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Sample records for abnormal glucose metabolism

  1. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the influence of abnormal glucose metabolism on left ventricular (LV) function and prognosis in 203 patients with acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. This appears to be...... particularly attributable to an increased incidence of post-infarction congestive heart failure. A relationship between glucose metabolism and LV function could potentially explain this excess mortality. METHODS: In patients without known diabetes, glucose metabolism was determined using an oral glucose...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend) < 0.05) with the exception of left...

  2. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Domenico Tricò; Simona Baldi; Silvia Frascerra; Elena Venturi; Paolo Marraccini; Danilo Neglia; Andrea Natali

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT) and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT), and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT), we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Re...

  3. Analysis of oral glucose tolerance test in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism

    YANG Hui-xia; GAO Xue-lian; DONG Yue; SHI Chun-yan

    2005-01-01

    Background Due to the controversy of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the world and researches on GDM remain undeveloped in China. American Diabetes Association recently recommended the clinicians to diagnose GDM by OGTT results without the third-hour glucose value. This new criteria has not been used in China. Research on the value and sensitivity of the criteria in detecting GDM is rare. The aim of our study is to analyze the characteristics of OGTT in Chinese women with GDM or gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) and to evaluate the effect of omission of the third-hour plasma glucose (PG) level in OGTT on the sensitivity of diagnosing GDM and GIGT, and the relationship between PG values of 50 g GCT or OGTT and insulin therapy. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on medical records of 647 cases with GDM from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 2002, and 233 with GIGT. Among 647 cases of GDM, 535 cases were diagnosed by 75 g OGTT. All OGTT results including 535 cases of GDM and 233 patients with GIGT were evaluated. Results There were 112 cases of GDM diagnosed by elevated fasting PG (FPG) without OGTT performed. Of 535 cases of GDM diagnosed by OGTT, 49.2% (263/535) women had FPG value ≥5.8 mmol/L; 90.1% (482/535) women with 1-hour PG values ≥10.6 mmol/L; 64.7% (359/535) with 2-hour PG levels ≥9.2 mmol/L. There were only 114 cases (21.3%) with abnormal 3-hour PG levels among 535 women with OGTT. Among those with abnormal 3-hour PG level, 49.1% (56/114) had abnormal glucose values in the other three points of OGTT, and 34.2% (39/114) with two other abnormal values of OGTT. Our study showed that omission of the 3-hour PG of OGTT only missed 19 cases of GDM and they would be diagnosed as GIGT. Among the 233 women with GIGT, only 4 cases had abnormal 3-hour PG. So, omission of the third-hour glucose value of OGTT only resulted in failure to diagnose 3.6% (19/535) women with

  4. Abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin as a predictive factor for glucose metabolism disorders in antipsychotic treatment

    XU Leping; JI Juying; DUAN Yiyang; SHI Hui; ZHANG Bin; SHAO Yaqin; SUN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the changes in glucose metabolism after antipsychotic(APS)therapy,to note the influencing factors,as well as to dicuss the relationship between the occurrence of glucose metabolism disorders of APS origin and abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c)levels.One hundred and fifty-two patients with schizophrenia,whose fasting plasma glucose(FPG)and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG)in the oral glucose tolerance test(2HPG)were normal,were grouped according to the HbA1c levels,one normal and the other abnormal,and were randomly enrolled into risperidone,clozapine and chlorpromazine treatment for six weeks.The FPG and 2hPG were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study.In the group with abnormal HbA1c and clozapine therapy,2HPG was higher after the study[(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than that before the study[(7.2±1.4)mmol/L]and the difierence was statistically significant(P<0.01).FPG had no statistically significant difference before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).HbA1c levels and drugs contributing to 2HPG at the end of study had statistical cross-action(P<0.01).In the abnormal HbA1c group,2HPG after the study was higher in the clozapine treatment group [(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than in the risperidone treatment group [(7.4±1.7)mmol/L]and the chlorpromazine treatment group[(7.3±1.6)mmol/L].The differences were statistically significant(P<0.01).In the normal HbA1c group there was no statistically significant difierence before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).2HPG before[(7.1±1.6)mmol/L]and after the study[(8.1±1.9)mmol/L]was higher in the abnormal HbA1c group than in the normal HbA1c group[(6.2±1.4)mmol/L vs(6.5±1.4)mmol/L]with the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.01 vs P<0.001).As compared with normal HbA1c group,the relative risk (RR)of glucose metabolism disease occurrence was 4.7 in the abnormal HDA1C group wlth the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.001).Patients with abnormal HbA1c

  5. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    Objective: People with epilepsy commonly report having problems with their memory. Many indicate that memory difficulties significantly hinder their functioning at work, in school, and at home. Besides, some studies have reported that memory performance as a prognostic factor is of most value in patients with risk of refractory epilepsy and when used in a multidisciplinary setting. However, the cerebral cortical areas involving memory impairment in epilepsy is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to access changes of cerebral glucose metabolism of epilepsy patients using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Method: Nine temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. Each patient was confirmed with lesions in right mesial temporal lobe by MRI, PET and EEG. Serial cognition function tests were performed. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) was measured by PET at 45 minutes after injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Parametric images were generated by grand mean scaling each scan to 50. The images were then transformed into standard stereotactic space. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was applied to find the correlations between verbal memory, figure memory, perception intelligent quotation (PIQ) and rCMRglc in epilepsy patients. The changes of rCMRglc were significant if corrected p value was less than 0.05. Results: There was no significant relationship between figure memory score and verbal memory score. FDG-PET scan showed changes of rCMRglc positive related with verbal memory score in precentral gyms of right frontal lobe (Brodmann area 4, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size 240) and cingulated gyms of right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 32, corrected p=0.002, voxel size 143). No negative relationship was demonstrable between verbal memory and rCMRglc in this study. Besides, significanfiy positive correlation between figure memory was shown in cuneus of right occipital lobe (Brodmann area 18, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size

  6. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 {+-}14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 {+-}8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness.

  7. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 ±14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 ±8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness

  8. Association of Serum Ferritin Level with Risk of Incident Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Southwestern China: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Zhou, Fangli; Zhao, Zhuoxian; Tian, Li; Zheng, Tianpeng; Gao, Yun; Chen, Tao; Yan, Fangfang; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to analyze the association between serum ferritin levels and the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) in Southwestern Chinese population. The 383 subjects who are aged ≥20 years and free of AGM at baseline between in 2007 and in 2008 were included in Southwestern China, and their baseline serum ferritin levels were measured. Among these subjects, 140 subjects were developed into AGM during the follow-up (2008-2012). In logistic regression models, the relative risk in the top versus that in the lowest quartile of serum ferritin levels was 2.86 (p = 0.013) in females and 3.50 (p = 0.029) in males after adjusting the age, gender, family history of diabetes, current smoking, and alcohol; however, serum ferritin levels were not significantly associated with incident of AGM after controlling for metabolic factors (waist circumference, systolic pressure (SBP), triglyceride (TG), and homeostasis model assessment formula insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with AGM but not an independent risk factor. PMID:26073512

  9. Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure

    Egstrup, M; Kistorp, C N; Schou, M;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between glucose metabolism, left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve, and exercise capacity in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: From an outpatient HF clinic, 161 patients with systolic HF were included (mean age 70 ± 10...... years, 69% male, 59% had ischaemic heart disease, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 37 ± 9%). Thirty-four (21%) patients had known diabetes mellitus (DM). Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) classified patients without a prior DM diagnosis as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance...... (467 m) (P <0.001). Differences in clinical variables, resting echocardiographic parameters or contractile reserve, did not explain the exercise intolerance related to diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes, known or newly detected by OGTT, is independently associated with reduced LV contractile reserve and...

  10. Metabolic abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Palacios Verd??, Mar??a Gabriela, 1983-; Segura Puimedon, Maria, 1985-; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Campo Casanelles, Miguel del, 1966-; Campuzano Uceda, Mar??a Victoria; P??rez Jurado, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83???Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ???30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ???75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well a...

  11. Glucose abnormalities in hepatitis C virus infection.

    Huang, Jee-Fu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most important causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and has a tremendous impact on public health worldwide. HCV is both hepatotropic and lymphotropic. Replication of HCV in diseased extrahepatic organs and tissues may either trigger latent autoimmunity or induce autoimmune disorders. In addition to established liver injury, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important feature of extrahepatic metabolic disorders which is attributed to HCV infection. It also has some impact on the disease activity, disease course, clinical outcomes, and treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy. Previous experimental and clinical findings have highly suggested that HCV per se is diabetogenic. The cause-effect interaction between a common endocrine disorder and an infectious disease is an important issue to elucidate. Although the precise mechanisms whereby HCV infection leads to insulin resistance (IR) and glucose abnormalities are not entirely clear, it differs from the usual pathogenesis of T2DM in those with non-HCV liver diseases. This review initially highlights epidemiological and pathophysiological studies addressing the mutual link between chronic HCV infection (CHC) and T2DM. The characteristics of glucose abnormalities in this special population are depicted from the current evidence. The mutual roles of IR and CHC with respect to the prediction of treatment efficacy, how treatment response affects IR, and the role of pancreatic beta cell function in the entire suite are discussed. With the rapid progression of antiviral therapy for CHC in the past decade, we have also listed some points of future perspective in this issue. PMID:23347806

  12. 脑梗死与糖代谢异常相关性研究%The Correlation Study of Cerebral Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Metabolism

    赵德成; 袁建喜

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同损害程度脑梗死患者的血糖水平,分析其糖代谢异常情况,探讨脑梗死与糖代谢异常的关系,为脑梗死的预防、诊断、治疗提供依据。方法:选取2010年1月-2013年8月入住本院脑病科的108例急性脑梗死患者,根据梗死范围将其分为轻度组41例、中度组40例、重度组27例,通过检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c),观察患者的糖代谢情况。结果:糖调节受损、糖尿病与正常血糖患者比较,中度及重度组脑梗死比率明显升高;糖尿病患者脑梗死中度组、重度组比率较糖调节受损患者明显升高;脑梗死中度组、重度组的HbA1c、FPG、2 h PG水平均明显高于脑梗死轻度组,重度组的HbA1c、FPG、2 h PG水平明显高于中度组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:糖代谢异常与脑梗死的发生及损害程度明显相关,良好的血糖控制有利于降低脑梗死的发生率,监测血糖并控制正常范围内可改善预后。%Objective:To observe blood glucose levels of cerebral infarction patients with different damage degrees, and to analyze the situation of abnormal glucose metabolism of patients with cerebral infarction,and to explore the relationship between cerebral infarction and glucose metabolism in order to provide the reference for prevention,diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarction.Method:108 cases of acute cerebral infarction were selected from January 2010 to August 2013 admitted to our hospital department of encephalopathy,according to the scope of infarction cerebral infarction the damage degrees, they were divided into the mild degree for 41 cases,the moderate degree for 40 cases and the severe degree for 27 cases,and the situation of glucose metabolism in patients were observed by detecting fasting plasma glucose(FPG),blood sugar 2 hours after meal(PG)and glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c

  13. Clinical observation of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular department of Internal Medicine%心血管内科住院患者糖代谢异常的临床观察

    李丽

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore cardiovascular department of internal medicine hospitalized patients with abnormal glucose metabolism,understanding of abnormal glucose metabolism oncardiovascular effects of patient health,and better treatment of patients with cardiovasculardisease.MethodsIn our hospital in 2013 June~2014 year in March treated 200 cases ofcardiovascular department of internal medicine hospitalized patients as the research object,including 50 cases with clinical diagnosed with diabetes,the remaining 150 patients,were used toobserve the cardiovascular department of internal medicine sugar glucose metabolism of patients hospitalized for observation and analysis of tolerance test and fasting blood glucose detection two experimental methods.ResultsThe two test results show,in 200 patients with fasting blood glucose detection,diagnosis of abnormal glucose metabolism in 50 patients,and oral glucose tolerance test on the remaining 150 patients,diagnosed with abnormal glucose metabolism in 100 cases(67%) of the number of sampling experiment,by comparing with the glucose tolerance,test of cardiovascular patients blood glucose were detected,the rate of missed diagnosis of patients with greatly reduced.ConclusionThe oral glucose tolerance test glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular disease than that of fasting blood glucose test to conifrm the diagnosis of glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular disease rate is high,is worth in clinicaldetection of glucose metabolism of the patients,and vigorously promote the use of.%目的:探究心血管内科住院患者的糖代谢异常,了解糖代谢异常对心血管患者身体健康的影响,从而更好的治疗患者的心血管疾病。方法选取我院2013年6月~2014年3月收治的200例心血管内科住院的患者为研究对象,其中50例经过临床各项检查确诊为糖尿病,对剩余150例患者,分别采用葡萄糖耐量试验和空腹血糖检测实验方法对患者的

  14. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    Christos; V; Rizos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro-and macrovascular disease.Moreover,increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance.As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical.However,the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism.Indeed,angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.Calcium channel blockers(CCBs)have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism.However,some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis.On the other hand,diuretics andβ-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism.Of note,carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of theβ-blockers class,being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis.The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may,to an extent,compromise their cardiovascular protective role.As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment,especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.

  15. 妊娠期糖代谢异常162例母儿预后分析%Analysis on the outcomes of 162 maternal and fetal with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy

    徐亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.Methods: 162 patients were diagnosed definitely in our hospital from June 2003 to August 2007.They were divided into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) group (58 cases) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (104 cases).150 pregnant women of normal blood glucose were taken as normal glucose tolerance (GNGT) group, maternal and fetal outcomes were compared in three groups.Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, pregnancy - induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, fatal macrosomia, premature delivery, neonatal hypoglycemia were higher in GDM group than in GNGT group (P < 0.05 ).The incidences of cesarean section, polyhydramnios, fatal acrosomia were higher in the GIGT group than in GNGT group (P <0.05).Conclusion: Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy can produce adverse effect on mothers and neonates.It is very important to positive treatment the pregnant women of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常对母儿预后的影响.方法:2003年6月~2007年8月在大同市第一人民医院诊断为妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕妇162例,其中妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组58例,妊娠期糖耐量减低(GIGT)组104例,另选择150例血糖值正常孕妇作为血糖正常(GNGT)组,比较3组的母儿预后.结果:GDM组孕妇产后即时出血、剖宫产、妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、巨大儿、早产儿和新生儿低血糖的发生率均显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05);GIGT组剖宫产、羊水过多、巨大儿的发生率显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期糖代谢异常对孕产妇和围生儿的预后有不良影响,应对妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇进行积极干预.

  16. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  17. Abnormal brain glucose metabolism and depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease: SPM analysis of F-18 FDG positron emission tomography

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD

  18. Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood%出生体重与成年期肥胖指标联合效应对糖代谢异常的影响

    席波; 程红; 陈芳芳; 赵小元; 米杰

    2016-01-01

    +成年期腹型肥胖组OR(95%CI)值为3.18(2.33~4.32),低出生体重+成年期腹型肥胖组的OR(95%CI)值为4.78(2.01~11.38),高出生体重+腹型肥胖组的OR(95%CI)值4.35(1.38~13.65);低出生体重和高出生体重与成年期腰围均存在正交互作用,交互作用归因比分别为38.5%和28.3%。结论低出生体重和高出生体重可能分别与成年期肥胖存在正交互作用,共同增强了对成年期糖代谢异常的影响。%Objective To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Methods Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. Results There were 972 subjects (males:50.7%, mean age:(46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data

  19. Glucose metabolism in ischemic myocardium

    We determined the myocardial metabolic rate for glucose (MMRGlc) in the ischemic or infarcted myocardium using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET), and studied energy metabolism in the ischemic myocardium. In some cases, we compared glucose metabolism images by 18-FDG with myocardial blood flow images using 15-oxygen water. Two normal subjects, seven patients with myocardial infarction and four patients with angina pectoris were studied. Coronary angiography was performed within two weeks before or after the PET study to detect ischemic areas. PET studies were performed for patients who did not eat for 5 to 6 hours after breakfast. Cannulation was performed in the pedal artery to measure free fatty acid, blood sugar, and insulin. After recording the transmission scan for subsequent correction of photon attenuation, blood pool images were recorded for two min. after the inhalation of carbon monoxide (oxygen-15) which labeled the red blood cells in vivo. After 20 min., oxygen-15 water (15 to 20 mCi) was injected for dynamic scans, and flow images were obtained. Thirty min. after this procedure, 18-FDG (5 to 6 mCi) was injected, and 60 min later, a static scan was performed and glucose metabolism images were obtained. Arterial blood sampling for the time activity curve of the tracer was performed at the same time. According to the method of Phelps et al, MMRGlc was calculated in each of the region of interest (ROI) which was located in the left ventricular wall. MMRGlc obtained from each ROI was 0 to 17 mg/100 ml/min. In normal subjects MMRGlc was 0.4 to 7.3 mg/100 ml/min. In patients with myocardial infarction, it ranged from 3 to 5 mg/100 ml/min in the infarcted lesion. In patients with angina pectoris and subendocardial infarction, MMRGlc was 7 to 17 mg/100 ml/min in the ischemic lesion. In this lesion, myocardial blood flow was relatively low by oxygen-15 imagings (so-called mismatch). (J.P.N.)

  20. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

    Haskins Amy E; Bertone-Johnson Elizabeth R; Pekow Penelope; Carbone Elena; Fortner Renée T; Chasan-Taber Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Western Massach...

  1. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Jones, John G

    2016-06-01

    The liver has a central role in the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid fluxes during feeding and fasting and also relies on these substrates for its own energy needs. These parallel requirements are met by coordinated control of carbohydrate and lipid fluxes into and out of the Krebs cycle, which is highly tuned to nutrient availability and heavily regulated by insulin and glucagon. During progression of type 2 diabetes, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis fluxes become elevated, thus contributing to hyperglycaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Over this interval there are also significant fluctuations in hepatic energy state. To date, it is not known to what extent abnormal glucose and lipid fluxes are causally linked to altered energy states. Recent evidence that the glucose-lowering effects of metformin appear to be mediated by attenuation of hepatic energy generation places an additional spotlight on the interdependence of hepatic biosynthetic and oxidative fluxes. The transition from fasting to feeding results in a significant re-direction of hepatic glucose and lipid fluxes and may also incur a temporary hepatic energy deficit. At present, it is not known to what extent these variables are additionally modified by type 2 diabetes and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, there is a compelling need to measure fluxes through oxidative, gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways and determine their relationship with hepatic energy state in both fasting and fed conditions. New magnetic resonance-based technologies allow these variables to be non-invasively studied in animal models and humans. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium entitled 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by Hannele Yki-Järvinen, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3944-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Michael

  2. Assessment of prenatal and perinatal characteristics of pregnants with gestationel diabetes mellitus who have postnatal glucose abnormalities

    Bakıner, Okan; Bozkırlı, Emre; Serinsöz, Hülya; Sarıtürk, Çağla; Ertörer, Eda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the difference in terms of prenatal and perinatal characteristics between gestational diabetic (GDM) cases diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFG)and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during early postpartum period. Material and Methods: Cases who had no history of any glucose metabolism disorder and diagnosed as GDM due to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria were included. Subjects were inquired for pregestational characteristics(glucose abnormality ...

  3. Evaluation of glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles

    Shulan Lü; Xiaoyan Guo; Zuansun Cao; Wenjun Mao

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles (MOF) and explore the relationship between glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and body weight. Methods:We evaluated 46 women with MFO and 30 nor mal women as controls. All the subjects were given 75g of glucose orally in order to perform the oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) and insulin releasing test(IRT), and they were also evaluated for insulin resistance using the insulin resistance index with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Results:The occurrence of impaired glucose tolerance in women with MOF was 10.87%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.33% ,P < 0.05). The rate of insulin resistance was 30.43% in the study group as compared to 10.00% in the control group. The results showed that there was significant difference between the two groups(P < 0.05). The levels of FSH,LH,PRL,E2,T and P between the two groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05). BMI in women with impaired glucose tolerance was correlated positively to insulin resistance (r =0.567, P < 0.05). Conclusion :Abnormal glucose metabolism was observed in women with unitary multiple ovarian follicles,and this could be attributed to obesity and insulin resistance. Women with MOF and associated obesity should be subjected to OGTT so that their glucose levels can be monitored as a preventive measure.

  4. 糖脂代谢异常对肝硬化患者疾病进展的影响%Impact of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism on the progression of disease in patients with cirrhosis

    岑光力; 岑柏春

    2015-01-01

    ,triglycerides (TG) in patients with different Child-Pugh score had no statistically significant difference,P =0.558,0.169.The level of serum albumin (ALB) of patients with DM in cirrhosis was significantly lower than those without DM,P =0.009.The patients with DM in liver cirrhosis had higher incidence of complications such as ascites,gastro esophageal variceal bleeding(GEVB) or hepatic encephalopathy than those without DM,P =0.000.Conclusion The patients with cirrhosis had higher incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism,and DM lead to progression of liver disease in turn.

  5. Study on the correlation of severity of acute pancreatitis with abnormal glucose metabolism and its prognosis%急性胰腺炎严重程度与糖代谢异常的相关性及其预后

    罗欣

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性胰腺炎严重程度与糖代谢异常的相关性及其预后.方法 选择2004年12月至2012年12月广西柳钢集团公司医院消化科收治入院的急性胰腺炎患者158例,按疾病严重程度分为轻症急性胰腺炎(MAP)组68例和重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)组90例;检测两组患者糖代谢指标空腹静脉血糖(FPG)、负荷2h静脉血糖(PPG)及评定两组患者急性生理及慢性健康评分Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ),对两组的糖代谢指标和APACHE Ⅱ评分进行相关性分析,并观察两组患者的预后.结果 SAP组患者FPG、PPG、胰岛素水平(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(IRI)明显高于MAP组,胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)低于MAP(P<0.01);急性胰腺炎(AP)患者的APACHE Ⅱ评分与FPG、PPG、FINS、IRI呈正相关(P <0.05,P<0.01),与ISI呈负相关(P<0.05);SAP组的假性囊肿、感染、脓肿、坏死、急性肺损伤或急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)、死亡发生率明显高于MAP组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 AP的严重程度与糖代谢异常存在密切的关系,两者相互影响,因此,在治疗AP时,应积极控制胰腺炎症,防止和减少胰腺坏死,将血糖降至正常范围,以降低并发症和死亡的发生率.%Objective To investigate correlation between severity of acute pancreatitis and abnormal glucose metabolism and its prognosis.Methods A total of 158 cases of patient admitted with acute pancreatitis in the Department of Digestion of our hospital from December 2004 and December 2012 were selected,and were divided into two groups:mild acute pancreatitis (MAP; n =68) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP; n =90) according to disease severity.The patient's sugar metabolism such as fasting plasma glucose (FPG),postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHEII) scores of two groups were detected.Correlation analysis was carried out between glucose metabolism index and APACHEII score.The prognosis of two groups was observed

  6. Evidence for Central Regulation of Glucose Metabolism*

    Carey, Michelle; Kehlenbrink, Sylvia; Hawkins, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for central regulation of glucose homeostasis is accumulating from both animal and human studies. Central nutrient and hormone sensing in the hypothalamus appears to coordinate regulation of whole body metabolism. Central signals activate ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, thereby down-regulating glucose production, likely through vagal efferent signals. Recent human studies are consistent with this hypothesis. The contributions of direct and central inputs to metabolic regulat...

  7. A clinical analysis of abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman%妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的临床分析

    米阳; 闫坤; 黄谱; 苟文丽

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationship between abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman. Methods 1 636 pregnant women who received antenatal examination in Shannxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital in a period from January to June, 2008 were screened at their 24~28 weeks of gestation with 50g glucose challenge test (GCT). Those pregnant women with abnormal GCT results further received oral 75g glucose tolerance test (OGTT). According to OGTT results, the pregnant women were divided into 2 groups: GDM group (n=69) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance group (GIGT group, n=124). 300 pregnant women with normal glucose metabolism were as controls. All of them were followed up untill delivery and the perinatal outcomes in the 3groups were compared. Results The incidence of GDM was 4.21% and that of GIGT was 7.58%. The incidences of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membrane and premature delivery in GDM group were higher than those in the control group (χ2=4.660,11.530,5.193,4.661 respectively,all P<0.05).In GIGT group ,the incidences of polyhydramnios and premature rupture of membrane were significantly higher than those in the control group(χ2=12.450,6.325,respectively,both P<0.05). Conclusion The pregnant women with GDM or GIGT have significantly high incidences of obstetric complications and rate of cesarean section. So, screening of GDM should be strengthened and early diagnosis, early treatment, gestational supervision and guidance should be carried out in order to reduce incidence rates of maternal and infantile complications.%目的 探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的关系.方法 选取2008年1~6月在陕西省妇幼保健院进行产前检查的1 636名孕妇,于24~28周进行50g葡萄糖筛查试验,异常者行75g糖耐量试验,按糖代谢异常情况分为妊娠期糖尿病组(69例)和妊娠期糖耐量受损组(124例);

  8. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25oC which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ≥ 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U-14C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  9. Glucose Metabolism in Mentally Retarded Children

    Glucose metabolism has been studied in normal, mentally retarded and hypothyroid children who exhibited subnormal I.Q. in spite of an adequate thyroxine dose. Two parameters, the breath and the blood, were examined. Continuous breath analysis following intravenous glucose-U-14C was carried out to examine its end product 14CO2. Blood was analysed half-hourly for the specific activity of glucose in this pool. Data are presented in terms of stable carbon dioxide expiration rate, the maximum specific activity of carbon dioxide attained, the glucose pool of the body and its turnover rate. (author)

  10. Resveratrol supplementation does not improve metabolic function in non-obese women with normal glucose tolerance

    Yoshino, Jun; Conte, Caterina; Fontana, Luigi; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Imai, Shin-ichiro; Kenneth B Schechtman; Gu, Charles; Kunz, Iris; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to improve metabolic function in metabolically-abnormal rodents and humans, but has not been studied in non-obese people with normal glucose tolerance. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the metabolic effects of 12 weeks of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg/day) in non-obese, postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance. Although resveratrol supplementation increased plasma resveratrol concentration, it did not ch...

  11. Sleep Control, GPCRs, and Glucose Metabolism.

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Modern lifestyles prolong daily activities into the nighttime, disrupting circadian rhythms, which may cause sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances have been implicated in the dysregulation of blood glucose levels and reported to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic complications. Sleep disorders are treated using anti-insomnia drugs that target ionotropic and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists, melatonin agonists, and orexin receptor antagonists. A deeper understanding of the effects of these medications on glucose metabolism and their underlying mechanisms of action is crucial for the treatment of diabetic patients with sleep disorders. In this review we focus on the beneficial impact of sleep on glucose metabolism and suggest a possible strategy for therapeutic intervention against sleep-related metabolic disorders. PMID:27461005

  12. 成都地区中老年高血压人群糖代谢异常流行状况及其影响因素%An epidemiological study of abnormal glucose metabolism and its risk factors among middle and aged population with hypertension in Chengdu area

    易延静; 刘燕; 李秀钧; 赵思勤; 冉迅; 黄晓波; 刘雅; 张廷杰; 欧阳凌云; 曾伟; 徐俊波; 杨雷

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiological status of abnormal glucose metabolism and its influential factors among middle and aged population with hypertension in Chengdu area. Methods In 2008, after adopting the methods of stratified cluster sampling, the authors investigated 4685 subjects of the middle and aged population between the age of 40-79 in Chengdu urban and rural area by checking blood pressure and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTY). Patients with previously known diabetes mellitus (DM) were only asked to perform fasting glucose and to carry out a questionnaire. Comparison of the prevalence rates of abnormal glucose metabolism in hypertensive and non-hypertensive subjects was carried out. The prevalence rates of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (I-IGT) and isolated postprandial hyperglycemia (IPH) among middle and aged subjects with hypertension were acquired and the influential factors of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged subjects with hypertension were analyzed. Results The prevalence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism in the hypertensive subjects was obviously higher than that in the non-hypertensive subjects; without using OGTT, 72.9% of the pre-diubetic and 54. 4% of the new diagnosed DM patients would remain undiagnosed if fasting plasma glucose detection was used alone. Age, diabetic history of first degree relatives ,overweight or obesity were the risk factors for the development of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged male subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area. Exercise training and high education level were the protective factors. Age, diabetic history of first degree relatives,abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the risk factors for the development of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged female subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area. Conclusions More than 50% of middle and aged subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area has accompanying abnormal glucose metabolism. OGTT easily

  13. High prevalence of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in the middle-aged Finnish population

    Vanhala Mauno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and disturbances in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in Finnish population, and to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and abnormal glucose tolerance. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in Finland during October 2004 and January 2005. A total of 4500 randomly selected individuals aged 45–74 years were invited to a health examination that included an oral glucose tolerance test. The participation rate was 62% in men and 67% in women. Results The prevalence of obesity was 23.5% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 21.1–25.9 in men, and 28.0% (95% CI 25.5–30.5 in women. The overall prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (including type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glucose was 42.0% (95% CI 39.2–44.8 in men and 33.4% (95% CI 30.9–36.0 in women. The prevalence of previously unknown, screen-detected type 2 diabetes was 9.3% (95% CI 7.7–11.0 in men and 7.3% (95% CI 5.9–8.7 in women. Central obesity was associated with abnormal glucose tolerance within each of the three BMI categories normal (2, overweight (25–29 kg/m2, and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2. Conclusion In a population-based random sample of Finnish population, prevalences of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance were found to be high. A remarkably high number of previously undetected cases of type 2 diabetes was detected. Waist circumference is a predictor of abnormal glucose tolerance in all categories of obesity.

  14. Uric acid as a modulator of glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Lima, William Gustavo; Martins-Santos, Maria Emília Soares; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2015-09-01

    In humans, uric acid is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism. The serum uric acid level is based on the balance between the absorption, production and excretion of purine. Uric acid is similarly produced in the liver, adipose tissue and muscle and is primarily excreted through the urinary tract. Several factors, including a high-fructose diet and the use of xenobiotics and alcohol, contribute to hyperuricaemia. Hyperuricaemia belongs to a cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities, called metabolic syndrome, characterised by abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Hyperuricaemia reduction in the Pound mouse or fructose-fed rats, as well as hyperuricaemia induction by uricase inhibition in rodents and studies using cell culture have suggested that uric acid plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome. These studies have shown that high uric acid levels regulate the oxidative stress, inflammation and enzymes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, suggesting a mechanism for the impairment of metabolic homeostasis. Humans lacking uricase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid degradation, are susceptible to these effects. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of the effects of uric acid on the regulation of metabolism, primarily focusing on liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. PMID:26133655

  15. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  16. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N;

    1984-01-01

    Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase in the...... presence of insulin is found. To determine whether these alterations and in particular those mediated by insulin are due to local or systemic factors, one hindlimb of an anesthetized rat was electrically stimulated, and both hindlimbs were perfused immediately thereafter. Glucose and glycogen metabolism in...... the stimulated leg closely mimicked that observed previously after voluntary exercise on a treadmill. With no insulin added to the perfusate, glucose incorporation into glycogen was markedly enhanced in muscles that were glycogen depleted as were the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O...

  17. Osteocalcin as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients with osteoporosis and diabetesis rapidly increasing all over the world. Bone is recentlyrecognized as an endocrine organ. Accumulatingevidence has shown that osteocalcin, which is specificallyexpressed in osteoblasts and secreted into the circulation,regulates glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulinexpression in pancreas and adiponectin expression inadipocytes, resulting in improving glucose intolerance.On the other hand, insulin and adiponectin stimulateosteocalcin expression in osteoblasts, suggesting thatpositive feedforward loops exist among bone, pancreas,and adipose tissue. In addition, recent studies haveshown that osteocalcin enhances insulin sensitivity andthe differentiation in muscle, while secreted factors frommuscle, myokines, regulate bone metabolism. Thesefindings suggest that bone metabolism and glucosemetabolism are associated with each other through theaction of osteocalcin. In this review, I describe the roleof osteocalcin in the interaction among bone, pancreas,brain, adipose tissue, and muscle.

  18. Metabolic Abnormalities Associated with the Use of Protease Inhibitors and Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Madhu N. Rao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS has been associated with multiple abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism. Specifically, these abnormalities include insulin resistance, increased triglycerides and increased LDL cholesterol levels. The metabolic disturbances are due to a combination of factors, including the direct effect of medications, restoration to health and HIV disease, as well as individual genetic predisposition. Of the available anti-retroviral medications, indinavir has been associated with causing the most insulin resistance and ritonavir with causing the most hypertriglyceridemia.

  19. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in patients with predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease using sup(18)F-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Preliminary results indicate the presence of asymmetric metabolic rates in the inferior basal ganglia. The structure comprising the largest portion of basal ganglia at this level is globus pallidus. These findings are consistent with metabolic studies on animals with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions in which pallidal hypermetabolism on the lesioned side has been demonstrated. Increased pallidal activity is likely secondary to a loss of inhibitory dopaminergic input to the striatum from substantia nigra

  20. Changes of myocardial glucose metabolism by starvation

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a fatal disease and high food intake is thought one of the important risk factor for IHD. Biochemical analyse of the relation between food and IHD is necessary. F-18-labeled 2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) is useful pharmaceutical for detection of myocardial glucose metabolism. The effect of starvation on myocardial uptake and retention of FDG was investigated. Control rats which were fed ad libitum were killed 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after the injection of FDG (10 uCi). The other rats were starved for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours each. The rats were killed 30 minutes after the injection of FDG. Myocardial uptakes of FDG were high enough 30 minutes after the injection of FDG. Decrease of myocardial uptake was showed in 12 hours starvation alrealdy and decrease was greater according to the starvation time. From this result myocardial glucose metabolism is considered to be suppressed early stage of starvation another energy metabolic pathway is considered to be used

  1. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders; Jørgensen, T; Borch-Johnsen, K; Sandbaek, A; Lauritzen, T; Wasson, J; Permutt, M A; Glaser, B; Madsbad, S; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, variants in WFS1 have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine metabolic risk phenotypes of WFS1 variants in glucose-tolerant people and in individuals with abnormal glucose regulation. METHODS: The type 2 diabetes-associated WFS1 variant rs7...

  2. Drug-Induced Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence for Statins and Other Drugs Affecting Glucose Metabolism.

    Anyanwagu, U; Idris, I; Donnelly, R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and glucose tolerance, either because of a reduction in tissue sensitivity to insulin (e.g., in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues) and/or a reduction in pancreatic insulin secretion, are associated with a number of unwanted health outcomes. Even small increases in circulating glucose levels (often described as dysglycemia or prediabetes) may confer an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression to overt type 2 diabetes. A number of drug therapies, many of them used long term in chronic disease management, have adverse effects on glucose metabolism, diabetes risk, and glycemic control among patients with preexisting diabetes. In this study, we review the evidence, underlying mechanisms, and the clinical significance of drug-related adverse effects on glucose metabolism. PMID:26440603

  3. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  4. Analysis the risk factors of coronary heart disease and clinical characters of coronary angiography in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism%冠心病合并糖代谢异常冠脉病变特点及其危险因素分析

    费利霞; 陈洁; 田刚

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨糖代谢异常冠状动脉病变特点和冠心病的危险因素.方法:74例拟诊冠心病患者行冠脉造影(CAG),57例空腹血糖正常者行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)检查.根据CAG结果分冠心病组(CAD)、非冠心病组(非CAD),分析危险因素的差异;冠心病组分为糖尿病组(DM)、糖调节受损组(IGR)、正常血糖组(NGT),观察冠状动脉病变的特点.结果:糖代谢异常在冠心病与非冠心病差异有统计学意义(χ2值为6.14,P<0.05).冠心病IGR组和DM组多支病变患病率,分别75%和50%,NGT组单支病变患病率55.6%,重度病变患病率DM组80%,NGT组77.8%.男性、DM、IGR、吸烟、危险因素累计数在CAD组与非CAD组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:冠心病合并糖代谢异常患病率高,48.6%通过OGTT诊断,OGTT应列为心血管病的常规检查;冠心病合并糖尿病和糖调节受损病变以多支病变为主,病变重而弥漫,正常血糖以单支病变多见,病变重而局限.%Objective: To analysis the risk factors of coronary heart disease and the clinical characters of coronary angiography in the patients who suffered with abnormal glucose metabolism. .Methods: 74 cases of patients who were preliminary diagnosed to coronary heart disease accepted coronary angiography (CAG),57 of them with normal fast blood glucose accepted the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All the patients were divided into the CAD group and without CAD group according to the results of CAG. The CAD divided into three groups (DM, IGR and NGT) was compared with the difference of the clinical characters of coronary lesions. Results: The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was 64% in patient with CAD.The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in CAD was significantly higher than that of without CAD(was 6. 14,P<0. 05)). The coronary multivessel changes were more frequent in the IGR group and in the DM group than the NGT group (75%, 50% vs. 16.7%). The cor onary single

  5. Analysis of Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Combined With Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Zhi-ping GAO; Li-wen LIE; Ying-ling ZHOU; Hao-jian DONG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the morbidity of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) combined with impaired glucose metabolism. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data about patients with CAD in 1997, 2002 and 2007, sepa-rately. A total of 2951 patients were enrolled, among whom had coexistence of 457 abnormal glycometabolism, inclu-ding impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results The prevalence of ab-normal glycometabolism in patients with CAD was increasing year by year. The morbidity raised from 3.8% and 16. 5% to 10. 8% in these three years. Contusion It is more and more common to detect CAD with impaired glucose metabolism, and it should be emphasized in the secondary prevention of CAD.

  6. Effect of metabolic abnormalities on cognitive performance and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia

    Wysokiński, Adam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of this study is to determine whether and how metabolic abnormalities are associated with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Methods. 46 adult patients with schizophrenia taking first- or second generation antipsychotics were included in the study. The following data were collected: BMI, abdominal circumference, lipid panel and blood glucose, blood pressure and treatment of comorbidities. Clinical symptoms were assessed using PANSS, CDSS, CGI and SAS scales. Cognitive performance was assessed using CNS Vital Signs computerized battery of tests: Verbal Memory test, Visual Memory test, Finger Tapping Test, Symbol Digit Coding, Stroop Test, Shifting Attention Test, and Continuous Performance Test. Results. Dyslipidemia, raised LDL and raised blood glucose levels were the best predictors of more severe clinical symptoms (PANSS, PANSS P, PANSS G, CGI and lower neurocognitive index, worse cognitive flexibility, executive functions, complex attention composite memory, verbal memory, slower reaction time and worse performance in SAT, CPT, ST tests. Obesity was associated with worse results in VBM, VIM, FTT, SDC tests. Raised blood pressure was associated with improvements in all cognitive domains and better performance in SAT, CPT, ST tests. Discussion. There are several weak associations between severity of clinical symptoms and metabolic abnormalities. Most of these were for blood glucose levels and raised blood glucose. Lipids and glucose abnormalities are the best predictors of deteriorated cognitive performance. Contrary to previous observations, raised blood pressure was associated with better results in cognitive tests. Conclusions. These findings indicate that cognitive impairment and metabolic abnormalities may be linked in patients with schizophrenia

  7. Effect of metabolic abnormalities on cognitive performance and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia

    Wysokiński, Adam; Dzienniak, Małgorzata; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The objective of this study is to determine whether and how metabolic abnormalities are associated with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Methods. 46 adult patients with schizophrenia taking first- or second generation antipsychotics were included in the study. The following data were collected: BMI, abdominal circumference, lipid panel and blood glucose, blood pressure and treatment of comorbidities. Clinical symptoms were assessed using PANSS, CDSS, CGI a...

  8. Assessment of prenatal and perinatal characteristics of pregnants with gestationel diabetes mellitus who have postnatal glucose abnormalities

    Okan Bakiner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the difference in terms of prenatal and perinatal characteristics between gestational diabetic (GDM cases diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFGand impaired glucose tolerance (IGT during early postpartum period. Material and Methods: Cases who had no history of any glucose metabolism disorder and diagnosed as GDM due to American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria were included. Subjects were inquired for pregestational characteristics(glucose abnormality in previous pregnancies, birth of macrosomic baby and history of diabetes in a first-degree relative, prenatal characteristics (age, body mass index BMI, features at diagnosis (BMI,weight-gain ,blood pressure and HbA1C, and perinatal characteristics (birth week and baby birth weight were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reperformed in the 6th postpartum week. Effects of pregestational, prenatal and perinatal features on postpartum glucose abnormalities were analysed. Results: Out of 80 cases who completed the study 58.7%(n=47 had normal glucose metabolism, 13.7%( n=11 had IFG and 27.5%(n=22 had IGT. No difference was found between pregestational, prenatal , perinatal characteristics, features at the time of diagnosis and postpartum OGTT results. Incidence of IFG in postpartum OGTT for those who had diabetes in a first degree relative was elevated when compared with other cases(p=0,042. The difference was preserved after adjustment for other characteristic features with multivariate analysis (p=0,037. Conclusion: Presence of diabetes in a first degree relative may be a risk factor for postnatal early IFG. In our study other pregestational, prenatal, perinatal factors and features at diagnosis didn’t affect early postpartum glucose metabolism. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 617-626

  9. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    Ma, Ya-Hong; Yu, Caiguo; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Guo, Xin; Ji, Zhili; Liu, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH. However, it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance. In this study, we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. ApoCIII transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia...

  10. Glycated albumin in screening the abnormal glucose metabolism in postpartum women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus%糖化白蛋白筛查妊娠期糖尿病患者产后糖代谢异常的意义

    方芳; 马宇航; 陈苏; 陈希; 任茜; 黄倩芳; 王煜非; 王育璠; 彭永德

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨糖化白蛋白(GA)筛查妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)患者产后发生糖代谢异常和糖尿病的最佳切点. 方法 2012年4月至2014年10月依据2010年国际妊娠合并糖尿病研究组织所提出的诊断标准,选取我院241例诊断为GDM的患者为研究对象,于产后6~8周复诊,予75 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),根据结果分为正常糖耐量组(NGT组)、糖调节受损组(IGR组)和糖尿病组(DM组).通过绘制受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线,寻找GA诊断GDM产后糖代谢异常(IGR+DM)和DM的最佳切点.三组间计量资料比较采用方差分析或Kruskal Wallis (K-W)方法,计数资料比较采用卡方检验. 结果 (1)241例患者中NGT组128例(53.1%),IGR组66例(27.4%),DM组为47例(19.5%).(2)GDM患者产后GA与产前体重、目前体重呈负相关(r=-0.226、-0.198,均P12.7%,尤其>13.03%的GDM患者,应进一步行OGTT明确其糖代谢情况.%Objective To investigate the optimal cut-off point of glycated albumin for abnormal glucose metabolism and diabetes postpartum with previous gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was underwent at 6-8 weeks after delivery in 241 GDM patients from Apr 2012 to Oct 2014. Diagnosis of GDM was based on International Association of Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group criteria. The clinical and biochemical characteristics were compared among normal glucose tolerance(NGT group), impaired glucose regulation(IGR group) and diabetes mellitus(DM group). Comparisons between three groups were performed using analysis of variance test (ANOVA) or Kruskal Wallis test. Chi square test was used in comparisons between proportions. The optimal cut-off point of glycated albumin(GA) for abnormal glucose metabolism(IGR+DM) and diabetes were obtained by drawing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results (1)We found that the rates of NGT (n=128), IGR (n=66) and DM (n=47) were 53.1%, 27.4%and 19.5%, respectively.(2)GA was negatively

  11. Effect of Metformin Intervention on Blood Sugar of Patients with Breast Cancer Chemotherapy with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响

    翟媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the effect of metformin intervention on blood sugar of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods 60 cases of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with ab-normal glucose metabolism in our hospital from February 2012 to August 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group received AC-T chemotherapy plan, and were treated with diet control and exercise, the observation group were given additional metformin on the basis of the control group, the blood sugar con-trol conditions of the two groups were observed. Results The case number of patients with normal blood sugar at the end of chemotherapy and in 3 months after chemotherapy in the observation group was obviously more than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Metformin for controlling the blood sugar levels of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism has an obvious effect and has a potential anti-tumor effect, which is further research.%目的 研究二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响.方法 整群选择2012年2月—2014年8月来该院行乳腺癌化疗,伴糖代谢紊乱的60例患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组. 对照组给予AC-T化疗方案,同时给予患者饮食控制和运动治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用二甲双胍,观察两组血糖控制情况. 结果 观察组化疗结束时和化疗结束后3个月正常血糖患者例数显著多于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). 结论 二甲双胍对于控制乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢紊乱患者血糖水平效果显著,且具有潜在抗肿瘤作用,值得进一步研究.

  12. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may

  13. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  14. [Metabolic abnormalities as a basis for age-dependent diseases and aging? State of the art].

    Tereshina, E V

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a number of certain criteria reflecting abnormalities in lipid and glucose metabolism. These abnormalities are considered to be a reason for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2. The prevalence of CVD among those with diabetes is 3-5 folds higher than without diabetes. MS demonstrates ethnic and gender variants, its frequency depends on the lifestyle and age. Attention to MS has been attracted in the last decades induced by the obesity epidemic in US. The adipose tissue and high triglyceride blood levels have been regarded as hallmark of MS. It has appeared that metabolic ways of cholesterol, fat and glucose were tightly connected and united in a system of energy expenditure and reproduction. The high prevalence of MS, heart attacks and diabetes in the elderly population makes the evidence of age to be an independent risk factor of the development of metabolic abnormalities. But this problem is still out of the field of interest in gerontology. There exist a number of unsolved questions concerning the function of visceral adipose tissue, the role of free fatty acids in the insulin resistance, mechanisms of inflammation in the old age and so on that can be an object of gerontology. So, a program of advanced researches in this field is discussed. PMID:19827683

  15. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

    Haskins Amy E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Western Massachusetts. Women reported pre- and early pregnancy smoking at recruitment (mean = 15 weeks and mid pregnancy smoking at a second interview (mean = 28 weeks. AGT was defined as > 135 mg/dL on the routine 1-hour glucose tolerance test (1-hr OGTT. We used multivariable regression to assess the effect of pre, early, and mid-pregnancy smoking on risk of AGT and screening plasma glucose value from the 1-hr OGTT. Results In age-adjusted models, women who smoked > 0-9 cigarettes/day in pre-pregnancy had an increased risk of AGT (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.02-3.55 compared to non-smokers; this was attenuated in multivariable models. Smoking in early (OR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.21-1.10 and mid pregnancy (OR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.13-1.11 were not associated with AGT in multivariable models. Smoking during early and mid pregnancy were independently associated with lower glucose screening values, while smoking in pre-pregnancy was not. Conclusions In this prospective cohort of Hispanic women, we did not observe an association between smoking prior to or during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Findings from this study, although based on small numbers of cases, extend prior research to the Hispanic population.

  16. Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome

    Surprisingly it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS) components as parameters to identify such persons. All participants received a standard 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance and 6 had diabetes on isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (Clinical history model): family history (FH), FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model): Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI); Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance. (author)

  17. Evaluation of regional metabolic abnormality and treatment effect in patients with narcolepsy

    The aim of the present study was to evaluated regional metabolic abnormalities in untreated narcoleptic patients and the changes in regional cerebral metabolism after treatment with modafinil. Eight drug free narcoleptic patients (mean age of 17±1 yr) participated in this study. Two [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans before and after a 2-week titrated modafinil treatment (target dose = 100∼400 mg/day). The PET data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping methods to identify the regional cerebral abnormalities compared with those of healthy young controls. In addition, treatment effect was evaluated by comparison between before and after treatment scan. In narcolepsy patients, a significant reduction of regional metabolism was demonstrated in the brain stem, bilateral hypothalamus, posterior thalamus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and adjacent perihinal area on pretreatment scans compared with those of healthy subjects. The decrease glucose metabolism was also found in the occipital cortex and cerebellum. The patients could control daytime sleepiness after treatment. Posttreatment scan showed a significant increase in regional metabolism in the left hippocampus. This study demonstrated the metabolic abnormalities and the effect of modafinil treatment in narcoleptic patients in the sleep associated regions. This results could be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of the narcolepsy and treatment mechanism

  18. Evaluation of regional metabolic abnormality and treatment effect in patients with narcolepsy

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Shin, Youn Kyung; Eo, Jae Sean; Won, Oh So; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluated regional metabolic abnormalities in untreated narcoleptic patients and the changes in regional cerebral metabolism after treatment with modafinil. Eight drug free narcoleptic patients (mean age of 17{+-}1 yr) participated in this study. Two [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans before and after a 2-week titrated modafinil treatment (target dose = 100{approx}400 mg/day). The PET data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping methods to identify the regional cerebral abnormalities compared with those of healthy young controls. In addition, treatment effect was evaluated by comparison between before and after treatment scan. In narcolepsy patients, a significant reduction of regional metabolism was demonstrated in the brain stem, bilateral hypothalamus, posterior thalamus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and adjacent perihinal area on pretreatment scans compared with those of healthy subjects. The decrease glucose metabolism was also found in the occipital cortex and cerebellum. The patients could control daytime sleepiness after treatment. Posttreatment scan showed a significant increase in regional metabolism in the left hippocampus. This study demonstrated the metabolic abnormalities and the effect of modafinil treatment in narcoleptic patients in the sleep associated regions. This results could be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of the narcolepsy and treatment mechanism.

  19. Low non-oxidative glucose metabolism and violent offending: an 8-year prospective follow-up study.

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-06-30

    Violent offenders have abnormalities in their glucose metabolism as indicated by decreased glucose uptake in their prefrontal cortex and a low blood glucose nadir in the glucose tolerance test. We tested the hypothesis that low non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOG) predicts forthcoming violent offending among antisocial males. Glucose metabolism was measured using the insulin clamp method among 49 impulsive, violent, antisocial offenders during a forensic psychiatric examination. Those offenders who committed at least one new violent crime during the 8-year follow-up had a mean NOG of 1.4 standard deviations lower than non-recidivistic offenders. In logistic regression analysis, NOG alone explained 27% of the variation in the recidivistic offending. Low non-oxidative metabolism may be a crucial component in the pathophysiology of habitually violent behavior among subjects with antisocial personality disorder. This might suggest that substances increasing glycogen formation and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia might be potential treatments for impulsive violent behavior. PMID:19446886

  20. Inhibition of Endothelial p53 Improves Metabolic Abnormalities Related to Dietary Obesity

    Masataka Yokoyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has suggested a role for p53 activation in various age-associated conditions. Here, we identified a crucial role of endothelial p53 activation in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Endothelial expression of p53 was markedly upregulated when mice were fed a high-calorie diet. Disruption of endothelial p53 activation improved dietary inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase that upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α in skeletal muscle, thereby increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption. Mice with endothelial cell-specific p53 deficiency fed a high-calorie diet showed improvement of insulin sensitivity and less fat accumulation, compared with control littermates. Conversely, upregulation of endothelial p53 caused metabolic abnormalities. These results indicate that inhibition of endothelial p53 could be a novel therapeutic target to block the vicious cycle of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity.

