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Sample records for abnormal gene dosage

  1. Gene dosage methods as diagnostic tools for the identification of chromosome abnormalities.

    Gouas, L; Goumy, C; Véronèse, L; Tchirkov, A; Vago, P

    2008-09-01

    Cytogenetics is the part of genetics that deals with chromosomes, particularly with numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities, and their implications in congenital or acquired genetic disorders. Standard karyotyping, successfully used for the last 50 years in investigating the chromosome etiology in patients with infertility, fetal abnormalities and congenital disorders, is constrained by the limits of microscopic resolution and is not suited for the detection of subtle chromosome abnormalities. The ability to detect submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements that lead to copy-number changes has escalated progressively in recent years with the advent of molecular cytogenetic techniques. Here, we review various gene dosage methods such as FISH, PCR-based approaches (MLPA, QF-PCR, QMPSF and real time PCR), CGH and array-CGH, that can be used for the identification and delineation of copy-number changes for diagnostic purposes. Besides comparing their relative strength and weakness, we will discuss the impact that these detection methods have on our understanding of copy number variations in the human genome and their implications in genetic counseling. PMID:18513889

  2. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

    Douaud, Marine; Feve, Katia; Pituello, Fabienne; Gourichon, David; Boitard, Simon; Leguern, Eric; Coquerelle, Gérard; Vieaud, Agathe; Batini, Cesira; Naquet, Robert; Vignal, Alain; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Pitel, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A) is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans. PMID:22046416

  3. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

    Marine Douaud

    Full Text Available Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans.

  4. Dosage Compensation of the Period Gene in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Cooper, M K; Hamblen-Coyle, M. J.; Liu, X; Rutila, J E; Hall, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The period (per) gene is located on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Its expression influences biological clocks in this fruit fly, including the one that subserves circadian rhythms of locomotor activity. Like most X-linked genes in Drosophila, per is under the regulatory control of gene dosage compensation. In this study, we assessed the activity of altered or augmented per(+) DNA fragments in transformants. Relative expression levels in male and female adults were inferred from...

  5. Gene expression dosage regulation in an allopolyploid fish.

    I Matos

    Full Text Available How allopolyploids are able not only to cope but profit from their condition is a question that remains elusive, but is of great importance within the context of successful allopolyploid evolution. One outstanding example of successful allopolyploidy is the endemic Iberian cyprinid Squalius alburnoides. Previously, based on the evaluation of a few genes, it was reported that the transcription levels between diploid and triploid S. alburnoides were similar. If this phenomenon occurs on a full genomic scale, a wide functional ''diploidization'' could be related to the success of these polyploids. We generated RNA-seq data from whole juvenile fish and from adult livers, to perform the first comparative quantitative transcriptomic analysis between diploid and triploid individuals of a vertebrate allopolyploid. Together with an assay to estimate relative expression per cell, it was possible to infer the relative sizes of transcriptomes. This showed that diploid and triploid S. alburnoides hybrids have similar liver transcriptome sizes. This in turn made it valid to directly compare the S. alburnoides RNA-seq transcript data sets and obtain a profile of dosage responses across the S. alburnoides transcriptome. We found that 64% of transcripts in juveniles' samples and 44% in liver samples differed less than twofold between diploid and triploid hybrids (similar expression. Yet, respectively 29% and 15% of transcripts presented accurate dosage compensation (PAA/PA expression ratio of 1 instead of 1.5. Therefore, an exact functional diploidization of the triploid genome does not occur, but a significant down regulation of gene expression in triploids was observed. However, for those genes with similar expression levels between diploids and triploids, expression is not globally strictly proportional to gene dosage nor is it set to a perfect diploid level. This quantitative expression flexibility may be a strong contributor to overcome the genomic shock

  6. Identification of dosage-sensitive genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the genetic tug-of-war method.

    Makanae, Koji; Kintaka, Reiko; Makino, Takashi; Kitano, Hiroaki; Moriya, Hisao

    2013-02-01

    Gene overexpression beyond a permissible limit causes defects in cellular functions. However, the permissible limits of most genes are unclear. Previously, we developed a genetic method designated genetic tug-of-war (gTOW) to measure the copy number limit of overexpression of a target gene. In the current study, we applied gTOW to the analysis of all protein-coding genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We showed that the yeast cellular system was robust against an increase in the copy number by up to 100 copies in >80% of the genes. After frameshift and segmentation analyses, we isolated 115 dosage-sensitive genes (DSGs) with copy number limits of 10 or less. DSGs contained a significant number of genes involved in cytoskeletal organization and intracellular transport. DSGs tended to be highly expressed and to encode protein complex members. We demonstrated that the protein burden caused the dosage sensitivity of highly expressed genes using a gTOW experiment in which the open reading frame was replaced with GFP. Dosage sensitivities of some DSGs were rescued by the simultaneous increase in the copy numbers of partner genes, indicating that stoichiometric imbalances among complexes cause dosage sensitivity. The results obtained in this study will provide basic knowledge about the physiology of chromosomal abnormalities and the evolution of chromosomal composition. PMID:23275495

  7. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata;

    2015-01-01

    expression. We reanalyzed 77,840 expression profiles and observed a limited set of 'transcriptional components' that describe well-known biology, explain the vast majority of variation in gene expression and enable us to predict the biological function of genes. On correcting expression profiles for these...

  8. Gene Dosage Imbalance Contributes to Chromosomal Instability-Induced Tumorigenesis.

    Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Murillo-Maldonado, Juan M; Benhra, Najate; Barrio, Lara; Pérez, Lidia; Quiroga, Gonzalo; Nebreda, Angel R; Milán, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) is thought to be a source of mutability in cancer. However, CIN often results in aneuploidy, which compromises cell fitness. Here, we used the dosage compensation mechanism (DCM) of Drosophila to demonstrate that chromosome-wide gene dosage imbalance contributes to the deleterious effects of CIN-induced aneuploidy and its pro-tumorigenic action. We present evidence that resetting of the DCM counterbalances the damaging effects caused by CIN-induced changes in X chromosome number. Importantly, interfering with the DCM suffices to mimic the cellular effects of aneuploidy in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, JNK-dependent cell death, and tumorigenesis upon apoptosis inhibition. We unveil a role of ROS in JNK activation and a variety of cellular and tissue-wide mechanisms that buffer the deleterious effects of CIN, including DNA-damage repair, activation of the p38 pathway, and cytokine induction to promote compensatory proliferation. Our data reveal the existence of robust compensatory mechanisms that counteract CIN-induced cell death and tumorigenesis. PMID:26859353

  9. Compensation of Dosage-Sensitive Genes on the Chicken Z Chromosome.

    Zimmer, Fabian; Harrison, Peter W; Dessimoz, Christophe; Mank, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    In many diploid species, sex determination is linked to a pair of sex chromosomes that evolved from a pair of autosomes. In these organisms, the degeneration of the sex-limited Y or W chromosome causes a reduction in gene dose in the heterogametic sex for X- or Z-linked genes. Variations in gene dose are detrimental for large chromosomal regions when they span dosage-sensitive genes, and many organisms were thought to evolve complete mechanisms of dosage compensation to mitigate this. However, the recent realization that a wide variety of organisms lack complete mechanisms of sex chromosome dosage compensation has presented a perplexing question: How do organisms with incomplete dosage compensation avoid deleterious effects of gene dose differences between the sexes? Here we use expression data from the chicken (Gallus gallus) to show that ohnologs, duplicated genes known to be dosage-sensitive, are preferentially dosage-compensated on the chicken Z chromosome. Our results indicate that even in the absence of a complete and chromosome wide dosage compensation mechanism, dosage-sensitive genes are effectively dosage compensated on the Z chromosome. PMID:27044516

  10. Cystic gene dosage influences kidney lesions after nephron reduction.

    Le Corre, Stéphanie; Viau, Amandine; Burtin, Martine; El-Karoui, Khalil; Cnops, Yvette; Terryn, Sara; Debaix, Huguette; Bérissi, Sophie; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Devuyst, Olivier; Terzi, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    Cystic kidney disease is characterized by the progressive development of multiple fluid-filled cysts. Cysts can be acquired, or they may appear during development or in postnatal life due to specific gene defects and lead to renal failure. The most frequent form of this disease is the inherited polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Experimental models of PKD showed that an increase of cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as defects in apico-basal and planar cell polarity or cilia play a critical role in cyst development. However, little is known about the mechanisms and the mediators involved in acquired cystic kidney diseases (ACKD). In this study, we used the nephron reduction as a model to study the mechanisms underlying cyst development in ACKD. We found that tubular dilations after nephron reduction recapitulated most of the morphological features of ACKD. The development of tubular dilations was associated with a dramatic increase of cell proliferation. In contrast, the apico-basal polarity and cilia did not seem to be affected. Interestingly, polycystin 1 and fibrocystin were markedly increased and polycystin 2 was decreased in cells lining the dilated tubules, whereas the expression of several other cystic genes did not change. More importantly, Pkd1 haploinsufficiency accelerated the development of tubular dilations after nephron reduction, a phenotype that was associated to a further increase of cell proliferation. These data were relevant to humans ACKD, as cystic genes expression and the rate of cell proliferation were also increased. In conclusion, our study suggests that the nephron reduction can be considered a suitable model to study ACKD and that dosage of genes involved in PKD is also important in ACKD. PMID:25531116

  11. The importance of MDR1 gene polymorphisms for tacrolimus dosage.

    Kravljaca, Milica; Perovic, Vladimir; Pravica, Vera; Brkovic, Voin; Milinkovic, Marija; Lausevic, Mirjana; Naumovic, Radomir

    2016-02-15

    Polymorphisms of the multi drug resistance (MDR1) gene cause variability in P-glycoprotein mediated metabolism of tacrolimus. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between MDR1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes with dosage of tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients who were cytochrome (CYP) 3A5*3 homozygotes. This study included 91 kidney transplant recipients followed two years after transplantation. Detection and analysis of MDR1 gene polymorphisms in positions C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T were performed using PCR method. Patients with variant alleles for SNPs G2677T/A and C3435T required higher doses of tacrolimus and had a lower level/dose (L/D) ratio than patients with wild alleles or heterozygotes. That difference was the most obvious for SNP G2677T/A where TT homozygotes required significantly higher doses of tacrolimus during whole follow-up. Their L/D was significantly lower in the first month after transplantation. Recipients with CTT/TTT haplotype also had lower L/D than those with CGC/TTT and CGC/CGC, significantly in the 10th and 20th days after transplantation respectively (p<0.05). Our results demonstrate that TT homozygotes at positions G2677T/A and C3435T required a higher tacrolimus dose than those with wild alleles or heterozygotes. It may be helpful in the prevention of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity early after transplantation. PMID:26705892

  12. Dosage effects of Waxy gene on the structures and properties of corn starch.

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Blanco, Michael; Gardner, Candice; Li, Xuehong; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2016-09-20

    The objective of this study was to understand dosage effects of the Waxy gene on the structures of amylose and amylopectin and on the properties of corn starch. Reciprocal crossing of isogenic normal and waxy corn lines was conducted to develop hybrids with different dosages (0, 1, 2, 3) of Waxy gene in the endosperm. The amylose content of starch and proportions of branch chains of DP 17-30 and extra-long branch chains (DP>100) of amylopectin were positively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage. Proportions of short (DPstarch were negatively correlated with the Waxy-gene dosage, indicating that amylose facilitated dissociation of the surrounding crystalline regions. These results helped us understand the function of granule-bound starch synthase I in the biosynthesis of amylose and amylopectin and impacts of Waxy-gene dosages on the properties of corn starch. PMID:27261752

  13. Gene Abnormality May Be Key to Down Syndrome, Scientists Say

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157468.html Gene Abnormality May Be Key to Down Syndrome, Scientists ... release. His research team compared the activity of genes in different areas of the brain in people ...

  14. Exon dosage analysis of parkin gene in Chinese sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    Guo, Ji-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Li; Xu, Qian; Li, Nan; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Xia, Kun; Tang, Bei-Sha

    2015-09-14

    Parkin gene mutations are by far the most common mutations in both familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and sporadic PD. Approximately, 50% of parkin mutations is exon dosage mutations (i.e., deletions and duplications of entire exons). Here, we first established a MLPA assay for quick detection of parkin exon rearrangements. Then, we studied parkin exon dosage mutations in 755 Chinese sporadic PDdisease patients using the established MLPA assay. We found that there were 25 (3.3%) patients with exon dosage alterations including deletions and duplications, 20 (11.4%) patients with exon rearrangements in 178 early-onset patients, and 5 (0.86%) patients with exon rearrangement mutations in 579 later-onset patients. The percentage of individuals with parkin dosage mutations is more than 33% when the age at onset is less than 30 years old, but less than 7% when the age at onset is more than 30. In these mutations, deletion is the main mutational style, especially in exon 2-5. Our results indicated that exon dosage mutations in parkin gene might be the main cause for sporadic PD, especially in EOP. PMID:26240990

  15. Gene dosage effects of the imprinted delta-like homologue 1 (dlk1/pref1) in development: implications for the evolution of imprinting.

    da Rocha, Simao Teixeira; Charalambous, Marika; Lin, Shau-Ping; Gutteridge, Isabel; Ito, Yoko; Gray, Dionne; Dean, Wendy; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C

    2009-02-01

    Genomic imprinting is a normal process that causes genes to be expressed according to parental origin. The selective advantage conferred by imprinting is not understood but is hypothesised to act on dosage-critical genes. Here, we report a unique model in which the consequences of a single, double, and triple dosage of the imprinted Dlk1/Pref1, normally repressed on the maternally inherited chromosome, can be assessed in the growing embryo. BAC-transgenic mice were generated that over-express Dlk1 from endogenous regulators at all sites of embryonic activity. Triple dosage causes lethality associated with major organ abnormalities. Embryos expressing a double dose of Dlk1, recapitulating loss of imprinting, are growth enhanced but fail to thrive in early life, despite the early growth advantage. Thus, any benefit conferred by increased embryonic size is offset by postnatal lethality. We propose a negative correlation between gene dosage and survival that fixes an upper limit on growth promotion by Dlk1, and we hypothesize that trade-off between growth and lethality might have driven imprinting at this locus. PMID:19247431

  16. Rapid optimization of gene dosage in E. coli using DIAL strains

    Cheung Sherine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineers frequently vary design parameters to optimize the behaviour of a system. However, synthetic biologists lack the tools to rapidly explore a critical design parameter, gene expression level, and have no means of systematically varying the dosage of an entire genetic circuit. As a step toward overcoming this shortfall, we have developed a technology that enables the same plasmid to be maintained at different copy numbers in a set of closely related cells. This provides a rapid method for exploring gene or cassette dosage effects. Results We engineered two sets of strains to constitutively provide a trans-acting replication factor, either Pi of the R6K plasmid or RepA of the ColE2 plasmid, at different doses. Each DIAL (different allele strain supports the replication of a corresponding plasmid at a constant level between 1 and 250 copies per cell. The plasmids exhibit cell-to-cell variability comparable to other popular replicons, but with improved stability. Since the origins are orthogonal, both replication factors can be incorporated into the same cell. We demonstrate the utility of these strains by rapidly assessing the optimal expression level of a model biosynthetic pathway for violecein. Conclusions The DIAL strains can rapidly optimize single gene expression levels, help balance expression of functionally coupled genetic elements, improve investigation of gene and circuit dosage effects, and enable faster development of metabolic pathways.

  17. Dependency of phenprocoumon dosage on polymorphisms in the VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 genes

    Teichert, M.; Eijgelsheim, M.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Buhre, P.N.; Hofman, A.; Smet, P.A. de; Visser, L.E.; Stricker, B.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on warfarin and acenocoumarol showed that interindividual dosage variation is mainly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 and to a lesser extent in CYP2C9 and CYP4F2. For phenprocoumon dosage, the genes encoding CYP3A4 an

  18. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Zodwa Dlamini; Tshidino, Shonisani C.; Rodney Hull

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 f...

  19. Increasing gene dosage greatly enhances recombinant expression of aquaporins in Pichia pastoris

    Kjellbom Per

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When performing functional and structural studies, large quantities of pure protein are desired. Most membrane proteins are however not abundantly expressed in their native tissues, which in general rules out purification from natural sources. Heterologous expression, especially of eukaryotic membrane proteins, has also proven to be challenging. The development of expression systems in insect cells and yeasts has resulted in an increase in successful overexpression of eukaryotic proteins. High yields of membrane protein from such hosts are however not guaranteed and several, to a large extent unexplored, factors may influence recombinant expression levels. In this report we have used four isoforms of aquaporins to systematically investigate parameters that may affect protein yield when overexpressing membrane proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Results By comparing clones carrying a single gene copy, we show a remarkable variation in recombinant protein expression between isoforms and that the poor expression observed for one of the isoforms could only in part be explained by reduced transcript levels. Furthermore, we show that heterologous expression levels of all four aquaporin isoforms strongly respond to an increase in recombinant gene dosage, independent of the amount of protein expressed from a single gene copy. We also demonstrate that the increased expression does not appear to compromise the protein folding and the membrane localisation. Conclusions We report a convenient and robust method based on qPCR to determine recombinant gene dosage. The method is generic for all constructs based on the pPICZ vectors and offers an inexpensive, quick and reliable means of characterising recombinant P. pastoris clones. By using this method we show that: (1 heterologous expression of all aquaporins investigated respond strongly to an increase in recombinant gene dosage (2 expression from a single recombinant gene copy varies

  20. Analysis of SRY Gene in 8 Cases of Sex Abnormality

    王慧; 腾云; 田虹; 陈燕; 杨真荣; 唐艳平

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between sex dysplasia and sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene, 8 patients with sexual abnormality were analyzed by cytogenetic and molecular genetic methods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using PY3.4, X alpha satellite, and SRY probes was performed in each case to analyze the sex chromosome translocation and gene translocation. SRY gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its mutation was detected by direct sequencing. The results showed that among 8 patients, 5 were positive for SRY and the remaining negative for SRY. In the patients positive for SRY genes, 3 presented testes and the left 2streak ovaries. In the patients negative for SRY, only one case presented testes, while 2 ovaries.Direct sequencing demonstrated that all SRY genes were normal in the patients positive for SRY genes. FISH technique demonstrated that SRY genes translocated from Ypter to Xpter in 2 46,XX phenotypic males positive for SRY genes. It was concluded that SRY gene is strongly involved in.male sex determination, while a sequence of other genes may be taken into account in sexual development.

  1. High Serum Endostatin Level in Egyptian Children with Down Syndrome: Gene Dosage Effect

    N.A. Meguid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 51 individuals with Down syndrome (DS; 39 patients with trisomy 21 and 12 patients with mosaicism as well as their 22 matched controls. Their ages ranged from 2 months to 18 years. The purpose of this work was to study the level and the gene dosage effect of serum endostatin in DS children and control subjects. Present results showed significant high levels of endostatin in the population with complete trisomy 21 compared to mosaicism and control subjects, whereas, in cases with mosaicism, endostatin levels showed no statistical difference compared to control subjects. Congenital heart disease was present in 58.8%. No significant difference in endostatin levels between cases with congenital heart and cases without. Reviewing the literature showed that DS patients are resistant to solid tumours and rarely have haemangiomas. This study concluded that the increased levels of endostatin is a gene dosage effect (three copies of the protein and it could be used as a preventive protein for high risk population up to the level seen in DS without side effects. The present work is important in the field of angiogenesis, not only from research area, but also from product development safety.

  2. Gene dosage imbalance during DNA replication controls bacterial cell-fate decision

    Igoshin, Oleg

    Genes encoding proteins in a common regulatory network are frequently located close to one another on the chromosome to facilitate co-regulation or couple gene expression to growth rate. Contrasting with these observations, here we demonstrate a functional role for the arrangement of Bacillus subtilis sporulation network genes on opposite sides of the chromosome. We show that the arrangement of two sporulation network genes, one located close to the origin, the other close to the terminus leads to a transient gene dosage imbalance during chromosome replication. This imbalance is detected by the sporulation network to produce cell-cycle coordinated pulses of the sporulation master regulator Spo0A~P. This pulsed response allows cells to decide between sporulation and continued vegetative growth during each cell-cycle spent in starvation. Furthermore, changes in DNA replication and cell-cycle parameters with decreased growth rate in starvation conditions enable cells to indirectly detect starvation without the need for evaluating specific metabolites. The simplicity of the uncovered coordination mechanism and starvation sensing suggests that it may be widely applicable in a variety of gene regulatory and stress-response settings. This work is supported by National Science Foundation Grants MCB-1244135, EAGER-1450867, MCB-1244423, NIH NIGMS Grant R01 GM088428 and HHMI International Student Fellowship.

  3. The non-dosage compensated Lsp1α gene of Drosophila melanogaster escapes acetylation by MOF in larval fat body nuclei, but is flanked by two dosage compensated genes

    Scott Maxwell J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila melanogaster dosage compensation of most X-linked genes is mediated by the male-specific lethal (MSL complex, which includes MOF. MOF acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac. The X-linked Larval serum protein one α (Lsp1α gene has long been known to be not dosage compensated. Here we have examined possible explanations for why the Lsp1α gene is not dosage compensated. Results Quantitative RNase protection analysis showed that the genes flanking Lsp1α are expressed equally in males and females and confirmed that Lsp1α is not dosage compensated. Unlike control X-linked genes, Lsp1α was not enriched for H4K16ac in the third instar larval fat body, the tissue in which the gene is actively expressed. X-linked Lsp1α promoter-lacZ reporter transgenes are enriched for H4K16ac in third instar larval fat body. An X-linked reporter gene bracketed by Lsp1α flanking regions was dosage compensated. One of the genes flanking Lsp1α is expressed in the same tissue. This gene shows a modest enrichment for H4K16ac but only at the part of the gene most distant from Lsp1α. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of the genomes of 12 Drosophila species shows that Lsp1α is only present within the melanogaster subgroup of species. Conclusion Lsp1α is not modified by the MSL complex but is in a region of the X chromosome that is regulated by the MSL complex. The high activity or tissue-specificity of the Lsp1α promoter does not prevent regulation by the MSL complex. The regions flanking Lsp1α do not appear to block access by the MSL complex. Lsp1α appears to have recently evolved within the melanogaster subgroup of Drosophila species. The most likely explanation for why Lsp1α is not dosage compensated is that the gene has not evolved a mechanism to independently recruit the MSL complex, possibly because of its recent evolutionary origin, and because there appears to be a low level of bound MSL complex in a nearby gene

  4. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  5. Direct evaluation of the effect of gene dosage on secretion of protein from yeast Pichia pastoris by expressing EGFP.

    Liu, Hailong; Qin, Yufeng; Huang, Yuankai; Chen, Yaosheng; Cong, Peiqing; He, Zuyong

    2014-02-28

    Increasing the gene copy number has been commonly used to enhance the protein expression level in the yeast Pichia pastoris. However, this method has been shown to be effective up to a certain gene copy number, and a further increase of gene dosage can result in a decrease of expression level. Evidences indicate the gene dosage effect is product-dependent, which needs to be determined when expressing a new protein. Here, we describe a direct detection of the gene dosage effect on protein secretion through expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene under the direction of the α-factor preprosequence in a panel of yeast clones carrying increasing copies of the EGFP gene (from one to six copies). Directly examined under fluorescence microscopy, we found relatively lower levels of EGFP were secreted into the culture medium at one copy and two copies, substantial improvement of secretion appeared at three copies, plateau happened at four and five copies, and an apparent decrease of secretion happened at six copies. The secretion of EGFP being limiting at four and five copies was due to abundant intracellular accumulation of proteins, observed from the fluorescence image of yeast and confirmed by western blotting, which significantly activated the unfolded protein response indicated by the up-regulation of the BiP (the KAR2 gene product) and the protein disulfide isomerase. This study implies that tagging a reporter like GFP to a specific protein would facilitate a direct and rapid determination of the optimal gene copy number for high-yield expression. PMID:24225373

  6. Perk gene dosage regulates glucose homeostasis by modulating pancreatic β-cell functions.

    Rong Wang

    Full Text Available Insulin synthesis and cell proliferation are under tight regulation in pancreatic β-cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Dysfunction in either aspect leads to development of diabetes. PERK (EIF2AK3 loss of function mutations in humans and mice exhibit permanent neonatal diabetes that is characterized by insufficient β-cell mass and reduced proinsulin trafficking and insulin secretion. Unexpectedly, we found that Perk heterozygous mice displayed lower blood glucose levels.Longitudinal studies were conducted to assess serum glucose and insulin, intracellular insulin synthesis and storage, insulin secretion, and β-cell proliferation in Perk heterozygous mice. In addition, modulation of Perk dosage specifically in β-cells showed that the glucose homeostasis phenotype of Perk heterozygous mice is determined by reduced expression of PERK in the β-cells.We found that Perk heterozygous mice first exhibited enhanced insulin synthesis and secretion during neonatal and juvenile development followed by enhanced β-cell proliferation and a substantial increase in β-cell mass at the adult stage. These differences are not likely to entail the well-known function of PERK to regulate the ER stress response in cultured cells as several markers for ER stress were not differentially expressed in Perk heterozygous mice.In addition to the essential functions of PERK in β-cells as revealed by severely diabetic phenotype in humans and mice completely deficient for PERK, reducing Perk gene expression by half showed that intermediate levels of PERK have a profound impact on β-cell functions and glucose homeostasis. These results suggest that an optimal level of PERK expression is necessary to balance several parameters of β-cell function and growth in order to achieve normoglycemia.

