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  1. Longitudinal study of aortic isthmus Doppler in appropriately grown and small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-04-01

    To establish reference ranges using longitudinal data for aortic isthmus (AoI) Doppler indices in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) fetuses and to document the longitudinal trends in a cohort of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

  2. Abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry in the growth restricted foetus as a predictor for necrotising enterocolitis.

    Bhatt A; Tank P; Barmade K; Damania K

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstetric decision- making for the growth restricted foetus has to take into consideration the benefits and risks of waiting for pulmonary maturity and continued exposure to hostile intra-uterine environment. Necrotising Enterocolitis (NEC) results from continued exposure to hostile environment and is an important cause of poor neonatal outcome. AIMS: To evaluate the predictive value of abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry of the foetal umbilical artery for NEC and neonatal mortality...

  3. Abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry in the growth restricted foetus as a predictor for necrotising enterocolitis.

    Bhatt A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstetric decision- making for the growth restricted foetus has to take into consideration the benefits and risks of waiting for pulmonary maturity and continued exposure to hostile intra-uterine environment. Necrotising Enterocolitis (NEC results from continued exposure to hostile environment and is an important cause of poor neonatal outcome. AIMS: To evaluate the predictive value of abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry of the foetal umbilical artery for NEC and neonatal mortality. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study carried out at a tertiary care centre for obstetric and neonatal care. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Seventy-seven neonates with birth weight less than 2000 gm, born over a period of 18 months were studied. These pregnancies were identified as having growth abnormalities of the foetus. Besides other tests of foetal well-being, they were also subjected to Doppler flow velocimetry of the foeto-placental vasculature. Obstetric outcome was evaluated with reference to period of gestation and route of delivery. The neonatal outcome was reviewed with reference to birth weight, Apgar scores and evidence of NEC. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi square test. RESULTS: In the group of patients with Absent or Reverse End Diastolic Frequencies (A/R EDF in the umbilical arteries, positive predictive value for NEC was 52.6%, (RR 30.2; OR 264. The mortality from NEC was 50%. When umbilical artery velocimetry did not show A/REDF, there were no cases of NEC or mortality. Abnormal umbilical or uterine artery flow increased the rate of caesarean section to 62.5% as compared to 17.6% in cases where umbilical artery flow was normal. CONCLUSION: In antenatally identified pregnancies at risk for foetal growth restriction, abnormal Doppler velocimetry in the form of A/REDF in the umbilical arteries is a useful guide to predict NEC and mortality in the early neonatal period.

  4. Abnormal uterine bleeding due to vascular abnormality caused by D and E : doppler sonography for diagnosis and transcatheter arterial embolization for treatment

    We attempted to evaluate the usefulness of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of uterine vascular abnormality caused by previous D and E, and to report that transarterial embolization is an excellent treatment modality. We analyzed gray-scale US, color/duplex Doppler US and angiographic findings in seven patients with radiologically proven uterine vascular abnormality. Two of the seven cases were pseudoaneurysms and five of the seven cases were AVMs. n one of the AVMS, two small pseudoaneurysms were combined. In all cases, transarterial embolizations using 3 mm coil or/and gelfoam particles were performed. Follow-up US studies, including color Doppler US, were performed. on color/duplex Doppler sonography, two cases of pseudoaneurysm showed blood pools with turbulent arterial flow, and five cases of AVM showed asymmetrically increased cascularity, with vailable high velocities composed of the pulsatile arterial flow, with a high diastolic component. on angiography, the former showed pseudoaneruysmal sacs, and the latter densely opacified vascular tangles. No more abnormal uterine bleeding was shown following transarterial embolization in all cases. Color/duplex Doppler sonography was valuable in the diagnosis or treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding caused by uterine vascular abnormality such as acquired AVM or pseudoaneruysm

  5. Increased Fetal Plasma Erythropoietin in Monochorionic Twin Pregnancies With Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Abnormal Umbilical Artery Doppler.

    Chang, Yao-Lung; Chao, An-Shine; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Cheng, Po-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia is the primary stimulus for the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in both fetal and adult life. Here, we investigated fetal plasma EPO concentrations in monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. We diagnosed sIUGR in presence of (1) birth-weight discordance >20% and (2) either twin with a birth weight <10th percentile. An abnormal UA Doppler was defined as a persistent absent-reverse end diastolic flow (AREDF). The intertwin EPO ratio was calculated as the plasma EPO level of the smaller (or small-for-gestational-age) twin divided by the EPO concentration of the larger (or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA)) twin. Thirty-two MC twin pairs were included. Of these, 17 pairs were normal twins (Group 1), seven pairs were twins with sIUGR without UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 2), and eight pairs were twins with sIUGR and UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 3). The highest EPO ratio was identified in Group 3 (p < .001) but no significant differences were observed between Groups 1 and 2. Fetal hemoglobin levels did not differ significantly in the three groups, and fetal EPO concentration did not correlate with gestational age at birth. We conclude that fetal plasma EPO concentrations are selectively increased in MC twin pregnancies with sIUGR and abnormal UA Doppler, possibly as a result of uncompensated hypoxia. PMID:27161360

  6. Is colour Doppler sonography a good method to differentiate normal and abnormal appendices in children?

    Aim: To determine whether colour Doppler sonograms can be used to differentiate between the normal appendix and acute appendicitis. Material and methods: This prospective study examined 50 consecutive children with suspected appendicitis using grey-scale and colour Doppler US. Appendicitis was diagnosed when the appendix diameter was greater than 6 mm. Blood flow on the appendiceal wall was measured and classified as non-existent (0 pixels), low (1-2), moderate (3-4) or abundant (>4). Likelihood ratios were calculated for each of these levels. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis was confirmed by pathological findings, and ruled out by clinical follow-up or pathological findings. Results: Of the 50 patients examined, 24 had appendicitis and 26 had a normal appendix. For 25 of the patients with a normal appendix, appendicitis was ruled out by clinical follow-up, and for one patient, by pathological findings. The abnormal appendix was identified in all patients with appendicitis. In the group of 26 patients without appendicitis, the normal appendix was visualized in 23 cases, one of which was false positive (100% sensitivity, 96% specificity). Abnormal appendices showed moderate to abundant flow in 62% of the cases and non-existent or low flow in 38%. Normal appendices had non-existent or low flow in 82% of the cases, but moderate or abundant in 18%. Significant differences were only found when the number of pixels was >4. Conclusion: Although the vascularity of normal and inflamed appendices may be different, this difference was not a good diagnostic indicator of appendicitis

  7. Corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy: evaluation and analysis with transvaginal color and pulsed doppler sonography

    Objective: Detecting and assessment the corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Methods: Using transvaginal color and pulse Doppler sonography, we detected 215 pregnant women including 150 normal intrauterine pregnancies, 25 abortion, 29 ectopic pregnancies, and then recorded corpus luteum blood flow feature and the blood flow indexes (Vmax, RI and PI). Results: 1) Corpus luteum was successfully identified in 148 cases out of 150 of normal early pregnancies, 25 cases out of 26 of threatened abortion; 22 cases out of 29 of ectopic pregnancy. 2) Three groups shared the same feature of Color Doppler imaging: a circumferential rim around the entire corpus luteum. 3) The flow index revealed mean PVS, RI and PI had no statistical difference in normal and abnormal early pregnancy; The mean PVS was lower in ectopic pregnancy than in normal pregnancy (P<0.05), while PI and PR had no characteristic in ectopic pregnancy group compared with the indexes obtained in normal pregnancy group. Conclusion: The corpus luteum can be precisely identified in most pregnancy using transvaginal color Doppler and manifests a characterized rim Doppler imaging. PVS may help in differentiating the ectopic pregnancy from normal early pregnancy. (authors)

  8. Incidental Thyroid Abnormalities on Carotid Color Doppler Ultrasound: Frequency and Clinical Significance

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad; Seyed Rasoul Zakavi; Parvin Layegh; Alireza Khooei; Aria Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are often incidentally detected during physical examination, Doppler ultrasound of carotid artery, and other imaging modalities and there are many controversies about the management of these incidentalomas. We focused on incidental thyroid lesions during carotid ultrasound and evaluated their importance and suspected malignant features. Patients and methods: The thyroid gland was evaluated for any nodule(s) following carotid Doppler ultrasound in 290 patients. If there was ...

  9. Long-term treatment follow-up of children with sickle cell disease monitored with abnormal transcranial Doppler velocities.

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Hau, Isabelle; Leveillé, Emmanuella; Vasile, Manuela; Kasbi, Florence; Madhi, Fouad; Fourmaux, Christine; Biscardi, Sandra; Gluckman, Eliane; Socié, Gérard; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Epaud, Ralph; Pondarré, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    Stroke risk in sickle cell anemia (SCA), predicted by high transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocities, is prevented by transfusions. We present the long-term follow-up of SCA children from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2012) detected at risk by TCD and placed on chronic transfusions. Patients with normalized velocities and no stenosis were treated with hydroxyurea, known to decrease anemia and hemolytic rate. Trimestrial Doppler was performed and transfusions restarted immediately in the case of reversion to abnormal velocities. Patients with a genoidentical donor underwent transplant. Abnormal time-averaged maximum mean velocities (TAMMV) ≥200 cm/s were detected in 92 SCA children at a mean age of 3.7 years (range, 1.3-8.3 years). No stroke occurred posttransfusion after a mean follow-up of 6.1 years. Normalization of velocities (TAMMV < 170 cm/s) was observed in 83.5% of patients. Stenosis, present in 27.5% of patients, was associated with the risk of non-normalization (P< .001). Switch from transfusions to hydroxyurea was prescribed for 45 patients, with a mean follow-up of 3.4 years. Reversion, predicted by baseline reticulocyte count ≥400 × 10(9)/L (P< .001), occurred in 28.9% (13/45) patients at the mean age of 7.1 years (range, 4.3-9.5 years). Transplant, performed in 24 patients, allowed transfusions to be safely stopped in all patients and velocities to be normalized in 4 patients who still had abnormal velocities on transfusions. This long-term cohort study shows that transfusions can be stopped not only in transplanted patients but also in a subset of patients switched to hydroxyurea, provided trimestrial Doppler follow-up and immediate restart of transfusions in the case of reversion. PMID:26851292

  10. Enteric glial cells and their role in gastrointestinal motor abnormalities: Introducing the neuro-gliopathies

    Gabrio Bassotti; Vincenzo Villanacci; Simona Fisogni; Elisa Rossi; Paola Baronio; Carlo Clerici; Christoph A Maurer; Gieri Cathomas; Elisabetta Antonelli

    2007-01-01

    The role of enteric glial cells has somewhat changed from that of mere mechanical support elements, gluing together the various components of the enteric nervous system, to that of active participants in the complex interrelationships of the gut motor and inflammatory events. Due to their multiple functions, spanning from supporting elements in the myenteric plexuses to neurotransmitters, to neuronal homeostasis, to antigen presenting cells, this cell population has probably more intriguing abilities than previously thought. Recently,some evidence has been accumulating that shows how these cells may be involved in the pathophysiological aspects of some diseases. This review will deal with the properties of the enteric glial cells more strictly related to gastrointestinal motor function and the human pathological conditions in which these cells may play a role, suggesting the possibility of enteric neurogliopathies.

  11. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler in third trimester and perinatal outcome: a retrospective study

    Shiny Varghese

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Umbilical artery Doppler helps in the prediction of possible maternal and foetal complications in cases of compromised placental flow. Monitoring of antenatal parameters, availability of emergency facility for early surgical intervention and neonatal care pave a long way in curtailing perinatal morbidity and mortality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2196-2199

  12. A study of role of colour Doppler in evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding at medicine and gynecology departments at a tertiary care institute of central India

    Somen Bhattacharjee; Yogendra Jamra; Shiv Shankar Sharma; Neetu Dongre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) at any age in women's life is disruptive and worrisome. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of color Doppler transvaginal ultrasonography (CDTU) in detection of intrauterine pathology in those patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: The present study was conducted on 50 patients of AUB selected from Gynecology and Medicine OPD of M.G.M. Medical College and M.Y. and associated group of hospitals, Indore during the ...

  13. Alterations to enteric neural signaling underlie secretory abnormalities of the ileum in experimental colitis in the guinea pig.

    Hons, Ian M; Burda, Joshua E; Grider, John R; Mawe, Gary M; Sharkey, Keith A

    2009-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) can involve widespread gastrointestinal dysfunction, even in cases in which inflammation is localized to a single site. The underlying pathophysiology of dysfunction in noninflamed regions is unclear. We examined whether colitis is associated with altered electrogenic ion transport in the ileal mucosa and/or changes in the properties of ileal submucosal neurons. Colitis was induced by administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the uninflamed ileum from animals was examined 3, 7, and 28 days later. Electrogenic ion transport was assessed in Ussing chambers. Intracellular microelectrode recordings were used to examine the neurophysiology of the submucosal plexus of the ileum in animals with colitis. Noncholinergic secretion was reduced by 33% in the ileum from animals 7 days after the induction of colitis. The epithelial response to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was unaltered in animals with colitis, but the response to carbachol was enhanced. Slow excitatory synaptic transmission was dramatically reduced in VIP-expressing, noncholinergic secretomotor neurons. This change was detected as early as 3 days following TNBS treatment. No changes to fast synaptic transmission or the number of VIP neurons were observed. In addition, cholinergic secretomotor neurons fired more action potentials during a given stimulus, and intrinsic primary afferent neurons had broader action potentials in animals with colitis. These findings implicate changes to enteric neural circuits as contributing factors in inflammation-induced secretory dysfunction at sites proximal to a localized inflammatory insult. PMID:19221017

  14. Eosinofil enteritis

    Gjersøe, P; Rasmussen, S N; Hansen, B F

    2000-01-01

    examination revealed the diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis primarily localized to the tunica muscularis. One year postoperatively he relapsed and small bowel X-ray demonstrated 1 m narrow and irregular ileum. He was treated with mesalamine, azathioprine, and cromoglicate, went into remission and fares well...

  15. Enteric viruses

    Characteristic clinical signs associated with viral enteritis in young poultry include diarrhea, anorexia, litter eating, ruffled feathers, and poor growth. Intestines may have lesions; intestines are typically dilated and are filled with fluid and gaseous contents. The sequela to clinical disease...

  16. Doppler tracking

    Thomas, Christopher Jacob

    This study addresses the development of a methodology using the Doppler Effect for high-resolution, short-range tracking of small projectiles and vehicles. Minimal impact on the design of the moving object is achieved by incorporating only a transmitter in it and using ground stations for all other components. This is particularly useful for tracking objects such as sports balls that have configurations and materials that are not conducive to housing onboard instrumentation. The methodology developed here uses four or more receivers to monitor a constant frequency signal emitted by the object. Efficient and accurate schemes for filtering the raw signals, determining the instantaneous frequencies, time synching the frequencies from each receiver, smoothing the synced frequencies, determining the relative velocity and radius of the object and solving the nonlinear system of equations for object position in three dimensions as a function of time are developed and described here.

  17. Ultrasonography of splenic abnormalities

    Ming-Jen Chen; Ming-Jer Huang; Wen-Hsiung Chang; Tsang-En Wang; Horng-Yuan Wang; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This report gives a comprehensive overview of ultrasonography of splenic abnormalities. Certain ultrasonic features are also discussed with pathologic correlation.METHODS: We review the typical ultrasonic characteristics of a wide range of splenic lesions, illustrating them with images obtained in our institution from 2000 to 2003.One hundred and three patients (47 men, 56 women),with a mean age of 54 years (range 9-92 years), were found to have an abnormal ultrasonic pattern of spleen.RESULTS: We describe the ultrasonic features of various splenic lesions such as accessory spleen, splenomegaly,cysts, cavernous hemangiomas, lymphomas, abscesses,metastatic tumors, splenic infarctions, hematomas, and rupture, based on traditional gray-scale and color Doppler sonography.CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is a widely available, noninvasive,and useful means of diagnosing splenic abnormalities. A combination of ultrasonic characteristics and clinical data may provide an accurate diagnosis. If the US appearance alone is not enough, US may also be used to guide biopsy of suspicious lesions.