  1. Soy and cardio-metabolic abnormalities: an update

    Leila Azadbakht

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • Soy protein contains beneficial components like complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, vegetable protein, soluble fiber, oligosaccharides, vitamins, minerals, inositol-derived substances and phytoestrogens, particularly the isoflavones  genistein, diadzein, and glycitein, which might affect different cardio-metabolic abnormalities. Soy consumption has been reported to beneficially affect features of the metabolic syndrome in animal models and also in humans to some extent. There are inconsistent reports regarding the hypothesis of the effectiveness of soy protein on obesity. While some studies have shown that soy consumption can improve the features of the metabolic syndrome without affecting body weight, others showed that soy consumption has beneficial role in weight management and might improve the metabolic syndrome by affecting body weight control. Several studies have consistently reported the effects of soy on cardiovascular risks. Beneficial role of soy intake on diabetes is another aspect of soy inclusion in the diet. The present study discusses the effects of soy consumption on different cardio-metabolic abnormalities and provides information regarding the possible mechanisms by which soy protein might exert its beneficial roles.
    • KEY WORDS: Soy, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome.

  2. Geniposide regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion possibly through controlling glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells.

    Jianhui Liu

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS is essential to the control of metabolic fuel homeostasis. The impairment of GSIS is a key element of β-cell failure and one of causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Although the KATP channel-dependent mechanism of GSIS has been broadly accepted for several decades, it does not fully describe the effects of glucose on insulin secretion. Emerging evidence has suggested that other mechanisms are involved. The present study demonstrated that geniposide enhanced GSIS in response to the stimulation of low or moderately high concentrations of glucose, and promoted glucose uptake and intracellular ATP levels in INS-1 cells. However, in the presence of a high concentration of glucose, geniposide exerted a contrary role on both GSIS and glucose uptake and metabolism. Furthermore, geniposide improved the impairment of GSIS in INS-1 cells challenged with a high concentration of glucose. Further experiments showed that geniposide modulated pyruvate carboxylase expression and the production of intermediates of glucose metabolism. The data collectively suggest that geniposide has potential to prevent or improve the impairment of insulin secretion in β-cells challenged with high concentrations of glucose, likely through pyruvate carboxylase mediated glucose metabolism in β-cells.

  3. Value of fructosamine measurement in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance

    LI Kui; YANG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Background The concentration of serum fructosamine is correlated with plasma glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of serum fructosamine can be diagnostic for abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnant women.Methods Serum samples were collected from 161 pregnant women between November 2004 and April 2005.The women were divided into three groups according to the gestational age (16-20 weeks group, 56 patients; 28-34 weeks group, 72; and 37-41 weeks group, 33). Each group was subdivided into normal and abnormal glucose tolerance subgroups. The levels of serum fructosamine were measured. Differences among the groups were assessed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Correlations between the level of fructosamine and other variables including the results of glucose challenge test (GCT), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, and infant's birth weight were analyzed by Pearson correlation.Results The level of serum fructosamine decreased with gestational age [(223.25 ±48.90) μmol/L, (98.44±29.57)μmol/L, and (53.99±29.94) μmol/L, respectively. P<0.05]. It was higher in women with abnormal glucose tolerance than that in women with normal glucose tolerance, however, the difference reached statistical significance only in the 28-34 weeks group (P<0.05). In this group, the level of serum fructosamine correlated positively with the GCT result (r=0.28, P<0.05). No correlation was found between fructosamine level and OGTT result, HbA1c level, or neonatal weight.Conclusions Fructosamine can be used to monitor the glucose level of pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance, and to identify the patients at high risk of abnormal glucose tolerance, but can not be used to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early stage of pregnancy.

  4. Limiting progressive hippocampal metabolic abnormalities after smoke inhalation injury.

    Tobe, Edward; Pradhan, Basant K

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old man had a smoke inhalation injury. Within 1 month, he developed neuropsychiatric problems including toxic encephalopathy, cognitive disorder, depression symptoms and personality change. From 3 to 14 years after the toxic inhalation injury, the patient received treatment with sertraline and methylphenidate. The (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan at 3 years after injury showed deterioration of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus and orbital frontal region; at 14 years after injury, the hippocampus had no significant change but the orbital frontal region had deterioration of glucose metabolism. It was hypothesised that sertraline may have provided selective hippocampal neuroprotection. Further study is justified to evaluate sertraline as a possible neuroprotective agent after smoke inhalation injury. PMID:24577174

  5. Glucose Metabolism Disorders, HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy among Tanzanian Adults.

    Emmanuel Maganga

    Full Text Available Millions of HIV-infected Africans are living longer due to long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART, yet little is known about glucose metabolism disorders in this group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders among HIV-infected adults on long-term ART to ART-naïve adults and HIV-negative controls, hypothesizing that the odds of glucose metabolism disorders would be 2-fold greater even after adjusting for possible confounders.In this cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013, consecutive adults (>18 years attending an HIV clinic in Tanzania were enrolled in 3 groups: 153 HIV-negative controls, 151 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 150 HIV-infected on ART for ≥ 2 years. The primary outcome was the prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders as determined by oral glucose tolerance testing. We compared glucose metabolism disorder prevalence between each HIV group vs. the control group by Fisher's exact test and used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with glucose metabolism disorders.HIV-infected adults on ART had a higher prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders (49/150 (32.7% vs.11/153 (7.2%, p<0.001 and frank diabetes mellitus (27/150 (18.0% vs. 8/153 (5.2%, p = 0.001 than HIV-negative adults, which remained highly significant even after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity and socioeconomic status (OR = 5.72 (2.78-11.77, p<0.001. Glucose metabolism disorders were significantly associated with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. Awareness of diabetes mellitus was <25%.HIV-infected adults on long-term ART had 5-fold greater odds of glucose metabolism disorders than HIV-negative controls but were rarely aware of their diagnosis. Intensive glucose metabolism disorder screening and education are needed in HIV clinics in sub-Saharan Africa. Further research should determine how glucose metabolism disorders might be related to immune reconstitution.

  6. Cerebral glucose metabolism change in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. A PET study

    The aim of this study was to examine abnormalities of the central nervous system in patients with chronic pain who were diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Brain activity was assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The data collected from 18 patients were compared with data obtained from 13 normal age-matched controls. Our results showed that glucose metabolism was bilaterally increased in the secondary somatosensory cortex, mid-anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) or posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) (or both), parietal cortex, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and cerebellum as well as in the right posterior insula and right thalamus in our patients. In contrast, glucose metabolism was reduced contralaterally in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex. Glucose metabolism was bilaterally elevated in the mid-ACC/PCC and the PPC, which correlated with pain duration. These data suggested that glucose metabolism in the brains of patients with CRPS changes dramatically at each location. In particular, glucose metabolism was increased in the areas concerned with somatosensory perception, possibly due to continuous painful stimulation. (author)

  7. Regional glucose metabolism using PETT in normal and psychiatric populations

    Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of /sup 18/F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (/sup 18/FDG) in 150 subjects including normals, schizophrenics, senile dementias, and primary affective disorders was studied. Some of the data analyzed to date are discussed.

  8. Regional glucose metabolism using PETT in normal and psychiatric populations

    The metabolism of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) in 150 subjects including normals, schizophrenics, senile dementias, and primary affective disorders was studied. Some of the data analyzed to date are discussed

  9. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production

  10. Adult glucose metabolism in extremely birthweight-discordant monozygotic twins

    Frost, M; Petersen, I; Brixen, K;

    2012-01-01

    Low birthweight (BW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared glucose metabolism in adult BW-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins, thereby controlling for genetic factors and rearing environment.......Low birthweight (BW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared glucose metabolism in adult BW-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins, thereby controlling for genetic factors and rearing environment....

  11. Glucose deprivation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and cancer therapy

    Simons Andrean; Mattson David; Dornfeld Ken; Spitz Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells (vs. normal cells) demonstrate evidence of oxidative stress, increased glycolysis, and increased pentose cycle activity. The oxidative stress in cancer cells has been hypothesized to arise from mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased levels of hydroperoxides, and cancer cells have been proposed to compensate for this defect by increasing glucose metabolism. Glucose metabolism has also been shown to play a role in hydroperoxide detoxification via the formation of pyruvate (...

  12. Frequency of metabolic abnormalities in urinary stones patients

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in the serum and urine of patients with urinary stones disease. Methods: Two hundred patients with either multiple or recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed on ultrasonography and intravenous urography were included in this study. 24 hour urine sample were collected from each patient and sent for PH, specific gravity, Creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and magnesium. In addition, blood sample of each patient w...

  13. Sleep deprivation induces abnormal bone metabolism in temporomandibular joint

    Geng, Wei; Wu, Gaoyi; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Yong; Nie, Jia; He, Yuhong; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of experimental sleep deprivation (SD) on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats and the possible mechanism related to abnormal bone metabolism. Material and methods: SD was induced by a modified multiple platform method and assessed by serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. TMJs were detached and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), osteo...

  14. Severe megaloblastic anaemia associated with abnormal azathioprine metabolism.

    Lennard, L; Murphy, M F; Maddocks, J L

    1984-01-01

    Severe anaemia is a rare, unexplained, side effect of azathioprine therapy. We report here such a case associated with a previously unreported abnormality in azathioprine metabolism. A 57 year old man on azathioprine therapy, for a presumed collagen vascular disease, developed severe megaloblastic anaemia. This resolved on cessation of azathioprine treatment. A very high concentration of an azathioprine metabolite, 6-thioguanine nucleotide, was found in the patient's red blood cells and this ...

  15. Plant oils were associated with low prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in Japanese workers.

    Kayo Kurotani

    Full Text Available Fatty acid has been suggested to be involved in development of diabetes. However, its association is unclear among Japanese populations, which consume large amounts of fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present cross-sectional study examined the association of individual dietary fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns with abnormal glucose metabolism among 1065 Japanese employees, aged 18-69 years. Impaired glucose metabolism is defined if a person has a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drug, fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dl (≥6.1 mmol/L or greater, or hemoglobin A1C of 6.0% (≥42 mmol/mol or greater. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary fatty acid patterns were extracted by principal component analysis. Odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism according to tertile categories of each fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding variables. A higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid was marginally significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.12. Of three fatty acid patterns identified, a higher plant oil pattern score, which characterized by high intake of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, was associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03. No association was observed for other patterns. In conclusion, plant source fatty acids might be protectively associated with development of diabetes in Japanese adults.

  16. Cell Cycle Abnormality in Metabolic Syndrome and Nuclear Receptors as an Emerging Therapeutic Target

    Nakatsuka,Atsuko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have emphasized the importance of metabolic syndrome based on its increasing prevalence and its adverse prognosis due to associated chronic vascular complications. Upstream of a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders is the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue, which plays a central role in the pathophysiology. In the accumulation of adipose tissues, cell cycle regulation is tightly linked to cellular processes such as proliferation, hypertrophy and apoptosis. In addition, various cell cycle abnormalities have also been observed in other tissues, such as kidneys and the cardiovascular system, and they are critically involved in the progression of disease. Here, we discuss cell cycle abnormalities in metabolic syndrome in various tissues. Furthermore, we describe the role of nuclear receptors in cell growth and survival, and glucose and lipid metabolism in the whole body. Therapeutic strategies for modulating various cell cycles in metabolic disorders by targeting nuclear receptors may overcome obesity and its chronic vascular complications in the future.

  17. 糖代谢异常的代谢综合征老年男性骨密度及体脂含量特点分析%The feature of bone mineral density and body fat in elderly males with metabolic syndrome of abnormal glucose metabolism

    刘敏燕; 李春霖; 肖彧君; 裴育; 张颖; 成晓玲; 李楠; 龚燕平; 肖海英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of bone mineral density and body fat in elderly males with metabolic syndrome (MS) of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods Elderly male patients were randomly selected to conduct the questionnaire, biochemical measurements, and measurement of factors related to bone metabolism. The bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patients were divided into the MS group and non-MS (NMS) group according to the diagnostic standard of Chinese Diabetes Society. They were also divided into the normal bone mass group, osteopenia group, and osteoporosis (OP) group according to the diagnostic standard of WHO. The differences among these groups were compared and the risk factors for MS were analyzed. Results MS, OP, and osteopenia prevalence in this study were 69.03%, 7.74 %, and 35.48%, respectively. The percentage of normal bone mass in MS group was higher than that in NMS group. The percentage of osteoporosis in MS group was lower than that in NMS group (P = 0.06). The percentage of fat of all parts in MS group was higher than that in NMS group (P <0. 01). The age gradually increased among normal bone mass, osteopenia, and OP groups ( P < 0. 01 ). Body mass index ( BMI) of patients in OP group was significantly lower than that in the other two groups. The rate of the fat percentage in Android area to Gynoid area (A/G) of patients in normal group was significantly higher than that in the OP group (P <0. 01). The results of Spearman correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients between MS and BMD of the neck of femur, hip, and lumbar were 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17, respectively, but only the correlation coefficient of lumbar was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between MS and the fat percentage of Android area, Gynoid area, total body, and A/G were 0-53, 0.33, 0.51, and 0.24, respectively (P < 0. 01). The results of logistic regressive analysis

  18. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  19. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  20. Peripheral glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Kilander, L; Boberg, M; Lithell, H

    1993-04-01

    Twenty-four patients with Alzheimer's disease and matched controls were examined with reference to metabolic parameters such as peripheral insulin and glucose metabolism, serum lipid concentrations and blood pressure levels. Blood glucose levels and insulin response were measured during an intravenous glucose tolerance test and peripheral insulin sensitivity was estimated with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. There were no differences recorded between the two groups in glucose metabolism, triglyceride, cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol levels. The patients with Alzheimer's disease had significantly lower blood pressure levels, which partly could be explained by ongoing treatment with neuroleptics and antidepressives. Previous findings of higher insulin levels in Alzheimer's disease could not be verified. PMID:8503259

  1. Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome

    Alemany Marià

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, which may derive, in the end, into insulin resistance. The available systems of energy disposal could not cope with the excess of substrates, since they are geared for saving not for spendthrift, which results in an unbearable overload of the storage mechanisms. Adipose tissue is the last energy sink, it has to store the energy that cannot be used otherwise. However, adipose tissue growth also has limits, and the excess of energy induces inflammation, helped by the ineffective intervention of the immune system. However, even under this acute situation, the excess of glucose remains, favoring its final conversion to fat. The sum of inflammatory signals and deranged substrate handling induce most of the metabolic syndrome traits: insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia and their compounded combined effects. Thus, a maintained excess of energy in the diet may result in difficulties in the disposal of glucose, eliciting

  2. Gamma-glutamyl transferase and C-reactive protein as alternative markers of metabolic abnormalities and their associated comorbidites: a prospective cohort study

    Melvin, Jennifer C; Rodrigues, Crystal; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Hammar, Niklas; Jungner, Ingmar; Walldius, Göran; Lambe, Mats; Jassem, Wayel; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggested that gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are good markers of metabolic abnormalities. We assessed the link between GGT, CRP and common metabolic abnormalities, as well their link to related diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: We selected 333,313 subjects with baseline measurements of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, GGT and CRP in the Swedish AMORIS study. Baseline measurement of...

  3. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism

  4. Cerebral glucose transport and metabolism with dynamic PET

    A comprehensive model describing the response of the steady-state tissue distribution of glucose to changes in plasma glucose concentration was developed. In the model, the steady-state glucose content can be used to predict the steady-state distribution spaces of both phosphorylatable and non-phosphorylatable glucose analogs, and thus the value of the lumped constant (LC) required to convert measured rates of analog metabolism to the desired rate of glucose metabolism. Models of the sensitivity of the kinetic rate constants for phosphorylatable glucose analogs to tissue glucose content were developed. The use of the measured distribution space of a non-phosphorylatable analog such as methyl glucose as an indicator of the LC, is only useful for hyperglycemia. We determined that a particular aspect of the kinetics of phosphorylatable analogs, the ratio of the phosphorylation rate constant to the membrane transport rate constant, is very sensitive to glucose content over the entire physiological range of values. Considerable effort is being made to optimize the use of venous blood that is ''arterialized'' by limb warming methods. Similarly, final refinements have been made to the non-linear least squares fitting routines, allowing for blood-borne radioactivity and for the loss of phosphorylation product

  5. Association of periodontal status with liver abnormalities and metabolic syndrome.

    Ahmad, Aisyah; Furuta, Michiko; Shinagawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Takeshita, Toru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between periodontal status and liver abnormalities has been reported, it has not been described in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS), which often coexists with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the association of a combination of liver abnormality and MetS with periodontal condition in Japanese adults, based on the level of alcohol consumption. In 2008, 4,207 males aged 45.4 ± 8.9 years and 1,270 females aged 45.9 ± 9.7 years had annual workplace health check-ups at a company in Japan. Periodontal status was represented as periodontal pocket depth at the mesio-buccal and mid-buccal sites for all teeth. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and metabolic components were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between deep pocket depth and the coexistence of elevated ALT and MetS in males with low alcohol consumption. Females showed no such relationship. In conclusion, the association between periodontal condition and the combination of elevated ALT and MetS was confirmed in males. That is, a clear association between liver abnormalities and periodontal condition was seen in male subjects with no or low alcohol consumption and MetS, providing new insights into the connection between liver function and periodontal health. PMID:26666857

  6. Prenatal depressive symptoms and abnormalities of glucose tolerance during pregnancy among Hispanic women

    Ertel, Karen A.; Silveira, Marushka; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Manson, JoAnn E.; Solomon, Caren G.; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in mid-pregnancy. We evaluated this association among 934 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed in early pregnancy using the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depres...

  7. The effects of hypoglycin on glucose metabolism in the rat

    The kinetics of glucose metabolism were evaluated in rats deprived of food 15 to 21 h after the administration of hypoglycaemic doses of hypoglycin (100 mg/kg body wt.) by following changes in the specific radioactivities of 14C and 3H in blood glucose after an intravenous dose of [U-14C,2-3H]glucose. During this time, recycling of glucose through the Cori cycle was virtually abolished, the rate of irreversible disposal of glucose and its total body mass were both decreased by about 70%, whereas there was little effect on the mean transit time for glucose. It was concluded that hypoglycaemia is due to inhibition of gluconeogenesis. (author)

  8. Abnormal sterol metabolism in holoprosencephaly: studies in cultured lymphoblasts

    Haas, D; Morgenthaler, J; Lacbawan, F; Long, B; Runz, H; Garbade, S F; Zschocke, J; Kelley, R I; Okun, J G; Hoffmann, G F; Muenke, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the developing forebrain in humans. The aetiology is heterogeneous and remains unexplained in approximately 75% of patients. Objective To examine cholesterol biosynthesis in lymphoblastoid cell lines of 228 patients with HPE, since perturbations of cholesterol homeostasis are an important model system to study HPE pathogenesis in animals. Methods An in vitro loading test that clearly identifies abnormal increase of C27 sterols in lymphoblast‐derived cells was developed using [2‐14C] acetate as substrate. Results 22 (9.6%) HPE cell lines had abnormal sterol pattern in the in vitro loading test. In one previously reported patient, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome was diagnosed, whereas others also had clearly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis of uncertain cause. The mean (SD) cholesterol levels were 57% (15.3%) and 82% (4.7%) of total sterols in these cell lines and controls, respectively. The pattern of accumulating sterols was different from known defects of cholesterol biosynthesis. In six patients with abnormal lymphoblast cholesterol metabolism, additional mutations in genes known to be associated with HPE or chromosomal abnormalities were observed. Conclusions Impaired cholesterol biosynthesis may be a contributing factor in the cause of HPE and should be considered in the evaluation of causes of HPE, even if mutations in HPE‐associated genes have already been found. PMID:17237122

  9. Islet glucose metabolism and insulin release in two animal models of glucose intolerance

    Ling, Zong-Chao

    1999-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a complex and heterogenous disease resulting from the interaction of defects of both genetic and environmental origin. Abnormalities contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes include impaired [beta]-cell function, peripheral insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. In the present study we have mainly used two animal models of glucose intolerance, i.e., spontaneously diabetic GK rats and transgenic mice with overexpressed gluco...

  10. [Bone metabolic markers and diagnosis of abnormal bone and calcium metabolism].

    Fukunaga, M; Sone, T

    2001-07-01

    Bone metabolic markers increase in blood or urine, when bone formation or bone resorption accelerates. Reference values of bone metabolic markers are determined in male or female, and in pre- or post-menopause, respectively. Values of bone metabolic markers in most patients with primary osteoporosis were distributed within a reference value, mean+/-1.96 SD. When measured values exceeded a reference values, we should survey a possibility of abnormal calcium or bone metabolism such as primary hyperparathyroidism, renal osteodystrophy, hyperthyroidism and Paget's disease of bone or bone metastasis associated with malignant tumor. PMID:15775589

  11. Nerve conduction abnormalities in untreated maturity-onset diabetes: relation to levels of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Graf, R J; Halter, J B; Halar, E; Porte, D

    1979-03-01

    The role of metabolic abnormalities in the development of diabetic neuropathy is controversial. To investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on nerve conduction, we studied 20 untreated maturity-onset diabetic patients and 23 normal control subjects of similar age. Nerve conduction velocity of motor (median, peroneal, and tibial) and sensory (median and sural) nerves in diabetic patients was significantly slowed and H-reflex latency time prolonged. Levels of fasting plasma glucose in diabetic subjects were correlated with slowed motor conduction velocity of the median, peroneal, and tibial nerves but not with sensory nerve conduction velocities. Levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, an index of long-term glycemia, were correlated with slowing of peroneal motor conduction velocity in diabetic patients. These associations could not be explained by patient age or duration of diabetes. These findings suggest that the degree of hyperglycemia of untreated maturity-onset diabetes contributes to the motor nerve conduction abnormalities in this disease. PMID:426398

  12. A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines

    H.G. Padilha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.

  13. Serum Visfatin Levels, Adiposity and Glucose Metabolism in Obese Adolescents

    Taşkesen, Derya; Kirel, Birgül; Us, Tercan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Visfatin, an adipokine, has insulin-mimetic effects. The main determinants of both the production and the physiologic role of visfatin are still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the relation of serum visfatin to adiposity and glucose metabolism. Methods: 40 pubertal adolescents (20 females, 20 males; age range: 9-17 years) with exogenous obesity and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents (10 females, 10 males) were enrolled in the study. Oral glucose tolerance te...

  14. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOEε4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the ε4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single ε4 allele. On the contrary the relation of ε4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection or statistical parametric mapping

  15. Positive Correlation between Severity of Blepharospasm and Thalamic Glucose Metabolism.

    Murai, Hideki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Kiyosawa, Motohiro; Wakakura, Masato; Mochizuki, Manabu; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with drug-related blepharospasm was followed up for 22 months. She had undergone etizolam treatment for 19 years for indefinite complaints. We examined her cerebral glucose metabolism 5 times (between days 149 and 688 since presentation), using positron emission tomography, and identified regions of interest in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and primary somatosensory area on both sides. The severity of the blepharospasm was evaluated by PET scanning using the Wakakura classification. Sixteen women (mean age 42.4 ± 11.7 years) were examined as normal controls. The thalamic glucose metabolism in our patient was significantly increased on days 149, 212, and 688. The severity of the blepharospasm was positively correlated with the thalamic glucose metabolism, suggesting that the severity of blepharospasms reflects thalamic activity. PMID:22110436

  16. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild;

    2015-01-01

    MRI was used to detect macro-structural damage (atrophy, white matter hyper-intensities, infarcts and/or micro-bleeds) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) to detect loss of micro-structural homogeneity that remains otherwise invisible on conventional MRI. Macro-structurally, higher fasted glucose......Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean...... age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain...

  17. Glucose metabolism in rats submitted to skeletal muscle denervation

    Wilton Marlindo Santana Nunes; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzed the local and systemic effects of immobilization by denervation of the skeletal muscle on glucose metabolism. The rats were submitted to section of the right paw sciatic nerve. A reduction was observed in glucose uptake by the isolated soleus muscle of the denervated paw after 3 and 7 days, but not after 28 days in relation to the control animals. There was no difference after 3 and 7 days in glucose uptake by the soleus muscle of the opposite intact paw in relation to the...

  18. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  19. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  20. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K;

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  1. Glucose regulates lipid metabolism in fasting king penguins.

    Bernard, Servane F; Orvoine, Jord; Groscolas, René

    2003-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether glucose intervenes in the regulation of lipid metabolism in long-term fasting birds, using the king penguin as an animal model. Changes in the plasma concentration of various metabolites and hormones, and in lipolytic fluxes as determined by continuous infusion of [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitate, were examined in vivo before, during, and after a 2-h glucose infusion under field conditions. All the birds were in the phase II fasting status (large fat stores, protein sparing) but differed by their metabolic and hormonal statuses, being either nonstressed (NSB; n = 5) or stressed (SB; n = 5). In both groups, glucose infusion at 5 mg.kg-1.min-1 induced a twofold increase in glycemia. In NSB, glucose had no effect on lipolysis (maintenance of plasma concentrations and rates of appearance of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids) and no effect on the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols (TAG), glucagon, insulin, or corticosterone. However, it limited fatty acid (FA) oxidation, as indicated by a 25% decrease in the plasma level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB). In SB, glucose infusion induced an approximately 2.5-fold decrease in lipolytic fluxes and a large decrease in FA oxidation, as reflected by a 64% decrease in the plasma concentration of beta-OHB. There were also a 35% decrease in plasma TAG, a 6.5- and 2.8-fold decrease in plasma glucagon and corticosterone, respectively, and a threefold increase in insulinemia. These data show that in fasting king penguins, glucose regulates lipid metabolism (inhibition of lipolysis and/or of FA oxidation) and affects hormonal status differently in stressed vs. nonstressed individuals. The results also suggest that in birds, as in humans, the availability of glucose, not of FA, is an important determinant of the substrate mix (glucose vs. FA) that is oxidized for energy production. PMID:12738609

  2. Glucose metabolism in critically ill patients

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    compared to normoglycemia. Insulin is used for treating hyperglycemia in the critically ill patients but may be complicated by hypoglycemia, which is difficult to detect in these patients and which may lead to serious neurological sequelae and death. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1...... glucose (BG). This is taken advantage of in the treatment of patients with T2DM, for whom GLP-1 analogs have been introduced during the recent years. Infusion of GLP-1 also lowers the BG level in critically ill patients without causing severe hypoglycemia. The T2DM and critical illness share similar...

  3. Glucose metabolism and effect of acetate in ovine adipocytes.

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-08-01

    Isolated ovine adipocytes were incubated in vitro with specifically labeled 14C-glucose in the presence or absence of acetate. The flux patterns of glucose carbon through major metabolic pathways were estimated. When glucose was added as the sole substrate, approximately equal portions of glucose carbon (10%) were oxidized to CO2 in the pentose phosphate pathway, in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction and in the citrate cycle. Fifteen percent of the glucose carbon was incorporated into fatty acids and 43% was released as lactate and pyruvate. Addition of acetate to the medium increased glucose carbon uptake by 1.5-fold. Most of this increase was accounted for by a sevenfold increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate increased glucose carbon fluxes via pentose phosphate pathway to triose phosphates, from triose phosphate to pyruvate, into glyceride glycerol, into lactate and pyruvate and into pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle CO2. Glucose carbon incorporated into fatty acids was decreased 50% by acetate while, carbon fluxes through the phosphofructokinase-aldolase reactions were not significantly increased. Results of this study suggest that, when glucose is the sole substrate, the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in ovine adipocytes may not be limited by the maximum capacity of hexokinase, the pentose phosphate pathway or enzymes involved in the conversion of triose phosphates to pyruvate and of pyruvate to fatty acid. Acetate increased glucose utilization apparently by increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a result of enhanced NADPH utilization for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:7142048

  4. Metabolic profiling of the response to an oral glucose tolerance test detects subtle metabolic changes.

    Suzan Wopereis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. METHODOLOGY: To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men.

  5. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum

  6. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L. (UCLA School of Medicine (USA))

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ({sup 14}C)-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the {sup 14}C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the {sup 14}C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum.

  7. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose.

    Ackermann, R F; Lear, J L

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum. PMID:2584274

  8. CMPF does not associate with impaired glucose metabolism in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome.

    Maria A Lankinen

    Full Text Available 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF is a metabolite produced endogenously from dietary sources of furan fatty acids. The richest source of furan fatty acids in human diet is fish. CMPF was recently shown to be elevated in fasting plasma in individuals with gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and mechanistically high level of CMPF was linked to β cell dysfunction. Here we aimed to study the association between plasma CMPF level and glucose metabolism in persons with impaired glucose metabolism.Plasma CMPF concentration was measured from plasma samples of the study participants in an earlier controlled dietary intervention. All of them had impaired glucose metabolism and two other characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Altogether 106 men and women were randomized into three groups for 12 weeks with different fish consumption (either three fatty fish meals per week, habitual fish consumption or maximum of one fish meal per week. Associations between concentration of CMPF and various glucose metabolism parameters at an oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and at the end of the study were studied.Fasting plasma CMPF concentration was significantly increased after a 12-week consumption of fatty fish three times per week, but the concentration remained much lower compared to concentrations reported in diabetic patients. Increases of plasma CMPF concentrations mostly due to increased fish consumption were not associated with impaired glucose metabolism in this study. Instead, elevated plasma CMPF concentration was associated with decreased 2-hour insulin concentration in OGTT.Moderately elevated concentration of CMPF in plasma resulting from increased intake of fish is not harmful to glucose metabolism. Further studies are needed to fully explore the role of CMPF in the pathogenesis of impaired glucose metabolism.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00573781.

  9. The impact of Vitamin D Replacement on Glucose Metabolism

    H, Parildar; O, Cigerli; DA, Unal; O, Gulmez; NG, Demirag

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism in Vitamin D-deficient patients with prediabetes. Methods: A total of 66 subjects with the mean ages 52.2±9.9 years were included in this prospective and a 6-month follow-up study between 2008-2010. Vitamin D deficient patients (

  10. Berberine Moderates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism through Multipathway Mechanism

    Qian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, but the mechanism is still under investigation. In this paper, we explored the effects of berberine on the weight, glucose levels, lipid metabolism, and serum insulin of KKAy mice and investigated its possible glucose and lipid-regulating mechanism. We randomly divided KKAy mice into two groups: berberine group (treated with 250 mg/kg/d berberine and control group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and fasting serum insulin were measured in both groups. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. RT2 PCR array gene expression analysis was performed using skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. Our data demonstrated that berberine significantly decreased FBG, area under the curve (AUC, fasting serum insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, TC, and TG, compared with those of control group. RT2 profiler PCR array analysis showed that berberine upregulated the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, MAPK8(c-jun N-terminal kinase, JNK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, and hepatic nuclear factor 4α(HNF4α, whereas it downregulated the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP, PPARγ coactivator 1α(PGC 1α, and resistin. These results suggest that berberine moderates glucose and lipid metabolism through a multipathway mechanism that includes AMP-activated protein kinase-(AMPK- p38 MAPK-GLUT4, JNK pathway, and PPARα pathway.

  11. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  12. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise in the rat

    Garetto, L P; Richter, Erik; Goodman, M N;

    1984-01-01

    Thirty minutes after a treadmill run, glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in perfused rat skeletal muscle are enhanced due to an increase in insulin sensitivity (Richter et al., J. Clin. Invest. 69: 785-793, 1982). The exercise used in these studies was of moderate intensity, and muscle...... glycogen was substantially repleted at the time (30 min postexercise) that glucose metabolism was examined. When rats were run at twice the previous rate (36 m/min), muscle glycogen was still substantially diminished 30 min after the run. At this time the previously noted increase in insulin sensitivity...... was evident. The data suggest that the restoration of muscle glycogen after exercise occurs in two phases. In phase I, muscle glycogen is depleted and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and glucose utilization in the absence of added insulin may both be enhanced. In phase II glycogen levels have...

  13. Post-operative Changes of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with Pre-operative Anxiety: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 FDG Brain PET

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Lim, Jong Min; Goh, Tae Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2011-01-01

    Study Design A prospective study. Purpose To assess postoperative changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in anxiety patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (SS). Overview of Literature Although an association between preoperative anxiety and abnormal cerebral glucose metabolism may exist, only a limited number of studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) have evaluated preoperative to postoperative changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in SS patients in detail...

  14. Mineral Metabolic Abnormalities and Mortality in Dialysis Patients

    Masanori Abe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of dialysis patients, as determined by risk factors such as hypertension, nutritional status, and chronic inflammation, is lower than that of the general population. In addition, disorders of bone mineral metabolism are independently related to mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in dialysis patients. Hyperphosphatemia is an important risk factor of, not only secondary hyperparathyroidism, but also cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, the risk of death reportedly increases with an increase in adjusted serum calcium level, while calcium levels below the recommended target are not associated with a worsened outcome. Thus, the significance of target levels of serum calcium in dialysis patients is debatable. The consensus on determining optimal parathyroid function in dialysis patients, however, is yet to be established. Therefore, the contribution of phosphorus and calcium levels to prognosis is perhaps more significant. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels have also been shown to be associated with cardiovascular events and death. In this review, we examine the associations between mineral metabolic abnormalities including serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone and mortality in dialysis patients.

  15. Peritoneal Dialysate Glucose Load and Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetics: Results from the GLOBAL Fluid Cohort Study

    Mark Lambie; James Chess; Jun-Young Do; Hyunjin Noh; Hi-Bahl Lee; Yong-Lim Kim; Angela Summers; Paul Ford Williams; Sara Davison; Marc Dorval; Nick Topley; Simon John Davies

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glucose control is a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. During PD, the local toxic effects of intra-peritoneal glucose are well recognized, but despite large amounts of glucose being absorbed, the systemic effects of this in non-diabetic patients are not clear. We sought to clarify whether dialysate glucose has an effect upon systemic glucose metabolism. Methods and Materials We analysed the Global Fluid Study cohort, a ...

  16. Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints

    Picco, Agnese; Ferrara, Michela; Arnaldi, Dario; Brugnolo, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Largo P. Daneo, 3, 16132, Genoa (Italy); Polidori, M.C. [University of Cologne, Institute of Geriatrics, Cologne (Germany); Cecchetti, Roberta; Baglioni, Mauro; Bastiani, Patrizia; Mecocci, Patrizia [University of Perugia, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Perugia (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia; Bossert, Irene [University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Fiorucci, Giuliana; Dottorini, Massimo Eugenio [Nuclear Medicine, S. M. della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these subjects brain{sup 18}F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance. The study group comprised 85 subjects with cognitive disturbance of increasing degrees of severity including 23 subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 28 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 34 patients with mild AD. In all subjects brain FDG PET was performed and plasma activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (eSOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Voxel-based analysis (SPM8) was used to compare FDG PET between groups and to evaluate correlations between plasma antioxidants and glucose metabolism in the whole group of subjects, correcting for age and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Brain glucose metabolism progressively decreased in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal and cingulate cortices across the three groups, from SCI to mild AD. eSOD activity was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in a large area of the left temporal lobe including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest a role of oxidative stress in the impairment of glucose utilization in the left temporal lobe structures in elderly patients with cognitive abnormalities, including AD and conditions predisposing to AD. Further studies exploring the oxidative stress-energy metabolism axis are considered worthwhile in larger groups of these patients in order to identify pivotal pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic opportunities. (orig.)

  17. Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints

    The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these subjects brain18F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance. The study group comprised 85 subjects with cognitive disturbance of increasing degrees of severity including 23 subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 28 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 34 patients with mild AD. In all subjects brain FDG PET was performed and plasma activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (eSOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Voxel-based analysis (SPM8) was used to compare FDG PET between groups and to evaluate correlations between plasma antioxidants and glucose metabolism in the whole group of subjects, correcting for age and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Brain glucose metabolism progressively decreased in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal and cingulate cortices across the three groups, from SCI to mild AD. eSOD activity was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in a large area of the left temporal lobe including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest a role of oxidative stress in the impairment of glucose utilization in the left temporal lobe structures in elderly patients with cognitive abnormalities, including AD and conditions predisposing to AD. Further studies exploring the oxidative stress-energy metabolism axis are considered worthwhile in larger groups of these patients in order to identify pivotal pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic opportunities. (orig.)

  18. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often enc...

  19. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    Ya-Hong Ma; Caiguo Yu; Abudurexiti Kayoumu; Xin Guo; Zhili Ji; George Liu

    2015-01-01

    Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH.However,it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance.In this study,we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice.ApoCⅢ transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia were mated with non-transgenic control mice to obtain 4 types of offspring:maternal non-transgenic control and maternal transgenic offspring,and paternal control and paternal transgenic offspring.Plasma triglycerides (TG),total cholesterol (TC),fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured.ApoCⅢ overexpression caused severe hypertriglyceridemia,but the transgenic female mice had unaltered fertility with normal pregnancy and birth of pups.The 4 groups of offspring had similar birth weight and growth rate.The plasma TG of maternal and paternal transgenic offspring were nearly 40-fold higher than maternal and paternal control mice,but there was no difference in plasma TG between maternal and paternal transgenic offspring.Although the FPG of the 4 groups of animals had no difference,the maternal transgenic mice showed impaired glucose tolerance,increased FINS levels and higher homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the other 3 groups.In conclusion,maternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia in ApoCⅢ transgenic mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance,hyperinsulinemia and increased HOMA-R,while paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia did not have such impacts.

  20. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome predicted outcome in the LIFE study, independently of single risk markers, including obesity, diabetes and baseline ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined whether clusters of two or...

  1. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    Moore, Rebecca; Adler, Hugh; Jackson, Valerie; Lawless, Mairead; Byrne, Maria; Eogan, Maeve; Lambert, John S

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic complications, including diabetes mellitus, have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women. We conducted a retrospective review of all HIV-infected women attending a combined infectious disease and antenatal clinic between 2007 and 2013 who underwent a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks. We grouped the patients based on whether their OGTT result was normal or abnormal, and compared the groups using standard parametric tests (t-test and Fisher's exact test). Of 263 women with HIV who attended the clinic, 142 (53.9%) attended for OGTT and were eligible for inclusion. The mean age was 31 years (SD 5.37), all women were of European or African origin and 33.7% had a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) About 93.7% were on PI-based regimens. At delivery, the mean CD4 count was 526 cells/µL, and 13% of patients had a detectable viraemia. The prevalence of IGT was 2.8%, while the prevalence of GDM was 2.1%. Also, 71.4% (n = 5) of women with abnormal glucose metabolism were taking PIs versus 94.8% (n = 128) of normoglycaemic women (p = 0.06). We did not confirm an increased rate of GDM in HIV-infected women in our patient population and found no association between PI use and GDM. PMID:25999164

  2. A randomized trial comparing the effect of weight loss and exercise training on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in coronary artery disease

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Jürs, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The majority of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit abnormal glucose metabolism, which is associated with mortality even at non-diabetic glucose levels. This trial aims to compare the effects of a considerable weight loss and exercise with limited weight loss on glucose...... followed by 2-4 weeks' weight maintenance diet. Glucose tolerance, insulin action, β-cell function and suppression of lipolysis were assessed using a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. ISI-composite and ISI-HOMA (=1/HOMA-IR) were calculated as surrogate measures of whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity...

  3. Sex Differences in Associations Among Obesity, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese Men and Women

    Sakurai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Junji; Takeda, Yasuo; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Yamakawa, Junichi; Moriya, Junji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Aims The present study aimed to investigate relationships among abdominal obesity, metabolic abnormalities, and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relatively lean Japanese men and women. Participants and methods The participants included 8133 men and 15 934 women between 40 and 75 years of age recruited from the government health check-up center in Kanazawa City, Japan. The prevalence of abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and high fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed according to the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for the Japanese population, and participants with an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria were diagnosed with CKD. Results Overall, 23% of males and 14% of females met criteria for CKD. Having more numerous complicated metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) of CKD for men and women, irrespective of abdominal obesity. However, there was a sex difference in the OR of CKD for obese participants without metabolic abnormalities, such that abdominal obesity without metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher OR for men (multivariate-adjusted OR 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–2.28) but not for women (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71–1.44). Conclusions The present findings demonstrated that obesity without metabolic abnormalities was associated with a higher risk of CKD in men but not women in a relatively lean Japanese population. PMID:27087606

  4. Redox metabolism abnormalities in autistic children associated with mitochondrial disease.

    Frye, R E; Delatorre, R; Taylor, H; Slattery, J; Melnyk, S; Chowdhury, N; James, S J

    2013-01-01

    Research studies have uncovered several metabolic abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including mitochondrial disease (MD) and abnormal redox metabolism. Despite the close connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, the relation between MD and oxidative stress in children with ASD has not been studied. Plasma markers of oxidative stress and measures of cognitive and language development and ASD behavior were obtained from 18 children diagnosed with ASD who met criteria for probable or definite MD per the Morava et al. criteria (ASD/MD) and 18 age and gender-matched ASD children without any biological markers or symptoms of MD (ASD/NoMD). Plasma measures of redox metabolism included reduced free glutathione (fGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the fGSH/GSSG ratio and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT). In addition, a plasma measure of chronic immune activation, 3-chlorotyrosine (3CT), was also measured. Language was measured using the preschool language scale or the expressive one-word vocabulary test (depending on the age), adaptive behaviour was measured using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and core autism symptoms were measured using the Autism Symptoms Questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Children with ASD/MD were found to have lower scores on the communication and daily living skill subscales of the VABS despite having similar language and ASD symptoms. Children with ASD/MD demonstrated significantly higher levels of fGSH/GSSG and lower levels of GSSG as compared with children with ASD/NoMD, suggesting an overall more favourable glutathione redox status in the ASD/MD group. However, compare with controls, both ASD groups demonstrated lower fGSH and fGSH/GSSG, demonstrating that both groups suffer from redox abnormalities. Younger ASD/MD children had higher levels of 3CT than younger ASD/NoMD children because of an age-related effect in the ASD/MD group. Both ASD groups demonstrated significantly

  5. D-[U-11C]glucose uptake and metabolism in the brain of insulin-dependent diabetic subjects

    We used D-[U-11C]glucose to evaluate transport and metabolism of glucose in the brain in eight nondiabetic and six insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects. IDDM subjects were treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Blood glucose was regulated by a Biostator-controlled glucose infusion during a constant insulin infusion. D-[U-11C]-glucose was injected for positron emission tomography studies during normoglycemia as well as during moderate hypoglycemia [arterial plasma glucose 2.74 +/- 0.14 in nondiabetic and 2.80 +/- 0.26 mmol/l (means +/- SE) in IDDM subjects]. Levels of free insulin were constant and similar in both groups. The tracer data were analyzed using a three-compartment model with a fixed correction for 11CO2 egression. During normoglycemia the influx rate constant (k1) and blood-brain glucose flux did not differ between the two groups. During hypoglycemia k1 increased significantly and similarly in both groups (from 0.061 +/- 0.007 to 0.090 +/- 0.006 in nondiabetic and from 0.061 +/- 0.006 to 0.093 +/- 0.013 ml.g-1.min-1 in IDDM subjects). During normoglycemia the tracer-calculated metabolism of glucose was higher in the whole brain in the nondiabetic than in the diabetic subjects (22.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 15.6 +/- 1.1 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01). During hypoglycemia tracer-calculated metabolism was decreased by 40% in nondiabetic subjects and by 28% in diabetic subjects. The results indicate that uptake of glucose is normal, but some aspect of glucose metabolism is abnormal in a group of well-controlled IDDM subjects

  6. D-(U-11C)glucose uptake and metabolism in the brain of insulin-dependent diabetic subjects

    Gutniak, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Widen, L.; Stone-Elander, S.; Hamberger, B.; Grill, V. (Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-05-01

    We used D-(U-11C)glucose to evaluate transport and metabolism of glucose in the brain in eight nondiabetic and six insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects. IDDM subjects were treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Blood glucose was regulated by a Biostator-controlled glucose infusion during a constant insulin infusion. D-(U-11C)-glucose was injected for positron emission tomography studies during normoglycemia as well as during moderate hypoglycemia (arterial plasma glucose 2.74 +/- 0.14 in nondiabetic and 2.80 +/- 0.26 mmol/l (means +/- SE) in IDDM subjects). Levels of free insulin were constant and similar in both groups. The tracer data were analyzed using a three-compartment model with a fixed correction for 11CO2 egression. During normoglycemia the influx rate constant (k1) and blood-brain glucose flux did not differ between the two groups. During hypoglycemia k1 increased significantly and similarly in both groups (from 0.061 +/- 0.007 to 0.090 +/- 0.006 in nondiabetic and from 0.061 +/- 0.006 to 0.093 +/- 0.013 ml.g-1.min-1 in IDDM subjects). During normoglycemia the tracer-calculated metabolism of glucose was higher in the whole brain in the nondiabetic than in the diabetic subjects (22.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 15.6 +/- 1.1 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01). During hypoglycemia tracer-calculated metabolism was decreased by 40% in nondiabetic subjects and by 28% in diabetic subjects. The results indicate that uptake of glucose is normal, but some aspect of glucose metabolism is abnormal in a group of well-controlled IDDM subjects.

  7. 糖代谢异常孕妇体质量及相关因素对新生儿出生体质量的影响%Factors relevant to newborn birth weight in pregnancy complicated with abnormal glucose Metabolism

    杨延冬; 翟桂荣; 杨慧霞

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of neonatal birth body mass in women with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Methods A study was conducted on 1157 singleton gravidas, who were diagnosed and treated for abnormal glucose metabolism and delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Hospital, Peking University from January 2005 to December 2009, by reviewing the medical records. Based on the pre-pregnant body mass index, the selected cases were divided into 4 groups: low body mass group [ body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2, n =53], ideal body mass group ( BMI 18.5 - 23.9 kg/m2, n = 647 ), over body mass group ( BMI 24.0 - 27.9 kg/m2, n = 323 ),and obese group (BMI≥28.0 kg/m2, n = 134). 1157 newborns were divided by birth body mass into 3 groups: normal birth body mass group (body mass 2500 -4000 g, n =987), of which 545 cases of birth body mass 3000 -3500 g for the appropriate newborns, macrosomia group (body mass≥4000 g, n = 112);low birth body mass group (body mass < 2500 g, n = 58 ). The following information was collected,including pre-pregnancy body mass, height, gestational age of diagnosis and body mass gain after diagnosis,maternal serum level of cholesterol, history of adverse pregnancy, and family history of diabetes, gestational age, delivering body mass, neonatal birth body mass. The influence of pre-pregnant BMI, body mass gain during pregnancy, gestational age of diagnosis, body mass gain after diagnosis, maternal serum level of cholesterol, family history of diabetes on the newborns' birth body mass was analyzed. The appropriate ranges of gestational body mass gain were calculated in women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Results ( 1 )The average neonatal birth body mass for each group respectively were (3142 ±333) g for low body mass group, (3339 ±476) g for the ideal body mass group, (3381 ±581) g for over body mass group, and (3368 ± 644) g for obese group. The neonatal birth body mass was

  8. Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using 18F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC

  9. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Gjedsted, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind, p......CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single......-blind, placebo-controlled two-period crossover study. SETTING: The study was performed in a university clinical research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eight healthy men aged 27.2 +/- 0.9 yr with a body mass index of 23.4 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Subjects received infusion of ghrelin...... the final 2 h of each infusion. RESULTS: Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased with ghrelin [basal: 1.9 +/- 0.1 (ghrelin) vs. 2.3 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.03; clamp: 3.9 +/- 0.6 (ghrelin) vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.02], whereas endogenous glucose...

  10. Positive Correlation between Severity of Blepharospasm and Thalamic Glucose Metabolism

    Murai, Hideki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Kiyosawa, Motohiro; Wakakura, Masato; Mochizuki, Manabu; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman with drug-related blepharospasm was followed up for 22 months. She had undergone etizolam treatment for 19 years for indefinite complaints. We examined her cerebral glucose metabolism 5 times (between days 149 and 688 since presentation), using positron emission tomography, and identified regions of interest in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and primary somatosensory area on both sides. The severity of the blepharospasm was evaluated by PET scanning using the Waka...

  11. Skeleton and Glucose Metabolism: A Bone-Pancreas Loop

    2015-01-01

    Bone has been considered a structure essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic function. Recent advances in bone biology have highlighted the importance of skeleton as an endocrine organ which regulates some metabolic pathways, in particular, insulin signaling and glucose tolerance. This review will point out the role of bone as an endocrine “gland” and, specifically, of bone-specific proteins, as the osteocalcin (Ocn), and proteins involved in bone remodeling, as osteopr...

  12. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2001-01-01

    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction and...... observed using positron emission tomography and fluor-18-labeled fluorodesoxyglucose. The neuropsychological deficits are related to the location of deficits in glucose metabolism....

  13. Glucose challenge test (50-g GCT) in detection of glucose metabolism disorders in peritoneal dialysis patients: preliminary study

    Madziarska, Katarzyna; Zmonarski, Slawomir; Penar, Jozef; Krajewska, Magdalena; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Augustyniak-Bartosik, Hanna; Gołebiowski, Tomasz; Klak, Renata; Weyde, Waclaw; Klinger, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of the oral glucose tolerance screening test (50-g GCT—glucose challenge test) for the detection of glucose metabolism disorders (GMD) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with normal fasting glucose levels. Methods The 50-g GCT was performed in 20 prevalent patients without history of diabetes before PD treatment onset, who had been on dialysis for a median time of 15.34 months. In addition, other indicators of glucose metabolism were m...