  7. Gene dosage as a relevant mechanism contributing to the determination of ovarian function in Turner syndrome

    Castronovo, Chiara; Rossetti, Raffaella; Rusconi, Daniela; Recalcati, Maria P.; Cacciatore, Chiara; Beccaria, Elena; Calcaterra, Valeria; Invernizzi, Pietro; Larizza, Daniela; Finelli, Palma; Persani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    array-CGH analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR, including a BMP15 gene duplication at Xp11.22, a deletion interrupting the PAPPA gene at 9q33.1, and an intragenic duplication involving the PDE8A gene at 15q25.3. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This is a pilot study on a relatively small sample size and confirmation in larger TS cohorts may be required. The ovarian tissue could not be studied in any patients and in a subgroup of patients, the mosaicism was estimated in tissues of different embryonic origin. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The combined determination of X chromosome mosaicism by molecular and molecular-cytogenetic techniques may become useful for the prediction of SM in TS. The detection of CNVs in both X-linked and autosomal ovary-related genes further suggests gene dosage as a relevant mechanism contributing to the ovarian phenotype of TS patients. These CNVs may pinpoint novel candidates relevant to female fertility and generate further insights into the mechanisms contributing to ovarian function. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by Telethon Foundation (grant no: GGP09126 to L.P.), the Italian Ministry of the University and Research (grant number: 2006065999 to P.F.) and a Ministry of Health grant ‘Ricerca Corrente’ to IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano (grant number: 08C704-2006). The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. PMID:24324027

  8. The effect of pentoxifylline drug on bax/bcl2 gene dosage expression changes following ischemic reperfusion injury in kidney

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global cerebral ischemia (GCI and reperfusion induced apoptosis that lead to cell injury and death. The bax and bcl-2 are pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively. These genes belong to The B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2 family.In this study; we assessed the effect of pentoxifylline drug on bax/bcl2 gene dosage expression changes following ischemic reperfusion injury in kidney. In this experimental study, 20 male wistar rats were accidently divided them on two tenth group of control and treatment groups. In the control group, celiotomy was performed by ventral midline incision. The left kidney was isolated, and then both the renal artery and vein were obstructed. After 60 minutes of warm ischemia, vessel obstruction resolved and the right kidney was removed. 72 hours after reperfusion, tissue samples were taken from left kidney for histopathology. All these steps in treatment group were exactly repeated after administration of 45 mg/kg/PO pentoxifylline (3 hours before operation and in this group treatment was continued every 12h until 3 days. In this research quantitative real-time PCR is used for the detection expression Bcl2 and Bax genes in ischemia group and PNT drug group and compared to normal sample. The results showed the gene dosage ratio of bax/bcl2 in PNT group decline than to ischemia group. Therefore, the pentoxyfylline might have a role in control of apoptosis result from Ischemia- reperfusion

  9. Effect of cooperation of chaperones and gene dosage on the expression of porcine PGLYRP-1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Yang, Jun; Lu, Zhipeng; Chen, Jiawei; Chu, Pinpin; Cheng, Qingmei; Liu, Jie; Ming, Feiping; Huang, Chaoyuan; Xiao, Anji; Cai, Haiming; Zhang, Linghua

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRPs) are highly conserved pattern-recognition molecules of the innate immune system with considerable bactericidal activity, which manifest their potential values for the application to food and pharmaceutical industry. However, the effective expression of porcine PGLYRP-1 in Pichia pastoris has not been reported so far. In this study, expression in P. pastoris was explored as an efficient way to produce functional porcine PGLYRP-1. Cooperation of chaperones co-expression and gene dosage (including protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)/binding protein (BiP) and pglyrp-1) were used to enhance functional expression of antimicrobial protein in P. pastoris. Overexpression of PDI was certainly able to increase secretion level of PGLYRP-1 protein because the increase in secreted PGLYRP-1 secretion was correlated with the copy numbers of PDI in high copy pglyrp-1 clones. However, co-expression of BiP was proved to be detrimental to PGLYRP-1 secretion. In addition, we also found that excessive expression of PDI and/or BiP could decrease the mRNA expression of pglyrp-1 gene. This showed that PDI and BiP as the target genes of unfolded protein response (UPR) might regulate the transcription of the target protein. These data demonstrated for the first time that the combination of chaperones and gene dosages could improve the yield of PGLYRP-1, which could facilitate the application to food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26883349

  10. Schizophrenia: susceptibility genes and oligodendroglial and myelin related abnormalities

    Panos eRoussos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that the genetic risk for schizophrenia is highly polygenic and the effect sizes, even for rare or de novo events, are modest at best, it has been suggested that multiple biological pathways are likely to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Most efforts in understanding the cellular basis of schizophrenia have followed a neuron-centric approach, focusing on alterations in neurotransmitter systems and synapse cytoarchitecture. However, multiple lines of evidence coming from genetics and systems biology approaches suggest that apart from neurons, oligodendrocytes and potentially other glia are affected from schizophrenia risk loci. Neurobiological abnormalities linked with genetic association signal could identify abnormalities that are more likely to be primary, versus environmentally-induced changes or downstream events. Here, we summarize genetic data that support the involvement of oligodendrocytes in schizophrenia, providing additional evidence for a causal role with the disease. Given the undeniable evidence of both neuronal and glial abnormalities in schizophrenia, we propose a neuro-glial model that invokes abnormalities at the node of Ranvier as a functional unit in the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  11. Effects of aberrant Pax6 gene dosage on mouse corneal pathophysiology and corneal epithelial homeostasis.

    Richard L Mort

    Full Text Available Altered dosage of the transcription factor PAX6 causes multiple human eye pathophysiologies. PAX6⁺/⁻ heterozygotes suffer from aniridia and aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK, a corneal deterioration that probably involves a limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC deficiency. Heterozygous Pax6(+/Sey-Neu (Pax6⁺/⁻ mice recapitulate the human disease and are a good model of ARK. Corneal pathologies also occur in other mouse Pax6 mutants and in PAX77(Tg/- transgenics, which over-express Pax6 and model human PAX6 duplication.We used electron microscopy to investigate ocular defects in Pax6⁺/⁻ heterozygotes (low Pax6 levels and PAX77(Tg/- transgenics (high Pax6 levels. As well as the well-documented epithelial defects, aberrant Pax6 dosage had profound effects on the corneal stroma and endothelium in both genotypes, including cellular vacuolation, similar to that reported for human macular corneal dystrophy. We used mosaic expression of an X-linked LacZ transgene in X-inactivation mosaic female (XLacZ(Tg/- mice to investigate corneal epithelial maintenance by LESC clones in Pax6⁺/⁻ and PAX77(Tg/- mosaic mice. PAX77(Tg/- mosaics, over-expressing Pax6, produced normal corneal epithelial radial striped patterns (despite other corneal defects, suggesting that centripetal cell movement was unaffected. Moderately disrupted patterns in Pax6⁺/⁻ mosaics were corrected by introducing the PAX77 transgene (in Pax6⁺/⁻, PAX77(Tg/- mosaics. Pax6(Leca4/+, XLacZ(Tg/- mosaic mice (heterozygous for the Pax6(Leca4 missense mutation showed more severely disrupted mosaic patterns. Corrected corneal epithelial stripe numbers (an indirect estimate of active LESC clone numbers declined with age (between 15 and 30 weeks in wild-type XLacZ(Tg/- mosaics. In contrast, corrected stripe numbers were already low at 15 weeks in Pax6⁺/⁻ and PAX77(Tg/- mosaic corneas, suggesting Pax6 under- and over-expression both affect LESC clones.Pax6⁺/⁻ and PAX77(Tg

  12. Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: Gene Dosage Effect, Stability, Fitness Costs, and Cross-Resistances▿

    Besier, Silke; Ludwig, Albrecht; Zander, Johannes; Brade, Volker; Wichelhaus, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is typically associated with mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Here we show that the accumulation of a single point mutation, G2576T, in the different copies of this gene causes stepwise increases in resistance, impairment of the biological fitness, and cross-resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin and chloramphenicol.

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Putative Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been to...

  14. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene abnormalities in patients with asthma and recurrent neutrophilic bronchitis

    Jodi Goodwin; Naomi Spitale; Asma Yaghi; Myrna Dolovich; Parameswaran Nair

    2012-01-01

    The present case series describes four patients with asthma, airway hyper-responsiveness and neutrophilic bronchitis who harboured abnormal cystic fibrosis transmembrance conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations. It serves both to alert clinicians to consider CFTR-related disease in both young and elderly patients with persistent neutrophilic bronchitis, and to highlight the potential utility of future genetic testing for CFTR abnormalities in patients with asthma and recurrent bronchitis ...

  15. Increased gene dosage of Ink4a/Arf results in cancer resistance and normal aging

    Matheu, Ander; Pantoja, Cristina; Efeyan, Alejo; Criado, Luis M.; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana M.; Klatt, Peter; Serrano, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian genes frequently present allelic variants that differ in their expression levels and that, in the case of tumor suppressor genes, can be of relevance for cancer susceptibility and aging. We report here the characterization of a novel mouse model with increased activity for the Ink4a and Arf tumor suppressors. We have generated a “super Ink4a/Arf” mouse strain carrying a transgenic copy of the entire Ink4a/Arf locus. Cells derived from super Ink4a/Arf mice have increased resistance t...

  16. Gene dosage compensation calibrates four regulatory RNAs to control Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing

    Svenningsen, Sine L; Tu, Kimberly C; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2009-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinately regulate gene expression in response to changes in cell-population density. At the core of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing signal transduction pathway reside four homologous small RNAs (sRNAs), named...

  17. CNTNAP2 gene dosage variation is associated with schizophrenia and epilepsy

    Friedman, J. I.; Vrijenhoek, T.; Markx, S.; Janssen, I. M.; Van der Vliet, W. A.; Faas, B. H. W.; Knoers, N. V.; Cahn, W.; Kahn, R. S.; Edelmann, L.; Davis, K. L.; Silverman, J. M.; Brunner, H. G.; Van Kessel, A. Geurts; Wijmenga, C.; Ophoff, R. A.; Veltman, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    A homozygous mutation of the CNTNAP2 gene has been associated with a syndrome of focal epilepsy, mental retardation, language regression and other neuropsychiatric problems in children of the Old Order Amish community. Here we report genomic rearrangements resulting in haploinsufficiency of the CNTN

  18. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat. PMID:17721773

  19. Sprouty gene dosage influences temporal-spatial dynamics of primary enamel knot formation

    Lochovská, Kateřina; Peterková, Renata; Pavlíková, Zuzana; Hovořáková, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, APR 22 (2015), s. 21. ISSN 1471-213X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/1766; GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : enamel knot * tooth development * mouse molar * sprouty genes * sonic hedgehog * cre-loxp system * supernumerary tooth Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2014

  20. Feeding a high dosage of zinc oxide affects suppressor of cytokine gene expression in Salmonella Typhimurium infected piglets.

    Schulte, Jasper N; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in the regulation of the immune response by inhibiting cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of zinc oxide fed at three different dosages (LZN=57ppm, MZN=167ppm, HZN=2425ppm) to weaned piglets that were or were not orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104. We detected higher expression of SOCS3 six days after weaning for all analyzed piglets, regardless of the infection or the zinc feeding, suggesting a stress induced immune response. Whereas, SOCS1 showed only higher transcript amounts in S. Typhimurium infected piglets, especially the LZN group. This might indicate an infection regulating effect of zinc oxide in the infection model. After 42days of infection, the expression of SOCS2, SOCS4, and SOCS7 was increased only in animals fed the highest concentrations of zinc oxide, while non-infected piglets at the age of 56days showed no regulation for these genes. The up-regulation of SOCS genes in the mesenteric lymph nodes of piglets fed a diet with a very high concentration of zinc over 6 weeks suggests that such treatments may impair the immune response. PMID:27496737

  1. Sonic Hedgehog: A Good Gene Gone Bad? Detection and Treatment of Genetic Abnormalities.

    Yaich, Lauren E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case of a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly in which students explore the "Sonic hedgehog" gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. Presents a two-part assignment that features students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality,…

  2. Effects of gene dosage, promoters, and substrates on unfolded protein stress of recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    Hohenblum, Hubertus; Gasser, Brigitte; Maurer, Michael; Borth, Nicole; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2004-02-20

    The expression of heterologous proteins may exert severe stress on the host cells at different levels. Depending on the specific features of the product, different steps may be rate-limiting. For the secretion of recombinant proteins from yeast cells, folding and disulfide bond formation were identified as rate-limiting in several cases and the induction of the chaperone BiP (binding protein) is described. During the development of Pichia pastoris strains secreting human trypsinogen, a severe limitation of the amount of secreted product was identified. Strains using either the AOX1 or the GAP promoter were compared at different gene copy numbers. With the constitutive GAP promoter, no effect on the expression level was observed, whereas with the inducible AOX1 promoter an increase of the copy number above two resulted in a decrease of expression. To identify whether part of the product remained in the cells, lysates were fractionated and significant amounts of the product were identified in the insoluble fraction containing the endoplasmic reticulum, while the soluble cytosolic fraction contained product only in clones using the GAP promoter. An increase of BiP was observed upon induction of expression, indicating that the intracellular product fraction exerts an unfolded protein response in the host cells. A strain using the GAP promoter was grown both on glucose and methanol and trypsinogen was identified in the insoluble fractions of both cultures, but only in the soluble fraction of the glucose grown cultures, indicating that the amounts and distribution of intracellularly retained product depends on the culture conditions, especially the carbon source. PMID:14755554

  3. Dosage Effect of Zinc Glycine Chelate on Zinc Metabolism and Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter in Intestinal Segments on Rat.

    Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaoling; Fang, Shenglin; Feng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in various fundamental biological processes. The focus of this research was to investigate the dosage effect of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) on zinc metabolism and the gene expression of zinc transporters in intestinal segments. A total of 30 4-week-old SD rats were randomized into five treatment groups. The basal diets for each group were supplemented with gradient levels of Zn (0, 30, 60, 90, and 180 mg/kg) from Zn-Gly. After 1-week experiment, the results showed that serum and hepatic zinc concentration were elevated linearly with supplemental Zn levels from 0 to 180 mg Zn/kg. Serum Cu-Zn SOD activities resulted in a significant (P liver. In the duodenum, MT1 mRNA was upregulated with the increasing dietary Zn-Gly levels and reached the peak of 180 mg Zn/kg (P rats. Dietary Zn-Gly has a certain effect on MT1, Zip4, Zip5, and ZnT1 expression, which expressed differently in intestinal segments with different levels of Zn-Gly load. Besides, Zn-Gly also could regulate PepT1 expression in intestinal segments. PMID:26507438

  4. Gene dosage of the transcription factor Fingerin (bHLHA9) affects digit development and links syndactyly to ectrodactyly.

    Schatz, Omri; Langer, Erez; Ben-Arie, Nissim

    2014-10-15

    Distal limb deformities are congenital malformations with phenotypic variability, genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance. Among these, split-hand/foot malformation is an ectrodactyly with missing central fingers, yielding a lobster claw-like hand, which when combined with long-bone deficiency is defined as split-hand/foot malformation and long-bone deficiency (SHFLD) that is genetically heterogeneous. Copy number variation (CNV) consisting of 17p13.3 duplication was identified in unrelated pedigrees, underlying SHFLD3 (OMIM 612576). Although the transcription factor Fingerin (bHLHA9) is the only complete gene in the critical region, its biological role is not yet known and there are no data supporting its involvement in mammalian limb development. We have generated knockout mice in which only the entire coding region of Fingerin was deleted, and indeed found that most null mice display some limb defects. These include various levels of simple asymmetrical syndactyly, characterized by webbed fingers, generated by incomplete separation of soft, but not skeletal, tissues between forelimb digits 2 and 3. As expected, hand pads of Fingerin null embryos exhibited reduced apoptosis between digital rays 2 and 3. This defect was shown to cause syndactyly when the same limbs were grown ex vivo following the apoptosis assay. Extrapolating from mouse data, we suggest that Fingerin loss-of-function in humans may underlie MSSD syndactyly (OMIM 609432), which was mapped to the same locus. Taken together, Fingerin gene dosage links two different congenital limb malformations, syndactyly and ectrodactyly, which were previously postulated to share a common etiology. These results add limb disorders to the growing list of diseases resulting from CNV. PMID:24852374

  5. Two types of abnormal genes for plasminogen in families with a predisposition for thrombosis

    The gene coding for plasminogen has been compared with several abnormal genes from Japanese patients by the polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis. Two types of abnormal genes coding for plasminogen were identified in these patients. In the type I mutation, a guanosine in GCT coding for Ala-601 near the active-site histidine was replaced by an adenosine resulting in ACT coding for threonine. This mutation was also shown by the loss of a cleavage site for Fnu4HI endonuclease, a restriction enzyme that recognizes GCTGC but not ACTGC. In the type II mutation, a guanosine in GTC coding for Val-355 was replaced by a thymidine resulting in TTC coding for phenylalanine. This change was readily shown by digestion with Ava II endonuclease, a restriction enzyme that recognized GGTCC and not GTTCC. The type I mutation has been found to be identical to a plasminogen variant identified in Japanese patients by amino acid sequence analysis and also detected by isoelectric focusing, whereas the type II mutation is a unique amino acid substitution in the connecting region between the third and fourth kringles in plasminogen. DNA sequence analysis also revealed that the abnormal genes carry several silent nucleotide substitutions located primarily within introns and 5' and 3' flanking regions

  6. Contribution of chromosomal abnormalities and genes of the major histocompatibility complex to early pregnancy losses

    Tkach I. R.; Sosnina K. O.; Huleyuk N. L.; Terpylyak O. I.; Zastavna D. V.; Weise A.; Kosyakova N.; Liehr T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The determination of chromosomal abnormalities in samples from early pregnancy losses and allelic polymorphism of HLA–DRB1 and DQA1 genes in couples with recurrent miscarriage. Methods. Banding cytogenetic and interphase mFISH analysis, DNA extraction by salting method, PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis. Results. Cytogenetic and molecular-cytogenetic investigations of SA material identified karyotype anomalies in 32.4 % of cases with prevalence of autosomal trisomy – 42.65 %, triploidy – ...

  7. Low Six4 and Six5 gene dosage improves dystrophic phenotype and prolongs life span of mdx mice.

    Yajima, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Muscle regeneration is an important process for skeletal muscle growth and recovery. Repair of muscle damage is exquisitely programmed by cellular mechanisms inherent in myogenic stem cells, also known as muscle satellite cells. We demonstrated previously the involvement of homeobox transcription factors, SIX1, SIX4 and SIX5, in the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of isolated satellite cells in vitro. However, their roles in adult muscle regeneration in vivo remain elusive. To investigate SIX4 and SIX5 functions during muscle regeneration, we introduced knockout alleles of Six4 and Six5 into an animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), mdx (Dmd(mdx) /Y) mice, characterized by frequent degeneration-regeneration cycles in muscles. A lower number of small myofibers, higher number of thick ones and lower serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were noted in 50-week-old Six4(+/-) 5(+/-) Dmd(mdx) /Y mice than Dmd(mdx) /Y mice, indicating improvement of dystrophic phenotypes of Dmd(mdx) /Y mice. Higher proportions of cells positive for MYOD1 and MYOG (markers of regenerating myonuclei) and SIX1 (a marker of regenerating myoblasts and newly regenerated myofibers) in 12-week-old Six4(+/-) 5(+/-) Dmd(mdx) /Y mice suggested enhanced regeneration, compared with Dmd(mdx) /Y mice. Although grip strength was comparable in Six4(+/-) 5(+/-) Dmd(mdx) /Y and Dmd(mdx) /Y mice, treadmill exercise did not induce muscle weakness in Six4(+/-) 5(+/-) Dmd(mdx) /Y mice, suggesting higher regeneration capacity. In addition, Six4(+/-) 5(+/-) Dmd(mdx) /Y mice showed 33.8% extension of life span. The results indicated that low Six4 and Six5 gene dosage improved dystrophic phenotypes of Dmd(mdx) /Y mice by enhancing muscle regeneration, and suggested that SIX4 and SIX5 are potentially useful de novo targets in therapeutic applications against muscle disorders, including DMD. PMID:27224259

  8. Exon Dosage Variations in Brazilian Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Analysis of SNCA, PARKIN, PINK1 and DJ-1 Genes

    Karla Cristina Vasconcelos Moura; Mário Campos Junior; Ana Lúcia Zuma de Rosso; Denise Hack Nicaretta; João Santos Pereira; Delson José Silva; Cíntia Barros Santos-Rebouças; Márcia Mattos Gonçalves Pimentel

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging, reaching ∼ 2% of individuals over 65 years. Knowledge achieved in the last decade about the genetic basis of Parkinson’s disease clearly shows that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of this disorder. Exon dosage variations account for a high proportion of Parkinson’s disease mutations, mainly for PARKIN gene. In the present study, we screened genomic rearrangements in SNCA, PA...

  9. Enhancement of lipase r27RCL production in Pichia pastoris by regulating gene dosage and co-expression with chaperone protein disulfide isomerase.

    Sha, Chong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Lin, Nai-Xin; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yan

    2013-12-10

    Pichia pastoris has been successfully used in the production of many secreted and intracellular recombinant proteins, but there is still a large room of improvement for this expression system. Two factors drastically influence the lipase r27RCL production from Rhizopus chinensis CCTCC M201021, which are gene dosage and protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Regarding the effect of gene dosage, the enzyme activity for recombinant strain with three copies lipase gene was 1.95-fold higher than that for recombinant strain with only one copy lipase gene. In addition, the lipase production was further improved by co-expression with chaperone PDI involved in the disulfide bond formation in the ER. Overall, the maximum enzyme activity reached 355U/mL by the recombinant strain with one copy chaperone gene PDI plus five copies lipase gene proRCL in shaking flasks, which was 2.74-fold higher than that for the control strain with only one copy lipase gene. Overall, co-expression with PDI vastly increased the capacity for processing proteins of ER in P. pastoris. PMID:24315648

  10. Radiation dosage

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative

  11. Brain gene expression differences are associated with abnormal tail biting behavior in pigs.

    Brunberg, E; Jensen, P; Isaksson, A; Keeling, L J

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge about gene expression in animals involved in abnormal behaviors can contribute to the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. This study aimed to explore the motivational background to tail biting, an abnormal injurious behavior and severe welfare problem in pig production. Affymetrix microarrays were used to investigate gene expression differences in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pigs performing tail biting, pigs receiving bites to the tail and neutral pigs who were not involved in the behavior. In the hypothalamus, 32 transcripts were differentially expressed (P tail biters were compared with neutral pigs, 130 when comparing receiver pigs with neutrals, and two when tail biters were compared with receivers. In the prefrontal cortex, seven transcripts were differently expressed in tail biters when compared with neutrals, seven in receivers vs. neutrals and none in the tail biters vs. receivers. In total, 19 genes showed a different expression pattern in neutral pigs when compared with both performers and receivers. This implies that the functions of these may provide knowledge about why the neutral pigs are not involved in tail biting behavior as performers or receivers. Among these 19 transcripts were genes associated with production traits in pigs (PDK4), sociality in humans and mice (GTF2I) and novelty seeking in humans (EGF). These are in line with hypotheses linking tail biting with reduced back fat thickness and explorative behavior. PMID:23146156

  12. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain

    Li Chen; Yu Tao; Fan Song; Xi Yuan; Jian Wang; David Saffen

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5′-u...

  13. The C57BL/6J Niemann–Pick C1 mouse model with decreased gene dosage has impaired glucose tolerance independent of body weight

    Jelinek, David; Castillo, Joseph J.; Garver, William S.

    2013-01-01

    The human Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) gene has been found to be associated with extreme (early-onset and morbid-adult) obesity and type 2 diabetes independent of body weight. We previously performed growth studies using BALB/cJ Npc1 normal (Npc1+/+) and Npc1 heterozygous (Npc1+/−) mice and determined that decreased Npc1 gene dosage interacts with a high-fat diet to promote weight gain and adiposity. The present study was performed using both BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J Npc1+/+ and Npc1+/− mice to determi...

  14. Prenatal diagnostic testing of the Noonan syndrome genes in fetuses with abnormal ultrasound findings

    Croonen, Ellen A; Nillesen, Willy M.; Stuurman, Kyra E; Oudesluijs, Gretel; van de Laar, Ingrid M B M; Martens, Liesbeth; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Schepens, Marga; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Scheffer, Hans; Faas, Brigitte H. W.; Van Der Burgt, Ineke; Helger G Yntema

    2013-01-01

    In recent studies on prenatal testing for Noonan syndrome (NS) in fetuses with an increased nuchal translucency (NT) and a normal karyotype, mutations have been reported in 9–16% of cases. In this study, DNA of 75 fetuses with a normal karyotype and abnormal ultrasound findings was tested in a diagnostic setting for mutations in (a subset of) the four most commonly mutated NS genes. A de novo mutation in either PTPN11, KRAS or RAF1 was detected in 13 fetuses (17.3%). Ultrasound findings were ...

  15. Tobacco mosaic virus 126-kDa protein increases the susceptibility of Nicotiana tabacum to other viruses and its dosage affects virus-induced gene silencing.