  18. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  19. Congenital Abnormalities

    ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase the risk that a baby will be born with abnormalities (e.g. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders ). Eating raw or uncooked foods during pregnancy can also be dangerous to health of the ...

  20. Clinical Doppler ultrasound

    The authors begin with the basics: how Doppler signals are formed, reflected, and refracted - and how those facts apply to clinical practice; anatomy (blood and blood flow), the Doppler equation (explained from a radiologic, rather than a mathematical, perspective); and approaches to Doppler signal production. The available methods of signal processing - including audio, multifilter analysis, zero-crossing detection, autocorrelation, and the Fast Fourier Transform, as well as more sophisticated techniques of duplex and color flow imaging - are covered with an eye to helping the ultrasonographer obtain the most reliable and artifact-free information from every Doppler reading

  1. Doppler Findings in Intrapartum Fetal Distress

    Khatereh Tooba; Laleh Eslamian

    2011-01-01

    The umbilical vein (UV) has a non pulsating and even pattern in normal fetuses. Pulsation of UV has been described in severely growth restricted fetuses with chronic hypoxia. We wanted to see whether UV pulsations could also be seen in fetuses with heart deceleration during labor, as an adjunctive measure to assess the intra partum hypoxia. In a prospective study Doppler examination was performed on 34 fetuses with normal cardiotocography (CGT) and 26 fetuses with abnormal CTGs (GA>37w and ce...

  2. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    Lading, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the...

  3. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... weaknesses, perhaps the greatest being that in conventional systems, the velocities measured and thus displayed are the components of the flow velocity directly towards or away from the transducer, while ideally the method would give information about the magnitude and direction of the three-dimensional flow...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  4. Cosmology with Doppler Lensing

    Bacon, David; Andrianomena, Sambatra; Clarkson, Chris; Bolejko, C.; Maartens, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Doppler lensing is the apparent change in object size and magnitude due to peculiar velocities. Objects falling into an overdensity appear larger on its near side, and smaller on its far side, than typical objects at the same redshifts. This effect dominates over the usual gravitational lensing magnification at low redshift. Doppler lensing is a promising new probe of cosmology, and we explore in detail how to utilize the effect with forthcoming surveys. We present cosmological simulations of...

  5. Rotational Doppler Effect

    Halder, Amit

    2002-01-01

    A monochromatic linear source of light is rotated with certain angular frequency and when such light is analysed after reflection then a change of frequency or wavelength may be observed depending on the location of the observer. This change of frequency or wavelength is different from the classical Doppler effect [1] or relativistic Doppler effect [2]. The reason behind this shift in wavelength is that a certain time interval observed by an observer in the rotating frame is different from th...

  6. Role of Doppler Velocimetry in growth restricted fetuses

    Dr. Khushali Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR is an important and particularly challenging problem for obstetricians and pediatricians. IUGR is a leading contributor in perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 23.8% newborns around the world and 75% are born in Asia alone. In India the incidence of low birth weight varies from 15 to 25% and more than 50% of them are IUGR. Methods The present article consists of a study of 100 cases of intrauterine growth restriction with periodic color Doppler during the period of 1st July 2011 to 30 th August, 2013 in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a tertiary care center. Detail history taken. General and obstetrical examination was done along with routine hematological and urine investigations. Ultrasound examination was done for growth, liquor and placental localization. Fetal well- being was assessed with Doppler studies and daily fetal movement count. Results In present study moderate to severe pregnancy induced hypertension (53.9% and lack of proper weight gain (23% are found to be the commonest causes of IUGR. Out of 69 IUGR cases having abnormal Doppler, about 63.8% had abnormality in uterine artery flow, 85.5% had abnormality in umbilical artery flow, 88.4% had abnormality in middle cerebral artery flow, 55% had abnormality in uterine and umbilical artery and 75.4% had abnormality in umbilical artery and MCA. Incidence of fetal demise (13% was higher in patients with abnormal Doppler flow compared to normal flow (3.2%. Surgical intervention in form of caesarean was required in 69.6% of patients with abnormal Doppler flow. Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR 1 where fetal demise is 2.6%. Incidence of AEDF/REDF ( Absent End Diastolic flow/Reversed End diastolic flow in IUGR was 8% that resulted in 50% loss of fetus. Conclusions Color Doppler is a useful mode to predict fetal outcome in IUGR. Color Doppler allows better understandings of hemodynamic changes in feto- placental and utero

  7. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    ... a Clinician Press Room Career Center Advertising and Sponsorship Join / Renew Donate Online Store Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Enteral Nutrition ...

  8. Ultrasonic Doppler Modes

    Tortoli, Piero; Fidanzati, Paolo; Luca, Bassi

    Any US equipment includes Doppler facilities capable of providing information about moving structures inside the human body. In most cases, the primary interest is in the investigation of blood flow dynamics, since this may be helpful for early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is also an increasing interest in tracking the movements of human tissues, since such movements can give an indirect evaluation of their elastic properties, which are valuable indicators of the possible presence of pathologies. This paper aims at presenting an overview of the different ways in which the Doppler technique has been developed and used in medical ultrasound (US), from early continuous wave (CW) systems to advanced pulsed wave (PW) colour-Doppler equipment. In particular, the most important technical features and clinical applications of CW, single-gate PW, multi-gate PW and flow-imaging systems are reviewed. The main signal processing approaches used for detection of Doppler frequencies are described, including time-domain and frequency-domain (spectral) methods, as well as novel strategies like, e.g., harmonic Doppler mode, which have been recently introduced to exploit the benefits of US contrast agents.

  9. Doppler cooling a microsphere

    Barker, P F

    2010-01-01

    Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

  10. Doppler-suuntima-algoritmi

    Rekis, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Doppler-ilmiö aiheuttaa havaitsijan ja signaalilähteen välisen suhteellisen liikkeen seurauksena taajuusvääristymää lähteen alkuperäisestä signaalista. Tämä mm. doppler-siirtymäksi kutsuttu vääristymä voidaan havaita signaalilähteen taajuudessa, aallonpituudessa ja vaiheessa. Doppler-siirtymän suuruuteen ja suuntaan vaikuttaa se, kasvaako vai pieneneekö havaitsijan ja lähteen välinen etäisyys sekä niiden välinen suhteellinen nopeus. Tätä ilmiötä voidaan hyödyntää mm. radiolähettimen paikantam...

  11. Pulse Doppler radar

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  12. Doppler ion program description

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities

  13. Doppler Cooling a Microsphere

    Barker, P F

    2010-01-01

    Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The...

  14. Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar

    Bringi, V. N.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2001-10-01

    This work provides a detailed introduction to the principles of Doppler and polarimetric radar, focusing in particular on their use in the analysis of weather systems. The authors first discuss underlying topics such as electromagnetic scattering, polarization, and wave propagation. They then detail the engineering aspects of pulsed Doppler polarimetric radar, before examining key applications in meteorology and remote sensing. The book is aimed at graduate students of electrical engineering and atmospheric science as well as practitioners involved in the applications of polarimetric radar.

  15. Doppler blood flow indicator

    Byrtus, David

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor´s thesis deals with basis of ultra-acoustics. The project presents basic information about Doppler effect. It describes the methods of processing and analyzing of velocity and direction of blood at doppler’s systems with modulated and unmodulated carrier wave. The project presents the system design of non-directional doppler indicator with unmodulated carrier wave for 8 MHz frequency, generating intensity of ultrasound 100 mW/cm2 and diameter D-shaped transmitting transducer 8 m...

  16. Doppler-musical instrument

    We propose a possible ultra-high energy resolution backscattering spectrometer optimized to spallation neutron source. A combination of multi monochromator crystal and Doppler drive provides considerable neutron flux, together with the reasonable energy range -30 < E < 30 μeV, even when the ultra-high energy resolution of ΔE∼0.03 μeV is attained. (author)

  17. 长春西汀联合益气聪明汤治疗TCD异常突发性聋的疗效观察%Analysis on the effectiveness of vinpocetine combined with Qi-Replenishing Sharp and Bright Decoction in treating sudden deafness with abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD)

    陈玉卿; 孙宣东; 邹嘉平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of vinpocetine combined with Qi-Replenishing Sharp and Bright Decoction in treating sudden deafness with abnormal transcranial Doppler(TCD).Methods 100 cases of sudden deafness were randomly selected and divided into two groups.Both groups were given the treatment of adenosin e disodiun,hormones,hyperbaric oxygen,B group vitamins and other treatment.One group received intravenous drop of vinpocetine (control group) and the other received vinpocetine combined with Qi-Replenishing Sharp and Bright Decoction (observation group).The therapeutic efficacies of the two groups were evaluated by the changes of frequency of hearing threshold and TCD.Results The total effective rate of hearing improvement in sudden deafness was higher (88%) in observation group compared with control group (72%)(P<0.05).The change of average flow velocity of vertebral basilar artery in TCD proved that observation group had better effects than control group,which had statistical difference.Conclusion The study reveals a good effectiveness of vinpocetine combined with QiReplenishing Sharp and Bright Decoction in treating sudden deafness with abnormal TCD,its wide use should be clinically recommended.%目的 探讨长春西汀联合益气聪明汤治疗对经颅多普勒(TCD)检测异常的突发性聋的疗效.方法 将100例TCD异常的突发性聋患者随机分成联合治疗组和长春西汀组,两组均常规行能量合剂、激素、高压氧、R族维生素等治疗,联合冶疗组给予长春西汀静脉滴注以及益气聪明汤口服,长春西汀组给予长春西汀静脉滴注,观察对耳聋的疗效及TCD用药前后变化情况,评价长春西汀联合益气聪明汤治疗TCD异常突发性聋的疗效.结果 电测听结果显示,治疗后联合治疗组有效率88%,长春西汀组有效率72%,两组疗效比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).TCD结果显示联合治疗组在治疗后椎-基底动脉平均血流流速较

  18. Entering a community dialogue.

    Britt, Teri; Player, Kathy; Parsons, Kathleen; Stover, Deanna

    2004-01-01

    Entering a new, unstructured community is facilitated when existing members embrace the thoughts, ideas, and experiences of new members. Watson's Caring Healing Model, including the caritas conscious and transpersonal caring components, provides a framework for understanding the experience of being a new community member (e.g., a "newbie") in the Global Nursing Exchange. PMID:14986502

  19. Future of enteral nutrition.

    Silk, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been agreement that enteral nutrition remains an excellent means of providing nutritional support to malnourished patients with normal or near normal gastrointestinal function, it is clear that areas of controversy do exist, and attention needs to be directed towards these in the future.

  20. Enteral approaches in malabsorption.

    Avitzur, Yaron; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    Enteral autonomy and freedom from parenteral nutrition dependency is the ultimate therapeutic goal in children with intestinal failure. This can be achieved following attainment of bowel adaptation in conditions such as short bowel syndrome. Enteral nutrition is a major therapeutic cornerstone in the management of children with intestinal failure. It promotes physiological development, bowel adaptation and enhances weaning from parenteral nutrition. The optimal method of delivery, type of nutrients, timing of initiation, promotion of feeds and transition to solid food in children with short bowel syndrome are debated. Lack of high quality human data hampers evidence based conclusions and impacts daily practices in the field. Clinical approaches and therapeutic decisions are regularly influenced by expert opinion and center practices. This review summarizes the physiological principles, medical evidence and practice recommendations on enteral nutrition approaches in short bowel syndrome and provides a practical framework for daily treatment of this unique group of patients. Oral and tube feeding, bolus and continuous feeding, type of nutrients, formulas, trace elements and solid food options are reviewed. Future collaborative multicenter, high quality clinical trials are needed to support enteral nutrition approaches in intestinal failure. PMID:27086892

  1. Prenatal color Doppler ultrasonographic diagnosis of fetal tetralogy of Fallot

    Objective: To investigate the sonographic findings of tetralogy of Fallot in fetuses. Methods: The data of color Doppler ultrasonography and follow-up results of 5 fetal tetralogy of Fallot were analyzed retrospectively, and their abnormal ultrasound imaging characteristic were summarized. Results: Two cases were proved tetralogy of Fallot by autopsy, and three cases were confirmed to be tetralogy of Fallot by echocardiography after birth. The image features were the main aorta situated above the ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, no obvious thickening of the right wall. Conclusion: Fetal tetralogy of Fallot have characteristic ultrasound images, prenatal color Doppler ultrasonographic can diagnoses fetal tetralogy of Fallot correctly and has important clinical value. (authors)

  2. HF Doppler observations

    Kikuchi, T.; Sugiuchi, H.; Ishimine, T.; Maeno, H.; Honma, S.

    1986-12-01

    This paper reports the solar flare and geomagnetic storm effects on the frequency of JJY signals received at Okinawa (f = 15 MHz) and Kokubunji (f = 5 and 8 MHz) during the period of June-September 1982. The increase in the electron density due to solar flares is deduced from the Doppler frequency deviation of 1 Hz as 2 x 10/sup 15/ electrons/m/sub 2/ below the reflection height. The result is in good agreement with the observation of the total electron content by the Faraday rotation measurements. On July 13, 1982, an abrupt increase of 0.8 Hz in frequency followed by a decrease of 0.6 Hz was observed in association with the huge storm sudden commencement. This fact indicates a successive transmission of westward electric field of 1.5 mV/m and eastward electric field of 1.1 mV/m from the outer magnetosphere to the low latitude ionosphere. It is shown that the decreases in Doppler frequency were associated with geomagnetic bays. The strength of the electric field (1.8 mV/m) derived from the Doppler frequency deviation is 20% of that of the electric field which is required to produce ionospheric electric currents responsible for the geomagnetic field variation on the ground. The large amplitude Doppler frequency oscillations of period of 1-1.5 h were observed at Kokubunji and Okinawa with a delay time of 20-25 min during the geomagnetic storm on September 6, 1982. It is suggested that the large-scale TID (Travelling Ionospheric Disturbance) with a phase velocity of 600 m/s and a wavelength of 2000 km is produced at high latitudes and is propagated to low latitudes.

  3. Quantitative Laser Doppler Flowmetry

    Fredriksson, Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is virtually the only non-invasive technique, except for other laser speckle based techniques, that enables estimation of the microcirculatory blood flow. The technique was introduced into the field of biomedical engineering in the 1970s, and a rapid evolvement followed during the 1980s with fiber based systems and improved signal analysis. The first imaging systems were presented in the beginning of the 1990s. Conventional LDF, although unique in many aspects an...

  4. Laser Doppler imaging, revisited

    Atlan, Michael; Gross, Michel

    2006-01-01

    International audience We present a detection scheme designed to perform laser Doppler imaging in a wide-field configuration, aimed at slow flows characterization. The optical field which carries a spectral information about the local scatterers dynamic state that results from momentum transfer at each scattering event, is analyzed in the temporal frequencies domain. The setup is based on heterodyne off-axis digital holography.

  5. Holographic laser Doppler ophthalmoscopy

    Simonutti, Manuel; Sahel, J A; Gross, Michel; Samson, Benjamin; Magnain, Caroline; Atlan, Michael; 10.1364/OL.35.001941

    2010-01-01

    We report laser Doppler ophthalmoscopic fundus imaging in the rat eye with near-IR heterodyne holography. Sequential sampling of the beat of the reflected radiation against a frequency-shifted optical local oscillator is made onto an array detector. Wide-field maps of fluctuation spectra in the 10 Hz to 25 kHz band exhibit angiographic contrasts in the retinal vascular tree without requirement of an exogenous marker.

  6. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  7. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    Waardell, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 {mu}m. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs.

  8. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    Waardell, K.

    1992-11-01

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 {mu}m. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs.