  14. Abnormal copper metabolism in Menke's steely-hair syndrome.

    Lott, I T; Dipaolo, R; Raghavan, S S; Clopath, P; Milunsky, A; Robertson, W C; kanfer, J N

    1979-07-01

    Copper (Cu) metabolism was selectively studied in seven infants with Menke's steely-hair syndrome (SHS). A daily oral regimen of CuSO4 (584 microgram Cu/kg) and L-histidine (100 mg/kg) in three infants produced an increase in serum Cu concentrations ranging from 33-95% of normal, but without the formation of ceruloplasmin. Cohn serum protein fractionation after oral Cu/L-histidine loading showed a disproportionate accumulation of Cu in the albumin fraction (V). The electron spin resonance spectrum of fraction V showed a heightened signal for the SHS patients, suggesting that an increased concentration of a radical Cu species is present after oral loading. The Sephadex G-150 chromatographic profile of serum fraction V in SHS did not differ significantly from controls. These results suggest that, in SHS, Cu absorbed in the presence of L-histidine is in an abnormal complex involving albumin, which does not allow for holoceruloplasmin biosynthesis. Cu and ceruloplasmin concentrations in the cord blood specimen of an infant who went on to develop SHS were normal, a finding which may account for the transient period of seemingly normal development after birth in SHS patients. An almost 6-fold difference in mean Cu concentration was observed in SHS fibroblasts compared to controls. Fibroblast Cu concentration was elevated in one to two possible maternal heterozygotes, a finding which may permit diagnosis of the carrier state for some SHS heterozygotes. PMID:481958

  15. Safety and efficacy of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism%门冬胰岛素与人胰岛素对妊娠合并糖代谢异常患者的有效性及安全性

    李楠; 杨慧霞; 翟桂荣; 吴春凤

    2011-01-01

    异常孕妇中,相比人胰岛素,门冬胰岛素能更快、更有效地控制血糖,同时可明显降低低血糖事件的发生.对分娩结局的影响方面,Asp组有优于HI组的趋势.%Objective To analyze and compare the safety and efficacy of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism.Methods In this study,the data of 77 pregnant women with pre-pregnant diabetes mellitus( DM,n =22 ) or gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM,n =55 ) treated from January 2004 to May 2010 with insulin aspart ( Asp group) were investigated.And 77 pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism using regular human insulin in the mean time were selected as control ( HI group) in a ratio of 1 ∶ 1.The changes of glucose levels,time for reaching glucose targets,incidence of hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes after the treatment were compared between the two groups by using t or rank test.Results One week of treatment after,the 2 h post-breakfast and post-supper glucose levels in DM women in Asp group were (6.5 ± 1.1 ) and (7.1 ± 1.1 ) mmol/L and those were (8.0 ± 1.1 ) and (7.8 ±0.8) mmol/L DM women in HI group; the 2 h post-breakfast,postlunch and post-supper glucose levels in GDM women in Asp group were (6.5 ± 0.7 ),(6.8 ± 0.7 ) and (6.7 ± 0.7 ) mmol/L,and those were ( 7.1 ± 0.9),( 7.3 ± 0.9) and ( 7.4 ± 0.8 ) mmoL/L in GDM women in HI group.The postprandial glucose levels were all lower in Asp group than those in the HI group ( all P < 0.05 ).The time for 2 h post-breakfast glucose level to reach standard in DM women in Asp group was (3.0 ± 2.2) d,and it was ( 5.0 ± 2.1 ) d in DM women in HI group; and those were (2.3 ± 1.6) and (4.3 ±2.6)d in GDM women in Asp group and in HI group,respectively.The time for reaching glucose targets in Asp group were all shorter than those in HI group(P <0.05).The incidence of hypoglycemia in Asp group was 3.9% ( 1 case of DM and 2 eases of GDM) and it was 24.7% in HI

  16. Angiotensin Receptor Blockade Increases Pancreatic Insulin Secretion and Decreases Glucose Intolerance during Glucose Supplementation in a Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    Rodriguez, Ruben; Viscarra, Jose A.; Minas, Jacqueline N.; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2012-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system blockade improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of impaired insulin secretion to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is not well defined. To assess the contributions of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) activation and high glucose intake on pancreatic function and their effects on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, an oral glucose tolerance test ...

  17. Metabolism Kinetics of Glucose in Anchorage-dependent Cell Cultures

    孙祥明; 张元兴

    2001-01-01

    The kinetic model of glucose metabolism was established and successfully applied to batchcultures of rCHO and rBHK cells. It was found that a large amount of glucose was utilized for cellmaintenance, and the overwhelming majority of maintenance energy from glucose was by its anaerobicmetabolism in both rBHK and rCHO cell cultures. The overall maintenance coefficients from aerobicmetabolism were 1.9×10-13 mmol/(cell.h) for rCHO cells and 7×10-13 mmol/(cell.h) for rBHK cells. Inaddition, all Go/T and Eo/T gradually increased with the same trend as the cell growth in the culture ofboth rCHO and rBHK cells. The overall molecule yield coefficients of lactate to glucose were 1.61 for rCHO cells and 1.38 for rBHK cells. The yield coefficients of cell to glucose were 4.5×108 cells/mmol for rCHO cells and 1.9 × 108 cells/mmol for rBHK cells, respectively.

  18. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. PMID:27001278

  19. Metabolic abnormalities in patients with prolactinoma: response to treatment with cabergoline

    Nazir A. Pala; Laway, Bashir A.; Raiz A Misgar; Rayees A Dar

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperprolactinemia has been associated with changes in body composition and metabolic abnormalities. Normalization of prolactin (PRL) with dopamine agonists has been found to reverse these abnormalities. This study was designed to assess the anthropometric and metabolic alterations associated with prolactinoma and response of these abnormalities to cabergoline treatment. Methods In a non-randomised matched prospective design, 19 consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median PRL 11...

  20. Bone Regulates Glucose Metabolism as an Endocrine Organ through Osteocalcin

    Jin Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeleton was considered as a dynamic connective tissue, which was essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic niche. However more and more evidences indicate that skeleton works not only as a structural scaffold but also as an endocrine organ, which regulates several metabolic processes. Besides osteoprotegerin (OPG, sclerostin (SOST, and Dickopf (DKK which play essential roles in bone formation, modelling, remodelling, and homeostasis, bone can also secret hormones, such as osteocalcin (OCN, which promotes proliferation of β cells, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. Additionally OCN can also regulate the fat cells and male gonad endocrine activity and be regulated by insulin and the neural system. In summary, skeleton has endocrine function via OCN and plays an important role in energy metabolism, especially in glucose metabolism.

  1. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    after RYGB is rapid entry of glucose into the systemic circulation due to modified gastrointestinal anatomy, causing hypersecretion of insulin and other hormones influencing glucose disappearance and endogenous glucose production. METHODS: We determined glucose absorption and metabolism and the rate of...... RYGB. Endogenous glucose production was similar before and after surgery. Postoperative glucagon secretion increased and showed a biphasic response after RYGB. Adipose tissue basal rate of lipolysis was higher after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A rapid rate of absorption of ingested glucose into...... lipolysis before and 3 months after RYGB in obese glucose-tolerant individuals using the double-tracer technique during a mixed meal. RESULTS: After RYGB, the postprandial plasma glucose profile changed, with a higher peak glucose concentration followed by a faster return to lower than basal levels. These...

  2. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease with or without dementia

    By means of positron emission tomography, the cerebral glucose metabolism in 5 patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia was compared with that in 9 patients without dementia, and that in 5 normal volunteers. The metabolic rates for glucose were measured by placing one hundred regions of interest. In the demented patients, cerebral glucose metabolism was diffusely decreased compared with that of the non-demented patients and the normal controls. The most significant decrease in glucose metabolism was observed in the angular gyrus (49.7% of the normal controls). The glucose metabolism in the cingulate, pre- and postcentral, occipital and subcortical regions was relatively spared (62.1 to 85.5% of the normal controls). In the patients without dementia, the glucose metabolism in each region was not significantly different from that in the normal controls. These results suggest that diffuse glucose hypometabolism in the cerebral cortex may correlate with that of patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia. (author)

  3. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism.......Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism....

  4. Correlation of glucose metabolism in brain cells and brain morphological changes with clinical typing in children with cerebral palsy

    Qiongxiang Zhai; Huixian Qiao; Jiqing Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It is widely known that fluorino-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography(18F-FDG PET)is commonly used to evaluate and diagnose epilepsy;however,whether it is beneficial to understand functional metabolism of bra in cells so as to reflect injured site and degree of brain cells or not should be studied further.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the correlation between glucose metabolism and clinical typling as well as the conelation between active function of brain cells and degree of brain injury among children with cerbral palsy with 18F-FDG PET and MRI and compare the results of them.DESIGN:Case analysis.SETTING:Department of Pediatrics,People's Hospital of Guangdong Province.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 31 children with cerebral palsy were selected from Out-patient Clinic and In-patient Department of People's Hospital of Guangdong Province from July 2001 to August 2004.Based on clinical criteria of cerebral palsy,patients were classified into spasm(n=10),gradual movement(n=4),mixed type(n =13)and ataxia(n=4).There were 18 boys and 13 girls aged from 10 months to 4 years.All of them were met the diagnostic criteria of cerebral palsy and all parents of them were told the facts.Exclusion cdteria:Patients who had cerebral palsy caused by genetic metabolism disease were excluded.METHODS:①All children accepted MRI examination after hospitalization with Philips Acs NT 15T superconductling magnetic resonance scanner.②All children were fasted for 4 hours.And then,PET image of brain was collected based on T+EID type.If obvious hypermetabolism or hypometabolism region successively occurred on two layers, the image was regarded as abnormality. ③Different correlations of various abnormal greups of MRI and vadous types of cerebral palsy with PET image were compared and analyzed with Erusal-Willas rank sum test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①Results of 18F-FDG PET;②Results of MRI examination;③Correlation of variously abnormal groups of MRI and various types of cerebral

  5. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Purpose: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the third most common cause of dementia, following Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease. Four prototypic neuro behavioral syndromes can be produced by FTLD: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (MND), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive aphasia (PA). We investigated patterns of metabolic impairment in patients with FTLD presented with four different clinical syndromes. Methods: We analyzed glucose metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of FTLD (19 FTD, 6 MND, 6 SD, and 3 PA, according to a consensus criteria for clinical syndromes associated with FTLD) and 7 age-matched healthy controls using SPM99. Results: Patients with FTD had metabolic deficit in the left frontal cortex and bilateral anterior temporal cortex. Hypometabolism in the bilateral pre-motor area was shown in patients with MND. Patients with SD had metabolic deficit in the left posterior temporal cortex including Wernicke's area, while hypometabolism in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area and left angular gyrus was seen in patients with PA. These metabolic patterns were well correlated with clinical and neuropsychological features of FTLD syndromes. Conclusion: These data provide a biochemical basis of clinical classification of FTLD. FDG PET may help evaluate and classify patients with FTLD

  6. Glucose metabolism in rats submitted to skeletal muscle denervation

    Wilton Marlindo Santana Nunes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the local and systemic effects of immobilization by denervation of the skeletal muscle on glucose metabolism. The rats were submitted to section of the right paw sciatic nerve. A reduction was observed in glucose uptake by the isolated soleus muscle of the denervated paw after 3 and 7 days, but not after 28 days in relation to the control animals. There was no difference after 3 and 7 days in glucose uptake by the soleus muscle of the opposite intact paw in relation to the control. There was increased glucose uptake in the same paw 28 days after denervation. The rate of glucose removal in response to exogenous insulin after 28 days of denervation was significantly higher than in control animals and those observed after 3 and 7 days of denervation. These results suggest that immobilization by denervation interfered not only in glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle involved but also in other tissues.O estudo analisou os efeitos locais e sistêmicos da imobilização por desnervação do músculo esquelético sobre o metabolismo glicidico. Ratos foram submetidos à secção do nervo ciático da pata direita. Observou-se redução da captação de glicose pelo músculo sóleo isolado da pata desnervada após 3 e 7 mas não após 28 dias em relação a animais controle. Não houve diferença após 3 e 7 dias na captação de glicose pelo músculo sóleo da pata contralateral intacta em relação ao controle. Houve aumento da captação de glicose nesta mesma pata 28 dias após a desnervação. A taxa de remoção da glicose em resposta à insulina exógena após 28 dias de desnervação foi significantemente superior à do controle e àquelas observadas após 3 e 7 dias da desnervação. Esses resultados sugerem que a imobilização por desnervação interfere não só no metabolismo da glicose no músculo esquelético envolvido como também em outros tecidos.

  7. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D;

    2008-01-01

    . We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling networks...... implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with schizophrenia...

  8. Studies on glucose metabolism and blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure by positron emission CT

    To investigate the glucose metabolism and blood perfusion of the interictal epileptic focus, 15 positron emission tomography (PET) measurements were performed in 14 children with partial seizures (2 with simple partial seizures, 2 with complex partial seizures, and 10 with partial seizures evolving to secondary generalized seizures), comprising 7 males and 7 females aged 1 to 12 years old at the onset of the epileptic seizures. The intervals between the seizure onset and PET examinations were 1 month to 7 years (mean 3 1/4 years). Radiopharmaceuticals such as 11C-glucose, 11CO2 and 11CO were used as indicators of local cerebral glucose metabolism, blood perfusion and blood flow, respectively. Apart from 2 cases, none of the patients showed abnormal x-ray computed tomographic scans (X-CT). The abnormal X-CT findings included cortical atrophy of the cerebrum apart from the epiletic focus in one case and cavum vergae in the other. Hypometabolism and hypoperfusion at the epileptic focus were observed in 10 patients undergoing single examinations who had suffered from epileptic seizures for more than 1 year. Out of 4 patients who had suffered from epileptic seizures for 1 year or less, one revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the epileptic focus and expanded region larger than that of the epileptic focus on the electroencephalogram. Two other patients revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in an area contralateral to the epileptic focus. In the remaining one patient, PET examinations were performed twice. The initial PET pictures one year after seizure onset revealed a zone of hypermetabolism and hyperperfusion in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the epileptic focus, and the second PET at 6 months after the initial examination revealed hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the focus, similarly to the 10 cases mentioned above. (J.P.N.)

  9. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011) of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographi...

  10. Energetics of Glucose Metabolism: A Phenomenological Approach to Metabolic Network Modeling

    Frank Diederichs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new formalism to describe metabolic fluxes as well as membrane transport processes was developed. The new flux equations are comparable to other phenomenological laws. Michaelis-Menten like expressions, as well as flux equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, can be regarded as special cases of these new equations. For metabolic network modeling, variable conductances and driving forces are required to enable pathway control and to allow a rapid response to perturbations. When applied to oxidative phosphorylation, results of simulations show that whole oxidative phosphorylation cannot be described as a two-flux-system according to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, although all coupled reactions per se fulfill the equations of this theory. Simulations show that activation of ATP-coupled load reactions plus glucose oxidation is brought about by an increase of only two different conductances: a [Ca2+] dependent increase of cytosolic load conductances, and an increase of phosphofructokinase conductance by [AMP], which in turn becomes increased through [ADP] generation by those load reactions. In ventricular myocytes, this feedback mechanism is sufficient to increase cellular power output and O2 consumption several fold, without any appreciable impairment of energetic parameters. Glucose oxidation proceeds near maximal power output, since transformed input and output conductances are nearly equal, yielding an efficiency of about 0.5. This conductance matching is fulfilled also by glucose oxidation of β-cells. But, as a price for the metabolic mechanism of glucose recognition, β-cells have only a limited capability to increase their power output.

  11. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Soto-Montenegro, M L; Vaquero, Juan José; Arango, C.; Ricaurte, G.; García-Barreno, P; Desco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Methods Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated...

  12. Biochemical Hypermedia: Glucose as a Central Molecule in Metabolism

    J.K. Sugai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The technologies of information, together with education resources, have been pointed out as a solution to the improvement of teaching approach, but they still claim for programs to fulfill the demands of didactic materials. So, a biochemical software was developed aiming to contribute for the better understanding of the glycolysis. It was prepared with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. The introduction screen shows a teacher in a theater presenting glucose as a central molecule in the metabolism of animals, plants and many microorganisms. She invites for a better knowledge of glucose through a view of its discovery and its metabolism. A step by step animation process shows the interaction of glucose in aerobic conditions with the enzymes of the glycolytic pathways and its products. An explanation text of each enzyme catalytic process is provided by links. A static pathway is always available through a link. The fates of pyruvate yielding lactic acid and ethanol under anaerobic conditions are shown as well. The overall reactions of gluconeogenesis and the functional significance of this pathway are presented. The experimental treatment involved the presentation of this hypermedia for Nutrition undergraduate students (UFSC as a tool for better comprehension of the theme. The students revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in glycolysis. This suggests that there is a significant added value in employing the software as an instructional effort to enhance student’s abilities to understand biochemical pathways.

  13. Alterations in Glucose Metabolism on Cognition: A Possible Link Between Diabetes and Dementia.

    González-Reyes, Rodrigo E; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Ávila-Rodrigues, Marco; Barreto, George E

    2016-01-01

    The use of the carbohydrate glucose as an energetic source is essential for an adequate function of the human body. The complex regulation of this molecule involves the coordinated action of various organs such as pancreas, liver and brain. Any disruption of this physiological balance may result in a dangerous compromise of general metabolic activities increasing the possibility of developing T1DM, T2DM and possibly AD. Astrocytes convert glucose into lactate and transfer it to neurons. This lactate is essential for neuronal metabolism and for various processes including the formation of synapses, dendrites and the expression of genes involved in memory. The brain is highly susceptible to variations in glucose blood levels, and both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia can be dangerous. Pathological hyperglycemia induces changes in plasmatic osmotic pressure, mitochondrial production of free radicals, oxidative stress and activation of neuronal apoptosis, among others. Both AD and diabetes are chronic diseases having age as an important risk factor. As the brain ages, it seems to become much more susceptible to cellular damage induced by excess of circulating glucose and this could explain the appearance of cognitive changes observed in some patients with diabetes. Excessive circulation of pro-inflammatory agents has been observed in insulin resistance and is likely that some of these mediators may cross the bloodbrain barrier and induce abnormal neuroinflammation. GSK-3 is overexpressed in diabetes and also has been reported to regulate tau phosphorylation and production of Aβ peptides in the brain. Currently, diabetes (hyperglycemia) is considered as a risk factor for the development of AD. A novel therapeutic approach, using intranasal insulin and anti-diabetic medications in patients suffering from AD is being explored and is discussed in this review. PMID:26648470

  14. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism associated with mental deterioration in multi-infarct dementia

    Cerebral glucose metabolism of 18 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) and 10 age-matched normal subjects were examined with positron emission tomography and the 18-F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose technique. MID patients had significantly lower glucose metabolsim in all the grey matter regions measured and were also characterized by more individuality in metabolic pattern. MID patients were also evaluated as to intelligence quotient (IQ). A positive correlation between IQ as shown by the Tanaka-Binet test and glucose metabolism for the entire grey matter was found. The clinical applicability of this test for predicting cerebral metabolism is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Fructose modifies the hormonal response and modulates lipid metabolism in aerobic exercise after glucose supplementation

    Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; Ruano-Ruiz, Juan; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Tunez-Fiñana, Isaac; Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Pérez-Martinez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic response, when aerobic exercise is performed after the ingestion of glucose plus fructose, is unclear. To compare the hormonal and lipid responses provoked by the ingestion of glucose plus fructose in relation to glucose alone, during aerobic exercise and the recovery phase, we administered two beverages containing glucose plus fructose or glucose in a randomised crossover design, to twenty healthy, aerobically trained volunteers. After a 15-minute resting pe...

  16. Metabolic and mitogenic transduction cascades in skeletal muscle : Implications for exercise effects on glucose metabolism and gene regulation

    Yu, Mei

    2003-01-01

    Level of physical activity is linked to improved glucose homeostasis. The molecular signaling mechanisms by which insulin and exercise/muscle contractions lead to increased glucose transport and metabolism and gene expression have not been completely elucidated. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify novel regulatory mechanisms governing exercisesensitive signaling pathways to glucose metabolism and gene transcription in skeletal muscle. Components of the insulin (IR...

  17. [Metabolism of labeled exogenous glucose in fiber flax tissues].

    Chikov, V I; Avvakumova, N Iu; Bakirova, G G; Khamidullina, L A

    2005-01-01

    A labeled glucose solution was introduced into cut fiber flax plants (45-50 cm high) using a special unit under a pressure of 0.1 atm for 30 min, 1, and 2 h. The highest quantities of labeled carbon were revealed in the woody tissue. Sucrose made up a considerable proportion in low molecular weight products of [ [2-14C]-glucose transformation (23.5%). Metabolism of labeled glucose in the leaves exposed to sunlight yielded a set of metabolites similar to products of 14CO2 photoassimilation. In the shade, the pattern of 14C distribution in labeled compounds of the water/alcohol soluble fraction remained similar in mature leaves, while in juvenile leaves, 14C content decreased in sucrose and increased in organic and amino acids. In the shade, the incorporation of 14C into starch and hot water soluble polysaccharides increased at the expense of the acetone fraction (lipids and pigments), water/salt soluble proteins, and cellulose. Low light conditions increased the radioactivity ratio of sparingly soluble (KOH and Triton X-100 soluble) proteins to albumins and globulins. We propose that the synthesis of components of the photosynthetic apparatus in juvenile leaves is directly powered by photosynthesis and the photosynthesis of glucose and the polymers compete for ATP energy. Appearance of sucrose in the woody tissue is due to its release from the phloem to the stem apoplast and the radial transfer to the xylem, where it is transported to the upper shoot with the transpiration flow. PMID:16004260

  18. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75±0.34%, 0.65±0.25%, and 0.43±0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17±0.49%, 0.80±0.44% and 0.99±0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38±0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  19. 糖代谢与骨骼肌的关系%Relationship between glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle

    查爱云; 孙子林

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the principal site of glucose uptake under insulin-stimulated conditions,and it plays an important role in the glucose homeostasis. Under pathological state, the regulation of skeletal muscle on glucose metabolism is decreased. Muscle glycogen and the circulation glucose are essential for the physiological metabolism and function of skeletal muscle. The glucose metabolic disturbance, especially hyperglycemia, has profound impact on the skeletal muscle with regard to dysfunction, metabolic disturbance and structural changes, including insulin resistance, muscle glycogen metabolic disturbance, myatrophy and vascular abnormality. Myopathy may affect metabolism in turn,which may worsen the pathogenetic condition.%骨骼肌是体内胰岛素刺激下摄取葡萄糖的主要组织,在糖代谢平衡中发挥着重要的作用.病理状态下的骨骼肌这种代谢调节能力下降.肌糖原及循环中葡萄糖是维持骨骼肌细胞正常代谢及功能的主要物质.糖代谢紊乱尤其是高血糖对骨骼肌的代谢、结构及功能等都有明显影响,包括高血糖导致骨骼肌胰岛素抵抗、对肌糖原代谢的影响、肌萎缩以及血管异常等,肌组织病变反过来又影响代谢的控制,使病情加重.

  20. Prevalence of undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. Results of a risk-stratified screening based on FINDRISC questionnaire

    Winkler, Gábor; Hidvégi, Tibor; Vándorfi, Győző; Balogh, Sándor; Jermendy, György

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing, worldwide and also in Hungary. Timely diagnosis and early treatment could be aided by targeted screening. Recognizing this, the Hungarian Diabetes Association initiated a risk-stratified screening with the involvement of primary care physicians. Material/Methods In the first phase of screening, the FINDRISC questionnaire was completed, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for those with a score of ≥12. Between September 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011, 70,432 non-diabetic adults, who visited their general practitioners for any reason, were involved in the screening. Of these, 68,476 questionnaires proved to be suitable for processing. Results From the questionnaires, 28,077 (41.0%) had a score of ≥12. A valid OGTT was performed in 22,846 cases; of this group 3,217 subjects (14.1%) had elevated fasting glucose levels, 5,663 (24.8%) had impaired glucose tolerance, and 1,750 (7.6%) had manifest, previously undiagnosed, diabetes mellitus. Overall, from the valid OGTT group, 46.5% subjects had some degree of glucose intolerance. Conclusions Based on the FINDRISC questionnaire, the risk-stratified screening for diabetes mellitus proved to be simple and cost-effective method for the early detection of carbohydrate metabolism disorders. Using this method, the prevalence rate of previously undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance was high in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. PMID:23344680

  1. Possibility to predict early postpartum glucose abnormality following gestational diabetes mellitus based on the results of routine mid-gestational screening

    Bartáková, Vendula; Malúšková, Denisa; Mužík, Jan; Bělobrádková, Jana; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have increased risk of developing glucose abnormality, but current diagnostic criteria are evidence-based for adverse pregnancy outcome. The aims of our study were: (i) to ascertain a frequency of early conversion of GDM into permanent glucose abnormality, (ii) to determine predictive potential of current GDM diagnostic criteria for prediction of postpartum glucose abnormality and (iii) to find optimal cut-off values of ora...

  2. Emerging role of the brain in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism.

    Roh, Eun; Song, Do Kyeong; Kim, Min-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence from genetic animal models suggests that the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, has a key role in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. The brain integrates multiple metabolic inputs from the periphery through nutrients, gut-derived satiety signals and adiposity-related hormones. The brain modulates various aspects of metabolism, such as food intake, energy expenditure, insulin secretion, hepatic glucose production and glucose/fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Highly coordinated interactions between the brain and peripheral metabolic organs are critical for the maintenance of energy and glucose homeostasis. Defective crosstalk between the brain and peripheral organs contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we comprehensively review the above topics, discussing the main findings related to the role of the brain in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. PMID:26964832

  3. suPAR associates to glucose metabolic aberration during glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients on HAART

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian;

    2008-01-01

    extend these findings by investigating the association of suPAR to glucose metabolic insufficiency during an oral glucose challenge (OGTT). METHODS: In 16 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and 15 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (ISI......PAR associated to important glucose metabolic aberrations in HIV-infected patients on HAART. Moreover, suPAR was stable after a glucose challenge. Future research is required to confirm these findings and explore the potential of suPAR as marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients.......OBJECTIVE: We have recently shown that the level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which is associated with the immune status of HIV-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), correlates with the insulin action of such patients. Here we...

  4. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu) and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites were measured in two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with different clinical courses. A marked decrease in rCMRglu was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly developing SSPE (3.6 - 4.2 mg/100 g brain tissue/min). However, the rCMRglu was preserved in the caudate and lenticular nuclei of the patient (7.7 mg/100 g/min). The rCMRglu in a patient with slowly developing SSPE revealed patterns and values similar to those of the control. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites ; homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in both rapidly and slowly developing SSPE. These data indicated that rCMRglu correlated better with the neurological and psychological status and that dopaminergic and serotonergic abnormalities have been implicated in pathophysiology of SSPE. (author)

  5. Specific inactivation of glucose metabolism from eucaryotic cells by pentalenolactone.

    Duszenko, M; Balla, H; Mecke, D

    1982-02-01

    Pentalenolactone, an antibiotic related to the class of the sesquiterpene-lactones and produced by the strain Streptomyces arenae Tü-469, inhibits specifically the glucose metabolism by inactivation of the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate: NAD oxidoreductase (phosphorylating) ED 1.2.1.1.2). The sensitivity of several eucaryotic cell-systems for pentalenolactone was shown under in vivo conditions. The glycolytic as well as the gluconeogenetic pathway of mammalian cells can be completely inhibited with low concentrations of the antibiotic. In all cases, the minimum inhibitory concentration is dependent on cell density. The inhibitory effect in vivo and in vitro does not seem to be species-specific. In erythrocytes from rats, in Ehrlich-ascites tumor cells and in Plasmodium vinckei infected erythrocytes from mice glycolysis can be inhibited with concentrations of 18--90 micrometers pentalenolactone. In hepatocytes, glycolysis as well as gluconeogenesis in prevented by the same concentrations. In contrast to these results, in yeast the inhibition depends on growth conditions. The inhibition in glucose medium is cancelled by precultivation on acetate-containing medium. PMID:7034785

  6. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow and...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation...

  7. Quantitative on-line monitoring of cellular glucose and lactate metabolism in vitro with slow perfusion

    Leegsma-Vogt, G; Venema, K; Brouwer, N; Gramsbergen, JB; Copray, S; Korf, J

    2004-01-01

    An on-line in vitro perfusion technique is described that allows the continuous quantification of cellular glucose metabolism in vitro. Using biosensor technology, we measure glucose and lactate metabolism at a minute-to-minute time resolution for periods up to several days. The application of our p

  8. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    Moore, Rebecca

    2015-05-20

    Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women.

  9. The measurement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in patients with movement disorders

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism were evaluated in 34 patients with various movement disorders by using positron emission tomography with 18F-Dopa and 18F-FDG respectively. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum (the caudate head and the putamen) decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease but was relatively unaffected in the caudate. The cerebral glucose metabolism was normal in patients with Parkinson's disease. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum also decreased in cases of atypical parkinsonism and in cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, but there was no difference in the uptake between the caudate and the putamen. The glucose metabolism decreased in the cerebral hemisphere including the striatum; this finding was also different from those of Parkinson's disease. A normal 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum with a markedly decreased striatal glucose metabolism and a mildly decreased cortical glucose metabolism was observed in cases of Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum increased and the glucose metabolism was normal in cases of idiopathic dystonia. Various patterns of 18F-Dopa uptake and glucose metabolism were thus observed in the various movement disorders. These results suggest that the measurements of the 18F-Dopa uptake and the cerebral glucose metabolism would be useful for the evaluation of the striatal function in various movement disorders. (author)

  10. Resistance to chemotherapy is associated with altered glucose metabolism in acute myeloid leukemia

    SONG, KUI; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaojun; Xuan, Li; HUANG, GUINIAN; Liu, Qifa

    2016-01-01

    Altered glucose metabolism has been described as a cause of chemoresistance in multiple tumor types. The present study aimed to identify the expression profile of glucose metabolism in drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and provide potential strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant AML. Bone marrow and serum samples were obtained from patients with AML that were newly diagnosed or had relapsed. The messenger RNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, glucose tra...

  11. 2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Fatangare, Amol; Paetz, Christian; Saluz, Hanspeter; Svatoš, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) is glucose analog routinely used in clinical and animal radiotracer studies to trace glucose uptake but it has rarely been used in plants. Previous studies analyzed FDG translocation and distribution pattern in plants and proposed that FDG could be used as a tracer for photoassimilates in plants. Elucidating FDG metabolism in plants is a crucial aspect for establishing its application as a radiotracer in plant imaging. Here, we describe the metabolic fate of F...

  12. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Is a Novel Stimulator of Glucose Uptake and Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Cells*

    Perdomo, German; Martinez-Brocca, Maria A.; Bhatt, Bankim A.; Brown, Nicholas F.; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Active hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is present in the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle. However, the effects of HGF on glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle are completely unknown. We therefore examined the effects of HGF on deoxyglucose uptake (DOGU), glucose utilization, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in skeletal muscle cells. HGF significantly enhanced DOGU in mouse soleus muscles in vitro. Furthermore, ...

  13. Implications of Hydrogen Sulfide in Glucose Regulation: How H2S Can Alter Glucose Homeostasis through Metabolic Hormones

    Pichette, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and its comorbidities continue to be a major health problem worldwide. Understanding the precise mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis and their dysregulation during diabetes are a major research focus. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose homeostasis. This is achieved through its production and action in several metabolic and hormone producing organs including the pancreas, liver, and adipose. Of importance, H2S production and signaling in these tissues are altered during both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review first examines how H2S is produced both endogenously and by gastrointestinal microbes, with a particular focus on the altered production that occurs during obesity and diabetes. Next, the action of H2S on the metabolic organs with key roles in glucose homeostasis, with a particular focus on insulin, is described. Recent work has also suggested that the effects of H2S on glucose homeostasis goes beyond its role in insulin secretion. Several studies have demonstrated important roles for H2S in hepatic glucose output and adipose glucose uptake. The mechanism of H2S action on these metabolic organs is described. In the final part of this review, future directions examining the roles of H2S in other metabolic and glucoregulatory hormone secreting tissues are proposed. PMID:27478532

  14. The therapeutic effect of curcumin derivatives L6H4 on rats with abnormalities of glucose and lipid me-tabolism and its mechanism%姜黄素衍生物L6H4对糖脂代谢异常大鼠的治疗作用及其机制

    陈四梅; 张森凯; 刘网网; 徐梦菲; 陈三妹; 陈国荣; 陈筱菲

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察姜黄素衍生物L6H4对糖脂代谢异常大鼠代谢指标的影响,并对其作用机制进行初步探讨。方法:24只8周龄雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常空白对照组(NC组,n=8),高脂组(HF组,n=8)和高脂治疗组(FT组,n=8),后2组高糖高脂饲料喂养12周。第5周时开始给予药物治疗8周,12周末检测各组大鼠血清生化指标、肝脏和骨骼肌的甘油三酯(TG),以及与糖脂代谢相关的多项指标,并观察光镜下肝脏与骨骼肌的病理学变化。结果:①HF组与NC组比较,体质量增加(P<0.05),肝湿质量、空腹血糖(FBG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOME-IR)、血清TG、肝脏TG、骨骼肌TG、血清ALT、血清游离脂肪酸(FFA)、高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)和白介素6(IL-6)水平均升高(均P<0.01),脂联素(ADP)、瘦素(LEP)下降(分别P<0.01,P<0.05),成纤维细胞生长因子21(FGF-21)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);②FT组与HF组比较,FINS、肝湿质量与肝指数差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),体质量、肝脏TG、血TG、ALT、FBG、HOME-IR、FFA、hs-CRP水平降低(P<0.01),骨骼肌TG、IL-6水平下降(P<0.05),FGF-21、ADP升高(P<0.01);③HF组肝脏可见明显脂肪变及炎症细胞浸润,骨骼肌细胞间质可见脂肪浸润,治疗后肝脏脂肪变以及骨骼肌脂肪浸润明显改善。结论:姜黄素衍生物L6H4对高脂高糖喂养大鼠具有控制体质量、保护肝功能、改善胰岛素抵抗的作用,可能与其调脂、抑制炎症、降低异位脂肪存积相关。%Objective: To observe the effect of curcumin derivatives L6H4 on rats with abnormalities of glucose and lipid metabolism, and preliminarily study the mechanism of it.Methods: Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly allocated into three groups: normal control group (NC group,n=8), high fatty group (HF

  15. Effect of number of abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT values on birthweight in women with gestational diabetes

    Nermin Kösüs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: To examine the effect of abnormal oral glucose loading (OGL and number of abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT values on foetal weight in Turkish pregnant women. Methods: This retrospective study included 810 pregnant women between 24 and 28 wk of gestation who were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Women were grouped according to degree of glucose intolerance and compared for clinical, biochemical parameters. Women who delivered macrosomic infants were compared with those who delivered normal infants. Results: GDM was detected in 70 (8.6% women. Median age and infant birthweight of GDM cases were higher than the other groups. Infants of women with GDM weighted 200 g more than infants of non-GDM cases. No difference was found in terms of birthweight between diabetes cases with 2, 3 or 4 OGTT values abnormality. Interpretation & conclusions: The number of abnormal OGTT values in GDM cases had no effect on foetal weight. Macrosomia was observed more in GDM cases than in non-GDM cases. Birthweight was significantly higher in women with GDM despite the therapy used for regulation of blood glucose. This may be related to ethnical, dietary, nutritional differences, and treatment compliance in our study population.

  16. Protective Effects of Quetiapine on Metabolic and Inflammatory Abnormalities in Schizophrenic Patients during Exacerbated Stage.

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Ko, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-04-30

    Inflammation has been considered important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increasing evidence reveals that patients with schizophrenia have abnormal expression of cytokines, which are related to development of metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormality has become a critical issue, though its longitudinal relationship with the disorder, such as the antipsychotics influence, is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether abnormalities of metabolic parameters and cytokine levels in acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients existed, and whether intervention of antipsychotic could help. The present study analyzed peripheral cytokines and metabolic/hemodynamic parameters in healthy controls and acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients hospitalized for three weeks under the unique treatment of quetiapine, a well-known second-generation antipsychotic. Our results showed that patients with schizophrenia were predisposed to metabolic abnormalities in acute exacerbation, including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The patients were also prone to dysglycemia, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, and higher blood pressure with concomitant of elevation of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in which IL-6 was associated with BMI. After quetiapine treatment, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 remained higher than the controls, but IL-10 was significantly decreased in follow-up comparison. Glycemic-related indexes, HDL-c and IL-10 levels were significantly changed by variance analysis. Results of the present study imply that acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients with metabolism abnormalities may involve disruption of expression of cytokines, and that quetiapine may have therapeutic effects. Nonetheless, metabolism parameters of patients undergoing treatment with quetiapine should be closely monitored. PMID:27080462

  17. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  18. Screening of inherited metabolic abnormalities in 56 children with intractable epilepsy

    LIU, XIAOMING; LI, RUI; CHEN, SHENGZHI; SANG, YAN; ZHAO, JIAQIANG

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common children's neural disease that is largely controlled by anti-epileptic drugs. Nevertheless, children experience repeated attacks that develop into intractable epilepsy (IE). The aim of the present study was to examine the inherited metabolic abnormalities in children with IE to provide early etiological and symptomatic treatment. Urine and blood samples of 56 children with IE served as the experimental group and 56 cases of children with IE, who were successfully treated served as the control group, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry for the metabolic screening of amino, organic, and fatty acids. Urine routine, hepatic function, blood biochemistry, imageology of encephalon and brain stem-evoked potential (auditory and optical) were also examined. Of the 27 IE children confirmed as abnormal in urine and blood screening, there were 19 cases (70.3%) of hypoevolutism or retrogression of intelligence and motor function, 15 cases (55.5%) of brain stem-evoked potential and of encephalic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality, 6 cases (22.2%) of abnormal family history and of abnormal blood biochemistry and blood gas analysis, and 5 cases (18.5%) with skin change and of abnormal hepatic function. Of the 27 cases, 11 cases (19.6%) were diagnosed with inherited metabolic diseases. Among the children in the control group, 3 cases showed abnormal urine test results, one of which had family history, one had hypoevolutism or retrogression of intelligence and motor function, one had brain stem-evoked potential and encephalic CT or MRI abnormality, while two of the 3 cases had inherited metabolic abnormalities. The correlation analysis revealed that abnormal urine test was significantly correlated with inherited metabolic abnormalities (P<0.05). Of the 56 IE patients, 25 cases (44.6%) were identified as abnormal under urine screening, and of the 25 cases, 6 cases had simple

  19. Peritoneal Dialysate Glucose Load and Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetics: Results from the GLOBAL Fluid Cohort Study

    Chess, James; Do, Jun-Young; Noh, Hyunjin; Lee, Hi-Bahl; Kim, Yong-Lim; Summers, Angela; Williams, Paul Ford; Davison, Sara; Dorval, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glucose control is a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. During PD, the local toxic effects of intra-peritoneal glucose are well recognized, but despite large amounts of glucose being absorbed, the systemic effects of this in non-diabetic patients are not clear. We sought to clarify whether dialysate glucose has an effect upon systemic glucose metabolism. Methods and Materials We analysed the Global Fluid Study cohort, a prospective, observational cohort study initiated in 2002. A subset of 10 centres from 3 countries with high data quality were selected (368 incident and 272 prevalent non-diabetic patients), with multilevel, multivariable analysis of the reciprocal of random glucose levels, and a stratified-by-centre Cox survival analysis. Results The median follow up was 5.6 and 6.4 years respectively in incident and prevalent patients. On multivariate analysis, serum glucose increased with age (β = -0.007, 95%CI -0.010, -0.004) and decreased with higher serum sodium (β = 0.002, 95%CI 0.0005, 0.003) in incident patients and increased with dialysate glucose (β = -0.0002, 95%CI -0.0004, -0.00006) in prevalent patients. Levels suggested undiagnosed diabetes in 5.4% of prevalent patients. Glucose levels predicted death in unadjusted analyses of both incident and prevalent groups but in an adjusted survival analysis they did not (for random glucose 6–10 compared with diabetic patients, random glucose levels at a diabetic level are under-recognised and increase with dialysate glucose load. Random glucose levels predict mortality in unadjusted analyses, but this association has not been proven in adjusted analyses. PMID:27249020

  20. Peritoneal Dialysate Glucose Load and Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Non-Diabetics: Results from the GLOBAL Fluid Cohort Study.

    Mark Lambie

    Full Text Available Glucose control is a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. During PD, the local toxic effects of intra-peritoneal glucose are well recognized, but despite large amounts of glucose being absorbed, the systemic effects of this in non-diabetic patients are not clear. We sought to clarify whether dialysate glucose has an effect upon systemic glucose metabolism.We analysed the Global Fluid Study cohort, a prospective, observational cohort study initiated in 2002. A subset of 10 centres from 3 countries with high data quality were selected (368 incident and 272 prevalent non-diabetic patients, with multilevel, multivariable analysis of the reciprocal of random glucose levels, and a stratified-by-centre Cox survival analysis.The median follow up was 5.6 and 6.4 years respectively in incident and prevalent patients. On multivariate analysis, serum glucose increased with age (β = -0.007, 95%CI -0.010, -0.004 and decreased with higher serum sodium (β = 0.002, 95%CI 0.0005, 0.003 in incident patients and increased with dialysate glucose (β = -0.0002, 95%CI -0.0004, -0.00006 in prevalent patients. Levels suggested undiagnosed diabetes in 5.4% of prevalent patients. Glucose levels predicted death in unadjusted analyses of both incident and prevalent groups but in an adjusted survival analysis they did not (for random glucose 6-10 compared with <6, Incident group HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.58, 1.46, Prevalent group HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.86, 2.34.In prevalent non-diabetic patients, random glucose levels at a diabetic level are under-recognised and increase with dialysate glucose load. Random glucose levels predict mortality in unadjusted analyses, but this association has not been proven in adjusted analyses.

  1. Functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities of the hippocampal formation in Williams syndrome

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Sarpal, Deepak; Koch, Paul; Steele, Sonya; Kohn, Philip; Marenco, Stefano; Morris, Colleen A.; Das, Saumitra; Kippenhan, Shane; Mattay, Venkata S.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Berman, Karen Faith

    2005-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), caused by microdeletion of some 21 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, is characterized by dysmorphic features, mental retardation or learning difficulties, elastin arteriopathy, and striking neurocognitive and social-behavioral abnormalities. Recent studies of murine knockouts of key genes in the microdeleted region, LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cytoplasmatic linker protein 2 (CYLN2), demonstrated significant functional and metabolic abnormalities, but grossly normal structure, ...

  2. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  3. Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery Reverses Insulin-Induced Increases in Brain Glucose Metabolism of the Morbidly Obese

    Tuulari, Jetro J.; Henry K Karlsson; Hirvonen, Jussi; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Bucci, Marco; Helmiö, Mika; Ovaska, Jari; Soinio, Minna; Salminen, Paulina; Savisto, Nina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with altered brain glucose metabolism. Here, we studied brain glucose metabolism in 22 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Seven healthy subjects served as control subjects. Brain glucose metabolism was measured twice per imaging session: with and without insulin stimulation (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose scanning. We found that during fasting, brain glucose metabolism was not dif...

  4. [Relationships of glucose transporter 4 with cognitive changes induced by high fat diet and glucose metabolism in hippocampus].

    Zhang, Yun-Li; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-25

    The hippocampus not only plays a role in appetite and energy balance, but also is particularly important in learning and memory. Figuring out the relationships of hippocampal glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) with hippocampal glucose metabolism and hippocampus-dependent cognitive function is very important to clearly understand the pathophysiological basis of nutritional obesity and diabetes-related diseases, and treat obesity and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, this study reviewed recent researches conducted on hippocampal GLUT4, hippocampal glucose metabolism, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. In this review, we mainly discussed: (1) The structure of GLUT4 and the distribution and function of GLUT4 in the hippocampus; (2) The translocation of GLUT4 in the hippocampus; (3) The relationships of the PI3K-Akt-GLUT4 signaling pathway with the high fat diet-induced changes of cognitive function and the glucose metabolism in the hippocampus; (4) The associations of the PI3K-Akt-GLUT4 signaling pathway with the diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction in the hippocampus; (5) The potential mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction induced by glucose metabolic disorder. PMID:27350206

  5. The Impact of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance and Obesity on Fetal Growth

    Erin Graves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Factors linked with insulin resistance were examined for their association with large-for-gestational-age (LGA infant birth weight and gestational diabetes. Study Design. Data came from a longitudinal cohort study of 2,305 subjects without overt diabetes, analyzed using multinomial logistic and linear regression. Results. High maternal BMI (OR=1.53 (1.11, 2.12, height (1.98 (1.62, 2.42, antidepressant use (1.71 (1.20, 2.44, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds (1.79 (1.25, 2.57, and high blood sugar (2.68, (1.53, 5.27 were all positively associated with LGA birth. Strikingly, the difference in risk from diagnosed and treated gestational diabetes compared to women with a single abnormal glucose tolerance test (but no diagnosis of gestational diabetes was significant (OR=0.65, p=0.12 versus OR=2.84, p<0.01. When weight/length ratio was used instead, different factors were found to be significant. BMI and pregnancy weight-gain were found to influence the development of gestational diabetes, through an additive interaction. Conclusions. High prepregnancy BM, height, antidepressant use, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds, and high blood sugar were associated with LGA birth, but not necessarily infant weight/length ratio. An additive interaction between BMI and pregnancy weight-gain influenced gestational diabetes development.

  6. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  7. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  8. Myocardial metabolic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic significance of reversible thallium-201 abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Exercise-induced abnormalities during thallium-201 scintigraphy that normalize at rest frequently occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are indicative of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise 201Tl scintigraphy and, during the same week, measurement of myocardial lactate metabolism and hemodynamics during pacing stress. Thirty-seven patients (74%) had one or more 201Tl abnormalities that completely normalized after 3 hours of rest; 26 had regional myocardial 201Tl defects, and 26 had apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation with exercise, with 15 having coexistence of these abnormal findings. Of the 37 patients with reversible 201Tl abnormalities, 27 (73%) had metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia during rapid atrial pacing compared with four of 13 patients (31%) with normal 201Tl scans (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients had apparent cavity dilatation as their only 201Tl abnormality; their mean postpacing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly higher than that of the 13 patients with normal 201Tl studies (33 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). There was no correlation between the angiographic presence of systolic septal or epicardial coronary arterial compression and the presence or distribution of 201Tl abnormalities. Patients with ischemic ST segment responses to exercise had an 80% prevalence rate of reversible 201Tl abnormalities and a 70% prevalence rate of pacing-induced ischemia. However, 69% of patients with nonischemic ST segment responses had reversible 201Tl abnormalities, and 55% had pacing-induced ischemia. Reversible 201Tl abnormalities during exercise stress are markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most likely identify relatively underperfused myocardium

  9. Lack of significant metabolic abnormalities in mice with liver-specific disruption of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Lavery, Gareth G

    2012-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome, and patients with GC excess share many clinical features, such as central obesity and glucose intolerance. In patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes, systemic GC concentrations seem to be invariably normal. Tissue GC concentrations determined by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and local cortisol (corticosterone in mice) regeneration from cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in mice) by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme, principally expressed in the liver. Transgenic mice have demonstrated the importance of 11β-HSD1 in mediating aspects of the metabolic syndrome, as well as HPA axis control. In order to address the primacy of hepatic 11β-HSD1 in regulating metabolism and the HPA axis, we have generated liver-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout (LKO) mice, assessed biomarkers of GC metabolism, and examined responses to high-fat feeding. LKO mice were able to regenerate cortisol from cortisone to 40% of control and had no discernible difference in a urinary metabolite marker of 11β-HSD1 activity. Although circulating corticosterone was unaltered, adrenal size was increased, indicative of chronic HPA stimulation. There was a mild improvement in glucose tolerance but with insulin sensitivity largely unaffected. Adiposity and body weight were unaffected as were aspects of hepatic lipid homeostasis, triglyceride accumulation, and serum lipids. Additionally, no changes in the expression of genes involved in glucose or lipid homeostasis were observed. Liver-specific deletion of 11β-HSD1 reduces corticosterone regeneration and may be important for setting aspects of HPA axis tone, without impacting upon urinary steroid metabolite profile. These discordant data have significant implications for the use of these biomarkers of 11β-HSD1 activity in clinical studies. The paucity of metabolic abnormalities in LKO points to important compensatory effects by HPA

  10. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  11. Increased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness of glucose metabolism in adipocytes from female versus male rats.

    Guerre-Millo, M.; Leturque, A.; Girard, J.; Lavau, M

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there were sex-associated differences in the action of insulin on glucose metabolism in adipocytes. Insulin binding and the dose-response curves for glucose transport (assessed by measuring the cell-associated radioactivity after 15-s incubation with 50 microM [6-14C]glucose) and [U-14C]glucose (5 mM) metabolism into CO2 and lipids were compared in retroperitoneal adipocytes from age-matched (84 d) male and female rats. In addition, the activity of...

  12. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enactment behaviour and loss of REM atonia, and is considered a prodromal symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Wu et al. identify an abnormal brain metabolic network associated with the disorder, and show that evolution of this network occurs with progression to Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Association of Pulmonary Function with Adiposity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Urban Minority Adolescents

    Rastogi, Deepa; Bhalani, Kshitij; Hall, Charles B.; Isasi, Carmen R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Childhood obesity is a known risk factor for pulmonary diseases, likely due to obesity-mediated alteration of pulmonary function. Inflammation and mechanical fat load are two proposed causative mechanisms for altered pulmonary function among obese children; however, the association of metabolic abnormalities with pulmonary function among children is poorly understood.