    Harries, Phillip A; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Bhat, Sumana; Nelson, Richard S

    2008-12-01

    The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 126-kDa protein is a suppressor of RNA silencing previously shown to delay the silencing of transgenes in Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a 126-kDa protein-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion (126-GFP) in N. tabacum increases susceptibility to a broad assortment of viruses, including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Brome mosaic virus, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), and Potato virus X. Given its ability to enhance TRV infection in tobacco, we tested the effect of 126-GFP expression on TRV-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and demonstrate that this protein can enhance silencing phenotypes. To explain these results, we examined the poorly understood effect of suppressor dosage on the VIGS response and demonstrated that enhanced VIGS corresponds to the presence of low levels of suppressor protein. A mutant version of the 126-kDa protein, inhibited in its ability to suppress silencing, had a minimal effect on VIGS, suggesting that the suppressor activity of the 126-kDa protein is indeed responsible for the observed dosage effects. These findings illustrate the sensitivity of host plants to relatively small changes in suppressor dosage and have implications for those interested in enhancing silencing phenotypes in tobacco and other species through VIGS. PMID:18986250

  16. Combined cardiological and neurological abnormalities due to filamin A gene mutation

    de Wit, Marie Claire Y.; de Coo, Irenaeus F. M.; Lequin, Maarten H.; Halley, Dicky J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiac defects can be the presenting symptom in patients with mutations in the X-linked gene FLNA. Dysfunction of this gene is associated with cardiac abnormalities, especially in the left ventricular outflow tract, but can also cause a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex. We noticed that some patients diagnosed at the neurogenetics clinic had first presented to a cardiologist, suggesting that earlier recognition may be possible if the diagnosis is suspected. Methods and results From the Erasmus MC cerebral malformations database 24 patients were identified with cerebral bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) without other cerebral cortical malformations. In six of these patients, a pathogenic mutation in FLNA was present. In five a cardiac defect was also found in the outflow tract. Four had presented to a cardiologist before the cerebral abnormalities were diagnosed. Conclusions The cardiological phenotype typically consists of aortic or mitral regurgitation, coarctation of the aorta or other left-sided cardiac malformations. Most patients in this category will not have a FLNA mutation, but the presence of neurological complaints, hyperlaxity of the skin or joints and/or a family history with similar cardiac or neurological problems in a possibly X-linked pattern may alert the clinician to the possibility of a FLNA mutation. PMID:20730588

  17. Dosage changes of a segment at 17p13.1 lead to intellectual disability and microcephaly as a result of complex genetic interaction of multiple genes

    Carvalho, Claudia M B; Vasanth, Shivakumar; Shinawi, Marwan;

    2014-01-01

    The 17p13.1 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described genomic disorder with a core clinical phenotype of intellectual disability, poor to absent speech, dysmorphic features, and a constellation of more variable clinical features, most prominently microcephaly. We identified five subjects...... with copy-number variants (CNVs) on 17p13.1 for whom we performed detailed clinical and molecular studies. Breakpoint mapping and retrospective analysis of published cases refined the smallest region of overlap (SRO) for microcephaly to a genomic interval containing nine genes. Dissection of this phenotype...... of discrete gene pairings induce microcephaly. Taken together, these studies support a model in which concomitant dosage perturbation of multiple genes within the CNV drive the microcephaly and possibly other neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with rearrangements in the 17p13.1 SRO....

  18. Contribution of chromosomal abnormalities and genes of the major histocompatibility complex to early pregnancy losses

    Tkach I. R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The determination of chromosomal abnormalities in samples from early pregnancy losses and allelic polymorphism of HLA–DRB1 and DQA1 genes in couples with recurrent miscarriage. Methods. Banding cytogenetic and interphase mFISH analysis, DNA extraction by salting method, PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis. Results. Cytogenetic and molecular-cytogenetic investigations of SA material identified karyotype anomalies in 32.4 % of cases with prevalence of autosomal trisomy – 42.65 %, triploidy – 30.38 % and monosomy X – 19.11 %. Complex analysis of frequency and distribution of allelic variants of genes HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1 allowed establishing the alleles DRB1*0301, DRB1*1101-1104 and DQA1*0501 to be aggressor alleles in women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL. The cumulative homology of allelic polymorphism of more than 50 % of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1 loci between partners increases the risk of RPL by almost four times. Conclusion. The detected chromosome aneuploidies in the samples from products of conception and the changes in the major histocompatibility complex genes can cause the failure of a couples reproductive function and can lead to an early fetal loss.

  19. Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality

    El-Shesheny, Ibrahim; Hajeri, Subhas; El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the...

  20. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  1. Neurodevelopmental disorders associated with dosage imbalance of ZBTB20 correlate with the morbidity spectrum of ZBTB20 candidate target genes

    Rasmussen, Malene B; Nielsen, Jakob V; Lourenço, Charles M;

    2014-01-01

    (SRO) involved five RefSeq genes, including the transcription factor gene ZBTB20 and the dopamine receptor gene DRD3, considered as candidate genes for the syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used array comparative genomic hybridization and next-generation mate-pair sequencing to identify key structural...... patient with developmental delay and autism, we detected the first microdeletion at 3q13.31, which truncated ZBTB20 but did not involve DRD3 or the other genes within the previously defined SRO. Zbtb20 directly represses 346 genes in the developing murine brain. Of the 342 human orthologous ZBTB20...

  2. Association of the ADRA1A gene and the severity of metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia.

    Cheng, Chin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Loh, El-Wui; Chan, Chin-Hong; Hwu, Tzong-Ming; Liu, Yun-Ru; Lan, Tsuo-Hung

    2012-01-10

    Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of developing metabolic abnormalities and their associated diseases. Some studies found that the accumulative number of metabolic syndrome components was associated with the severity of metabolic abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of the ADRA1A, ADRA2A, ADRB3, and 5HT2A genes in the risk of having more severe metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia. We studied a sample of 232 chronic inpatients with schizophrenia (120 males and 112 females) to explore the associations between the four candidate genes and the severity of metabolic syndrome by accumulative number of the components. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the candidate genes were genotyped, including the Arg347Cys in ADRA1A, the C1291G in ADRA2A, the Try64Arg in ADRB3, and the T102C in 5HT2A. An association between the accumulative number of metabolic syndrome components and the ADRA1A gene was found after adjusting age, sex, and other related variables (p-value=0.036). Presence of the Arg347 allele in the ADRA1A gene is a risk factor for having more severe metabolic abnormalities. These findings suggest a medical attention of closely monitoring metabolic risks for schizophrenia patients with high-risk genotypes. PMID:22037178

  3. Identification of dosage-sensitive genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the genetic tug-of-war method

    Makanae, Koji; Kintaka, Reiko; Makino, Takashi; Kitano, Hiroaki; Moriya, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    Gene overexpression beyond a permissible limit causes defects in cellular functions. However, the permissible limits of most genes are unclear. Previously, we developed a genetic method designated genetic tug-of-war (gTOW) to measure the copy number limit of overexpression of a target gene. In the current study, we applied gTOW to the analysis of all protein-coding genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We showed that the yeast cellular system was robust against an increase in t...

  4. X-Chromosome dosage compensation.

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, flies, and worms, sex is determined by distinctive regulatory mechanisms that cause males (XO or XY) and females (XX) to differ in their dose of X chromosomes. In each species, an essential X chromosome-wide process called dosage compensation ensures that somatic cells of either sex express equal levels of X-linked gene products. The strategies used to achieve dosage compensation are diverse, but in all cases, specialized complexes are targeted specifically to the X chromosome(s) of only one sex to regulate transcript levels. In C. elegans, this sex-specific targeting of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) is controlled by the same developmental signal that establishes sex, the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A signal). Molecular components of this chromosome counting process have been defined. Following a common step of regulation, sex determination and dosage compensation are controlled by distinct genetic pathways. C. elegans dosage compensation is implemented by a protein complex that binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to reduce transcript levels by one-half. The dosage compensation complex resembles the conserved 13S condensin complex required for both mitotic and meiotic chromosome resolution and condensation, implying the recruitment of ancient proteins to the new task of regulating gene expression. Within each C. elegans somatic cell, one of the DCC components also participates in the separate mitotic/meiotic condensin complex. Other DCC components play pivotal roles in regulating the number and distribution of crossovers during meiosis. The strategy by which C. elegans X chromosomes attract the condensin-like DCC is known. Small, well-dispersed X-recognition elements act as entry sites to recruit the dosage compensation complex and to nucleate spreading of the complex to X regions that lack recruitment sites. In this manner, a repressed chromatin state is spread in cis over short or long distances, thus establishing the

  5. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  6. Subtle rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers.

    Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Velázquez-Perez, Luis; Ochoa, Nalia Canales; Polo, Lourdes Galicia; Valencia, Reyes Haro; Cruz, Gilberto Sánchez; Montero, Jacqueline Medrano; Laffita-Mesa, José M; Mederos, Luis E Almaguer; Zaldívar, Yanetza González; Parra, Cira Torres; Acosta, Arnoy Peña; Mariño, Tania Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disorders are commonly associated to patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2); however, these abnormalities have not been studied in presymptomatic gene carriers. To determine whether the REM sleep pathology is detectable before clinical manifestation of SCA2 and evaluate it as a preclinical biomarker, we studied 36 presymptomatic SCA2 individuals and 36 controls by video-polysomnography (VPSG) and sleep questionnaires. Presymptomatic subjects showed significant decrease of REM sleep percentage, REMs density, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. Aging effect on REM sleep percentage was significant in both groups. There was no correlation between cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat length and REM sleep. Our findings identified the REM sleep pathology as a prominent herald sign of SCA2, conferring a special importance to VPSG as a sensitive neurophysiological tool to detect early changes associated with SCA2, which contributes to the understanding of disease pathophysiology and the development of therapeutic trials focused on the preclinical disease stage. PMID:20960485

  7. Rat Model for Dominant Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: Glycine Substitution Reduces Collagen VII Stability and Shows Gene-Dosage Effect

    Nystroem, A.; Buttgereit, J.; Bader, M.; Shmidt, T.; Ozcelik, C.; Hausser, I; Bruckner-Tuderman, L.; Kern, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a severely disabling hereditary skin fragility disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene coding for collagen VII, a specialized adhesion component of the dermal-epidermal junction zone. Both recessive and dominant forms are known; the latter account for about 40% of cases. Patients with dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa exhibit a spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild localized to generalized skin manifestations. Individuals with the same mutation ...

  8. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain.

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yu; Song, Fan; Yuan, Xi; Wang, Jian; Saffen, David

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5'-upstream region. Using genotype imputation, "R(2)-Δ(2)" analysis, and data from the RegulomeDB database, we identified SNPs rs4925102 and rs9907986 as possible regulatory variants, accounting for approximately 30-40% of the variance in RAI1 mRNA expression in both brain regions. Specifically, rs4925102 and rs9907986 are predicted to disrupt the binding of retinoic acid RXR-RAR receptors and the transcription factor DEAF1 (Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1), respectively. Consistent with these predictions, we observed binding of RXRα and RARα to the predicted RAI1 target in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoic acid is crucial for early development of the central neural system, and DEAF1 is associated with intellectual disability. The observation that a significant portion of RAI1 mRNA expression is genetically controlled raises the possibility that common RAI1 5'-region regulatory variants contribute more generally to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26743651

  9. Germ-line mutations in the neurofibromatosis 2 gene: Correlations with disease severity and retinal abnormalities

    Parry, D.M. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, WA (United States); Kaiser-Kupfer, M. [National Eye Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Eldridge, R. [Public Health Service, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) features bilateral vestibular schwannomas, other benign neural tumors, and cataracts. Patients in some families develop many tumors at an early age and have rapid clinical progression, whereas in other families, patients may not have symptoms until much later and vestibular schwannomas may be the only tumors. The NF2 gene has been cloned from chromosome 22q; most identified germ-line mutations result in a truncated protein and severe NF2. To look for additional mutations and clinical correlations, we used SSCP analysis to screen DNA from 32 unrelated patients. We identified 20 different mutations in 21 patients (66%): 10 nonsense mutations, 2 frameshifts, 7 splice-site mutations, and 1 large in-frame deletion. Clinical information on 47 patients from the 21 families included ages at onset and at diagnosis, numbers of meningiomas, spinal and skin tumors, and presence of cataracts and retinal abnormalities. We compared clinical findings in patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations to those with splice-site mutations. When each patient was considered as an independent random event, the two groups differed (P {le} .05) for nearly every variable. Patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations were younger at onset and at diagnosis and had a higher frequency and mean number of tumors, supporting the correlation between nonsense and frameshift mutations and severe NF2. When each family was considered as an independent random event, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed only for mean ages at onset and at diagnosis. A larger data set is needed to resolve these discrepancies. We observed retinal hamartomas and/or epiretinal membranes in nine patients from five families with four different nonsense mutations. This finding, which may represent a new genotype-phenotype correlation, merits further study. 58 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. A novel SYBR-based duplex qPCR for the detection of gene dosage: detection of an APC large deletion in a familial adenomatous polyposis patient with an unusual phenotype

    Torrezan Giovana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome caused by a loss of function of the APC gene. Large deletions in APC are a common cause of FAP; despite the existence of a variety of gene dosage detection methodologies, most are labor intensive and time and resource consuming. Methods We describe a new duplex qPCR method for gene dosage analysis based on the coamplification of a target and a reference gene in a SYBR Green reaction, followed by a comparison of the ratio between the target and the reference peaks of the melting curve for the test (patient and control samples. The reliability of the described duplex qPCR was validated for several genes (APC, HPRT1, ATM, PTEN and BRCA1. Results Using this novel gene dosage method, we have identified an APC gene deletion in a FAP patient undergoing genetic testing. Comparative genomic hybridization based on microarrays (aCGH was used to confirm and map the extent of the deletion, revealing a 5.2 MB rearrangement (5q21.3-q22.3 encompassing the entire APC and 19 additional genes. Conclusion The novel assay accurately detected losses and gains of one copy of the target sequences, representing a reliable and flexible alternative to other gene dosage techniques. In addition, we described a FAP patient harboring a gross deletion at 5q21.3-q22.3 with an unusual phenotype of the absence of mental impairment and dysmorphic features.

  11. Deoxyribonucleic acid initiation mutation dnaB252 is suppressed by elevated dnaC+ gene dosage.

    Sclafani, R A; Wechsler, J A

    1981-01-01

    The Escherichia coli dnaB252 allele is the only dnaB mutation which confers a deoxyribonucleic acid initiation-defective phenotype on the cell. The presence of a multicopy hybrid plasmid containing the dnaC+ gene in a dnaB252 strain completely suppressed the temperature-sensitive phenotype. It is suggested that at high temperature the dnaB252 protein has a lowered affinity for dnaC protein, and that the formation of a dnaB-dnaC complex is mandatory for initiation.

  12. X Chromosome and Autosome Dosage Responses in Drosophila melanogaster Heads.

    Chen, Zhen-Xia; Oliver, Brian

    2015-06-01

    X chromosome dosage compensation is required for male viability in Drosophila. Dosage compensation relative to autosomes is two-fold, but this is likely to be due to a combination of homeostatic gene-by-gene regulation and chromosome-wide regulation. We have baseline values for gene-by-gene dosage compensation on autosomes, but not for the X chromosome. Given the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes, these baseline values could differ. We used a series of deficiencies on the X and autosomes, along with mutations in the sex-determination gene transformer-2, to carefully measure the sex-independent X-chromosome response to gene dosage in adult heads by RNA sequencing. We observed modest and indistinguishable dosage compensation for both X chromosome and autosome genes, suggesting that the X chromosome is neither inherently more robust nor sensitive to dosage change. PMID:25850426

  13. Targeted Disruption of the LAMA3 Gene in Mice Reveals Abnormalities in Survival and Late Stage Differentiation of Epithelial Cells

    Ryan, Maureen C.; Lee, Keesook; Miyashita, Yuko; Carter, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Laminin 5 regulates anchorage and motility of epithelial cells through integrins α6β4 and α3β1, respectively. We used targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene, which encodes the α3 subunit of laminin 5 and other isoforms, to examine developmental functions that are regulated by adhesion to the basement membrane (BM). In homozygous null animals, profound epithelial abnormalities were detected that resulted in neonatal lethality, consistent with removal of all α3-laminin isoforms from epithelial B...

  14. Genetic basis for dosage sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Isabelle M Henry

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy, the relative excess or deficiency of specific chromosome types, results in gene dosage imbalance. Plants can produce viable and fertile aneuploid individuals, while most animal aneuploids are inviable or developmentally abnormal. The swarms of aneuploid progeny produced by Arabidopsis triploids constitute an excellent model to investigate the mechanisms governing dosage sensitivity and aneuploid syndromes. Indeed, genotype alters the frequency of aneuploid types within these swarms. Recombinant inbred lines that were derived from a triploid hybrid segregated into diploid and tetraploid individuals. In these recombinant inbred lines, a single locus, which we call SENSITIVE TO DOSAGE IMBALANCE (SDI, exhibited segregation distortion in the tetraploid subpopulation only. Recent progress in quantitative genotyping now allows molecular karyotyping and genetic analysis of aneuploid populations. In this study, we investigated the causes of the ploidy-specific distortion at SDI. Allele frequency was distorted in the aneuploid swarms produced by the triploid hybrid. We developed a simple quantitative measure for aneuploidy lethality and using this measure demonstrated that distortion was greatest in the aneuploids facing the strongest viability selection. When triploids were crossed to euploids, the progeny, which lack severe aneuploids, exhibited no distortion at SDI. Genetic characterization of SDI in the aneuploid swarm identified a mechanism governing aneuploid survival, perhaps by buffering the effects of dosage imbalance. As such, SDI could increase the likelihood of retaining genomic rearrangements such as segmental duplications. Additionally, in species where triploids are fertile, aneuploid survival would facilitate gene flow between diploid and tetraploid populations via a triploid bridge and prevent polyploid speciation. Our results demonstrate that positional cloning of loci affecting traits in populations containing ploidy and

  15. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin G.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam D.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Belfiore, Marco; Bouquillon, Sonia; Campion, Dominique; De Leeuw, Nicole; De Vries, Bert B. A.; Esko, Tõnu; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Gratacòs, Mònica; Guilmatre, Audrey; Hoyer, Juliane; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kooy, Frank R.; Kurg, Ants; Le Caignec, Cédric; Männik, Katrin; Platt, Orah S.; Sanlaville, Damien; Van Haelst, Mieke M.; Villatoro Gomez, Sergi; Walha, Faida; Wu, Bai-Lin; Yu, Yongguo; Aboura, Azzedine; Addor, Marie-Claude; Alembik, Yves; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Arveiler, Benoît; Barth, Magalie; Bednarek, Nathalie; Béna, Frédérique; Bergmann, Sven; Beri, Mylène; Bernardini, Laura; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Bonneau, Dominique; Bottani, Armand; Boute, Odile; Brunner, Han G.; Cailley, Dorothée; Callier, Patrick; Chiesa, Jean; Chrast, Jacqueline; Coin, Lachlan; Coutton, Charles; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; David, Albert; De Freminville, Bénédicte; Delobel, Bruno; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Demeer, Bénédicte; Descamps, Dominique; Didelot, Gérard; Dieterich, Klaus; Disciglio, Vittoria; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Drunat, Séverine; Duban-Bedu, Bénédicte; Dubourg, Christèle; El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S.; Elliott, Paul; Faas, Brigitte H. W.; Faivre, Laurence; Faudet, Anne; Fellmann, Florence; Ferrarini, Alessandra; Fisher, Richard; Flori, Elisabeth; Forer, Lukas; Gaillard, Dominique; Gerard, Marion; Gieger, Christian; Gimelli, Stefania; Gimelli, Giorgio; Grabe, Hans J.; Guichet, Agnès; Guillin, Olivier; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heron, Délphine; Hippolyte, Loyse; Holder, Muriel; Homuth, Georg; Isidor, Bertrand; Jaillard, Sylvie; Jaros, Zdenek; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Joly Helas, Géraldine; Jonveaux, Philippe; Kaksonen, Satu; Keren, Boris; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Koolen, David A.; Kroisel, Peter M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Labalme, Audrey; Landais, Emilie; Lapi, Elisabetta; Layet, Valérie; Legallic, Solenn; Leheup, Bruno; Leube, Barbara; Lewis, Suzanne; Lucas, Josette; Macdermot, Kay D.; Magnusson, Pall; Marshall, Christian R.; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Mccarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Antonietta Mencarelli, Maria; Merla, Giuseppe; Moerman, Alexandre; Mooser, Vincent; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Mucciolo, Mafalda; Nauck, Matthias; Coumba Ndiaye, Ndeye; Nordgren, Ann; Pasquier, Laurent; Petit, Florence; Pfundt, Rolph; Plessis, Ghislaine; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Paolo Ramelli, Gian; Rauch, Anita; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Reis, Andre; Renieri, Alessandra; Richart, Cristobal; Ried, Janina S.; Rieubland, Claudine; Roberts, Wendy; Roetzer, Katharina M.; Rooryck, Caroline; Rossi, Massimiliano; Saemundsen, Evald; Satre, Véronique; Schurmann, Claudia; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Tengström, Carola; Thorsteinsdóttir, Unnur; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Touraine, Renaud; Vallée, Louis; Van Binsbergen, Ellen; Van Der Aa, Nathalie; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Vulto-Van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Waeber, Gérard; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Witwicki, Robert M.; Zwolinksi, Simon; Andrieux, Joris; Estivill, Xavier; Gusella, James F.; Gustafsson, Omar; Metspalu, Andres; Scherer, Stephen W.; Stefansson, Kari; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Froguel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Both underweight and obesity have been associated with increased mortality1,2. Underweight, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18,5 kg/m2 in adults 3 and ≤ −2 standard deviations (SD) in children4,5, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions such as failure to thrive (FTT) 6–8, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa9,10. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported 11, 12. We previously demonstrated that hemizygosity of a ~600 kb region on the short arm of chromosome 16 (chr16:29.5–30.1Mb), causes a highly-penetrant form of obesity often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities13. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with underweight. We identified 138 (132 novel cases) duplication carriers (108 unrelated carriers) from over 95,000 individuals clinically-referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID), psychiatric disorders or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight (mean Z-score −0.6; p=4.4×10−4) and BMI (mean Z-score −0.5; p=2.0×10−3). In particular, half of the boys younger than 5 years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of FTT, while adult duplication carriers have an 8.7-fold (p=5.9×10−11; CI_95=[4.5–16.6]) increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a significant trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive feeding behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference (mean Z-score −0.9; p=7.8×10−6). Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus, correlating with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not within flanking

  16. Differential gene expression profile associated with the abnormality of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in aplastic anemia.

    Jianping Li

    Full Text Available Aplastic anemia (AA is generally considered as an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome with defective hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and marrow microenvironment. Previous studies have demonstrated the defective HSCs and aberrant T cellular-immunity in AA using a microarray approach. However, little is known about the overall specialty of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. In the present study, we comprehensively compared the biological features and gene expression profile of BM-MSCs between AA patients and healthy volunteers. In comparison with healthy controls, BM-MSCs from AA patients showed aberrant morphology, decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased apoptosis. BM-MSCs from AA patients were susceptible to be induced to differentiate into adipocytes but more difficult to differentiate into osteoblasts. Consistent with abnormal biological features, a large number of genes implicated in cell cycle, cell division, proliferation, chemotaxis and hematopoietic cell lineage showed markedly decreased expression in BM-MSCs from AA patients. Conversely, more related genes with apoptosis, adipogenesis and immune response showed increased expression in BM-MSCs from AA patients. The gene expression profile of BM-MSCs further confirmed the abnormal biological properties and provided significant evidence for the possible mechanism of the destruction of the bone marrow microenvironment in AA.

  17. Targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene in mice reveals abnormalities in survival and late stage differentiation of epithelial cells.

    Ryan, M C; Lee, K; Miyashita, Y; Carter, W G

    1999-06-14

    Laminin 5 regulates anchorage and motility of epithelial cells through integrins alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1, respectively. We used targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 subunit of laminin 5 and other isoforms, to examine developmental functions that are regulated by adhesion to the basement membrane (BM). In homozygous null animals, profound epithelial abnormalities were detected that resulted in neonatal lethality, consistent with removal of all alpha3-laminin isoforms from epithelial BMs. Alterations in three different cellular functions were identified. First, using a novel tissue adhesion assay, we found that the mutant BM could not induce stable adhesion by integrin alpha6beta4, consistent with the presence of junctional blisters and abnormal hemidesmosomes. In the absence of laminin 5 function, we were able to detect a new ligand for integrin alpha3beta1 in the epidermal BM, suggesting that basal keratinocytes can utilize integrin alpha3beta1 to interact with an alternative ligand. Second, we identified a survival defect in mutant epithelial cells that could be rescued by exogenous laminin 5, collagen, or an antibody against integrin alpha6beta4, suggesting that signaling through beta1 or beta4 integrins is sufficient for survival. Third, we detected abnormalities in ameloblast differentiation in developing mutant incisors indicating that events downstream of adhesion are affected in mutant animals. These results indicate that laminin 5 has an important role in regulating tissue organization, gene expression, and survival of epithelium. PMID:10366601

  18. Cumulative Epigenetic Abnormalities in Host Genes with Viral and Microbial Infection during Initiation and Progression of Malignant Lymphoma/Leukemia

    Oka, Takashi, E-mail: oka@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Sato, Hiaki [Department of Medical Technology, Graduate School of Health Science, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Ouchida, Mamoru [Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Utsunomiya, Atae [Department of Hematology, Imamura Bun-in Hospital, 11-23 Kamoike Shinnmachi, Kagoshima, 890-0064 (Japan); Yoshino, Tadashi [Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    Although cancers have been thought to be predominantly driven by acquired genetic changes, it is becoming clear that microenvironment-mediated epigenetic alterations play important roles. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a prevalent phenomenon in human cancers as well as malignant lymphoma/leukemia. Tumor suppressor genes become frequent targets of aberrant hypermethylation in the course of gene-silencing due to the increased and deregulated DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The purpose of this article is to review the current status of knowledge about the contribution of cumulative epigenetic abnormalities of the host genes after microbial and virus infection to the crisis and progression of malignant lymphoma/leukemia. In addition, the relevance of this knowledge to malignant lymphoma/leukemia assessment, prevention and early detection will be discussed.

  19. Cumulative Epigenetic Abnormalities in Host Genes with Viral and Microbial Infection during Initiation and Progression of Malignant Lymphoma/Leukemia

    Although cancers have been thought to be predominantly driven by acquired genetic changes, it is becoming clear that microenvironment-mediated epigenetic alterations play important roles. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a prevalent phenomenon in human cancers as well as malignant lymphoma/leukemia. Tumor suppressor genes become frequent targets of aberrant hypermethylation in the course of gene-silencing due to the increased and deregulated DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The purpose of this article is to review the current status of knowledge about the contribution of cumulative epigenetic abnormalities of the host genes after microbial and virus infection to the crisis and progression of malignant lymphoma/leukemia. In addition, the relevance of this knowledge to malignant lymphoma/leukemia assessment, prevention and early detection will be discussed

  20. Natural history of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: gene sequencing identifies multiple clonal molecular abnormalities associated with rapid progression to acute myeloid leukemia

    Xiang, Zhifu; Kaur, Varinder; Aburiziq, Ibrahim K; Mehta, Paulette; Emanuel, Peter; Schichman, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Gene panel sequencing in a CMML patient without any detectable genetic abnormality by conventional genetic studies identified four concurrent somatic mutations in three genes. Gene panel mutation analysis is a rapidly emerging clinical tool to demonstrate the clonality in hematologic malignancies, and to identify the potential targets for therapy.