  9. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 μm. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  11. Doppler Findings in Intrapartum Fetal Distress

    Khatereh Tooba

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The umbilical vein (UV has a non pulsating and even pattern in normal fetuses. Pulsation of UV has been described in severely growth restricted fetuses with chronic hypoxia. We wanted to see whether UV pulsations could also be seen in fetuses with heart deceleration during labor, as an adjunctive measure to assess the intra partum hypoxia. In a prospective study Doppler examination was performed on 34 fetuses with normal cardiotocography (CGT and 26 fetuses with abnormal CTGs (GA>37w and cervical dilatation>3cm. Perinatal outcome was assessed according to presence or absence of UV pulsations. The 2 groups were similar regarding gestational age, cervical dilatation, Umbilical artery blood pH, S/D ratio,Pulsatility Index( PI and Resistance Index (RI. Intraabdominal UV pulsation were present in 6 (23.1% of abnormal CTG group but no case were seen in normal CTG group (P= 0.005. Five of 6 (83.3% fetuses with UV pulsation underwent cesarean delivery. The rate of cesarean delivery was 90% in abnormal CTG group without pulsation and 14.7% in normal CTG group. The frequency of Apgar score <7 was more in fetuses with UV pulsations (16.7% vs 5% although not statistically significant. NICU admission was considerably more in UV pulsation group (33% vs 5%, P= 0.123. After exclusion of LBW fetuses the UV pulsation was present in 4 (19% of abnormal CTG group, who 3 of them underwent cesarean section. Neither umbilical artery pH<7 nor Apger score <7 or NICU admission were seen in these 4 neonates. Pulsation in UV was seen in 23% of fetuses with abnormal CTG during intra partum period. Cesarean delivery and NICU admission was increased in fetuses with UV pulsations, although not statistically significant. When LBW fetuses were excluded no case of UA pH<7, Apgar sore <7or NICU admission were seen.

  12. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  13. Cyclic variation of Doppler power as a function of hematocrit and vessel wall compliance

    Misaridis, Athanasios; Shung, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to better understand the relationship between the power of the Doppler spectrum and blood flow abnormalities, a systematic study of all factors that may affect the Doppler power is required. In the study, three important factors were investigated in vitro using a mock flow loop: a) the p...... measurements of the time shift of the Doppler power peak relative to the velocity waveform and the magnitude of Doppler power cyclic variation may yield indication as to the value of the hematocrit and vessel compliance...... pulsation rate of the flow, b) the hematocrit of blood and c) the vessel wall compliance. The results may be useful for the development of a noninvasive method for assessing blood vessel wall compliance and fetal hematocrit in utero. The results show that the peak Doppler power decreases 1.5 to 2 dB as the...

  14. Hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    Oguzkurt, Levent [Department of Radiology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University, Adana 01250 (Turkey)]. E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Yildirim, Tulin [Department of Radiology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University, Adana 01250 (Turkey); Torun, Dilek [Department of Nephrology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University, Adana (Turkey); Tercan, Fahri [Department of Radiology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University, Adana 01250 (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman [Department of Radiology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University, Adana 01250 (Turkey); Niron, E. Alp [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL). Materials and methods: In this prospective study, 40 patients with diffuse FIL and 50 normal healthy adults who served as control group underwent hepatic vein (HV) Doppler ultrasonography. The patients with the diagnosis of FIL were 23 men (57.5%) and 17 women aged 30-62 years (mean age {+-} S.D., 42 {+-} 12 years). Subjects in the control group were 27 men (54%) and 23 women aged 34-65 years (mean age {+-} S.D., 45 {+-} 14 years). The diagnosis of FIL was confirmed with computed tomography density measurements. The waveforms of HV were classified into three groups: regular triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform without a reverse flow, and monophasic or flat waveform. Etiological factors for FIL were diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia and obesity (body mass index > 25). Serum lipid profile was obtained from all the patients with FIL. Results: Seventeen of the 40 patients (43%) with FIL had an abnormal HV Doppler waveform, whereas only one of the 50 (2%) healthy subjects had an abnormal waveform. The difference in the distribution of normal Doppler waveform pattern between the patients and the control group was significant (P < 0.001). No differences were found in the behaviour of the hepatic vein Doppler waveform in relation to the different etiologic factors for FIL (P > 0.05). There was not any correlation between the degree of fat infiltration and the hepatic vein waveform pattern (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Patients with fatty liver has a high rate of an abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform pattern which can be biphasic or monophasic. We could not find a relation between the etiological factors for FIL and the occurrence of an abnormal HV Doppler waveform.

  15. ANL Doppler flowmeter

    Karplus, H. B.; Raptis, A. C.; Lee, S.; Simpson, T.

    1985-10-01

    A flowmeter has been developed for measuring flow velocity in hot slurries. The flowmeter works on an ultrasonic Doppler principle in which ultrasound is injected into the flowing fluid through the solid pipe wall. Isolating waveguides separate the hot pipe from conventional ultrasonic transducers. Special clamp-on high-temperature transducers also can be adapted to work well in this application. Typical flows in pilot plants were found to be laminar, giving rise to broad-band Doppler spectra. A special circuit based on a servomechanism sensor was devised to determine the frequency average of such a broad spectrum. The device was tested at different pilot plants. Slurries with particulates greater than 70 microns (0.003 in.) yielded good signals, but slurries with extremely fine particulates were unpredictable. Small bubbles can replace the coarse particles to provide a good signal if there are not too many. Successful operation with very fine particulate slurries may have been enhanced by the presence of microbubbles.

  16. Doppler findings in intrapartum fetal distress.

    Eslamian, Laleh; Tooba, Khatereh

    2011-01-01

    The umbilical vein (UV) has a non pulsating and even pattern in normal fetuses. Pulsation of UV has been described in severely growth restricted fetuses with chronic hypoxia. We wanted to see whether UV pulsations could also be seen in fetuses with heart deceleration during labor, as an adjunctive measure to assess the intra partum hypoxia. In a prospective study Doppler examination was performed on 34 fetuses with normal cardiotocography (CGT) and 26 fetuses with abnormal CTGs (GA>37w and cervical dilatation>3cm). Perinatal outcome was assessed according to presence or absence of UV pulsations. The 2 groups were similar regarding gestational age, cervical dilatation, Umbilical artery blood pH, S/D ratio,Pulsatility Index( PI) and Resistance Index (RI). Intraabdominal UV pulsation were present in 6 (23.1%) of abnormal CTG group but no case were seen in normal CTG group (P= 0.005). Five of 6 (83.3%) fetuses with UV pulsation underwent cesarean delivery. The rate of cesarean delivery was 90% in abnormal CTG group without pulsation and 14.7% in normal CTG group. The frequency of Apgar score Apgar sore <7or NICU admission were seen. PMID:22009812

  17. Entering the Anthropocene

    Vince, Gaia

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence that we are now entering a new geological age defined by human influence on the planet, the Anthropocene. Millions of years from now, a stripe in the accumulated layers of rock on Earth's surface will reveal our human fingerprint just as we can see evidence of dinosaurs in rocks of the Jurassic, or the explosion of life that marks the Cambrian. There is now no part of the planet untouched by human influence. The realisation that we wield such planetary power requires a quite extraordinary shift in perception, fundamentally toppling the scientific, cultural and religious philosophies that define our place in the world. This session explores these issues and examines our new relationship with nature now that we so strongly influence the biosphere. And this session will look at what the impacts of our planetary changes mean for us, and how we might deal with the consequences of the Anthropocene we have created.

  18. Doppler Beats or Interference Fringes?

    Kelly, Paul S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the following: another version of Doppler beats; alternate proof of spin-1 sin-1/2 problems; some mechanisms related to Dirac's strings; Doppler redshift in oblique approach of source and observer; undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry; use of the time evolution operator; resolution of an entropy maximization controversy;…

  19. Enhanced optical precursors by Doppler effect via active Raman gain process.

    Peng, Yandong; Niu, Yueping; Zhang, Lida; Yang, Aihong; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Shangqing

    2012-08-15

    A scheme for enhancing precursor pulse by Doppler effect is proposed in a room-temperature active-Raman-gain medium. Due to abnormal dispersion between two gain peaks, main fields are advanced and constructively interfere with optical precursors, which leads to enhancement of the transient pulse at the rise edge of the input. Moreover, after Doppler averaging, the abnormal dispersion intensifies and the constructive interference between precursors and main fields is much strengthened, which boosts the transient spike. Simulation results demonstrate that the peak intensity of precursors could be enhanced nearly 20 times larger than that of the input. PMID:23381248

  20. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence....... The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested and...... compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of...

  1. Chromagen lenses and abnormal colour perception

    O. Matthew Oriowo; Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Chromagen lens system comprises of tinted spectacle or contact lenses, each with a specific colour wavelength filter which controls the spectra of the light entering the eye. This study investigated whether spectacle-mounted Chromagen lenses would enhance colour perception in individuals with abnormal colour vision.Methods: The Ishihara colour test was used to test for colour vision deficiency (CVD) and also to evaluate the effect of the Chromagen spectacle lens on colour perc...

  2. Postnatal Anthropometric and Body Composition Profiles in Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction Identified by Prenatal Doppler

    Mazarico, E.; Martinez-Cumplido, R.; Díaz, M.; Sebastiani, G.; Ibáñez, L.; Gómez-Roig, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infant anthropometry and body composition have been previously assessed to gauge the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at birth, but the interplay between prenatal Doppler measurements and postnatal development has not been studied in this setting. The present investigation was performed to assess the significance of prenatal Doppler findings relative to postnatal anthropometrics and body composition in IUGR newborns over the first 12 months of life. Patients and Methods Consecutive cases of singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR were prospectively enrolled over 12 months. Fetal biometry and prenatal Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed. Body composition was assessed by absorptiometry at ages 10 days, and at 4 and12 months. Results A total of 48 pregnancies qualifying as IUGR were studied. Doppler parameters were normal in 26 pregnancies. The remaining 22 deviated from normal, marked by an Umbilical Artery Pulsatility Index (UA-PI) >95th centil or Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) <5th centile. No significant differences emerged when comparing anthropometry and body composition at each time point, in relation to Doppler findings. Specifically, those IUGR newborns with and without abnormal Doppler findings had similar weight, length, body mass index, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral content throughout the first 12 months of life. In a separate analysis, when comparing IUGR newborns by Doppler (abnormal UA-PI vs. abnormal CPR), anthropometry and body composition did not differ significantly. Conclusions Infants with IUGR maintain a pattern of body composition during the first year of life that is independent of prenatal Doppler findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and correlating with hormonal status are warranted to further extend the phenotypic characterization of the various conditions now classified under the common label of IUGR. PMID:26938993

  3. Hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    Objective: To determine the incidence of abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL). Materials and methods: In this prospective study, 40 patients with diffuse FIL and 50 normal healthy adults who served as control group underwent hepatic vein (HV) Doppler ultrasonography. The patients with the diagnosis of FIL were 23 men (57.5%) and 17 women aged 30-62 years (mean age ± S.D., 42 ± 12 years). Subjects in the control group were 27 men (54%) and 23 women aged 34-65 years (mean age ± S.D., 45 ± 14 years). The diagnosis of FIL was confirmed with computed tomography density measurements. The waveforms of HV were classified into three groups: regular triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform without a reverse flow, and monophasic or flat waveform. Etiological factors for FIL were diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia and obesity (body mass index > 25). Serum lipid profile was obtained from all the patients with FIL. Results: Seventeen of the 40 patients (43%) with FIL had an abnormal HV Doppler waveform, whereas only one of the 50 (2%) healthy subjects had an abnormal waveform. The difference in the distribution of normal Doppler waveform pattern between the patients and the control group was significant (P 0.05). There was not any correlation between the degree of fat infiltration and the hepatic vein waveform pattern (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Patients with fatty liver has a high rate of an abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform pattern which can be biphasic or monophasic. We could not find a relation between the etiological factors for FIL and the occurrence of an abnormal HV Doppler waveform

  4. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  6. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.

  7. Color Doppler in the Assessment of Uteroplacental Circulation Insufficiency

    Ahmad Soltani Shirazi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Usage of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of uteroplacental or fetal-placental vascular insufficiency is based on the theory that many of these insufficiencies are due to small vessel disease in the uteroplacental or fetal-placental vasculature which ultimately results in fetal intrauterine growth retardation, increase in prenatal mortality and morbidity and fetal neurological development. "nIn a prospective study on patients who were sus-pected for developing uteroplacental insufficiency, color Doppler ultrasound was done and the results were compared with neonatal weight (one of the most important criteria for IUGR determination which was measured just after delivery."nDirect significant relation was showed to be present between prepartum vascular changes detected in Doppler ultrasound and prognosis of IUGR. "nThree vessel types were assessed in this study:"n1. Umbilical-middle cerebral arteries"n2. Uterine arteries"n3.Venous system (umbilical, ductus venosus, IVC, which is used to assess the compensation process in fetal circulation."nThree Doppler indices of vascular resistance were studied and their abnormalities according to the age of pregnancy were assessed.

  8. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....

  9. Doppler colour flow mapping of fetal intracerebral arteries in the presence of central nervous system anomalies

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); R. Heydanus (Rogier); P.A. Stewart (Patricia)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe adjunctive role of Doppler colour flow mapping in the evaluation of intracerebral morphology and arterial blood flow in the presence of normal and abnormal central nervous system morphology was determined. A total of 59 fetuses with suspected central nervous system pathology between

  10. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  12. Planetary Doppler Imaging

    Murphy, N.; Jefferies, S.; Hart, M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Showman, A. P.; Hernandez, G.; Rudd, L.

    2014-12-01

    Determining the internal structure of the solar system's gas and ice giant planets is key to understanding their formation and evolution (Hubbard et al., 1999, 2002, Guillot 2005), and in turn the formation and evolution of the solar system. While internal structure can be constrained theoretically, measurements of internal density distributions are needed to uncover the details of the deep interior where significant ambiguities exist. To date the interiors of giant planets have been probed by measuring gravitational moments using spacecraft passing close to, or in orbit around the planet. Gravity measurements are effective in determining structure in the outer envelope of a planet, and also probing dynamics (e.g. the Cassini and Juno missions), but are less effective in probing deep structure or the presence of discrete boundaries. A promising technique for overcoming this limitation is planetary seismology (analogous to helioseismology in the solar case), postulated by Vorontsov, 1976. Using trapped pressure waves to probe giant planet interiors allows insight into the density and temperature distribution (via the sound speed) down to the planetary core, and is also sensitive to sharp boundaries, for example at the molecular to metallic hydrogen transition or at the core-envelope interface. Detecting such boundaries is not only important in understanding the overall structure of the planet, but also has implications for our understanding of the basic properties of matter at extreme pressures. Recent Doppler measurements of Jupiter by Gaulme et al (2011) claimed a promising detection of trapped oscillations, while Hedman and Nicholson (2013) have shown that trapped waves in Saturn cause detectable perturbations in Saturn's C ring. Both these papers have fueled interest in using seismology as a tool for studying the solar system's giant planets. To fully exploit planetary seismology as a tool for understanding giant planet structure, measurements need to be made

  13. Bacterial contamination of enteral diets.

    de Leeuw, I H; Vandewoude, M F

    1986-01-01

    Enteral feeding solutions can be contaminated by bacterial micro-organisms already present in the ingredients, or introduced during preparation or transport, or in the hospital ward. During jejunostomy feeding without pump or filter, ascending bacterial invasion of the feeding bag is possible. In patients with lowered immune response contaminated feedings can cause serious septic clinical problems. The progressive loss of the nutritional value of the enteral feeding solution by bacterial cont...

  14. Technical aspects of enteral nutrition.

    Keymling, M

    1994-01-01

    Advances in technical aspects of enteral feeding such as the manufacture of tubes from polyurethane or silicone have helped promote the science of enteral nutrition. Nasoenteral tubes have few complications, apart from a high unwanted extubation rate and some reluctance from patients because of cosmetic unacceptability. Needle jejunostomy has low morbidity but can only be placed at laparotomy. Percutaneous gastrotomy (in all its different guises) has been established as a low risk procedure a...