  14. Characterization of glucose-related metabolic pathways in differentiated rat oligodendrocyte lineage cells.

    Amaral, Ana I; Hadera, Mussie G; Tavares, Joana M; Kotter, Mark R N; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Although oligodendrocytes constitute a significant proportion of cells in the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about their intermediary metabolism. We have, therefore, characterized metabolic functions of primary oligodendrocyte precursor cell cultures at late stages of differentiation using isotope-labelled metabolites. We report that differentiated oligodendrocyte lineage cells avidly metabolize glucose in the cytosol and pyruvate derived from glucose in the mitochondria. The labelling patterns of metabolites obtained after incubation with [1,2-(13)C]glucose demonstrated that the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is highly active in oligodendrocytes (approximately 10% of glucose is metabolized via the PPP as indicated by labelling patterns in phosphoenolpyruvate). Mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses of metabolites after incubation of cells with [1-(13)C]lactate or [1,2-(13)C]glucose, respectively, demonstrated that anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation, which was thought to be exclusive to astrocytes, is also active in oligodendrocytes. Using [1,2-(13)C]acetate, we show that oligodendrocytes convert acetate into acetyl CoA which is metabolized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Analysis of labelling patterns of alanine after incubation of cells with [1,2-(13)C]acetate and [1,2-(13)C]glucose showed catabolic oxidation of malate or oxaloacetate. In conclusion, we report that oligodendrocyte lineage cells at late differentiation stages are metabolically highly active cells that are likely to contribute considerably to the metabolic activity of the CNS. PMID:26352325

  15. The importance of glucose metabolism in the hypoxic cytotoxicity of Misonidazole

    The authors are investigating the mechanism of inhibition of glucose metabolism and its role in the hypoxic cytotoxicity of Misonidazole (Miso). Preincubation of hypoxic exponential EMT6/Ro cells with Miso and 5.5 mM glucose containing media caused a time-dependent inhibition of both glucose consumption and lactate formation. This inhibition began after 90 min, 45 min, and 15 min preincubation with 1mM, 2.5mM, and 5mM Miso respectively. The inhibition closely correlated with the kinetics and extent of decreased viability of these cells as measured by dye exclusion and colony forming efficiency. Miso does not inhibit glucose transport in these phloretin-sensitive cells. Transport was measured by the uptake of 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, a non-metabolized glucose analog. The initial rate was determined to be the same (1.66 +- 0.18 nmoles cell/second at 250C)

  16. Effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant cell model

    To evaluate the effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in an insulin-resistant (IR) cell model which was established by the way of high concentration of insulin induction with HepG2 cell in vitro culture. The IR cells were treated by turtle oil, the glucose consumption and 3H-D-glucose incorporation rate in IR cells were detected by the way of glucose oxidase and 3H-D-glucose incorporation assay respectively. The state of cell proliferation was tested by MTT method. The results showed that the incorporation rate of 3H-D-glucose in IR cells was significantly lower than that in the control cells(P3H-D-glucose incorporation rate in either IR cells or control cells was increased with the increase of insulin concentration. Moreover, the 3H-D-glucose incorporation rate of IR cells increased slower than that of control cells. The MTT assay showed that turtle oil can promote the proliferation of IR cell and control cell. The glucose uptake and glucose consumption in IR cell which treated with turtle oil was significantly increase than that in the control cells (P<0.05). Turtle oil can improve the insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in the IR cell model. (authors)

  17. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  18. Clinical observation of glucose metabolism disorders in elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea disorder

    张蔷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between obstructive sleep apnea hypoventilation syndrome (OSAHS) and glucose metabolism disorders in patients without diabetes mellitus.Methods A total of 88 patients with OSAHS but without diabetes mellitus from 2009 to 2011 in

  19. Associations between red meat intake and biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women123

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Wu, Kana; Pan, An; Grodstein, Fran; Hu, Frank B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Greater red meat intake is associated with an increased type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. However, the relation of red meat intake to biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism has not been investigated thoroughly.

  20. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

    Shengxi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  1. Influence of tacrolimus on glucose metabolism before and after renal transplantation : a prospective study

    Duijnhoven, E M; Boots, J M; Christiaans, M H; Wolffenbuttel, B H; Van Hooff, J P

    2001-01-01

    Most studies concerning the influence of tacrolimus on glucose metabolism have been performed either in animals or after organ transplantation. These clinical studies have largely been transversal with patients who were using steroids. Therefore, this prospective, longitudinal study investigated the

  2. A randomised trial of salsalate for insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in persons with abnormal glucose tolerance

    Goldfine, A. B.; Conlin, P. R.; Halperin, F.; Koska, J.; Permana, P.; Schwenke, D.; Shoelson, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Chronic sub-acute inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. High doses of salicylate reduce inflammation, glucose and triacylglycerols, and may improve insulin sensitivity, suggesting therapeutic potential in impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect of salsalate vs placebo on insulin resistance and glycaemia in impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods We conducted a 12 week, two-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of salsalate (up to 4 g/day) vs placebo on systemic glucose disposal. Secondary objectives included treatment effects on glycaemia, inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors. Seventy-eight participants with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance from two VA healthcare systems were enrolled. Randomisation assignment was provided by the coordinating center directly to site pharmacists, and participants and research staff were blinded to treatment assignment. Results Seventy-one individuals were randomised to placebo (n = 36) or salsalate (n = 35). Glucose disposal did not change in either group (salsalate 1% [95% CI −39%, 56%]; placebo 6% [95% CI −20%, 61%], p = 0.3 for placebo vs salsalate). Fasting glucose was reduced by 6% during the study by salsalate (p = 0.006) but did not change with placebo. Declines in glucose were accompanied by declines in fasting C-peptide with salsalate. Insulin clearance was reduced with salsalate. In the salsalate group, triacylglycerol levels were lower by 25% (p = 0.01) and adiponectin increased by 53% (p = 0.02) at the end of the study. Blood pressure, endothelial function and other inflammation markers did not differ between groups. Adipose tissue nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity declined in the salsalate group compared with placebo (−16% vs 42%, p = 0.005), but was not correlated with metabolic

  3. Muscle glucose metabolism following exercise in the rat

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N;

    1982-01-01

    perfusion of their isolated hindquarters. Glucose utilization by the hindquarter was the same in exercised and control rats perfused in the absence of added insulin; however, when insulin (30-40,000 muU/ml) was added to the perfusate, glucose utilization was greater after exercise. Prior exercise lowered...... both, the concentration of insulin that half-maximally stimulated glucose utilization (exercise, 150 muU/ml; control, 480 muU/ml) and modestly increased its maximum effect. The increase in insulin sensitivity persisted for 4 h following exercise, but was not present after 24 h. The rate-limiting step...... in glucose utilization enhanced by prior exercise appeared to be glucose transport across the cell membrane, as in neither control nor exercised rats did free glucose accumulate in the muscle cell. Following exercise, the ability of insulin to stimulate the release of lactate into the perfusate was...

  4. Metabolic and Endocrine Profiles in Response to Systemic Infusion of Fructose and Glucose in Rhesus Macaques

    Adams, Sean H.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Grant, Ryan W.; Cummings, Bethany P.; Havel, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of circulating leptin concentrations are attenuated after consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, likely a result of limited postprandial glucose and insulin excursions after fructose. Differences in postprandial exposure of adipose tissue to peripheral circulating fructose and glucose or in adipocyte metabolism of the two sugars may also be involved. Thus, we compared plasma leptin concentrations after 6-h iv infusions of saline...

  5. Glucose-independent glutamine metabolism via TCA cycling for proliferation and survival in B-cells

    Le, Anne; Lane, Andrew N.; Hamaker, Max; Bose, Sminu; Gouw, Arvin; Barbi, Joseph; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Rojas, Camilio J.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Zhang, Haixia; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K.; Higashi, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Because MYC plays a causal role in many human cancers, including those with hypoxic and nutrient-poor tumor microenvironments, we have determined the metabolic responses of a MYC-inducible human Burkitt lymphoma model P493 cell line to aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and to glucose deprivation, using Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics. Using [U-13C]-glucose as the tracer, both glucose consumption and lactate production were increased by MYC expression and hypoxia. Using [U-13C,15N]-glutamin...

  6. Transcriptome profiling of brown adipose tissue during cold exposure reveals extensive regulation of glucose metabolism

    Hao, Qin; Yadav, Rachita; Basse, Astrid L.;

    2015-01-01

    exposure, we propose a model for the intermediary glucose metabolism in activated BAT: 1) fluxes through glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway are induced, the latter providing reducing equivalents for de novo fatty acid synthesis; 2) glycerol synthesis from glucose is increased, facilitating...

  7. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats

    Finan, A.; Cleary, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either (1-/sup 14/C) glucose or (6-/sup 14/C) glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO/sub 2/ production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats.

  8. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats

    DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either [1-14C] glucose or [6-14C] glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO2 production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats

  9. A Novel 3D Liver Organoid System for Elucidation of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Guoliang; Shen, Chong; Uygun, Korkut; Yarmush, Martin L.; Meng, Qin

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic glucose metabolism is a key player in diseases such as obesity and diabetes as well as in antihyperglycemic drugs screening. Hepatocytes culture in two-dimensional configurations is limited in vitro model for hepatocytes to function properly, while truly practical platforms to perform three-dimensional (3D) culture are unavailable. In this work, we present a practical organoid culture method of hepatocytes for elucidation of glucose metabolism under nominal and stress conditions. Empl...

  10. Effect of epinephrine and insulin on glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells

    Since epinephrine and insulin are known to counteract each other in several metabolic respects, it was found of interest to evaluate the interaction of these hormones on glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells. Results indicate that in spite of reduced lipolysis, insulin potentiates the conversion of glucose to glyceride-glycerol. This means that a certain degree of esterification of fatty acids must take place. So the low rate of lipolysis is sufficient to provide fatty acids for this esterification. (author)

  11. Effect of epinephrine and insulin on glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells

    Zewail, M.A. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)); Fahmy, N.M. (National Organisation for Drug Control and Research, Cairo (Egypt)); Nielsen, J.H. (Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1984-08-01

    Since epinephrine and insulin are known to counteract each other in several metabolic respects, it was found of interest to evaluate the interaction of these hormones on glucose metabolism in isolated fat cells. Results indicate that in spite of reduced lipolysis, insulin potentiates the conversion of glucose to glyceride-glycerol. This means that a certain degree of esterification of fatty acids must take place. So the low rate of lipolysis is sufficient to provide fatty acids for this esterification.

  12. Comparative Metabolic Flux Analysis of Lysine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Cultured on Glucose or Fructose

    Kiefer, Patrick; Heinzle, Elmar; Zelder, Oskar; Wittmann, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to 13C tracer studies, labeling measurements by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, metabolite balancing, and isotopomer modeling, was applied for comparative metabolic network analysis of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum on glucose or fructose. Significantly reduced yields of lysine and biomass and enhanced formation of dihydroxyacetone, glycerol, and lactate in comparison to those for glucose resulted on fructose. Metabolic flux analysis revealed drasti...

  13. Nur77 coordinately regulates expression of genes linked to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Chao, Lily C.; Zhang, Zidong; Pei, Liming; Saito, Tsugumichi; Tontonoz, Peter; Pilch, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    Innervation is important for normal metabolism in skeletal muscle, including insulin-sensitive glucose uptake. However, the transcription factors that transduce signals from the neuromuscular junction to the nucleus and affect changes in metabolic gene expression are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a regulator of gene expression linked to glucose utilization in muscle. In vivo, Nur77 is preferentially expressed in glycolytic compared to oxidativ...

  14. Neuronal LRP1 Regulates Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Signaling in the Brain

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Jin; Tsai, Chih-Wei; Yue, Mei; Melrose, Heather L.; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by profound memory loss and progressive dementia. Accumulating evidence suggests that Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, significantly increases the risk for developing AD. Whereas amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and neurofibrillary tangles are major histological hallmarks of AD, impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism precedes these pathological changes durin...

  15. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Composition on the Metabolism of Glucose by Brochothrix thermosphacta

    Pin, Carmen; García de Fernando, Gonzalo D.; Ordóñez, Juan A.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of atmosphere composition on the metabolism of Brochothrix thermosphacta was studied by analyzing the consumption of glucose and the production of ethanol, acetic and lactic acids, acetaldehyde, and diacetyl-acetoin under atmospheres containing different combinations of carbon dioxide and oxygen. When glucose was metabolized under oxygen-free atmospheres, lactic acid was one of the main end products, while under atmospheres rich in oxygen mainly acetoin-diacetyl was produced. Th...

  16. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Swedo, S.E.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Cheslow, D.L.; Leonard, H.L.; Kumar, A.; Friedland, R.; Rapoport, S.I.; Rapoport, J.L.

    1989-06-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system.

  17. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system

  18. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx)-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism revealed by 1H-NMR-based metabonomics

    Dan Yue; Zhang, Yuwei; Cheng, Liuliu; Ma, Jinhu; Xi, Yufeng; Yang, Liping; Su, Chao; Shao, Bin; Huang, Anliang; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis; however, mechanisms underlying HBx-mediated carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to systematically investigate the effects of HBx on cell metabolism. EdU incorporation assay was conducted to examine the effects of HBx on DNA synthesis, an important feature of nucleic acid metabolism. The results revealed that HBx disrupted metabolism of glucose, lipids, and amino acids, especially nucleic acids. To understand the potential mechanism of HBx-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism, gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells expressing HBx were investigated. The results showed that 29 genes involved in DNA damage and DNA repair were differentially expressed in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells. HBx-induced DNA damage was further demonstrated by karyotyping, comet assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analyses. Many studies have previously reported that DNA damage can induce abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism. Thus, our results implied that HBx initially induces DNA damage, and then disrupts nucleic acid metabolism, which in turn blocks DNA repair and induces the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These findings further contribute to our understanding of the occurrence of HCC. PMID:27075403

  19. Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism during and after exercise

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Richter, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of carbohydrate in the form of intramuscular glycogen stores and glucose delivered from plasma becomes an increasingly important energy substrate to the working muscle with increasing exercise intensity. This review gives an update on the molecular signals by which glucose transport i...... the post-exercise period which can result in an overshoot of intramuscular glycogen resynthesis post exercise (glycogen supercompensation)....

  20. Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism during seizure in spontaneously epileptic El mice

    Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism were examined in spontaneously epileptic El mice using autoradiography with 125I-IMP and 14C-DG in the interictal phase and during seizure. El (+) mice that developed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and El (-) mice that received no stimulation and had no history of epileptic seizures were examined. The seizure non-susceptible, maternal strain ddY mice were used as control. Uptake ratios for IMP and DG in mouse brain were calculated using the autoradiographic density. In the interictal phase, the pattern of local cerebral blood flow of El (+) mice was similar to that of ddY and El (-) mice, and glucose metabolism in the hippocampus was higher in El (+) mice than in El (-) and ddY mice, but flow and metabolism were nearly matched. During seizure, no significant changed blood flow and increased glucose metabolism in the hippocampus, the epileptic focus, and no markedly changed blood flow and depressed glucose metabolism in other brain regions were observed and considered to be flow-metabolism uncoupling. These observations have never been reported in clinical or experimental studies of epilepsy. Seizures did not cause large regional differences in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, only glucose metabolism is useful for detection of the focus of secondary generalized seizures in El mice, and appeared possibly to be related to the pathophysiology of secondary generalized epilepsy in El mice. (author)

  1. Comparison of clinical types of Wilson's disease and glucose metabolism in extrapyramidal motor brain regions.

    Hermann, W; Barthel, H; Hesse, S; Grahmann, F; Kühn, H-J; Wagner, A; Villmann, T

    2002-07-01

    In Wilson's disease a disturbed glucose metabolism especially in striatal and cerebellar areas has been reported. This is correlated with the severity of extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS). These findings are only based on a small number of patients. Up to now it is unknown whether EPS are caused by various patterns of disturbed basal ganglia glucose metabolism. We investigated 37 patients and 9 normal volunteers to characterize the disturbed glucose metabolism in Wilson's disease more precisely. The glucose metabolism was determined in 5 cerebellar and cerebral areas (putamen, caput nuclei caudati, cerebellum, midbrain and thalamic area) by using (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography ( [(18)F]FDG-PET). The database was evaluated by a cluster analysis. Additionally, the severity extrapyramidal motor symptoms were judged by a clinical score system. Three characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism in basal ganglia were obtained. Two of them may be assigned to patients with neurological symptoms whereas the third cluster corresponds to most patients without EPS or normal volunteers. The clusters can be identified by characteristic consumption rates in this 5 brain areas. The severity of EPS can not clearly be assigned to one of the clusters with disturbed glucose metabolism. However, the most severe cases are characterized by the lowest consumption in the striatal area. When there is marked improvement of EPS impaired glucose consumption reveals a persistent brain lesion. Finally, the neurological symptoms in Wilson's disease are caused by (at least) two different patterns of disturbed glucose metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum. The severity of EPS seems to be determined by a disturbed consumption in the striatal area. PMID:12140675

  2. Direct neuronal glucose uptake Heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John D R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two......, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus...

  3. Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography

    Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities

  4. JNK1 Deficiency Does Not Enhance Muscle Glucose Metabolism in Lean Mice*

    Witczak, CA; Hirshman, MF; Jessen, N.; Fujii, N; Seifert, M.; Brandauer, J; Hotamisligil, GS; Goodyear, LJ

    2006-01-01

    Mice deficient in c‐jun‐NH2‐terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) exhibit decreased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and protection against obesity‐induced insulin resistance, suggesting increased glucose disposal into skeletal muscle. Thus, we assessed whether JNK1 deficiency enhances muscle glucose metabolism. Ex vivo insulin or contraction‐induced muscle [³H]‐2‐deoxyglucose uptake was not altered in JNK1 knockout mice, demonstrating that JNK1 does not regulate blood glucose levels via direct a...

  5. Antilipolytic drug boosts glucose metabolism in prostate cancer

    Introduction: The antilipolytic drug Acipimox reduces free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the blood stream. We examined the effect of reduced FFAs on glucose metabolism in androgen-dependent (CWR22Rv1) and androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts. Methods: Subcutaneous tumors were produced in nude mice by injection of PC3 and CWR22Rv1 PCa cells. The mice were divided into two groups (Acipimox vs. controls). Acipimox (50 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1 h before injection of tracers. 1 h after i.v. co-injection of 8.2 MBq (222 ± 6.0 μCi) 18 F-FDG and ∼ 0.0037 MBq (0.1 μCi) 14C-acetate, 18 F-FDG imaging was performed using a small-animal PET scanner. Counting rates in reconstructed images were converted to activity concentrations. Quantification was obtained by region-of-interest analysis using dedicated software. The mice were euthanized, and blood samples and organs were harvested. 18 F radioactivity was measured in a calibrated γ-counter using a dynamic counting window and decay correction. 14C radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting using external standard quench corrections. Counts were converted into activity, and percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) tissue was calculated. Results: FDG biodistribution data in mice with PC3 xenografts demonstrated doubled average %ID/g tumor tissue after administration of Acipimox compared to controls (7.21 ± 1.93 vs. 3.59 ± 1.35, P = 0.02). Tumor-to-organ ratios were generally higher in mice treated with Acipimox. This was supported by PET imaging data, both semi-quantitatively (mean tumor FDG uptake) and visually (tumor-to-background ratios). In mice with CWR22Rv1 xenografts there was no effect of Acipimox on FDG uptake, either in biodistribution or PET imaging. 14C-acetate uptake was unaffected in PC3 and CWR22Rv1 xenografts. Conclusions: In mice with PC3 PCa xenografts, acute administration of Acipimox increases tumor uptake of 18 F-FDG with general

  6. Brain glucose sensing, glucokinase and neural control of metabolism and islet function.

    Ogunnowo-Bada, E O; Heeley, N; Brochard, L; Evans, M L

    2014-09-01

    It is increasingly apparent that the brain plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis, including the maintenance of blood glucose. This is achieved by various efferent pathways from the brain to periphery, which help control hepatic glucose flux and perhaps insulin-stimulated insulin secretion. Also, critically important for the brain given its dependence on a constant supply of glucose as a fuel--emergency counter-regulatory responses are triggered by the brain if blood glucose starts to fall. To exert these control functions, the brain needs to detect rapidly and accurately changes in blood glucose. In this review, we summarize some of the mechanisms postulated to play a role in this and examine the potential role of the low-affinity hexokinase, glucokinase, in the brain as a key part of some of this sensing. We also discuss how these processes may become altered in diabetes and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25200293

  7. Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock

    Dyar, Kenneth A.; Ciciliot, Stefano; Wright, Lauren E.;

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin......-stimulated glucose uptake with reduced protein levels of GLUT4, the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, and TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase involved in GLUT4 translocation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was also reduced due to altered expression of circadian genes Pdk4 and Pdp1, coding for PDH kinase and phosphatase......, respectively. PDH inhibition leads to reduced glucose oxidation and diversion of glycolytic intermediates to alternative metabolic pathways, as revealed by metabolome analysis. The impaired glucose metabolism induced by muscle-specific Bmal1 knockout suggests that a major physiological role of the muscle clock...

  8. Relationship of impaired brain glucose metabolism to learning deficit in the senescence-accelerated mouse.

    Ohta, H; Nishikawa, H; Hirai, K; Kato, K; Miyamoto, M

    1996-10-11

    The relationship between brain glucose metabolism and learning deficit was examined in the senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, which has been proven to be a useful murine model of age-related behavioral disorders. SAMP8, 7 months old, exhibited marked learning impairment in the passive avoidance task, as compared with the control strain, senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR) 1. SAMP8 also exhibited a reduction in brain glucose metabolism, as indicated by a reduction in [14C]2-deoxyglucose accumulation in the brain following the intravenous injection impaired glucose metabolism correlated significantly with the learning impairment in all brain regions in SAMR1 and SAMP8. In the SAMP8, a significant correlation was observed in the posterior half of the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that the SAMP8 strain is a useful model of not only age-related behavioral disorders, but also glucose hypometabolism observed in aging and dementias. PMID:8905734

  9. Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism during and after exercise.

    Jensen, Thomas E; Richter, Erik A

    2012-03-01

    Utilization of carbohydrate in the form of intramuscular glycogen stores and glucose delivered from plasma becomes an increasingly important energy substrate to the working muscle with increasing exercise intensity. This review gives an update on the molecular signals by which glucose transport is increased in the contracting muscle followed by a discussion of glycogen mobilization and synthesis by the action of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase, respectively. Finally, this review deals with the signalling relaying the well-described increased sensitivity of glucose transport to insulin in the post-exercise period which can result in an overshoot of intramuscular glycogen resynthesis post exercise (glycogen supercompensation). PMID:22199166

  10. In patients with HIV-infection, chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    Aghdassi, Elaheh; Arendt, Bianca M; Salit, Irving E; Mohammed, Saira S; Jalali, Pegah; Bondar, Helena; Allard, Johane P

    2010-03-01

    Chromium is an essential micronutrient; chromium deficiency has been reported to cause insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The aim was to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on insulin-resistance, other metabolic abnormalities, and body composition in people living with HIV. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-two HIV-positive subjects with elevated glucose, lipids, or evidence of body fat redistribution, and who had insulin-resistance based on the calculation of homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR > or = 2.5) were assessed. Subjects who were on insulin or hypoglycemic medications were excluded. Subjects were randomized to receive either 400 microg/day chromium-nicotinate or placebo for 16 weeks. Forty-six subjects, 23 in each group, completed the study. Fasting blood insulin, glucose, lipid profile and body composition were measured before and after intervention. Chromium was tolerated without side effects and resulted in a significant decrease in HOMA-IR (median (IQR) (pre:4.09 (3.02-8.79); post: 3.66 (2.40-5.46), p=0.004), insulin (pre: 102 (85-226); post: 99 (59-131) pmol/L, p=0.003), triglycerides, total body fat mass (mean+/-SEM) (pre: 17.3+/-1.7; post: 16.3+/-1.7 kg; p=0.002) and trunk fat mass (pre: 23.8+/-1.9; post: 22.7+/-2.0 %; p=0.008). Blood glucose, C-peptide, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c remained unchanged. Biochemical parameters did not change in the placebo group except for LDL cholesterol which increased significantly. Body weight and medication profile remained stable throughout the study for both groups. In summary, chromium improved insulin resistance, metabolic abnormalities, and body composition in HIV+ patients. This suggests that chromium supplements alleviate some of the antiretroviral-associated metabolic abnormalities. PMID:20163347

  11. Glucose metabolism in the antibiotic producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, producer of the glycopeptide A40926 that is used as precursor for the novel antibiotic dalbavancin, has an unusual carbon metabolism. Glucose is primarily metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, although the energetically more favorable Embde...

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism in corticobasal degeneration comparison with progressive supranuclear palsy using statistical mapping analysis.

    Juh, Rahyeong; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Uk; Choe, Boyoung; Suh, Taesuk

    This study measured the cerebral glucose metabolism in patients suffering from corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The aim was to determine if there is a different metabolic pattern using (18)F-labeled 2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). The regional cerebral glucose metabolism was examined in 8 patients diagnosed clinically with CBD (mean age 69.6 +/- 7.8 years; male/female: 5/3), 8 patients with probable PSP (mean age 67.8 +/- 4.5 years; male/female: 4/4) and 22 healthy controls. The regional cerebral glucose metabolism between the three groups was compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) with a voxel-by-voxel approach (p < 0.001, 200-voxel level). Compared with the normal controls, asymmetry in the regional glucose metabolism was observed in the parietal, frontal and cingulate in the CBD patients. In the PSP patients, the glucose metabolism was lower in the orbitofrontal, middle frontal, cingulate, thalamus and mid-brain than their age matched normal controls. A comparison of the two patient groups demonstrated relative hypometabolism in the thalamus, the mid-brain in the PSP patients and the parietal lobe in CBD patients. These results suggest that when making a differential diagnosis of CBD and PSP, voxel-based analysis of the (18)F-FDG PET images using a SPM might be a useful tool in clinical examinations. PMID:15936506

  13. Abnormal Unsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism in Cystic Fibrosis: Biochemical Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

    Seegmiller, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited multi-organ disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. Patients with this disease exhibit characteristic abnormalities in the levels of unsaturated fatty acids in blood and tissue. Recent studies have uncovered an underlying biochemical mechanism for some of these changes, namely increased expression and activity of fatty acid desaturases. Among other effects, this drives metabolism of linoeate to arachidonate. Increased desaturase expression appears to be ...

  14. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study

    Li, Rong; Yu, Geng; Yang, Dongzi; Li, Shangwei; Lu, Shulan; Wu, XiaoKe; Wei, Zhaolian; Song, Xueru; Wang, Xiuxia; Fu, Shuxin; Qiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged ...

  15. Metabolic network analysis of Bacillus clausii on minimal and semirich medium using C-13-Labeled glucose

    Christiansen, Torben; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    to increase with increasing specific growth rate but at a much lower level than previously reported for Bacillus subtilis. Two futile cycles in the pyruvate metabolism were included in the metabolic network. A substantial flux in the futile cycle involving malic enzyme was estimated, whereas only a...... very small or zero flux through PEP carboxykinase was estimated, indicating that the latter enzyme was not active during growth on glucose. The uptake of the amino acids in a semirich medium containing 15 of the 20 amino acids normally present in proteins was estimated using fully labeled glucose in...... partly taken up from the medium and partly synthesized from glucose. The metabolic network analysis was extended to include analysis of growth on the semirich medium containing amino acids, and the metabolic flux distribution on this medium was estimated and compared with growth on minimal medium....

  16. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states

  17. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions

  18. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis

    We evaluated the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) using visual and SPM analysis, and compared with MRI findings. A total of 11 adult patients with NF type I were prospectively included in the study. All patients underwent F-18 FDG PET and brain MRI within 2 month of each other. All hypometabolic areas on PET were determined visually by 2 nuclear medicine physician and compared with MRI findings. SPM analysis was done using 42 normal controls with p = 0.005. Seven of 11 PET images showed 10 hypometabolic areas and 4 of 11 MRIs showed 6 areas of signal change brain parenchyma. Hypometabolic areas were bilateral thalamus (n=5), left temporal cortex (n=4) and dentate nucleus (n=1). In only 2 lesions (thalamus and dentate nucleus), hypometabolic foci were consistently related to signal change on MRI. SPM analysis revealed significantly decreased area in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex. F-18 FDG PET revealed significant hypometabolism in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex in adult patients with NF, and it might be helpful in understanding developmental abnormality of NF

  19. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis

    Yoon, Joon Kee; An, Young Sil; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University, School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in adult patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) using visual and SPM analysis, and compared with MRI findings. A total of 11 adult patients with NF type I were prospectively included in the study. All patients underwent F-18 FDG PET and brain MRI within 2 month of each other. All hypometabolic areas on PET were determined visually by 2 nuclear medicine physician and compared with MRI findings. SPM analysis was done using 42 normal controls with p = 0.005. Seven of 11 PET images showed 10 hypometabolic areas and 4 of 11 MRIs showed 6 areas of signal change brain parenchyma. Hypometabolic areas were bilateral thalamus (n=5), left temporal cortex (n=4) and dentate nucleus (n=1). In only 2 lesions (thalamus and dentate nucleus), hypometabolic foci were consistently related to signal change on MRI. SPM analysis revealed significantly decreased area in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex. F-18 FDG PET revealed significant hypometabolism in bilateral thalamus and left temporal cortex in adult patients with NF, and it might be helpful in understanding developmental abnormality of NF.

  20. Hemoglobin A1c for Diagnosis of Postpartum Abnormal Glucose Tolerance among Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Meta-Analysis

    Su, Xudong; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Qu, Xinye; Tian, Yaqiang; Zhang, Guangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods After a systematic review of related studies, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and other measures about the accuracy of HbA1c in the diagnosis of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance were pooled using random-e...

  1. Plasma Glucose and Serum Ceruloplasmin in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Ashok Kumar Jeppu; Asha Augusthy; Kavitha Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 and metabolic syndrome are conditions associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2. Plasma glucose (fasting/postprandial) and serum ceruloplasmin levels and their relationship were studied. Study population consisted of 150 individuals—50 individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2, 50 individuals with metabolic syndrome, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Plasma levels of fasting and p...

  2. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2012-01-01

    Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic β-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for...... UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression...... was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase...

  3. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Supaporn Wannasiri; Pritsana Piyabhan; Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus) leaf extract on impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese ICR mice. Methods: Obesity was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. After the first six weeks of the diet, the obese mice were administered with the water extract of R. nasutus leaves at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day for the next six weeks. Subsequently, the blood glucose, lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were measured. The liver and adipose tissues were excised for his-topathological examination and protein expression study. Results: After six weeks of the treatment, R. nasutus extract (at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day) was found to reduce the elevated blood glucose level, improve the insulin sensitivity, decrease the serum leptin, and increase the serum adiponectin levels. The obese mice treated with R. nasutus were found to have a reduction in the increased lipid concen-trations in their serum and liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with R. nasutus reduced the fat accumulation in the liver and the large adipocyte size in the fat tissues. Interestingly, the administration with R. nasutus extract was marked by an increase in the hepatic peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha, fat cell adiponectin, and glucose transporter 4 proteins. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  4. A PET study of cerebellar metabolism in normal and abnormal states

    The authors studied cerebellar metabolism under varying conditions of sensory stimulation. Cerebellar glucose consumption was measured by positron emission scanning and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in 64 subjects. Cerebellar metabolism relative to the whole brain (CM), and the asymmetry of metabolism between the cerebellar hemispheres (CA) was determined. The lowest CM occurred with maximal sensory deprivation, eyes and ears closed, (CM=96%, n=6). CM increased nonsignificantly with visual stimulation (CM=99%,n=17) and was highest for auditory stimulation (CM=104%,n=10,p<.05). CA was unaffected by sensory input. Under ambient conditions the CM values were 101%, 113% and 135% respectively for young controls (n=9, age=22), old controls (n=8, age=61) and Alzheimer patients (SDAT, n=14, age=69). This difference was significant for SDAT vs young and old controls and was nearly significant for young vs old controls

  5. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused ...

  6. Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but associations with hyperglycemia in pregnancy have not been well studied. Methods: We studied Boston, Massachusetts–area pregnant women without known diabetes. We identified impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy from clinical glucose tolerance tests at median 28.1 weeks gestation. We used residential addresses to...

  7. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Bentzen, Joan; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan; Fenger, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI R...... five polymorphisms was seen in the dizygotic twins. The effect of the polymorphisms on lipid and glucose parameters could be mediated through linkage to genes with known effect on glucose metabolism or through free fatty acids exerting their effect on glucose metabolism.......The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco......RI RFLP) were established using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digests. The effect of genotypes on lipid levels and on glucose, insulin, and HOMA (i.e., calculated parameters of beta-cell function and insulin resistance) was assessed by multivariate analyses of variance correcting for...

  8. 糖化血红蛋白与血糖、血脂及心电图异常的相关性分析%Correlation analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood lipid and electrocardiographic abnormality

    王晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose, blood lipid and electrocardiographic abnormality, in order to reveal the influence of blood glucose on atherosclerosis.Methods According to the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria for diabetes and the results of physical examination of 408 subjects, the subjects were divided into normal blood glucose group and abnormal glucose metabolism group. According to the level of HbA1c, the abnormal glucose metabolism group was divided into three groups as group A, group B, and group C, they were HbA1c0.05). The difference of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) between group A and group B was statistically significant (P0.05). The differences between group B and group C were statistically significant (P0.05),高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)在A组与B 组间差异具有统计学意义(P0.05),在B 组与 C组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。分析组和对照组比较, HbA1c 、FBG、PBG、HDL-C、CHOL、TG以及心电图异常发生率各项差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血糖升高可导致血脂异常,从而导致动脉粥样硬化,血糖升高可产生“代谢记忆效应”,应该重视血糖监测以便尽早发现糖代谢异常而进行尽早干预,以减少糖尿病和动脉粥样硬化的发生。

  9. Transmural Distribution of Metabolic Abnormalities and Glycolytic Activity during Dobutamine Induced Demand Ischemia

    Jameel, Mohammad N; Wang, Xiaohong; Eijgelshoven, Marcel H.J.; Mansoor, Abdul; Zhang, Jianyi

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity across the LV wall is characterized by higher rates of oxygen consumption, systolic thickening fraction, myocardial perfusion and lower energetic state in the subendocardial layers (ENDO). During dobutamine stimulation induced demand ischemia, the transmural distribution of energy demand and metabolic markers of ischemia are not known. In this study, hemodynamics, transmural high energy phosphate (HEP) and 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (2DGP) levels and myocardial blood flow (MBF) were determined under basal conditions (B), during dobutamine infusion (DOB: 20 μg/kg/min iv.), and during coronary stenosis+DOB+2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) infusion. DOB increased rate pressure products (RPP) and MBF significantly without affecting subendocardial to subepicardial blood flow ratio (ENDO/EPI) or HEP levels. During coronary stenosis+DOB+2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) infusion RPP, ischemic zone (IZ) MBF and ENDO/EPI decreased significantly. IZ PCr/ATP decreased significantly (2.30 +/- 0.14, 2.06 +/- 0.13 and 2.04 +/- 0.11 to 1.77 +/- 0.12, 1.70 +/- 0.11 and 1.72 +/- 0.12; EPI, MID and ENDO, respectively) and 2DG6P accumulated in all layers as evidenced by the 2DG6P/PCr (0.55 +/- 0.12, 0.52 +/- 0.10 and 0.37 +/- 0.08; EPI, MID and ENDO respectively; pENDO). In the IZ the wet weight/dry weight ratio was significantly increased as compared to the normal zone (5.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.4; p<0.05). Thus, in stenotic perfused bed, during dobutamine induced high cardiac workstate, despite higher blood flow the subepicardial layers showed the greater metabolic changes that characterized by a shift toward higher carbohydrate metabolism suggesting a homeostatic responses to high cardiac workstate is characterized by more glucose utilization in energy metabolism. PMID:18424629

  10. Effect of glucocorticoid therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation

    Objective: To study the effect of glucocorticoids therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Methods: Plasma glucose and insulin levels in COPD patients after intravenous administration of 10 mg dexamethasone daily for 5 days were determined oral with glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT). Results: 1) The levels of basal plasma glucose and insulin were significantly higher in severe hypoxemic group than those in moderate hypoxemic group (p 2 (r = -0.5242, p < 0.05). 2) The levels of plasma glucose in intermediate and severe hypoxemic groups were remarkable higher (p < 0.05) than those in mild group. The two peak times of glucose curve were observed at one and two hour after oral glucose load. 3) After the administration of glucocorticoids, at half an hour and one hour plasma glucose levels were significantly higher than those before, the peak time of glucose levels appeared earlier and the insulin release levels were higher than they were before therapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: COPD patients with acute exacerbation complicated with hypoxemia had problems of impaired glucose tolerance. The administration of glucocorticoids made the impairment worse

  11. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We...... examined the secretion of gut hormones in cholecystectomized subjects to test the hypothesis that gallbladder emptying potentiates postprandial release of GLP-1. Ten cholecystectomized subjects and 10 healthy, age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched control subjects received a standardized fat......-rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum...

  12. Effects of growth hormone on glucose and fat metabolism in human subjects

    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Møller, Louise; Krag, Morten Brøgger;

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on in vivo data from tests performed in normal subjects and in patients who had abnormal growth hormone (GH) status. Experimental data in human subjects demonstrate that GH acutely inhibits glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. At the same time GH stimulates the turnover...

  13. Glucose metabolism in gamma-irradiated rice seeds

    Gamma-irradiation of 30 kR in rice seeds caused marked inhibition in seedling growth, and prevented the release of reduced sugar during the period of 25 to 76hr after soaking. The C6/C1 ratio following irradiation continued to decrease up to the 76th hour of soaking; the control's ratio tended to increase with comparable soaking time. The percentage recovery of 14C in carbon dioxide from glucose -1-14C was lower in irradiated than in control seeds. These results indicate that gamma-irradiation reduces the participation of the pentose phosphate pathway in glucose catabolism during an early period of germination. (author)

  14. High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress Mediates Apoptosis and Extracellular Matrix Metabolic Imbalances Possibly via p38 MAPK Activation in Rat Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Ni, Bin; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether high glucose-induced oxidative stress is implicated in apoptosis of rat nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and abnormal expression of critical genes involved in the metabolic balance of extracellular matrix (ECM). Methods. NPCs were cultured with various concentrations of glucose to detect cell viability and apoptosis. Cells cultured with high glucose (25 mM) were untreated or pretreated with N-acetylcysteine or a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 202190. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated. Activation of p38 MAPK was measured by Western blot. The expression of ECM metabolism-related genes, including type II collagen, aggrecan, SRY-related high-mobility-group box 9 (Sox-9), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), was analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Results. High glucose reduced viability of NPCs and induced apoptosis. High glucose resulted in increased ROS generation and p38 MAPK activation. In addition, it negatively regulated the expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, Sox-9, and TIMP-1 and positively regulated MMP-3 expression. These results were changed by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine or SB 202190. Conclusions. High glucose might promote apoptosis of NPCs, trigger ECM catabolic pathways, and inhibit its anabolic activities, possibly through a p38 MAPK-dependent oxidative stress mechanism.

  15. Expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fat factors in placentas of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism

    Juan Du; Yi-Lin Zhu; Xue-Mei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fat factors in the placentas of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism.Methods:Maternal women who delivered in obstetric department of our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were studied, including 45 cases of gestational diabetes mellitus patients and 45 cases of healthy women who were enrolled in the GDM group and the control group respectively. Placentas were collected to detect inflammatory factor and fatty factor contents as well as glucose and lipid metabolism indicators, and serum was collected to detect blood glucose indexes.Results:Inflammatory factors NF-kB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, visfatin, RBP-4, Chemerin and Nesfatin-1 contents in GDM placental tissues were significantly higher than those in control group while adiponectin content was significantly lower than that in control group. FBG, FINS and HOMA-IRG of GDM patients were higher than those of the control group while HOMA-β was lower than that of control group. IRS-1, ISR-2, FATP-4, El, LPL, FABP-1, FABP-3, FABP-4 and FABP-5 contents in GDM patients’ placentas were significantly lower than those in control group. Glycolipid metabolism indexes were correlated with inflammatory factor and fat factor contents.Conclusions: Inflammatory cytokines and fat factors were abnormally highly expressed in the placentas of gestational diabetes mellitus patients, and were correlated with the indexes of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  16. DLK1 Regulates Whole-Body Glucose Metabolism

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Laborda, Jorge;

    2015-01-01

    due to impaired insulin signaling in OB and lowered Glu-OCN serum levels. Furthermore, Dlk1(-/-) mice treated with Glu-OC experienced significantly lower blood glucose levels than Glu-OCN-treated wild-type mice. The data suggest that Glu-OCN-controlled production of DLK1 by pancreatic β-cells acts as...

  17. Profiling the control of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism for evaluating novel strategies of insulin delivery

    Soares, Ana Francisca Leal Silva

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that results from a dysfunction of insulin secretion (type 1) and/or sensitivity (type 2). Type 1 and in many cases type 2 diabetic patients require daily insulin injections to control blood glucose levels and retard the appearance of diabetes-related complications. The liver plays a central role in the context of whole-body glucose homoeostasis and fuel management in general. Under physiological conditions, insulin is released by the pancr...

  18. Diabetes, Glucose Metabolism, and Glaucoma: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Di Zhao; Juhee Cho; Myung Hun Kim; David Friedman; Eliseo Guallar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the gener...

  19. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Tumor Compartments Exhibit In Vivo Complementary Patterns of Vascular Perfusion and Glucose Metabolism

    Mirco Galiè; Paolo Farace; Cristina Nanni; Antonello Spinelli; Elena Nicolato; Federico Boschi; Paolo Magnani; Silvia Trespidi; Valentina Ambrosini; Stefano Fanti; Flavia Merigo; Francesco Osculati; Pasquina Marzola; Andrea Sbarbati

    2007-01-01

    Glucose transport and consumption are increased in tumors, and this is considered a diagnostic index of malignancy. However, there is recent evidence that carcinoma-associated stromal cells are capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption, at least partly because of their efficient vascular supply. In the present study, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), we mapped in vivo the vascular ...

  20. Insulin-resistant glucose metabolism in patients with microvascular angina--syndrome X

    Vestergaard, H; Skøtt, P; Steffensen, R;

    1995-01-01

    < .02) and the rate of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal to peripheral tissues was lower in patients with MA (13.4 +/- 1.0 v 18.2 +/- 1.4 mg.kg fat-free mass [FFM]-1.min-1, P < .02) due to a decrease in nonoxidative glucose metabolism (8.4 +/- 0.9 v 12.5 +/- 1.3 mg.kg FFM-1.min-1, P < .02). No...

  1. Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock

    Kenneth A. Dyar; Ciciliot, Stefano; Wright, Lauren E.; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio M.; Patel, Vishal R.; Forcato, Mattia; Paz, Marcia I.P.; Gudiksen, Anders; Solagna, Francesca; Albiero, Mattia; Moretti, Irene; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L.; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with reduced protein levels of GLUT4, the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, and TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase involved in GLUT4 translocation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activit...

  2. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain;

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... 12 lean and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in...... antibiotics course with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762....

  3. Honeybee retinal glial cells transform glucose and supply the neurons with metabolic substrate

    The retina of the honeybee drone is a nervous tissue in which glial cells and photoreceptor cells (sensory neurons) constitute two distinct metabolic compartments. Retinal slices incubated with 2-deoxy[3H]glucose convert this glucose analogue to 2-deoxy[3H]glucose 6-phosphate, but this conversion is made only in the glial cells. Hence, glycolysis occurs only in glial cells. In contrast, the neurons consume O2 and this consumption is sustained by the hydrolysis of glycogen, which is contained in large amounts in the glia. During photostimulation the increased oxidative metabolism of the neurons is sustained by a higher supply of carbohydrates from the glia. This clear case of metabolic interaction between neurons and glial cells supports Golgi's original hypothesis, proposed nearly 100 years ago, about the nutritive function of glial cells in the nervous system

  4. Fructose Alters Intermediary Metabolism of Glucose in Human Adipocytes and Diverts Glucose to Serine Oxidation in the One–Carbon Cycle Energy Producing Pathway

    Vijayalakshmi Varma; Boros, László G.; Nolen, Greg T.; Ching-Wei Chang; Martin Wabitsch; Beger, Richard D.; Jim Kaput

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of sugar and fructose as sweeteners has resulted in the utilization of fructose as an alternative metabolic fuel that may compete with glucose and alter its metabolism. To explore this, human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes in the presence of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mM of fructose added to a medium containing 5 mM of glucose representing the normal blood glucose concentration. Targeted tracer [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose fate asso...

  5. Prevalence of glucose tolerance test abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Leila J. Gracelyn

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of IGT and Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM in women with PCOS was observed than expected. They have accelerated conversion from IGT to NIDDM. IGT is often asymptomatic and is a known risk factor for type 2 DM and cardiovascular disease. OGTT with 75 gms of glucose is the best screening method for glucose intolerance and a good measure to diagnose type 2 DM in PCOS women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1739-1745

  6. Ascorbic acid recycling by cultured beta cells: effects of increased glucose metabolism.

    Steffner, Robert J; Wu, Lan; Powers, Alvin C; May, James M

    2004-11-15

    Ascorbic acid is necessary for optimal insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. We evaluated ascorbate recycling and whether it is impaired by increased glucose metabolism in the rat beta-cell line INS-1. INS-1 cells, engineered with the potential for overexpression of glucokinase under the control of a tetracycline-inducible gene expression system, took up and reduced dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbate in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal in the presence of physiologic D-glucose concentrations. Ascorbate uptake did not affect intracellular GSH concentrations. Whereas depletion of GSH in culture to levels about 25% of normal also did not affect the ability of the cells to reduce dehydroascorbic acid, more severe acute GSH depletion to less than 10% of normal levels did impair dehydroascorbic acid reduction. Culture of inducible cells in 11.8 mM D-glucose and doxycycline for 48 h enhanced glucokinase activity, increased glucose utilization, abolished D-glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. The latter may have contributed to subsequent decreases in the ability of the cells both to maintain intracellular ascorbate and to recycle it from dehydroascorbic acid. Cultured beta cells have a high capacity to recycle ascorbate, but this is sensitive to oxidant stress generated by increased glucose metabolism due to culture in high glucose concentrations and increased glucokinase expression. Impaired ascorbate recycling as a result of increased glucose metabolism may have implications for the role of ascorbate in insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus and may partially explain glucose toxicity in beta cells. PMID:15477012

  7. Glucose metabolism during fasting is altered in experimental porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency.

    Collantes, María; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Benito, Marina; Molinet-Dronda, Francisco; Delgado, Mercedes; Vinaixa, María; Sampedro, Ana; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Prieto, Elena; Pozo, Miguel A; Peñuelas, Iván; Corrales, Fernando J; Barajas, Miguel; Fontanellas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) haploinsufficiency (acute intermittent porphyria, AIP) is characterized by neurovisceral attacks when hepatic heme synthesis is activated by endogenous or environmental factors including fasting. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional regulation of hepatic heme synthesis have been described, glucose homeostasis during fasting is poorly understood in porphyria. Our study aimed to analyse glucose homeostasis and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism during fasting in PBGD-deficient mice. To determine the contribution of hepatic PBGD deficiency to carbohydrate metabolism, AIP mice injected with a PBGD-liver gene delivery vector were included. After a 14 h fasting period, serum and liver metabolomics analyses showed that wild-type mice stimulated hepatic glycogen degradation to maintain glucose homeostasis while AIP livers activated gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis due to their inability to use stored glycogen. The serum of fasted AIP mice showed increased concentrations of insulin and reduced glucagon levels. Specific over-expression of the PBGD protein in the liver tended to normalize circulating insulin and glucagon levels, stimulated hepatic glycogen catabolism and blocked ketone body production. Reduced glucose uptake was observed in the primary somatosensorial brain cortex of fasted AIP mice, which could be reversed by PBGD-liver gene delivery. In conclusion, AIP mice showed a different response to fasting as measured by altered carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and modified glucose consumption in the brain cortex. Glucose homeostasis in fasted AIP mice was efficiently normalized after restoration of PBGD gene expression in the liver. PMID:26908609

  8. Ketones and brain development: Implications for correcting deteriorating brain glucose metabolism during aging

    Nugent Scott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain energy metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterized mainly by temporo-parietal glucose hypometabolism. This pattern has been widely viewed as a consequence of the disease, i.e. deteriorating neuronal function leading to lower demand for glucose. This review will address deteriorating glucose metabolism as a problem specific to glucose and one that precedes AD. Hence, ketones and medium chain fatty acids (MCFA could be an alternative source of energy for the aging brain that could compensate for low brain glucose uptake. MCFA in the form of dietary medium chain triglycerides (MCT have a long history in clinical nutrition and are widely regarded as safe by government regulatory agencies. The importance of ketones in meeting the high energy and anabolic requirements of the infant brain suggest they may be able to contribute in the same way in the aging brain. Clinical studies suggest that ketogenesis from MCT may be able to bypass the increasing risk of insufficient glucose uptake or metabolism in the aging brain sufficiently to have positive effects on cognition.

  9. Glucose-independent glutamine metabolism via TCA cycling for proliferation and survival in B-cells

    Le, Anne; Lane, Andrew N.; Hamaker, Max; Bose, Sminu; Gouw, Arvin; Barbi, Joseph; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Rojas, Camilio J.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Zhang, Haixia; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Slebos, Robbert J.C.; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K.; Higashi, Richard M.; Fan, Teresa W. M.; Dang, Chi V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Because MYC plays a causal role in many human cancers, including those with hypoxic and nutrient-poor tumor microenvironments, we have determined the metabolic responses of a MYC-inducible human Burkitt lymphoma model P493 cell line to aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and to glucose deprivation, using Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics. Using [U-13C]-glucose as the tracer, both glucose consumption and lactate production were increased by MYC expression and hypoxia. Using [U-13C,15N]-glutamine as the tracer, glutamine import and metabolism through the TCA cycle persisted under hypoxia, and glutamine contributed significantly to citrate carbons. Under glucose deprivation, glutamine-derived fumarate, malate, and citrate were significantly increased. Their 13C labeling patterns demonstrate an alternative energy-generating glutaminolysis pathway involving a glucose-independent TCA cycle. The essential role of glutamine metabolism in cell survival and proliferation under hypoxia and glucose deficiency, makes them susceptible to the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES, and hence could be targeted for cancer therapy. PMID:22225880

  10. Glucose metabolism in small subcortical structures in Parkinson's disease

    Borghammer, Per; Hansen, Søren B; Eggers, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from experimental animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests a characteristic pattern of metabolic perturbation in discrete, very small basal ganglia structures. These structures are generally too small to allow valid investigation by conventional positron emission tomography (PE...

  11. Glucose and maltose metabolism in MIG1-disrupted and MAL-constitutive strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Klein, Christopher; Olsson, Lisbeth; Rønnow, B; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    The alleviation of glucose control of maltose metabolism brought about by MIG1 disruption was compared to that by MAL overexpression in a haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The sugar consumption profiles during cultivation of the wild type, single transformants and a double transformant in a...... mixed glucose-maltose medium revealed that the MAL-constitutive strains were more alleviated than the single MIG1-disrupted transformant. While all transformants exhibited higher maximum specific growth rates (0.24-0.25 h(-1)) in glucose-maltose mixtures than the wild type strain (0.20 h(-1)), the MAL...

  12. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul; Dela, Flemming; Madsbad, Sten; Vaag, Allan A

    2003-01-01

    not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.......We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...

  13. Disturbed postprandial glucose metabolism and gut hormone responses in non-diabetic patients with psoriasis

    Gyldenløve, M; Vilsbøll, T; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2016-01-01

    patients with psoriasis has only been sparsely investigated. Previous studies are based on fasting blood samples analysed for glucose and insulin or various forms of glucose and/or insulin challenges.(5-11) The results are generally difficult to compare due to methodological differences and limitations in......Patients with psoriasis have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.(1-4) Though the aetiology is not fully understood, overrepresentation of traditional diabetes risk factors, shared genetics, and chronic inflammation likely explain some of the increased susceptibility. Glucose metabolism in...