  1. Abnormal muscle and hematopoietic gene expression may be important for clinical morbidity in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Reppe, Sjur; Stilgren, Lis; Abrahamsen, Bo; Olstad, Ole K; Cero, Fadila; Brixen, Kim; Nissen-Meyer, Lise Sofie; Gautvik, Kaare M

    2007-01-01

    , kidney stones and metabolic bone disease. Our objective was to characterize changes in muscle and hematopoietic gene expression in patients with reversible mild PHPT after parathyroidectomy and possibly link molecular pathology to symptoms. Global mRNA profiling using Affymetrix gene chips was carried...

  2. Deletion of the msdS/AfmsdC gene induces abnormal polarity and septation in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Li, Yanjie; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Depeng; Zhou, Hui; Ouyang, Haomiao; Ming, Jia; Jin, Cheng

    2008-07-01

    alpha-Mannosidases play an important role in the processing of mannose-containing glycans in eukaryotes. A deficiency in alpha-mannosidase is lethal in humans and cattle. In contrast to mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not require the endoplasmic reticulum alpha-mannosidase gene for growth. However, little is known of the consequence of loss of function of class I alpha-mannosidases in filamentous fungi. In this study, the msdS/AfmsdC gene was identified to encode 1,2-alpha-mannosidase MsdS in Aspergillus fumigatus. Soluble MsdS expressed in Escherichia coli was characterized as a typical class I alpha-mannosidase. The msdS gene was deleted by replacement of the msdS gene with a pyrG gene. Although the mutant showed a defect in N-glycan processing, as well as a reduction of cell wall components and a reduced ability of conidiation, it appeared that the rate of hyphal growth was not affected. Morphology analysis revealed abnormal polarity and septation at the stages of germination, hyphal growth and conidiation. Although the mechanism by which the N-glycan processing affects polarity and septation is unclear, our results show that msdS is involved in polarity and septation in A. fumigatus. PMID:18599824

  3. Normal and abnormal mechanisms of gene splicing and relevance to inherited skin diseases

    Wessagowit, Vesarat; Nalla, Vijay K.; Rogan, Peter K; McGrath, John A

    2005-01-01

    The process of excising introns from pre-mRNA complexes is directed by specific genomic DNA sequences at intron—exon borders known as splice sites. These regions contain well-conserved motifs which allow the splicing process to proceed in a regulated and structured manner. However, as well as conventional splicing, several genes have the inherent capacity to undergo alternative splicing, thus allowing synthesis of multiple gene transcripts, perhaps with different functional properties. Within...

  4. Silencing abnormal wing disc gene of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri disrupts adult wing development and increases nymph mortality.

    Ibrahim El-Shesheny

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP, the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5(th of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application of dsRNA to 5(th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP.

  5. Abnormal muscle and hematopoietic gene expression may be important for clinical morbidity in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Reppe, Sjur; Stilgren, Lis; Abrahamsen, Bo;

    2007-01-01

    In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), excess PTH secretion by adenomatous or hyperplastic parathyroid glands leads to elevated serum [Ca(2+)]. Patients present complex symptoms of muscular fatigue, various neuropsychiatric, neuromuscular, and cardiovascular manifestations, and, in advanced disease......, kidney stones and metabolic bone disease. Our objective was to characterize changes in muscle and hematopoietic gene expression in patients with reversible mild PHPT after parathyroidectomy and possibly link molecular pathology to symptoms. Global mRNA profiling using Affymetrix gene chips was carried......,000 expressed genes, 175 muscle, 169 hematological, and 99 bone-associated mRNAs were affected. Notably, the major part of muscle-related mRNAs was increased whereas hematological mRNAs were predominantly decreased during disease. Functional and molecular network analysis demonstrated major alterations of...

  6. Craniofacial abnormalities result from knock down of nonsyndromic clefting gene, crispld2, in zebrafish.

    Yuan, Qiuping; Chiquet, Brett T; Devault, Laura; Warman, Matthew L; Nakamura, Yukio; Swindell, Eric C; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2012-12-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP), a common birth defect, affects 4,000 newborns in the US each year. Previously, we described an association between CRISPLD2 and NSCLP and showed Crispld2 expression in the murine palate. These results suggested that a perturbation in CRISPLD2 activity affects craniofacial development. Here, we describe crispld2 expression and the phenotypic consequence of its loss of function in zebrafish. crispld2 was expressed at all stages of zebrafish morphogenesis examined and localized to the rostral end by 1-day postfertilization. Morpholino knockdown of crispld2 resulted in significant jaw and palatal abnormalities in a dose-dependent manner. Loss of crispld2 caused aberrant patterning of neural crest cells (NCC) suggesting that crispld2 is necessary for normal NCC formation. Altogether, we show that crispld2 plays a significant role in the development of the zebrafish craniofacies and alteration of normal protein levels disturbs palate and jaw formation. These data provide support for a role of CRISPLD2 in NSCLP. PMID:22887593

  7. Abnormal gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes of depressed patients.

    Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Ren, Xinguo; Zhang, Hui; Bhaumik, Runa; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2016-06-30

    Abnormalities of protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors have been reported in plasma of depressed patients. In this study, we examined the role of cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in major depressive disorder (MDD). We determined the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and mRNA expression of their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes from 31 hospitalized MDD patients and 30 non-hospitalized normal control (NC) subjects. The subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Protein levels of cytokines were determined by ELISA, and mRNA levels in lymphocytes were determined by the qPCR method. We found that the mean mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, their receptors, TNFR1, TNFR2, IL-1R1 and the antagonist IL-1RA were significantly increased in the lymphocytes of MDD patients compared with NC. No significant differences in the lymphocyte mRNA levels of IL-1R2, IL-6R, and Gp130 were observed between MDD patients and NC. These studies suggest abnormal gene expression of these cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes of MDD patients, and that their mRNA expression levels in the lymphocytes could be a useful biomarker for depression. PMID:27138824

  8. Cardiac abnormalities in diabetic patients with mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR)Gene

    An A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA is known to be a pathogenic factor for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes and cardiomyopathy. This mutation causes dysfunction of the central nervous system in MELAS. Because the heart, as well as the brain and nervous system, is highly dependent on the energy produced by mitochondrial oxidation, these tissues are more vulnerable to mitochondrial defects. Cardiac abnormalities were assessed in 10 diabetic patients associated with this mutation using echocardiography and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, and compared with 19 diabetic patients without the mutation. Duration of diabetes, therapy, control of blood glucose and diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, were not different between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients with the mutation had a significantly thicker interventricular septum (16.8±3.7 vs 11.0±1.6 mm, p0.05). In conclusion, left ventricular hypertrophy with or without abnormal wall motion and severely reduced MIBG uptake may be characteristic in diabetic patients with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR) gene. (author)

  9. Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype-9 Microdystrophin Gene Therapy Ameliorates Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in mdx Mice

    Bostick, Brian; Yue, Yongping; Lai, Yi; Long, Chun; Li, Dejia; Duan, Dongsheng

    2008-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated microdystrophin gene therapy holds great promise for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Previous studies have revealed excellent skeletal muscle protection. Cardiac muscle is also compromised in DMD patients. Here we show that a single intravenous injection of AAV serotype-9 (AAV-9) microdystrophin vector efficiently transduced the entire heart in neonatal mdx mice, a dystrophin-deficient mouse DMD model. Furthermore, microdystrophin therapy norm...

  10. Mutations in DDR2 gene cause SMED with short limbs and abnormal calcifications.

    Bargal, Ruth; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Le Merrer, Martine; Sosna, Jacob; Melki, Judith; Zangen, David H; Smithson, Sarah F; Borochowitz, Zvi; Belostotsky, Ruth; Raas-Rothschild, Annick

    2009-01-01

    The spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia [SMED] short limb-hand type [SMED-SL] is a rare autosomal-recessive disease, first reported by Borochowitz et al. in 1993.(1) Since then, 14 affected patients have been reported.(2-5) We diagnosed 6 patients from 5 different consanguineous Arab Muslim families from the Jerusalem area with SMED-SL. Additionally, we studied two patients from Algerian and Pakistani ancestry and the parents of the first Jewish patients reported.(1) Using a homozygosity mapping strategy, we located a candidate region on chromosome 1q23 spanning 2.4 Mb. The position of the Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) gene within the candidate region and the similarity of the ddr2 knockout mouse to the SMED patients' phenotype prompted us to study this gene(6). We identified three missense mutations c.2254 C > T [R752C], c. 2177 T > G [I726R], c.2138C > T [T713I] and one splice site mutation [IVS17+1g > a] in the conserved sequence encoding the tyrosine kinase domain of the DDR2 gene. The results of this study will permit an accurate early prenatal diagnosis and carrier screening for families at risk. PMID:19110212

  11. γA gene repeats polymorphism for the analysis of haplotypes of abnormal hemoglobins

    Nejat Akar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to analyze γ A gene repeat polymorphism for the analysis of haplotypes of hemoglobin (Hb variants such as Hb S, Hb D-Punjab, Hb O-Arab. Sickle cell cases had mainly Benin and Arab/Indian haplotype. We found three different haplotypes among Hb S, Hb O Arab and Hb D-Punjab cases. We named these three variants as Anatolian-1 and Anatolian-2 and Asian. Our data revealed that Hb O Arab may arise twice one from Asia and the other from Europe.

  12. Modification of the association of bisphenol A with abnormal liver function by polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes.

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Mee-Ri; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Some studies suggested oxidative stress as a possible mechanism for the relation between exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and liver damage. Therefore, we evaluated modification of genetic polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 or PTGS2), epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 or MnSOD), which are oxidative stress-related genes, on the relation between exposure to BPA and liver function in the elderly. We assessed the association of visit-to-visit variations in BPA exposure with abnormal liver function by each genotype or haplotype after controlling for age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, exercise, urinary cotinine levels, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a GLIMMIX model. A significant association of BPA with abnormal liver function was observed only in participants with COX2 GG genotype at rs5277 (odds ratio (OR)=3.04 and p=0.0231), CAT genotype at rs769218 (OR=4.16 and p=0.0356), CAT CT genotype at rs769217 (OR=4.19 and p=0.0348), SOD2 TT genotype at rs4880 (OR=2.59 and p=0.0438), or SOD2 GG genotype at rs2758331 (OR=2.57 and p=0.0457). Moreover, we also found higher OR values in participants with a pair of G-G haplotypes for COX2 (OR=2.81 and p=0.0384), G-C-A haplotype for EPHX1 (OR=4.63 and p=0.0654), A-T haplotype for CAT (OR=4.48 and p=0.0245), or T-G-A haplotype for SOD2 (OR=2.91 and p=0.0491) compared with those with the other pair of haplotypes for each gene. Furthermore, the risk score composed of 4 risky pair of haplotypes showed interactive effect with BPA on abnormal liver function (p=0.0057). Our study results suggest that genetic polymorphisms of COX2, EPHX1, CAT, and SOD2 modify the association of BPA with liver function. PMID:26922413

  13. Undermasculinized genitalia in a boy with an abnormally expanded CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene.

    Ogata, T; Muroya, K; Ishii, T; Suzuki, Y; Nakada, T; Sasagawa, I

    2001-06-01

    We report an 11-year-old boy with undermasculinized genitalia and an abnormally expanded CAG repeat length at exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. He had microphallus and scrotal hypospadias with chordee, and underwent urethroplasty at 4 years of age. At 11 years of age, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test yielded a relatively high leutinizing hormone (LH) response (0.7-->20.4 IU/l) and a relatively low follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response (1.7-->4.8 IU/l), and an human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test showed sufficient responses of testosterone (0.7-->23.0 nmol/l) and dihydrotestosterone (0.38-->2.95 nmol/l). The CAG repeat length was 44 for the boy and ranged from 12 to 32 for 100 control males. The DNA sequences of the AR gene were normal for the exons 1-8 and for the splice donor, splice acceptor and branch sites. The markedly expanded CAG repeat length appears to be relevant to the undermasculinized genitalia of this boy, because such an expandsion, which has previously been reported only in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, is known to reduce AR function. PMID:11422120

  14. Cardiac abnormalities in diabetic patients with mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA {sup Leu(UUR)}Gene

    Ueno, Hiroshi [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan); Shiotani, Hideyuki

    1999-11-01

    An A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA is known to be a pathogenic factor for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes and cardiomyopathy. This mutation causes dysfunction of the central nervous system in MELAS. Because the heart, as well as the brain and nervous system, is highly dependent on the energy produced by mitochondrial oxidation, these tissues are more vulnerable to mitochondrial defects. Cardiac abnormalities were assessed in 10 diabetic patients associated with this mutation using echocardiography and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, and compared with 19 diabetic patients without the mutation. Duration of diabetes, therapy, control of blood glucose and diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, were not different between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients with the mutation had a significantly thicker interventricular septum (16.8{+-}3.7 vs 11.0{+-}1.6 mm, p<0.001) than those without the mutation. Fractional shortening was lower in diabetic patients with the mutation than those without it (30.7{+-}7.0 vs 42.5{+-}6.6, p<0.001). MIBG uptake on the delayed MIBG image was significantly lower in diabetic patients with the mutation than in those without the mutation (mean value of the heart to mediastinum ratio: 1.6{+-}0.2 vs 2.0{+-}0.4, p>0.05). In conclusion, left ventricular hypertrophy with or without abnormal wall motion and severely reduced MIBG uptake may be characteristic in diabetic patients with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA {sup Leu(UUR)} gene. (author)

  15. Regulatory mechanisms for abnormal expression of the human breast cancer specific gene 1 in breast cancer cells

    LU; Aiping; LI; Qing; LIU; Jingwen

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer-specific gene 1 (BCSG1), also referred as synuclein γ, was originally isolated from a human breast cancer cDNA library and the protein is mainly localized to presynaptic terminals in the nervous system. BCSG1 is not expressed in normal or benign breast lesions, but expressed at an extremely high level in the vast majority of the advanced staged breast carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas. Overexpression of BCSG1 in cancer cells led to significant increase in cell proliferation, motility and invasiveness, and metastasis. To elucidate the molecular mechanism and regulation for abnormal transcription of BCSG1, a variety of BCSG1 promoter luciferase reporters were constructed including 3' end deleted sequences, Sp1 deleted, and activator protein-1 (AP1) domains mutated. Transient transfection assay was used to detect the transcriptional activation of BCSG1 promoters. Results showed that the Sp1 sequence in 5'-flanking region was involved in the basal transcriptional activities of BCSG1 without cell-type specificity. In comparison to pGL3-1249, the reporter activities of pGL3-1553 in BCSG1-negative MCF-7 cells and pGL3-1759 in HepG2 cells were notably decreased. Mutations at AP1 sites in BCSG1 intron 1 significantly reduced the promoter activity in all cell lines. Transcription factors, c-jun, c-fos and cyclin AMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein, could markedly enhance the promoter activities. Thus, our results suggest that the abnormal expression of BCSG1 in breast cancer cells is likely regulated by multiple mechanisms. The 5' flanking region of BCSG1 provides the basal transcriptional activity without cell type specificity. A critical promoter element involved in abnormal expression of BCSG1 presents in the first exon. The cell type specificity of BCSG1 transcription is probably affected through intronic cis-regulatory sequences. AP1 domains in the first intron play an important role in control of BCSG1 transcription.

  16. Genes on chromosomes 4, 9, and 19 involved in 11q23 abnormalities in acute leukemia share sequence homology and/or common motifs.

    Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Alder, H; Y. Gu; R. Prasad; Canaani, O; Kamada, N; Gale, R P; Lange, B; Crist, W M; Nowell, P C

    1993-01-01

    Chromosome translocations involving band 11q23 are associated with human acute leukemias. These translocations fuse the ALL-1 gene, homolog of Drosophila trithorax and located at chromosome band 11q23, to genes from a variety of chromosomes. We cloned and sequenced cDNAs derived from transcripts of the AF-4 and AF-9 genes involved in the most common chromosome abnormalities, t(4:11)(q21:q23) and t(9:11)(p22:q23), respectively. Sequence analysis indicates high homology between the AF-9 gene pr...

  17. Next-generation sequencing of 100 candidate genes in young victims of suspected sudden cardiac death with structural abnormalities of the heart

    Hertz, C L; Christiansen, S L; Ferrero-Miliani, Laura;

    2016-01-01

    non-diagnostic structural abnormalities of the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened 72 suspected SCD cases (<50 years) using the HaloPlex Target Enrichment System (Agilent) and NGS (Illumina MiSeq) for 100 genes previously associated with inherited cardiomyopathies and channelopathies. Fifty...

  18. Individuals With Normal GLA Gene Sequence May Present Abnormally Spliced Alpha-Galactosidase mRNA Transcripts

    Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Deficient lysosomal α-galactosidase activity leads to intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3, which is the pathologic hallmark of Fabry disease (FD. There are over 750 pathogenic variants identified in the α-galactosidase gene (GLA. In rare patients, the cause of α-galactosidase deficiency is the overexpression of a GLA transcript with a cryptic exon in intron 4, which is physiologically present at trace levels. Objectives We aim to report abnormally spliced alpha-galactosidase mRNA transcripts found with a cDNA-based GLA genotyping protocol performed in 482 patients. Patients and Methods Genomic DNA and total RNA specimens were obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with premature stroke prospectively enrolled in the PORTYSTROKE study, or of patients with possible clinical manifestations of FD who have been referred for molecular diagnostic workup. Results Approximately 20% of the patients expressed alternatively spliced transcripts of GLA mRNA involving exon 3. We additionally report that such non-canonical transcripts are physiologically expressed at trace levels in healthy individuals, and that their expression in leukocytes markedly increased in blood samples kept at room-temperature for 48 hours before RNA extraction. Conclusions Production of alternatively spliced GLA transcripts might be involved in the regulation of GLA gene expression, and its deregulated overexpression, particularly if restricted to specific cells or tissues, might be the cause of organ-limited Gb3 pathology. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the production of the non-canonical GLA transcripts warrants further investigation, as it may contribute important new data to the understanding of the molecular pathology of FD and Gb3-related disorders.

  19. Abnormal development of glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells in mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene.

    Abrass, C K; Berfield, A K; Ryan, M C; Carter, W G; Hansen, K M

    2006-09-01

    Mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 chain of laminin-5 (alpha3beta3gamma2, 332), develop a blistering skin disease similar to junctional epidermolysis bullosa in humans. These animals also develop abnormalities in glomerulogenesis. In both wild-type and mutant animals (lama3(-/-)), podocytes secrete glomerular basement membrane and develop foot processes. Endothelial cells migrate into this scaffolding and secrete a layer of basement membrane that fuses with the one formed by the podocyte. In lama3(-/-) animals, glomerular maturation arrests at this stage. Endothelial cells do not attenuate, develop fenestrae, or form typical lumens, and mesangial cells (MCs) were not identified. LN alpha3 subunit (LAMA3) protein was identified in the basement membrane adjacent to glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) in normal rats and mice. In developing rat glomeruli, the LAMA3 subunit was first detectable in the early capillary loop stage, which corresponds to the stage at which maturation arrest was observed in the mutant mice. Lama3 mRNA and protein were identified in isolated rat and mouse glomeruli and cultured rat GEnCs, but not MC. These data document expression of LAMA3 in glomeruli and support a critical role for it in GEnC differentiation. Furthermore, LAMA3 chain expression and/or another product of endothelial cells are required for MC migration into the developing glomerulus. PMID:16850021

  20. Screening of sarcomere gene mutations in young athletes with abnormal findings in electrocardiography: identification of a MYH7 mutation and MYBPC3 mutations.

    Kadota, Chika; Arimura, Takuro; Hayashi, Takeharu; Naruse, Taeko K; Kawai, Sachio; Kimura, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    There is an overlap between the physiological cardiac remodeling associated with training in athletes, the so-called athlete's heart, and mild forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common hereditary cardiac disease. HCM is often accompanied by unfavorable outcomes including a sudden cardiac death in the adolescents. Because one of the initial signs of HCM is abnormality in electrocardiogram (ECG), athletes may need to monitor for ECG findings to prevent any unfavorable outcomes. HCM is caused by mutations in genes for sarcomere proteins, but there is no report on the systematic screening of gene mutations in athletes. One hundred and two genetically unrelated young Japanese athletes with abnormal ECG findings were the subjects for the analysis of four sarcomere genes, MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2 and TNNI3. We found that 5 out of 102 (4.9%) athletes carried mutations: a heterozygous MYH7 Glu935Lys mutation, a heterozygous MYBPC3 Arg160Trp mutation and another heterozygous MYBPC3 Thr1046Met mutation, all of which had been reported as HCM-associated mutations, in 1, 2 and 2 subjects, respectively. This is the first study of systematic screening of sarcomere gene mutations in a cohort of athletes with abnormal ECG, demonstrating the presence of sarcomere gene mutations in the athlete's heart. PMID:26178432

  1. Dosage compensation is less effective in birds than in mammals

    Itoh Yuichiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes, dosage compensation of sex-chromosome genes is thought to be critical for species survival. Diverse molecular mechanisms have evolved to effectively balance the expressed dose of X-linked genes between XX and XY animals, and to balance expression of X and autosomal genes. Dosage compensation is not understood in birds, in which females (ZW and males (ZZ differ in the number of Z chromosomes. Results Using microarray analysis, we compared the male:female ratio of expression of sets of Z-linked and autosomal genes in two bird species, zebra finch and chicken, and in two mammalian species, mouse and human. Male:female ratios of expression were significantly higher for Z genes than for autosomal genes in several finch and chicken tissues. In contrast, in mouse and human the male:female ratio of expression of X-linked genes is quite similar to that of autosomal genes, indicating effective dosage compensation even in humans, in which a significant percentage of genes escape X-inactivation. Conclusion Birds represent an unprecedented case in which genes on one sex chromosome are expressed on average at constitutively higher levels in one sex compared with the other. Sex-chromosome dosage compensation is surprisingly ineffective in birds, suggesting that some genomes can do without effective sex-specific sex-chromosome dosage compensation mechanisms.

  2. Copy number variants and rasopathies: germline KRAS duplication in a patient with syndrome including pigmentation abnormalities.

    Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Bilan, Frédéric; Cavé, Hélène; Verloes, Alain; Vidaud, Michel; Vidaud, Dominique; Pasmant, Eric

    2016-01-01

    RAS/MAPK pathway germline mutations were described in Rasopathies, a class of rare genetic syndromes combining facial abnormalities, heart defects, short stature, skin and genital abnormalities, and mental retardation. The majority of the mutations identified in the Rasopathies are point mutations which increase RAS/MAPK pathway signaling. Duplications encompassing RAS/MAPK pathway genes (PTPN11, RAF1, MEK2, or SHOC2) were more rarely described. Here we report, a syndromic familial case of a 12p duplication encompassing the dosage sensitive gene KRAS, whose phenotype overlapped with rasopathies. The patient was referred because of a history of mild learning disabilities, small size, facial dysmorphy, and pigmentation abnormalities (café-au-lait and achromic spots, and axillar lentigines). This phenotype was reminiscent of rasopathies. No mutation was identified in the most common genes associated with Noonan, cardio-facio-cutaneous, Legius, and Costello syndromes, as well as neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient constitutional DNA exhibited a ~10.5 Mb duplication at 12p, including the KRAS gene. The index case's mother carried the same chromosome abnormality and also showed development delay with short stature, and numerous café-au-lait spots. Duplication of the KRAS gene may participate in the propositus phenotype, in particular of the specific pigmentation abnormalities. Array-CGH or some other assessment of gene/exon CNVs of RAS/MAPK pathway genes should be considered in the evaluation of individuals with rasopathies. PMID:27450488

  3. Regional brain metabolite abnormalities in inherited prion disease and asymptomatic gene carriers demonstrated in vivo by quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Inherited prion diseases are caused by mutations in the gene which codes for prion protein (PrP), leading to proliferation of abnormal PrP isomers in the brain and neurodegeneration; they include Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS), fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD). We studied two patients with symptomatic inherited prion disease (P102L) and two pre-symptomatic P102L gene carriers using quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Short echo time spectra were acquired from the thalamus, caudate region and frontal white matter, metabolite levels and ratios were measured and z-scores calculated for individual patients relative to age-matched normal controls. MRS data were compared with structural magnetic resonance imaging. One fCJD case had generalised atrophy and showed increased levels of myo-inositol (MI) in the thalamus (z=3.7). The other had decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (z=4) and diffuse signal abnormality in the frontal white matter. Both asymptomatic gene carriers had normal imaging, but increased frontal white matter MI (z=4.3, 4.1), and one also had increased MI in the caudate (z=5.3). Isolated MI abnormalities in asymptomatic gene carriers are a novel finding and may reflect early glial proliferation, prior to significant neuronal damage. MRS provides potential non-invasive surrogate markers of early disease and progression in inherited prion disease. (orig.)

  4. Regional brain metabolite abnormalities in inherited prion disease and asymptomatic gene carriers demonstrated in vivo by quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Waldman, A.D.; Cordery, R.J.; Godbolt, A.; Rossor, M.N. [University College London, Dementia Research Group, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); MacManus, D.G. [University College London, NMR Research Unit, Department of Clinical Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Collinge, J. [University College London, MRC Prion Unit, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Inherited prion diseases are caused by mutations in the gene which codes for prion protein (PrP), leading to proliferation of abnormal PrP isomers in the brain and neurodegeneration; they include Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS), fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD). We studied two patients with symptomatic inherited prion disease (P102L) and two pre-symptomatic P102L gene carriers using quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Short echo time spectra were acquired from the thalamus, caudate region and frontal white matter, metabolite levels and ratios were measured and z-scores calculated for individual patients relative to age-matched normal controls. MRS data were compared with structural magnetic resonance imaging. One fCJD case had generalised atrophy and showed increased levels of myo-inositol (MI) in the thalamus (z=3.7). The other had decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (z=4) and diffuse signal abnormality in the frontal white matter. Both asymptomatic gene carriers had normal imaging, but increased frontal white matter MI (z=4.3, 4.1), and one also had increased MI in the caudate (z=5.3). Isolated MI abnormalities in asymptomatic gene carriers are a novel finding and may reflect early glial proliferation, prior to significant neuronal damage. MRS provides potential non-invasive surrogate markers of early disease and progression in inherited prion disease. (orig.)