  15. Inverse Doppler Effects in Flute

    Zhao, Xiao P; Liu, Song; Shen, Fang L; Li, Lin L; Luo, Chun R

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the observation of the inverse Doppler effects in a flute. It is experimentally verified that, when there is a relative movement between the source and the observer, the inverse Doppler effect could be detected for all seven pitches of a musical scale produced by a flute. Higher tone is associated with a greater shift in frequency. The effect of the inverse frequency shift may provide new insights into why the flute, with its euphonious tone, has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  16. The Role of Colour Doppler And Spectral Flow Analysis In Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Case Control Study

    Hinal Bhagat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of Doppler ultrasound to study blood flow in Obstetrics is of major importance because fetal inaccessibility precludes many other methods of study of fetal circulation. This study was undertaken to assess the role of Doppler in management of Pregnancy induced Hypertension. Methodology: The present case-control study was conducted in the department of Radiology, Govt. Medical College and New Civil Hospital, Surat. Details of obstetric history, age, last menstrual date and underlying risk factor, Doppler study of umbilical artery, fetal middle cerebral artery, both maternal uterine arteries and Ductus venosus was done. Parameters in form of Resistive index (RI, Pulsatility index (PI and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D of all four arteries were taken. Results: It was observed that 55% cases with pregnancy induced hypertension developed IUGR fetuses while 2% of the IUGR fetus was present in control group. There were 41 (54% cases with IUGR fetuses. Out of which 28 (68% cases with IUGR had fetoplacental Doppler abnormality. 13 cases had abnormally low PI of MCA with normal umbilical arterial Doppler indices, out of which 12 patients had abnormal fetal outcome. Conclusion: By examining the maternal vessels using Doppler ultrasound it is possible to determine, the risk of complication developing in the course of pregnancy long before clinical signs of preeclampsia appear so that therapeutic measures may be undertaken early. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 57-60

  17. Doppler Ultrasound Doppler and their applications in maternal medicine

    In this paper the technical aspects and physical principles of Doppler ultrasound are discussed, as well as the analysis that can be made from the quantitative and qualitative data. Finally, its utility in perinatal medicine is reviewed with emphasis in the clinical implications

  18. Comparisons between PW Doppler system and enhanced FM Doppler system

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P. C.

    system exploits the direct relationship between arrival time of the received signal and range from the transducer. In the FM Doppler systems, a similar relationship exists in the spectral domain of the demodulated received signals, so that range is represented by frequency. Thus, a shift in location of...

  19. Doppler tomography in fusion plasmas and astrophysics

    Salewski, Mirko; Heidbrink, Bill; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Korsholm, Soren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Madsen, Jens; Moseev, Dmitry; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Rasmussen, Jesper; Stagner, Luke; Steeghs, Danny; Stejner, Morten; Tardini, Giovani; Weiland, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Doppler tomography is a well-known method in astrophysics to image the accretion flow, often in the shape of thin discs, in compact binary stars. As accretion discs rotate, all emitted line radiation is Doppler-shifted. In fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements in magnetically confined plasma, the D-alpha-photons are likewise Doppler-shifted ultimately due to gyration of the fast ions. In either case, spectra of Doppler-shifted line emission are sensitive to the velocity distribution of the emitters. Astrophysical Doppler tomography has lead to images of accretion discs of binaries revealing bright spots, spiral structures, and flow patterns. Fusion plasma Doppler tomography has lead to an image of the fast-ion velocity distribution function in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. This image matched numerical simulations very well. Here we discuss achievements of the Doppler tomography approach, its promise and limits, analogies and differences in astrophysical and fusion plasma Doppler tomography, and what ...

  20. Correlation of Doppler-detected tumor vascular signals with vascular morphology

    Abnormal vascular morphology exists in many malignant tumors, including arterio-venous anastomoses, thin-walled vessels, and tumor lakes. These emit abnormal Doppler signals that allow tissue characterization. Doppler signals and angiographic and histologic findings were compared in 19 liver, kidney, adrenal, and pancreatic tumors. Abnormal signals were obtained in 18 (95%). These consisted of high frequencies exceeding 4 kHz (using a 3-MHz insonating frequency) which correlated with arterio-venous shunts on angiography. In 11 patients there were low impedance signals with little systolic/diastolic variation (pulsatility index 1-3). These correlated with thin-walled, sinusoidal vessels with endothelial lining but no muscular wall, and also correlated with dense tumor staining on angiography

  1. The enter-educate approach.

    Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

    1992-03-01

    This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery. PMID:12284960

  2. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination...... abnormality independently predicted transition to disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 1.53 (1.01-2.34)]. The hazard increased with increasing number of abnormalities. Among MRI lesions, only ARWMC of severe grade independently predicted disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 2.18 (1.37-3.48)]. In our cohort...

  3. Anomalous Doppler effects in bulk phononic crystal

    Doppler effects in simple cubic phononic crystal are studied theoretically and numerically. In addition to observing Doppler shifts from a moving source's frequencies inside the gap, we find that Doppler shifts can be multi-order, anisotropic, and the dominant order of shift depends on the band index that the source's frequency is in.

  4. Three-dimensional power doppler imaging

    Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasonographic imaging techniques have recently shown rapid development and their clinical application has begun to attract considerable attention. Power Doppler sonography is known to be more sensitive than color Doppler for detecting blood flow, and there is also less noise and clutter. This paper describes the basic principles and initial clinical experience of 3-D power Doppler sonography

  5. The Doppler Effect--A New Approach

    Allen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect as it applies to different situations, such as a stationary source of sound with the observer moving, a stationary observer, and the sound source and observer both moving. Police radar, satellite surveillance radar, radar astronomy, and the Doppler navigator, are discussed as applications of Doppler shift. (JR)

  6. Reverse Doppler Effect of Sound

    Lee, Sam Hyeon; Park, Choon Mahn; Seo, Yong Mun; Wang, Zhi Guo; Kim, Chul Koo

    2009-01-01

    We report observation of reverse Doppler effect in a double negative acoustic metamaterial. The metamaterial exhibited negative phase velocity and positive group velocity. The dispersion relation is such that the wavelength corresponding to higher frequency is longer. We observed that the frequency was down-shifted for the approaching source, and up-shifted when the source receded.

  7. The role of hepatic arterial Doppler ultrasound after liver transplantation: an 'audit cycle' evaluation

    AIMS: To compare the diagnostic performance of hepatic arterial (HA) Doppler ultrasound post-liver transplantation for hepatic artery thrombosis and stenosis in our unit with the literature. To evaluate the role of the technique in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a two-phase 'audit cycle' study, adult OLT patients had Doppler studies comprising detection of HA flow and measurements of peak systolic velocity, resistive index and systolic acceleration time. In phase I, patients had Doppler examinations 'routinely' and for any hepatic biochemical abnormality. In phase II, Doppler ultrasound was performed early post-OLT and later only if a senior transplant clinician suspected graft ischaemia. In addition to HA measurements the waveform was visually assessed. Clinical outcome was the 'gold standard'. RESULTS: Phase 1: 38 patients, 40 OLT operations, 125 Doppler studies; 14 arteriograms. Phase 2: 35 patients, 42 OLT operations, two HA angioplasties, one HA revision, one non-occlusive thrombus, 140 studies; 17 arteriograms. Results; Phase 1 [Phase 2]: sensitivity 80% [100%]; specificity 71% [81%]; PPV 28% [56%]; NPV 96% [100%]; incidence of HA abnormality 12.5% [19.5%]; likelihood ratio of negative result 0.28 [0]; of positive result 2.8 [5.3]. CONCLUSION: Previously reported results are reproducible. Normal HA waveform should also be a criterion of normality. The technique is very sensitive but relatively non-specific. Predictive values improve with discriminate use. MacEneaney, P. M. (2000)

  8. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  9. Echobiometrics kidney and renal artery triplex doppler of canine fetuses

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sogographic parameters and biometry of canine fetal kidneys using the B mode, and to determinate the vascular index of the fetal renal arteries using the Doppler Triplex. Twenty four Shi-tzu and Pug, weighting between 4 and 10kg, aging between 4 and 6 years old were evaluated. The B mode, the fetal renal echobiometry and regularity of the renal surface, echotexture and cortex:medular ratio were evaluated during the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th weeks of pregnancy. At the same time point of the B mode evaluation, the Doppler Triplex was carried out to assess the sistolic peak velocity (SPV, end diastolic velocity (EDV, vascular resistive (RI and pulsatility index (PI. B mode revealed no fetal renal abnormalities and echobiometry showed important measurements during fetal development (P0.05. B mode and Doppler Triplex were important tools for the assessment of fetal renal development, using echobiometry and renal arterial index in canie fetuses.

  10. Azimuthal Doppler Effect in Optical Vortex Spectroscopy

    Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Yoshimura, Shinji; Toda, Yasunori; Morisaki, Tomohiro; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortices (OV) are a set of solutions of the paraxial Helmholtz equation in the cylindrical coordinates, and its wave front has a spiral shape. Since the Doppler shift is caused by the phase change by the movement in a wave field, the observer in the OV, which has the three-dimensional structured wave front, feels a three-dimensional Doppler effect. Since the multi-dimensional Doppler components are mixed into a single Doppler spectrum, development of a decomposition method is required. We performed a modified saturated absorption spectroscopy to separate the components. The OV and plane wave are used as a probe beam and pump beam, respectively. Although the plane-wave pump laser cancels the z-direction Doppler shift, the azimuthal Doppler shift remains in the saturated dip. The spatial variation of the dip width gives the information of the azimuthal Doppler shift. The some results of optical vortex spectroscopy will be presented.

  11. Enteric parasitology. Interpreting laboratory reports.

    MacPherson, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are common in the stools of human beings. With care and due attention to the techniques of testing, they are relatively easy to find. Unfortunately, deciding on the clinical importance of stool findings is often difficult. This article is an introduction and guide to interpreting enteric parasitology laboratory reports.

  12. Computer Literacy of Entering Freshmen.

    Tellep, Andrew

    In an effort to improve college program planning using data on the computer skills of entering freshmen, a survey was conducted to obtain information about computer science programs in Pennsylvania's public schools. The study investigated the material being taught, the background of computer science teachers, program plans, tendencies in the…

  13. Size distribution of air bubbles entering the brain during cardiac surgery.

    Emma M L Chung

    Full Text Available Thousands of air bubbles enter the cerebral circulation during cardiac surgery, but whether high numbers of bubbles explain post-operative cognitive decline is currently controversial. This study estimates the size distribution of air bubbles and volume of air entering the cerebral arteries intra-operatively based on analysis of transcranial Doppler ultrasound data.Transcranial Doppler ultrasound recordings from ten patients undergoing heart surgery were analysed for the presence of embolic signals. The backscattered intensity of each embolic signal was modelled based on ultrasound scattering theory to provide an estimate of bubble diameter. The impact of showers of bubbles on cerebral blood-flow was then investigated using patient-specific Monte-Carlo simulations to model the accumulation and clearance of bubbles within a model vasculature.Analysis of Doppler ultrasound recordings revealed a minimum of 371 and maximum of 6476 bubbles entering the middle cerebral artery territories during surgery. This was estimated to correspond to a total volume of air ranging between 0.003 and 0.12 mL. Based on analysis of a total of 18667 embolic signals, the median diameter of bubbles entering the cerebral arteries was 33 μm (IQR: 18 to 69 μm. Although bubble diameters ranged from ~5 μm to 3.5 mm, the majority (85% were less than 100 μm. Numerous small bubbles detected during cardiopulmonary bypass were estimated by Monte-Carlo simulation to be benign. However, during weaning from bypass, showers containing large macro-bubbles were observed, which were estimated to transiently affect up to 2.2% of arterioles.Detailed analysis of Doppler ultrasound data can be used to provide an estimate of bubble diameter, total volume of air, and the likely impact of embolic showers on cerebral blood flow. Although bubbles are alarmingly numerous during surgery, our simulations suggest that the majority of bubbles are too small to be harmful.

  14. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptom...

  15. Causality and the Doppler Peaks

    Turok, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Could cosmic structure have formed by the action of causal physics within the standard hot big bang, or was a prior period of inflation required? Recently there has been some discussion of whether causal sources could reproduce the pattern of Doppler peaks of the standard scale-invariant adiabatic theory. This paper gives a rigorous definition of causality, and a causal decomposition of a general source. I present an example of a simple causal source which mimics the standard adiabatic theory...

  16. Doppler Imaging of Ap Stars

    Kuschnig, R.

    1998-01-01

    Doppler imaging, a technique which inverts spectral line profile variations of an Ap star into a two-dimensional abundance maps, provides new observational constraints on diffusion mechanism in the presence of a global magnetic field. A programme is presented here with the aim to obtain abundance distributions of at least five elements on each star, in order to study how different diffusion processes act under influence of a stellar magnetic field. The importance of this multi-element approac...

  17. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    张文娟; 安宇

    2015-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70%as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models.

  18. [Doppler echocardiography in endomyocardial fibrosis].

    Tello, R; Cuan, V; Abundes, A; Navarro, J; García Lara, J; Astudillo, R; Ariza, H; Cuan, M

    1994-01-01

    Twelve patients with endomyocardial fibrosis with angiographic and/or histologic corroboration were studied with Doppler echocardiography with the purpose of describing the echocardiographic features and identify the affected sites. The average age was 41 years (range 16 to 59 years), 2 men and 10 women. Three patients (25%) had isolated right ventricular involvement, one patient (8%) left ventricular, 8 patients (66%) both ventricular. Our Doppler echocardiographic findings were: right atrium enlargement (91%), right ventricle outflow dilatation (83%), paradoxical septal motion (83%), left atrial enlargement (33%), mitral and tricuspid valve prolapse (50%), pericardial effusion (41%), mitral regurgitation (75%), tricuspid regurgitation (100%), apex obliteration (50%) and a restrictive type flow pattern (50%). Doppler echocardiography is a useful method for the diagnosis of endomyocardial fibrosis, the finding of normal or small ventricles associated with apex obliteration and enlarged atria, mitral or tricuspid regurgitation and a restrictive type flow pattern are characteristics of this disease. In our population, the isolated or predominantely right ventricular involvement is the most common finding as it represented 83% of the cases. PMID:7979815

  19. Ureteral jets in patients with unilateral ureteral calculi: Using color doppler ultrasonography

    Sonographic detection of ureteral jets entering the urinary bladder is a well-known procedure. Color doppler ultrasound was used to image the ureteral jets in 28 patients with unilateral ureteral calculi proved by intravenous urography. Three major findings of ureteral jets were obtained in the affected ureter with a stone: less frequency (26 patients), weak reflection (20 patients), and lower grade in length (27 patients) that were significant different from the unaffected side in the same patient. No significant differences were found between the ureteral jets and the degree of hydronephrosis or the location of a stone. In conclusion, these results suggest that ureteral jets should be checked routinely during the procedure of color doppler ultrasonogram in patients with possible unilateral ureteral obstruction. Color doppler examination of ureteral jets may be an important adjunct in routine pelvic ultrasonogram especially in patients who have absolute or relative contraindications of intravenous urography

  20. Ureteral jets in patients with unilateral ureteral calculi: Using color doppler ultrasonography

    Kwon, Hye Soo; Park, Hae Won; Oh, Won Ja [Seoul Koryo General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    Sonographic detection of ureteral jets entering the urinary bladder is a well-known procedure. Color doppler ultrasound was used to image the ureteral jets in 28 patients with unilateral ureteral calculi proved by intravenous urography. Three major findings of ureteral jets were obtained in the affected ureter with a stone: less frequency (26 patients), weak reflection (20 patients), and lower grade in length (27 patients) that were significant different from the unaffected side in the same patient. No significant differences were found between the ureteral jets and the degree of hydronephrosis or the location of a stone. In conclusion, these results suggest that ureteral jets should be checked routinely during the procedure of color doppler ultrasonogram in patients with possible unilateral ureteral obstruction. Color doppler examination of ureteral jets may be an important adjunct in routine pelvic ultrasonogram especially in patients who have absolute or relative contraindications of intravenous urography.

