-background ratios). In mice with CWR22Rv1 xenografts there was no effect of Acipimox on FDG uptake, either in biodistribution or PET imaging. 14C-acetate uptake was unaffected in PC3 and CWR22Rv1 xenografts. Conclusions: In mice with PC3 PCa xenografts, acute administration of Acipimox increases tumor uptake of 18 F-FDG with general

  6. Brain glucose sensing, glucokinase and neural control of metabolism and islet function.

    Ogunnowo-Bada, E O; Heeley, N; Brochard, L; Evans, M L

    2014-09-01

    It is increasingly apparent that the brain plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis, including the maintenance of blood glucose. This is achieved by various efferent pathways from the brain to periphery, which help control hepatic glucose flux and perhaps insulin-stimulated insulin secretion. Also, critically important for the brain given its dependence on a constant supply of glucose as a fuel--emergency counter-regulatory responses are triggered by the brain if blood glucose starts to fall. To exert these control functions, the brain needs to detect rapidly and accurately changes in blood glucose. In this review, we summarize some of the mechanisms postulated to play a role in this and examine the potential role of the low-affinity hexokinase, glucokinase, in the brain as a key part of some of this sensing. We also discuss how these processes may become altered in diabetes and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25200293

  7. Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock

    Dyar, Kenneth A.; Ciciliot, Stefano; Wright, Lauren E.;

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin......-stimulated glucose uptake with reduced protein levels of GLUT4, the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, and TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase involved in GLUT4 translocation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was also reduced due to altered expression of circadian genes Pdk4 and Pdp1, coding for PDH kinase and phosphatase......, respectively. PDH inhibition leads to reduced glucose oxidation and diversion of glycolytic intermediates to alternative metabolic pathways, as revealed by metabolome analysis. The impaired glucose metabolism induced by muscle-specific Bmal1 knockout suggests that a major physiological role of the muscle clock...

  8. Relationship of impaired brain glucose metabolism to learning deficit in the senescence-accelerated mouse.

    Ohta, H; Nishikawa, H; Hirai, K; Kato, K; Miyamoto, M

    1996-10-11

    The relationship between brain glucose metabolism and learning deficit was examined in the senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, which has been proven to be a useful murine model of age-related behavioral disorders. SAMP8, 7 months old, exhibited marked learning impairment in the passive avoidance task, as compared with the control strain, senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR) 1. SAMP8 also exhibited a reduction in brain glucose metabolism, as indicated by a reduction in [14C]2-deoxyglucose accumulation in the brain following the intravenous injection impaired glucose metabolism correlated significantly with the learning impairment in all brain regions in SAMR1 and SAMP8. In the SAMP8, a significant correlation was observed in the posterior half of the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that the SAMP8 strain is a useful model of not only age-related behavioral disorders, but also glucose hypometabolism observed in aging and dementias. PMID:8905734

  9. In patients with HIV-infection, chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    Aghdassi, Elaheh; Arendt, Bianca M; Salit, Irving E; Mohammed, Saira S; Jalali, Pegah; Bondar, Helena; Allard, Johane P

    2010-03-01

    Chromium is an essential micronutrient; chromium deficiency has been reported to cause insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The aim was to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on insulin-resistance, other metabolic abnormalities, and body composition in people living with HIV. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-two HIV-positive subjects with elevated glucose, lipids, or evidence of body fat redistribution, and who had insulin-resistance based on the calculation of homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR > or = 2.5) were assessed. Subjects who were on insulin or hypoglycemic medications were excluded. Subjects were randomized to receive either 400 microg/day chromium-nicotinate or placebo for 16 weeks. Forty-six subjects, 23 in each group, completed the study. Fasting blood insulin, glucose, lipid profile and body composition were measured before and after intervention. Chromium was tolerated without side effects and resulted in a significant decrease in HOMA-IR (median (IQR) (pre:4.09 (3.02-8.79); post: 3.66 (2.40-5.46), p=0.004), insulin (pre: 102 (85-226); post: 99 (59-131) pmol/L, p=0.003), triglycerides, total body fat mass (mean+/-SEM) (pre: 17.3+/-1.7; post: 16.3+/-1.7 kg; p=0.002) and trunk fat mass (pre: 23.8+/-1.9; post: 22.7+/-2.0 %; p=0.008). Blood glucose, C-peptide, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c remained unchanged. Biochemical parameters did not change in the placebo group except for LDL cholesterol which increased significantly. Body weight and medication profile remained stable throughout the study for both groups. In summary, chromium improved insulin resistance, metabolic abnormalities, and body composition in HIV+ patients. This suggests that chromium supplements alleviate some of the antiretroviral-associated metabolic abnormalities. PMID:20163347

  10. Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism during and after exercise.