  5. Endotoxin dosage in sepsis

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endotoxin, a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of septic shock and multiple organ failure (MOF. Its entry into the bloodstream stimulates monocytes/macrophages which once activated produce and release cytokines, nitric oxide and other mediators that induce systemic inflammation, endothelial damage, organ dysfunction, hypotension (shock and MOF.The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a quantitative test for the dosage of endotoxin to determine the risk of severe Gram-negative sepsis. Materials and methods. In the period January 2009 - June 2011 we performed 897 tests for 765 patients, mostly coming from the emergency room and intensive care, of which 328 (43% women (mean age 53 and 437 (57% male (mean age 49. Fifty-nine patients, no statistically significant difference in sex, were monitored by an average of two determinations of EA.All patients had procalcitonin values significantly altered.The kit used was EAA (Endotoxin Activity Assay Estor Company, Milan, which has three ranges of endotoxin activity (EA: low risk of sepsis if <0.40 units, medium if between 0.40 and 0.59; high if 0.60. Results. 78 out of 765 patients (10% had a low risk, 447 (58% a medium risk and 240 (32% a high risk.The dosage of EA, combined with that of procalcitonin, has allowed a more targeted antibiotic therapy. Six patients in serious clinical conditions were treated by direct hemoperfusion with Toraymyxin, a device comprising a housing containing a fiber polypropylene and polystyrene with surface-bound polymyxin B, an antibiotic that removes bacterial endotoxins from the blood. Conclusions.The test is useful in risk stratification as well as Gram negative sepsis, to set and monitor targeted therapies, also based on the neutralization of endotoxin.

  6. Cytogenetic abnormalities and genomic copy number variations in EPO (7q22) and SEC-61(7p11) genes in primary myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Mohanty, Purvi; Korgaonkar, Seema; Shanmukhaiah, Chandrakala; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Vundinti, Babu Rao

    2016-07-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are heterogeneous clonal haematopoeitic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective haematopoeisis, cytopenias and risk of progression to AML. We studied 150 MDS patients for cytogenetic aberrations and 60 patients with normal karyotype and 40 patients harboring cytogenetic abnormalities for copy number variations (CNVs). Cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 46% of patients with a majority of patients harboring abnormalities of chromosome 7 and del (20q) at frequencies of 16% and 12% respectively. We explored the potential of quantitative multiplex PCR assay of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) to identify CNVs and correlated the findings with cytogenetic data and disease prognosis. CNVs (n=31) were detected in 28.3% of karyotypically normal and 23% patients with abnormal karyotype. Genetic losses or deletions (n=26) were more frequent than duplications (n=5). EPO (7q22) and SEC-61(7p11) emerged as new candidate genes susceptible to genetic losses with 57.7% deletions identified in regions on chromosome 7. The CNVs correlated with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) intermediate disease risk group. Our integrative cytogenetic and copy number variation study suggests that abnormalities of chromosome 7 are predominant in Indian population and that they may play a secondary role in disease progression and should be evaluated further for asserting their clinical significance and influence on disease prognosis. PMID:27282568

  7. Dosage regulation of the active X chromosome in human triploid cells.

    Xinxian Deng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, dosage compensation is achieved by doubling expression of X-linked genes in both sexes, together with X inactivation in females. Up-regulation of the active X chromosome may be controlled by DNA sequence-based and/or epigenetic mechanisms that double the X output potentially in response to autosomal factor(s. To determine whether X expression is adjusted depending on ploidy, we used expression arrays to compare X-linked and autosomal gene expression in human triploid cells. While the average X:autosome expression ratio was about 1 in normal diploid cells, this ratio was lower (0.81-0.84 in triploid cells with one active X and higher (1.32-1.4 in triploid cells with two active X's. Thus, overall X-linked gene expression in triploid cells does not strictly respond to an autosomal factor, nor is it adjusted to achieve a perfect balance. The unbalanced X:autosome expression ratios that we observed could contribute to the abnormal phenotypes associated with triploidy. Absolute autosomal expression levels per gene copy were similar in triploid versus diploid cells, indicating no apparent global effect on autosomal expression. In triploid cells with two active X's our data support a basic doubling of X-linked gene expression. However, in triploid cells with a single active X, X-linked gene expression is adjusted upward presumably by an epigenetic mechanism that senses the ratio between the number of active X chromosomes and autosomal sets. Such a mechanism may act on a subset of genes whose expression dosage in relation to autosomal expression may be critical. Indeed, we found that there was a range of individual X-linked gene expression in relation to ploidy and that a small subset ( approximately 7% of genes had expression levels apparently proportional to the number of autosomal sets.

  8. Postpacing abnormal repolarization in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with a mutation in the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene

    E. Nof; B. Belhassen; M. Arad; Z.A. Bhuiyan; C. Antzelevitch; R. Rosso; R. Fogelman; D. Luria; D. El-Ani; M.M.A.M. Mannens; S. Viskin; M. Eldar; A.A.M. Wilde; M. Glikson

    2011-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an arrhythmogenic disease for which electrophysiological studies (EPS) have shown to be of limited value. This study presents a CPVT family in which marked postpacing repolarization abnormalities during EPS were the only consistent phen

  9. Comparison of gene expression profiles and responses to zinc chloride among inter- and intraspecific hybrids with growth abnormalities in wheat and its relatives.

    Takamatsu, Kiyofumi; Iehisa, Julio C M; Nishijima, Ryo; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid necrosis is a well-known reproductive isolation mechanism in plant species, and an autoimmune response is generally considered to trigger hybrid necrosis through epistatic interaction between disease resistance-related genes in hybrids. In common wheat, the complementary Ne1 and Ne2 genes control hybrid necrosis, defined as type I necrosis. Two other types of hybrid necrosis (type II and type III) have been observed in interspecific hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii. Another type of hybrid necrosis, defined here as type IV necrosis, has been reported in F1 hybrids between Triticum urartu and some accessions of Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides. In types I, III and IV, cell death occurs gradually starting in older tissues, whereas type II necrosis symptoms occur only under low temperature. To compare comprehensive gene expression patterns of hybrids showing growth abnormalities, transcriptome analysis of type I and type IV necrosis was performed using a wheat 38k oligo-DNA microarray. Defense-related genes including many WRKY transcription factor genes were dramatically up-regulated in plants showing type I and type IV necrosis, similarly to other known hybrid abnormalities, suggesting an association with an autoimmune response. Reactive oxygen species generation and necrotic cell death were effectively inhibited by ZnCl2 treatment in types I, III and IV necrosis, suggesting a significant association of Ca(2+) influx in upstream signaling of necrotic cell death in wheat hybrid necrosis. PMID:26081164

  10. Dental developmental abnormalities in a patient with subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome may confirm a novel role for the SHH gene.

    Linhares, Natália D; Svartman, Marta; Salgado, Mauro Ivan; Rodrigues, Tatiane C; da Costa, Silvia S; Rosenberg, Carla; Valadares, Eugênia R

    2014-12-01

    Studies in mice demonstrated that the Shh gene is crucial for normal development of both incisors and molars, causing a severe retardation in tooth growth, which leads to abnormal placement of the tooth in the jaw and disrupted tooth morphogenesis. In humans the SHH gene is located on chromosome 7q36. Defects in its protein or signaling pathway may cause holoprosencephaly spectrum, a disorder in which the developing forebrain fails to correctly separate into right and left hemispheres and that can be manifested in microforms such as single maxillary central incisor. A novel role for this gene in the developing human primary dentition was recently demonstrated. We report a 12-year old boy with a de novo 7q36.1-qter deletion characterized by high-resolution karyotyping, oligonucleotide aCGH and FISH. His phenotype includes intellectual disability, non-verbal communication, hypospadia, partial sacral agenesis and absence of coccyx, which are distinctive features of the syndrome and mainly correlated with the MNX1, HTR5A and EN2 genes. No microforms of holoprosencephaly spectrum were observed; but the patient had diastema and dental developmental abnormalities, such as conical, asymmetric and tapered inferior central incisors. The dental anomalies are reported herein for the first time in subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome and may confirm clinically a novel role for the SHH gene in dental development. PMID:25606385

  11. Dental developmental abnormalities in a patient with subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome may confirm a novel role for the SHH gene

    Natália D. Linhares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies in mice demonstrated that the Shh gene is crucial for normal development of both incisors and molars, causing a severe retardation in tooth growth, which leads to abnormal placement of the tooth in the jaw and disrupted tooth morphogenesis. In humans the SHH gene is located on chromosome 7q36. Defects in its protein or signaling pathway may cause holoprosencephaly spectrum, a disorder in which the developing forebrain fails to correctly separate into right and left hemispheres and that can be manifested in microforms such as single maxillary central incisor. A novel role for this gene in the developing human primary dentition was recently demonstrated. We report a 12-year old boy with a de novo 7q36.1-qter deletion characterized by high-resolution karyotyping, oligonucleotide aCGH and FISH. His phenotype includes intellectual disability, non-verbal communication, hypospadia, partial sacral agenesis and absence of coccyx, which are distinctive features of the syndrome and mainly correlated with the MNX1, HTR5A and EN2 genes. No microforms of holoprosencephaly spectrum were observed; but the patient had diastema and dental developmental abnormalities, such as conical, asymmetric and tapered inferior central incisors. The dental anomalies are reported herein for the first time in subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome and may confirm clinically a novel role for the SHH gene in dental development.

  12. X-marks the spot: X-chromosome identification during dosage compensation☆

    Chery, Jessica; Larschan, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation is the essential process that equalizes the dosage of X-linked genes between the sexes in heterogametic species. Because all of the genes along the length of a single chromosome are co-regulated, dosage compensation serves as a model system for understanding how domains of coordinate gene regulation are established. Dosage compensation has been best studied in mammals, flies and worms. Although dosage compensation systems are seemingly diverse across species, there are key shared principles of nucleation and spreading that are critical for accurate targeting of the dosage compensation complex to the X-chromosome(s). We will highlight the mechanisms by which long non-coding RNAs function together with DNA sequence elements to tether dosage compensation complexes to the X-chromosome. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin and epigenetic regulation of animal development. PMID:24406325

  13. Compound heterozygosity for a dominant glycine substitution and a recessive internal duplication mutation in the type XVII collagen gene results in junctional epidermolysis bullosa and abnormal dentition.

    McGrath, J A; Gatalica, B; Li, K; Dunnill, M G; McMillan, J R; Christiano, A M; Eady, R A; Uitto, J

    1996-06-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa is a heterogeneous autosomal recessively inherited blistering skin disorder associated with fragility at the dermal-epidermal junction. Previously, mutations in this condition have been described in the three genes for the anchoring filament protein laminin 5 (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2), in the gene encoding the hemidesmosome-associated beta4 integrin (ITGB4), and in the gene for the hemidesmosomal protein type XVII collagen (COL17A1/BPAG2). In this study, we report a patient with a form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa with skin fragility and dental anomalies who is a compound heterozygote for a novel combination of mutations, ie, a glycine substitution mutation in one allele and an internal duplication in the other allele of COL17A1. The patient also has two offspring, both of whom have inherited the glycine substitution mutation, whereas the other COL17A1 allele is normal. The latter individuals show no evidence of skin fragility but have marked dental abnormalities with enamel hypoplasia and pitting. The clinical phenotype of junctional epidermolysis bullosa in the proband in this family probably arises due to a combination of the glycine substitution and the internal duplication in COL17A1, whereas the dental abnormalities of her offspring may be the result of the glycine substitution in COL17A1 alone, resulting in this dominantly inherited clinical phenotype. PMID:8669466

  14. Abnormal promoter methylation of multiple genes in the malignant transformed PEP2D cells induced by alpha particles exposure

    LiP; SuiJL

    2002-01-01

    The 5' promoter regions of some genes contain CpG-rich areas,known as CpG islands,Methylation of the cytosine in these dinuleotides has important regulatory effects on gene expression.The functional significance of promoter hypermethylation would play the same roles in carcinogenesis as gene mutations.The promoter methylations p14ARF,p16INK4a,MGMT,GSTP1,BUB3 and DAPK genes were analyzed with methylation specific PCR(MSP) in the transformed human bronchial epithelial cells(BEP2D) induced by α-particles.The results indicated that p14ARF gene was not methylated in BEP2D cells,but was methylated in the malignant transformed BERP35T-1 cells,and the level of its transcription was depressed remarkable in the latter.However p16INK4a gene,which shares two exons with p14ARF gene,was not methylated.MGMT gene was methylated in both BEP2D and BERP35T-1.DAPK gene was partially methylated in BEP2D cells and methylated completely in BERP35T1.GSTP1 was not methylated in BEP2D cells and was methylated partly in BERP35T-1.BUB3 gene was not methylated in BEP2D as well as BERP35T1 cells and was further proved by sequencing analysis.

  15. DYRK1A (Dual-Specificity Tyrosine-Phosphorylated and -Regulated Kinase 1A: A Gene with Dosage Effect During Development and Neurogenesis

    M. Dierssen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available DYRKs (dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases are an emerging family of evolutionarily conserved dual-specificity kinases that play key roles in cell proliferation, survival, and development. The research in the last years suggests a relevant conserved function during neuronal development, related to proliferation and/or differentiation for DYRK1A. It is expressed in neural progenitor cells and has been proposed to participate in the signaling mechanisms that regulate dendrite differentiation. In Drosophila, disruption of the homolog minibrain gene results in flies with reduced neuroblast proliferation, decreased numbers of central brain neurons, and learning/memory deficits. Knockout DYRK1A mice are embryonic lethal, and heterozygotes show decreased viability and region-specific reductions in brain size. In humans, DYRK1A has been proposed to be involved in the neurodevelopmental alterations associated with Down syndrome. The large number of protein interaction and putative substrates described for DYRK1A suggest multiple pathways and functions to be involved in its developmental function. This review focuses on the functional role that DYRK1A plays in brain development.

  16. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    Pauline E Jullien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2 and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA and PHERES1 (PHE1 controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis.

  17. Chromosome 17 abnormalities and mutation of the TP53 gene: correlation between cytogenetics, flow cytometry and molecular analysis in three cases of chronic myeloid leukemia

    Luize Otero

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available chronic myeloid leukemia (CML have been described. This chromosomal region contains the tumor suppressor gene TP53 that may be an important factor in the evolution of this disease. In this study, we used flow cytometry and western blotting to assess p53 protein expression and single stranded conformational polymorphism to examine TP53 gene alterations in three patients with CML who showed alterations in 17p. Only the case with del(17(p11 had p53 expression positive by flow cytometry and an abnormal migration pattern by SSCP analysis. The importance of the correlation between the results obtained with these techniques, as well as the clinical course of the patients, are discussed.

  18. Inactivation of ca10a and ca10b Genes Leads to Abnormal Embryonic Development and Alters Movement Pattern in Zebrafish.

    Ashok Aspatwar

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs X and XI are highly conserved across species and are predominantly expressed in neural tissues. The biological role of these proteins is still an enigma. Ray-finned fish have lost the CA11 gene, but instead possess two co-orthologs of CA10. We analyzed the expression pattern of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes during embryonic development and in different adult tissues, and studied 61 CARP X/XI-like sequences to evaluate their phylogenetic relationship. Sequence analysis of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b reveals strongly predicted signal peptides, N-glycosylation sites, and a potential disulfide, all of which are conserved, suggesting that all of CARP X and XI are secretory proteins and potentially dimeric. RT-qPCR showed that zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes are expressed in the brain and several other tissues throughout the development of zebrafish. Antisense morpholino mediated knockdown of ca10a and ca10b showed developmental delay with a high rate of mortality in larvae. Zebrafish morphants showed curved body, pericardial edema, and abnormalities in the head and eye, and there was increased apoptotic cell death in the brain region. Swim pattern showed abnormal movement in morphant zebrafish larvae compared to the wild type larvae. The developmental phenotypes of the ca10a and ca10b morphants were confirmed by inactivating these genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In conclusion, we introduce a novel zebrafish model to investigate the mechanisms of CARP Xa and CARP Xb functions. Our data indicate that CARP Xa and CARP Xb have important roles in zebrafish development and suppression of ca10a and ca10b expression in zebrafish larvae leads to a movement disorder.

  19. Identification of 9 uterine genes that are regulated during mouse pregnancy and exhibit abnormal levels in the cyclooxygenase-1 knockout mouse

    Soper Jessica

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the leading cause of all infant mortality. In 2004, 12.5% of all births were preterm. In order to understand preterm labor, we must first understand normal labor. Since many of the myometrial changes that occur during pregnancy are similar in mice and humans and mouse gestation is short, we have studied the uterine genes that change in the mouse during pregnancy. Here, we used microarray analysis to identify uterine genes in the gravid mouse that are differentially regulated in the cyclooxygenase-1 knockout mouse model of delayed parturition. Methods Gestational d18.0 uteri (n = 4 were collected from pregnant wild-type and cyclooxygenase-1 knockout mice. Part of the uterus was used for frozen sections and RNA was isolated from the remainder. Microarray analysis was performed at the Indiana University School of Medicine Genomic Core and analyzed using the Microarray Data Portal. Northern analysis was performed to confirm microarray data and the genes localized in the gravid uterus by in situ hybridization. Results We identified 277 genes that are abnormally expressed in the gravid d18.0 cyclooxygenase-1 knockout mouse. Nine of these genes are also regulated in the normal murine uterus during the last half of gestation. Many of these genes are involved in the immune response, consistent with an important role of the immune system in parturition. Expression of 4 of these genes; arginase I, IgJ, Tnfrsf9 and troponin; was confirmed by Northern analysis to be mis-regulated during pregnancy in the knockout mouse. In situ hybridization of these genes demonstrated a similar location in the gravid wild-type and Cox-1 knockout mouse uteri. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the uterine location of these 4 genes in the mouse during late pregnancy. There are several putative transcription factor binding sites that are shared by many of the 9 genes identified here including; estrogen and

  20. Congenital Abnormalities

    ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase the risk that a baby will be born with abnormalities (e.g. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders ). Eating raw or uncooked foods during pregnancy can also be dangerous to health of the ...

  1. Coamplification of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase genes in blood cells: Correlation with various leukemias and abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis

    To study the yet unknown role of the ubiquitous family of cholinesterases (ChoEases) in developing blood cells, the recently isolated cDNAs encoding human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were used in blot hybridization with peripheral blood DNA from various leukemic patients. Hybridization signals and modified restriction patterns were observed with both cDNA probes in 4 of the 16 leukemia DNA preparations examined. These reflected the amplification of the corresponding AcCho-Ease and BtChoEase genes (ACHE and CHE) and alteration in their structure. Parallel analysis of 30 control samples revealed nonpolymorphic, much weaker hybridization signals for each of the probes. In view of previous reports on the effect of acetylcholine analogs and ChoEase inhibitors in the induction of megakaryocytopoiesis and production of platelets in the mouse. The authors further searched for such phenomena in nonleukemic patients with platelet production disorders. Amplifications of both ACHE and CHE genes were found in 2 of the 4 patients so far examined. Pronounced coamplification of these two related but distinct genes in correlation with pathological production of blood cells suggests a functional role for members of the ChoEase family in megakaryocytopoiesis and raises the question whether the coamplification of these genes could be casually involved in the etiology of hemocytopoietic disorders

  2. Differential Gene Expression Profile Associated with the Abnormality of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aplastic Anemia

    Li, Jianping; Yang, Shaoguang; Lu, Shihong; Zhao, Hui; Feng, Jianming; Li, Wenqian; Ma, Fengxia; Ren, Qian; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Yizhou; Han, Zhong Chao

    2012-01-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is generally considered as an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome with defective hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and marrow microenvironment. Previous studies have demonstrated the defective HSCs and aberrant T cellular-immunity in AA using a microarray approach. However, little is known about the overall specialty of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In the present study, we comprehensively compared the biological features and gene expression profile...

  3. Heterozygous deletion of a 2-Mb region including the dystroglycan gene in a patient with mild myopathy, facial hypotonia, oral-motor dyspraxia and white matter abnormalities.

    Frost, Amy R; Böhm, Sabrina V; Sewduth, Raj N; Josifova, Dragana; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Izatt, Louise; Roberts, Roland G

    2010-07-01

    Dystroglycan is a protein which binds directly to two proteins defective in muscular dystrophies (dystrophin and laminin alpha2) and whose own aberrant post-translational modification is the common aetiological route of neuromuscular diseases associated with mutations in genes encoding at least six other proteins (POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, LARGE, FKTN and FKRP). It is surprising, therefore, that to our knowledge no mutations of the human dystroglycan gene itself have yet been reported. In this study, we describe a patient with a heterozygous de novo deletion of a approximately 2-Mb region of chromosome 3, which includes the dystroglycan gene (DAG1). The patient is a 16-year-old female with learning difficulties, white matter abnormalities, elevated serum creatine kinase, oral-motor dyspraxia and facial hypotonia but minimal clinically significant involvement of other muscles. As these symptoms are a subset of those observed in disorders of dystroglycan glycosylation (muscle-eye-brain disease and Warker-Warburg syndrome), we assess the likely contribution to her phenotype of her heterogosity for a null mutation of DAG1. We also show that the transcriptional compensation observed in the Dag1(+/-) mouse is not observed in the patient. Although we cannot show that haploinsufficiency of DAG1 is the sole cause of this patient's myopathy and white matter changes, this case serves to constrain our ideas of the severity of the phenotypic consequences of heterozygosity for null DAG1 mutations. PMID:20234391

  4. Two siblings with immunodeficiency, facial abnormalities and chromosomal instability without mutation in DNMT3B gene but liability towards malignancy; a new chromatin disorder delineation?

    Neitzel Heidemarie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ICF syndrome (standing for Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive immune disorder caused by mutations of the gene de novo DNA-methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B. However, in the literature similar clinical cases without such mutations are reported, as well. Results We report on a family in which the unrelated spouses had two female siblings sharing similar phenotypic features resembling ICF-syndrome, i.e. congenital abnormalities, immunodeficiency, developmental delay and high level of chromosomal instability, including high frequency of centromeric/pericentromeric rearrangements and breaks, chromosomal fragments despiralization or pulverization. However, mutations in DNMT3B could not be detected. Conclusion The discovery of a new so-called 'chromatin disorder' is suggested. Clinical, molecular genetic and cytogenetic characteristics are reported and compared to other 'chromatin disorders'.

  5. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9. ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN-SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  6. Liquisolid Dosage System: A Novel Approach for Dosage formulation

    Sudarshan B. Aher; Dattatraya M. Shinkar; Ravindra B. Saudagar

    2015-01-01

    In the drug development enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs is one of the most challenging aspects of drug. The pharmaceutical industry face the problem poor dissolution characteristics of water insoluble drug. these problem solve by applying recent techniques “powdered solution technology” or “liquisolid technology”, for prepare water-insoluble drugs into rapid-release solid dosage forms. Design and formulation of this approach is prescribed according to new mat...

  7.  Possible gene dosage effect of glutathione-S-transferases on atopic asthma: Using real-time PCR for quantification of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene copy numbers

    Andersen, Charlotte Brasch; Christiansen, Lene; Tan, Qihua;

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder characterized by chronic inflammation in the airways. As oxidative stress is a key component of inflammation, variations in genes involved in antioxidant defense could therefore be likely candidates for asthma. Three enzymes from the superfamily glutathione......-S-transferase (GST) involved in the antioxidant defense were tested for association to asthma using 246 Danish atopic families in a family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) design. A real-time PCR assay for relative quantification of gene copy number of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was developed. The assay made it...

  8. Secondary EWSR1 gene abnormalities in SMARCB1-deficient tumors with 22q11-12 regional deletions: Potential pitfalls in interpreting EWSR1 FISH results.

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-10-01

    SMARCB1 inactivation occurs in a variety of tumors, being caused by various genetic mechanisms. Since SMARCB1 and EWSR1 genes are located close to each other on chromosome 22, larger SMARCB1 deletions may encompass the EWSR1 locus. Herein, we report four cases with SMARCB1-deletions showing concurrent EWSR1 gene abnormalities by FISH, which lead initially to misinterpretations as EWSR1-rearranged tumors. Our study group included various morphologies: a poorly differentiated chordoma, an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor, a myoepithelial carcinoma, and a proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. All cases showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and displayed characteristic histologic features for the diagnoses. The SMARCB1 FISH revealed homozygous or heterozygous deletions in three and one case, respectively. The co-hybridized EWSR1 probes demonstrated either unbalanced split signals or heterozygous deletion in two cases each. The former suggested bona fide rearrangement, while the latter resembled an unbalanced translocation. However, all the FISH patterns were quite complex and distinct from the simple and uniform split signals seen in typical EWSR1 rearrangements. We conclude that in the context of 22q11-12 regional alterations present in SMARCB1-deleted tumors, simultaneous EWSR1 involvement may be misinterpreted as equivalent to EWSR1 rearrangement. A detailed clinicopathologic correlation and supplementing the EWSR1 FISH assay with complementary methodology is mandatory for correct diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27218413

  9. Unexpected Role for Dosage Compensation in the Control of Dauer Arrest, Insulin-Like Signaling, and FoxO Transcription Factor Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Dumas, Kathleen J; Delaney, Colin E.; Flibotte, Stephane; Moerman, Donald G.; Csankovszki, Gyorgyi; Hu, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    During embryogenesis, an essential process known as dosage compensation is initiated to equalize gene expression from sex chromosomes. Although much is known about how dosage compensation is established, the consequences of modulating the stability of dosage compensation postembryonically are not known. Here we define a role for the Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation complex (DCC) in the regulation of DAF-2 insulin-like signaling. In a screen for dauer regulatory genes that control th...