  1. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    ), protein concentrates (meal or cakes of soybean, rape, sunflower, cotton) and co-products from the sugar and starch industries to produce compounds feeds. The classical pig diet can also be characterised as relatively concentrated but an increased demand of high energy cereals for direct human use and...... compromising their reproductive performance. The direct use of forage crop is also developing although at a rather limited scale and primarily in organic farming. Other benefits, such as increased well being of animals, improvement of the gut transit or reduction of stomach ulcers also favour an increased...... per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which...

  2. CERN openlab enters fifth phase

    Andrew Purcell

    2015-01-01

    CERN openlab is a unique public-private partnership between CERN and leading ICT companies. At the start of this year, openlab officially entered its fifth phase, which will run until the end of 2017. For the first time in its history, it has extended beyond the CERN community to include other major European and international research laboratories.   Founded in 2001 to develop the innovative ICT systems needed to cope with the unprecedented computing challenges of the LHC, CERN openlab unites science and industry at the cutting edge of research and innovation. In a white paper published last year, CERN openlab set out the main ICT challenges it will tackle during its fifth phase, namely data acquisition, computing platforms, data storage architectures, computer management and provisioning, networks and connectivity, and data analytics. As it enters its fifth phase, CERN openlab is expanding to include other research laboratories. "Today, research centres in other disciplines are also st...

  3. Entering China-MEX's strategy

    Lu, Xiaojing; Qiao, Xiaoli

    2006-01-01

    MEX is a multinational company, specializing in international trade, and is active in the area of handmade carpets, electronic devices, and other products. It plans to enter China by selling its handmade carpets that are made in Iran. Furthermore, it wants to reduce its currency risk associated with its holdings in US dollars by investing in a Chinese office property. To integrate these two objectives, if feasible, MEX will take advantage of the business property as its office and establish a...

  4. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  5. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention

  6. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting

  7. Enteral Nutrition and Care of Risky Newborns

    Törüner, Ebru Kılıçarslan; Altay, Naime

    2013-01-01

    Making appropriate and effective enteral feeding is decreasing the morbidity and mortality rates of risky newborns. Most important problems during enteral feeding in risky newborns are realizing the enteral feeding needs late, not following enteral feeding protocols and errors in medical practices (misconnections etc.). The aim of this review article is to describe the gastrointestinal development, nutrition requirements, enteral nutrition, feeding intolerance and care of risky newborns. ...

  8. The Effect of Doppler Phenomenon on the Speed of Blood Flow

    Ghaidaa Abdulrahman Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studying the phenomenon of Doppler (frequency Doppler as a method through which the direction and speed of the blood cells flows in blood vessels wear measured. This Doppler frequency is relied upon in medicine for measuring the speed of blood flow, because the blood flow is an important concept from the concepts of medicine. It represents the function and efficient of the heart and blood vessels in the body so any defect in this function will appear as a change in the speed of blood flow from the normal value assumed. As this speed changes alot in cases of disease and morbidity of the heart, so in order to identify the effect of changing the Doppler frequency on the speed of blood flow and the relationship of this frequency with the angles of transitions and receptions and the effect of changing the ultrasound transmitted frequencies on the measured velocities .The Doppler ultrasound system has been used which is more efficient and easier to be widely used as a practical application in Al Yarmouk Teaching Hospital on two subjects. The normal had a natural medical history in the blood vessels, and abnormal had carotid artery stenosis. This device will give the flow velocity of blood in the blood vessels which is useful to the examiner, the equation of Doppler as a mathematical model in the research is adopted the measured speed to clarify the amount of change in the frequency (shift in frequency. This speed was measured in five different blood vessels, large arteries (abdominal aorta and carotid artery in the neck and large veins (the inferior vena cava across the abdomen and the external Jugular vein in the neck and capillaries in the hand and fingers. Then using the measured velocities in these vessels the Doppler frequency was calculated from this mathematical model using MATLAB program, was found that as velocity of the blood increases, so does the Doppler frequency and vice versa. The greater the value of the Doppler angle

  9. DOPPLER ANALYSIS IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    Tushar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of 50 cases was conducted to evaluate the role of Colour Doppler imaging in pregnancy induced hypertension with women over 28 weeks of gestation, the initial scan was performed immediately after the diagnosis of PIH to avoid any influence of treatment on Doppler evaluation. This study was aimed to analyze the blood flow in umbilical artery, maternal uterine artery & fetal middle cerebral artery using Doppler ultrasound.

  10. Doppler tomography in fusion plasmas and astrophysics

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Heidbrink, W. W.;

    2015-01-01

    spots, spiral structures and flow patterns. Fusion plasma Doppler tomography has led to an image of the fast-ion velocity distribution function in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. This image matched numerical simulations very well. Here we discuss achievements of the Doppler tomography approach, its promise...... and limits, analogies and differences in astrophysical and fusion plasma Doppler tomography and what can be learned by comparison of these applications....

  11. Observation of the Zero Doppler Effect

    Jia Ran; Yewen Zhang; Xiaodong Chen; Kai Fang; Junfei Zhao; Hong Chen

    2016-01-01

    The normal Doppler effect has well-established applications in many areas of science and technology. Recently, a few experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear in negative-index metamaterials. Here we report an experimental observation of the zero Doppler effect, that is, no frequency shift irrespective of the relative motion between the wave signal source and the detector in a zero-index metamaterial. This unique phenomenon, accompanied by the normal and i...

  12. Comparison of neutral and positive enteral contrast media for MDCT enteroclysis

    Objective: To compare neutral and positive enteral contrast media for MDCT enteroclysis (MDCTE) in various small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: 40 patients with suspicion of small bowel diseases were divided randomly into two equal groups. In one group, water was used as neutral enteral contrast and in other group, 2% water soluble iodinated contrast was used as positive enteral contrast. All MDCTE were done on a 16-slice multidetector row CT unit. The findings of MDCTE were compared with the standards of reference. Results: There were 12 cases of abdominal tuberculosis (30%), 5 cases of bowel masses (12%), 4 cases of Crohn's disease (10%), 3 cases of small bowel adhesions (7%), 2 cases of midgut volvulus (5%), 2 cases of segmental enteritis (5%) and 12 of all cases (30%) were normal. There was no statistically significant difference between neutral and positive enteral contrast with regards to bowel distention, contrast reflux and evaluation of duodenum. Abnormal bowel wall enhancement was appreciated only with use of neutral enteral contrast (n = 12). Evaluation of ileocaecal junction was possible in all 20 patients (100%) with positive enteral contrast but in only 17 patients (85%) with neutral enteral contrast. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MDCTE with use of neutral contrast medium (100 and 88% respectively) was greater for evaluation of small bowel diseases, when compared to MDCTE using positive enteral contrast medium (92.8 and 83.3% respectively). Conclusions: Water is a good enteral contrast medium for MDCT enteroclysis examination and allows better evaluation of abnormal bowel wall enhancement. Ileocaecal junction evaluation is better with positive enteral contrast medium.

  13. The role of colour Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of lower limb Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome

    Aim: To investigate the accuracy of colour Doppler sonography as compared to phlebography in patients with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS). Materials and methods: From September 2004 to May 2012, 59 consecutive patients seen in Shandong medical imaging research institute with a clinical suggestion of KTS were included. Thirty-four were female and 25 were male, with a mean age of 28.4 years. Colour Doppler sonography was used to assess the lower limb veins. The main sonographic criteria for a positive diagnosis were visualization of the lateral vein or sciatic vein, capillary haemangioma, and abnormality of the deep veins. These data were compared with phlebography findings. The κ statistic was used to determine the level of agreement. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of colour Doppler sonography as a diagnostic test were assessed. Results: Colour Doppler sonography findings were positive in 21 of 59 patients with a clinical suggestion of KTS. The diagnosis was confirmed using phlebography in 22 patients. There were two false-positive results and one false-negative result by colour Doppler sonography. The κ-value was 0.892. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for colour Doppler sonography were 95.4, 94.6, 91.3, 97.2, and 94.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Colour Doppler sonography is an accurate, reliable, and non-invasive investigation in the assessment of patients with suspected KTS

  14. Estimating effect of terlipressin on portal pressure in cirrhosis by observing hepatic vein doppler waveform

    Objective: To observe the changes in doppler waveform of hepatic vein after the administration of terlipressin, and to assess indirectly the efficacy of the drug to reduce the Hepatic Vein Pressure Gradient and portal pressure. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from April 1 to November 25, 2011, and comprised 50 patients with cirrhosis with abnormal doppler waveform of the hepatic vein. Patients with diseases causing abnormal hepatic vein doppler waveform were excluded. Doppler waveforms were studied for 20 minutes before and for 20 minutes after the administration of terlipressin. Tracings with best waveform before and after injection were saved for analysis. Changes in waveform after vasoactive drug were defined as mild, significant, marked and gross changes. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 50 patients, 36 (72%) were males and 14 (28%) females. Commonest waveform was monophasic 38(76%). Gross changes i.e. turning triphasic from monophasic waveform was observed in 8 (16%) patients. Significant gross changes were seen in 24 (48%) patients. Total number of patients showing improvement in waveform was 36 (72%). In no case, waveform deteriorated after the administration of terlipressin (p= 0.001). Conclusion: Non-invasive method of observing the improvement of hepatic vein waveform by duplex ultrasound, after more studies, may be an important tool for assessing and monitoring the effects of portal pressure lowering drugs. (author)

  15. Role of Doppler Indices in the Prediction of Adverse Perinatal Outcome in Preeclampsia

    Monika Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To determine the role of doppler indices in the prediction of perinatal outcome in pre eclampsia. Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted at Patna Medical College and Hospital between March 2008-March 2009 on 50 pregnant patients with preeclampsia at and #8805;32 weeks gestation .All these patients were subjected to a detailed history ,clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Study of fetal vesels was performed serially using a pulsed Doppler ultrasound ..Resistance index (RI, pulsatility index(PI and systolic / diastolic ratio (S/D were measured in middle cerebral artery (MCA and umbilical artery (UA. FL/AC(femur length/abdominal circumference ratio was also measured. Results:30 patients had IUGR(intrauterine growth restriction. The patients with abnormal indices had higher incidence of caesarean delivery(44%, low apgar score(32%, need for admission to NICU(26%and neonatal complications(24%as compared to those with normal indices. Conclusion :Doppler indices were more accurate than FL/AC ratio in the early detection of IUGR. MCA/UA ratios were more accurate than the individual components of MCA and UA.Abnormal Doppler ratios were significant predictors of IUGR and adverse perinatal outcome [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 315-318

  16. Slow transit constipation: A functional disorder becomes an enteric neuropathy

    Gabrio Bassotti; Vincenzo Villanacci

    2006-01-01

    Slow transit constipation has been traditionally considered and classified as a functional disorder.However, clinical and manometric evidence has been accumulating that suggests how most of the motility alterations in STC might be considered of neuropathic type. In addition, further investigations showed that subtle alterations of the enteric nervous system, not evident to conventional histological examination, may be present in these patients. In the present article we will discuss these evidences, and will try to put them in relation with the abnormal motor function of the large bowel documented in this pathological condition.

  17. Acid resistance in enteric bacteria.

    Gorden, J; Small, P L

    1993-01-01

    Shigella species require a uniquely small inoculum for causing dysentery. One explanation for the low infective dose is that Shigella species are better able to survive the acidic conditions encountered in the stomach than are other enteric pathogens. We have tested Shigella species, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella species for the ability to survive at pH 2.5 for at least 2 h. Most isolates of Shigella and E. coli survived this treatment, whereas none of the Salmonella isolates were able to ...

  18. Evaluation of the erectile dysfunction of vascular origin by means of the ultrasound Doppler Duplex

    We studied 20 patients with erectile dysfunction of vascular origin and 10 patients with psychological erectile dysfunction with Doppler ultrasound before and after injection of intra cavernous vasoactive substances. We observed that psychological erectile dysfunction, is characterized by normal vascular velocities in cavernous arteries (control group). In patients with vascular aetiology we obtained abnormal registrations that differentiated arterial from venous pathology. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the cavernous artery and the systolic flow after the injection of vasoactive substances

  19. Aortic isthmus Doppler velocimetry: role in assessment of preterm fetal growth restriction.

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is an important pregnancy complication associated with significant adverse clinical outcome, stillbirth, perinatal morbidity and cerebral palsy. To date, no uniformly accepted management protocol of Doppler surveillance that reduces mortality and cognitive morbidity has emerged. Aortic isthmus (AoI) evaluation has been proposed as a potential monitoring tool for IUGR fetuses. In this review, the current knowledge of the relationship between AoI Doppler velocimetry and preterm fetal growth restriction is reviewed. Relevant technical aspects and reproducibility data are reviewed as we discuss AoI Doppler and its place within the existing repertoire of Doppler assessments in placental insufficiency. The AoI is a link between the right and left ventricles which perfuse the lower and upper body, respectively. The clinical use of AoI waveforms for monitoring fetal deterioration in IUGR has been limited, but preliminary work suggests that abnormal AoI impedance indices are an intermediate step between placental insufficiency-hypoxemia and cardiac decompensation. Further prospective studies correlating AoI indices with arterial and venous Doppler indices and perinatal outcome are required before encorporating this index into clinical practice.

  20. Doppler waveforms of the hepatic veins in children with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL) on the Doppler waveform pattern in the hepatic veins of obese children. Methods: In this prospective study, 59 patients with diffuse FIL and 45 normal healthy children who served as control group underwent hepatic vein B-mod and duplex Doppler sonography. The Doppler sonography spectrum of the right hepatic vein was classified into three groups: triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform, and monophasic or flat waveform. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the phasicity of hepatic venous flow between patients and control subjects (p < 0.001). The Doppler flow pattern in the right hepatic vein was triphasic in 28 (47.5%), biphasic in 28 (47.5%), and monophasic in 3 (5%) children with fatty liver, while it was triphasic in 43 (95.6%) and biphasic in 2 (4.4%) control subjects. There was an inverse correlation between the sonographic grade of fatty infiltration of the liver and the phasicity of hepatic venous flow (r = -0.479, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Abnormal right hepatic vein Doppler waveform, biphasic as well as monophasic, can be seen in healthy obese children with diffuse FIL.

  1. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography predicts cardiovascular events after TIA

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients are at high vascular risk. We assessed the value of extracranial (ECD) and transcranial (TCD) Doppler and duplex ultrasonography to predict clinical outcome after TIA. 176 consecutive TIA patients admitted to the Stroke Unit were recruited in the study. All patients received diffusion-weighted imaging, standardized ECD and TCD. At a median follow-up of 27 months, new vascular events were recorded. 22 (13.8%) patients experienced an ischemic stroke or TIA, 5 (3.1%) a myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome, and 5 (3.1%) underwent arterial revascularization. ECD revealed extracranial ≥ 50% stenosis or occlusions in 34 (19.3%) patients, TCD showed intracranial stenosis in 15 (9.2%) and collateral flow patterns due to extracranial stenosis in 5 (3.1%) cases. Multivariate analysis identified these abnormal ECD and TCD findings as predictors of new cerebral ischemic events (ECD: hazard ratio (HR) 4.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75 to 10.57, P = 0.01; TCD: HR 4.73, 95% CI 1.86 to 12.04, P = 0.01). Abnormal TCD findings were also predictive of cardiovascular ischemic events (HR 18.51, 95% CI 3.49 to 98.24, P = 0.001). TIA patients with abnormal TCD findings are at high risk to develop further cerebral and cardiovascular ischemic events

  2. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  3. Percutaneous duodenostomy - alternative route for enteral nutrition

    Percutaneous translumbar duodenostomy for enteral feeding was performed in one patient with nutritional difficulties. No complication was encountered. The procedure can be an alternative to percutaneous gastrostomy and jejunostomy for enteral feeding in special situations. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens

    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathoge...