  14. The Severity of Fatty Liver Disease Relating to Metabolic Abnormalities Independently Predicts Coronary Calcification

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the metabolic disorders presented in liver. The relationship between severity of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains largely unknown. Methods and Materials. We analyzed subjects undergoing coronary calcium score evaluation by computed tomography (MDCT) and fatty liver assessment using abdominal ultrasonography. Framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic risk score (MRS) were obtained in all subjects. A graded, semiquantitative score was established to quantify the severity of NAFLD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to depict the association between NAFLD and calcium score. Results. Of all, 342 participants (female: 22.5%, mean age: 48.7 ± 7.0 years) met the sufficient information rendering detailed analysis. The severity of NAFLD was positively associated with MRS (X2 = 6.12, trend P < 0.001) and FRS (X2 = 5.88, trend P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment for clinical variables and life styles, the existence of moderate to severe NAFLD was independently associated with abnormal calcium score (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The severity of NAFLD correlated well with metabolic abnormality and was independently predict coronary calcification beyond clinical factors. Our data suggests that NAFLD based on ultrasonogram could positively reflect the burden of coronary calcification

  15. The Severity of Fatty Liver Disease Relating to Metabolic Abnormalities Independently Predicts Coronary Calcification

    Lee, Ying-Hsiang; Wu, Yih-Jer; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Yeh, Hung-I.; Tsai, Cheng-Ho; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh

    2011-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the metabolic disorders presented in liver. The relationship between severity of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains largely unknown. Methods and Materials. We analyzed subjects undergoing coronary calcium score evaluation by computed tomography (MDCT) and fatty liver assessment using abdominal ultrasonography. Framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic risk score (MRS) were obtained in all subjects. A graded, semiquantitative score was established to quantify the severity of NAFLD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to depict the association between NAFLD and calcium score. Results. Of all, 342 participants (female: 22.5%, mean age: 48.7 ± 7.0 years) met the sufficient information rendering detailed analysis. The severity of NAFLD was positively associated with MRS (X2 = 6.12, trend P < 0.001) and FRS (X2 = 5.88, trend P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment for clinical variables and life styles, the existence of moderate to severe NAFLD was independently associated with abnormal calcium score (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The severity of NAFLD correlated well with metabolic abnormality and was independently predict coronary calcification beyond clinical factors. Our data suggests that NAFLD based on ultrasonogram could positively reflect the burden of coronary calcification. PMID:22254139

  16. The Severity of Fatty Liver Disease Relating to Metabolic Abnormalities Independently Predicts Coronary Calcification

    Ying-Hsiang Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the metabolic disorders presented in liver. The relationship between severity of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains largely unknown. Methods and Materials. We analyzed subjects undergoing coronary calcium score evaluation by computed tomography (MDCT and fatty liver assessment using abdominal ultrasonography. Framingham risk score (FRS and metabolic risk score (MRS were obtained in all subjects. A graded, semiquantitative score was established to quantify the severity of NAFLD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to depict the association between NAFLD and calcium score. Results. Of all, 342 participants (female: 22.5%, mean age: 48.7±7.0 years met the sufficient information rendering detailed analysis. The severity of NAFLD was positively associated with MRS (X2=6.12, trend P<0.001 and FRS (X2=5.88, trend P<0.001. After multivariable adjustment for clinical variables and life styles, the existence of moderate to severe NAFLD was independently associated with abnormal calcium score (P<0.05. Conclusion. The severity of NAFLD correlated well with metabolic abnormality and was independently predict coronary calcification beyond clinical factors. Our data suggests that NAFLD based on ultrasonogram could positively reflect the burden of coronary calcification.

  17. Gsα deficiency in adipose tissue improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without an effect on body weight.

    Li, Yong-Qi; Shrestha, Yogendra B; Chen, Min; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Gavrilova, Oksana; Weinstein, Lee S

    2016-01-12

    Gsα, the G protein that transduces receptor-stimulated cAMP generation, mediates sympathetic nervous system stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), which are both potential targets for treating obesity, as well as lipolysis. We generated a mouse line with Gsα deficiency in mature BAT and WAT adipocytes (Ad-GsKO). Ad-GsKO mice had impaired BAT function, absent browning of WAT, and reduced lipolysis, and were therefore cold-intolerant. Despite the presence of these abnormalities, Ad-GsKO mice maintained normal energy balance on both standard and high-fat diets, associated with decreases in both lipolysis and lipid synthesis. In addition, Ad-GsKO mice maintained at thermoneutrality on a standard diet also had normal energy balance. Ad-GsKO mice had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, possibly secondary to the effects of reduced lipolysis and lower circulating fatty acid binding protein 4 levels. Gsα signaling in adipose tissues may therefore affect whole-body glucose metabolism in the absence of an effect on body weight. PMID:26712027

  18. Involvement of senescence marker protein-30 in glucose metabolism disorder and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Ishigami, Akihito

    2016-03-01

    Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) was found to decrease in the liver, kidneys and lungs of mice during aging. SMP30 is a pleiotropic protein that acts to protect cells from apoptosis by enhancing plasma membrane Ca(2+) -pump activity and is bona fide gluconolactonase (EC 3.1.1.17) that participates in the penultimate step of the vitamin C biosynthetic pathway. For the past several years, we have obtained strong evidence showing the close relationship between SMP30, glucose metabolism disorder and non-alchoholic fatty liver disease in experiments with SMP30 knockout mice. Emerging proof links the following abnormalities: (i) the reduction of SMP30 by aging and/or excessive dietary fat or genetic deficiency causes a loss of Ca(2+) pumping activity, which impairs acute insulin release in pancreatic β-cells, initiates inflammatory responses with oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in non-alchoholic steatohepatitis, exacerbates renal tubule damage, and introduces tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy; (ii) vitamin C insufficiency also impairs acute insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by a mechanism distinct from that of the SMP30 deficiency; and (iii) the increased oxidative stress by concomitant deficiencies of SMP30, superoxide dismutase 1 and vitamin C similarly causes hepatic steatosis. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of SMP30 in glucose metabolism disorder and non-alchoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27018279

  19. Effects of oral administration of benzylamine on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in rats.

    Bour, S; Visentin, V; Prévot, D; Daviaud, D; Saulnier-Blache, J S; Guigne, C; Valet, P; Carpéné, C

    2005-06-01

    Repeated administration of benzylamine plus vanadate have been reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effects in different models of diabetic rats. Likewise oral treatment with Moringa oleifera extracts which contain the alkaloïd moringine, identical to benzylamine, has also been shown to prevent hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. With these observations we tested whether prolonged oral administration of benzylamine could interact with glucose and/or lipid metabolism. Seven week old male Wistar rats were treated for seven weeks with benzylamine 2.9 g/l in drinking water and were submitted to glucose tolerance tests. A slight decrease in water consumption was observed in benzylamine-treated animals while there was no change in body and adipose tissue weights at the end of treatment. Blood glucose and plasma insulin, triacylglycerol or cholesterol levels were not modified. However, benzylamine treatment resulted in a decrease in plasma free fatty acids in both fed and fasted conditions. Benzylamine treatment improved glucose tolerance as shown by the reduction of hyperglycemic response to intra-peritoneal glucose load. Oral benzylamine treatment did not alter the response of adipocytes to insulin nor to insulin-like actions of benzylamine plus vanadate, via in vitro activation of glucose transport or inhibition of lipolysis. This work demonstrates for the first time that oral administration of benzylamine alone influences glucose and lipid metabolism. However, these results obtained in normoglycemic rats require to be confirmed in diabetic models. PMID:16180335

  20. A novel imaging platform for non-invasive screening of abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Jeong, Bosu; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Yong-Ho; Shin, Il-Hyung; Kim, Hansuk; Bae, Soo-Jin; Lee, Dae-Sic; Kang, Eun Seok; Kang, Uk; Kim, Jong Jin; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-06-01

    Optical measurement of skin auto-fluorescence (SAF), most likely emanating from accumulated advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), has been proposed for the noninvasive diagnosis of glucose intolerance in clinical settings. Here, we developed a novel imaging system with transmission geometry for SAF measurement and compared its diagnostic performance in a Korean population. PMID:27321320

  1. Impact of glucagon-like peptide-1 on myocardial glucose metabolism revisited

    Hansen, Jan; Brock, Birgitte; Bøtker, Hans Erik;

    2014-01-01

    . The potentially beneficial effect of GLP-1 stimulation may rely on, among others, improved myocardial glucose metabolism. This review focuses on the dogma that GLP-1 receptor stimulation may provide beneficial cardiovascular effects, possibly due to enhanced myocardial energetic efficiency, by increasing...... myocardial glucose uptake. The published literature was systematically reviewed and the applied models evaluated since the outcomes of varying studies differ substantially. Reports on the effect of GLP-1R stimulation on myocardial metabolism are conflicting and should be evaluated carefully. There is limited...

  2. Metabolism of glucose in brain of patients with Parkinson's disease

    We examined 11C accumulation by positron emission computed tomography in the region of interest (ROI) in the brain of 8 patients with Parkinson's disease and 5 normal controls when administered with 11C-glucose (per os). 11C-glucose was prepared from 11CO2 by photosynthesis. 1) No significant difference was observed in the 11C accumulation in the striatum and cerebral cortex (frontal cortex, temporal cortex and occipital cortex) in 4 patients with Parkinson's disease between continuous medication and 7--10 day interruption of medication. 2) No difference was observed in the 11C accumulation in the striatum and cerebral cortex between 8 patients with Parkinson's disease and 5 normal controls. (author)

  3. Neonatal seizures: the overlap between diagnosis of metabolic disorders and structural abnormalities. Case report

    Freitas Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Inborn metabolic errors (IME and cortical developmental malformations are uncommon etiologies of neonatal seizures, however they may represent treatable causes of refractory epilepsy and for this reason must be considered as possible etiological factors. This case report aims to demonstrate the importance of neuroimaging studies in one patient with neonatal seizures, even when there are clues pointing to a metabolic disorder. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy 14 day-old child started presenting reiterated focal motor seizures (FMS which evolved to status epilepticus. Exams showed high serum levels of ammonia and no other abnormalities. A metabolic investigation was conducted with normal results. During follow-up, the patient presented developmental delay and left side hemiparesia. Seizures remained controlled with anti-epileptic drugs for four months, followed by relapse with repetitive FMS on the left side. Temporary improvement was obtained with anti-epileptic drug adjustment. At the age of 6 months, during a new episode of status epilepticus, high ammonia levels were detected. Other metabolic exams remained normal. The child was referred to a video-electroencephalographic monitoring and continuous epileptiform discharges were recorded over the right parasagittal and midline regions, with predominance over the posterior quadrant. A new neuroimaging study was performed and displayed a malformation of cortical development. Our case illustrates that because newborns are prone to present metabolic disarrangement, an unbalance such as hyperammonemia may be a consequence of acute events and conduct to a misdiagnosis of IME.

  4. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in rat muscle: abnormal regulation in acidosis

    May, R.C.; Hara, Y.; Kelly, R.A.; Block, K.P.; Buse, M.G.; Mitch, W.E.

    1987-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is frequently abnormal in pathological conditions accompanied by chronic metabolic acidosis. To study how metabolic acidosis affects BCAA metabolism in muscle, rats were gavage fed a 14% protein diet with or without 4 mmol NH/sub 4/Cl x 100 g body wt/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/. Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with L-(1-/sup 14/C)-valine and L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine, and rates of decarboxylation, net transamination, and incorporation into muscle protein were measured. Plasma and muscle BCAA levels were lower in acidotic rats. Rates of valine and leucine decarboxylation and net transamination were higher in muscles from acidotic rats; these differences were associated with a 79% increase in the total activity of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase and a 146% increase in the activated form of the enzyme. They conclude that acidosis affects the regulation of BCAA metabolism by enhancing flux through the transaminase and by directly stimulating oxidative catabolism through activation of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase.

  5. Berberine Improves Glucose Metabolism through Induction of Glycolysis

    Yin, Jun; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Ye, Jianping

    2007-01-01

    Berberine, a botanical alkaloid used to control blood glucose in type 2 diabetes in China, has been reported to activate AMPK recently. However, it is not clear how AMPK is activated by berberine. In this study, activity and action mechanism of berberine were investigated in vivo and in vitro. In dietary obese rats, berberine increased insulin sensitivity after five week administration. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were decreased by 46% and 48% in the rats, respectively. In cell lines includin...

  6. Abnormal Unsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism in Cystic Fibrosis: Biochemical Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

    Adam C. Seegmiller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is an inherited multi-organ disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. Patients with this disease exhibit characteristic abnormalities in the levels of unsaturated fatty acids in blood and tissue. Recent studies have uncovered an underlying biochemical mechanism for some of these changes, namely increased expression and activity of fatty acid desaturases. Among other effects, this drives metabolism of linoeate to arachidonate. Increased desaturase expression appears to be linked to cystic fibrosis mutations via stimulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase in the absence of functional CFTR protein. There is evidence that these abnormalities may contribute to disease pathophysiology by increasing production of eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, of which arachidonate is a key substrate. Understanding these underlying mechanisms provides key insights that could potentially impact the diagnosis, clinical monitoring, nutrition, and therapy of patients suffering from this deadly disease.

  7. Germ band retraction as a landmark in glucose metabolism during Aedes aegypti embryogenesis

    Logullo Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito A. aegypti is vector of dengue and other viruses. New methods of vector control are needed and can be achieved by a better understanding of the life cycle of this insect. Embryogenesis is a part of A. aegypty life cycle that is poorly understood. In insects in general and in mosquitoes in particular energetic metabolism is well studied during oogenesis, when the oocyte exhibits fast growth, accumulating carbohydrates, lipids and proteins that will meet the regulatory and metabolic needs of the developing embryo. On the other hand, events related with energetic metabolism during A. aegypti embryogenesis are unknown. Results Glucose metabolism was investigated throughout Aedes aegypti (Diptera embryonic development. Both cellular blastoderm formation (CBf, 5 h after egg laying - HAE and germ band retraction (GBr, 24 HAE may be considered landmarks regarding glucose 6-phosphate (G6P destination. We observed high levels of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH activity at the very beginning of embryogenesis, which nevertheless decreased up to 5 HAE. This activity is correlated with the need for nucleotide precursors generated by the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, of which G6PDH is the key enzyme. We suggest the synchronism of egg metabolism with carbohydrate distribution based on the decreasing levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK activity and on the elevation observed in protein content up to 24 HAE. Concomitantly, increasing levels of hexokinase (HK and pyruvate kinase (PK activity were observed, and PEPCK reached a peak around 48 HAE. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3 activity was also monitored and shown to be inversely correlated with glycogen distribution during embryogenesis. Conclusions The results herein support the hypothesis that glucose metabolic fate changes according to developmental embryonic stages. Germ band retraction is a moment that was characterized as a landmark in glucose

  8. Phosphorus-31 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of glucose and xylose metabolism in Candida tropicalis cell suspensions.

    Lohmeier-Vogel, E M; Hahn-Hägerdal, B.; Vogel, H J

    1995-01-01

    The metabolism of glucose and xylose was studied as a function of oxygenation in suspensions of Candida tropicalis by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both the rate of carbohydrate metabolism and the cytoplasmic pH were independent of the rate of oxygenation in cells metabolizing glucose. However, these two parameters were markedly dependent on the rate of oxygenation in C. tropicalis cells metabolizing xylose. For example, the cytoplasmic pH in fully oxygenated xylose-met...

  9. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    Dalleck LC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lance C Dalleck,1,3 Gary P Van Guilder,2,3 Tara B Richardson,1 Donald L Bredle,3 Jeffrey M Janot31Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI, USABackground: Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1 whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2 whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness.Methods and results: Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2 adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO. After community exercise, 27/68 (40% MAO individuals (P<0.05 transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64. Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05 and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05 times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively.Conclusion: Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the

  10. Return of the glucoreceptor: Glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor T1R3 and facilitates metabolism in pancreatic β-cells.

    Kojima, Itaru; Nakagawa, Yuko; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Hamano, Kunihisa; Medina, Johan; Nagasawa, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Subunits of the sweet taste receptor, namely T1R2 and T1R3, are expressed in mouse pancreatic islets. Quantitatively, the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for T1R2 is much lower than that of T1R3, and immunoreactive T1R2 is in fact undetectable. Presumably, a homodimer of T1R3 could function as a signaling receptor. Activation of this receptor by adding an artificial sweetener, sucralose, leads to an increase in intracellular adenosine triphosphate ([ATP]c). This increase in [ATP]c is observed in the absence of ambient glucose. Sucralose also augments elevation of [ATP]c induced by methylsuccinate, a substrate for mitochondria. Consequently, activation of T1R3 promotes metabolism in mitochondria and increases [ATP]c. 3-O-Methylglucose, a non-metabolizable analog of glucose, also increases [ATP]c. Conversely, knockdown of T1R3 attenuates elevation of [ATP]c induced by glucose. Hence, glucose promotes its own metabolism by activating T1R3 and augmenting ATP production. Collectively, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a cell surface glucose-sensing receptor and participates in the action of glucose on insulin secretion. The glucose-sensing receptor T1R3 might be the putative glucoreceptor proposed decades ago by Niki et al. The glucose-sensing receptor is involved in the action of glucose and modulates glucose metabolism in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:25969708

  11. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep

  12. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA)); Gillin, J.C. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep.

  13. Study on abnormal iron metabolism and iron overload in patients with aplastic anemia

    金朋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the abnormalities of iron metabolism,the prevalence and risk factors of iron overload and clinical characteristics of patients with aplastic anemia (AA) .Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 520 newly diagnosed AA patients.Results Iron overload was observed in 66 (13%) of 520 AA patients,in which a higher prevalence of iron overload was seen not only in patients with infections (19/86,22%) than those without infections (47/434,11%,P<0.01) ,but also in patients with hepatitis associated AA

  14. Abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in kidney transplant patients--a review

    Sprague, S.M.; Belozeroff, V.; Danese, M.D.;

    2008-01-01

    English language articles published between January 1990 and October 2006 that contained Medical Subject Headings and key words related to secondary or persistent hyperparathyroidism and kidney transplant. RESULTS: Parathyroid hormone levels decreased significantly during the first 3 months after...... within 2 months. Low levels of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D typically did not reach normal values until almost 18 months after transplant. CONCLUSION: This review provides evidence demonstrating that abnormal bone and mineral metabolism exists in patients after kidney transplant and suggests the need for...... treatment of this condition. However, better observational and interventional research is needed before advocating such a treatment guideline Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  15. Comparison of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human and cancer patients

    )) (p<0.01), with especially apparent in the prefrontal cortex (BA9) and sensory-motor cortex (BA5, 7)(p<0.001), while characteristic hypometabolism in anterior cingulate (BA24, BA30,BA32) and bilateral cerebellum are only seen in 'cancer group'. 2. Compared to the same interval of 'normal subgroup', each 'cancer subgroup' shows remarkable/significant hypometabolism in anterior cingulate (BA24, BA30, BA32) (p<0.001), as well as bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, thalamus) and bilateral cerebellum (p<0.01) Conclusions:Regional cerebral metabolism of glucose shows a descent tendency with aging, especially in the prefrontal cortex (BA9) and sensory-motor cortex (BA5, 7) in both normal samples and cancer patients. In spite of the cerebral atrophy of aging, these relative hypometabolic brain areas are considered to be correlated with structural and functional cerebral deficit in the process of normal brain aging thus the influence of aging can be omitted. Relative hypometabolism in limbic system such as cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus and thalamus) as well as bilateral cerebellum are only found among cancer patients, and we consider that these abnormalities in regional brain metabolism are correlated with the existence of the cancer, especially correlated with patients' negative mood, such as anxiety and depression. (author)

  16. Hepatic glucose sensing is required to preserve β cell glucose competence.

    Seyer, Pascal; Vallois, David; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Schutz, Frédéric; Metref, Salima; Tarussio, David; Maechler, Pierre; Staels, Bart; Lanz, Bernard; Grueter, Rolf; Decaris, Julie; Turner, Scott; Da Costa, Anabela; Preitner, Frédéric; Minehira, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and its glycolytic and lipogenic target genes was abnormally elevated. Feeding, energy expenditu...

  17. Noninvasive measurement of regional myocardial glucose metabolism by positron emission computed tomography. [Dogs

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    While the results of regional myocardial glucose metabolism measurements using positron emission computed tomography (/sup 13/N-ammonia) are promising, their utility and value remains to be determined in man. If this technique can be applied to patients with acute myocardial ischemia or infarction it may permit delineation of regional myocardial segments with altered, yet still active metabolism. Further, it may become possible to evaluate the effects of interventions designed to salvage reversibly injured myocardium by this technique.

  18. Noninvasive measurement of regional myocardial glucose metabolism by positron emission computed tomography

    While the results of regional myocardial glucose metabolism measurements using positron emission computed tomography (13N-ammonia) are promising, their utility and value remains to be determined in man. If this technique can be applied to patients with acute myocardial ischemia or infarction it may permit delineation of regional myocardial segments with altered, yet still active metabolism. Further, it may become possible to evaluate the effects of interventions designed to salvage reversibly injured myocardium by this technique

  19. Role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in glucose and lipid metabolism

    Kim, Ho-Seong

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 has roles in modulating the effect of IGFs by binding to IGFs and inhibiting cell proliferation in an IGF-independent manner. Although recent studies have been reported that IGFBP-3 has also roles in metabolic regulation, their exact roles in adipose tissue are poorly understood. In this review, we summarized the studies about the biological roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. IGFBP-3 overexpression in transgenic mice suggested that IGFB...

  20. Cortical Glucose Metabolism Positively Correlates with Gamma-Oscillations in Nonlesional Focal Epilepsy

    Nishida, Masaaki; Juhász, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T.; Asano, Eishi

    2008-01-01

    Why do the epileptogenic foci appear hypometabolic on interictal glucose metabolism positron emission tomography (PET) in a substantial proportion of patients with focal epilepsy but appear normo- or even hyper-metabolic in others? Such observations on interictal PET have not been fully explained by the frequency of interictal spike discharges alone. In the present study using digital electrocorticography monitoring system with high-frequency sampling, we determined how well regression models...

  1. Elevated glucose metabolism in the amygdala during an inhibitory avoidance task

    Sandusky, Leslie A.; Flint, Robert W.; McNay, Ewan C.

    2013-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether the memory process of consolidation is neurochemically similar to or the same as the set of processes involved in retrieval and reconsolidation of that memory. In addition, although we have previously shown that initial memory processing in the hippocampus causes a drainage of hippocampal glucose because of increased local metabolic demand, it is unknown what metabolic changes occur elsewhere in the brain or during subsequent processing of a previ...

  2. Newly detected abnormal glucose regulation and long-term prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    Pararajasingam, Gokulan; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal;

    2016-01-01

    .07-2.30]) compared to patients categorized as normal/impaired fasting glycaemia/impaired glucose tolerance by OGTT and HbA1c <6.5%. Approximately 50% of the patients with newly diagnosed DM by OGTT were only detected due to 2-hour post-load glucose values. CONCLUSION: An OGTT is recommended in AMI patients without......BACKGROUND: An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and/or glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) identify patients with increased mortality risk, but no comparison of the long-term prognostic values has yet been investigated. METHODS: This study was a......, when adjusting for known DM, no significance was detected. An OGTT did not show a significantly increased mortality, if used separately. A combined estimate showed a significantly increased mortality in patients categorized as newly diagnosed DM by OGTT and HbA1c<6.5% (HR 1.56 [95% CI 1...

  3. NMR (1H and 13C) based signatures of abnormal choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma with no prominent Warburg effect

    At functional levels, besides genes and proteins, changes in metabolome profiles are instructive for a biological system in health and disease including malignancy. It is understood that metabolomic alterations in association with proteomic and transcriptomic aberrations are very fundamental to unravel malignant micro-ambient criticality and oral cancer is no exception. Hence deciphering intricate dimensions of oral cancer metabolism may be contributory both for integrated appreciation of its pathogenesis and to identify any critical but yet unexplored dimension of this malignancy with high mortality rate. Although several methods do exist, NMR provides higher analytical precision in identification of cancer metabolomic signature. Present study explored abnormal signatures in choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using 1H and 13C NMR analysis of serum. It has demonstrated down-regulation of choline with concomitant up-regulation of its break-down product in the form of trimethylamine N-oxide in OSCC compared to normal counterpart. Further, no significant change in lactate profile in OSCC possibly indicated that well-known Warburg effect was not a prominent phenomenon in such malignancy. Amongst other important metabolites, malonate has shown up-regulation but D-glucose, saturated fatty acids, acetate and threonine did not show any significant change. Analyzing these metabolomic findings present study proposed trimethyl amine N-oxide and malonate as important metabolic signature for oral cancer with no prominent Warburg effect. - Highlights: • NMR (1H and 13C) study of Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma Serum. • Abnormal Choline metabolomic signatures. • Up-regulation of Trimethylamine N-oxide. • Unchanged lactate profile indicates no prominent Warburg effect. • Proposed alternative glucose metabolism path through up-regulation of malonate

  4. NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) based signatures of abnormal choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma with no prominent Warburg effect

    Bag, Swarnendu, E-mail: Swarna.bag@gmail.com [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Deb Ranjan, E-mail: debranjan2@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Basak, Amit, E-mail: absk@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Das, Amit Kumar, E-mail: amitk@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Pal, Mousumi, E-mail: drmpal62@gmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Rita, E-mail: ritabanerjee@outlook.com [Department of Science and Technology, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110016 (India); Paul, Ranjan Rashmi, E-mail: dr_rsspaul@yahoo.co.in [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy, E-mail: jchatterjee.iitkgp@gmail.com [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India)

    2015-04-17

    At functional levels, besides genes and proteins, changes in metabolome profiles are instructive for a biological system in health and disease including malignancy. It is understood that metabolomic alterations in association with proteomic and transcriptomic aberrations are very fundamental to unravel malignant micro-ambient criticality and oral cancer is no exception. Hence deciphering intricate dimensions of oral cancer metabolism may be contributory both for integrated appreciation of its pathogenesis and to identify any critical but yet unexplored dimension of this malignancy with high mortality rate. Although several methods do exist, NMR provides higher analytical precision in identification of cancer metabolomic signature. Present study explored abnormal signatures in choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analysis of serum. It has demonstrated down-regulation of choline with concomitant up-regulation of its break-down product in the form of trimethylamine N-oxide in OSCC compared to normal counterpart. Further, no significant change in lactate profile in OSCC possibly indicated that well-known Warburg effect was not a prominent phenomenon in such malignancy. Amongst other important metabolites, malonate has shown up-regulation but D-glucose, saturated fatty acids, acetate and threonine did not show any significant change. Analyzing these metabolomic findings present study proposed trimethyl amine N-oxide and malonate as important metabolic signature for oral cancer with no prominent Warburg effect. - Highlights: • NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) study of Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma Serum. • Abnormal Choline metabolomic signatures. • Up-regulation of Trimethylamine N-oxide. • Unchanged lactate profile indicates no prominent Warburg effect. • Proposed alternative glucose metabolism path through up-regulation of malonate.

  5. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    Kessler, R.M.; Parker, E.S.; Clark, C.M.; Martin, P.R.; George, D.T.; Weingartner, H.; Sokoloff, L.; Ebert, M.H.; Mishkin, M.

    1985-05-01

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism.

  6. Expression changes of hippocampal energy metabolism enzymes contribute to behavioural abnormalities during chronic morphine treatment

    Xiao-Lan Chen; Jing-Gen Liu; Gang Lu; Ying-Xia Gong; Liang-Cai Zhao; Jie Chen; Zhi-Qiang Chi; Yi-Ming Yang; Zhong Chen; Qing-lin Li

    2007-01-01

    Dependence and impairment of learning and memory are two well-established features caused by abused drugs such as opioids. The hippocampus is an important region associated with both drug dependence and learning and memory. However, the molecular events in hippocampus following exposure to abused drugs such as opioids are not well understood. Here we examined the effect of chronic morphine treatment on hippocampal protein expression by proteomic analyses. We found that chronic exposure of mice to morphine for 10 days produced robust morphine withdrawal jumping and memory impairment, and also resulted in a significant downregulation of hippocampal protein levels of three metabolic enzymes, including Fe-S protein 1 of NADH dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase or E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and lactate dehydrogenase 2. Further real-time quantitative PCR analyses confirmed that the levels of the corresponding mRNAs were also remarkably reduced. Consistent with these findings, lower ATP levels and an impaired ability to convert glucose into ATP were also observed in the hippocampus of chronically treated mice. Opioid antagonist naltrexone administrated concomitantly with morphine significantly suppressed morphine withdrawal jumping and reversed the downregulation of these proteins. Acute exposure to morphine also produced robust morphine withdrawal jumping and significant memory impairment, but failed to decrease the expression of these three proteins. Intrahippocampal injection of D-glucose before morphine administration significantly enhanced ATP levels and suppressed morphine withdrawal jumping and memory impairment in acute morphine-treated but not in chronic morphine-treated mice. Intraperitoneal injection of high dose of D-glucose shows a similar effect on morphine-induced withdrawal jumping as the central treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that reduced expression of the three metabolic enzymes in the hippocampus as

  7. Convergence role of transcriptional coactivator p300 and apparent modification on HMCs metabolic memory induced by high glucose

    Su, Hong; Bo ZHOU; Ya-qian DUAN; Du, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the protein expression of transcriptional coactivator p300, acetylated histone H3 (Ac-H3) and Ac-H4 in human renal mesangial cell (HMCs) as imitative "metabolic memory" in vitro, and explore the potential role of convergence point of p300. Methods  The HMCs were divided into the following groups: ① High glucose metabolic memory model: normal glucose group (NG, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×2d), high glucose group (HG, 25mmol/L D-glucose×2d), memory groups (M1, M2, M3, 25mmol/L...

  8. Association of the ADRA1A gene and the severity of metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia.

    Cheng, Chin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Loh, El-Wui; Chan, Chin-Hong; Hwu, Tzong-Ming; Liu, Yun-Ru; Lan, Tsuo-Hung

    2012-01-10

    Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of developing metabolic abnormalities and their associated diseases. Some studies found that the accumulative number of metabolic syndrome components was associated with the severity of metabolic abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of the ADRA1A, ADRA2A, ADRB3, and 5HT2A genes in the risk of having more severe metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia. We studied a sample of 232 chronic inpatients with schizophrenia (120 males and 112 females) to explore the associations between the four candidate genes and the severity of metabolic syndrome by accumulative number of the components. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the candidate genes were genotyped, including the Arg347Cys in ADRA1A, the C1291G in ADRA2A, the Try64Arg in ADRB3, and the T102C in 5HT2A. An association between the accumulative number of metabolic syndrome components and the ADRA1A gene was found after adjusting age, sex, and other related variables (p-value=0.036). Presence of the Arg347 allele in the ADRA1A gene is a risk factor for having more severe metabolic abnormalities. These findings suggest a medical attention of closely monitoring metabolic risks for schizophrenia patients with high-risk genotypes. PMID:22037178

  9. Computational modeling of glucose transport in pancreatic β-cells identifies metabolic thresholds and therapeutic targets in diabetes.

    Camilla Luni

    Full Text Available Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is a diagnostic criterion of Type 2 diabetes and includes defects in glucose transport and insulin secretion. In healthy individuals, β-cells maintain plasma glucose concentrations within a narrow range in concert with insulin action among multiple tissues. Postprandial elevations in blood glucose facilitate glucose uptake into β-cells by diffusion through glucose transporters residing at the plasma membrane. Glucose transport is essential for glycolysis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In human Type 2 diabetes and in the mouse model of obesity-associated diabetes, a marked deficiency of β-cell glucose transporters and glucose uptake occurs with the loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Recent studies have shown that the preservation of glucose transport in β-cells maintains normal insulin secretion and blocks the development of obesity-associated diabetes. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we have constructed a computational model of human β-cell glucose transport in health and in Type 2 diabetes, and present a systems analysis based on experimental results from human and animal studies. Our findings identify a metabolic threshold or "tipping point" whereby diminished glucose transport across the plasma membrane of β-cells limits intracellular glucose-6-phosphate production by glucokinase. This metabolic threshold is crossed in Type 2 diabetes and results in β-cell dysfunction including the loss of glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Our model further discriminates among molecular control points in this pathway wherein maximal therapeutic intervention is achieved.

  10. An in vitro assessment of the effect of Athrixia phylicoides DC. aqueous extract on glucose metabolism.

    Chellan, N; Muller, C J F; de Beer, D; Joubert, E; Page, B J; Louw, J

    2012-06-15

    Athrixia phylicoides DC. is an aromatic shrub indigenous to the eastern parts of Southern Africa. Indigenous communities brew "bush tea" from dried twigs and leaves of A. phylicoides, which is consumed as a beverage and used for its medicinal properties. Plant polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial to Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and obesity. Aqueous extracts of the plant have been shown to be rich in polyphenols, in particular phenolic acids, which may enhance glucose uptake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic composition of a hot water A. phylicoides extract and assess its in vitro effect on cellular glucose utilisation. The most abundant phenolic compounds in the extract were 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, a di-caffeoylquinic acid and a methoxy-flavonol derivative. The extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12, Chang and 3T3-L1 cells, respectively. Intracellular glucose was utilised by both oxidation (C2C12 myocytes and Chang cells; p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) and by increased glycogen storage (Chang cells; p < 0.05). No cytotoxicity was observed in Chang cells at the concentrations tested. The effects of the extract were not dose-dependent. A. phylicoides aqueous extract stimulated in vitro glucose uptake and metabolism, suggesting that consumption of this phenolic-rich extract could potentially ameliorate metabolic disorders related to obesity and T2D. PMID:22516895

  11. Altered glucose metabolism in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a PET study with statistical parametric mapping

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a hereditary, age-dependent epilepsy syndrome, characterized by myoclonic jerks on awakening and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although there have been considerable studies on the mechanism to elucidate pathogenesis of JME, the accurate pathogenesis of JME remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with JME. We studied 16 JME patients (Mean age: 22 yrs, M/F: 9/7) with brain FDG-PET and simultaneous EEG recording. On the basis of the number of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges on the 30 min EEG recording after the injection of FDG (370MBq), we classified patients into two groups (patients in group A had 10 or more GSW and group B. 9 or less). We applied the automated and objective technique of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to the analysis of FDG-PET to determine the significant hyper- and hypometabolic regions compared with those of 19 age matched normal control subjects. We found significant hypermetabolic regions in bilateral thalamus and central portion of upper brainstem in 16 patients with JME at a statistical threshold of uncorrected P < 0.05. These changes were also shown in group A (n=8), but not in group B (n=8). Additionally, we found significant hypometabolism in bilateral, widespread cortical regions in 16 patients with JME at a threshold of uncorrected P < 0.01. Similar hypometabolic patterns were also observed in both group A and group B, being more prominent in group A. This study provides evidence for the key role of the thalamus and brainstem reticular activating system in generating spontaneous GSW discharge, which is considered as a fundamental pathogenesis underlying JME. This study also suggests that patients with JME might suffer from subtle abnormalities of cognitive and executive cortical functions

  12. Metabolic responses to prolonged consumption of glucose- and fructose-sweetened beverages are not associated with postprandial or 24-hour glucose and insulin excursions

    It has been proposed that the adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages which contain both glucose and fructose are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, i.e dietary glycemic index (GI). Objective: We determined if the greater adv...

  13. Berberine improves glucose metabolism in diabetic rats by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Xuan Xia

    Full Text Available Berberine (BBR is a compound originally identified in a Chinese herbal medicine Huanglian (Coptis chinensis French. It improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients. The mechanisms involve in activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK and improvement of insulin sensitivity. However, it is not clear if BBR reduces blood glucose through other mechanism. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining liver response to BBR in diabetic rats, in which hyperglycemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by high fat diet. We observed that BBR decreased fasting glucose significantly. Gluconeogenic genes, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, were decreased in liver by BBR. Hepatic steatosis was also reduced by BBR and expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS was inhibited in liver. Activities of transcription factors including Forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1 and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP were decreased. Insulin signaling pathway was not altered in the liver. In cultured hepatocytes, BBR inhibited oxygen consumption and reduced intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP level. The data suggest that BBR improves fasting blood glucose by direct inhibition of gluconeogenesis in liver. This activity is not dependent on insulin action. The gluconeogenic inhibition is likely a result of mitochondria inhibition by BBR. The observation supports that BBR improves glucose metabolism through an insulin-independent pathway.

  14. Association between serum uric acid and different states of glucose metabolism and glomerular filtration rate

    CAI Xiao-ling; HAN Xue-yao; JI Li-nong

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been suggested that the serum uric acid (SUA) level decreased in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to explore the association between SUA level and different state of glucose metabolism and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reflected by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and to test the hypothesis that high MDRD is one of the determinants of SUA level.Methods This cross-sectional study included 2373 subjects in Beijing who underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for screening of diabetes. According to the states of glucose metabolism, they were divided into normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose regulation and diabetes.Results Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that adjusted by gender, SUA was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist/hippo ratio, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and triglyceride, meanwhile negatively correlated with age, hemoglobin A1c, fasting insulin and MDRD. There was an increasing trend in SUA concentration and a decreasing trend in MDRD when the levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) increased from low to high up to the FPG level of 8.0 mmol/L; thereafter, the SUA concentration started to decrease with further increases in FPG levels, and the MDRD started to increase with further increases in FPG levels.Conclusion This study confirmed the previous finding that SUA decreased in diabetes and provided the supporting evidence that the increased MDRD might contribute to the fall of SUA.

  15. Bace1 activity impairs neuronal glucose metabolism: rescue by beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipoic acid

    John A Findlay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose hypometabolism and impaired mitochondrial function in neurons have been suggested to play early and perhaps causative roles in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis. Activity of the aspartic acid protease, beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, responsible for beta amyloid peptide generation, has recently been demonstrated to modify glucose metabolism. We therefore examined, using a human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cell line, whether increased BACE1 activity is responsible for a reduction in cellular glucose metabolism. Overexpression of active BACE1, but not a protease-dead mutant BACE1, protein in SH-SY5Y cells reduced glucose oxidation and the basal oxygen consumption rate, which was associated with a compensatory increase in glycolysis. Increased BACE1 activity had no effect on the mitochondrial electron transfer process but was found to diminish substrate delivery to the mitochondria by inhibition of key mitochondrial decarboxylation reaction enzymes. This BACE1 activity-dependent deficit in glucose oxidation was alleviated by the presence of beta hydroxybutyrate or α-lipoic acid. Consequently our data indicate that raised cellular BACE1 activity drives reduced glucose oxidation in a human neuronal cell line through impairments in the activity of specific tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Because this bioenergetic deficit is recoverable by neutraceutical compounds we suggest that such agents, perhaps in conjunction with BACE1 inhibitors, may be an effective therapeutic strategy in the early-stage management or treatment of AD.

  16. Non-Classical Gluconeogenesis-Dependent Glucose Metabolism in Rhipicephalus microplus Embryonic Cell Line BME26

    Renato Martins da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability (primarily glucose. BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase (GS, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and glucose-6 phosphatase (GP displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment. Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells.

  17. Increased response to insulin of glucose metabolism in the 6-day unloaded rat soleus muscle

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Tischler, Marc E.; Johnson, David G.

    1986-01-01

    Hind leg muscles of female rats were unloaded by tail cast suspension for 6 days. In the fresh-frozen unloaded soleus, the significantly greater concentration of glycogen correlated with a lower activity ratio of glycogen phosphorylase (p less than 0.02). The activity ratio of glycogen synthase also was lower (p less than 0.001), possibly due to the higher concentration of glycogen. In isolated unloaded soleus, insulin (0.1 milliunit/ml) increased the oxidation of D(U-C-14) glucose, release of lactate and pyruvate, incorporation of D-(U-C-14) glucose into glycogen, and the concentration of glucose 6-phosphate more (p less than 0.05) than in the weight-bearing soleus. At physiological doses of insulin, the percent of maximal uptake of 2-deoxy-D-(1,2-H-3) glucose/muscle also was greater in the unloaded soleus. Unloading of the soleus increased, by 50 percent the concentration of insuling receptors, due to no decrease in total receptor number during muscle atrophy. This increase may account for the greater response of glucose metabolism to insulin in this muscle. The extensor digitorum longus, which generally shows little response to unloading, displayed no differential response of glucose metabolism to insulin.

  18. Sleep deprivation and its impact on circadian rhythms and glucose metabolism

    P.K. Jha

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian master pacemaker is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN generates rhythms of behavioural and metabolic processes throughout the body via both endocrine and neuronal outputs. For example, daily rhythms of sleep-wake, fasting-feeding, plasma glucose, glucos

  19. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  20. Chromium supplementation alters the glucose and lipid metabolism of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Crossbreed steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brand Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (C...

  1. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  2. Insulin resistance for glucose metabolism in disused soleus muscle of mice

    Seider, M. J.; Nicholson, W. F.; Booth, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    Results of this study on mice provide the first direct evidence of insulin resistance for glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle that has undergone a previous period of reduced muscle usage. This lack of responsiveness to insulin developed in one day and in the presence of hypoinsulinemia. Future studies will utilize the model of hindlimb immobilization to determine the causes of these changes.

  3. Association between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System and the risk of metabolic abnormalities in Koreans.

    Jung, Hyun Ju; Han, Sung Nim; Song, Sujin; Paik, Hee Young; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-12-01

    Consumption of a diet consistent with dietary guidelines is believed to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of general health. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS), which was based on the 2010 revised KDRIs, and the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Five hundred and ninety-six Korean adults between 30 and 59 years of age were recruited by advertisement to the Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital (BJGH), and those not taking regular medications and without diagnoses of fulminant disease were included. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, diagnostic parameters for metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 3-day dietary intakes from individuals in the study. The number of servings consumed from each food group was compared to the KFGS recommended servings for each of the 6 food groups. Poor adherence to the recommendations for servings of milk and dairy products (OR: 2.038, 1.128-3.682) was associated with a higher risk of MetS, and poor adherence to the guidelines for fruit consumption (OR: 1.849, 1.027-3.329) was associated with a higher risk for the existence an elevated waist circumference. Conversely, the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, and beans above the recommended number of servings was associated with a lower risk of having an elevated waist circumference (OR: 0.523, 0.288-0.950), and the consumption of vegetables above the recommended number of servings was associated with a reduced risk of having elevated fasting glucose (OR: 0.533, 0.298-0.954). These results suggest that adherence to the KFGS guidelines helps to prevent the development of MetS, but this association needs to be confirmed by prospective studies. PMID:22259682

  4. Effects of Reductions of Body Fat and Regional Adipose Tissue on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Among Eldery Japanese

    Shigeto, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tai-ichiro

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate effects of improvement of obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism, changes of body weight, skinfolds and biochemical parameters in glucose and lipid metabolism were examined through a six month health education on excercise and diet. Subjects were 20 men and 36 women aged from 48 to 87, who had overweight and/or glucose intolerance. Weight, relative weight and fat mass were significantly reduced after the program in both sexes. Circumference ratios were reduced only in women. The ...

  5. Lymphocyte Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism as Targets of the Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Exercise

    Frederick Wasinski; Gregnani, Marcos F.; Ornellas, Fábio H.; Aline V N Bacurau; Câmara, Niels O.; Ronaldo C Araujo; Reury F. Bacurau

    2014-01-01

    Glucose and glutamine are important energetic and biosynthetic nutrients for T and B lymphocytes. These cells consume both nutrients at high rates in a function-dependent manner. In other words, the pathways that control lymphocyte function and survival directly control the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. Therefore, lymphocytes in different functional states reprogram their glucose and glutamine metabolism to balance their requirement for ATP and macromolecule production. The tight ...

  6. The exploration of the changes in bone metabolism in patients with abnormal thyroid function

    To explore the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, BGP and PTH in 91 patients with hyperthyroidism, 37 patients with hypothyroidism, 51 controls, were measured by means of IRMA, calcaneus heel bone density (BMD) was measured by means of 241Am single photon absorptiometry. BGP levels in hyperthyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). BGP levels in hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.001). PTH levels in hyperthyroidism were a little lower than those in controls (P < 0.05). PTH levels in hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). The measurement of BMD showed that the prevalence rates of osteoporosis (OP) in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls. In hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism groups the age of OP tends to be younger. The patients with hyperthyroidism over 55 years of age were all suffered from OP. The changes in BGP and PTH were earlier than BMD, so BGP and PTH can be used as sensitive indicator of the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, especially for curative effect observations

  7. Role of gut microbiota in maternal glucose metabolism

    Mao, Yushi; 毛雨詩

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in daily biological reactions. It is proved that many metabolic diseases are accompanied with pattern change of gut microbiota and pregnancy is also a process with gut microbiota remodeling. Besides, serum IGF-1 level is increased during pregnancy, but the source of increased IGF-1 remains unclear. So far, there is a paper that explored the gut microbiota in pregnant women. However, the diet of pregnant women was not unified in the study, which might hav...

  8. Bone Regulates Glucose Metabolism as an Endocrine Organ through Osteocalcin

    2015-01-01

    Skeleton was considered as a dynamic connective tissue, which was essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic niche. However more and more evidences indicate that skeleton works not only as a structural scaffold but also as an endocrine organ, which regulates several metabolic processes. Besides osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin (SOST), and Dickopf (DKK) which play essential roles in bone formation, modelling, remodelling, and homeostasis, bone can also secret hormones, suc...

  9. End products of glucose and glutamine metabolism by L929 cells.

    Lanks, K W

    1987-07-25

    Products of glucose and glutamine metabolism by L929 cells were detected and quantitated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of the oxime-trimethylsilyl derivatives. This method allowed detection and identification of all major carboxylic and amino acids produced in the system. Although lactic acid was expected to be the major product, alanine, citric, glutamic, aspartic, and pyruvic acids were also released into the culture medium at significant rates. Incorporation of labeled carbon from D-[U-13C]glucose showed that the alanine, lactic, and pyruvic acids were derived from glucose as was one-third of the citric acid carbon. The rate of glucose utilization for production of these end products was 29-fold greater than the rate of glucose oxidation to CO2, and calculated ATP production from alanine and pyruvate synthesis exceeded that from lactate synthesis by nearly 2-fold. Utilization of glutamine for synthesis of aspartic, glutamic, and citric acids also exceeded the rate of glutamine oxidation, thereby making end-product synthesis from glucose and glutamine the dominant cellular metabolic activity. In the absence of glucose, synthesis and intracellular levels of aspartic and glutamic acids increased, whereas synthesis and cell content of the other acids decreased markedly. This response is consistent with the metabolic pattern proposed by Moreadith and Lehninger (Moreadith, R.W., and Lehninger, A.L. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 6215-6221) in which much of the glutamine used by these cells is converted to aspartate in the absence of a pyruvate source and to aspartate or citrate in the presence of pyruvate. PMID:3611053

  10. Effects of methyl mercury on the activity and gene expression of mouse Langerhans islets and glucose metabolism.

    Maqbool, Faheem; Bahadar, Haji; Niaz, Kamal; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known heavy metal and causes various toxic effects. It is abundantly present in fish in the form of methyl mercury (MeHg). Also, various other forms of mercury can enter human body either from environment like inhalation or through dental amalgams. The present study was designed to assess MeHg induced toxicity in mouse plasma and pancreatic islets with respect to insulin secretion, oxidative balance, glucose tolerance, gene expression, caspases 3 and 9 activities. MeHg was dissolved in tap water and administered at doses 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day, for 4 weeks. In mice, MeHg significantly caused increase in plasma insulin as well as C-peptides. Glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are main consequences of our study that correlate with the gene expression changes of glucose homeostasis as well. MeHg caused increase lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner in plasma as well as pancreatic islets. In addition, total thiol molecules and ferrous reducing antioxidant power in MeHg treated group was decreased in plasma as well as pancreatic islets. Caspases 3 and 9 activities of pancreatic islets were upregulated in MeHg exposed animals. Reactive oxygen species were extremely high in pancreatic islets of MeHg treated groups. MeHg disrupted gluconeogenesis/glycogenolysis pathways and insulin secretory functions of islets by targeting GDH, GLUT2 and GCK genes of pancreatic islets. In conclusion, the current study revealed that insulin pathways, oxidative balance and glucose metabolism encoded genetic makeup are susceptible to MeHg toxicity and the subsequent oxidative stress and alternations in gene expression could lead toward functional abnormalities in other organs. PMID:27178136

  11. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  12. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    Highlights: ► UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. ► UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. ► Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. ► This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic β-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/− islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2−/− and GK+/− islets compared with GK+/− islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/− mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/− mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  13. Aerobic glucose metabolism of Saccharomyces kluyveri: Growth, metabolite production, and quantification of metabolic fluxes

    Møller, Kasper; Christensen, B.; Förster, Jochen;

    2002-01-01

    The growth and product formation of Saccharomyces kluyveri was characterized in aerobic batch cultivation on glucose. At these conditions it was found that ethyl acetate was a major overflow metabolite in S. kluyveri. During the exponential-growth phase on glucose ethyl acetate was produced at a ...

  14. Increased adiposity, dysregulated glucose metabolism and systemic inflammation in Galectin-3 KO mice.

    Jingbo Pang

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased production of Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a protein that modulates inflammation and clearance of glucose adducts. We used Lean and Diet-induced Obese (DIO WT and Gal-3 KO mice to investigate the role of Gal-3 in modulation of adiposity, glucose metabolism and inflammation. Deficiency of Gal-3 lead to age-dependent development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as indicated by elevated production of acute-phase proteins, number of circulating pro-inflammatory Ly6C(high monocytes and development of neutrophilia, microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis in 20-week-old Lean and DIO male Gal-3 KO mice. This was associated with impaired fasting glucose, heightened response to a glucose tolerance test and reduced adipose tissue expression of adiponectin, Gal-12, ATGL and PPARγ, in the presence of maintained insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in 20-week-old Gal-3 KO mice compared to their diet-matched WT controls. Expression of PGC-1α and FGF-21 in the liver of Lean Gal-3 KO mice was comparable to that observed in DIO animals. Impaired fasting glucose and altered responsiveness to a glucose load preceded development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as demonstrated in 12-week-old Gal-3 KO mice. Finally, a role for the microflora in mediating the fasting hyperglycemia, but not the excessive response to a glucose load, of 12-week-old Gal-3 KO mice was demonstrated by administration of antibiotics. In conclusion, Gal-3 is an important modulator of glucose metabolism, adiposity and inflammation.