  10. Liquisolid Dosage System: A Novel Approach for Dosage formulation

    Sudarshan B. Aher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the drug development enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs is one of the most challenging aspects of drug. The pharmaceutical industry face the problem poor dissolution characteristics of water insoluble drug. these problem solve by applying recent techniques “powdered solution technology” or “liquisolid technology”, for prepare water-insoluble drugs into rapid-release solid dosage forms. Design and formulation of this approach is prescribed according to new mathematical model given by spires et al. the solubility is Increasing by using a non-volatile solvent which is suitable for drug, their by dissolving the drug in the non volatile solvent it is termed as liquid medicament. This case, the drug is in a solid dosage form, it is held within the powder substrate in solution or, in a solubilized, almost dispersed state, which contributes to the enhanced drug dissolution and release properties. Liquisolid system is characterized by flow behavior, wettability, powder bed hydrophilicity, saturation solubility, drug content, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, in-vitro release and in-vivo evaluation.

  11. LTR retrotransposons and the evolution of dosage compensation in Drosophila

    McDonald John F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dosage compensation in Drosophila is the epigenetic process by which the expression of genes located on the single X-chromosome of males is elevated to equal the expression of X-linked genes in females where there are two copies of the X-chromosome. While epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to have evolved originally to silence transposable elements, a connection between transposable elements and the evolution of dosage compensation has yet to be demonstrated. Results We show that transcription of the Drosophila melanogaster copia LTR (long terminal repeat retrotransposon is significantly down regulated when in the hemizygous state. DNA digestion and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analyses demonstrate that this down regulation is associated with changes in chromatin structure mediated by the histone acetyltransferase, MOF. MOF has previously been shown to play a central role in the Drosophila dosage compensation complex by binding to the hemizygous X-chromosome in males. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MOF originally functioned to silence retrotransposons and, over evolutionary time, was co-opted to play an essential role in dosage compensation in Drosophila.

  12. The Enigma of Rapamycin Dosage.

    Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Frias, Maria A; Chatterjee, Amrita; Yellen, Paige; Foster, David A

    2016-03-01

    The mTOR pathway is a critical regulator of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and survival. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling has been observed in most cancers and, thus, the mTOR pathway has been extensively studied for therapeutic intervention. Rapamycin is a natural product that inhibits mTOR with high specificity. However, its efficacy varies by dose in several contexts. First, different doses of rapamycin are needed to suppress mTOR in different cell lines; second, different doses of rapamycin are needed to suppress the phosphorylation of different mTOR substrates; and third, there is a differential sensitivity of the two mTOR complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 to rapamycin. Intriguingly, the enigmatic properties of rapamycin dosage can be explained in large part by the competition between rapamycin and phosphatidic acid (PA) for mTOR. Rapamycin and PA have opposite effects on mTOR whereby rapamycin destabilizes and PA stabilizes both mTOR complexes. In this review, we discuss the properties of rapamycin dosage in the context of anticancer therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(3); 347-53. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26916116

  13. The Status of Dosage Compensation in the Multiple X Chromosomes of the Platypus

    Deakin, Janine E; Hore, Timothy A; Koina, Edda; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Dosage compensation has been thought to be a ubiquitous property of sex chromosomes that are represented differently in males and females. The expression of most X-borne genes is equalized between XX females and XY males in therian mammals (marsupials and “placentals”) by inactivating one X chromosome in female somatic cells. However, compensation seems not to be strictly required to equalize the expression of most Z-borne genes between ZZ male and ZW female birds. Whether dosage compensation...

  14. Getting a Full Dose? Reconsidering Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Walters, James R; Hardcastle, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Dosage compensation—equalizing gene expression levels in response to differences in gene dose or copy number—is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa), it is expected that dosage compensation will evolve to correct for sex-specific differences in gene dose. Although this is observed in some organisms, recent genome-wide express...

  15. Epigenetic modifications on X chromosomes in marsupial and monotreme mammals and implications for evolution of dosage compensation

    Rens, Willem; Wallduck, Margaret S.; Lovell, Frances L.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    X chromosome dosage compensation in female eutherian mammals is regulated by the noncoding Xist RNA and is associated with the differential acquisition of active and repressive histone modifications, resulting in repression of most genes on one of the two X chromosome homologs. Marsupial mammals exhibit dosage compensation; however, they lack Xist, and the mechanisms conferring epigenetic control of X chromosome dosage compensation remain elusive. Oviparous mammals, the monotremes, have multi...

  16. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Stanley M. Gartler

    2014-08-01

    In 1914, H. J. Muller postulated the origin of the Y chromosome as having resulted from restricted recombination between homologous sex chromosomes in the male and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. This evolutionary process leads to dosage compensation. This article lays out a brief history of dosage compensation in genetics.

  17. Estimated Radiation Dosage on Mars

    2002-01-01

    This global map of Mars shows the estimated radiation dosages from cosmic rays reaching the surface, a serious health concern for any future human exploration of the planet.The estimates are based on cosmic-radiation measurements by the Mars radiation environment experiment, an instrument on NASA's Mars 2000 Odyssey spacecraft, plus information about Mars' surface elevations from the laser altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The areas of Mars expected to have the lowest levels of cosmic radiation are where the elevation is lowest, because those areas have more atmosphere above them to block out some of the radiation. Earth's thick atmosphere shields us from most cosmic radiation, but Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than we have on Earth.The colors in the map refer to the estimated annual dose equivalent in rems, a unit of radiation dose. The range is generally from 10 rems(color-coded dark blue) to 20 rems (color coded dark red). Radiation exposure for astronauts on the International Space Station in Earth orbit is typically equivalent to an annualized rate of 20 to 40 rems.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor missions for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. The Mars radiation environment experiment was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for Odyssey, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation. PMID:17855217

  19. ON THE SELECTION OF DRUGS DOSAGE REGIMEN

    E. N. Bochanova

    2015-01-01

    A complex system of hemostasis regulation, insufficient data on drugs pharmacokinetics, multiple factors effecting treatment, including patient’s adherence to therapy, that can lead to the need for the dosage regimen specification are presented.

  20. ON THE SELECTION OF DRUGS DOSAGE REGIMEN

    E. N. Bochanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A complex system of hemostasis regulation, insufficient data on drugs pharmacokinetics, multiple factors effecting treatment, including patient’s adherence to therapy, that can lead to the need for the dosage regimen specification are presented.

  1. The senescence-accelerated prone mouse (SAMP8): a model of age-related cognitive decline with relevance to alterations of the gene expression and protein abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease.

    Butterfield, D Allan; Poon, H Fai

    2005-10-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is an accelerated aging model that was established through phenotypic selection from a common genetic pool of AKR/J strain of mice. The SAM model was established in 1981, including nine major senescence-accelerated mouse prone (SAMP) substrains and three major senescence-accelerated mouse resistant (SAMR) substrains, each of which exhibits characteristic disorders. Recently, SAMP8 have drawn attention in gerontological research due to its characteristic learning and memory deficits at old age. Many recent reports provide insight into mechanisms of the cognitive impairment and pathological changes in SAMP8. Therefore, this mini review examines the recent findings of SAMP8 mice abnormalities at the gene and protein levels. The genes and proteins described in this review are functionally categorized into neuroprotection, signal transduction, protein folding/degradation, cytoskeleton/transport, immune response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. All of these processes are involved in learning and memory. Although these studies provide insight into the mechanisms that contribute to the learning and memory decline in aged SAMP8 mice, higher throughput techniques of proteomics and genomics are necessary to study the alterations of gene expression and protein abnormalities in SAMP8 mice brain in order to more completely understand the central nervous system dysfunction in this mouse model. The SAMP8 is a good animal model to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of age-related learning and memory deficits at the gene and protein levels. PMID:16026957

  2. Abnormalities in structure and expression of the retinoblastoma gene in small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts in nude mice

    Rygaard, K; Sorenson, G D; Pettengill, O S;

    1990-01-01

    The putative retinoblastoma gene (Rb) is a tumor suppressor gene which is believed to cause retinoblastomas when both alleles are inactivated, leading to lack of the encoded Mr 110,000-116,000 phosphoprotein. Inactivation of the Rb gene has also been found in several other tumor types, including...

  3. Mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of mammalian and avian dosage compensation.

    Philippe Julien

    Full Text Available As a result of sex chromosome differentiation from ancestral autosomes, male mammalian cells only contain one X chromosome. It has long been hypothesized that X-linked gene expression levels have become doubled in males to restore the original transcriptional output, and that the resulting X overexpression in females then drove the evolution of X inactivation (XCI. However, this model has never been directly tested and patterns and mechanisms of dosage compensation across different mammals and birds generally remain little understood. Here we trace the evolution of dosage compensation using extensive transcriptome data from males and females representing all major mammalian lineages and birds. Our analyses suggest that the X has become globally upregulated in marsupials, whereas we do not detect a global upregulation of this chromosome in placental mammals. However, we find that a subset of autosomal genes interacting with X-linked genes have become downregulated in placentals upon the emergence of sex chromosomes. Thus, different driving forces may underlie the evolution of XCI and the highly efficient equilibration of X expression levels between the sexes observed for both of these lineages. In the egg-laying monotremes and birds, which have partially homologous sex chromosome systems, partial upregulation of the X (Z in birds evolved but is largely restricted to the heterogametic sex, which provides an explanation for the partially sex-biased X (Z expression and lack of global inactivation mechanisms in these lineages. Our findings suggest that dosage reductions imposed by sex chromosome differentiation events in amniotes were resolved in strikingly different ways.

  4. Urine - abnormal color

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  5. Postnatal manipulation of Pax6 dosage reverses congenital tissue malformation defects

    Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y.; Wang, Xia; Wasan, Kishor M.; Zhao, Jinying; Metcalfe, Andrew L.; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Aniridia is a congenital and progressive panocular condition with poor visual prognosis that is associated with brain, olfactory, and pancreatic abnormalities. Development of aniridia is linked with nonsense mutations that result in paired box 6 (PAX6) haploinsufficiency. Here, we used a mouse model of aniridia to test the hypothesis that manipulation of Pax6 dosage through a mutation-independent nonsense mutation suppression strategy would limit progressive, postnatal damage in the eye. We f...

  6. Molecular Characterisation of Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Congenital Disorders

    Mansouri, Mahmoud R.

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are defined as changes in the chromosome structure and fall in one of two categories. The first category is numerical alterations while the second category consists of structural abnormalities. Structural chromosomal abnormalities do not always interrupt genes in order to cause disease. They can also affect gene expression by separating a gene and its promoter element from distant regulatory elements. We have used characterisation of structural chromosomal abnormalit...

  7. Heterozygous deletion of a 2-megabase region including the dystroglycan gene in a patient with mild myopathy, facial hypotonia, oral-motor dyspraxia and white matter abnormalities

    Roland G. Roberts; Frost, Amy R; Boehm, Sabrina V; Sewduth, Raj N.; Josifova, Dragana; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Izatt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Dystroglycan is a protein which binds directly to two proteins defective in muscular dystrophies (dystrophin and laminin ?2) and whose own aberrant post-translational modification is the common aetiological route of neuromuscular diseases associated with mutations in genes encoding at least six other proteins (POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, LARGE, FKTN, FKRP). It is surprising, therefore, that to our knowledge no mutations of the human dystroglycan gene itself have yet been report...

  8. Heterozygous deletion of a 2-Mb region including the dystroglycan gene in a patient with mild myopathy, facial hypotonia, oral-motor dyspraxia and white matter abnormalities

    Frost, Amy R; Böhm, Sabrina V; Sewduth, Raj N.; Josifova, Dragana; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Izatt, Louise; Roland G. Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Dystroglycan is a protein which binds directly to two proteins defective in muscular dystrophies (dystrophin and laminin α2) and whose own aberrant post-translational modification is the common aetiological route of neuromuscular diseases associated with mutations in genes encoding at least six other proteins (POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, LARGE, FKTN and FKRP). It is surprising, therefore, that to our knowledge no mutations of the human dystroglycan gene itself have yet been reported. In this study...

  9. [Evaluation of voriconazole oral dosage in Japan].

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Kawasumi, Noriyo; Hirai, Jun; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2014-10-01

    Voriconazole (VRCZ), a broad-spectrum triazole, is served in two dosage forms-injection and oral. VRCZ is difference dosage of oral and intravenous administration writing a medical package insert in Japan. 6 mg/kg intravenous injection (IV) twice daily for first day as initial loading dose, followed by 3-4 mg/kg IV twice daily between meals is recommended. 300 mg orally twice daily for first day as initial loading dose, followed by 150-200 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended. Patients weighing over 40 kg, 200 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended. Patients weighing under 40 kg, 100 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended, increase to 150 mg twice daily if inadequate response. This study evaluated VRCZ trough concentration and oral dosage in the 23 cases which administered VRCZ to analysis for TDM in Aichi University Hospital. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p=0.05. All data were analyzed and processed on JMP 8 (SAS Institute Japan). There was a significant positive correlation between VRCZ trough concentration and dose/weight (r=0.47 poral dosage is appropriate to administer dose/weight (mg/kg) twice a day as same as IV. PMID:25566590

  10. Enalapril dosage in progressive chronic nephropathy

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Sonne, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    concentration of enalaprilat afforded the same degree of renoprotection, blood pressure control and minimisation of proteinuria as a high concentration, during 12 months of follow-up. The high-dosage treatment was associated with a more pronounced tendency to hyperkalaemia. Thus, there seems to be no indication...

  11. In Nicotiana species, an artificial microRNA corresponding to the virulence modulating region of Potato spindle tuber viroid directs RNA silencing of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase gene and the development of abnormal phenotypes.

    Eamens, Andrew L; Smith, Neil A; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Wassenegger, Michael; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2014-02-01

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small non-protein-coding RNA pathogen that can induce disease symptoms in a variety of plant species. How PSTVd induces disease symptoms is a long standing question. It has been suggested that PSTVd-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) could direct RNA silencing of a targeted host gene(s) resulting in symptom development. To test this, we expressed PSTVd sequences as artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) in Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana benthamiana. One amiRNA, amiR46 that corresponds to sequences within the PSTVd virulence modulating region (VMR), induced abnormal phenotypes in both Nicotiana species that closely resemble those displayed by PSTVd infected plants. In N. tabacum amiR46 plants, phenotype severity correlated with amiR46 accumulation and expression down-regulation of the bioinformatically-identified target gene, a Nicotiana soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (siPPase). Taken together, our phenotypic and molecular analyses suggest that disease symptom development in Nicotiana species following PSTVd infection results from sRNA-directed RNA silencing of the host gene, siPPase. PMID:24503090

  12. Identification of chromatin-associated regulators of MSL complex targeting in Drosophila dosage compensation.

    Erica Larschan

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila provides a model for understanding how chromatin organization can modulate coordinate gene regulation. Male Drosophila increase the transcript levels of genes on the single male X approximately two-fold to equal the gene expression in females, which have two X-chromosomes. Dosage compensation is mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL histone acetyltransferase complex. Five core components of the MSL complex were identified by genetic screens for genes that are specifically required for male viability and are dispensable for females. However, because dosage compensation must interface with the general transcriptional machinery, it is likely that identifying additional regulators that are not strictly male-specific will be key to understanding the process at a mechanistic level. Such regulators would not have been recovered from previous male-specific lethal screening strategies. Therefore, we have performed a cell culture-based, genome-wide RNAi screen to search for factors required for MSL targeting or function. Here we focus on the discovery of proteins that function to promote MSL complex recruitment to "chromatin entry sites," which are proposed to be the initial sites of MSL targeting. We find that components of the NSL (Non-specific lethal complex, and a previously unstudied zinc-finger protein, facilitate MSL targeting and display a striking enrichment at MSL entry sites. Identification of these factors provides new insight into how MSL complex establishes the specialized hyperactive chromatin required for dosage compensation in Drosophila.

  13. Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.

    Li, Wen; Wang, Xianming; Fan, Wenxia; Zhao, Ping; Chan, Yau-Chi; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Ya; Li, Yanhua; Cai, Jinglei; Qin, Dajiang; Li, Xingyan; Yang, Jiayin; Peng, Tianran; Zychlinski, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk; Zhang, Ruosi; Deng, Kang; Ng, Kwong-Man; Menten, Bjorn; Zhong, Mei; Wu, Jiayan; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yonglong; Schambach, Axel; Tse, Hung-Fat; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation. PMID:21949351

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  15. Interstitial deletion of chromosome 1q [del(1)(q24q25.3)] identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene dosage analysis of apolipoprotein A-II, coagulation factor V, and antithrombin III

    Takano, Takako; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Mori, Yosuke [Teikyo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1997-01-20

    We report on a 12-month-old Japanese boy with an interstitial deletion of the long-arm of chromosome 1 and meningomyelocele, hydrocephalus, anal atresia, atrial septal defect, left renal agenesis, bilateral cryptorchidism, talipes equinovarus, low birth weight, growth/developmental retardation, and many minor anomalies. By conventional GTG-banding, his karyotype was first interpreted as 46,XY,de1(1)(q23q24), but it was corrected as 46,XY.ish del(1)(q24q25.3) by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 known cosmid clones as probes. His serum levels of apolipoprotein A-II (gene symbol: APOA2, previously assigned to 1q21-q23) and coagulation factor V (F5, 1q21-q25) were normal, while serum concentration and activity of antithrombin III (AT3, 1q23-q25.1) was low. The results indicated that localization of APOA2 and F5 are proximal to the deleted region and AT3 is located within the deletion extent in the patient. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Estimated Maximal Safe Dosages of Tumescent Lidocaine

    Klein, Jeffrey A.; Jeske, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia consists of subcutaneous injection of relatively large volumes (up to 4 L or more) of dilute lidocaine (≤1 g/L) and epinephrine (≤1 mg/L). Although tumescent lidocaine anesthesia is used for an increasing variety of surgical procedures, the maximum safe dosage is unknown. Our primary aim in this study was to measure serum lidocaine concentrations after subcutaneous administration of tumescent lidocaine with and without liposuction. Our hypotheses wer...

  17. Higher unit dosage of psychotropic drugs.

    Burrell, C D

    1975-12-01

    The realities of the marketplace dictate that pharmaceutical companies seek to develop higher unit dosage forms. Technical problems not infrequently hinder such development. In low doses once-a-day medication with psychotropics is possible and practical. The potential for adverse reactions frequently renders it desirable to divide higher daily doses into two separate doses, one given in the morning and the other in the evening. PMID:1233527

  18. The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus.

    Janine E Deakin

    Full Text Available Dosage compensation has been thought to be a ubiquitous property of sex chromosomes that are represented differently in males and females. The expression of most X-borne genes is equalized between XX females and XY males in therian mammals (marsupials and "placentals" by inactivating one X chromosome in female somatic cells. However, compensation seems not to be strictly required to equalize the expression of most Z-borne genes between ZZ male and ZW female birds. Whether dosage compensation operates in the third mammal lineage, the egg-laying monotremes, is of considerable interest, since the platypus has a complex sex chromosome system in which five X and five Y chromosomes share considerable genetic homology with the chicken ZW sex chromosome pair, but not with therian XY chromosomes. The assignment of genes to four platypus X chromosomes allowed us to examine X dosage compensation in this unique species. Quantitative PCR showed a range of compensation, but SNP analysis of several X-borne genes showed that both alleles are transcribed in a heterozygous female. Transcription of 14 BACs representing 19 X-borne genes was examined by RNA-FISH in female and male fibroblasts. An autosomal control gene was expressed from both alleles in nearly all nuclei, and four pseudoautosomal BACs were usually expressed from both alleles in male as well as female nuclei, showing that their Y loci are active. However, nine X-specific BACs were usually transcribed from only one allele. This suggests that while some genes on the platypus X are not dosage compensated, other genes do show some form of compensation via stochastic transcriptional inhibition, perhaps representing an ancestral system that evolved to be more tightly controlled in placental mammals such as human and mouse.

  19. Mutation of a novel gene results in abnormal development of spermatid flagella, loss of intermale aggression and reduced body fat in mice.

    Campbell, Patrick K; Waymire, Katrina G.; Heier, Robb L.; Sharer, Catherine; Day, Diane E.; Reimann, Heike; Jaje, J Michael; Friedrich, Glenn A; Burmeister, Margit; Bartness, Timothy J.; Russell, Lonnie D; Young, Larry J.; Zimmer, Michael; Jenne, Dieter E.; MACGREGOR, GRANT R.

    2002-01-01

    ROSA22 male mice are sterile due to a recessive gene-trap mutation that affects development of the spermatid flagellum. The defect involves the flagellar axoneme, which becomes unstable around the time of its assembly. Despite a subsequent complete failure in flagellar assembly, development of the spermatid head appears normal and the spermatid head is released at the correct stage in spermatogenesis. The mutation is pleiotropic. Although ROSA22 homozygote males have normal levels of circulat...

  20. Reduced Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 causes developmental delay, hypotonia, and cranial abnormalities associated with increased bone gene expression in Kleefstra syndrome mice.

    Balemans, Monique C M; Ansar, Muhammad; Oudakker, Astrid R; van Caam, Arjan P M; Bakker, Brenda; Vitters, Elly L; van der Kraan, Peter M; de Bruijn, Diederik R H; Janssen, Sanne M; Kuipers, Arthur J; Huibers, Manon M H; Maliepaard, Eliza M; Walboomers, X Frank; Benevento, Marco; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Zhou, Huiqing; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2014-02-15

    Haploinsufficiency of Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), a chromatin modifying enzyme, is the cause of Kleefstra syndrome (KS). KS is an intellectual disability (ID) syndrome, with general developmental delay, hypotonia, and craniofacial dysmorphisms as additional core features. Recent studies have been focused on the role of EHMT1 in learning and memory, linked to the ID phenotype of KS patients. In this study we used the Ehmt1(+/-) mouse model, and investigated whether the core features of KS were mimicked in these mice. When comparing Ehmt1(+/-) mice to wildtype littermates we observed delayed postnatal growth, eye opening, ear opening, and upper incisor eruption, indicating a delayed postnatal development. Furthermore, tests for muscular strength and motor coordination showed features of hypotonia in young Ehmt1(+/-) mice. Lastly, we found that Ehmt1(+/-) mice showed brachycephalic crania, a shorter or bent nose, and hypertelorism, reminiscent of the craniofacial dysmorphisms seen in KS. In addition, gene expression analysis revealed a significant upregulation of the mRNA levels of Runx2 and several other bone tissue related genes in P28 Ehmt1(+/-) mice. Runx2 immunostaining also appeared to be increased. The mRNA upregulation was associated with decreased histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) levels, the epigenetic mark deposited by Ehmt1, in the promoter region of these genes. Together, Ehmt1(+/-) mice indeed recapitulate KS core features and can be used as an animal model for Kleefstra syndrome. The increased expression of bone developmental genes in the Ehmt1(+/-) mice likely contributes to their cranial dysmorphisms and might be explained by diminished Ehmt1-induced H3K9 dimethylation. PMID:24362066

  1. : MAP6 dosage controls cognitive abilities

    Volle, Julien; Brocard, Jacques,; Saoud, Mohamed; Gory-Faure, Sylvie; Brunelin, Jérôme; Andrieux, Annie; Suaud-Chagny, Marie-Françoise

    2012-01-01

    International audience Background: STOP/MAP6 null (KO) mice recapitulate behavioral abnormalities related to positive and negative symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether decreased expression of STOP/MAP6 proteins in heterozygous mice (only one allele expressed) would result in abnormal behavior related to those displayed by STOP null mice. Methods : Using a comprehensive test battery, we investigated the behavioral phenotype of STOP heterozygous (He...

  2. Increased dosage of Dyrk1A alters alternative splicing factor (ASF)-regulated alternative splicing of tau in Down syndrome.

    Shi, Jianhua; Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Chunlei; Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Gu, Xiaosong; Wegiel, Jerzy; Zhou, Jianhua; Hwang, Yu-Wen; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

    2008-10-17

    Two groups of tau, 3R- and 4R-tau, are generated by alternative splicing of tau exon 10. Normal adult human brain expresses equal levels of them. Disruption of the physiological balance is a common feature of several tauopathies. Very early in their life, individuals with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer-type tau pathology, the molecular basis for which is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Dyrk1A, a kinase encoded by a gene in the DS critical region, phosphorylates alternative splicing factor (ASF) at Ser-227, Ser-234, and Ser-238, driving it into nuclear speckles and preventing it from facilitating tau exon 10 inclusion. The increased dosage of Dyrk1A in DS brain due to trisomy of chromosome 21 correlates to an increase in 3R-tau level, which on abnormal hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau results in neurofibrillary degeneration. Imbalance of 3R- and 4R-tau in DS brain by Dyrk1A-induced dysregulation of alternative splicing factor-mediated alternative splicing of tau exon 10 represents a novel mechanism of neurofibrillary degeneration and may help explain early onset tauopathy in individuals with DS. PMID:18658135

  3. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  5. Normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene and abnormal incorporation of fibrillin into the extracellular matrix in Lujan Syndrome

    Greenhaw, G.A.; Stone, C.; Milewicz, D. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Lujan syndrome is an X-linked condition that includes mild-to-moderate mental retardation, poor social integration, normal secondary sexual development with normal testicular size, generalized hypotonia, hypernasal voice and dolichostenomelia. Major cardiac complications and lens dislocation have not been reported although severe myopia may occur. All reported cases have had negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome but establishing this constellation of findings as a distinctive entity has been difficult. We report 4 males in two sibships with clinical findings consistent with Lujan syndrome, normal karyotypes, negative cytogenetic screening for fra(X) syndrome and a normal number of CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene. Dermal fibroblasts explanted from one of the affected males were used to study fibrillin synthesis secretion and extracellular matrix incorporation into microfibrils. Cells from the affected individual showed normal synthesis and secretion of fibrillin when compared to control cells, but the fibrillin was not incorporated into the extracellular matrix. These results suggest the presence of a gene on the X chromosome which may play a role in microfibril assembly and when deficient may disrupt the incorporation of fibrillin into microfibrils. This may be important not only in normal body morphogenesis but also in the development/function of the brain. More affected individuals are needed to investigate these findings further.

  6. Systematic Cellular Disease Models Reveal Synergistic Interaction of Trisomy 21 and GATA1 Mutations in Hematopoietic Abnormalities.