  5. Microwave Doppler radar in unobtrusive health monitoring

    This article frames the use of microwave Doppler radar in the context of ubiquitous, non-obstructive health monitoring. The use of a 24GHz CW (continuous wave) Doppler radar based on a commercial off-the-shelf transceiver for remote sensing of heart rate and respiration rate based on the acquisition and processing of the signals delivered by the radar is briefly presented

  6. Observation of the Zero Doppler Effect

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The normal Doppler effect has well-established applications in many areas of science and technology. Recently, a few experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear in negative-index metamaterials. Here we report an experimental observation of the zero Doppler effect, that is, no frequency shift irrespective of the relative motion between the wave signal source and the detector in a zero-index metamaterial. This unique phenomenon, accompanied by the normal and inverse Doppler effects, is generated by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in a composite right/left-handed transmission line loaded with varactors when operating in the near zero-index passband, or the right/left-handed passband. This work has revealed a complete picture of the Doppler effect in metamaterials and may lead to potential applications in electromagnetic wave related metrology.

  7. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R

    2016-01-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. PMID:27578317

  8. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    Seres, David S; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  9. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in Children.

    Syed, Sana; Ali, Asad; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood death in resource-poor countries, killing approximately 760,000 children younger than 5 years each year. Although deaths due to diarrhea have declined dramatically, high rates of stunting and malnutrition have persisted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination with resultant intestinal inflammation and villous blunting. These histological changes were first described in the 1960s, but the clinical effect of EED is only just being recognized in the context of failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in resource-poor countries. We review the existing literature regarding the underlying causes of and potential interventions for EED in children, highlighting the epidemiology, clinical and histologic classification of the entity, and discussing novel biomarkers and possible therapies. Future research priorities are also discussed. PMID:26974416

  10. A Map Enters the Conversation

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy it was...... trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  11. Color doppler sonography in thickened gallbladder wall

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Seok Jin; Seo, Chang Hae; Eun, Choong Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The thickening of the gallbladder wall is a valuable finding for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, but may be seen in non-cholecystic disease as well as in acute or chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of color Doppler sonography in differentiating the causes of thickened gallbladder wall. Ninety eight patients with thickened gallbladder wall(more than 3mm) which was not due to gallbladder cancer were prospectively evaluated with color Doppler sonography. Sixty-six cases, confirmed by pathologic reports and clinical records, were analyzed for correlation between thickened gallbladder wall and color flow signal according to the underlying causes. Of the 66 patients, 28 cases were cholecystitis and 38 cases had non-cholecystic causes such as liver cirrhosis, ascites, hepatitis, pancreatitis, renal failure, and hypoalbuminemia. Of the 28 patients with cholecystitis(12 acute, 16 chronic), 23(82%) had color Doppler flow signals in the thickened gallbladder wall. Of the 38 patients with non-cholecystic causes, eight(21%) had color Doppler flow signals. There was a statistically significant difference of color Doppler flow signals between the cholecystitis and non-cholecystic groups(p=0.0001). No significant difference of color Doppler flow signals was found between cases of acute and chronic cholecystitis. Of the 23 patients with color Doppler flow signals in 28 cases of cholecystitis, 18(78.3%) showed a linear pattern and five(21.7%) showed a spotty pattern. Of the eight patients with color Doppler flow signals in the 38 non-cholecystic cases, four(50%) showed a linear pattern and four(50%) showed a spotty pattern. In cholecystitis, a linear color Doppler flow signal pattern is a much more frequent finding than a spotty pattern. Color Doppler sonography is a useful and adequate method for determining whether a thickened gallbladder wall is the result of cholecystitis or has non-cholecystic causes.

  12. Color doppler sonography in thickened gallbladder wall

    The thickening of the gallbladder wall is a valuable finding for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, but may be seen in non-cholecystic disease as well as in acute or chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of color Doppler sonography in differentiating the causes of thickened gallbladder wall. Ninety eight patients with thickened gallbladder wall(more than 3mm) which was not due to gallbladder cancer were prospectively evaluated with color Doppler sonography. Sixty-six cases, confirmed by pathologic reports and clinical records, were analyzed for correlation between thickened gallbladder wall and color flow signal according to the underlying causes. Of the 66 patients, 28 cases were cholecystitis and 38 cases had non-cholecystic causes such as liver cirrhosis, ascites, hepatitis, pancreatitis, renal failure, and hypoalbuminemia. Of the 28 patients with cholecystitis(12 acute, 16 chronic), 23(82%) had color Doppler flow signals in the thickened gallbladder wall. Of the 38 patients with non-cholecystic causes, eight(21%) had color Doppler flow signals. There was a statistically significant difference of color Doppler flow signals between the cholecystitis and non-cholecystic groups(p=0.0001). No significant difference of color Doppler flow signals was found between cases of acute and chronic cholecystitis. Of the 23 patients with color Doppler flow signals in 28 cases of cholecystitis, 18(78.3%) showed a linear pattern and five(21.7%) showed a spotty pattern. Of the eight patients with color Doppler flow signals in the 38 non-cholecystic cases, four(50%) showed a linear pattern and four(50%) showed a spotty pattern. In cholecystitis, a linear color Doppler flow signal pattern is a much more frequent finding than a spotty pattern. Color Doppler sonography is a useful and adequate method for determining whether a thickened gallbladder wall is the result of cholecystitis or has non-cholecystic causes

  13. [Basic and clinical studies of fleroxacin on infectious enteritis. Research Group of AM-833 on infectious enteritis].

    Sagara, H; Tomizawa, I; Takizawa, Y; Nitta, Y; Tsunoda, T; Yamaguchi, T; Masuda, G; Negishi, M; Ajisawa, A; Murata, M

    1994-11-01

    A clinical study was conducted on fleroxacin (FLRX) in 143 patients and carriers with infectious enteritis (shigellosis, Salmonella enteritis, Campylobacter enteritis, pathogenic Escherichia coli enteritis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis, cholera, multiple bacterial infections, pathogen-negative enteritis). Furthermore, its antibacterial activity against clinical isolates, fecal concentration and effect on fecal microflora were conducted. FLRX was administered orally in doses of 200 mg once a day (200 mg group) or 300 mg once a day (300 mg group) for 3 days to cholera, for 7 days to Salmonella enteritis and for 5 days to the other infectious enteritis. The clinical efficacy rates were 100% in both the 200 mg and 300 mg groups. The bacteriological efficacy rates were 100% against Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., pathogenic E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae O1, and 63.6% against Campylobacter spp. in the 200 mg group. The rates of the 300 mg group were 93.3% against Shigella spp., and 100% against Campylobacter spp. and pathogenic E. coli. As adverse effects, skin rash was observed in 1 case each in both groups (1.1%, 2.1%). Abnormal laboratory findings consisted of 1 case of increased eosinophils and 1 case of elevated GOT and GPT levels in the 200 mg group (2.8%), and 1 case of elevated GPT in the 300 mg group (2.9%). The clinical usefulness rates were 92.9% and 93.3% in the 200 mg and 300 mg groups, respectively. Antibacterial activity was somewhat inferior to that fo ciprofloxacin and equal to or better than that of norfloxacin, demonstrating MIC90 values against Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., pathogenic E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus and Campylobacter spp. of 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.78 micrograms/ml, respectively. Peak fecal concentrations of the drug were 49.0 micrograms/g and 274.4 micrograms/g in the 200 mg group, and 43.3 micrograms/g and below the detection limit (5.0 micrograms/g) in the 300 mg group. With respect to fecal microflora (4 cases

  14. Application of Laser Doppler Vibrometery for human heart auscultation.

    Koegelenberg, S; Scheffer, C; Blanckenberg, M M; Doubell, A F

    2014-01-01

    In this study the potential of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) was tested as a non-contact sensor for the classification of heart sounds. Of the twenty participants recorded using the LDV, five presented with Aortic Stenosis (AS), three were healthy and twelve presented with other pathologies. The recorded heart sounds were denoised and segmented using a combination of the Electrocardiogram (ECG) data and the complexity of the signal. Frequency domain features were extracted from the segmented heart sound cycles and used to train a K-nearest neighbor classifier. Due to the small number of participants, the classifier could not be trained to differentiate between normal and abnormal participants, but could successfully distinguish between participants who presented with AS and those who did not. A sensitivity of 80 % and a specificity of 100 % were achieved a test dataset. PMID:25570986

  15. LISA data analysis: Doppler demodulation

    The orbital motion of the laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) produces amplitude, phase and frequency modulations of a gravitational wave signal. The modulations have the effect of spreading a monochromatic gravitational wave signal across a range of frequencies. The modulations encode useful information about the source location and orientation, but they also have the deleterious effect of spreading a signal across a wide bandwidth, thereby reducing the strength of the signal relative to the instrument noise. We describe a simple method for removing the dominant, Doppler component of the signal modulation. The demodulation reassembles the power from a monochromatic source into a narrow spike and provides a quick way to determine the sky locations and frequencies of the brightest gravitational wave sources

  16. Abnormal cholesterol is associated with prefrontal white matter abnormalities among obese adults, a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Cohen, Jessica I.; Cazettes, Fanny; Convit, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ in the body. Although most of the cholesterol in the brain is produced endogenously, some studies suggest that systemic cholesterol may be able to enter the brain. We investigated whether abnormal cholesterol profiles correlated with diffusion-tensor-imaging-based estimates of white matter microstructural integrity of lean and overweight/obese (o/o) adults. Twenty-two lean and 39 obese adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging, kept a 3-day food ...

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Dysfunction: Concordance of Clinical Findings, Doppler Ultrasound Examination, and Shunt Venography

    Owen, Joshua M; Gaba, Ron Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the concordance between clinical symptoms, Doppler ultrasound (US), and shunt venography for the detection of stent-graft transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Forty-one patients (M:F 30:11, median age 55 years) who underwent contemporaneous clinical exam, Doppler US, and TIPS venography between 2003 and 2014 were retrospectively studied. Clinical symptoms (recurrent ascites or variceal bleeding) were dichotomously classified as present/absent, and US and TIPS venograms were categorized in a binary fashion as normal/abnormal. US abnormalities included high/low (>190 or 50 cm/s), absent flow, and return of antegrade intra-hepatic portal flow. Venographic abnormalities included shunt stenosis/occlusion and/or pressure gradient elevation. Clinical and imaging concordance rates were calculated. Results: Fifty-two corresponding US examinations and venograms were assessed. The median time between studies was 3 days. Forty of 52 (77%) patients were symptomatic, 33/52 (64%) US examinations were abnormal, and 20/52 (38%) TIPS venograms were abnormal. Concordance between clinical symptoms and TIPS venography was 48% (25/52), while the agreement between US and shunt venography was 65% (34/52). Clinical symptoms and the US concurred in 60% (31/52) of the patients. The sensitivity of clinical symptoms and US for the detection of venographically abnormal shunts was 80% (16/20) and 85% (17/20), respectively. Both clinical symptoms and the US had low specificity (25%, 8/32 and 50%, 16/32) for venographically abnormal shunts. Conclusion: Clinical findings and the US had low concordance rates with TIPS venography, with acceptable sensitivity but poor specificity. These findings suggest the need for improved noninvasive imaging methods for stent-graft TIPS surveillance.

  18. Comprehensive Imaging Review of Abnormalities of the Placenta.

    Zaidi, Sadaf F; Moshiri, Mariam; Osman, Sherif; Robinson, Tracy J; Siebert, Joseph R; Bhargava, Puneet; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-03-01

    The placenta has a fundamental role in fetal health and functions as an important bridge to normal fetal development throughout pregnancy. A complete fetal ultrasound (US) survey should include full assessment of the placenta for any possible abnormalities. Placental diseases range from abnormal morphology, size, location, extent, and degree of placentation, to abruption and the presence of rare placental neoplasms of benign or malignant nature. Some of these conditions are associated with other diseases including aneuploidies, and their discovery should alert the radiologist to perform a very thorough fetal US examination. At times, a fetal karyotype may be needed to provide additional information. Timely detection of placental abnormalities can alert the clinician regarding the need to make important management decisions to reduce fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Familiarity with the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the placenta is therefore necessary for the radiologist. Ultrasound with Doppler is the initial imaging modality of choice for placental assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging serves as a problem-solving examination in instances where the US findings are equivocal or where additional information is needed. Computed tomography has a limited role in the evaluation of placental disease because of its relatively limited tissue characterization and in particular because of the resultant direct radiation exposure of the fetus. However, in specific instances, particularly after trauma, computed tomography can provide invaluable information for patient management. PMID:26938032

  19. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  20. Enteric neuropathology of congenital intestinal obstruction: A case report

    Giovanni Di Nardo; Rosanna Cogliandro; Cesare Cremon; Alessandra Gori; Roberto Corinaldesi; Kenton M Sanders; Roberto De Giorgio; Vincenzo Stanghellini; Salvatore Cucchiara; Giovanni Barbara; Gianandrea Pasquinelli; Donatella Santini; Cristina Felicani; Gianluca Grazi; Antonio D Pinna

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that chronic mechanical sub-occlusion of the intestine may damage the enteric nervous system (ENS), although data in humans are lacking. We here describe the first case of enteric degenerative neuropathy related to a congenital obstruction of the gut. A 3-year and 9-mo old girl began to complain of vomiting, abdominal distension, constipation with air-fluid levels at plane abdominal radiology.Her subsequent medical history was characterized by 3 operations: the first showed dilated duodeno-jejunal loops in the absence of occlusive lesions; the second (2 years later) was performed to obtain full-thickness biopsies of the dilated intestinal loops and revealed hyperganglionosis at histopathology; the third (9 years after the hyperganglionosis was identified) disclosed a Ladd's band which was removed and the associated gut malrotation was corrected. Repeated intraoperative full-thickness biopsies showed enteric degenerative neuropathy along with reduced interstitial cells of Cajal network in dilated loops above the obstruction and a normal neuromuscular layer below the Ladd's band. One year after the latest surgery the patient tolerated oral feeding and did well, suggesting that congenital (partial) mechanical obstruction of the small bowel in humans can evoke progressive adaptive changes of the ENS which are similar to those found in animal models of intestinal mechanical occlusion. Such ENS changes mimic neuronal abnormalities observed in intestinal pseudoobstruction.

  1. Acute Fetal Anemia Diagnosed by Middle Cerebral Artery Doppler Velocimetry in Stage V Twin–Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    Jennifer Salcedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In stage V twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, up to 50% of surviving twins die or experience permanent disabilities, likely due to acute intertwin hemorrhage resulting in sudden severe anemia of the survivor. Although fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA Doppler studies demonstrate strong correlation with fetal hemoglobin values, acute hemorrhagic events are more difficult to diagnose, and optimal timing of delivery of the survivor poses an obstetric dilemma. We report a case of newly diagnosed stage V TTTS at 28 weeks gestation, complicated by acute severe anemia diagnosed by significantly abnormal fetal MCA Doppler studies. The anemic twin was urgently delivered and is doing well without significant sequelae.

  2. Entering China: an unconventional approach.

    Vanhonacker, W

    1997-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace. PMID:10165447

  3. CERN openlab enters new phase

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The newest phase of CERN’s openlab framework was inaugurated this week during a meeting of the openlab partners. This phase will last three years and will bring together existing openlab partners and a new contributor: Huawei.   Group picture taken at the first CERN openlab IV annual Board of Sponsors meeting, in the presence of the CERN Director-General, the partners and the openlab team members. © Fons Rademakers (CERN Photo Club). Eleven years ago, the creation of the CERN openlab created a long-term link between industrial partners and the Organization. Its framework has allowed industry to carry out large-scale IT research and development in an open atmosphere – an “Open Lab”, if you will. For CERN, openlab has contributed to giving the computing centre and, more broadly, the LHC community, the opportunity to ensure that the next generation of services and products is suitable to their needs. Now entering its fourth phase, openlab will ...