  15. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders. PMID:27574485

  16. Deoxyglucose method for the estimation of local myocardial glucose metabolism with positron computed tomography

    The deoxyglucose method originally developed for measurements of the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose has been investigated in terms of its application to studies of the heart with positron computed tomography (PCT) and FDG. Studies were performed in dogs to measure the tissue kinetics of FDG with PCT and by direct arterial-venous sampling. The operational equation developed in our laboratory as an extension of the Sokoloff model was used to analyze the data. The FDG method accurately predicted the true MMRGlc even when the glucose metabolic rate was normal but myocardial blood flow (MBF) was elevated 5 times the control value or when metabolism was reduced to 10% of normal and MBF increased 5 times normal. Improvements in PCT resolution are required to improve the accuracy of the estimates of the rate constants and the MMRGlc

  17. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author).

  18. Cerebral oxygen and glucose metabolism and blood flow in mitochondrial encephalomyopathy: a PET study

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen metabolism (CMRO2), and glucose metabolism (CMRGlc) were measured using positron emission tomography in five patients diagnosed as having mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The molar ratio between the oxygen and glucose consumptions was reduced diffusely, as CMRO2 was markedly decreased and CMRGlc was slightly reduced. The CBF showed less changes. The CBF increase on hypercapnia was smaller than normal, though this was not significant. CBF with hypocapnia demonstrated a significant reduction compared with the normal. These results suggest that oxidative metabolism is impaired and anaerobic glycolysis relatively stimulated, due to a primary defect of mitochondrial function, and that mild lactic acidosis occurs in brain tissue because of impaired utilisation of pyruvate in the TCA cycle. As these findings appear to indicate directly a characteristic of this disease, such measurements may be a useful tool for assessment of the pathophysiology and for diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (orig.). With 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author)

  20. Similarities of cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's and Parkinsonian dementia

    In the dementia of probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD), there is a decrease in the metabolic ratio of parietal cortex/caudate-thalamus which relates measures in the most and in the least severely affected locations. Since some demented patients with Parkinson's Disease (PDD) are known to share pathological and neurochemical features with AD patients, the authors evaluated if the distribution of cerebral hypometabolism in PDD and AD were the same. Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined using the FDG method and positron tomography in subjects with AD (N=23), and PDD (N=7), multiple infarct dementia (MID)(N=6), and controls (N=10). In MID, the mean par/caudthal ratio was normal (0.79 +- 0.9, N=6). In AD and PDD patients, this ratio correlated negatively with both the severity (r=-0.624, rho=0.001) and duration (r=-0.657, rho=0.001) of dementia. The ratio was markedly decreased in subjects with mild to severe dementia (0.46 +- 0.09, N=21) and with dementia duration greater than two years (0.44 +- 0.08, N=18), but the ratio was also significantly decreased in patients with less advanced disease, i.e., when dementia was only questionable (0.64 +- 0.14, N=9) (t=2.27, rho<0.037) and when duration was two years or less (0.62 +- 0.13, N=12)(t=2.88, rho<0.009). This similarity of hypometabolism in AD and PDD is additional evidence that a common mechanism may operate in both disorders. The par/caud-thal metabolic ratio may be an index useful in the differential diagnosis of early dementia

  1. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α2-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic

  2. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone

  3. Factor analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolic rates in healthy men

    Cerebral glucose utilization measured with fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose is characterized by considerable variability both among different persons and for the same person examined on different occasions. The goal of this study was to explore whether some regions of the brain were more variable than others with respect to glucose utilization and whether there was a pattern in their covariance. The global and regional cerebral utilization of glucose was measured in 12 healthy young volunteers on 3 or 4 occasions. In all, 24 regions were examined. The interrelation of the glucose utilization rates of the brain regions was investigated by factor analysis of the metabolic rates. Some 70% of the total variance was attributable to only 1 factor, while 80% of the total variance could be attributed to 2 factors. Regions making up the first factor were the frontal and temporal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and putamen. These regions are functionally related to the limbic system. Regions of the second factor were the parietal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, regions more clearly related to sensory and motor functions. The 2-factor pattern was highly reproducible, being found with different algorithms for factor extraction and rotation. Under resting conditions, the variance of cerebral metabolism seems to be primarily related to regions which are closely involved with the limbic system. Cortical regions involved primarily in motor and sensory functions have less influence on the variance. (orig.)

  4. Cellular pathways of energy metabolism in the brain: is glucose used by neurons or astrocytes?

    Nehlig, Astrid; Coles, Jonathan A

    2007-09-01

    Most techniques presently available to measure cerebral activity in humans and animals, i.e. positron emission tomography (PET), autoradiography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging, do not record the activity of neurons directly. Furthermore, they do not allow the investigator to discriminate which cell type is using glucose, the predominant fuel provided to the brain by the blood. Here, we review the experimental approaches aimed at determining the percentage of glucose that is taken up by neurons and by astrocytes. This review is integrated in an overview of the current concepts on compartmentation and substrate trafficking between astrocytes and neurons. In the brain in vivo, about half of the glucose leaving the capillaries crosses the extracellular space and directly enters neurons. The other half is taken up by astrocytes. Calculations suggest that neurons consume more energy than do astrocytes, implying that astrocytes transfer an intermediate substrate to neurons. Experimental approaches in vitro on the honeybee drone retina and on the isolated vagus nerve also point to a continuous transfer of intermediate metabolites from glial cells to neurons in these tissues. Solid direct evidence of such transfer in the mammalian brain in vivo is still lacking. PET using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose reflects in part glucose uptake by astrocytes but does not indicate to which step the glucose taken up is metabolized within this cell type. Finally, the sequence of metabolic changes occurring during a transient increase of electrical activity in specific regions of the brain remains to be clarified. PMID:17659529

  5. Danthron activates AMP-activated protein kinase and regulates lipid and glucose metabolism in vitro

    Rong ZHOU; Ling WANG; Xing XU; Jing CHEN; Li-hong HU; Li-li CHEN; Xu SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To discover the active compound on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and investigate the effects of the active compound 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (danthron) from the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb on AMPK-mediated lipid and glucose metabolism in vitro.Methods:HepG2 and C2C12 cells were used.Cell viability was determined using MTT assay.Real-time PCR was performed to measure the gene expression.Western blotting assay was applied to investigate the protein phosphorylation level.Enzymatic assay kits were used to detect the total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG) and glucose contents.Results:Danthron (0.1,1,and 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently promoted the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)in both HepG2 and C2C12 cells.Meanwhile,danthron treatment significantly reduced the lipid synthesis related sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) gene expressions,and the TC and TG levels.In addition,danthron treatment efficiently increased glucose consumption.The actions of danthron on lipid and glucose metabolism were abolished or reversed by co-treatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C.Conclusion:Danthron effectively reduces intracellular lipid contents and enhanced glucose consumption in vitro via activation of AMPK signaling pathway.

  6. Transmural distribution of metabolic abnormalities and glycolytic activity during dobutamine-induced demand ischemia.

    Jameel, Mohammad N; Wang, Xiaohong; Eijgelshoven, Marcel H J; Mansoor, Abdul; Zhang, Jianyi

    2008-06-01

    The heterogeneity across the left ventricular wall is characterized by higher rates of oxygen consumption, systolic thickening fraction, myocardial perfusion, and lower energetic state in the subendocardial layers (ENDO). During dobutamine stimulation-induced demand ischemia, the transmural distribution of energy demand and metabolic markers of ischemia are not known. In this study, hemodynamics, transmural high-energy phosphate (HEP), 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (2-DGP) levels, and myocardial blood flow (MBF) were determined under basal conditions, during dobutamine infusion (DOB: 20 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) iv), and during coronary stenosis + DOB + 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) infusion. DOB increased rate pressure products (RPP) and MBF significantly without affecting the subendocardial-to-subepicardial blood flow ratio (ENDO/EPI) or HEP levels. During coronary stenosis + DOB + 2-DG infusion, RPP, ischemic zone (IZ) MBF, and ENDO/EPI decreased significantly. The IZ ratio of creatine phosphate-to-ATP decreased significantly [2.30 +/- 0.14, 2.06 +/- 0.13, and 2.04 +/- 0.11 to 1.77 +/- 0.12, 1.70 +/- 0.11, and 1.72 +/- 0.12 for EPI, midmyocardial (MID), and ENDO, respectively], and 2-DGP accumulated in all layers, as evidenced by the 2-DGP/PCr (0.55 +/- 0.12, 0.52 +/- 0.10, and 0.37 +/- 0.08 for EPI, MID, and ENDO, respectively; P ENDO). In the IZ the wet weight-to-dry weight ratio was significantly increased compared with the normal zone (5.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.4; P < 0.05). Thus, in the stenotic perfused bed, during dobutamine-induced high cardiac work state, despite higher blood flow, the subepicardial layers showed the greater metabolic changes characterized by a shift toward higher carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting that a homeostatic response to high-cardiac work state is characterized by more glucose utilization in energy metabolism. PMID:18424629

  7. Diabetes, glucose metabolism, and glaucoma: the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Di Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the general U.S. population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,299 adult men and women from the 2005-2008 National Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES. The presence of diabetes, prediabetes, the metabolic syndrome and its individual components and biomarkers of glucose metabolisms were based on standardized questionnaire and physical exam data and laboratory tests. The history of glaucoma was assessed through questionnaire during the home interview. RESULTS: Diabetes was strongly associated with prevalent glaucoma.In fully adjusted models, the odds ratiofor glaucoma comparing participants with diabetes with participants in the reference group with neither pre-diabetes nor diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.67. The corresponding odd ratio comparing participants with pre-diabetes to those in the reference group was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.82. Patients with 5 or more years of diabetes duration hadan OR for glaucoma of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.63, 9.32 compared with patients with <5 years of diabetes duration. We also found a hockey-stick shaped associations between biomarkers of glucose metabolisms and the prevalence of glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was associated with higher risk of glaucoma. Participants without diabetes but at the higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR spectrum may also be at greater risk of glaucoma.

  8. Effect of peripheral 5-HT on glucose and lipid metabolism in wether sheep.

    Hitoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available In mice, peripheral 5-HT induces an increase in the plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and bile acids, and a decrease in plasma triglyceride, NEFA and cholesterol concentrations. However, given the unique characteristics of the metabolism of ruminants relative to monogastric animals, the physiological role of peripheral 5-HT on glucose and lipid metabolism in sheep remains to be established. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of 5-HT on the circulating concentrations of metabolites and insulin using five 5-HT receptor (5HTR antagonists in sheep. After fasting for 24 h, sheep were intravenously injected with 5-HT, following which-, plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and NEFA concentrations were significantly elevated. In contrast, 5-HT did not affect the plasma cholesterol concentration, and it induced a decrease in bile acid concentrations. Increases in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations induced by 5-HT were attenuated by pre-treatment with Methysergide, a 5HTR 1, 2 and 7 antagonist. Additionally, decreased plasma bile acid concentrations induced by 5-HT were blocked by pre-treatment with Ketanserin, a 5HTR 2A antagonist. However, none of the 5HTR antagonists inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride and NEFA levels induced by 5-HT. On the other hand, mRNA expressions of 5HTR1D and 1E were observed in the liver, pancreas and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that there are a number of differences in the physiological functions of peripheral 5-HT with respect to lipid metabolism between mice and sheep, though its effect on glucose metabolism appears to be similar between these species.

  9. Fructose Alters Intermediary Metabolism of Glucose in Human Adipocytes and Diverts Glucose to Serine Oxidation in the One–Carbon Cycle Energy Producing Pathway

    Vijayalakshmi Varma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of sugar and fructose as sweeteners has resulted in the utilization of fructose as an alternative metabolic fuel that may compete with glucose and alter its metabolism. To explore this, human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes in the presence of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mM of fructose added to a medium containing 5 mM of glucose representing the normal blood glucose concentration. Targeted tracer [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose fate association approach was employed to examine the influence of fructose on the intermediary metabolism of glucose. Increasing concentrations of fructose robustly increased the oxidation of [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose to 13CO2 (p < 0.000001. However, glucose-derived 13CO2 negatively correlated with 13C labeled glutamate, 13C palmitate, and M+1 labeled lactate. These are strong markers of limited tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis, pentose cycle fluxes, substrate turnover and NAD+/NADP+ or ATP production from glucose via complete oxidation, indicating diminished mitochondrial energy metabolism. Contrarily, a positive correlation was observed between glucose-derived 13CO2 formed and 13C oleate and doses of fructose which indicate the elongation and desaturation of palmitate to oleate for storage. Collectively, these results suggest that fructose preferentially drives glucose through serine oxidation glycine cleavage (SOGC pathway one-carbon cycle for NAD+/NADP+ production that is utilized in fructose-induced lipogenesis and storage in adipocytes.

  10. The Association of Hypertension with Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities among Chinese Children

    Haiquan Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8898 Chinese children (4580 boys and 4318 girls aged 7–13 years in 6 cities of east China were recruited. Data on height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, glucose, and insulin were collected. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 11.1%. Overweight and obese children had a higher risk of developing hypertension than their counterparts (29.1%, 17.4%, and 7.8%, resp. (P=0.0001. The means levels of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR (1.0 mmol/L, 4.5 mmol/L, 8.4 mU/mL and 1.7, resp. among hypertensive children were all significantly higher than their normotensive counterparts (0.8 mmol/L, 4.5 mmol/L, 5.9 mU/mL, and 1.2, resp. (P=0.0001. Compared with the healthy children, the risk (odds ratio, OR of having hypertension among children with high triglycerides, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.0–2.0, P=0.0334, 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9–2.5, P=0.0890, and 2.8 (95%CI: 1.5–5.4, P=0.0014, respectively, after controlling for age, gender, BMI, income level, parents' education level and puberty. In conclusion, overweight and obese children have higher risk of having hypertension and children with dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome and higher HOMA-IR have higher risk of developing hypertension.

  11. Insulin sensitizes FGF21 in glucose and lipid metabolisms via activating common AKT pathway.

    Yu, Dan; Ye, Xianlong; Wu, Qiang; Li, Shujie; Yang, Yongbi; He, Jinjiao; Liu, Yunye; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Qingyan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies reveal that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) sensitizes insulin to achieve a synergy in regulating glucose metabolism. Here, we report that insulin sensitizes FGF21 in regulating both glucose and lipid metabolisms. db/db diabetic mice were subcutaneously administrated once a day for 6 weeks. Effective dose of insulin (1 U) could control blood glucose level of the db/db mice for maximum of 2 h, increased the body weight of the db/db mice and did not improve serum lipid parameters. In contrast, effective dose of FGF21 (0.5 mg/kg) could maintain blood glucose of the db/db mice at normal level for at least 24 h, repressed the weight gain of the mice and significantly improved lipid parameters. Ineffective doses of FGF21 (0.125 mg/kg) and insulin had no effect on blood glucose level of the db/db mice after 24 h administration, body weight or lipid parameters. However, combination of the two ineffective doses could maintain blood glucose level of the db/db mice for at least 24 h, suppressed weight gain and significantly improved lipid parameters. These results suggest that insulin sensitizes FGF21 in regulating both glucose and lipid metabolism. The results aimed to study the molecular basis of FGF21 sensitization indicates that combination of the two ineffective doses increased the mRNA expression of glut1, glut4, β-Klotho, sirt1, pgc-1α, ucp-1 and AKT phosphorylation, decreased fasn. The results demonstrate that insulin sensitizes FGF21 through elevating the phosphorylation of common gene Akt and amplifying FGF21 downstream signaling, including increasing expression of glut1 sirt1, pgc-1α, ucp-1, and decreasing fasn expression. In summary, we reports herein for the first time that insulin sensitizes FGF21 to achieve a synergy in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Along with previous studies, we conclude that the synergistic effect between FGF21 and insulin is realized through mutual sensitization. PMID:26607153

  12. Cereal Processing Influences Postprandial Glucose Metabolism as Well as the GI Effect

    Vinoy, Sophie; Normand, Sylvie; Meynier, Alexandra; Sothier, Monique; Louche-Pelissier, Corinne; Peyrat, Jocelyne; Maitrepierre, Christine; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Brand-Miller, Jeannie; Laville, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Technological processes may influence the release of glucose in starch. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic response and the kinetics of appearance of exogenous glucose from 2 cereal products consumed at breakfast. Methods: Twenty-five healthy men were submitted to a randomized, open, crossover study that was divided into 2 parts: 12 of the 25 subjects were included in the “isotope part,” and the 13 other subjects were included in the “glycemic part.” On test days, s...

  13. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic amino acid metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic AA metabolism. The experimental design was a split plot, with cow as the whole...... plot, treatment as the whole-plot factor and days in milk (DIM) as the subplot factor. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g/d of glucose into the abomasum from the day of calving to 29 DIM....

  14. Hormone and glucose metabolic effects of compound cyproterone acetate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of compound cyproterone acetate(CPY) in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) and study hormone and glucose metabolic effects, thirty-five PCOS patients were treated by compound cyproterone acetate for 3 cycles. The serum LH, FSH and T levels, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were determined before and after 3 cycle's treatment. The results showed that 34 patients had regular menses during CPY therapy. The hirsute and acne score decreased significantly(P0.05). The results indicate that the compound cyproterone acetate had anti-androgenic effects on PCOS patients and improved their endocrine function and clinical syndrome. (authors)

  15. Prenatal Exposures to Multiple Thyroid Hormone Disruptors: Effects on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism.

    Molehin, Deborah; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Richard, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Background. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal human fetal development and play a major role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Delivery of TH to target tissues is dependent on processes including TH synthesis, transport, and metabolism. Thyroid hormone endocrine disruptors (TH-EDCs) are chemical substances that interfere with these processes, potentially leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objectives. This review focuses on the effects of prenatal exposures to combinations of TH-EDCs on fetal and neonatal glucose and lipid metabolism and also discusses the various mechanisms by which TH-EDCs interfere with other hormonal pathways. Methods. We conducted a comprehensive narrative review on the effects of TH-EDCs with particular emphasis on exposure during pregnancy. Discussion. TH imbalance has been linked to many metabolic processes and the effects of TH imbalance are particularly pronounced in early fetal development due to fetal dependence on maternal TH for proper growth and development. The pervasive presence of EDCs in the environment results in ubiquitous exposure to either single or mixtures of EDCs with deleterious effects on metabolism. Conclusions. Further evaluation of combined effects of TH-EDCs on fetal metabolic endpoints could improve advice provided to expectant mothers. PMID:26989557

  16. Quantitative rates of brain glucose metabolism distinguish minimally conscious from vegetative state patients.

    Stender, Johan; Kupers, Ron; Rodell, Anders; Thibaut, Aurore; Chatelle, Camille; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Gejl, Michael; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Laureys, Steven; Gjedde, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of the vegetative or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) is an important clinical issue. The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) declines when consciousness is lost, and may reveal the residual cognitive function of these patients. However, no quantitative comparisons of cerebral glucose metabolism in VS/UWS and MCS have yet been reported. We calculated the regional and whole-brain CMRglc of 41 patients in the states of VS/UWS (n=14), MCS (n=21) or emergence from MCS (EMCS, n=6), and healthy volunteers (n=29). Global cortical CMRglc in VS/UWS and MCS averaged 42% and 55% of normal, respectively. Differences between VS/UWS and MCS were most pronounced in the frontoparietal cortex, at 42% and 60% of normal. In brainstem and thalamus, metabolism declined equally in the two conditions. In EMCS, metabolic rates were indistinguishable from those of MCS. Ordinal logistic regression predicted that patients are likely to emerge into MCS at CMRglc above 45% of normal. Receiver-operating characteristics showed that patients in MCS and VS/UWS can be differentiated with 82% accuracy, based on cortical metabolism. Together these results reveal a significant correlation between whole-brain energy metabolism and level of consciousness, suggesting that quantitative values of CMRglc reveal consciousness in severely brain-injured patients. PMID:25294128

  17. Visceral adiposity influences glucose and glycogen metabolism in control and hyperlipidic-fed animals

    Danielle Kaiser de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that fat intake, visceral obesity and intracellular lipids are related to insulin impairment. Objective: The objective of the present paper was correlate visceral obesity and metabolic alterations in control (CTR and hyperlipidic cafeteria diet (CFT fed animals. Methods: After 6 months of diet treatment, liver and muscle of the male rats were utilized to determined glucose uptake and glycogen metabolism after administration of 0.4I U/kg insulin in vivo, and correlate the visceral adiposity to these two parameters. Results: Ample range of physiologic answers to body composition in metabolic profile of the both diets was found. No differences were found in glycemia and triacylglycerol after insulin action in both groups, however CFT group accumulated higher adiposity, mostly visceral fat, and showed lower glycogen content in the liver. We also found an inverse correlation between visceral adiposity and glucose uptake and a decrease of the glycogen synthase active form in the liver. CTR animals demonstrated an inverse correlation between glucose uptake and visceral adiposity in the muscle. Discussion and conclusion: It was observed a variability of metabolic alterations in animals which can be related to degree of accumulation of abdominal adiposity and ingestion of diet fats. Further studies will be required to clarify the reasons for the observed liver alterations in CFT and muscle alterations in CTR animals.

  18. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise in the rat: the two phases.

    Garetto, L P; Richter, E A; Goodman, M N; Ruderman, N B

    1984-06-01

    Thirty minutes after a treadmill run, glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in perfused rat skeletal muscle are enhanced due to an increase in insulin sensitivity (Richter et al., J. Clin. Invest. 69: 785-793, 1982). The exercise used in these studies was of moderate intensity, and muscle glycogen was substantially repleted at the time (30 min postexercise) that glucose metabolism was examined. When rats were run at twice the previous rate (36 m/min), muscle glycogen was still substantially diminished 30 min after the run. At this time the previously noted increase in insulin sensitivity was still observed in perfused muscle; however, glucose utilization was also increased in the absence of added insulin (1.5 vs. 4.2 mumol X g-1 X h-1). In contrast 2.5 h after the run, muscle glycogen had returned to near preexercise values, and only the insulin-induced increase in glucose utilization was evident. The data suggest that the restoration of muscle glycogen after exercise occurs in two phases. In phase I, muscle glycogen is depleted and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and glucose utilization in the absence of added insulin may both be enhanced. In phase II glycogen levels have returned to near base-line values and only the increase in insulin sensitivity persists. It is proposed that phase I corresponds to the period of rapid glycogen repletion that immediately follows exercise and phase II to the period of supercompensation. PMID:6377909

  19. A comprehensive metabolic profile of cultured astrocytes using isotopic transient metabolic flux analysis and 13C-labeled glucose

    Ursula Sonnewald

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic models have been used to elucidate important aspects of brain metabolism in recent years. This work applies for the first time the concept of isotopic transient 13C metabolic flux analysis (MFA to estimate intracellular fluxes of cultured astrocytes. This methodology comprehensively explores the information provided by 13C labeling time-courses of intracellular metabolites after administration of a 13C labeled substrate. Cells were incubated with medium containing [1-13C]glucose for 24 h and samples of cell supernatant and extracts collected at different time-points were then analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or HPLC. Metabolic fluxes were estimated by fitting a carbon labeling network model to isotopomer profiles experimentally determined. Both the fast isotopic equilibrium of glycolytic metabolite pools and the slow labeling dynamics of TCA cycle intermediates are described well by the model. The large pools of glutamate and aspartate which are linked to the TCA cycle via reversible aminotransferase reactions are likely to be responsible for the observed delay in equilibration of TCA cycle intermediates. Furthermore, it was estimated that 11% of the glucose taken up by astrocytes was diverted to the pentose phosphate pathway. In addition, considerable fluxes through pyruvate carboxylase (PC (PC/pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH ratio = 0.5, malic enzyme (5% of the total pyruvate production and catabolism of branched-chained amino acids (contributing with ~40% to total acetyl-CoA produced confirmed the significance of these pathways to astrocytic metabolism. Consistent with the need of maintaining cytosolic redox potential, the fluxes through the malate-aspartate shuttle and the PDH pathway were comparable. Finally, the estimated glutamate/α-ketoglutarate exchange rate (~0.7 µmol.mg prot-1.h-1 was similar to the TCA cycle flux. In conclusion, this work demonstrates the potential of isotopic transient MFA for a comprehensive analysis of

  20. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  1. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  2. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  3. No impact of vitamin D on the CYP3A biomarker 4β-hydroxycholesterol in patients with abnormal glucose regulation.

    Buster Mannheimer

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on hepatic Cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP 3A4 in patients with abnormal glucose regulation using the endogenous marker 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio.The present study took advantage of a trial primarily aiming to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in patients with abnormal glucose regulation. 44 subjects were randomized to receive vitamin D3, 30000 IU given orally once weekly or placebo for 8 weeks. The two sample t-test was used to test the means of the intra-individual differences of 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio between the two groups.Mean (SD 4β-OHC in the whole group of patients before and after the intervention was 26 (11 ng/ml and 26 (12. Mean (SD 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio in the whole group of patients before and after the intervention was 0.12 (0.046 and 0.13 (0.047. In the Vitamin D group mean (SD serum 25-OH-vitamin D3 increased from 46 (16 to 85nM (13 during the corresponding time period. To investigate the impact of vitamin D3 on hepatic CYP3A4 we calculated the mean intra-individual differences in 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio (delta 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio before versus after the intervention in the two treatment groups. The difference (95% CI between delta 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio in the control group and intervention group was -0.0010 (-0.0093, 0.0072, a difference being not statistically significant (p = 0.80.We provide further evidence that vitamin D3 may not substantially affect hepatic CYP3A4. This does not exclude the possibility of an impact of intestinal first-pass metabolism of orally administered drugs which should be investigated.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01497132.

  4. Effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on glucose metabolism in the brain of pregnant rats by [18F]FDG microPET imaging

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a pathogenic protozoan parasite, infection of which in early pregnancy increases the risk of serious sequelae in fetus. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of T. gondii infection on glucose metabolism in the brain of pregnant rats by microPET using 18F-fluorodeoxygulcose (18F-FDG) as the tracer. Thirty female SD rats were divided into the T. gondii infection and control group. After set for pregnancy, the body weight was assessed, T. gondii infection was identified by PCR, ELISA technology and immunohistochemistry, and glucose metabolism in brain of rats was monitored by microPET scan. Our results showed that brain glucose metabolism was significantly increased in T. gondii-infected group comparing to the control, indicating microPET scan is more sensitive to detect the abnormality than traditional measurements. In addition, bio-distribution of 18F-FDG in T. gondii-infected rats was assessed by using another twenty female SD rats, which has higher uptake of 18F-FDG at 30 min after injection in whole brain. Furthermore, the expression profile of GLUT1 was also higher in the brain of pregnant rats of the infected group. Therefore, microPET can be effectively applied to in vivo assessment of small animals and contributes to early diagnosis of T. gondii infection, which also assists in understanding birth defects caused by T. gondii infection. (author)

  5. Changes in metabolism during a fasting period and a subsequent vegetarian diet with particular reference to glucose metabolism.

    Lithell, H; Vessby, B; Hellsing, K; Ljunghall, K; Höglund, N J; Werner, I; Bruce, A

    1983-01-01

    During an investigation on the effect of fasting and a vegetarian diet on the symptoms and signs in chronic cutaneous and arthritic diseases studies were made of glucose metabolism, liver function and the plasma concentration and urine excretion of some minerals. The study was performed on 27 patients who stayed as in-patients on a metabolic ward for five weeks. After the fasting period the blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were lower (p less than 0.01) than before the fast. At the end of the period on the vegetarian (vegan) diet (three weeks) the insulin/glucose ratio was lower than at the start of the fast. Serum enzyme concentrations reflecting liver function increased during the fast, but normalized during the vegan diet. The intake of vitamin B12 and of selenium due to the vegan diets was very low, which may give reason for some concern during long-term use of this type of vegetarian diet. PMID:6359625

  6. Abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity associated with illness course, symptoms and fasting blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Suijing Cui; Jinhua Qiu; Weiliang Luo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity during onset of diabetes mellitus is not related to age and sex, but to symptoms, illness course and level of fasting blood glucose.OBJECTIVE: To measure correlation of abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with various illness courses, symptoms and levels of fasting blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Central People's Hospital of Huizhou.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from Central People's Hospital of Huizhou from September 2001 to October 2005. There were 75 males and 53 females aged 32-83 years and the illness course ranged from 1 month to 20 years.METHODS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received neuro-electrophysiological study and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to measure peripheral nerve conduction velocity and fasting blood glucose so as to investigate the correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms,illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms, illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.RESULTS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were involved in the final analysis. ① Among 128patients, 114 patients had abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 110 patients had clinical symptoms, including 102 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 18 patients did not have clinical symptoms, including 12 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity.There were significant differences between them (x2=8.275, P=0.04). ② Among 128 patients, illness course of 75 patients was equal to or less than 5 years, including 27 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity

  7. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Bentzen, Joan; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco...... on the insulin-to-glucose ratio (p = 0.04), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) influenced HOMAbeta (p = 0.04). Significant interactions were observed between genotype in T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and glucose tolerance on lipid-related parameters (0.03 < p...

  8. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  9. Glycated albumin suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion by impairing glucose metabolism in rat pancreatic β-cells

    Muto Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycated albumin (GA is an Amadori product used as a marker of hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of GA on insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Methods Islets were collected from male Wistar rats by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion in the presence of non-glycated human albumin (HA and GA was measured under three different glucose concentrations, 3 mM (G3, 7 mM (G7, and 15 mM (G15, with various stimulators. Insulin secretion was measured with antagonists of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS, and the expression of iNOS-mRNA was investigated by real-time PCR. Results Insulin secretion in the presence of HA and GA was 20.9 ± 3.9 and 21.6 ± 5.5 μU/3 islets/h for G3 (P = 0.920, and 154 ± 9.3 and 126.1 ± 7.3 μU/3 islets/h (P = 0.046, for G15, respectively. High extracellular potassium and 10 mM tolbutamide abrogated the inhibition of insulin secretion by GA. Glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, methylpyruvate, GLP-1, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, did not abrogate the inhibition. Real-time PCR showed that GA did not induce iNOS-mRNA expression. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase, aminoguanidine, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester did not abrogate the inhibition of insulin secretion. Conclusion GA suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells through impairment of intracellular glucose metabolism.

  10. Co-ordination of hepatic and adipose tissue lipid metabolism after oral glucose

    Bülow, J; Simonsen, L; Wiggins, D; Humphreys, S M; Frayn, K N; Powell, D; Gibbons, G F

    1999-01-01

    The integration of lipid metabolism in the splanchnic bed and in subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after ingestion of a 75 g glucose load was studied by Fick's principle in seven healthy subjects. Six additional subjects were studied during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Release of non...... NEFA was significantly lower than that for output of VLDL, implying depletion of hepatic TAG stores during the experiment. In the hyperinsulinemic clamp experiments, there was on average suppression of splanchnic VLDL-TAG output although between-person variability was marked. This suppression could be...... explained by a very low supply of NEFA during the clamp. We conclude that there is an integrated pattern of metabolism in splanchnic and adipose tissues in the postabsorptive and post-glucose states. Flux of NEFA from adipose tissue drives splanchnic NEFA uptake. Splanchnic VLDL-TAG secretion appears to be...

  11. (14C)-glucose metabolism during shoot bud development in cultured cotyledon explants of Pinus radiata

    Excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata D. Don cultured under shoot-forming (plus benzyladenine) and non shoot-forming (minus benzyladenine) conditions for 10 and 21 days were fed U-[14C]-glucose for 3 h in the light followed by a 3 h chase period. The labelling of individual metabolites as well as 14C incorporation into protein was assessed. It was found that the general metabolic patterns were qualitatively the same in shoot-forming and non shoot-forming conditions, however, metabolism leading to respiration as well as to the synthesis of some amino acids and protein synthesis was enhanced in the shoot-forming cultures. (author)

  12. Effect of antibiotics on gut microbiota, glucose metabolism and bodyweight regulation - a review of the literature

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbaek; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Knop, Filip Krag

    2016-01-01

    Gut bacteria are involved in a number of host metabolic processes and have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Use of antibiotics changes the composition of the gut microbiota and there is accumulating evidence from observational studies for an association...... between exposure to antibiotics and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we review human studies examining effects of antibiotics on bodyweight regulation and glucose metabolism and discuss whether the observed findings may relate to alterations in the composition and function of the gut...... microbiota....

  13. Quantitative Rates of Brain Glucose Metabolism Distinguish Minimally Conscious from Vegetative State Patients

    Stender, Johan; Kupers, Ron; Rodell, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of the vegetative or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) is an important clinical issue. The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) declines when consciousness is lost, and may reveal the residual cognitive function of these...... indistinguishable from those of MCS. Ordinal logistic regression predicted that patients are likely to emerge into MCS at CMRglc above 45% of normal. Receiver-operating characteristics showed that patients in MCS and VS/UWS can be differentiated with 82% accuracy, based on cortical metabolism. Together these...

  14. Type 2 Diabetes and Breast Cancer: The Interplay between Impaired Glucose Metabolism and Oxidant Stress

    Ferroni, Patrizia; Riondino, Silvia; Buonomo, Oreste; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Guadagni, Fiorella; Roselli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders, especially type 2 diabetes and its associated complications, represent a growing public health problem. Epidemiological findings indicate a close relationship between diabetes and many types of cancer (including breast cancer risk), which regards not only the dysmetabolic condition, but also its underlying risk factors and therapeutic interventions. This review discusses the advances in understanding of the mechanisms linking metabolic disorders and breast cancer. Among the proposed mechanisms to explain such an association, a major role is played by the dysregulated glucose metabolism, which concurs with a chronic proinflammatory condition and an associated oxidative stress to promote tumour initiation and progression. As regards the altered glucose metabolism, hyperinsulinaemia, both endogenous due to insulin-resistance and drug-induced, appears to promote tumour cell growth through the involvement of innate immune activation, platelet activation, increased reactive oxygen species, exposure to protumorigenic and proangiogenic cytokines, and increased substrate availability to neoplastic cells. In this context, understanding the relationship between metabolic disorders and cancer is becoming imperative, and an accurate analysis of these associations could be used to identify biomarkers able to predict disease risk and/or prognosis and to help in the choice of proper evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. PMID:26171112

  15. Associations of fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with peripheral glucose concentrations and energy metabolism.

    Reiner Jumpertz

    Full Text Available Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP as well as respiratory quotient (RQ in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16:1, C18:1 and very-long-chain saturated (C24:0, C26:0 FAs.Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis.

  16. A palatable hyperlipidic diet causes obesity and affects brain glucose metabolism in rats

    Motoyama Caio SM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that either the continuous intake of a palatable hyperlipidic diet (H or the alternation of chow (C and an H diet (CH regimen induced obesity in rats. Here, we investigated whether the time of the start and duration of these feeding regimens are relevant and whether they affect brain glucose metabolism. Methods Male Wistar rats received C, H, or CH diets during various periods of their life spans: days 30-60, days 30-90, or days 60-90. Experiments were performed the 60th or the 90th day of life. Rats were killed by decapitation. The glucose, insulin, leptin plasma concentration, and lipid content of the carcasses were determined. The brain was sliced and incubated with or without insulin for the analysis of glucose uptake, oxidation, and the conversion of [1-14C]-glucose to lipids. Results The relative carcass lipid content increased in all of the H and CH groups, and the H30-60 and H30-90 groups had the highest levels. Groups H30-60, H30-90, CH30-60, and CH30-90 exhibited a higher serum glucose level. Serum leptin increased in all H groups and in the CH60-90 and CH30-90 groups. Serum insulin was elevated in the H30-60, H60-90, CH60-90, CH30-90 groups. Basal brain glucose consumption and hypothalamic insulin receptor density were lower only in the CH30-60 group. The rate of brain lipogenesis was increased in the H30-90 and CH30-90 groups. Conclusion These findings indicate that both H and CH diet regimens increased body adiposity independent treatment and the age at which treatment was started, whereas these diets caused hyperglycemia and affected brain metabolism when started at an early age.

  17. Cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: two sides of the same coin?

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal (FTD) dementia can be differentiated using [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-PET. Since cerebral blood flow (CBF) is related to glucose metabolism, our aim was to investigate the extent of overlap of abnormalities between AD and FTD. Normalized FDG-PET and arterial spin labelling (ASL-MRI)-derived CBF was measured in 18 AD patients (age, 64 ± 8), 12 FTD patients (age, 61 ± 8), and 10 controls (age, 56 ± 10). Voxel-wise comparisons, region-of-interest (ROI), correlation, and ROC curve analyses were performed. Voxel-wise comparisons showed decreased CBF and FDG uptake in AD compared with controls and FTD in both precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Compared with controls and AD, FTD patients showed both hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). ASL and FDG were related in precuneus (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), IPL (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and mPFC across groups (r = 0.74, p < 001). ROC analyses indicated comparable performance of perfusion and metabolism in the precuneus (AUC, 0.72 and 0.74), IPL (0.85 and 0.94) for AD relative to FTD, and in the mPFC in FTD relative to AD (both 0.68). Similar patterns of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism were observed in regions typically associated with AD and FTD, suggesting that ASL-MRI provides information comparable to FDG-PET. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: two sides of the same coin?

    Verfaillie, Sander C.J.; Adriaanse, Sofie M.; Binnewijzend, Maja A.A.; Benedictus, Marije R.; Ossenkoppele, Rik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre and Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wattjes, Mike P.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald; Berckel, Bart N.M. van; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre and Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre and Department of Neurology, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal (FTD) dementia can be differentiated using [{sup 18}F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-PET. Since cerebral blood flow (CBF) is related to glucose metabolism, our aim was to investigate the extent of overlap of abnormalities between AD and FTD. Normalized FDG-PET and arterial spin labelling (ASL-MRI)-derived CBF was measured in 18 AD patients (age, 64 ± 8), 12 FTD patients (age, 61 ± 8), and 10 controls (age, 56 ± 10). Voxel-wise comparisons, region-of-interest (ROI), correlation, and ROC curve analyses were performed. Voxel-wise comparisons showed decreased CBF and FDG uptake in AD compared with controls and FTD in both precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Compared with controls and AD, FTD patients showed both hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). ASL and FDG were related in precuneus (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), IPL (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and mPFC across groups (r = 0.74, p < 001). ROC analyses indicated comparable performance of perfusion and metabolism in the precuneus (AUC, 0.72 and 0.74), IPL (0.85 and 0.94) for AD relative to FTD, and in the mPFC in FTD relative to AD (both 0.68). Similar patterns of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism were observed in regions typically associated with AD and FTD, suggesting that ASL-MRI provides information comparable to FDG-PET. (orig.)

  19. Effect of tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavone on glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Sundaram, Ramalingam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2014-05-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of tangeretin on the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate and glycogen metabolism in control and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The daily oral administration of tangeretin (100mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and increase in the levels of insulin and hemoglobin. The altered activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in liver of diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the administration of tangeretin. Further, tangeretin administration to diabetic rats improved hepatic glycogen content suggesting the antihyperglycemic potential of tangeretin in diabetic rats. The effect produced by tangeretin on various parameters was comparable to that of glibenclamide - a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. Thus, these results show that tangeretin modulates the activities of hepatic enzymes via enhanced secretion of insulin and decreases the blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats by its antioxidant potential. PMID:24629597

  20. Glucagon-insulin interaction on fat cell metabolism using c14 glucose

    Glucagon is known to stimulate the lipolysis in isolated fat cells from young rats, but not in fat cells from old heavy rate (Manganiello 1972). Insulin is known to counteract the lipolytic effect and to stimulate the synthesis of fatty acids from glucose. However, little is known about the interaction between the two hormones on the glucose metabolism. Experiments based on the use of various inhibitors of lipolysis have however, clearly shown that glucagon can also stimulate the entry and overall oxidation of glucose by mechanism which is distinct from its lipolysis stimulating mechanism (M. Blecher et al. 1969). Fat cells from old heavy rats are known to be less responsive to both the lipogenic action of insulin and the lipolytic action of glucagon than fat cells from young lean rats (E.G. Hansen, Nielsen and Gliemann, 1974). The aim of the present study was to see how glucagon affects glucose metabolism in fat cells, and whether this effect was dependent on the lipolytic action of glucagon

  1. Effects of nicotine on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in awake resting tobacco smokers.

    Domino, E F; Minoshima, S; Guthrie, S K; Ohl, L; Ni, L; Koeppe, R A; Cross, D J; Zubieta, J

    2000-01-01

    Eleven healthy tobacco smoking adult male volunteers of mixed race were tobacco abstinent overnight for this study. In each subject, positron emission tomographic images of regional cerebral metabolism of glucose with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose were obtained in two conditions in the morning on different days: about 3min after approximately 1-2mg of nasal nicotine spray and after an equivalent volume of an active placebo spray of oleoresin of pepper in a random counterbalanced design. A Siemens/CTI 931/08-12 scanner with the capability of 15 horizontal brain slices was used. The images were further converted into a standard uniform brain format in which the mean data of all 11 subjects were obtained. Images were analysed in stereotactic coordinates using pixel-wise t statistics and a smoothed Gaussian model. Peak plasma nicotine levels varied three-fold and the areas under the curve(0-30min) varied seven-fold among the individual subjects. Nicotine caused a small overall reduction in global cerebral metabolism of glucose but, when the data were normalized, several brain regions showed relative increases in activity. Cerebral structures specifically activated by nicotine (nicotine minus pepper, Z score >4.0) included: left inferior frontal gyrus, left posterior cingulate gyrus and right thalamus. The visual cortex, including the right and left cuneus and left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus fusiformis, also showed an increase in regional cerebral metabolism of glucose with Z scores >3. 6. Structures with a decrease in regional cerebral metabolism of glucose (pepper minus nicotine) were the left insula and right inferior occipital gyrus, with Z scores >3.5. Especially important is the fact that the thalamus is activated by nicotine. This is consistent with the high density of nicotinic cholinoceptors in that brain region. However, not all brain regions affected by nicotine are known to have many nicotinic cholinoceptors. The results are discussed in relation to the

  2. Improved Estimation of Local Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate Using Bayes Regression Analysis of PET Scan Data

    Wilson, P D; Huang, S. C.; Links, J M

    1984-01-01

    The current method for measurement of local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (LCMRG) has relatively small errors when applied to normal healthy tissue. But when applied to ischemic regions in brains of stroke patients, the method gives estimates which average about 50% too low. Here we introduce a modified Bayes Regression (BR) to compute LCMRG, and use computer simulation studies to demonstrate that BR has relatively small errors for either ischemic or normal tissue.

  3. Regulatory role of leptin in glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Yasuhiko Minokoshi; Chitoku Toda; Shiki Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays a pivotal role in regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and neuroendocrine function. Several lines of evidences indicate that independent of the anorexic effect, leptin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues in rodents and humans. It has been shown that leptin improves the diabetes phenotype in lipodystrophic patients and rodents. Moreover, leptin suppresses the development of severe, progressive impairment o...

  4. Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism in Stage IV Breast Cancer: Heterogeneity of Response During Chemotherapy

    Krak, Nanda; Hoeven, John; Hoekstra, Otto; Twisk, Jos; Wall, Ernst; Lammertsma, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The purpose of the study was to compare early changes in blood flow (BF) and glucose metabolism (MRglu) in metastatic breast cancer lesions of patients treated with chemotherapy. Methods: Eleven women with stage IV cancer and lesions in breast, lymph nodes, liver, and bone were scanned before treatment and after the first course of chemotherapy. BF, distribution volume of water (Vd), MRglu/BF ratio, MRgluand its corresponding rate constants K1and k3were compared per tum...

  5. Decreased regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions in adults' with internet game addiction

    Internet Game Addiction (IGA) is known to be associated with poor decision-making and diminished impulse control; however, the underlying neural substrates of IGA have not been identified. To investigate the neural substrates of IGA, we compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between adults with and without IGA, primarily in the prefrontal brain regions, which have been implicated in inhibitory control. We studied 10 right-handed participants (5 controls: male, 23.8±0.75 y, 5 IGAs: male, 22.6±2.42 y) with FDG PET. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess the severity of IGA. Before scanning, all subjects carried out a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), as measures of behavioral inhibitory control. Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) was used to analyze differences in regional brain glucose metabolism between adults with and without IGA. Consistent with our predictions, compared to controls, significant reductions in FDG uptake in individuals with IGA were found in the bilateral orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 11, 47), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44, 48), cingulate cortex (BA 24), and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) (BA 6); whereas increases were found in the bilateral hippocampus. Correlation analyses within the IGA group further showed that the level of glucose metabolism in the right orbitofrontal gyrus was marginally positively correlated with task scores in BART. Our results showed that IGA is associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control. This finding highlights dysfunctional inhibitory brain systems in individuals with IGA and offers implications for the development for therapeutic paradigms for IGA

  6. Influence of creatine supplementation on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats

    Michel Barbosa de Araújo; Roberto Carlos Vieira Junior; Leandro Pereira de Moura; Marcelo Costa Junior; Rodrigo Augusto Dalia; Amanda Christine da Silva Sponton; Carla Ribeiro; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation in the diet on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats. Forty Wistar adult rats were distributed into four groups for eight weeks: 1) Control: sedentary rats that received balanced diet; 2) Creatine control: sedentary rats that received supplementation of 2% creatine in the balanced diet; 3) Trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received balanc...

  7. Insights into the molecular mechanism of glucose metabolism regulation under stress in chicken skeletal muscle tissues

    Liu, Wuyi; Zhao, Jingpeng

    2014-01-01

    As substantial progress has been achieved in modern poultry production with large-scale and intensive feeding and farming in recent years, stress becomes a vital factor affecting chicken growth, development, and production yield, especially the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle mass. The review was aimed to outline and understand the stress-related genetic regulatory mechanism, which significantly affects glucose metabolism regulation in chicken skeletal muscle tissues. Progress in curr...

  8. Nosocomial pneumonia caused by a glucose-metabolizing strain of Neisseria cinerea.

    Boyce, J M; Taylor, M R; Mitchell, E B; Knapp, J S

    1985-01-01

    We describe what appears to be the first reported case of nosocomial pneumonia caused by Neisseria cinerea. The isolate metabolized glucose when tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation Kits (Johnston Laboratories), but did not produce detectable acid in cystine-Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) agar medium or in modified oxidation-fermentation medium. Clinical laboratories that rely on the BACTEC method for differentiation of pathogenic neisseriae should be aware of the fact that N. ci...

  9. The Relationship between Selenoprotein P and Glucose Metabolism in Experimental Studies

    Jinyuan Mao; Weiping Teng

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element in the diet of mammals which is important for many physiological functions. However, a number of epidemiological studies have suggested that high selenium status is a possible risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, although they cannot distinguish between cause and effect. Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is central to selenium homeostasis and widely expressed in the organism. Here we review the interaction between Sepp1 and glucose metabolism with a...

  10. Hexachlorobenzene impairs glucose metabolism in a rat model of porphyria cutanea tarda: a mechanistic approach

    Mazzetti, Marta Blanca; Taira, Maria Cristina; Lelli, Sandra Marcela; Viale, Leonor Carmen San Martin de [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dascal, Eduardo; Basabe, Juan Carlos [Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinologicas (CEDIE). Hospital de Ninos, Dr. Ricardo Gutierrez, C1425EDF, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, induces porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of HCB on some aspects of glucose metabolism, particularly those related to its neosynthesis in vivo. For this purpose, a time-course study on gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and on pyruvate kinase (PK), a glycolytic enzyme, was carried out. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, hepatic glycogen, tryptophan contents, and the pancreatic insulin secretion pattern stimulated by glucose were investigated. Oxidative stress and heme pathway parameters were also evaluated. HCB treatment decreased PC, PEPCK, and G-6-Pase activities. The effect was observed at an early time point and grew as the treatment progressed. Loss of 60, 56, and 37%, respectively, was noted at the end of the treatment when a considerable amount of porphyrins had accumulated in the liver as a result of drastic blockage of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) (95% inhibition). The plasma glucose level was reduced (one-third loss), while storage of hepatic glucose was stimulated in a time-dependent way by HCB treatment. A decay in the normal plasma insulin level was observed as fungicide intoxication progressed (twice to four times lower). However, normal insulin secretion of perifused pancreatic Langerhans islets stimulated by glucose during the 3rd and 6th weeks of treatment did not prove to be significantly affected. HCB promoted a time-dependent increase in urinary chemiluminiscence (fourfold) and hepatic malondialdehide (MDA) content (fivefold), while the liver tryptophan level was only raised at the longest intoxication times. These results would suggest that HCB treatment does not cause a primary alteration in the mechanism of pancreatic insulin secretion and that the changes induced by the fungicide on insulin levels would be an adaptative

  11. Impact of newly diagnosed abnormal glucose regulation on long-term prognosis in low risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up study

    Abdelnoor Michael

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction and newly detected abnormal glucose regulation have been shown to have a less favourable prognosis compared to patients with normal glucose regulation. The importance and timing of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose regulation classified by an OGTT in-hospital and at three-month follow-up on clinical outcome in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI without known diabetes. Methods Patients (n = 224, age 58 years with a primary percutanous coronary intervention (PCI treated STEMI were followed for clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial re-infarction, recurrent ischemia causing hospital admission, and stroke. The patients were classified by a standardised 75 g OGTT at two time points, first, at a median time of 16.5 hours after hospital admission, then at three-month follow-up. Based on the OGTT results, the patients were categorised according to the WHO criteria and the term abnormal glucose regulation was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes. Results The number of patients diagnosed with abnormal glucose regulation in-hospital and at three-month was 105 (47% and 50 (25%, respectively. During the follow up time of (median 33 (27, 39 months, 58 (25.9% patients experienced a new clinical event. There were six deaths, 15 non-fatal re-infarction, 33 recurrent ischemia, and four strokes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival free of composite end-points showed similar results in patients with abnormal and normal glucose regulation, both when classified in-hospital (p = 0.4 and re-classified three months later (p = 0.3. Conclusions Patients with a primary PCI treated STEMI, without previously known diabetes, appear to have an excellent

  12. Zonation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the liver : Mechanism and metabolic consequences

    Hijmans, Brenda S.; Greffiorst, Aldo; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Groen, Albert K.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is generally considered as a relatively homogeneous organ containing four different cell types. It is however well-known that the liver is not homogeneous and consists of clearly demarcated metabolic zones. Hepatocytes from different zones show phenotypical heterogeneity in metabolic featu

  13. Effects of four aromatic organic pollutants on microbial glucose metabolism and thymidine incorporation in marine sediments

    The metabolism of D-(U-14C)glucose and the incorporation of (methyl-3H)thymidine by aerobic and anaerobic marine sediment microbes exposed to 1 to 1000 ppm anthracene, naphthalene, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and pentachlorophenol were examined. Cell-specific rates of (14C)glucose metabolism averaged 1.7 x 10-21 and 0.5 x 10-21 mol/min per cell for aerobic and anaerobic sediment slurries, respectively; (3H)thymidine incorporation rates averaged 43 x 10-24 and 9 x 10-24 mol/min per cell for aerobic and anaerobic slurries, respectively. Aerobic sediments exposed to three of the organic pollutants for 2 to 7 days showed recovery of both activities. Anaerobic sediments showed little recovery after 2 days of pre-exposure to the pollutants. The authors conclude that (i) anaerobic sediments are more sensitive than aerobic sediments to pollutant additions; (ii) (3H)thymidine incorporation is more sensitive to pollutant additions than is (14C)glucose metabolism; and (iii) the toxicity of the pollutants increased in the following order: anthracene, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, naphthalene, and pentachlorophenol

  14. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Tumor Compartments Exhibit In Vivo Complementary Patterns of Vascular Perfusion and Glucose Metabolism

    Mirco Galiè

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose transport and consumption are increased in tumors, and this is considered a diagnostic index of malignancy. However, there is recent evidence that carcinoma-associated stromal cells are capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption, at least partly because of their efficient vascular supply. In the present study, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET, we mapped in vivo the vascular supply and glucose metabolism in syngeneic experimental models of carcinoma and mesenchymal tumor. We found that in both tumor histotypes, regions with high vascular perfusion exhibited a significantly lower FDG uptake. This reciprocity was more conspicuous in carcinomas than in mesenchymal tumors, and regions with a high-vascular/low-FDG uptake pattern roughly overlapped with a stromal capsule and intratumoral large connectival septa. Accordingly, mesenchymal tumors exhibited a higher vascular perfusion and a lower FDG uptake than carcinomas. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of vascular/metabolic reciprocity between epithelial and mesenchymal histotypes in tumors, suggesting a new intriguing aspect of epithelial-stromal interaction. Our results suggests that FDG-PET-based clinical analysis can underestimate the malignity or tumor extension of carcinomas exhibiting any trait of “mesenchymalization” such as desmoplasia or epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  15. (1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused abnormal serum metabolic profile of cattle.