    Banno, Kimihiko; Omori, Sayaka; Hirata, Katsuya; Nawa, Nobutoshi; Nakagawa, Natsuki; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Toki, Tsutomu; Ito, Etsuro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Taniguchi, Hidetoshi; Arahori, Hitomi; Wada, Kazuko; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-05-10

    Chromosomal aneuploidy and specific gene mutations are recognized early hallmarks of many oncogenic processes. However, the net effect of these abnormalities has generally not been explored. We focused on transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) in Down syndrome, which is characteristically associated with somatic mutations in GATA1. To better understand functional interplay between trisomy 21 and GATA1 mutations in hematopoiesis, we constructed cellular disease models using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and genome-editing technologies. Comparative analysis of these engineered iPSCs demonstrated that trisomy 21 perturbed hematopoietic development through the enhanced production of early hematopoietic progenitors and the upregulation of mutated GATA1, resulting in the accelerated production of aberrantly differentiated cells. These effects were mediated by dosage alterations of RUNX1, ETS2, and ERG, which are located in a critical 4-Mb region of chromosome 21. Our study provides insight into the genetic synergy that contributes to multi-step leukemogenesis. PMID:27134169

  7. Alcohol, aggression and assertiveness in men: dosage and expectancy effects.

    Kreutzer, J S; Schneider, H G; Myatt, C R

    1984-05-01

    The effect of alcohol on aggression and assertiveness was examined in 54 men college students. A 2 (high vs low dosage expectancy) x 3 (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 ml of 95% alcohol per kg of body weight) design was used. There was an increase in self-reported aggression at the moderate dosage but an increase only in profanity at the high dosage. The expectancy manipulation also produced an increase in self-reported aggression. Actual dosage and dosage expectancy did not influence assertiveness. PMID:6748671

  8. SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORM OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM

    Maiada M Almousilly

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin sodium was formulated in a solid dosage form using different bases; o/w emulsion base, water soluble base, oleaginous base, and vanishing cream base. Bases were prepared in two different concentrations, 5% and 10% w/w. The diffusion of the drug from each of the above bases was investigated. Results indicated that the effect of the type of ointment base on the release rate of phenytoin sodium is significant. The rate and extent of phenytoin sodium release and diffusion through mouse skin was higher from the water soluble base (10% w/w compared to other ointment bases, the difference was highly significant (P< 0.05.

  9. SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORM OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM

    Maiada M Almousilly; Loay K. Abdulrahman; Sadiq H. Alshmesawy; Fatima A. Tawfiq

    2012-01-01

    Phenytoin sodium was formulated in a solid dosage form using different bases; o/w emulsion base, water soluble base, oleaginous base, and vanishing cream base. Bases were prepared in two different concentrations, 5% and 10% w/w. The diffusion of the drug from each of the above bases was investigated. Results indicated that the effect of the type of ointment base on the release rate of phenytoin sodium is significant. The rate and extent of phenytoin sodium release and diffusion through mouse ...

  10. Mucin phenotypic expression and p53 gene abnormality of gastric super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma: Re-evaluation with relationship between histogenesis of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and intestinal metaplasia in distal stomach

    Yamaguchi Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    lesions in the distal stomach, which had both gastric and intestinal phenotypic mucin, are considered to develop from the tubular proliferative zone with the incomplete type of the intestinal metaplasia and p53 gene abnormality, while a part of them, which had only gastric phenotypic mucin, may derive from the gastric native tubules (non-metaplastic epithelium with p53 gene abnormality.

  11. Meta-analysis of heterogeneous Down Syndrome data reveals consistent genome-wide dosage effects related to neurological processes

    Pérez-Jurado Luis A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21 is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation in the human population and key molecular networks dysregulated in DS are still unknown. Many different experimental techniques have been applied to analyse the effects of dosage imbalance at the molecular and phenotypical level, however, currently no integrative approach exists that attempts to extract the common information. Results We have performed a statistical meta-analysis from 45 heterogeneous publicly available DS data sets in order to identify consistent dosage effects from these studies. We identified 324 genes with significant genome-wide dosage effects, including well investigated genes like SOD1, APP, RUNX1 and DYRK1A as well as a large proportion of novel genes (N = 62. Furthermore, we characterized these genes using gene ontology, molecular interactions and promoter sequence analysis. In order to judge relevance of the 324 genes for more general cerebral pathologies we used independent publicly available microarry data from brain studies not related with DS and identified a subset of 79 genes with potential impact for neurocognitive processes. All results have been made available through a web server under http://ds-geneminer.molgen.mpg.de/. Conclusions Our study represents a comprehensive integrative analysis of heterogeneous data including genome-wide transcript levels in the domain of trisomy 21. The detected dosage effects build a resource for further studies of DS pathology and the development of new therapies.

  12. Evaluation of new indomethacin dosage forms.

    Waller, E S

    1983-01-01

    Indomethacin, an indole derivative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been available since the early 1960s in gelatin capsules. In 1982, a sustained release product, Indocin SR, was marketed. Awaiting marketing approval is a unique controlled release form of indomethacin, Indos. The disposition of indomethacin includes enterohepatic cycling and extensive metabolism to inactive metabolites. Enterohepatic cycling makes interpretation of bioavailability estimates of indomethacin dosage forms difficult. The relationship of indomethacin plasma concentration to therapeutic effects and side effects is inconclusive. It appears in vivo prostaglandin inhibition occurs at very low plasma concentrations that are achievable with all available dosage forms. Indocin SR is a sustained release capsule of indomethacin designed to deliver 25 mg of drug immediately and 50 mg gradually. Absolute bioavailability of the product is 80%. The plasma concentration-time curves do not show good sustained release characteristics; after four hours plasma concentrations resemble those seen with a single dose of regular capsule. The cost compared with Indocin is competitive. Indos is a zero-order release form of indomethacin. It is a unique drug delivery system that shows good controlled release characteristics. Bioavailability is 85%. Both Indocin SR and Indos are apparently therapeutically equivalent to indomethacin capsules. In elderly patients, Indos has been shown to be associated with fewer side effects than Indocin. Both Indocin SR and Indos have the advantage of once or twice daily dosing. PMID:6361702

  13. Abnormal dentin structure in two novel gene mutations [COL1A1, Arg134Cys] and [ADAMTS2, Trp795-to-ter] causing rare type I collagen disorders.

    De Coster, P J; Cornelissen, M; De Paepe, A; Martens, L C; Vral, A

    2007-02-01

    Histological and ultrastructural observations of dentin of two patients affected with rare types of type I collagen disorders are presented. In the first case, a homozygous nonsense mutation in ADAMTS2 (substitution of a codon for tryptophan by a stopcodon) causes type VIIC Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with multiple tooth agenesis and focal dysplastic dentin defects. In the second case, a missense mutation in COL1A1 (substitution of arginine by cysteine) results in a type I EDS phenotype with clinically normal-appearing dentition. Tooth samples are investigated by using light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunostaining for types I and III collagen, and tenascin. These are compared with samples from patients with types III and IV osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in association with dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), showing a consistently abnormal appearance of the dentin in all specimens, with variations being primarily those of degree of change. Similarities in histological changes include the alternating presence of normal and severe pathological areas in primary and secondary dentin, the latter being characterized by large canal-like structures in atubular areas. Ultrastructural evidence of pathological dentinogenesis include abnormal distribution, size and organization of collagen fibers, which may also be found in clinically unaffected teeth. The histological and ultrastructural changes seen can be explained on the basis of odontoblast dysfunction which may be secondary to the collagen defect, interfering with different levels of odontoblast cell function and intercellular communication. These observations on (ultra)structural dentin defects associated with the two novel gene mutations are the first ever reported. PMID:17118335

  14. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination...... abnormality independently predicted transition to disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 1.53 (1.01-2.34)]. The hazard increased with increasing number of abnormalities. Among MRI lesions, only ARWMC of severe grade independently predicted disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 2.18 (1.37-3.48)]. In our cohort...

  15. A Novel Large Deletion Encompassing the Whole of the Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase (GALT) Gene and Extending into the Adjacent Interleukin 11 Receptor Alpha (IL11RA) Gene Causes Classic Galactosemia Associated with Additional Phenotypic Abnormalities

    Papachristoforou, Rena; Petrou, Petros P.; Sawyer, Hilary; Williams, Maggie; Drousiotou, Anthi

    2013-01-01

    Objective The characterization of a novel large deletion in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) gene accounting for the majority of disease alleles in Cypriot patients with classic galactosemia.

  16. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  17. Abnormal Expression of p73 Gene in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia%p73基因在成人急性淋巴细胞白血病中表达的研究

    俞罡

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究p73基因在急性淋巴细胞性白血病(ALL)发病机制中的作用及临床意义。方法:收集32例ALL患者及30例正常对照组骨髓样本,DNA和RNA抽提后用RT-PCR检测p73基因的表达、甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)检测p73基因第一外显子甲基化状态,并结合临床资料进行分析。结果:11例p73基因阴性表达,阴性表达率为34.38%,其中9例第一外显子区域均发生甲基化(81.82%);21例p73基因阳性表达,32例ALL患者中,仅1例发生甲基化(4.76%);正常对照组30例,均为p73基因阳性表达,阳性表达率为100%。p73基因的阴性表达与ALL患者的高年龄(≥60岁)、高白细胞数(≥30×109/L)及对治疗时间延长(>4周取得完全缓解)有关。结论:p73基因异常表达与成人ALL的发病机制有关,具有一定的诊断及判断预后的价值;其甲基化可能是p73基因在ALL中表达沉默的主要机制。%Objective:To investigate the effect of p73 gene on pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL)and clinical significance of abnormal expression of p73 gene. Method:Genomic DNA and total RNA were extracted from 32 ALL and 30 normal bone marrow samples. The expression of p73 was evaluated by RT-PCR. The methylation specific PCR(MSP)was performed to examine the methylation status of p73 gene exon. Result:Of 32 ALL samples,11 showed without expression of p73 mRNA,with a negative rate of 34.38%. Normal samples all had expression of p73 gene,with a positive rate of 100%. 9 patients without expression of p73 were found to have methylation of p73 gene,whereas only one of patients with expression of p73 mRNA was found to have methylation. Negative expression of p73 gene was associated with higher age(≥60 years old ),higher leucocyte count(≥30×109/L) and delayed reaction to therapy(patients attained complete remission after 4 weeks). Conclusion:Negative expression of p73 gene probably plays a role in the

  18. Dosage-dependent rescue of definitive nephrogenesis by a distant Gata3 enhancer

    Hasegawa, Susan L.; Moriguchi, Takashi; Rao, Arvind; Kuroha, Takashi; Engel, James Douglas; Lim, Kim-Chew

    2006-01-01

    Human GATA3 haploinsufficiency leads to HDR (hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia) syndrome, demonstrating that the development of a specific subset of organs in which this transcription factor is expressed is exquisitely sensitive to gene dosage. We previously showed that murine GATA-3 is essential for definitive kidney development, and that a large YAC transgene faithfully recapitulated GATA-3 expression in the urogenital system. Here we describe the localization and activity of...

  19. Hyper-Variability in Circulating Insulin, High Fat Feeding Outcomes, and Effects of Reducing Ins2 Dosage in Male Ins1-Null Mice in a Specific Pathogen-Free Facility

    Templeman, Nicole M.; Mehran, Arya E.; Johnson, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is an essential hormone with key roles in energy homeostasis and body composition. Mice and rats, unlike other mammals, have two insulin genes: the rodent-specific Ins1 gene and the ancestral Ins2 gene. The relationships between insulin gene dosage and obesity has previously been explored in male and female Ins2 -/- mice with full or reduced Ins1 dosage, as well as in female Ins1 -/- mice with full or partial Ins2 dosage. We report herein unexpected hyper-variability in Ins1-null male...

  20. [Reexaminations of dosages in Shanghanlun: comparison of the dosages among decoctions, pills and powder formulations].

    Suzuki, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper reveals the dosages of decoctions in Shanghanlun in relation of pills and powder formulations, and obtains following results. At the first examination of the system of weight, while Taohongjing shows three kinds of system of weight; [(1)1liang is equivalent to 14 g. (2) 1liang = 7 g (3) 1liang = 1.4 g], he describes the necessity of the corrective system of weight among the decoctions, the pills and the powder formulations. After Song dynasty, Zhusanfa, which is the method of preparing the decoction by placing powder ingredients of prescriptions in water and simmer, have been mainly adopted. In the term of Zhusanfa, although the whole quantities of prescriptions are written with the ancient weight unit, the notation of the dosage is indicated by the current weight unit, Qian. In Shanghanlun, since the dosage form seems to have been changed from the pills or the powders into the decoction, some of decoctions contain impractical dose for decoction. PMID:21796994

  1. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    张文娟; 安宇

    2015-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70%as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models.

  2. Ultrasonography of splenic abnormalities

    Ming-Jen Chen; Ming-Jer Huang; Wen-Hsiung Chang; Tsang-En Wang; Horng-Yuan Wang; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This report gives a comprehensive overview of ultrasonography of splenic abnormalities. Certain ultrasonic features are also discussed with pathologic correlation.METHODS: We review the typical ultrasonic characteristics of a wide range of splenic lesions, illustrating them with images obtained in our institution from 2000 to 2003.One hundred and three patients (47 men, 56 women),with a mean age of 54 years (range 9-92 years), were found to have an abnormal ultrasonic pattern of spleen.RESULTS: We describe the ultrasonic features of various splenic lesions such as accessory spleen, splenomegaly,cysts, cavernous hemangiomas, lymphomas, abscesses,metastatic tumors, splenic infarctions, hematomas, and rupture, based on traditional gray-scale and color Doppler sonography.CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is a widely available, noninvasive,and useful means of diagnosing splenic abnormalities. A combination of ultrasonic characteristics and clinical data may provide an accurate diagnosis. If the US appearance alone is not enough, US may also be used to guide biopsy of suspicious lesions.

  3. Dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, a model for control in other insect species

    In the animal kingdom, many species with euchromatic heteromorphic sex chromosomes have developed mechanisms for the equalization of gene products in the homo- and the heterogametic sex. This mechanism, called dosage compensation, is achieved in Drosophila by the doubling of the transcriptional activity of X-linked genes in the male, in comparison to the female. Any failure in achieving dosage compensation causes lethality: hapto-X male individuals that fail to hyperactivate their single X-chromosome as well as diplo-X female individuals that hyperactivate their X-chromosomes die. Five genes that are involved in the regulation of this process have been identified. in males, a group of four genes, the so called male-specific lethals (mle, msl-1, msl-2, msl-3), must be active in order for hypertranscription to occur, whereas in females the Sxl gene, the master key gene of sex determination, has to be active to prevent the msl genes from becoming active. However, XX individuals with mutations in Sxl cannot be rescued by mutations in the msl genes indicating that at least one member of this group is yet to be uncovered. Furthermore, the msl gene that is regulated in a sex-specific manner has not yet been identified. Given that msl-1 is transcribed in both sexes but its protein product is nearly absent in females, we have investigated whether this gene is the target of sex-specific regulation. We have also carried out extensive genetic screens for the purpose of identifying additional members of the msl group. These investigations are necessary prerequisites to the development of genetic sexing techniques based on the constitutive expression of msl genes in females causing female-specific lethality. (author)

  4. 21 CFR 520.540 - Dexamethasone oral dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dexamethasone oral dosage forms. 520.540 Section 520.540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dexamethasone oral dosage forms....

  5. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660 Section 522.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms....

  6. 21 CFR 520.763 - Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage forms. 520.763 Section 520.763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage forms....

  7. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  8. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.1696...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin oral dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin oral dosage forms. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin...

  10. 21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 Section 520.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88 Amoxicillin...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2345 - Tetracycline oral dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline oral dosage forms. 520.2345 Section 520.2345 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Tetracycline oral dosage forms....

  12. Lubricants in Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms

    Jinjiang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lubrication plays a key role in successful manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms; lubricants are essential ingredients in robust formulations to achieve this. Although many failures in pharmaceutical manufacturing operations are caused by issues related to lubrication, in general, lubricants do not gain adequate attention in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. In this paper, the fundamental background on lubrication is introduced, in which the relationships between lubrication and friction/adhesion forces are discussed. Then, the application of lubrication in the development of pharmaceutical products and manufacturing processes is discussed with an emphasis on magnesium stearate. In particular, the effect of its hydration state (anhydrate, monohydrate, dihydrate, and trihydrate and its powder characteristics on lubrication efficiency, as well as product and process performance is summarized. In addition, the impact of lubrication on the dynamics of compaction/compression processes and on the mechanical properties of compacts/tablets is presented. Furthermore, the online monitoring of magnesium stearate in a blending process is briefly mentioned. Finally, the chemical compatibility of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API with magnesium stearate and its reactive impurities is reviewed with examples from the literature illustrating the various reaction mechanisms involved.

  13. Gene amplification as a cause of inherited thyroxine-binding globulin excess in two Japanese families

    Mori, Yuichi; Miura, Yoshitaka; Saito, Hidehiko [Toyota Memorial Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    T{sub 4}-binding globulin (TBG) is the major thyroid hormone transport protein in man. Inherited abnormalities in the level of serum TBG have been classified as partial deficiency, complete deficiency, and excess. Sequencing analysis of the TBG gene, located on Xq21-22, has uncovered the molecular defects causing partial and complete deficiency. However, the mechanism leading to inherited TBG excess remains unknown. In this study, two Japanese families, F-A and F-T, with inherited TBG excess were analyzed. Serum TBG levels in hemizygous males were 58 and 44 {mu}g/mL, 3- and 2-fold the normal value, respectively. The molecule had normal properties in terms of heat stability and isoelectric focussing pattern. The sequence of the coding region and the promoter activity of the TBG gene were also indistinguishable between hemizygotes and normal subjects. The gene dosage of TBG relative to that of {beta}-globin, which is located on chromosome 11, and Duchenne muscular dystropy, which is located on Xp, was evaluated by coamplification of these target genes using polymerase chain reaction and subsequent quantitation by HPLC. The TBG/{beta}-globin ratios of the affected male and female of F-A were 3.13 and 4.13 times, respectively, that in the normal males. The TBG/Duchenne muscular dystrophy ratios were 2.92 and 2.09 times the normal value, respectively. These results are compatible with three copies of TBG gene on the affected X-chromosome. Similarly, a 2-fold increase in gene dosage was demonstrated in the affected hemizygote of F-T. A 3-fold tandem amplification of the TBG gene was shown by in situ hybridization of prometaphase and interphase chromosomes from the affected male with a biotinylated genomic TBG probe, confirming the gene dosage results. Gene amplification of TBG is the cause of inherited TBG excess in these two families. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  15. Metabolic abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Palacios Verd??, Mar??a Gabriela, 1983-; Segura Puimedon, Maria, 1985-; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Campo Casanelles, Miguel del, 1966-; Campuzano Uceda, Mar??a Victoria; P??rez Jurado, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83???Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ???30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ???75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well a...

  16. Lack of dosage compensation accompanies the arrested stage of sex chromosome evolution in ostriches.

    Adolfsson, Sofia; Ellegren, Hans

    2013-04-01

    Sex chromosome evolution is usually seen as a process that, once initiated, will inevitably progress toward an advanced stage of degeneration of the nonrecombining chromosome. However, despite evidence that avian sex chromosome evolution was initiated >100 Ma, ratite birds have been trapped in an arrested stage of sex chromosome divergence. We performed RNA sequencing of several tissues from male and female ostriches and assembled the transcriptome de novo. A total of 315 Z-linked genes fell into two categories: those that have equal expression level in the two sexes (for which Z-W recombination still occurs) and those that have a 2-fold excess of male expression (for which Z-W recombination has ceased). We suggest that failure to evolve dosage compensation has constrained sex chromosome divergence in this basal avian lineage. Our results indicate that dosage compensation is a prerequisite for, not only a consequence of, sex chromosome evolution. PMID:23329687

  17. Determination of dosage compensation of the mammalian X chromosome by RNA-seq is dependent on analytical approach

    Jue, Nathaniel K.; Murphy, Michael B.; Kasowitz, Seth D; Qureshi, Sohaib M; Obergfell, Craig J; Elsisi, Sahar; Foley, Robert J; O’Neill, Rachel J.; O’Neill, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Background An enduring question surrounding sex chromosome evolution is whether effective hemizygosity in the heterogametic sex leads inevitably to dosage compensation of sex-linked genes, and whether this compensation has been observed in a variety of organisms. Incongruence in the conclusions reached in some recent reports has been attributed to different high-throughput approaches to transcriptome analysis. However, recent reports each utilizing RNA-seq to gauge X-linked gene expression re...

  18. rHuEPO Hyporesponsiveness and Related High Dosages Are Associated with Hyperviscosity in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    Mehtap Erkmen Uyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increased viscosity may increase the risk of thrombosis or thromboembolic events. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO is the key stone treatment in anemic ESRD patients with the thrombotic limiting side effect. We evaluated the influence of clinical and laboratory findings on plasma viscosity in MHD patients in the present study. Method. After applying exclusion criteria 84 eligible MHD patients were included (30 female, age: years. Results. Patients with high viscosity had longer MHD history, calcium × phosphorus product, and higher rHuEPO requirement (356.4 versus 204.2 U/kg/week, : 0.006. rHuEPO hyporesponsiveness was also more common in hyperviscosity group. According to HD duration, no rHuEPO group had the longest and the low rHuEPO dosage group had the shortest duration. Despite similar Hb levels, 68% of patients in high rHuEPO dosage group; and 38.7% of patients in low rHuEPO dosage group had higher plasma viscosity (: 0.001. Patients with hyperviscosity had higher rHuEPO/Hb levels (: 0.021. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that rHuEPO hyporesponsiveness was the major determinant of hyperviscosity. Conclusion. We suggest that the hyperviscous state of the hemodialysis patients may arise from the inflammatory situation of long term HD, the calcium-phosphorus mineral abnormalities, rHuEPO hyporesponsiveness, and related high dosage requirements.

  19. Dopaminergic system abnormalities Etiopathogenesis of dystonia

    Shuhui Wu; Huifang Shang; Xiaoyi Zou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much research has focused on the close relationship between etiopathogenesis of dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system. Nevertheless, details of the mechanism are still not clear.OBJECTIVE: To review studies from the past few years about pathogenesis and molecular interactions involved in the relationship between dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system.RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the key words "dystonia" and "dopamine", PubMed database and SCI databases were searched from January 1990 to December 2005 for relevant English publications. A total of 73 articles were searched and, initially, all articles were selected. Inclusive criteria: studies based on pathogenesis and molecular interactions involved in the relationship between dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system. Exclusive criteria: duplicated studies. A total of 19 articles were extracted after preliminary screening.LITERATURE EVALUATION: The data sources were the PubMed and SCI databases. The types of articles chosen were reviews and original articles.DATA SYNTHESIS: Metabolism and function of dopamine in the central nervous system: the chemical constitution of dopamine is a single benzene ring. The encephalic regions of dopamine synthesis and their fiber projections comprise four nervous system pathways. One of these pathways is the substantia nigra-striatum dopamine pathway, which is a side-loop of the basal ganglia circuitry that participates in movement control and plays a main role in the adjustment of extracorticospinal tract movement. Dopamine can lead to the facilitation of movement. Dystonia and abnormalities of the dopaminergic system: different modes of dopamine abnormality exist in various forms of dystonia. Abnormalities of the dopaminergic system in several primary dystonias: at present, fifteen gene loci of primary dystonia have been reported (DYT1-DYT15). The relationship between abnormalities of the dopaminergic system and the

  20. Extending the market exclusivity of therapeutic antibodies through dosage patents.

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Dosage patents are one way to extend the market exclusivity of an approved drug beyond the lifetime of the patent that protects the drug as such. Dosage patents may help to compensate the applicant for the long period where the active pharmaceutical ingredient as such is already under patent prosecution, but not on the market yet, due to lengthy development and approval procedures. This situation erodes part of the time the drug is marketed under patent protection. Dosage patents filed at a later date can provide remedy for this problem. Examples of successful and unsuccesful attempts, and the reasons for the respective outcomes, are provided in this article. PMID:27115842

  1. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.)

  2. Gene expression profiling of 1p35-36 genes in neuroblastoma.

    Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Novikov, Eugene; Monteiro, Marta; Gruel, Nadège; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Loriod, Béatrice; Nguyen, Catherine; Delattre, Olivier

    2004-08-01

    Deletion of the chromosome 1p36 region is a frequent abnormality in neuroblastoma. To gain further insights into the role of this alteration in oncogenesis, we have constructed a specific cDNA microarray representing most known genes and ESTs from the 1p35-36 region and analysed the expression profiles of 15 neuroblastoma cell lines and 28 neuroblastoma tumours. Hierarchical clustering using expression levels of 320 cDNAs from 1p35-36 separated localized or 4S cases without 1p deletion from advanced stages and cell lines. Supervised learning classification enabled to predict reliably the status of chromosome 1p according to its expression profile. Around 15% of the genes or ESTs presented a significantly decreased expression in samples with 1p deletion as compared to 1p-normal samples suggesting that 1p deletion results in a gene dosage effect on a subset of genes critical for the development of 1p-deleted neuroblastoma. Several genes presumed to have functions in neural differentiation (CDC42, VAMP3, CLSTN1), signal transduction in neural cells (GNB1) and cell cycle regulation (STMN1, RPA2, RBAF600, FBXO6, MAD2L2) exhibited a decreased expression in samples presenting 1p deletion. The identification of such genes provides baseline information for further studies to elucidate how these genes could individually or collectively play a critical role in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:15195138

  3. A duplicated PLP gene causing Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease detected by comparative multiplex PCR

    Inoue, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Kawanishi, C. [Yokohama City Univ., Yokohama (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked dysmyelinating disorder caused by abnormalities in the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene, which is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelin formation. Although linkage analysis has shown the homogeneity at the PLP locus in patients with PMD, exonic mutations in the PLP gene have been identified in only 10% - 25% of all cases, which suggests the presence of other genetic aberrations, including gene duplication. In this study, we examined five families with PMD not carrying exonic mutations in PLP gene, using comparative multiplex PCR (CM-PCR) as a semiquantitative assay of gene dosage. PLP gene duplications were identified in four families by CM-PCR and confirmed in three families by densitometric RFLP analysis. Because a homologous myelin protein gene, PMP22, is duplicated in the majority of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A, PLP gene overdosage may be an important genetic abnormality in PMD and affect myelin formation. 38 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. An overview on various approaches to Gastroretentive dosage forms

    Sarojini, S.; R. Manavalanb

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four decades, gastro retentive dosage forms have recently become a leading methodology in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled release drug delivery system.. Gastroretentive dosage forms have the potential to improve local therapy with an increase of short gastric residence time and unpredictable gastric emptying time and decrease the variation in bioavailability which is unobserved, in other commercially available preparations. With the advent to current sc...