  4. Color doppler ultrasonography diagnosis of intramuscular hemangioma

    Objective: To analyze the clinical application of color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing intramuscular hemangioma. Methods: The color Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics of 17 cases with intramuscular hemangioma were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Seventeen patients with intramuscular hemangima were examined and diagnosed, and all these cases were confirmed by pathology after operation. The diagnostic accurate rate was 100%. Conclusion: Intramuscular hemangioma possesses typical characteristics in two-dimensional ultrasound. On the base of two-dimensional image, Color Doppler Flow Imaging can show blood vessel distribution of intramuscular hemangioma. So intramuscular hemangioma can be measured accurately. (authors)

  5. Preliminary simulation study of doppler reflectometry

    A preliminary simulation study of Doppler reflectometry is performed. The simulations solve Maxwell's equations by a finite difference time domain (FDTD) code method in two dimensions. A moving corrugated metal target is used as a plasma cutoff layer to study the basic features of Doppler reflectometry. We examined the effects of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the electromagnetic waves and the corrugation depth of the metal target. Furthermore, the effect of a nonuniform plasma is studied using this FDTD analysis. The Doppler shift and velocity are compared with those obtained from FDTD analysis of a uniform plasma. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional color Doppler reconstruction of intracardiac blood flow in patients with different heart valve diseases.

    De Simone, R; Glombitza, G; Vahl, C F; Meinzer, H P; Hagl, S

    2000-12-15

    An improved perception of the magnitude and dynamics of intracardiac flow disturbances has been made possible by the advent of 3-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler, a new diagnostic procedure developed at our institution. This study describes the new insights derived from 3-D reconstruction of color Doppler flow patterns in patients with different heart valve diseases. The color Doppler flow data from 153 multiplanar transesophageal or transthoracic echocardiographic examinations has been obtained from 133 patients with heart valve disease; 73 patients had mitral regurgitation, 15 had mitral stenosis, 18 had aortic regurgitation, 26 had aortic stenosis, and 21 patients had tricuspid regurgitation. Four patients had pulmonary regurgitation associated with mitral valve disease. The 3-D reconstructions of color Doppler flow signals were accomplished by means of the "Heidelberg Raytracing model," developed at our institution. The 3-D color Doppler reconstructions were obtained in all patients. The 3-D images revealed for the first time the complex spatial distribution of the blood flow abnormalities in the heart chambers caused by different heart valve diseases. New patterns of intracardiac blood flow disturbances were observed and classified. Three-dimensional color Doppler provides a unique noninvasive method that can be easily applied for studying intracardiac blood flow disturbances in clinical practice. PMID:11113410

  7. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERAL NUTRITION PRODUCTS

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This review mainly deals with the Formulation Development of Enteral Nutrition Products. Nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and management of many diseases. Chronic illness is associated with many complications such as anorexia, hypermetabolism, malabsorption, atrophy of muscles, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract heart, and impaired cell mediated immunity, susceptibility to infection, poor wound healing, anaemia, death. Hence it is important to correct caloric and nutrient deficiencies whenever possible. The term enteral means “within or by the way of gastrointestinal tract”. The nutrition product given by enteral route called as enteral nutrition product. The different types of enteral nutrition are classified as Short term and long term enteral nutrition. Enteral tubes are made of PVC, Polyurethane etc. The selection of the enteral formula is patient specific thus its nutritional requirements, the ingredients used in it are taken into consideration. The classification of formulas is also done on the basis of the patient’s needs and ingredients used in it. The enteral feeds can be given in the form of solutions and powders which require reconstitution. The quality control test like Osmolality, pH, etc is also taken into consideration. Thus, the purpose here is to point out explicitly the formulation development of enteral nutrition products.

  8. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

  9. Hepatic Vein Doppler Waveform Changes in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Hepatomegaly

    Ozum Tuncyurek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Doppler Ultrasonography (DUS has become an important diagnostic technique in the hepatic vasculature evaluation. Fatty infiltration of the liver can also change the Doppler findings -like cirrhosis- of hepatic veins. Diffuse fatty liver  (DFL is the most common finding in liver with the method of ultrasonography. Most literature reports mention the effect of chronic liver disease with a small-size liver on the waveform alterations. The objective of the study was to evaluate the hepatic vein (HV Doppler waveforms in cases with hepatomegaly and diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver. Material and Method: Steatosis was present in all cases (Grade I: 35 (19.3%; Grade II: 129 (71.3%; and Grade III: 17 (9.4%. Steatosis was accompanied by hepatomegaly in 107 (59.1% cases. However, steatosis was accompanied by nonhepatomegaly in 74 (40.9% cases. Results: Of the cases that were detected to have hepatomegaly, 35 (33% were male and 72 (67% were female. Their ages ranged from 27 to 83 years (mean: 53.5 ± 11.1. Hepatic vein waveforms were examined in all cases. HV waveforms were divided into 3 groups, namely regular triphasic form, biphasic form, and monophasic form. Etiologic factors were diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. An abnormal HV Doppler waveform was present in 119 (65% of 181 cases. A correlation was detected between DFL grade and HV Doppler waveforms (p=0.03, whereas no correlation was detected between DFL grade and hepatomegaly (p=0.5. It is known that there is an association between the grade of steatosis and a change in the hepatic vein waveform. Discussion: Nevertheless, hepatomegaly that is observed with steatosis does not cause any significant change in HV flow, which can be detected with a Doppler apparatus.

  10. Carotid Artery Doppler Assessment In Patients Accussed Of Strokes

    H. Mazaher; S. Sharif Kashani

    2005-01-01

    Carotid Doppler ultrasound assessment mostly indicated in patients accussed of TIAs or in younger patients with nonpersistant neurologic deficits. This assessment should be consisted of gray scale sonography, color Doppler Sonography, spectral Doppler sonography and power Doppler sonography. By gray scale sonography atherosclerotic plaques assessed from the point of Homogenousity, degree of echogenicity, surface regularity, calcification, length, Thichkness and sites of involvement. In color ...

  11. Steering A Radar Beam Toward The Zero-Doppler Line

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithm computes angles needed to aim radar beam from airborne or spaceborne platform toward Doppler line projected on ground for which Doppler shift of radar return is zero. Devised to reduce Doppler errors and simplify processing of data from synthetic-aperture-radar system. Applicable to aiming of other radio or optical instruments toward their zero-Doppler lines on ground.

  12. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Fabre Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la

  13. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission

  14. High Throughput Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lite Cycles, Inc. (LCI) proposes to develop a direct-detection Doppler lidar (D3L) technology called ELITE that improves the system optical throughput by more than...

  15. INSTANTANEOUS DOPPLER FREQUENCY FOR SQUINT SAR IMAGING

    Liu Guangyan; Huang Shunji

    2003-01-01

    Instantaneous Doppler frequency for squint SAR imaging has been found with ChirpScaling Algorithm (CSA). Because the azimuth sample is not perpendicular to the range sample,the range signal must impact on the azimuth signal in the squint SAR data processing, andthe different slant range targets have different Doppler frequencies. From the mathematicalmodel of SAR echo signal, this paper carefully analyzes the instantaneous azimuth frequency, theinstantaneous Doppler frequency component of the azimuth frequency and the impact of rangechirp on azimuth frequency, which explains that Doppler frequency should be properly selected forcorrect SAR imaging in the squint SAR. The results of point target simulation experiments showthat the way is reasonable for the squint SAR and can effectively complete range compressionand azimuth focusing, and improve images' quality.

  16. Student Microwave Experiments Involving the Doppler Effect.

    Weber, F. Neff; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described is the use of the Doppler Effect with microwaves in the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity of falling objects. The experiments described add to the repertoire of quantitative student microwave experiments. (Author/DS)

  17. Doppler coefficient measurements in Zebra Core 5

    Measurements using a central hot loop in Zebra Core 5 are described. Results are given for the Doppler coefficients found in a number of assemblies with PuO2 and 16% PuO2/84% depleted UO2 pins, loaded with different combinations of steel, sodium or void pins. The mixed oxide results are in general about 20% more negative than was calculated using the FD2 data set, but agreement is good if the plutonium contributions in the calculations are omitted. The small positive Doppler coefficient calculated for Pu239 was not observed, and two measurements indicated instead a small negative effect. The Doppler effect in the mixed oxide systems was found to vary approximately as 1/T. The results from the empty loop and non-fissile assemblies indicate either a small negative Doppler effect in steel or alternatively the presence of an unexplained expansion effect. (author)

  18. Intensity changes in the Doppler effect

    Johnson, Montgomery H.; Teller, Edward

    1982-01-01

    When a source moves in any direction, the source strength and the frequencies are altered by the Doppler effect. It is shown that the source strength divided by the cube of the frequency is a Lorentz invariant.

  19. Microbiome Associations of Therapeutic Enteral Nutrition

    Rajesh Shah; Richard Kellermayer

    2014-01-01

    One of the most effective forms of therapeutic enteral nutrition is designated as “exclusive enteral nutrition” (EEN). EEN constitutes the monotonous enteral delivery of complete liquid nutrition and has been most explored in the treatment Crohn’s disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. While EEN’s mechanisms of action are not clearly understood, it has been shown to modify the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an important component of CD pathogenesis. The current literat...

  20. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that all...

  1. Laser Doppler flowmetry in microvascular surgery

    Adrichem, Léon

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn the first part of this thesis, describing clinical and experimental studies, laser Doppler flowmetry is evaluated as diagnostic tool to assess tissue microcirculation after various microvascular operations. The second part concerns the application of laser Doppler flowmetry to investigate and to objectivate the negative effects of cigarette smoking upon the microcirculation under normal circumstances as well as after microvascular operative procedures. Success of plastic and re...

  2. Speckles in laser Doppler perfusion imaging

    Rajan, V; Varghese, B.; Leeuwen, van; W. Steenbergen

    2006-01-01

    We report on the quantitative influence of speckles in laser Doppler perfusion imaging. The influence of speckles on the signal amplitude and on the Doppler spectrum is demonstrated experimentally for particle suspensions with different scattering levels and various beam widths. It is shown that the type of tissue affects the instrumental response through the effect of lateral light diffusion on the number of speckles involved in the detection process. These effects are largest for narrow beams.

  3. Optical Doppler shift with structured light

    Belmonte A.; Belmonte, Aniceto; de Torres, Juan P; Torres J.P.

    2011-01-01

    When a light beam with a transverse spatially varying phase is considered for optical remote sensing, in addition to the usual longitudinal Doppler frequency shift of the returned signal induced by the motion of the scatter along the beam axis, a new transversal Doppler shift appears associated to the motion of the scatterer in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis. We discuss here how this new effect can be used to enhance the current capabilities of optical measurement system...

  4. Diagnosing clostridial enteric disease in poultry.

    Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn; Uzal, Francisco A

    2013-05-01

    The world's poultry industry has grown into a multibillion-dollar business, the success of which hinges on healthy intestinal tracts, which result in effective feed conversion. Enteric disease in poultry can have devastating economic effects on producers, due to high mortality rates and poor feed efficiency. Clostridia are considered to be among the most important agents of enteric disease in poultry. Diagnosis of enteric diseases produced by clostridia is usually challenging, mainly because many clostridial species can be normal inhabitants of the gut, making it difficult to determine their role in virulence. The most common clostridial enteric disease in poultry is necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens, which typically occurs in broiler chickens but has also been diagnosed in various avian species including turkeys, waterfowl, and ostriches. Diagnosis is based on clinical and pathological findings. Negative culture and toxin detection results may be used to rule out this disease, but isolation of C. perfringens and/or detection of its alpha toxin are of little value to confirm the disease because both are often found in the intestine of healthy birds. Ulcerative enteritis, caused by Clostridium colinum, is the other major clostridial enteric disease of poultry. Diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis is by documentation of typical pathological findings, coupled with isolation of C. colinum from the intestine of affected birds. Other clostridial enteric diseases include infections produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium fallax, and Clostridium baratii. PMID:23572451

  5. with Ultrasound Color Doppler Imaging

    Shin Takayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Color Doppler imaging (CDI can be used to noninvasively create images of human blood vessels and quantitatively evaluate blood flow in real-time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acupuncture on the blood flow of the peripheral, mesenteric, and retrobulbar arteries by CDI. Statistical significance was defined as P values less than 0.05. Blood flow in the radial and brachial arteries was significantly lower during needle stimulation on LR3 than before in healthy volunteers, but was significantly higher after needle stimulation than before. LR3 stimulation also resulted in a significant decrease in the vascular resistance of the short posterior ciliary artery and no significant change of blood flow through the superior mesenteric artery (SMA during acupuncture. In contrast, ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant increase in blood flow through the SMA and no significant change in the vascular resistance of the retrobulbar arteries. Additionally, acupuncture at previously determined acupoints in patients with open-angle glaucoma led to a significant reduction in the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery and short posterior ciliary artery. Our results suggest that acupuncture can affect blood flow of the peripheral, mesenteric, and retrobulbar arteries, and CDI can be useful to evaluate hemodynamic changes by acupuncture.

  6. Doppler synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging

    In this paper we consider passive airborne receivers that use backscattered signals from sources of opportunity transmitting single-frequency or ultra-narrowband waveforms. Because of its combined passive synthetic aperture and the single-frequency nature of the transmitted waveforms, we refer to the system under consideration as Doppler synthetic aperture hitchhiker (DSAH). We present a novel image formation method for DSAH. Our method first correlates the windowed signal obtained from one receiver with the windowed, filtered, scaled and translated version of the received signal from another receiver. This processing removes the transmitter-related variables from the phase of the Fourier integral operator that maps the radiance of the scene to the correlated signal. Next, we use microlocal analysis to reconstruct the scene radiance by the weighted backprojection of the correlated signal. The image reconstruction method is applicable to both cooperative and non-cooperative sources of opportunity using one or more airborne receivers. It has the desirable property of preserving the visible edges of the scene radiance. Additionally, it is an analytic reconstruction technique that can be made computationally efficient. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the image reconstruction method and to verify the theoretical results

  7. UTERINE ARTERY DOPPLER STUDY FOR PREDICTION OF ADVERSE OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK PREGNANCY

    Gunjan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To detect abnormal waveforms in uterine artery in pregnancies at risk between 20 to 24 weeks of gestation and to measure Resistance index (RI and systolic/diastolic ratio(S/D of these waveforms in study population and to study correlation of Doppler dat a with adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS : This is a prospective study included Doppler analysis of uterine artery waveforms in 107 normotensive women with singleton pregnancy between 20 to24 weeks of period of gestation who were considered to be at increa sed risk of developing pregnancy complications. Women with Multiple gestation, with congenital anomaly of fetus, chronic hypertension, renal disease, cardiac disease, Diabetes Mellitus were excluded from the study. Bilateral uterine artery Doppler was done and Parameters studied were S/D ratio and RI in uterine artery. Early diastolic notch in uterine artery was watched for. The flow velocity waveforms considered abnormal if there was an early diastolic notch in uterine artery in either right or left uterin e artery was watched for abnormal pregnancy outcomes considered are Gestational hypertension, Pre - eclampsia IUGR, Abruptio placentae, IUD and preterm deliveries. RESULTS : minimum women were aged 21 – 25 year with minimum of 18 years and maximum of 36 years, 28% were primigravidae while 72% were multigravidae mean gestational age of which scan was done was 22 wks 1 day (20 - 24 minimum gestational age at time of delivery was 28 wks of gestation 70% women were delivered vaginally and 30% LSCS. 7% women developed Gestational Hypertension, 5% developed Preeclampsia, 8% neonates with IUGR, 3% developed Placental Abruption while 4% had IUD and 8% had Preterm deliveries. CONCLUSION : Abnormal uterine artery Doppler studies in second trimester have been associated with subsequent adverse pregnancy out comes including Preeclampsia IUGR and perinatal mortality. Doppler velocimetry is a primary tool for fetomaternal surveillance in high

  8. Color Doppler Ultrasound Indices in Endometriotic Cysts

    Parisa Hajialioghlo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There have been considerable interests on using non-invasive techniques to detect endometriosis. A few studies were evaluated the Doppler ultrasound findings of endometriosis. This study aimed to characterize the grayscale and Doppler ultrasound findings of endometriosis. Approach: During present prospective study, gray scale and Doppler ultrasound findings of 37 women with final diagnosis of endometriosis were evaluated. Patients with probable diagnosis of endometriosis underwent conventional transvaginal and color Doppler assessment. After laparascopic confirmation of endometriosis, gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic data of patients considered for analysis. Results: Finally data of 37 subjects' data with suspected endometriosis was analyzed. Twenty nine of lesions were endometriosis, five hydrosalpinx, four paraovarian adhesion cysts and one peritoneal inclusion cyst according to laparoscopic exploration. Out of 29 endometriotic cysts, flow was detected in 58.62%. The mean of RI and PI were 0.67±0.15 (0.46-1.00 and 1.49±0.85 (0.66-3.11, respectively. Conclusion: In our experience, transvaginal sonography with color Doppler interrogation is a useful technique in the diagnosis of pathologic ovarian conditions, including cystic endometriosis.