    Yingyu Chen

    Full Text Available To re-evaluate virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb in cattle, we experimentally infected calves with M. tb andMycobacterium bovisvia intratracheal injection at a dose of 2.0×10(7 CFU and observed the animals for 33 weeks. The intradermal tuberculin test and IFN-γin vitro release assay showed that both M. tb and M. bovis induced similar responses. Immunohistochemical staining of pulmonary lymph nodes indicated that the antigen MPB83 of both M. tb and M. bovis were similarly distributed in the tissue samples. Histological examinations showed all of the infected groups exhibited neutrophil infiltration to similar extents. Although the infected cattle did not develop granulomatous inflammation, the metabolic profiles changed significantly, which were characterized by a change in energy production pathways and increased concentrations of N-acetyl glycoproteins. Glycolysis was induced in the infected cattle by decreased glucose and increased lactate content, and enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation was induced by decreased TG content, and decreased gluconeogenesis indicated by the decreased concentration of glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids promoted utilization of substances other than glucose as energy sources. In addition, an increase in acute phase reactive serum glycoproteins, together with neutrophil infiltration and increased of IL-1β production indicated an early inflammatory response before granuloma formation. In conclusion, this study indicated that both M. tb and M.bovis were virulent to cattle. Therefore, it is likely that cattle with M. tb infections would be critical to tuberculosis transmission from cattle to humans. Nuclear magnetic resonance was demonstrated to be an efficient method to systematically evaluate M. tb and M. bovi sinfection in cattle.

  16. Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in African American Children Using Fasting HOMA-IR in Place of Glucose

    Sushma Sharma, PhD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMetabolic syndrome (MetS is increasing among young people. We compared the use of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR with the use of fasting blood glucose to identify MetS in African American children.MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from a sample of 105 children (45 boys, 60 girls aged 9 to 13 years with body mass indexes at or above the 85th percentile for age and sex. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured.ResultsWe found that HOMA-IR is a stronger indicator of MetS in children than blood glucose. Using HOMA-IR as 1 of the 5 components, we found a 38% prevalence of MetS in this sample of African American children and the proportion of false negatives decreased from 94% with blood glucose alone to 13% with HOMA-IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in obese than overweight children and higher among girls than boys.ConclusionUsing HOMA-IR was preferred to fasting blood glucose because insulin resistance was more significantly interrelated with the other 4 MetS components.

  17. Glucose and amino acid metabolism in rat brain during sustained hypoglycemia

    The metabolism of glucose in brains during sustained hypoglycemia was studied. [U-14C]Glucose (20 microCi) was injected into control rats, and into rats at 2.5 hr after a bolus injection of 2 units of insulin followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 units/100 g rat/hr. This regimen of insulin injection was found to result in steady-state plasma glucose levels between 2.5 and 3.5 mumol per ml. In the brains of control rats carbon was transferred rapidly from glucose to glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and aspartate and this carbon was retained in the amino acids for at least 60 min. In the brains of hypoglycemic rats, the conversion of carbon from glucose to amino acids was increased in the first 15 min after injection. After 15 min, the specific activity of the amino acids decreased in insulin-treated rats but not in the controls. The concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid decreased, and the concentration of aspartate increased, in the brains of the hypoglycemic rats. The concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a cofactor in many of the reactions whereby these amino acids are formed from tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, was less in the insulin-treated rats than in the controls. These data provide evidence that glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and GABA can serve as energy sources in brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia

  18. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging

  19. Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose Metabolism and Lipids: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Objective. A systematic review of the effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipid levels. Research Design and Methods. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau. Eligible studies were English language randomized controlled trials of chromium ...

  20. Effects of acupuncture on the citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver under various types of stress

    A study was made of the effect of acupuncture on citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver in terms of incorporation of 14C-1, 5-citric acid and 14C-u-glucose in some metabolites. The effect of acupuncture on citrate metabolism in the liver under control conditions was such as to increase production of G and reduce that of KB, FC and FFA. No effect of acupuncture on glucose metabolism in the liver under such conditions was observed. Both citrate and glucose metabolism were affected to a marked extent by immobilization stress or exposure to heat or cold. The deleterious effect of these types of stress was less prominent in animals receiving acupuncture at the Tsu-San-Li locus than in those treated otherwise or receiving no treatment

  1. Effects of acupuncture on the citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver under various types of stress

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saito, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of the effect of acupuncture on citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver in terms of incorporation of /sup 14/C-1, 5-citric acid and /sup 14/C-u-glucose in some metabolites. The effect of acupuncture on citrate metabolism in the liver under control conditions was such as to increase production of G and reduce that of KB, FC and FFA. No effect of acupuncture on glucose metabolism in the liver under such conditions was observed. Both citrate and glucose metabolism were affected to a marked extent by immobilization stress or exposure to heat or cold. The deleterious effect of these types of stress was less prominent in animals receiving acupuncture at the Tsu-San-Li locus than in those treated otherwise or receiving no treatment.

  2. Response of C2C12 Myoblasts to Hypoxia: The Relative Roles of Glucose and Oxygen in Adaptive Cellular Metabolism

    Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen and glucose are two important nutrients for mammalian cell function. In this study, the effect of glucose and oxygen concentrations on C2C12 cellular metabolism was characterized with an emphasis on detecting whether cells show oxygen conformance (OC in response to hypoxia. Methods. After C2C12 cells being cultured in the levels of glucose at 0.6 mM (LG, 5.6 mM (MG, or 23.3 mM(HG under normoxic or hypoxic (1% oxygen condition, cellular oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, lactate production, and metabolic status were determined. Short-term oxygen consumption was measured with a novel oxygen biosensor technique. Longer-term measurements were performed with standard glucose, lactate, and cell metabolism assays. Results. It was found that oxygen depletion in normoxia is dependent on the glucose concentration in the medium. Cellular glucose uptake and lactate production increased significantly in hypoxia than those in normoxia. In hypoxia the cellular response to the level of glucose was different to that in normoxia. The metabolic activities decreased while glucose concentration increased in normoxia, while in hypoxia, metabolic activity was reduced in LG and MG, but unchanged in HG condition. The OC phenomenon was not observed in the present study. Conclusions. Our findings suggested that a combination of low oxygen and low glucose damages the viability of C2C12 cells more seriously than low oxygen alone. In addition, when there is sufficient glucose, C2C12 cells will respond to hypoxia by upregulating anaerobic respiration, as shown by lactate production.

  3. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-18FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal

  4. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study

    Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 3.0x10-3). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10-9). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits

  5. Critical Role of Glucose Metabolism in Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes

    Garcia-Carbonell, Ricard; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Lodi, Alessia; Vicente-Suarez, Ildefonso; Saha, Arindam; Cheroutre, Hilde; Boss, Gerry R.; Tiziani, Stefano; Murphy, Anne N.; Guma, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Objective Up-regulation of glucose metabolism has been implicated not only in tumor cell growth but also in immune cells upon activation. However, little is known about the metabolite profile in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). This study was undertaken to evaluate whether changes in glucose metabolism in RA FLS could play a role in inflammation and joint damage. Methods Synovium and FLS were obtained from patients with RA and patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The rate of glycolysis after stimulation of FLS with lipopolysaccharide and platelet-derived growth factor BB was measured using glycolysis stress test technology. FLS function was evaluated using a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). After stimulation of the FLS, a migration scratch assay, MTT assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to measure the effect of 2-DG on FLS migration, viability of the FLS, and cytokine secretion, respectively. IRDye 800CW 2-DG was used to assess glucose uptake in the arthritic joints and stromal cells of mice after K/BxN mouse serum transfer. The mice were injected daily, intraperitoneally, with 3-bromopyruvate (BrPa; 5 mg/kg) to assess the effect of inhibition of glycolysis in vivo. Results Compared to human OA FLS, the balance between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation was shifted toward glycolysis in RA FLS. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression correlated with baseline functions of the RA FLS. Glucose deprivation or incubation of the FLS with glycolytic inhibitors impaired cytokine secretion and decreased the rate of proliferation and migration of the cells. In a mouse model of inflammatory arthritis, GLUT1 mRNA expression in the synovial lining cells was observed, and increased levels of glucose uptake and glycolytic gene expression were detected in the stromal compartment of the arthritic mouse joints. Inhibition of glycolysis by BrPa, administered in vivo

  6. Glutamate Acts as a Key Signal Linking Glucose Metabolism to Incretin/cAMP Action to Amplify Insulin Secretion

    Ghupurjan Gheni; Masahito Ogura; Masahiro Iwasaki; Norihide Yokoi; Kohtaro Minami; Yasumune Nakayama; Kazuo Harada; Benoit Hastoy; Xichen Wu; Harumi Takahashi; Kazushi Kimura; Toshiya Matsubara; Ritsuko Hoshikawa; Naoya Hatano; Kenji Sugawara

    2014-01-01

    Summary Incretins, hormones released by the gut after meal ingestion, are essential for maintaining systemic glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion. The effect of incretins on insulin secretion occurs only at elevated glucose concentrations and is mediated by cAMP signaling, but the mechanism linking glucose metabolism and cAMP action in insulin secretion is unknown. We show here, using a metabolomics-based approach, that cytosolic glutamate derived from the malate-aspartate shu...

  7. Metabolic abnormalities induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of the renal carcinoma Eker (TSC2+/-) rat model.

    Aizawa, Yumi; Shirai, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Hino, Okio; Tsujii, Yoshimasa; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kazami, Machiko; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) is a mediator of insulin signal transduction, and a loss of function in TSC2 induces hyperactivation of mTORC1 pathway, which leads to tumorigenesis. We have previously demonstrated that Eker rat model, which is heterozygous for a TSC2 mutation, exhibits hyperglycemia and hyperketonemia. The present study was to investigate whether these changes also can affect metabolism in skeletal muscle of the Eker rat. Wild-type (TSC2+/+) and Eker (TSC2+/-) rats underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, and the latter showed decrease in whole-body glucose utilization. Additionally, reductions in the expression of glycolysis-, lipolysis-, and ketone body-related genes in skeletal muscle were observed in Eker rats. Furthermore, ATP content and mitochondrial DNA copy number were lower in skeletal muscle of Eker rats. These data demonstrate that heterozygous to mutation TSC2 not only affects the liver metabolism, but also skeletal muscle metabolism, via mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27031579

  8. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.

    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E; Srai, Surjit K; Unwin, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Marks, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush border. In the type II diabetic model, this is accompanied by increased SGLT- and GLUT-mediated glucose uptake. A fasted model of metabolic disruption (high-fat diet) demonstrated increased GLUT2 expression only. The differential alterations of glucose transporters in response to varying metabolic stress offer insight into the therapeutic value of inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors are now in clinical use to reduce hyperglycaemia in type II diabetes. However, renal glucose reabsorption across the brush border membrane (BBM) is not completely understood in diabetes. Increased consumption of a Western diet is strongly linked to type II diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the adaptations that occur in renal glucose transporters in response to experimental models of diet-induced insulin resistance. The study used Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rats and normal rats rendered insulin resistant using junk-food or high-fat diets. Levels of protein kinase C-βI (PKC-βI), GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 were determined by Western blotting of purified renal BBM. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated d-[(3) H]glucose uptake by BBM vesicles was measured in the presence and absence of the SGLT inhibitor phlorizin. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated glucose transport was elevated in type II diabetic rats, accompanied by increased expression of GLUT2, its upstream regulator PKC-βI and SGLT1 protein. Junk-food and high-fat diet feeding also caused higher membrane expression of GLUT2 and its upstream regulator PKC

  9. Effects of Cooling and Supplemental Bovine Somatotropin on Milk Production relating to Body Glucose Metabolism and Utilization of Glucose by the Mammary Gland in Crossbred Holstein Cattle

    Siravit Sitprija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low milk yield and shorter persistency of lactation of dairy cattle is the major problem for the dairy practices in the tropics. High environmental temperatures and rapid decline of plasma growth hormone level can influence milk production. Regulation of the milk yield of animals is mainly based on the mechanisms governing the quantity of glucose extracted by the mammary gland for lactose biosynthetic pathways. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of cooling and supplemental bovine somatotropin on milk production relating to body glucose metabolism and intracellular metabolism of glucose in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein cattle in the tropics have not been investigated to date. Approach: Ten crossbred 87.5% Holstein cows were divided into two groups of five animals each. Animals were housed in Normal Shade barn (NS as non-cooled cows and cows in the second group were housed in barn which was equipped with a two Misty-Fan cooling system (MF as cooled cows. Supplementation of recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST (POSILAC, 500 mg per cow were performed in both groups to study body glucose metabolism and the utilization of glucose in the mammary gland using a continuous infusion of [3-3H] glucose and [U- 14C] glucose as markers in early, mid and late stages of lactation. Results: Milk yield significantly increased in both groups during supplemental rbST with a high level of mammary blood flow. Body glucose turnover rates were not significant different between cooled and non-cooled cows whether supplemental rbST or not. The glucose taken up by the mammary gland of both non-cooled and cooled cows increased flux through the lactose synthesis and the pentose cycle pathway with significant increases in NADPH formation for fatty acid synthesis during rbST supplementation. The utilization of glucose carbon incorporation into milk appeared to increase in milk lactose and milk triacylglycerol but not for

  10. A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin prevents abnormality of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in salt-treated obese rats.

    Takeshige, Yui; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ohmori, Koji; Kohno, Masakazu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effects of the selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin on urinary sodium excretion and circadian blood pressure in salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fifteen-week-old obese OLETF rats were treated with 1% NaCl (in drinking water), and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, n=10) or empagliflozin (10 mg kg(-1)per day, p.o., n=11) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry system. Glucose metabolism and urinary sodium excretion were evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and high salt challenge test, respectively. Vehicle-treated OLETF rats developed non-dipper type blood pressure elevation with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, empagliflozin-treated OLETF rats showed an approximately 1000-fold increase in urinary glucose excretion and improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Furthermore, empagliflozin prevented the development of blood pressure elevation with normalization of its circadian rhythm to a dipper profile, which was associated with increased urinary sodium excretion. These data suggest that empagliflozin elicits beneficial effects on both glucose homeostasis and hypertension in salt-replete obese states. PMID:26818652

  11. Effect of Intermittent Hypoxia and Rimonabant on Glucose Metabolism in Rats: Involvement of Expression of GLUT4 in Skeletal Muscle

    Wang, Xiaoya; Yu, Qin; Yue, Hongmei; Zeng, Shuang; Cui, Fenfen

    2015-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its main feature, chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, is closely associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Rimonabant can regulate glucose metabolism and improve IR. The present study aimed to assess the effect of IH and rimonabant on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and to explore the possible mechanisms. Material/Methods Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: Control group, subjected to intermitte...

  12. Lipopolysaccharide markedly changes glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in the longissimus muscle of pigs.

    Sun, H; Huang, Y; Yin, C; Guo, J; Zhao, R; Yang, X

    2016-07-01

    Most previous studies on the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in pigs focused on the body's immune response, and few reports paid attention to body metabolism changes. To better understand the glucose metabolism changes in skeletal muscle following LPS challenge and to clarify the possible mechanism, 12 growing pigs were employed. Animals were treated with either 2 ml of saline or 15 µg/kg BW LPS, and samples were collected 6 h later. The glycolysis status and mitochondrial function in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of pigs were analyzed. The results showed that serum lactate content and NADH content in LD muscle significantly increased compared with the control group. Most glycolysis-related genes expression, as well as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase and lactic dehydrogenase activity, in LD muscle was significantly higher compared with the control group. Mitochondrial complexes I and IV significantly increased, while mitochondrial ATP concentration markedly decreased. Significantly increased calcium content in the mitochondria was observed, and endoplasm reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated in the present study. The results showed that LPS treatment markedly changes glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in the LD muscle of pigs, and increased calcium content induced by ER stress was possibly involved. The results provide new clues for clarifying metabolic diseases in muscle induced by LPS. PMID:26863995

  13. Detection of serum iron and zinc levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism

    Xiao-Yong Tang; Wan-Fen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the blood iron and zinc levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism.Methods:Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in T2DM group and healthy people were enrolled in control group. T2DM patients were divided into low iron and zinc group and high iron and zinc group with the median of serum iron and zinc contents as the standard. Serum trace elements contents and glucose and lipid metabolism indicators were detected.Results:T2DM patients’ blood iron contents were significantly higher than those of the control group while the zinc contents were significantly lower than those of the control group. Copper, calcium and magnesium contents had no significant difference between two groups of patients. HbA1c%, glucagon and HOMA-IR as well as apoB, apoE, ApoM, leptin and vaspin contents in high iron group were higher than those in low iron group while serum insulin, GLP-1, GIP, ApoA1, APN and HOMA-β levels were lower than those in low iron group. HbA1c%, glucagon, HOMA-IR, apoB, apoE, ApoM, leptin and vaspin contents in high zinc group were lower than those in low zinc group while serum insulin, GLP-1, GIP, ApoA1, APN and HOMA-β levels were higher than those in low zinc group.Conclusions: the serum iron level was abnormally high and the zinc content was abnormally low in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum iron and zinc levels were closely related to the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  14. Chronic fatigue syndrome in middle-aged women: the role of disorders of glucose metabolism

    Anastasiya V Pleshcheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS among middle-aged women and to assess the role of glucose metabolism disturbances in the development of this pathology. Materials and Methods: The study included 231 women from 40 to 60 years old (mean age 52.3 ± 5 years, observed at urban polyclinic in Moscow, who was referred to or was observed by an endocrinologist (n = 142, group 1, therapist (n = 56, group 2 or had a prophylactic medical examinations (n = 33, group 3. We recorded demographic and anthropometric data, accessed levels of glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin and calculated BMI and HOMA indexes. Results: The prevalence of CFS in the whole group of patients studied was 27%. The highest frequency of CFS is registered in the group of patients observed by the endocrinologist – 35%, and at dispensary examination – 21%, which was significantly different from the prevalence of CFS in patients seeking an appointment with a therapist – 13% (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03 for Fisher's exact test, respectively. Higher BMI, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HOMA insulin resistance index as naturally expected were observed in group 1, but after further division for the presence or absence of CFS, significant differences for patients with CFS were only higher fasting glucose levels in group 2. Conclusions: We determined the prevalence of CFS in the examined groups of patients and showed only a weak correlation of CFS and disturbances of glucose metabolism.

  15. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety. PMID:26987021

  16. The influence of social status on hepatic glucose metabolism in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Gilmour, Kathleen M; Kirkpatrick, Sheryn; Massarsky, Andrey; Pearce, Brenda; Saliba, Sarah; Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Moon, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    The effects of chronic social stress on hepatic glycogen metabolism were examined in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by comparing hepatocyte glucose production, liver glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity, and liver β-adrenergic receptors in dominant, subordinate, control, fasted, and cortisol-treated fish. Hepatocyte glucose production in subordinate fish was approximately half that of dominant fish, reflecting hepatocyte glycogen stores in subordinate trout that were just 16% of those in dominant fish. Fasting and/or chronic elevation of cortisol likely contributed to these differences based on similarities among subordinate, fasted, and cortisol-treated fish. However, calculation of the "glycogen gap"--the difference between glycogen stores used and glucose produced--suggested an enhanced gluconeogenic potential in subordinate fish that was not present in fasted or cortisol-treated trout. Subordinate, fasted, and cortisol-treated trout also exhibited similar GP activities (both total activity and that of the active or a form), and these activities were in all cases significantly lower than those in control trout, perhaps reflecting an attempt to protect liver glycogen stores or a modified capacity to activate GP. Dominant trout exhibited the lowest GP activities (20%-24% of the values in control trout). Low GP activities, presumably in conjunction with incoming energy from feeding, allowed dominant fish to achieve the highest liver glycogen concentrations (double the value in control trout). Liver membrane β-adrenoceptor numbers (assessed as the number of (3)H-CGP binding sites) were significantly lower in subordinate than in dominant trout, although this difference did not translate into attenuated adrenergic responsiveness in hepatocyte glucose production in vitro. Transcriptional regulation, likely as a result of fasting, was indicated by significantly lower β(2)-adrenoceptor relative mRNA levels in subordinate and fasted trout. Collectively, the data

  17. Investigation of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism

    Fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was studied as a glucose analog for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism. Myocardial uptake and retention, blood clearance, species dependence (dog, monkey, man), and effect of diet on uptake were investigated. Normal myocardial uptake of FDG was 3 to 4% of injected dose in dog and monkey, and 1 to 4% in man, compared with brain uptakes of 1.5 to 3% in dog, 5 to 6% in monkey, and 4 to 8% in man. The myocardial metabolic rate (MR) for glucose in the nonfasting (glycolytic) state was 2.8 times that in the fasting (ketogenic) state. Human subjects showed higher myocardial uptake after a normal meal than after a meal containing mostly free fatty acids (FFA). Blood clearance was rapid with initial clearance t/sub 1/2/ of 0.2 to 0.3 min, followed by a t/sub 1/2/ of 8.4 +- 1.2 min in dog and 11.6 +- 1.1 min in man. A small third component had half-times of 59 +- 10 min and 88 +- 4 min in dog and man, respectively. With the ECAT positron tomograph, high image-contrast ratios were found between heart and blood (dog 3.5/1, man 14/1), heart and lung (dog 9/1, man 20/1), and heart and liver (dog 15/1, man 10/1). The FDG was taken up rapidly by the myocardium without any significant tissue clearance over a 4-hr period. The FDG exhibited excellent imaging properties. Average counting rates of 12K, 20K, and 40K c/min-mCi injected are obtained in human subjects with high, medium, and low resolutions of the ECAT tomograph. Determination of glucose and FFA MR in vivo with EACT provides a method for investigation and assessment of changing aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates in ischemic heart disease in man

  18. Increased fetal myocardial sensitivity to insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during ovine fetal growth restriction.

    Barry, James S; Rozance, Paul J; Brown, Laura D; Anthony, Russell V; Thornburg, Kent L; Hay, William W

    2016-04-01

    Unlike other visceral organs, myocardial weight is maintained in relation to fetal body weight in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetal sheep despite hypoinsulinemia and global nutrient restriction. We designed experiments in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency and restricted growth to determine basal and insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose and oxygen metabolism and test the hypothesis that myocardial insulin sensitivity would be increased in the IUGR heart. IUGR was induced by maternal hyperthermia during gestation. Control (C) and IUGR fetal myocardial metabolism were measured at baseline and under acute hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp conditions at 128-132 days gestation using fluorescent microspheres to determine myocardial blood flow. Fetal body and heart weights were reduced by 33% (P = 0.008) and 30% (P = 0.027), respectively. Heart weight to body weight ratios were not different. Basal left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flow per gram of LV tissue was maintained in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Insulin increased LV myocardial blood flow by ∼38% (P flow in IUGR fetuses was 73% greater than controls. Similar to previous reports testing acute hypoxia, LV blood flow was inversely related to arterial oxygen concentration (r(2 )= 0.71) in both control and IUGR animals. Basal LV myocardial glucose delivery and uptake rates were not different between IUGR and control fetuses. Insulin increased LV myocardial glucose delivery (by 40%) and uptake (by 78%) (P < 0.01), but to a greater extent in the IUGR fetuses compared to controls. During basal and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions LV myocardial oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction efficiency were not different between groups. These novel results demonstrate that the fetal heart exposed to nutrient and oxygen deprivation from placental insufficiency appears to maintain myocardial energy supply in the IUGR condition via increased glucose uptake and

  19. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An; Sang Hee Im

    2010-01-01

    Background Permanent vegetative state is defined as the impaired level of consciousness longer than 12 months after traumatic causes and 3 months after non-traumatic causes of brain injury. Although many studies assessed the cerebral metabolism in patients with acute and persistent vegetative state after brain injury, few studies investigated the cerebral metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state. In this study, we performed the voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism and investigated the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of impaired consciousness in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury.Methods We compared the regional cerebral glucose metabolism as demonstrated by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography from 12 patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury with those from 12 control subjects. Additionally, covariance analysis was performed to identify regions where decreased changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism significantly correlated with a decrease of level of consciousness measured by JFK-coma recovery scare. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping.Results Compared with controls, patients with permanent vegetative state demonstrated decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the left precuneus, both posterior cingulate cortices, the left superior parietal lobule (Pcorrected <0.001), and increased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both cerebellum and the right supramarginal cortices (Pcorrected <0.001). In the covariance analysis, a decrease in the level of consciousness was significantly correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both posterior cingulate cortices (Puncorrected <0.005).Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posteromedial parietal cortex, which are part of neural network for consciousness, may be relevant structure for pathophysiological mechanism

  20. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD

  1. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD.

  2. Whole grain products, fish and bilberries alter glucose and lipid metabolism in a randomized, controlled trial: the Sysdimet study.

    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, new dietary solutions are needed to help improve glucose and lipid metabolism in persons at high risk of developing the disease. Herein we investigated the effects of low-insulin-response grain products, fatty fish, and berries on glucose metabolism and plasma lipidomic profiles in persons with impaired glucose metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Altogether 106 men and women with impaired glucose metabolism and with at least two other features of the metabolic syndrome were included in a 12-week parallel dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into three diet intervention groups: (1 whole grain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish three times a week, and bilberries three portions per day (HealthyDiet group, (2 Whole grain enriched diet (WGED group, which includes principally the same grain products as group (1, but with no change in fish or berry consumption, and (3 refined wheat breads (Control. Oral glucose tolerance, plasma fatty acids and lipidomic profiles were measured before and after the intervention. Self-reported compliance with the diets was good and the body weight remained constant. Within the HealthyDiet group two hour glucose concentration and area-under-the-curve for glucose decreased and plasma proportion of (n-3 long-chain PUFAs increased (False Discovery Rate p-values <0.05. Increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid associated curvilinearly with the improved insulin secretion and glucose disposal. Among the 364 characterized lipids, 25 changed significantly in the HealthyDiet group, including multiple triglycerides incorporating the long chain (n-3 PUFA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the diet rich in whole grain and low insulin response grain products, bilberries, and fatty fish improve glucose metabolism and alter the lipidomic profile. Therefore, such a diet may have a

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Glucose Uptake and Metabolism in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    Wang, Jihong; Weygand, Joseph; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Ding, Yao; Fuller, Clifton D.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Frank, Steven J.; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2016-01-01

    Imaging metabolic dysfunction, a hallmark of solid tumors, usually requires radioactive tracers. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging can potentially detect and visualize glucose uptake and metabolism, without the need for radioisotopes. Here, we tested the feasibility of using glucose CEST (glucoCEST) to image unlabeled glucose uptake in head and neck cancer by using a clinical 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The average CEST contrast between tumors and normal tissue in 17 patients was 7.58% (P = 0.006) in the 3–4 ppm offset frequency range and 5.06% (P = 0.02) in 1–5 ppm range. In a subgroup of eight patients, glucoCEST signal enhancement was higher in tumors than in normal muscle (4.98% vs. 1.28%, P < 0.021). We conclude that glucoCEST images of head and neck cancer can be obtained with a clinical 3T MRI scanner. PMID:27461165

  4. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain capillary permeability following high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy: a positron emission tomographic study

    Regional glucose metabolic rate constants and blood-to-brain transport of rubidium were estimated using positron emission tomography in an adolescent patient with a brain tumor, before and after chemotherapy with intravenous high-dose methotrexate. Widespread depression of cerebral glucose metabolism was apparent 24 hours after drug administration, which may reflect reduced glucose phosphorylation, and the influx rate constant for 82Rb was increased, indicating a drug-induced alteration in blood-brain barrier function. Associated changes in neuropsychological performance, electroencephalogram, and plasma amino acid concentration were identified in the absence of evidence of systemic methotrexate toxicity, suggesting primary methotrexate neurotoxicity

  5. Effect of dietary protein on lipid and glucose metabolism: implications for metabolic health

    Rietman, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Diet is an important factor in the development of the Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Accumulation of intra hepatic lipid (IHL) can result in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is sometimes considered the he

  6. Probing the metabolic network in bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei using untargeted metabolomics with stable isotope labelled glucose.

    Darren J Creek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics coupled with heavy-atom isotope-labelled glucose has been used to probe the metabolic pathways active in cultured bloodstream form trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei, a parasite responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. Glucose enters many branches of metabolism beyond glycolysis, which has been widely held to be the sole route of glucose metabolism. Whilst pyruvate is the major end-product of glucose catabolism, its transamination product, alanine, is also produced in significant quantities. The oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway is operative, although the non-oxidative branch is not. Ribose 5-phosphate generated through this pathway distributes widely into nucleotide synthesis and other branches of metabolism. Acetate, derived from glucose, is found associated with a range of acetylated amino acids and, to a lesser extent, fatty acids; while labelled glycerol is found in many glycerophospholipids. Glucose also enters inositol and several sugar nucleotides that serve as precursors to macromolecule biosynthesis. Although a Krebs cycle is not operative, malate, fumarate and succinate, primarily labelled in three carbons, were present, indicating an origin from phosphoenolpyruvate via oxaloacetate. Interestingly, the enzyme responsible for conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, was shown to be essential to the bloodstream form trypanosomes, as demonstrated by the lethal phenotype induced by RNAi-mediated downregulation of its expression. In addition, glucose derivatives enter pyrimidine biosynthesis via oxaloacetate as a precursor to aspartate and orotate.

  7. Glucose transport and metabolism in chondrocytes: a key to understanding chondrogenesis, skeletal development and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis

    A. Mobasheri; Vannucci, S.J.; Bondy, C A; Carter, S D; Innes, J.F.; Arteaga, M F; E. Trujillo; Ferraz, I; Shakibaei, M.; Martín Vasallo, P.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the recognition that degenerative cartilage disorders like osteoarthritis (OA) and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) may have nutritional abnormalities at the root of their pathogenesis, balanced dietary supplementation programs have played a secondary role in their management. This review emphasizes the importance and role of nutritional factors such as glucose and glucose-derived sugars (i.e. glucosamine sulfate and vitamin C) in the development, ma...

  8. The Relationship Between Coronary Artery Disease and Undiagnosed Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Patients who Have Undergone Angiography

    Halil Akbulut

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM and coronary artery disease (CAD, seen frequently in the general population, are major causes of morbidity and mortality. DM, controllable through treatment, is one of the most important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Material and Method: Our study included patients who had undiagnosed glucose metabolism disorders and had undergone an angiography under elective conditions. To diagnose the glucose metabolism disorders, these patients were given the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT (75 g within 5-10 days after angiography. Results: In our study, 24.5% (n=79 of patients had isolated impaired fasting glucose, 9.3% (n=30 had isolated impaired glucose tolerance, 21.1% (n=68 had both impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, and 5% (n=16 had DM. None of these patients knew about their condition beforehand. Only 40.1% (n=129 of patients had normal OGTT results. Discussion: If patients with suspected CAD found to have blocked arteries after an angiography are screened for DM, glucose metabolism disorders can be diagnosed early. When caught early, the long-term complications can be avoided, resulting in significant savings for health care costs. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 111-5

  9. Effect of triiodothyronine and insulin on glucose metabolism in tissue explants and isolated adipocytes from lean and obese Zucker rats

    Glucose metabolism in adipocytes from 6 week old lean and obese Zucker rats were sensitive to direct and chronic treatment with insulin and triidothyronine (T3). Insulin had a large stimulatory effect on glucose metabolism in acutely isolated adipocytes. This effect was greater in the lean than in the obese. Fatty acid, CO2, and glycerol-glyceride formation from radiolabeled glucose was elevated in the obese over the leans. Pretreatment of isolated adipocytes with pharmacological concentrations of T3 for 30 minutes prior to the measurement of glucose metabolism had a greater effect on lean than obese adipocytes. The presence of insulin was required to observe the acute effects of T3. A 2-hour exposure to physiological levels of T3 in the presence of insulin in both lean and obese adipocytes decreased lipogenesis. In the absence of insulin, a 2 hour pretreatment with physiological levels of T3 in tissue from a euthyroid animal produced increased lipogenesis

  10. Study of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose with positron emission computed tomography in Alzheimer's disease

    Using positron emission computed tomography with F-18 fluoro-D-deoxyglucose, regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) was measured in 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 3 healthy volunteers. A decreased rCMRglc was observed in the widespread cortex and basal ganglia of the cerebrum, but not observed in white matter, thalamus, and cerebellum. There was no bilateral difference. rCMRglc was the lowest in the parietal lobe, followed by the temporal lobe and the curvature of the frontal lobe. A decrease in rCMRglu was relatively mild in the inner part of the frontal lobe, primary sensory and motor area of the cerebral cortex, and cerebral basilar ganglia. Alzheimer's disease proved to be characterized by severe glucose metabolic disorder in the association area of the bilateral cerebral cortices. The degree of metabolic disorder was correlated with the degree of dementia in the outer part of the left frontal lobe and the curvature of the cerebral cortex. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Transport and metabolism of fumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat culture.

    Shah, Mihir V; van Mastrigt, Oscar; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2016-04-01

    Currently, research is being focused on the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid and other relevant organic acids from renewable feedstocks via fermentation, preferably at low pH for better product recovery. However, at low pH a large fraction of the extracellular acid is present in the undissociated form, which is lipophilic and can diffuse into the cell. There have been no studies done on the impact of high extracellular concentrations of fumaric acid under aerobic conditions in S. cerevisiae, which is a relevant issue to study for industrial-scale production. In this work we studied the uptake and metabolism of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a cultivation pH of 3.0 (pH exporting fumaric acid. We observed that fumaric acid entered the cells most likely via passive diffusion of the undissociated form. Approximately two-thirds of the fumaric acid in the feed was metabolized together with glucose. From metabolic flux analysis, an increased ATP dissipation was observed only at high intracellular concentrations of fumarate, possibly due to the export of fumarate via an ABC transporter. The implications of our results for the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683700

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and glucose metabolism in Danish children aged 9 years

    Jensen, Tina K; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Rossing, Laura I;

    2014-01-01

    Context: Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated to type 2 diabetes in adults. Objectives: To determine whether concurrent serum PCB concentration was associated with markers of glucose metabolism in healthy children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings and...... amounts available for PCB and analyses. Main outcome measures: Fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin were measured and a homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B) calculated. Serum PCB congeners and other persistent compounds were measured and ΣPCB...... calculated. Results: PCBs were present in serum at low concentrations, median 0.19μ g/g lipid (interquartile range, IQR: 0.12-0.31). After adjustment for putative confounding factors, the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles of total PCB were significantly inversely associated with serum insulin (-14...

  13. Study on the effect of valproate (VPA) on glucose metabolism in pediatric patients with epilepsy

    Objective: To study the effect on glucose metabolism in pediatric patients with epilepsy under valproate treatment. Methods: Fasting serum glucose (with oxidase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels, insulin resistance index, body weight, BMI were examined in (1) 65 pediatric patients with epilepsy before valproate treatment (2) 65 patients after 3 months' valproate treatment (3) 65 patients after 6 months' treatment and (4) 65 controls. Results: In the patients after 3 months' treatment, the body weight, BMI, fasting insulin levels were significantly higher than those in patients before treatment (P 0.05). The calculated HOMA did not change much throughout the whole study. The proportion of patients with increased appetite after 6 months' treatment was 47 /65 (vs 20 /65 before treatment, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increase of body weight and BMI asually observed during valproate treatment is mainly due to increased appetite with limited increase of fasting insulin level. Insulin resistance was not found in present study. (authors)

  14. Regulation effects of Crataegus pinnatifida leaf on glucose and lipids metabolism.

    Wang, Tao; An, Yating; Zhao, Chunfeng; Han, Lifeng; Boakye-Yiadom, Mavis; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yi

    2011-05-11

    The leaf of Crataegus pinnatifida (Rosaceae) is commonly consumed either raw or cooked to improve digestion and promote blood circulation in China. To investigate the regulation effects of it on glucose and lipid metabolism, the flavonoids fraction was prepared and analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. In vivo, at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, the flavonoids fraction showed inhibitory effects on TG and glucose absorption, accelerating effects on gastrointestinal transit but no effect on gastric emptying. In vitro, treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 30 μg/mL flavonoids fraction significantly suppressed the accumulation of TG and free fatty acid. It also suppressed the gene expressions of C/EBPα, PPARγ, SREBP 1c, aP2 and adiponectin but did not affect that of leptin. C. pinnatifida leaf may be useful for type 2 diabetics and hyperlipidemics as a foodstuff. PMID:21425878

  15. Quantitative on-line monitoring of hippocampus glucose and lactate metabolism in organotypic cultures using biosensor technology

    Gramsbergen, JB; Leegsma-Vogt, G; Venema, K; Noraberg, J; Korf, J

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative glucose and lactate metabolism was assessed in continuously perfused organotypic hippocampal slices under control conditions and during exposure to glutamate and drugs that interfere with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. On-line detection was possible with a system based on slow perfus

  16. Effect of systemically increasing human full-length Klotho on glucose metabolism in db/db mice.

    Forsberg, E A; Olauson, H; Larsson, T; Catrina, S B

    2016-03-01

    The metabolic effects of antiaging Klotho were previously investigated in vivo by genetic manipulation. We have here studied the metabolic effect of physiologic levels of circulating full length Klotho in db/db mice. Increasing the full-length human Klotho levels has a positive effect on blood glucose through increasing insulin secretion. PMID:26806457

  17. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y; LI, X; Merchant, T [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Indelicato, D [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Boop, F [Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from the mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with persistent and

  18. Analysis of metabolism of 6FDG: a PET glucose transport tracer

    Introduction: We are developing 18F-labeled 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]6FDG) as a tracer of glucose transport. As part of this process it is important to characterize and quantify putative metabolites. In contrast to the ubiquitous positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 18F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]2FDG) which is phosphorylated and trapped intracellularly, the substitution of fluorine for a hydroxyl group at carbon-6 in [18F]6FDG should prevent its phosphorylation. Consequently, [18F]6FDG has the potential to trace the transport step of glucose metabolism without the confounding effects of phosphorylation and subsequent steps of metabolism. Herein the focus is to determine whether, and the degree to which, [18F]6FDG remains unchanged following intravenous injection. Methods: Biodistribution studies were performed using 6FDG labeled with 18F or with the longer-lived radionuclides 3H and 14C. Tissues were harvested at 1, 6, and 24 h following intravenous administration and radioactivity was extracted from the tissues and analyzed using a combination of ion exchange columns, high-performance liquid chromatography, and chemical reactivity. Results: At the 1 h time-point, the vast majority of radioactivity in the liver, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and blood was identified as 6FDG. At the 6-h and 24-h time points, there was evidence of a minor amount of radioactive material that appeared to be 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-sorbitol and possibly 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-gluconic acid. Conclusion: On the time scale typical of PET imaging studies radioactive metabolites of [18F]6FDG are negligible.

  19. Analysis of metabolism of 6FDG: a PET glucose transport tracer

    Muzic, Raymond F., E-mail: raymond.muzic@case.edu [Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Chandramouli, Visvanathan [Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Huang, Hsuan-Ming [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Wu Chunying; Wang Yanming [Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz [Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: We are developing {sup 18}F-labeled 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]6FDG) as a tracer of glucose transport. As part of this process it is important to characterize and quantify putative metabolites. In contrast to the ubiquitous positron emission tomography (PET) tracer {sup 18}F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]2FDG) which is phosphorylated and trapped intracellularly, the substitution of fluorine for a hydroxyl group at carbon-6 in [{sup 18}F]6FDG should prevent its phosphorylation. Consequently, [{sup 18}F]6FDG has the potential to trace the transport step of glucose metabolism without the confounding effects of phosphorylation and subsequent steps of metabolism. Herein the focus is to determine whether, and the degree to which, [{sup 18}F]6FDG remains unchanged following intravenous injection. Methods: Biodistribution studies were performed using 6FDG labeled with {sup 18}F or with the longer-lived radionuclides {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C. Tissues were harvested at 1, 6, and 24 h following intravenous administration and radioactivity was extracted from the tissues and analyzed using a combination of ion exchange columns, high-performance liquid chromatography, and chemical reactivity. Results: At the 1 h time-point, the vast majority of radioactivity in the liver, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and blood was identified as 6FDG. At the 6-h and 24-h time points, there was evidence of a minor amount of radioactive material that appeared to be 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-sorbitol and possibly 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-gluconic acid. Conclusion: On the time scale typical of PET imaging studies radioactive metabolites of [{sup 18}F]6FDG are negligible.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of blood flow and glucose metabolism by autoradiographic techniques

    Mies, G.; Niebuhr, I.; Hossmann, K.A.

    A double tracer autoradiographic technique using 131I-iodo-antipyrine and 14C-deoxyglucose is presented for the simultaneous measurement of blood flow and cerebral glucose utilization in the same animal. 131I is a gamma emitting isotope with a half life of 8.06 days and can be detected with adequate resolution on standard autoradiographic films. Autoradiograms are made before and after decay of 131I; the time interval between the 2 exposures and the concentration of the 2 tracers is adjusted to avoid significant cross-contamination. In this way, 2 film exposures are obtained which can be processed quantitatively like single tracer autoradiograms. The validity of the method for the investigation of local coupling of flow and metabolism was tested under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Coupling was tight in barbiturate-anesthetized healthy animals, but not under halothane anesthesia where uncoupling occurred in various subcortical structures. Focal seizures induced by topical application of penicillin on the cortical surface led to a coupled increase of metabolism and flow in thalamic relay nuclei but not at the site of penicillin administration where increased glucose utilization was not accompanied by similar increase in blood flow. Both coupled and uncoupled increases in local glucose utilization were observed in spreading depression and in circumscribed areas of experimental brain tumors. The results obtained demonstrate that double tracer autoradiography allows allows the very precise local assessment of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization, and, therefore, is particularly suited to the study of regional coupling processes under various experimental conditions.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of blood flow and glucose metabolism by autoradiographic techniques

    A double tracer autoradiographic technique using 131I-iodo-antipyrine and 14C-deoxyglucose is presented for the simultaneous measurement of blood flow and cerebral glucose utilization in the same animal. 131I is a gamma emitting isotope with a half life of 8.06 days and can be detected with adequate resolution on standard autoradiographic films. Autoradiograms are made before and after decay of 131I; the time interval between the 2 exposures and the concentration of the 2 tracers is adjusted to avoid significant cross-contamination. In this way, 2 film exposures are obtained which can be processed quantitatively like single tracer autoradiograms. The validity of the method for the investigation of local coupling of flow and metabolism was tested under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Coupling was tight in barbiturate-anesthetized healthy animals, but not under halothane anesthesia where uncoupling occurred in various subcortical structures. Focal seizures induced by topical application of penicillin on the cortical surface led to a coupled increase of metabolism and flow in thalamic relay nuclei but not at the site of penicillin administration where increased glucose utilization was not accompanied by similar increase in blood flow. Both coupled and uncoupled increases in local glucose utilization were observed in spreading depression and in circumscribed areas of experimental brain tumors. The results obtained demonstrate that double tracer autoradiography allows allows the very precise local assessment of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization, and, therefore, is particularly suited to the study of regional coupling processes under various experimental conditions

  2. Resistance to chemotherapy is associated with altered glucose metabolism in acute myeloid leukemia

    SONG, KUI; LI, MIN; XU, XIAOJUN; XUAN, LI; HUANG, GUINIAN; LIU, QIFA

    2016-01-01

    Altered glucose metabolism has been described as a cause of chemoresistance in multiple tumor types. The present study aimed to identify the expression profile of glucose metabolism in drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and provide potential strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant AML. Bone marrow and serum samples were obtained from patients with AML that were newly diagnosed or had relapsed. The messenger RNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, glucose transporter (GLUT)1, and hexokinase-II was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The levels of LDH and β subunit of human F1-F0 adenosine triphosphate synthase (β-F1-ATPase) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and western blot assays. The HL-60 and HL-60/ADR cell lines were used to evaluate glycolytic activity and effect of glycolysis inhibition on cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Drug-resistant HL-60/ADR cells exhibited a significantly increased level of glycolysis compared with the drug-sensitive HL-60 cell line. The expression of HIF-1α, hexokinase-II, GLUT1 and LDH were increased in AML patients with no remission (NR), compared to healthy control individuals and patients with complete remission (CR) and partial remission. The expression of β-F1-ATPase in patients with NR was decreased compared with the expression in the CR group. Treatment of HL-60/ADR cells with 2-deoxy-D-glucose or 3-bromopyruvate increased in vitro sensitivity to Adriamycin (ADR), while treatment of HL-60 cells did not affect drug cytotoxicity. Subsequent to treatment for 24 h, apoptosis in these two cell lines showed no significant difference. However, glycolytic inhibitors in combination with ADR increased cellular necrosis. These findings indicate that increased glycolysis and low efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation may contribute to drug resistance. Targeting glycolysis is a viable strategy for modulating chemoresistance in AML.

  3. Associations between liver 18F fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose accumulation and various clinical parameters in a Japanese population. Influence of the metabolic syndrome

    Liver demonstrates a heterogeneous 18F fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake pattern and sometimes shows an abnormally increased uptake even when there is no malignant tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of liver 18F-FDG uptake as related to physical factors, fatty liver, blood glucose (BG), and other biochemical data. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in 101 consecutive subjects for cancer screening. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to define the best predictors of the liver standardized uptake value (SUV) among height, weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BG and other biochemical data, id est (i.e.), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between liver 18F-FDG uptake and the metabolic syndrome. The independent factors for increased liver 18F-FDG uptake (mean SUV >=2) were BMI (P18F-FDG uptake. In addition, the liver 18F-FDG uptake of metabolic syndrome subjects was significantly higher than that of a non-metabolic syndrome subjects. BMI was the strongest determinant of liver 18F-FDG uptake, and the liver 18F-FDG uptake of metabolic syndrome subjects was significantly higher than that of non-metabolic syndrome subjects. This result suggests that a subject with a high liver 18F-FDG uptake should be screened for the metabolic syndrome. (author)

  4. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity

  5. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Bolado-Carrancio, A. [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Riancho, J.A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, RETICEF, Santander (Spain); Sainz, J. [Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodríguez-Rey, J.C., E-mail: rodriguj@unican.es [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.

  6. The study on glucose metabolism of the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease using 18F-FDG PET

    Objective: To study glucose metabolism of the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by PET, to investigate the imaging characteristics of 18F-FDG PET in Chinese patients with PD. Methods: 50 min after intravenous administration of 18F-FDG, brain scan was performed on 33 patients with PD and 32 age-matched healthy subjects. Semiquantitative analysis was applied to assess the metabolic function of the brain by the ratio of mean radioactivity of various cerebral lobes (substantia nigra, putamen, caudatum, thalamus, temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, hippocampus) to cerebellum (Rcl/cb). PET scan was compared with MRI. Results: In healthy subjects PET scan showed clear and symmetrical distribution of radioactivity in the cerebral lobes. 96.97% of PD patients showed abnormal PET images, 30.30% of PD patients' MRI showed abnormal, but only 9.09% of that was special. The radioactivity ratio of cerebral lobes to cerebellum of PD patients in nigra-striatum dopaminergic system and cerebral lobes was significantly decreased than that in healthy subjects. The opposite nigra-striatum system and frontal lobe of the more serious sick limbs were significantly more hypo-metabolic than the same side cerebral lobes. The characteristic PET images of PD patients showed that asymmetrical substantia nigra hypometabolism in 93.94% of the PD cases, striatum, thalamus asymmetrical hypometabolism in 69.70% and 36.36% PD cases; slight asymmetrical increase of radioactivity in striatum and thalamus in 15.15% PD cases; cerebral lobes asymmetrical hypometabolism of temporal lobe in 51.52%, frontal in 39.39%, parietal in 15.15%, occipital in 9.09%, hippocampal in 45.46% PD cases; slight cerebral asymmetrical hypermetabolism in 9.09% PD cases. Conclusions: In addition to cerebral structural lesions in the brain, asymmetrical hypometabolism and slight hypermetabolism can be found in nigra-striatum dopaminergic system accompany with cerebral hypometabolism or slight

  7. Glucose Metabolism in T Cells and Monocytes: New Perspectives in HIV Pathogenesis

    Palmer, Clovis S.; Cherry, Catherine L.; Sada-Ovalle, Isabel; Singh, Amit; Crowe, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the immune system occurs in response to the recognition of foreign antigens and receipt of optimal stimulatory signals by immune cells, a process that requires energy. Energy is also needed to support cellular growth, differentiation, proliferation, and effector functions of immune cells. In HIV-infected individuals, persistent viral replication, together with inflammatory stimuli contributes to chronic immune activation and oxidative stress. These conditions remain even in subjects with sustained virologic suppression on antiretroviral therapy. Here we highlight recent studies demonstrating the importance of metabolic pathways, particularly those involving glucose metabolism, in differentiation and maintenance of the activation states of T cells and monocytes. We also discuss how changes in the metabolic status of these cells may contribute to ongoing immune activation and inflammation in HIV- infected persons and how this may contribute to disease progression, establishment and persistence of the HIV reservoir, and the development of co-morbidities. We provide evidence that other viruses such as Epstein–Barr and Flu virus also disrupt the metabolic machinery of their host cells. Finally, we discuss how redox signaling mediated by oxidative stress may regulate metabolic responses in T cells and monocytes during HIV infection.