    Jensen, Thomas E; Richter, Erik A

    2012-03-01

    Utilization of carbohydrate in the form of intramuscular glycogen stores and glucose delivered from plasma becomes an increasingly important energy substrate to the working muscle with increasing exercise intensity. This review gives an update on the molecular signals by which glucose transport is increased in the contracting muscle followed by a discussion of glycogen mobilization and synthesis by the action of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase, respectively. Finally, this review deals with the signalling relaying the well-described increased sensitivity of glucose transport to insulin in the post-exercise period which can result in an overshoot of intramuscular glycogen resynthesis post exercise (glycogen supercompensation). PMID:22199166

  11. Glucose metabolism in the antibiotic producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, producer of the glycopeptide A40926 that is used as precursor for the novel antibiotic dalbavancin, has an unusual carbon metabolism. Glucose is primarily metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, although the energetically more favorable Embde...

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism in corticobasal degeneration comparison with progressive supranuclear palsy using statistical mapping analysis.

    Juh, Rahyeong; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Uk; Choe, Boyoung; Suh, Taesuk

    This study measured the cerebral glucose metabolism in patients suffering from corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The aim was to determine if there is a different metabolic pattern using (18)F-labeled 2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). The regional cerebral glucose metabolism was examined in 8 patients diagnosed clinically with CBD (mean age 69.6 +/- 7.8 years; male/female: 5/3), 8 patients with probable PSP (mean age 67.8 +/- 4.5 years; male/female: 4/4) and 22 healthy controls. The regional cerebral glucose metabolism between the three groups was compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) with a voxel-by-voxel approach (p < 0.001, 200-voxel level). Compared with the normal controls, asymmetry in the regional glucose metabolism was observed in the parietal, frontal and cingulate in the CBD patients. In the PSP patients, the glucose metabolism was lower in the orbitofrontal, middle frontal, cingulate, thalamus and mid-brain than their age matched normal controls. A comparison of the two patient groups demonstrated relative hypometabolism in the thalamus, the mid-brain in the PSP patients and the parietal lobe in CBD patients. These results suggest that when making a differential diagnosis of CBD and PSP, voxel-based analysis of the (18)F-FDG PET images using a SPM might be a useful tool in clinical examinations. PMID:15936506

  13. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study

    Li, Rong; Yu, Geng; Yang, Dongzi; Li, Shangwei; Lu, Shulan; Wu, XiaoKe; Wei, Zhaolian; Song, Xueru; Wang, Xiuxia; Fu, Shuxin; Qiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged ...

  14. Abnormal Unsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism in Cystic Fibrosis: Biochemical Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

    Seegmiller, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited multi-organ disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. Patients with this disease exhibit characteristic abnormalities in the levels of unsaturated fatty acids in blood and tissue. Recent studies have uncovered an underlying biochemical mechanism for some of these changes, namely increased expression and activity of fatty acid desaturases. Among other effects, this drives metabolism of linoeate to arachidonate. Increased desaturase expression appears to be ...

  15. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions

  16. Metabolic network analysis of Bacillus clausii on minimal and semirich medium using C-13-Labeled glucose

    Christiansen, Torben; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    to increase with increasing specific growth rate but at a much lower level than previously reported for Bacillus subtilis. Two futile cycles in the pyruvate metabolism were included in the metabolic network. A substantial flux in the futile cycle involving malic enzyme was estimated, whereas only a...... very small or zero flux through PEP carboxykinase was estimated, indicating that the latter enzyme was not active during growth on glucose. The uptake of the amino acids in a semirich medium containing 15 of the 20 amino acids normally present in proteins was estimated using fully labeled glucose in...... partly taken up from the medium and partly synthesized from glucose. The metabolic network analysis was extended to include analysis of growth on the semirich medium containing amino acids, and the metabolic flux distribution on this medium was estimated and compared with growth on minimal medium....