  5. Abnormal X : autosome ratio, but normal X chromosome inactivation in human triploid cultures

    Norwood Thomas H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X chromosome inactivation (XCI is that aspect of mammalian dosage compensation that brings about equivalence of X-linked gene expression between females and males by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes (Xi in normal female cells, leaving them with a single active X (Xa as in male cells. In cells with more than two X's, but a diploid autosomal complement, all X's but one, Xa, are inactivated. This phenomenon is commonly thought to suggest 1 that normal development requires a ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set, and 2 that an early event in XCI is the marking of one X to be active, with remaining X's becoming inactivated by default. Results Triploids provide a test of these ideas because the ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set cannot be achieved, yet this abnormal ratio should not necessarily affect the one-Xa choice mechanism for XCI. Previous studies of XCI patterns in murine triploids support the single-Xa model, but human triploids mostly have two-Xa cells, whether they are XXX or XXY. The XCI patterns we observe in fibroblast cultures from different XXX human triploids suggest that the two-Xa pattern of XCI is selected for, and may have resulted from rare segregation errors or Xi reactivation. Conclusion The initial X inactivation pattern in human triploids, therefore, is likely to resemble the pattern that predominates in murine triploids, i.e., a single Xa, with the remaining X's inactive. Furthermore, our studies of XIST RNA accumulation and promoter methylation suggest that the basic features of XCI are normal in triploids despite the abnormal X:autosome ratio.

  6. Evaluation of ETV6/RUNX1 Fusion and Additional Abnormalities Involving ETV6 and/or RUNX1 Genes Using FISH Technique in Patients with Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Aydin, Cigdem; Cetin, Zafer; Manguoglu, Ayse Esra; Tayfun, Funda; Clark, Ozden Altiok; Kupesiz, Alphan; Akkaya, Bahar; Karauzum, Sibel Berker

    2016-06-01

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood leukemia. Specifically, ALL is a malignant disorder of the lymphoid progenitor cells, with a peak incidence among children aged 2-5 years. The t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation occurs in 25 % of childhood B cell precursor ALL. In this study, bone marrow samples were obtained from 165 patients with childhood ALL. We analyzed the t(12;21) translocation and other related abnormalities using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with the ETV6(TEL)/RUNX1(AML1) ES dual color translocation probe. Conventional cytogenetic analyses were also performed. ETV6 and RUNX1 related chromosomal abnormalities were found in 42 (25.5 %) of the 165 patients with childhood ALL. Among these 42 patients, structural changes were detected in 33 (78.6 %) and numerical abnormalities in 9 (21.4 %). The frequency of FISH abnormalities in pediatric ALL cases were as follows: 8.5 % for t(12;21)(p13;q22) ETV6/RUNX1 fusion, 6.0 % for RUNX1 amplification, 3.0 % for tetrasomy/trisomy 21, 1.8 % for ETV6 deletion, 1.21 % for ETV6 deletion with RUNX1 amplification, 1.21 % for ETV6 amplification with RUNX1 amplification, 0.6 % for polyploidy, 0.6 % for RUNX1 deletion, and 0.6 % for diminished ETV6 signal. The most common structural abnormality was the t(12;21) translocation, followed by RUNX1 amplification and ETV6 deletion, while the most commonly observed numerical abnormality was trisomy 21. PMID:27065576

  7. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

  8. Epigenetic modifications on X chromosomes in marsupial and monotreme mammals and implications for evolution of dosage compensation.

    Rens, Willem; Wallduck, Margaret S; Lovell, Frances L; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C

    2010-10-12

    X chromosome dosage compensation in female eutherian mammals is regulated by the noncoding Xist RNA and is associated with the differential acquisition of active and repressive histone modifications, resulting in repression of most genes on one of the two X chromosome homologs. Marsupial mammals exhibit dosage compensation; however, they lack Xist, and the mechanisms conferring epigenetic control of X chromosome dosage compensation remain elusive. Oviparous mammals, the monotremes, have multiple X chromosomes, and it is not clear whether they undergo dosage compensation and whether there is epigenetic dimorphism between homologous pairs in female monotremes. Here, using antibodies against DNA methylation, eight different histone modifications, and HP1, we conduct immunofluorescence on somatic cells of the female Australian marsupial possum Trichosurus vulpecula, the female platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and control mouse cells. The two marsupial X's were different for all epigenetic features tested. In particular, unlike in the mouse, both repressive modifications, H3K9me3 and H4K20Me3, are enriched on one of the X chromosomes, and this is associated with the presence of HP1 and hypomethylation of DNA. Using sequential labeling, we determine that this DNA hypomethylated X correlates with histone marks of inactivity. These results suggest that female marsupials use a repressive histone-mediated inactivation mechanism and that this may represent an ancestral dosage compensation process that differs from eutherians that require Xist transcription and DNA methylation. In comparison to the marsupial, the monotreme exhibited no epigenetic differences between homologous X chromosomes, suggesting the absence of a dosage compensation process comparable to that in therians. PMID:20861449

  9. Expression reduction in mammalian X chromosome evolution refutes Ohno’s hypothesis of dosage compensation

    Lin, Fangqin; Xing, Ke; Zhang, Jianzhi; He, Xionglei

    2012-01-01

    Susumu Ohno proposed in 1967 that, during the origin of mammalian sex chromosomes from a pair of autosomes, per-allele expression levels of X-linked genes were doubled to compensate for the degeneration of their Y homologs. This conjecture forms the foundation of the current evolutionary model of sex chromosome dosage compensation, but has been tested in mammals only indirectly via a comparison of expression levels between X-linked and autosomal genes in the same genome. The test results have been controversial, because examinations of different gene sets led to different conclusions that either support or refute Ohno’s hypothesis. Here we resolve this uncertainty by directly comparing mammalian X-linked genes with their one-to-one orthologs in species that diverged before the origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes. Analyses of RNA sequencing data and proteomic data provide unambiguous evidence for expression halving (i.e., no change in per-allele expression level) of X-linked genes during evolution, with the exception of only ∼5% of genes that encode members of large protein complexes. We conclude that Ohno’s hypothesis is rejected for the vast majority of genes, reopening the search for the evolutionary force driving the origin of chromosome-wide X inactivation in female mammals. PMID:22753487

  10. Expression reduction in mammalian X chromosome evolution refutes Ohno's hypothesis of dosage compensation.

    Lin, Fangqin; Xing, Ke; Zhang, Jianzhi; He, Xionglei

    2012-07-17

    Susumu Ohno proposed in 1967 that, during the origin of mammalian sex chromosomes from a pair of autosomes, per-allele expression levels of X-linked genes were doubled to compensate for the degeneration of their Y homologs. This conjecture forms the foundation of the current evolutionary model of sex chromosome dosage compensation, but has been tested in mammals only indirectly via a comparison of expression levels between X-linked and autosomal genes in the same genome. The test results have been controversial, because examinations of different gene sets led to different conclusions that either support or refute Ohno's hypothesis. Here we resolve this uncertainty by directly comparing mammalian X-linked genes with their one-to-one orthologs in species that diverged before the origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes. Analyses of RNA sequencing data and proteomic data provide unambiguous evidence for expression halving (i.e., no change in per-allele expression level) of X-linked genes during evolution, with the exception of only ∼5% of genes that encode members of large protein complexes. We conclude that Ohno's hypothesis is rejected for the vast majority of genes, reopening the search for the evolutionary force driving the origin of chromosome-wide X inactivation in female mammals. PMID:22753487

  11. Curve Fitting And Interpolation Model Applied In Nonel Dosage Detection

    Jiuling Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Fitting and Interpolation Model are applied in Nonel dosage detection in this paper firstly, and the gray of continuous explosive in the Nonel has been forecasted. Although the traditional infrared equipment establishes the relationship of explosive dosage and light intensity, but the forecast accuracy is very low. Therefore, gray prediction models based on curve fitting and interpolation are framed separately, and the deviations from the different models are compared. Simultaneously, combining on the sample library features, the cubic polynomial fitting curve of the higher precision is used to predict grays, and 5mg-28mg Nonel gray values are calculated by MATLAB. Through the predictive values, the dosage detection operations are simplified, and the defect missing rate of the Nonel are reduced. Finally, the quality of Nonel is improved.

  12. Gene

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  13. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF GEMFIBROZIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    Parikh Vikas C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and accurate UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Gemfibrozil in bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosage formulation. This method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 30-90 µg/ml. with correlation coefficient of 0.9993 and exhibiting maximum absorption at 276 nm with apparent molar absorptivity of 0.1703 × 104 L mole-1 cm-1. The method is accurate and precise and is extended to pharmaceutical tablet dosage forms and there was no interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and excipients. The results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  14. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF GEMFIBROZIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    Parikh Vikas C.; Karkhanis V.V

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Gemfibrozil in bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosage formulation. This method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 30-90 µg/ml. with correlation coefficient of 0.9993 and exhibiting maximum absorption at 276 nm with apparent molar absorptivity of 0.1703 × 104 L mole-1 cm-1. The method is accurate and precise and is extended to pharmaceutical tablet dosage forms and there was no ...

  15. Visible spectrophotometric determination of valdecoxib in tablet dosage forms

    Suganthi A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate, rapid, and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of valdecoxib in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is based on the reaction of valdecoxib with potassium permanganate to form a bluish green coloured chromogen with an absorption maximum at 610 nm. Beer′s law was obeyed in the range of 5-25 mg/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the bulk drug and its dosage forms

  16. Estimation of drug dosage regimens with a pharmacokinetic slide rule.

    Straughn, A B; Cruze, C A; Meyer, M C

    1977-02-01

    A pharmacokinetic slide rule to facilitate the computations based on relatively simple pharmacokinetic principles involved in the development of individualized drug dosage regimens is described. The calculations are based on the assumption that the body can be conceived as a one-compartment open model with drug elimination proceeding by apparent first-order kinetics. Examples are presented (1) to illustrate the clinical application of a slide rule to compute the time-course of drug in the body, (2) to calculate steady-state maximum and minimum levels, and accumulation during multiple dosage and (3) to estimate appropriate maintenance doses and intravenous infusion rates. PMID:842548

  17. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  18. Genetic abnormalities associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Yokota, Takafumi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2016-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurs with high frequency in childhood and is associated with high mortality in adults. Recent technical advances in next-generation sequencing have shed light on genetic abnormalities in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as the precursor to ALL pathogenesis. Based on these genetic abnormalities, ALL is now being reclassified into newly identified subtypes. Philadelphia chromosome-like B-lineage ALL is one of the new high-risk subtypes characterized by genetic alterations that activate various signaling pathways, including those involving cytokine receptors, tyrosine kinases, and epigenetic modifiers. Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL is essentially heterogeneous; however, deletion mutations in the IKZF1 gene encoding the transcription factor IKAROS underlie many cases as a key factor inducing aggressive phenotypes and poor treatment responses. Whole-genome sequencing studies of ALL patients and ethnically matched controls also identified inherited genetic variations in lymphoid neoplasm-related genes, which are likely to increase ALL susceptibility. These findings are directly relevant to clinical hematology, and further studies on this aspect could contribute to accurate diagnosis, effective monitoring of residual disease, and patient-oriented therapies. PMID:26991355

  19. Solid dosage forms comprising aliskiren and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof

    Škrabanja, Vida; Zajc, Natalija; Gojak, Urška; Vrečer, Franc

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical formulation comprising aliskiren or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as the active ingredient, wherein the pharmaceutical formulation is present in a solid dosage form suitable for oral administration based on a granulate obtained by a hot-melt and solvent-free granulation process, and to a process for manufacturing a pharmaceutical formulation.

  20. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: prednisolone.

    Vogt, M; Derendorf, H; Krämer, J; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2007-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing prednisolone are reviewed. Data on its solubility, oral absorption, and permeability are not totally conclusive, but strongl

  1. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: cimetidine.

    Jantratid, E; Prakongpan, S; Dressman, J B; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Barends, D M

    2006-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing cimetidine are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), cimetidine would be assigned

  2. Quality of 'Climax' blueberries after low dosage electron beam irradiation

    Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries

  3. Selective laser trabeculoplasty: Does energy dosage predict response?

    Larissa Habib

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Within the range of total energy examined, there is a positive correlation between total energy used and amount of pressure reduction achieved at up to 3 years of follow-up. This may be useful in determining the optimal energy dosage for maximum effect for patients receiving SLT.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1448 - Monensin oral dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monensin oral dosage forms. 520.1448 Section 520.1448 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... starting line). The loss on drying is not more than 10 percent when dried in vacuum at 60 °C for 2 hours....

  5. 76 FR 18648 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib

    2011-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal...

  6. 75 FR 67031 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone

    2010-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the original approval of a new...

  7. 76 FR 78149 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol

    2011-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal...

  8. 77 FR 3927 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib

    2012-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal...

  9. 76 FR 59023 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new...

  10. 77 FR 15960 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide

    2012-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal...

  11. 76 FR 40808 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium

    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new...

  12. 3D nanochannel electroporation for high-throughput cell transfection with high uniformity and dosage control

    Chang, Lingqian; Bertani, Paul; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Chen, Feng; Chiang, Chiling; Malkoc, Veysi; Kuang, Tairong; Gao, Keliang; Lee, L. James; Lu, Wu

    2015-12-01

    Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a ``3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip'' on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40 000 cells per cm2 on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk electroporation (BEP), the NEP chip shows a 20 fold improvement in dosage control and uniformity, while still maintaining high cell viability (>90%) even in cells such as cardiac cells which are characteristically difficult to transfect. This high-throughput 3D NEP system provides an innovative and medically valuable platform with uniform and reliable cellular transfection, allowing for a steady supply of healthy, engineered cells.Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a ``3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip'' on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40 000 cells per cm2 on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk

  13. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  14. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Prasanna Byna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: AUB is a common but complicated clinical presentation and occurs in 15-20% of women between menarche to menopause and significantly affects the women's health. Women with thyroid dysfunction often have menstrual irregularities, infertility and increased morbidity during pregnancy. The objective of present study is to find the correlation between thyroid disorders and AUB in perimenopausal women attending gynecology OPD. Methods: In the present study, fifty five patients with AUB were included and were evaluated for the cause including thyroid abnormality. Thyroid function tests were done in all patients. Results: Among 55 patients, 12 patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism and 7 as hyperthyroidism, women with AUB 36 (65.4% were euthyroid. Among 19 women with thyroid abnormality, heavy menstrual bleeding was seen in 8 (42% women, 6 (31.57% had polymenorrhagia, 5 (26.31% had oligomenorrhoea. The frequent menstrual abnormality in women with hypothyroidism (12 women was heavy menstrual bleeding in 5 (41.6% women, 3 (25% had oligomennorhoea, 4 (33.3% had polymenorrhagia. Out of 7 women with hyperthyroidism, 2 (28.57% had oligomenorrhoea, 3 (42.8% had heavy menstrual bleeding, 2 (28.57% had polymenorrhagia. In a total of 55 patients with AUB, 11 (20% had structural abnormalities in uterus and ovaries. 5 (9% had adenomyosis, 3 (5.4% had ovarian cysts, 3 (5.4% had fibroids. Conclusions: It is important to screen all women for thyroid abnormality who are presenting with AUB especially with non-structural causes of AUB. Correction of thyroid abnormalities also relieves AUB. This will avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3250-3253

  15. Condensin-driven remodelling of X chromosome topology during dosage compensation

    Crane, Emily; Bian, Qian; McCord, Rachel Patton; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Wheeler, Bayly S.; Ralston, Edward J.; Uzawa, Satoru; Dekker, Job; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional organization of a genome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression, yet little is known about the machinery and mechanisms that determine higher-order chromosome structure. Here we perform genome-wide chromosome conformation capture analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and RNA-seq to obtain comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) maps of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome and to dissect X chromosome dosage compensation, which balances gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. The dosage compensation complex (DCC), a condensin complex, binds to both hermaphrodite X chromosomes via sequence-specific recruitment elements on X (rex sites) to reduce chromosome-wide gene expression by half. Most DCC condensin subunits also act in other condensin complexes to control the compaction and resolution of all mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. By comparing chromosome structure in wild-type and DCC-defective embryos, we show that the DCC remodels hermaphrodite X chromosomes into a sex-specific spatial conformation distinct from autosomes. Dosage-compensated X chromosomes consist of self-interacting domains (~1 Mb) resembling mammalian topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs on X chromosomes have stronger boundaries and more regular spacing than on autosomes. Many TAD boundaries on X chromosomes coincide with the highest-affinity rex sites and become diminished or lost in DCC-defective mutants, thereby converting the topology of X to a conformation resembling autosomes. rex sites engage in DCC-dependent long-range interactions, with the most frequent interactions occurring between rex sites at DCC-dependent TAD boundaries. These results imply that the DCC reshapes the topology of X chromosomes by forming new TAD boundaries and reinforcing weak boundaries through interactions between its highest-affinity binding sites. As this model predicts, deletion of an endogenous rex site at a DCC-dependent TAD boundary using

  16. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  17. Cerebral Abnormalities in Adults with Ataxia-Telangiectasia

    Lin, D.D.M.; Barker, P. B.; Lederman, H M; Crawford, T O

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defect of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene, is characterized by progressive neurologic impairment with cerebellar atrophy, ocular and cutaneous telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, heightened sensitivity to ionizing radiation and susceptibility to developing lymphoreticular malignancy. Supratentorial brain abnormalities have been reported only rarely. In this study, brain MRI was performed in 10 adults with ataxia-telangiecta...

  18. Oral abnormalities in the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    Babaji Prashant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ellis-van Creveld (EvC syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, mainly affecting the ectodermal components such as, enamel, nail, and hair. The gene for EvC syndrome is located on chromosome 4p16. Patients with EvC syndrome characteristically presents with congenitally missing teeth, abnormal frenal attachment, microdontia, and hexadactyly.

  19. Weird mammals provide insights into the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes and dosage compensation

    Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

    2015-12-01

    The deep divergence of mammalian groups 166 and 190 million years ago (MYA) provide genetic variation to explore the evolution of DNA sequence, gene arrangement and regulation of gene expression in mammals. With encouragement from the founder of the field, Mary Lyon, techniques in cytogenetics and molecular biology were progressively adapted to characterize the sex chromosomes of kangaroos and other marsupials, platypus and echidna—and weird rodent species. Comparative gene mapping reveals the process of sex chromosome evolution from their inception 190 MYA (they are autosomal in platypus) to their inevitable end (the Y has disappeared in two rodent lineages). Our X and Y are relatively young, getting their start with the evolution of the sex-determining gene, which triggered progressive degradation of the Y chromosome. Even more recently, sex chromosomes of placental mammals fused with an autosomal region which now makes up most of the Y. Exploration of gene activity patterns over four decades showed that dosage compensation via X-chromosome inactivation is unique to therian mammals, and that this whole chromosome control process is different in marsupials and absent in monotremes and reptiles, and birds. These differences can be exploited to deduce how mammalian sex chromosomes and epigenetic silencing evolved.

  20. Weird mammals provide insights into the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2015-12-01

    The deep divergence of mammalian groups 166 and 190 million years ago (MYA) provide genetic variation to explore the evolution of DNA sequence, gene arrangement and regulation of gene expression in mammals. With encouragement from the founder of the field, Mary Lyon, techniques in cytogenetics and molecular biology were progressively adapted to characterize the sex chromosomes of kangaroos and other marsupials, platypus and echidna-and weird rodent species. Comparative gene mapping reveals the process of sex chromosome evolution from their inception 190 MYA (they are autosomal in platypus) to their inevitable end (the Y has disappeared in two rodent lineages). Our X and Y are relatively young, getting their start with the evolution of the sex-determining SRY gene, which triggered progressive degradation of the Y chromosome. Even more recently, sex chromosomes of placental mammals fused with an autosomal region which now makes up most of the Y. Exploration of gene activity patterns over four decades showed that dosage compensation via X-chromosome inactivation is unique to therian mammals, and that this whole chromosome control process is different in marsupials and absent in monotremes and reptiles, and birds. These differences can be exploited to deduce how mammalian sex chromosomes and epigenetic silencing evolved. PMID:26690510

  1. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  2. Knee loading for abnormal gait

    Hutchison, J.; Madsen, D.; Norman, T. L.; -Blaha, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a mathematical model for determining knee loads for abnormal gait. Abnormal gait was defined as a person with varus, i.e. “bowleggedness”, or a person who had an external rotation of the femur (or the inability to internally rotate the femur) which caused an indirect varus in the forward positions of gait. Conditions such as these have been observed clinically to result in increased wear on the medial condyle of total knee replacements. This problem was...

  3. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

    Colin D Meiklejohn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  4. Tissue- and stage-dependent dosage compensation on the Neo-X chromosome in drosophila pseudoobscura

    Nozawa, Masafumi

    2013-12-03

    Sex chromosome dosage compensation (DC) is widely accepted in various organisms. This concept is mostly supported by comparisons of gene expression between chromosomes and between sexes. However, genes on the X chromosome and autosomes are mostly not homologous, and the average gene expression level on these chromosomes may not be the same even under DC, which complicates comparisons between chromosomes. Many genes with sex-biased expression also make comparisons between sexes difficult. To overcome these issues, we investigated DC by comparing the expression of neo-X-linked genes in Drosophila pseudoobscura with those of their autosomal orthologs in other Drosophila species. The ratio of the former to the latter in males would be 1 under DC, whereas it becomes 0.5 without DC. We found that the ratio was ∼0.85 for adult whole bodies, indicating that the DC is incomplete on the neo-X chromosome in adults as a whole. The ratio (∼0.90) was also significantly less than 1 for adult bodies without gonads, whereas it was ∼1.0 for adult heads. These results indicate that DC varies among tissues. Our sliding-window analysis of the ratio also revealed that the upregulation of neo-X-linked genes in males occurred chromosome wide in all tissues analyzed, indicating global upregulation mechanisms. However, we found that gene functions also affected the levels of DC. Furthermore, most of the genes recently moved to the X were already under DC at the larval stage but not at the adult stage. These results suggest that DC in Drosophila species operates in a tissue/stage-dependent manner. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved.

  5. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS VALIDATION OF TABLET DOSAGE FORM: AN OVERVIEW

    Gupta Surbhi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In pharmaceutical organizations, validation is a fundamental segment that supports a company commitment to quality assurance. Validation is a tool of quality assurance which provides confirmation of the quality in equipment systems, manufacturing processes, software and testing methods. Validation assures that products with pre-determined quality characteristics and attributes can be reproduced consistently/reproducibly within the established limits of the manufacturing process operation at the manufacturing site. Validation of the individual steps of the manufacturing processes is called the process validation. Different dosage forms have different validation protocols. Here this article concentrates on the process validation of tablet dosage form, protocol preparation and regulatory basis for process validation in industry. It gives in detail the validation of each step of the manufacturing process of tablets through wet granulation.

  6. An overview on various approaches to Gastroretentive dosage forms

    S. Sarojini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades, gastro retentive dosage forms have recently become a leading methodology in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled release drug delivery system.. Gastroretentive dosage forms have the potential to improve local therapy with an increase of short gastric residence time and unpredictable gastric emptying time and decrease the variation in bioavailability which is unobserved, in other commercially available preparations. With the advent to current scientific and patented literature, this review have covered in detail the recent developments of FDDS including the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, classification, approaches to design single and multiple unit floating systems, formulation aspects and invitro and invivo studies to evaluate the performance.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of nateglinide in bulk and tablet dosage forms

    Jain Suresh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nateglinide (NTG is available as tablet dosage form in 60 mg and 120 mg strength. In the present study, two simple, reproducible and efficient UV spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of this drug in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms have been developed. In method I, methanol-AR was used as solvent, while in method II, Methanol-AR + 10% V/V 3N NaOH was used as reference solvent. In method I, nateglinide shows λmax at 216 nm, which is then shifted to 225.4 nm on increasing the basicity of the reference solvent in method II. The linearity for nateglinide was observed to be statistically in the range of 10-100 μg/ml in method I and 100-1000 μg/ml in method II. Both the methods were validated using ANOVA. The recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed methods.

  8. Spectrophotometric estimation of roxithromycin in tablet dosage forms

    Suhagia B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of roxithromycin in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. In the proposed method, roxithromycin is oxidized with potassium permanganate to liberate formaldehyde, which is determined in situ using acetyl acetone in the presence of ammonium acetate to give a yellow-coloured chromogen with absorption maxima at 412 nm. The method is found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 µg/ml with regression coefficient of 0.9987. No significant difference was found between the proposed method and the reported method when two-tailed t-tests are applied. Various reaction parameters, such as concentration of potassium permanganate and reagent, time required for oxidation and maximum colour intensity, were optimized. The method was validated and can be used successfully to assay roxithromycin in its pharmaceutical dosage form, viz, tablets.

  9. Determination of Azithromycin in pharmaceutical dosage forms by Spectrophotometric method

    Suhagia B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of azithromycin in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. In the proposed method, azithromycin is oxidized with potassium permanganate to liberate formaldehyde, which is determined in situ using acetyl acetone, in the presence of ammonium acetate. A yellow coloured chromogen was obtained, having an absorption maxima at 412 nm. The method is found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 µg/ml, with regression coefficient of 0.9978. Various reaction parameters such as concentration of potassium permanganate and reagent, time required for oxidation, and maximum colour intensity were optimized. The method was validated, and can be used successfully to assay azithromycin in its pharmaceutical dosage forms viz. tablets, capsules, and injections.

  10. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring.

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4-2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 [Formula: see text] for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-[Formula: see text] sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring. PMID:27170865