  8. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE STIMULATION AT SANYINJIAO (SP 6) ON CEREBRAL GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN DYSMENORRHEA PATIENTS

    GONG Ping; ZHANG Ming-min; JIANG Li-ming; WU Zhi-jian; WANG Wei; HUANG Guang-ying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the central mechanism of acupuncture stimulation of Sanyinjiao ( 三阴交 SP6) in relieving dysmenorrhea. Methods: A total of 6 dysmenorrhea volunteer patients were subjected into this study. On the first positron emission tomography (PET) scan examination, they were assigned to pseudoacupuncture group by using the acupuncture needle just to prick the skin of Sanyinjiao (SP 6); while on the second PET scans, they were assigned to acupuncture group by inserting the needle into the same acupoint.18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET of the whole brain was performed during pseudo-acupuncture and real acupuncture of Sanyinjiao (SP 6). The acquired PET data were analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software to determine changes of glucose metabolism in different cerebral regions. The patient's pain intensity was rated by using 0- 10 numerical pain intensity scale. Results: After pseudo-acupuncture stimulation of Sanyinjiao (SP 6), no significant changes were found in the pain intensity ( P >0.05), while after real-acupuncture stimulation, the pain intensity declined significantly (P < 0.01 ). Following acupuncture of the right Sanyinjiao (SP 6), multiple cerebral regions involving pain were activated (increase of glucose metabolism), including ipsilateral lenticular nucleus (globus pallidus, putamen), ipsilateral cerebellum and insular lobe, bilateral dorsal thalamus, ipsilateral paracentral lobule, bilateral amygdaloid bodies, contralateral substantia nigra of the midbrain, bilateral second somatosensory (S Ⅱ ) areas, ispsilateral hippocampal gyrus, frontal part of the ipsilateral cingulated gyrus, and bilateral mammary bodies of the hypothalamus. In addition, fewer regions of the cerebral cortex responded with decrease of the glucose metabolism after real acupuncture.

  9. Glucose and Glycogen Metabolism in Brugia malayi Is Associated with Wolbachia Symbiont Fitness.

    Voronin, Denis; Bachu, Saheed; Shlossman, Michael; Unnasch, Thomas R; Ghedin, Elodie; Lustigman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria found in the majority of arthropods and filarial nematodes of medical and veterinary importance. They have evolved a wide range of symbiotic associations. In filarial nematodes that cause human lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus), Wolbachia are important for parasite development, reproduction and survival. The symbiotic bacteria rely in part on nutrients and energy sources provided by the host. Genomic analyses suggest that the strain of Wolbachia found in B. malayi (wBm) lacks the genes for two glycolytic enzymes--6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase--and is thus potentially unable to convert glucose into pyruvate, an important substrate for energy generation. The Wolbachia surface protein, wBm00432, is complexed to six B. malayi glycolytic enzymes, including aldolase. In this study we characterized two B. malayi aldolase isozymes and found that their expression is dependent on Wolbachia fitness and number. We confirmed by immuno-transmission electron microscopy that aldolase is associated with the Wolbachia surface. RNAi experiments suggested that aldolase-2 plays a significant role in both Wolbachia survival and embryogenesis in B. malayi. Treatment with doxycycline reduced Wolbachia fitness and increased the amount of both glucose and glycogen detected in the filarial parasite, indicating that glucose metabolism and glycogen storage in B. malayi are associated with Wolbachia fitness. This metabolic co-dependency between Wolbachia and its filarial nematode indicates that glycolysis could be a shared metabolic pathway between the bacteria and B. malayi, and thus a potential new target for anti-filarial therapy. PMID:27078260

  10. Comparison of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism between Possible and Probable Multiple System Atrophy

    Kyum-Yil Kwon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the relationship between presenting clinical manifestations and imaging features of multisystem neuronal dysfunction in MSA patients, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET. Methods: We studied 50 consecutive MSA patients with characteristic brain MRI findings of MSA, including 34 patients with early MSA-parkinsonian (MSA-P and 16 with early MSA-cerebellar (MSA-C. The cerebral glucose metabolism of all MSA patients was evaluated in comparison with 25 age-matched controls. 18F-FDG PET results were assessed by the Statistic Parametric Mapping (SPM analysis and the regions of interest (ROI method. Results: The mean time from disease onset to 18F-FDG PET was 25.9±13.0 months in 34 MSA-P patients and 20.1±11.1 months in 16 MSA-C patients. Glucose metabolism of the putamen showed a greater decrease in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P (p=0.031. Although the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS score did not differ between possible MSA-P and probable MSA-P, the subscores of rigidity (p=0.04 and bradykinesia (p= 0.008 were significantly higher in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P. Possible MSA-C showed a greater decrease in glucose metabolism of the cerebellum than probable MSA-C (p=0.016. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that the early neuropathological pattern of possible MSA with a predilection for the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system differs from that of probable MSA, which has prominent involvement of the autonomic nervous system in addition to the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system.

  11. Formaldehyde Metabolism and Formaldehyde-induced Alterations in Glucose and Glutathione Metabolism of Cultured Brain Cells

    Tulpule, Ketki

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde is an environmental pollutant that is also generated in the body during normal metabolic processes. Interestingly, several pathological conditions are associated with an increase in formaldehyde-generating enzymes in the body. The level of formaldehyde in the brain is elevated with increasing age and in neurodegenerative conditions which may contribute to lowered cognitive functions. Although the neurotoxic potential of formaldehyde is well established, the molecular mechanisms i...

  12. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Johan W.E. Jocken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.

  13. Association between markers of glucose metabolism and risk of colorectal cancer

    Xu, Jinming; Ye, Yao; Wu, Han; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope; Zhang, Honghe; Li, Peiwei; Huang, Jian; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Independent epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between markers of glucose metabolism (including fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of risk assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and C peptide) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, such associations have not been systematically analysed and no clear conclusions have been drawn. Therefore, we addressed this issue using a meta-analysis approach. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to May 2015. Primary and secondary outcome measures Either a fixed-effects or random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall ORs for the association between markers of glucose metabolism and the risk of CRC. In addition, dose–response, meta-regression, subgroup and publication bias analyses were conducted. Results 35 studies involving 25 566 patients and 5 706 361 participants were included. Higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c and C peptide were all significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (fasting glucose, pooled OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18; fasting insulin, pooled OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.69; HOMA-IR, pooled OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.74; HbA1c, pooled OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.47 (with borderline significance); C peptide, pooled OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.49). Subgroup analysis suggested that a higher HOMA-IR value was significantly associated with CRC risk in all subgroups, including gender, study design and geographic region. For the relative long-term markers, the association was significant for HbA1c in case–control studies, while C peptide was significantly associated with CRC risk in both the male group and colon cancer. Conclusions The real-time composite index HOMA-IR is a better indicator for CRC risk than are fasting glucose and fasting insulin. The relative long-term markers, HbA1c and C peptide, are also valid predictors for

  14. MicroRNA-194 Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Its Skeletal Muscle Expression Is Reduced in Diabetes

    Latouche, Celine; Natoli, Alaina; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Heywood, Sarah E.; Armitage, James A.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) at different stages of the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and their role in glucose homeostasis was investigated. Methods Microarrays were used to assess miRNA expression in skeletal muscle biopsies taken from healthy individuals and patients with pre-diabetes or T2DM, and insulin resistant offspring of rat dams fed a high fat diet during pregnancy. Results Twenty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in patients with T2DM, and 7 in the insulin resistant rat offspring compared to their controls. Among these, only one miRNA was similarly regulated: miR-194 expression was significantly reduced by 25 to 50% in both the rat model and in human with pre-diabetes and established diabetes. Knockdown of miR-194 in L6 skeletal muscle cells induced an increase in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. This occurred in conjunction with an increased glycolysis, indicated by elevated lactate production. Moreover, oxidative capacity was also increased as we found an enhanced glucose oxidation in presence of the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP. When miR-194 was down-regulated in vitro, western blot analysis showed an increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β in response to insulin, and an increase in expression of proteins controlling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with regulation of several miRNAs in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, miR-194 was a unique miRNA that appeared regulated across different stages of the disease progression, from the early stages of insulin resistance to the development of T2DM. We have shown miR-194 is involved in multiple aspects of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism from uptake, through to glycolysis, glycogenesis and glucose oxidation, potentially via mechanisms involving AKT, GSK3 and oxidative phosphorylation. MiR-194 could be down-regulated in patients with early features of diabetes as an

  15. Glucose metabolism ontogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the light of the recently sequenced genome: new tools for intermediary metabolism programming.

    Marandel, Lucie; Véron, Vincent; Surget, Anne; Plagnes-Juan, Élisabeth; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a carnivorous fish species, displays a 'glucose-intolerant' phenotype when fed a high-carbohydrate diet. The importance of carbohydrate metabolism during embryogenesis and the timing of establishing this later phenotype are currently unclear. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the poor ability of carnivorous fish to use dietary carbohydrates as a major energy substrate are not well understood. It has recently been shown in trout that duplicated genes involved in glucose metabolism may participate in establishing the glucose-intolerant phenotype. The aim of this study was therefore to provide new understanding of glucose metabolism during ontogenesis and nutritional transition, taking into consideration the complexity of the trout genome. Trout were sampled at several stages of development from fertilization to hatching, and alevins were then fed a non-carbohydrate or a high-carbohydrate diet during first feeding. mRNA levels of all glucose metabolism-related genes increased in embryos during the setting up of the primitive liver. After the first meal, genes rapidly displayed expression patterns equivalent to those observed in the livers of juveniles. g6pcb2.a (a glucose 6-phosphatase-encoding gene) was up-regulated in alevins fed a high-carbohydrate diet, mimicking the expression pattern of gck genes. The g6pcb2.a gene may contribute to the non-inhibition of the last step of gluconeogenesis and thus to establishing the glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout fed a high-carbohydrate diet as early as first feeding. This information is crucial for nutritional programming investigations as it suggests that first feeding would be too late to programme glucose metabolism in the long term. PMID:26747908

  16. Metabolic labeling with (14C)-glucose of bloodstream and cell culture trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes:

    Trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi from infected mouse blood and from cell culture were metabolically labeled by incubation with D-(14C)-glucose. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of lysates from parasites of two strains (RA and CA1) showed a significantly different pattern. The difference was mainly quantitative when the blood and cell culture trypomastigotes of the RA strain were compared. Analysis of the culture medium by paper electrophoresis showed an anionic exometabolite only in the blood forms of both strains. (Author)

  17. Effects of coumestrol on lipid and glucose metabolism as a farnesoid X receptor ligand

    In the course of an effort to identify novel agonists of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), coumestrol was determined to be one such ligand. Reporter and in vitro coactivator interaction assays revealed that coumestrol bound and activated FXR. Treatment of Hep G2 cells with coumestrol stimulated the expression of FXR target genes, thereby regulating the expression of target genes of the liver X receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α. Through these actions, coumestrol is expected to exert beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism

  18. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS: CORRECTION OF EARLY DISORDERS OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE

    M. N. Mamedov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Early glucose metabolism disorders (GMD are of interest in development of effective approaches to prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Data of international clinical trials shows that early GMD are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The possibilities of GMD prevention and early treatment are discussed. Antihyperglycemic medications classification, their mode of action and efficacy are presented from evidence-based medicine point of view. This data confirms that successful DM primary prevention at early stage of GMD reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications.

  19. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS: CORRECTION OF EARLY DISORDERS OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE

    M. N. Mamedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early glucose metabolism disorders (GMD are of interest in development of effective approaches to prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Data of international clinical trials shows that early GMD are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The possibilities of GMD prevention and early treatment are discussed. Antihyperglycemic medications classification, their mode of action and efficacy are presented from evidence-based medicine point of view. This data confirms that successful DM primary prevention at early stage of GMD reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications.

  20. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D.;

    2008-01-01

    feasible task. We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling...... networks implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with...

  1. 1-Deoxynojirimycin Alleviates Liver Injury and Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in db/db Mice

    Qingpu Liu; Xuan Li; Cunyu Li; Yunfeng Zheng; Fang Wang; Hongyang Li; Guoping Peng

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) on liver injury and hepatic glucose metabolism in db/db mice. Mice were divided into five groups: normal control, db/db control, DNJ-20 (DNJ 20 mg·kg−1·day−1), DNJ-40 (DNJ 40 mg·kg−1·day−1) and DNJ-80 (DNJ 80 mg·kg−1·day−1). All doses were treated intravenously by tail vein for four weeks. DNJ was observed to significantly reduce the levels of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein choleste...

  2. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep

    Xi Liang; Kyota Yamazaki; Mohammad Kamruzzaman; Xue Bi; Arvinda Panthee; Hiroaki Sano

    2014-01-01

    Background:The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods:Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2%of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome;CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results:Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P=0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P=0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P=0.05) and acetate was higher (P=0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P=0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P=0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions:The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep.

  3. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression in...... (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) over a period of approximately 2 years (three examinations). CMRglc was calculated using PET and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: The global cortical CMRglc decreased with time (p<0.001) and the most pronounced reductions of CMRglc were detected in frontal and...

  4. Differential Roles of the TRAF3 Adapter Protein in Adipogenesis and Glucose Metabolism

    Loo, Lotus Kyi

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to delineate the roles and mechanisms of constitutive type II nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation on adipogenesis and glucose metabolism. Our laboratory has shown that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a critical negative modulator of type II NF-kB and TRAF3 knockout (TRAF3-/-) have constitutive activation of non canonical or type II NF-kB pathway. However, TRAF3-/- pups die within two weeks after birth and the funct...

  5. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  6. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes?

    Staehr, P; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, O;

    2003-01-01

    turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10...... from basal rates of Rd, assessment of glucose turnover rates in euglycaemic clamp studies of Type 2 diabetic patients is not dependent on the method by which plasma glucose levels are lowered........7 +/- 2.9 mmol/l in the + ON and - ON studies, respectively, and were clamped at -5.5 mmol/l. Basal rates of glucose production (GP) were similar in the + ON and - ON studies, 83 +/- 13 vs. 85 +/- 14 mg m-2 min-1 (NS), whereas basal rates of glucose disappearance (Rd) were lower in the + ON than in the...

  7. Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose

    Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 ± 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 ± 2 μmol hg-1 min-1. (author)

  8. Lymphocyte glucose and glutamine metabolism as targets of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of exercise.

    Wasinski, Frederick; Gregnani, Marcos F; Ornellas, Fábio H; Bacurau, Aline V N; Câmara, Niels O; Araujo, Ronaldo C; Bacurau, Reury F

    2014-01-01

    Glucose and glutamine are important energetic and biosynthetic nutrients for T and B lymphocytes. These cells consume both nutrients at high rates in a function-dependent manner. In other words, the pathways that control lymphocyte function and survival directly control the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. Therefore, lymphocytes in different functional states reprogram their glucose and glutamine metabolism to balance their requirement for ATP and macromolecule production. The tight association between metabolism and function in these cells was suggested to introduce the possibility of several pathologies resulting from the inability of lymphocytes to meet their nutrient demands under a given condition. In fact, disruptions in lymphocyte metabolism and function have been observed in different inflammatory, metabolic, and autoimmune pathologies. Regular physical exercise and physical activity offer protection against several chronic pathologies, and this benefit has been associated with the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of exercise/physical activity. Chronic exercise induces changes in lymphocyte functionality and substrate metabolism. In the present review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of exercise on lymphocyte function in health and disease are associated with modulation of the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. PMID:24987195

  9. Lymphocyte Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism as Targets of the Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Exercise

    Frederick Wasinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glutamine are important energetic and biosynthetic nutrients for T and B lymphocytes. These cells consume both nutrients at high rates in a function-dependent manner. In other words, the pathways that control lymphocyte function and survival directly control the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. Therefore, lymphocytes in different functional states reprogram their glucose and glutamine metabolism to balance their requirement for ATP and macromolecule production. The tight association between metabolism and function in these cells was suggested to introduce the possibility of several pathologies resulting from the inability of lymphocytes to meet their nutrient demands under a given condition. In fact, disruptions in lymphocyte metabolism and function have been observed in different inflammatory, metabolic, and autoimmune pathologies. Regular physical exercise and physical activity offer protection against several chronic pathologies, and this benefit has been associated with the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of exercise/physical activity. Chronic exercise induces changes in lymphocyte functionality and substrate metabolism. In the present review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of exercise on lymphocyte function in health and disease are associated with modulation of the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways.

  10. Study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brain correlated with age

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether cerebral metabolism in various regions of the brain differs with advancing age by using 18F-FDG PET instrument and SPM software. Materials and Methods We reviewed clinical information of 295 healthy normal samples who were examined by a whole body GE Discovery LS PET-CT instrument in our center from Aug. 2004 to Dec. 2005.They (with the age ranging from 21 to 88; mean age+/-SD: 49.77+/-13.51) were selected with: (i)absence of clear focal brain lesions (epilepsy.cerebrovascular diseases etc);(ii) absence of metabolic diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and diabetes;(iii) absence of psychiatric disorders and abuse of drugs and alcohol. They were sub grouped into six groups with the interval of 10 years old starting from 21, and the gender, educational background and serum glucose were matched. All subgroups were compared to the control group of 31-40 years old (84 samples; mean age+/-SD: 37.15+/-2.63). All samples were injected with 18F-FDG (5.55MBq/kg), 45-60 minutes later, their brains were scanned for 10min. Pixel-by-pixel t-statistic analysis was applied to all brain images using the Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) .The hypometabolic areas (p < 0. 01 or p<0.001, uncorrected) were identified in the Stereotaxic coordinate human brain atlas and three-dimensional localized by MNI Space utility (MSU) software. Results:Relative hypometabolic brain areas detected are mainly in the cortical structures such as bilateral prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus(BA22), parietal cortex (inferior parietal lobule and precuneus(BA40, insula(BA13)), parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala (p<0.01).It is especially apparent in the prefrontal cortex (BA9)and sensory-motor cortex(BA5, 7) (p<0.001), while basal ganglia and cerebellum remained metabolically unchanged with advancing age. Conclusions Regional cerebral metabolism of glucose shows a descent tendency with aging, especially in the prefrontal cortex (BA9)and

  11. The number of metabolic abnormalities associated with the risk of gallstones in a non-diabetic population.

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD, in a non-diabetic population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 8,188 Chinese adult participants that underwent a self-motivated health examination were recruited into the final analysis after excluding the subjects who had a history of cholecystectomy, diabetes mellitus, or were currently using antihypertensive or lipid-lowering agents. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or that attenuated ultrasound transmission. RESULTS: A total of 447 subjects (5.5% had gallstones, with 239 (5.1% men and 208 (6.0% women. After adjusting for age, gender, obesity, education level, and lifestyle factors, included current smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and CKD, there was a positive association between metabolic syndrome and gallstones. Moreover, as compared to subjects without metabolic abnormalities, subjects with one, two, and three or more suffered from a 35, 40, and 59% higher risk of gallstones, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk of gallstones independent of hepatitis C or CKD, and a dose-dependent effect of metabolic abnormalities also exists.

  12. A panel of free fatty acid ratios to predict the development of metabolic abnormalities in healthy obese individuals.

    Zhao, Linjing; Ni, Yan; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Aihua; Bao, Yuqian; Liu, Jiajian; Chen, Tianlu; Xie, Guoxiang; Panee, Jun; Su, Mingming; Yu, Herbert; Wang, Congrong; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences support that metabolically healthy obese (MHO) is a transient state. However, little is known about the early markers associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Serum free fatty acids (FFAs) profile is highlighted in its association with obesity-related insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). To examine the association of endogenous fatty acid metabolism with future development of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals, we retrospectively analyzed 24 [product FFA]/[precursor FFA] ratios in fasting sera and clinical data from 481 individuals who participated in three independent studies, including 131 metabolic healthy subjects who completed the 10-year longitudinal Shanghai Diabetes Study (SHDS), 312 subjects cross-sectionally sampled from the Shanghai Obesity Study (SHOS), and 38 subjects who completed an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) intervention study. Results showed that higher baseline level of oleic acid/stearic acid (OA/SA), and lower levels of stearic acid/palmitic acid (SA/PA) and arachidonic acid/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (AA/DGLA) ratios were associated with higher rate of MHO to MUO conversion in the longitudinal SHDS. Further, the finding was validated in the cross-sectional and interventional studies. This panel of FFA ratios could be used for identification and early intervention of at-risk obese individuals. PMID:27344992

  13. Glucose metabolism: focus on gut microbiota, the endocannabinoid system and beyond.

    Cani, P D; Geurts, L; Matamoros, S; Plovier, H; Duparc, T

    2014-09-01

    The gut microbiota is now considered as a key factor in the regulation of numerous metabolic pathways. Growing evidence suggests that cross-talk between gut bacteria and host is achieved through specific metabolites (such as short-chain fatty acids) and molecular patterns of microbial membranes (lipopolysaccharides) that activate host cell receptors (such as toll-like receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors). The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is an important target in the context of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and inflammation. It has been demonstrated that eCB system activity is involved in the control of glucose and energy metabolism, and can be tuned up or down by specific gut microbes (for example, Akkermansia muciniphila). Numerous studies have also shown that the composition of the gut microbiota differs between obese and/or T2D individuals and those who are lean and non-diabetic. Although some shared taxa are often cited, there is still no clear consensus on the precise microbial composition that triggers metabolic disorders, and causality between specific microbes and the development of such diseases is yet to be proven in humans. Nevertheless, gastric bypass is most likely the most efficient procedure for reducing body weight and treating T2D. Interestingly, several reports have shown that the gut microbiota is profoundly affected by the procedure. It has been suggested that the consistent postoperative increase in certain bacterial groups such as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia (A. muciniphila) may explain its beneficial impact in gnotobiotic mice. Taken together, these data suggest that specific gut microbes modulate important host biological systems that contribute to the control of energy homoeostasis, glucose metabolism and inflammation in obesity and T2D. PMID:24631413

  14. Trace glucose and lipid metabolism in high androgen and high-fat diet induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats

    Zhai Hua-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different metabolic pathways in the development of diabetes mellitus in high-androgen female mice fed with a high-fat diet. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group(C, n = 10; the andronate-treated group (Andronate, n = 10 (treated with andronate, 1 mg/100 g body weight/day for 8 weeks; and the andronate-treated and high-fat diet group (Andronate+HFD, n = 10. The rate of glucose appearance (Ra of glucose, gluconeogenesis (GNG, and the rate of glycerol appearance (Ra of glycerol were assessed with a stable isotope tracer. The serum sex hormone levels, insulin levels, glucose concentration, and the lipid profile were also measured. Results Compared with control group, both andronate-treated groups exhibited obesity with higher insulin concentrations (P P Conclusions Andronate with HFD rat model showed ovarian and metabolic features of PCOS, significant increase in glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid profiles, as well as normal blood glucose levels. Therefore, aberrant IR, increased glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid metabolism may represent the early-stage of glucose and lipid kinetics disorder, thereby might be used as potential early-stage treatment targets for PCOS.

  15. Delivery-corrected imaging of fluorescently-labeled glucose reveals distinct metabolic phenotypes in murine breast cancer.

    Amy E Frees

    Full Text Available When monitoring response to cancer therapy, it is important to differentiate changes in glucose tracer uptake caused by altered delivery versus a true metabolic shift. Here, we propose an optical imaging method to quantify glucose uptake and correct for in vivo delivery effects. Glucose uptake was measured using a fluorescent D-glucose derivative 2-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylAmino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG in mice implanted with dorsal skin flap window chambers. Additionally, vascular oxygenation (SO2 was calculated using only endogenous hemoglobin contrast. Results showed that the delivery factor proposed for correction, "RD", reported on red blood cell velocity and injected 2-NBDG dose. Delivery-corrected 2-NBDG uptake (2-NBDG60/RD inversely correlated with blood glucose in normal tissue, indicating sensitivity to glucose demand. We further applied our method in metastatic 4T1 and nonmetastatic 4T07 murine mammary adenocarcinomas. The ratio 2-NBDG60/RD was increased in 4T1 tumors relative to 4T07 tumors yet average SO2 was comparable, suggesting a shift toward a "Warburgian" (aerobic glycolysis metabolism in the metastatic 4T1 line. In heterogeneous regions of both 4T1 and 4T07, 2-NBDG60/RD increased slightly but significantly as vascular oxygenation decreased, indicative of the Pasteur effect in both tumors. These data demonstrate the utility of delivery-corrected 2-NBDG and vascular oxygenation imaging for differentiating metabolic phenotypes in vivo.

  16. Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes

    The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2α and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2α and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1-14C glucose and 6-14C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14CO2 from 1-14C and 6-14C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2α also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1-14C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1-14C and 6-14C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6-14C glucose. (auth.)

  17. Type 2 diabetes alters metabolic and transcriptional signatures of glucose and amino acid metabolism during exercise and recovery

    Hansen, Jakob S; Zhao, Xinjie; Irmler, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    180 min recovery phase in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy controls matched for age, percentage body fat and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2). RESULTS: Pathway analysis of differentially regulated genes upon exercise revealed upregulation of regulators of GLUT4 (SLC2A4RG, FLOT1, EXOC7, RAB13......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The therapeutic benefit of physical activity to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes is commonly accepted. However, the impact of the disease on the acute metabolic response is less clear. To this end, we investigated the effect of type 2 diabetes on exercise-induced plasma metabolite......, RABGAP1 and CBLB), glycolysis (HK2, PFKFB1, PFKFB3, PFKM, FBP2 and LDHA) and insulin signal mediators in diabetic participants compared with controls. Notably, diabetic participants had normalised rates of lactate and insulin levels, and of glucose appearance and disappearance, after exercise. They also...

  18. Role of TRB3 in metabolism of glucose and lipid%TRB3与糖脂代谢

    郭娟娟; 陈莉明

    2008-01-01

    Pseudokinases tribbles 3(TRB3) is a member of TRB protein family. It is expressed in liver, skeletal muscles, pancreas and adipose tissue. TRB3 participates in the processes such as cell growth,differentiation and tumorigenesis, and is associated with metabolism of glucose and lipid. TRB3 disrupts insulin signaling by directly binding to serine-threonine kinase Akt and inhibiting activation of the kinase in liver and skeletal muscle. It also participates in the process of lipid metabolism by promoting the degradation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. Accordingly, abnormal expression of TRB3 is associated with diabetes, insulin resistance and lipid disorders.%伪激酶tribbles 3(TRB3)是TRB家族成员之一,在肝脏、骨骼肌、胰腺、脂肪组织中均有表达.TRB3除参与细胞增殖、分化、肿瘤的发生外,与机体糖脂代谢的调节也密切相关.TRB3可以与肝脏和骨骼中的丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白激酶结合并阻止其活化,干扰胰岛素信号转导,也可通过促进乙酰辅酶A羧化酶的降解参与脂肪酸的代谢过程.所以,TRB3的表达异常可能参与了糖尿病、胰岛素抵抗及脂代谢紊乱的发生.

  19. EXPLORING THE MECHANISM OF ACUPUNCTURE IN THE TREATMENT OF STROKE FROM CHANGES OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN THE CEREBRAL MOTOR CENTER

    石现; 左芳; 关玲

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of acupuncture on cerebral glucose metabolism in stroke patients.Methods:Changes of cerebral glucose metabolism before and after acupuncture stimulation were observed in six cases of stroke patients by using positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Electroacupuncture (EA,4 Hz, continuous waves and duration of 20 min) was applied to Baihui (百会GV 20) and right Qubin (曲鬓GB 7). 18 Fluorine deoxyglucose (18FDG), a developer (radioactive form of glucose) for showing the levels of the brain functional activity was given to the patients intravenously. SPM software was used to deal with the data of each pixel point by unilateral t-test (Ts: P=0.05), then, the regions showing increase/decrease of the glucose metabolism were obtained.Results:After acupuncture stimulation, significant increase of glucose metabolism was found to be in the first somatic motor cortical region (MI), supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor area (PMC), and the superior parietal lobule (LPs) on the healthy side of the brain; while the decrease of glucose metabolism found in MI, PMC and LPs on the focus side. In addition to the cerebral regions related to the motor function, changes of glucose metabolism were also found in the parietal lobule and basal ganglion area, central parietal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, putamen, cerebellum, etc..Conclusion:Acupuncture of Qubin (GB 7) and Baihui (GV 20) can activate motor-related cerebral structures in the bilateral cerebral hemisphere and induce excitement reaction of the potentially correlative motor area so as to compensate or assist the injured motor area to play a role in improving motor function in stroke patients.

  20. Comparison of different methods for attenuation correction in brain PET: Influence on the calculation of the metabolic glucose rate

    Aim: There are several approaches for correcting the effects of photon scatter or absorption by body tissues on positron emission tomography (PET). We examined the influence of cold, hot and segmented transmission as well as of a mathematical procedure on attenuation correction using regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu). Methods: 6 patients with different cerebral diseases were examined under resting conditions using an ECAT Exact 922/47. The attenuation-corrected data (corrected by means of cold, hot and segmented transmission as well as a mathematical procedure) were then quantified absolutely for assessment of regional glucose metabolism in 16 regions of interest (ROIs). Results: Using absolutely quantified glucose metabolism in 16 ROIs, no significant differences were found between cold transmission and the mathematical procedure except for three regions (left and right temporal occipital and right parietal occipital). Unlike the mathematical procedure, both hot and segmented transmission showed a significantly lower value for regional glucose utilisation in all 16 ROIs than did cold transmission. The left and the right hemisphere both showed metabolic values (rMRGlu) in the same decreasing order: Cold transmission, the mathematical procedure, hot or segemented transmission. There was no significant difference between global cerebral glucose metabolism values for cold transmission and the mathematical procedure (p=0.25) while those for hot (p=0.03) and segmented transmission (p=0.03) did show a significant difference. (orig.)

  1. Glucose and fatty acid metabolism in a 3 tissue in-vitro model challenged with normo- and hyperglycaemia.

    Elisabetta Iori

    Full Text Available Nutrient balance in the human body is maintained through systemic signaling between different cells and tissues. Breaking down this circuitry to its most basic elements and reconstructing the metabolic network in-vitro provides a systematic method to gain a better understanding of how cross-talk between the organs contributes to the whole body metabolic profile and of the specific role of each different cell type. To this end, a 3-way connected culture of hepatocytes, adipose tissue and endothelial cells representing a simplified model of energetic substrate metabolism in the visceral region was developed. The 3-way culture was shown to maintain glucose and fatty acid homeostasis in-vitro. Subsequently it was challenged with insulin and high glucose concentrations to simulate hyperglycaemia. The aim was to study the capacity of the 3-way culture to maintain or restore normal circulating glucose concentrations in response to insulin and to investigate the effects these conditions on other metabolites involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The results show that the system's metabolic profile changes dramatically in the presence of high concentrations of glucose, and that these changes are modulated by the presence of insulin. Furthermore, we observed an increase in E-selectin levels in hyperglycaemic conditions and increased IL-6 concentrations in insulin-free-hyperglycaemic conditions, indicating, respectively, endothelial injury and proinflammatory stress in the challenged 3-way system.

  2. EFFECT OF ELECTRO0-SCALP ACUPUNCTURE ON GLUCOSE METABOLISM OF THE CEREBRAL REGIONS INVOLVING MENTAL ACTIVITY IN HEAL THY PEOPLE

    HUANG Yong(黄泳); Win Moe Htut; LI Dong-jiang(李东江); TANG An-wu(唐安戊); LI Qiu-shi(李求实)

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of electro-scalp acupuncture on glucose metabolism of cerebral regions involving mental activity in healthy people. Methods: A total of 6 cases of volunteer healthy subjects (3 males and 3 females) ranging in age from 22 to 36 years were subjected to this study. Changes of cerebral glucose metabolism before and after electro-scalp acupuncture were observed by using positron emission tomography (PET) and semi-quantifying analysis method. Electro-scalp acupuncture stimulation (50 Hz, 2 mA) of Middle Line of Vertex (Dingzhongxian,顶中线,MS5), Middle Line of Forehead (Ezhongxian, 额中线,MS1) and bilateral Lateral Line 1 of Forehead (Epangyixian,额旁一线,MS2) was administered for 30 minutes. Then cerebral regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen and their average glucose metabolism levels (radioactivity of 18 fluorine deoxyglucose ) were analyzed. Results:After administration of electro-scalp acupuncture, the glucose metabolism levels in bilateral frontal lobes and bilateral caudate nuclei, left cingulate gyrus and right cerebellum increased significantly in comparison with those of pre-stimulation (P<0.05). Conclusion:Electro-scalp acupuncture of MS1, MS2 and MS5 can increase the glucose metabolism of certain cerebral regions involving in mental activity in healthy subjects.

  3. Association between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System and the risk of metabolic abnormalities in Koreans

    Jung, Hyun Ju; Han, Sung Nim; Song, Sujin; Paik, Hee Young; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of a diet consistent with dietary guidelines is believed to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of general health. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS), which was based on the 2010 revised KDRIs, and the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Five hundred and ninety-six Korean adults between 30 and 59 years of age were recruited by advertisement to the Bundang Jesaeng...

  4. Cerebral glucose metabolic patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Effect of gender and age at dementia onset

    No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect

  5. The relationship between the cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism in primary degenerative dementia

    The CBF, CMRO2 and CMRGlu were measured in patients with primary degenerative dementia including 5 patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type and 4 patients with Pick's disease, and then the correlation between the cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism was evaluated. The control subjects consisted of 5 age-matched normal volunteers. The CBF, CMRO2 and CMRGlu decreased in the bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal regions in the patients with Alzheimer's dementia, while they decreased in the bilateral frontal and temporal regions in the patients with Pick's disease. Both the CBF and CMRO2 were closely correlated with each other. However, the CMRGlu was more severely impaired than the CBF or CMRO2 in both pathological conditions. These results suggested that CMRGlu began to decrease before the reduction of the aerobic metabolism and thus measuring the CMRGlu is considered to be the most sensitive method for detecting abnormal regions in primary degenerative dementia. (author)

  6. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Dolkas, C. B.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.

    1992-09-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  7. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.; Dolkas, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity-dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  8. 11C-2-deoxy-D-glucose: Synthesis and preliminary comparison with 11C-D-glucose as a tracer for cerebral energy metabolism in PET studies

    11C-2-Deoxy-D-glucose has been prepared by the reaction of 11C-hydrogen cyanide with a stable precursor, 1-deoxy-2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidine-1-iodo-D-arabitol, thereby avoiding the synthesis of starting material immediately prior to labeling. Fast, efficient, and reproducible solvent change from dimethyl sulfoxide to ether by flash chromatography enabled the use of diisobutylaluminium hydride in the reduction of the intermediate nitrile. Hydrolysis of the imine-aluminum complex with sulfuric acid, removal of the isopropylidine protecting groups with formic acid, and HPLC purifiction with an Aminex HPX-87P column yielded 11C-2-deoxy-D-glucose in an aqueous solution, sterile, pyrogen-free, and ready for use in human studies. The radiochemical yield was proportional20% after a synthesis time of 50 min. The 11C-2-deoxy-D-glucose thus obtained is presently being compared with photosynthetically prepared 11C-D-glucose in PET studies of cerebral metabolism. A preliminary report of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose obtained with the two tracers in a healthy subject with visual stimulation is presented. (orig.)

  9. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.

  10. PET measurement of glucose membrane transport using labeled analogs: Distinction of transport from metabolic processes

    Carrier mediated glucose transport rates across brain capillary and myocardial cell membranes are many times higher than those expected for simple diffusion, and transport regulation can be an important determinant of tissue metabolic status. The authors have investigated the use of glucose analogs and dynamic positron tomography for the non-invasive measurement of unidirectional membrane transport rates. If analog extraction is sufficiently low, transport rates can be inferred directly from fitted kinetic rate constants. Fitting calculations were seen to be sensitive to the difficult to measure rapid components of the arterial input curves, to contributions from blood-borne label in the early data points, and to interference from other chemical forms in cases of significant phosphorylation. This last uncertainty was studied using serial scans of normal brain after venous injection of the well-transported but poorly phosphorylated analog 3-deoxy-3-fluoroglucose. Transport rate constants derived from 4-parameter fits of three hours of data were compared to those derived from 2-parameter fits of the first 12-20 minutes of data. Errors due to trapped label were absorbed primarily into the apparent distribution volume, allowing accurate estimation of transport rate constants from a brief data acquisition period. The study of the distinction of transport from phosphorylation also bears on the important question of the significance of the individual rate constants in the four-parameter fitting of brief dynamic scan sequences in studies of metabolic rate using 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose

  11. Regional difference of glucose metabolism reduction in equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depressed patients

    The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in cerebral glucose metabolism between patients with equivocal Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and those with elderly major depression (DEP). 31 patients with eAD, 7 patients with DEP, and 15 age matched normal controls were scanned with FDG-PET. Each FDG-PET images was normalized to the cerebellar activity before voxel-voxel analysis using SPM99. In comparison with normal controls, the eAD patents showed the most significant reduction of glucose metabolism (hypometabolism) in anterior inferior temporal gyrus in left, followed by bilateral posterior cingulate, left thalamus, and inferior parietal lobe. Patients with DEP showed hypometabolism in precuneus, inferior and middle frontal gyri in left, and right angular gyrus. Significantly lower activity was found in left inferior temporal gyrus in DEP in comparison to the eAD. Patients with eAD and DEP showed different pattern of hypometabolism, especially in inferior temporal gyrus. FDG brain PET may be useful in differential diagnosis between equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depression

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism 2 weeks following an 8000 m high altitude excursion

    Introduction: Little is known of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) following high altitude excursions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LCMRglu following an 40 day high altitude excursion. Methods: The study was performed on 11 male mountaineers, mean age 31.36 y, range 27-36. The subjects climbed Mount Shisha Pangma in the Himalaya (8048 m), an excursion which lasted 43 days. The total duration above 6000 m was 18 days. 18F-FDG PET was performed before and 2 weeks after the excursion on a GE Advance scanner. A single 10 minute image was acquired 40 minutes following the injection of 70 MBq 18F-FDG. The scans were first transformed into stereotactic space and normalized to mean whole brain activity, then statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was performed to assess the change of LCMRglu. In addition a region of interest analysis was performed on the interesting structures identified by SPM. Results: Significant increases (corrected for multiple comparisons) of relative FDG uptake were found in cerebellum (Z=5.36, 7.6±7.0, mean±s.d. of percent increase) and the left thalamus (Z= 4.91, 8.2±3.2%). The right thalamus demonstrated a trend towards increased LCMRglu. Conclusion: There are circumscribed areas with an increase in glucose metabolism following exposure to high altitude. The physiological meaning of this finding is at present not clear. One could speculate that it represents a compensatory reaction to excessive hypoxic stress

  13. Measurement of glucose metabolism in rat spinal cord slices with dynamic positron autoradiography

    We attempted to measure the regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in sliced spinal cords in vitro. The thoracic spinal cord of a mature Wister rat was cut into 400-μm slices in oxygenated and cooled (1-4 deg. C) Krebs-Ringer solution. After at least 60 min of preincubation, the spinal cord slices were transferred into double polystyrene chambers and incubated in Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 deg. C, bubbled with 5% O2/5% CO2 gas. To measure MRglc, we used the dynamic positron autoradiography technique (dPAT) with F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) and the net influx constant of [18F]FDG as an index. Uptake curves of [18F]FDG were well fitted by straight lines for more than 7 h after the slicing of the spinal cord (linear regression coefficient, r=0.99), indicating a constant uptake of glucose by the spinal cord tissue. The slope (K), which denotes MRglc, is affected by tetrodotoxin, and high K+ (50 mM) or Ca2+-free, high Mg2+ solution. After 10 min of hypoxia, the K value following reoxygenation was similar to the unloaded control value, but after 45 min of hypoxia, the K value was markedly lower than the unloaded control value, and after >90 min of reoxygenation it was nearly 0. Our results indicate that the living spinal cord slices used retained an activity-dependent metabolism to some extent. This technique may provide a new approach for measuring MRglc in sliced living spinal cord tissue in vitro and for quantifying the dynamic changes in MRglc in response to various interventions such as hypoxia

  14. Measurement of glucose metabolism in rat spinal cord slices with dynamic positron autoradiography

    Fan Xiaoping [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510100 (China); Asai, Tatsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Morioka, Koichi [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery II, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Uchida, Kenzo; Baba, Hisatoshi [Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Tanaka, Kuniyoshi [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery II, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Zhuang Jian [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Guangzhou 510100 (China); Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: yfuji@u-fukui.ac.jp

    2009-02-15

    We attempted to measure the regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in sliced spinal cords in vitro. The thoracic spinal cord of a mature Wister rat was cut into 400-{mu}m slices in oxygenated and cooled (1-4 deg. C) Krebs-Ringer solution. After at least 60 min of preincubation, the spinal cord slices were transferred into double polystyrene chambers and incubated in Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 deg. C, bubbled with 5% O{sub 2}/5% CO{sub 2} gas. To measure MRglc, we used the dynamic positron autoradiography technique (dPAT) with F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) and the net influx constant of [{sup 18}F]FDG as an index. Uptake curves of [{sup 18}F]FDG were well fitted by straight lines for more than 7 h after the slicing of the spinal cord (linear regression coefficient, r=0.99), indicating a constant uptake of glucose by the spinal cord tissue. The slope (K), which denotes MRglc, is affected by tetrodotoxin, and high K{sup +} (50 mM) or Ca{sup 2+}-free, high Mg{sup 2+} solution. After 10 min of hypoxia, the K value following reoxygenation was similar to the unloaded control value, but after 45 min of hypoxia, the K value was markedly lower than the unloaded control value, and after >90 min of reoxygenation it was nearly 0. Our results indicate that the living spinal cord slices used retained an activity-dependent metabolism to some extent. This technique may provide a new approach for measuring MRglc in sliced living spinal cord tissue in vitro and for quantifying the dynamic changes in MRglc in response to various interventions such as hypoxia.

  15. 1-Deoxynojirimycin Alleviates Liver Injury and Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in db/db Mice

    Qingpu Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ on liver injury and hepatic glucose metabolism in db/db mice. Mice were divided into five groups: normal control, db/db control, DNJ-20 (DNJ 20 mg·kg−1·day−1, DNJ-40 (DNJ 40 mg·kg−1·day−1 and DNJ-80 (DNJ 80 mg·kg−1·day−1. All doses were treated intravenously by tail vein for four weeks. DNJ was observed to significantly reduce the levels of serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and liver TG, as well as activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate transaminase (AST; DNJ also alleviated macrovesicular steatosis and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in liver tissue. Furthermore, DNJ treatment significantly increased hepatic glycogen content, the activities of hexokinase (HK, pyruvate kinase (PK in liver tissue, and decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, glycogen phosphorylase (GP, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Moreover, DNJ increased the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K on p85, protein kinase B (PKB on Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β on Ser9, and inhibited phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS on Ser645 in liver tissue of db/db mice. These results demonstrate that DNJ can increase hepatic insulin sensitivity via strengthening of the insulin-stimulated PKB/GSK-3β signal pathway and by modulating glucose metabolic enzymes in db/db mice. Moreover, DNJ also can improve lipid homeostasis and attenuate hepatic steatosis in db/db mice.

  16. Effect of leptin gene methylation on glucose metabolism in pregnant rats

    Zhen LI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the dynamic level of progesterone,insulin,and leptin,as well as the change in the features of leptin gene methylation in the promoter region of pregnant rats during different gestation stages and to analyze the correlation and effect of these conditions on glucose metabolism during gestation.Methods C57BL/6J pregnant rats are divided to four different groups,namely,early,mid-,and late gestation,as well as seven days postpartum(five rats for each group.Five C57BL/6J non-pregnant rats are taken as the control group.The change in glucose metabolism during gestation was determined by measuring the glucose tolerance of rats in different groups and by testing the level of progesterone,insulin,and leptin in the sera and the level of the methylation of leptin gene promoters during different stages of gestation.Results The levels of insulin [(13.70±0.70,14.78±0.91,and 16.07±0.55mU/L],progesterone [(10.10±0.37,11.41±0.50,and 15.34±0.65μg/L],and leptin [(1356.73±100.41,1628.02±53.03,and 1954.12±39.71ng/L] in pregnant rats in the three groups(early,mid-,and late gestation are apparently higher than that of the non-pregnant rats [(12.25±1.62mU/L,(7.14±0.38μg/L,and(934.38±62.29ng/L] and the postpartum group [(12.46±0.93mU/L,(9.74±0.82μg/L,and(1259.19±105.74ng/L].The difference among the different stages of gestation has statistical significance(P < 0.01,but the difference between the non-pregnant and postpartum groups is statistically insignificant.Fasting blood glucose during gestation is low.The level of blood glucose in mid-gestation and late-gestation rats after being injected with glucose is apparently higher than that of the non-pregnant group(P < 0.01.The level of methylation in the leptin gene promoter zone of the placenta drops along with gestation.Conclusions High levels of progesterone,insulin,and leptin contribute to physiological insulin resistance during gestation,resulting in reduced fasting blood glucose

  17. Cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differentially modulated innate immunity and glucose metabolism during late systemic inflammation.

    Bushansingh Baurhoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella causes acute systemic inflammation by using its virulence factors to invade the intestinal epithelium. But, prolonged inflammation may provoke severe body catabolism and immunological diseases. Salmonella has become more life-threatening due to emergence of multiple-antibiotic resistant strains. Mannose-rich oligosaccharides (MOS from cells walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown to bind mannose-specific lectin of Gram-negative bacteria including Salmonella, and prevent their adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. However, whether MOS may potentially mitigate systemic inflammation is not investigated yet. Moreover, molecular events underlying innate immune responses and metabolic activities during late inflammation, in presence or absence of MOS, are unknown. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a Salmonella LPS-induced systemic inflammation chicken model and microarray analysis, we investigated the effects of MOS and virginiamycin (VIRG, a sub-therapeutic antibiotic on innate immunity and glucose metabolism during late inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that MOS and VIRG modulated innate immunity and metabolic genes differently. Innate immune responses were principally mediated by intestinal IL-3, but not TNF-α, IL-1 or IL-6, whereas glucose mobilization occurred through intestinal gluconeogenesis only. MOS inherently induced IL-3 expression in control hosts. Consequent to LPS challenge, IL-3 induction in VIRG hosts but not differentially expressed in MOS hosts revealed that MOS counteracted LPS's detrimental inflammatory effects. Metabolic pathways are built to elucidate the mechanisms by which VIRG host's higher energy requirements were met: including gene up-regulations for intestinal gluconeogenesis (PEPCK and liver glycolysis (ENO2, and intriguingly liver fatty acid synthesis through ATP citrate synthase (CS down-regulation and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY and malic enzyme (ME up-regulations. However, MOS host

  18. The influence of processing corn grain on glucose metabolism in ewes.

    Landau, S; Nitsan, Z; Zoref, Z; Madar, Z

    1992-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was studied in ewes fed 800 g chopped alfalfa hay (H) or 400 g alfalfa hay and 400 g corn grain given in whole (HWC), ground (HGC) or extruded (HEC) form. Daily intake of metabolisable energy and crude protein were: 5.8 MJ, 109 g; 9.0 MJ, 84 g; 9.5 MJ, 84 g and 8.5 MJ, 88 g in H, HWC, HGC and HEC, respectively. In situ ruminal degradability ranked whole, ground, and extruded corn in ascending order. Ruminal pH and concentration of acetic acid were lower and of propionic acid higher (P less than 0.05) in HEC than in HGC and HWC groups. Plasma level of glucose (P less than 0.10), insulin (P less than 0.05), and the ratio of insulin to non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) (P less than 0.01) were higher in HEC than in other groups. Glucose irreversible loss (GILR) and entry rate (GER), recycling (GRec) and reentry (GRee) were determined by double isotope dilution procedure. GER, but not GILR, was higher in HWC than in H and HGC (6.98 mg/min/kg BW0.75 vs 3.97 and 4.24 mg/min/kg BW0.75, respectively; P less than 0.05) and than in HEC (4.84 mg/min/kg BW0.75; P less than 0.10). GRec and GRee were higher in HWC than in the other treatments. Grinding or extruding the grain increased ruminal degradability and decreased glucose entry rate. PMID:1449607

  19. Evaluation of Chios mastic gum on lipid and glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

    Georgiadis, Ioannis; Karatzas, Theodore; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Agrogiannis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Pantopoulou, Alkisti; Tzanetakou, Irene P; Katsilambros, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina N

    2014-03-01

    Chios mastic gum (MG), a resin produced from Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia, is reported to possess beneficial cardiovascular and hepatoprotective properties. This study investigated the effect of crude Chios MG on metabolic parameters in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic 12-week-old male C57bl/6 mice were assigned to three groups: NC (n=9) control; LdM (n=9) animals receiving low dose mastic for 8 weeks (20 mg/kg body weight [BW]); and HdM (n=9) animals receiving high dose mastic (500 mg/kg BW) for the same period. Serum lipid and glucose levels were determined at baseline, at 4 and 8 weeks. Serum total protein, adiponectin, and resistin levels were also measured at the end of the experiment. Histopathological examination for liver, kidney, aorta, and heart lesions was performed. After 4 weeks, MG administration resulted in decreased serum glucose and triglyceride levels in both LdM and HdM, whereas BW levels were reduced in LdM group compared with controls. At the end of the experiment, LdM presented significantly lower serum glucose, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and improved high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with control group. HdM group had ameliorated serum triglyceride levels. Hepatic steatosis observed in control group was partially reversed in LdM and HdM groups. MG administered in low dosages improves glucose and lipid disturbances in diabetic mice while alleviating hepatic damage. PMID:24404977

  20. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in late-life depression and Alzheimer disease: a preliminary positron emission tomography study.

    Kumar, A; Newberg, A; A. Alavi; Berlin, J; Smith, R.; Reivich, M

    1993-01-01

    Eight subjects with late-life depression, eight subjects with probable Alzheimer disease, and eight healthy age-matched controls were studied using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in the resting state with their eyes open and ears unoccluded. The depressed subjects showed widespread reductions in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in most major neocortical, subcortical, and paralimbic regions that were significantly different from control values (P <...