  17. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states

  18. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis

    We evaluated the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) using visual and SPM analysis, and compared with MRI findings. A total of 11 adult patients with NF type I were prospectively included in the study. All patients underwent F-18 FDG PET and brain MRI within 2 month of each other. All hypometabolic areas on PET were determined visually by 2 nuclear medicine physician and compared with MRI findings. SPM analysis was done using 42 normal controls with p = 0.005. Seven of 11 PET images showed 10 hypometabolic areas and 4 of 11 MRIs showed 6 areas of signal change brain parenchyma. Hypometabolic areas were bilateral thalamus (n=5), left temporal cortex (n=4) and dentate nucleus (n=1). In only 2 lesions (thalamus and dentate nucleus), hypometabolic foci were consistently related to signal change on MRI. SPM analysis revealed significantly decreased area in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex. F-18 FDG PET revealed significant hypometabolism in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex in adult patients with NF, and it might be helpful in understanding developmental abnormality of NF

  19. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis

    Yoon, Joon Kee; An, Young Sil; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University, School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) using visual and SPM analysis, and compared with MRI findings. A total of 11 adult patients with NF type I were prospectively included in the study. All patients underwent F-18 FDG PET and brain MRI within 2 month of each other. All hypometabolic areas on PET were determined visually by 2 nuclear medicine physician and compared with MRI findings. SPM analysis was done using 42 normal controls with p = 0.005. Seven of 11 PET images showed 10 hypometabolic areas and 4 of 11 MRIs showed 6 areas of signal change brain parenchyma. Hypometabolic areas were bilateral thalamus (n=5), left temporal cortex (n=4) and dentate nucleus (n=1). In only 2 lesions (thalamus and dentate nucleus), hypometabolic foci were consistently related to signal change on MRI. SPM analysis revealed significantly decreased area in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex. F-18 FDG PET revealed significant hypometabolism in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex in adult patients with NF, and it might be helpful in understanding developmental abnormality of NF.

  20. Hemoglobin A1c for Diagnosis of Postpartum Abnormal Glucose Tolerance among Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Meta-Analysis

    Su, Xudong; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Qu, Xinye; Tian, Yaqiang; Zhang, Guangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods After a systematic review of related studies, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and other measures about the accuracy of HbA1c in the diagnosis of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance were pooled using random-e...

  1. Plasma Glucose and Serum Ceruloplasmin in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Ashok Kumar Jeppu; Asha Augusthy; Kavitha Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 and metabolic syndrome are conditions associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2. Plasma glucose (fasting/postprandial) and serum ceruloplasmin levels and their relationship were studied. Study population consisted of 150 individuals—50 individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2, 50 individuals with metabolic syndrome, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Plasma levels of fasting and p...

  2. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2012-01-01

    Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic β-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for...... UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression...... was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase...

  3. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Supaporn Wannasiri; Pritsana Piyabhan; Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus) leaf extract on impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese ICR mice. Methods: Obesity was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. After the first six weeks of the diet, the obese mice were administered with the water extract of R. nasutus leaves at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day for the next six weeks. Subsequently, the blood glucose, lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were measured. The liver and adipose tissues were excised for his-topathological examination and protein expression study. Results: After six weeks of the treatment, R. nasutus extract (at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day) was found to reduce the elevated blood glucose level, improve the insulin sensitivity, decrease the serum leptin, and increase the serum adiponectin levels. The obese mice treated with R. nasutus were found to have a reduction in the increased lipid concen-trations in their serum and liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with R. nasutus reduced the fat accumulation in the liver and the large adipocyte size in the fat tissues. Interestingly, the administration with R. nasutus extract was marked by an increase in the hepatic peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha, fat cell adiponectin, and glucose transporter 4 proteins. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  4. A PET study of cerebellar metabolism in normal and abnormal states

    The authors studied cerebellar metabolism under varying conditions of sensory stimulation. Cerebellar glucose consumption was measured by positron emission scanning and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in 64 subjects. Cerebellar metabolism relative to the whole brain (CM), and the asymmetry of metabolism between the cerebellar hemispheres (CA) was determined. The lowest CM occurred with maximal sensory deprivation, eyes and ears closed, (CM=96%, n=6). CM increased nonsignificantly with visual stimulation (CM=99%,n=17) and was highest for auditory stimulation (CM=104%,n=10,p<.05). CA was unaffected by sensory input. Under ambient conditions the CM values were 101%, 113% and 135% respectively for young controls (n=9, age=22), old controls (n=8, age=61) and Alzheimer patients (SDAT, n=14, age=69). This difference was significant for SDAT vs young and old controls and was nearly significant for young vs old controls

  5. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused ...

  6. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Bentzen, Joan; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan; Fenger, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI R...... five polymorphisms was seen in the dizygotic twins. The effect of the polymorphisms on lipid and glucose parameters could be mediated through linkage to genes with known effect on glucose metabolism or through free fatty acids exerting their effect on glucose metabolism.......The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco......RI RFLP) were established using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digests. The effect of genotypes on lipid levels and on glucose, insulin, and HOMA (i.e., calculated parameters of beta-cell function and insulin resistance) was assessed by multivariate analyses of variance correcting for...

  7. Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but associations with hyperglycemia in pregnancy have not been well studied. Methods: We studied Boston, Massachusetts–area pregnant women without known diabetes. We identified impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy from clinical glucose tolerance tests at median 28.1 weeks gestation. We used residential addresses to...

  8. 糖化血红蛋白与血糖、血脂及心电图异常的相关性分析%Correlation analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood lipid and electrocardiographic abnormality

    王晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose, blood lipid and electrocardiographic abnormality, in order to reveal the influence of blood glucose on atherosclerosis.Methods According to the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria for diabetes and the results of physical examination of 408 subjects, the subjects were divided into normal blood glucose group and abnormal glucose metabolism group. According to the level of HbA1c, the abnormal glucose metabolism group was divided into three groups as group A, group B, and group C, they were HbA1c0.05). The difference of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) between group A and group B was statistically significant (P0.05). The differences between group B and group C were statistically significant (P0.05),高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)在A组与B 组间差异具有统计学意义(P0.05),在B 组与 C组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。分析组和对照组比较, HbA1c 、FBG、PBG、HDL-C、CHOL、TG以及心电图异常发生率各项差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血糖升高可导致血脂异常,从而导致动脉粥样硬化,血糖升高可产生“代谢记忆效应”,应该重视血糖监测以便尽早发现糖代谢异常而进行尽早干预,以减少糖尿病和动脉粥样硬化的发生。

  9. Effect of glucocorticoid therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation

    Objective: To study the effect of glucocorticoids therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Methods: Plasma glucose and insulin levels in COPD patients after intravenous administration of 10 mg dexamethasone daily for 5 days were determined oral with glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT). Results: 1) The levels of basal plasma glucose and insulin were significantly higher in severe hypoxemic group than those in moderate hypoxemic group (p 2 (r = -0.5242, p < 0.05). 2) The levels of plasma glucose in intermediate and severe hypoxemic groups were remarkable higher (p < 0.05) than those in mild group. The two peak times of glucose curve were observed at one and two hour after oral glucose load. 3) After the administration of glucocorticoids, at half an hour and one hour plasma glucose levels were significantly higher than those before, the peak time of glucose levels appeared earlier and the insulin release levels were higher than they were before therapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: COPD patients with acute exacerbation complicated with hypoxemia had problems of impaired glucose tolerance. The administration of glucocorticoids made the impairment worse

  10. Transmural Distribution of Metabolic Abnormalities and Glycolytic Activity during Dobutamine Induced Demand Ischemia

    Jameel, Mohammad N; Wang, Xiaohong; Eijgelshoven, Marcel H.J.; Mansoor, Abdul; Zhang, Jianyi

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity across the LV wall is characterized by higher rates of oxygen consumption, systolic thickening fraction, myocardial perfusion and lower energetic state in the subendocardial layers (ENDO). During dobutamine stimulation induced demand ischemia, the transmural distribution of energy demand and metabolic markers of ischemia are not known. In this study, hemodynamics, transmural high energy phosphate (HEP) and 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (2DGP) levels and myocardial blood flow (MBF) were determined under basal conditions (B), during dobutamine infusion (DOB: 20 μg/kg/min iv.), and during coronary stenosis+DOB+2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) infusion. DOB increased rate pressure products (RPP) and MBF significantly without affecting subendocardial to subepicardial blood flow ratio (ENDO/EPI) or HEP levels. During coronary stenosis+DOB+2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) infusion RPP, ischemic zone (IZ) MBF and ENDO/EPI decreased significantly. IZ PCr/ATP decreased significantly (2.30 +/- 0.14, 2.06 +/- 0.13 and 2.04 +/- 0.11 to 1.77 +/- 0.12, 1.70 +/- 0.11 and 1.72 +/- 0.12; EPI, MID and ENDO, respectively) and 2DG6P accumulated in all layers as evidenced by the 2DG6P/PCr (0.55 +/- 0.12, 0.52 +/- 0.10 and 0.37 +/- 0.08; EPI, MID and ENDO respectively; pENDO). In the IZ the wet weight/dry weight ratio was significantly increased as compared to the normal zone (5.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.4; p<0.05). Thus, in stenotic perfused bed, during dobutamine induced high cardiac workstate, despite higher blood flow the subepicardial layers showed the greater metabolic changes that characterized by a shift toward higher carbohydrate metabolism suggesting a homeostatic responses to high cardiac workstate is characterized by more glucose utilization in energy metabolism. PMID:18424629