  9. Post-liver transplantation hepatic hemodynamic indexes: a comparative study perfusion CT and color Doppler ultrasonography

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the perfusion CT and color Doppler ultrasonography in assessing the post-liver transplantation hepatic blood supply, and to determine the relationships between the two modalities. Methods: From Nov. 2002 to Nov. 2004, 11 patients with liver transplantation as study group and 11 healthy volunteers as control group underwent dynamic CT scan assessing the hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) and Doppler perfusion studies (RI) Patients enrolled in the study group had no post-surgical vascular complication and the imaging was performed in 12-20 days after the transplantation. Results: Statistically significant correlations could not be found between CT arterial perfusion and Doppler perfusion index (HAP/RI: r=0.470, P=0.123) in study group, though the correlations were significant in control group (HAP/RI: r=-0.767, P=0.06). Conclusion: In the patients with liver transplantation, RI acquired by color Doppler ultrasound is not statistically consistent with HAP, which cannot provide reliable assessment of post-liver transplantation hepatic arterial supply. Abnormal RI indicates the vascular complication during the follow up. Perfusion CT is a direct way to survey post-liver transplantation hepatic blood supply. (authors)

  10. Do patients with moderately impaired gastrointestinal function requiring enteral nutrition need a predigested nitrogen source? A prospective crossover controlled clinical trial.

    Rees, R G; Hare, W R; Grimble, G K; Frost, P. G.; Silk, D B

    1992-01-01

    This prospective double blind randomised seven day crossover controlled clinical trial was carried out to determine whether enterally fed patients with moderately impaired gastrointestinal function require a predigested nitrogen (N) source compared with whole protein. Twelve malnourished patients with varying gastrointestinal abnormalities, who required enteral feeding, received 2.25 l of one of two isocaloric isonitrogenous enteral diets (1 kcal/ml, 4.8 g nitrogen/l) containing either predom...

  11. Advances in noninvasive evaluation of congenital heart and great vessel disease: The roles of echo Doppler and MR imaging

    This course addresses the current use of echocardiography and MR imaging in the evaluation and management of patients with congenital abnormalities of the heart and great vessels. The imaging modalities are placed in perspective with respect to each other and to more invasive techniques. The discussion of echocardiography focuses on Doppler techniques, including the advantages and disadvantages of pulsed and continuous-wave examination, Doppler-determined velocity, flow disturbances, and the computation and measurement of pressure gradients. The integrated use of two-dimensional and Doppler examination in patients with shunts, obstructive lesions, and cyanotic heart disease is described. The MR imaging discussion covers the advantages and limitations of this imaging modality, examination techniques (including special considerations in the pediatric age group), and clinical applications, both preoperative and postoperative. Emphasis is placed on the complementary roles of MR imaging and echocardiogrphy and their combined impact on the need for catheterization and angiography

  12. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  13. Enteral feed obstructing its own way

    Kesarwani Vikas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal obstruction due to solidified enteral feeds is a rare but distressful complication in intensive care unit (ICU patients. It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux, very low gastric pH, decreased pepsin and pancreatic enzyme secretions may be responsible for the solidification of casein containing enteral formulas. Recognition and avoidance of these factors will prevent such complication.

  14. A new type of Doppler velocity fluctuations in HF ground scatter from the polar cap

    Scoular, G.; Ponomarenko, P. V.; St.-Maurice, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    We report a new type of variations in Doppler velocity of HF ground scatter echoes from the polar cap at f˜10 mHz. Similar fluctuations from lower latitudes are usually associated with large-scale dayside Pc3-4 ULF waves. However, the polar cap oscillations exhibit a puzzling anisotropy in spatial coherence along and across the radar's line of sight. Furthermore, in contrast to Pc3-4 waves, these fluctuations show no ground magnetic signatures and display a pronounced gap in power/occurrence around local noon. We hypothesize that localized, ≤100 km, auroral particle precipitations near the radar site can modulate Doppler shift of the radio waves entering the ionosphere. In the ground scatter returns, due to the geometrical spread of the rays propagating through the ionosphere to the ground, these variations would appear to have a much larger line-of-sight scale.

  15. Doppler evaluation of valvular regurgitation

    The many examples described in this chapter show that there are several major points to keep in mind when examining patients for the presence of valvular insufficiency. One practical point not previously emphasized is that the audible output may be more sensitive than the spectral display. It is not infrequent that a given lesion is heard by audio but cannot be adequately recorded on the spectral hard copy. Interpretation in these cases is often difficult and, in our experience, usually involves a tradeoff. Accepting audio evidence of a regurgitant lesion without hard-copy confirmation increases the sensitivity of the procedure but will also result in an increased number of false-positive diagnoses. Currently, we require hard-copy confirmation before we will report definite evidence of valvular regurgitation. Second, it is important for the operator to take time to search for small regurgitant jets. When searching for insufficiency by pulsed wave with an instrument that has a variable sample volume size, one should not routinely begin the examination with a sample volume size that is as large as possible. Although this may seem desirable for locating small jets, the operator must remember that this process will frequently result in a loss of system sensitivity. Third, the opertor should expect regurgitant jets to exceed a velocity of 1.5m/sec and result in aliasing when in pulsed wave mode. This is certainly true in most adults, since regurgitant lesions are located far enough away from the transducer to cause the Nyquist limit to be exceeded. Thus, in almost every instance, pulsed Doppler operators should expect aliasing of regurgitant lesion. Fourth, particularly beginners should be prepared to switch back and forth between pulsed and continuous wave modes

  16. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and power Doppler in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    Sumit Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG with color Doppler and power Doppler applications over conventional radiography in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having inflammatory periapical lesions of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth and requiring endodontic surgery were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients consented to participate in the study. We used conventional periapical radiographs as well as USG with color Doppler and power Doppler for the diagnosis of these lesions. Their diagnostic performances were compared against histopathologic examination. All data were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: USG examination with color Doppler and power Doppler identified 29 (19 cysts and 10 granulomas of 30 periapical lesions accurately, with a sensitivity of 100% for cysts and 90.91% for granulomas and a specificity of 90.91% for cysts and 100% for granulomas. In comparison, conventional intraoral radiography identified only 21 lesions (sensitivity of 78.9% for cysts and 45.4% for granulomas and specificity of 45.4% for cysts and 78.9% for granulomas. There was definite correlation between the echotexture of the lesions and the histopathological features except in one case. Conclusions: USG imaging with color Doppler and power Doppler is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of periapical lesions in the anterior jaws. This study reveals the potential of USG examination in the study of other jaw lesions.

  17. Doppler waveform of hepatic vein in patients with chronic hepatitis B; Correlation with histologic grade and stage

    Eom, Kyeong Tae; Namkung, Sook; Bae, Sang Hoon; Choi, Young Hee [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To evaluate the relationship between the waveform of the right hepatic vein and the histological grade and stage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Eighty-seven patients with chronic hepatitis B were examined prospectively by one sonographer. In each patient, Doppler waveform of the right hepatic vein was obtained. Doppler waveform was classified into 3 type, type 0; normal triphasic pattern, type 1; reduced amplitude of phasic oscillation and no reverse flow phase, and type 2; completely flat flow pattern. In the same session, an ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed and submitted to one pathologist for grading and staging. Duplex doppler ultrasonography of the right hepatic vein was also performed in 12 control subjects with no evidence of liver or heart disease. The doppler waveform was compared with the histologic severity and a statistical analysis was performed. In the control group, all cases had type 0 waveform. In the hepatitis group, there were type 0 waveform in 61 cases (70.1%), type 1 waveform in 22 cases (25.3%) and type 2 waveform in 4 cases (4.6%). The frequency of abnormal waveform is significantly higher in patients with grade 3-4 and stage 3-4 than grade and stage 1-2 (p>0.005). In the hepatitis group, the venous pulsatility index (VPI) was 0.17-0.69 (mean 0.41), and decreased in the highest and mean values when increasing the histologic scores. However, it was nor significant statistically (p>0.05). The frequency of abnormal waveform was correlated with the histologic severity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The highest and mean values of the VPI were also correlated. However 70.1% of the patients with chronic hepatitis B showed normal waveform. So doppler ultrasonogram of the hepatic vein may be useful for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis from cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B by combination of doppler waveform and venous pulsatility index.

  18. Doppler waveform of hepatic vein in patients with chronic hepatitis B; Correlation with histologic grade and stage

    To evaluate the relationship between the waveform of the right hepatic vein and the histological grade and stage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Eighty-seven patients with chronic hepatitis B were examined prospectively by one sonographer. In each patient, Doppler waveform of the right hepatic vein was obtained. Doppler waveform was classified into 3 type, type 0; normal triphasic pattern, type 1; reduced amplitude of phasic oscillation and no reverse flow phase, and type 2; completely flat flow pattern. In the same session, an ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed and submitted to one pathologist for grading and staging. Duplex doppler ultrasonography of the right hepatic vein was also performed in 12 control subjects with no evidence of liver or heart disease. The doppler waveform was compared with the histologic severity and a statistical analysis was performed. In the control group, all cases had type 0 waveform. In the hepatitis group, there were type 0 waveform in 61 cases (70.1%), type 1 waveform in 22 cases (25.3%) and type 2 waveform in 4 cases (4.6%). The frequency of abnormal waveform is significantly higher in patients with grade 3-4 and stage 3-4 than grade and stage 1-2 (p>0.005). In the hepatitis group, the venous pulsatility index (VPI) was 0.17-0.69 (mean 0.41), and decreased in the highest and mean values when increasing the histologic scores. However, it was nor significant statistically (p>0.05). The frequency of abnormal waveform was correlated with the histologic severity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The highest and mean values of the VPI were also correlated. However 70.1% of the patients with chronic hepatitis B showed normal waveform. So doppler ultrasonogram of the hepatic vein may be useful for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis from cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B by combination of doppler waveform and venous pulsatility index.

  19. The ARMA model's pole characteristics of Doppler signals from the carotid artery and their classification application

    CHEN Xi; WANG Yuanyuan; ZHANG Yu; WANG Weiqi

    2002-01-01

    In order to diagnose the cerebral infarction, a classification system based onthe ARMA model and BP (Back-Propagation) neural network is presented to analyzeblood flow Doppler signals from the carotid artery. In this system, an ARMA modelis first used to analyze the audio Doppler blood flow signals from the carotid artery.Then several characteristic parameters of the pole's distribution are estimated. Afterstudies of these characteristic parameters' sensitivity to the textcolor cerebral infarctiondiagnosis, a BP neural network using sensitive parameters is established to classify thenormal or abnormal state of the cerebral vessel. With 474 cases used to establish theappropriate neural network, and 52 cases used to test the network, the results showthat the correct classification rate of both training and testing are over 94%. Thus thissystem is useful to diagnose the cerebral infarction.

  20. Correlation of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with MRI and MRA in the evaluation of sickle cell disease patients with prior stroke

    We prospectively evaluated a group of patients with sickle cell disease and a clinical history of prior stroke, comparing transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) to both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to determine its efficacy for the detection of flow abnormalities associated with prior cerebral infarction. Using MRI as the standard examination, there was 94 % sensitivity and 30 % specificity, and using MRA as the standard examination, there was 91 % sensitivity and 22 % specificity. We concur with other reports that the transcranial Doppler examination is a highly sensitive study. In our group of sickle cell disease patients with prior stroke, TCD reliably detected flow abnormalities that correlated to areas of prior cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  1. Development of the doppler electron velocimeter: theory.

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of dynamic events at the nano-scale is currently impossible. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings of a method for making these measurements using electron microscopes. Building on the work of Moellenstedt and Lichte who demonstrated Doppler shifting of an electron beam with a moving electron mirror, further work is proposed to perfect and utilize this concept in dynamic measurements. Specifically, using the concept of ''fringe-counting'' with the current principles of transmission electron holography, an extension of these methods to dynamic measurements is proposed. A presentation of the theory of Doppler electron wave shifting is given, starting from the development of the de Broglie wave, up through the equations describing interference effects and Doppler shifting in electron waves. A mathematical demonstration that Doppler shifting is identical to the conceptually easier to understand idea of counting moving fringes is given by analogy to optical interferometry. Finally, potential developmental experiments and uses of a Doppler electron microscope are discussed.

  2. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  3. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Prasanna Byna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: AUB is a common but complicated clinical presentation and occurs in 15-20% of women between menarche to menopause and significantly affects the women's health. Women with thyroid dysfunction often have menstrual irregularities, infertility and increased morbidity during pregnancy. The objective of present study is to find the correlation between thyroid disorders and AUB in perimenopausal women attending gynecology OPD. Methods: In the present study, fifty five patients with AUB were included and were evaluated for the cause including thyroid abnormality. Thyroid function tests were done in all patients. Results: Among 55 patients, 12 patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism and 7 as hyperthyroidism, women with AUB 36 (65.4% were euthyroid. Among 19 women with thyroid abnormality, heavy menstrual bleeding was seen in 8 (42% women, 6 (31.57% had polymenorrhagia, 5 (26.31% had oligomenorrhoea. The frequent menstrual abnormality in women with hypothyroidism (12 women was heavy menstrual bleeding in 5 (41.6% women, 3 (25% had oligomennorhoea, 4 (33.3% had polymenorrhagia. Out of 7 women with hyperthyroidism, 2 (28.57% had oligomenorrhoea, 3 (42.8% had heavy menstrual bleeding, 2 (28.57% had polymenorrhagia. In a total of 55 patients with AUB, 11 (20% had structural abnormalities in uterus and ovaries. 5 (9% had adenomyosis, 3 (5.4% had ovarian cysts, 3 (5.4% had fibroids. Conclusions: It is important to screen all women for thyroid abnormality who are presenting with AUB especially with non-structural causes of AUB. Correction of thyroid abnormalities also relieves AUB. This will avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3250-3253

  4. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    Vamshidhar R. Vootla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  5. EVALUATION OF TESTICULAR LESIONS, SCROTAL SWELLINGS BY HIGH RESOLUTION ULTRASONOGRAPHY AND COLOUR DOPPLER AND ITS CORRELATION WITH SURGICAL MANAGEMENT

    Shivanand S; Shrishail; Sanjeev,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The necessity for scrotal ultrasound scanning is when clinical examination does not identify any significant abnormality. For patients presenting with a scrotal mass, it is critical to determine whether the mass is intra- or extra-testicular. High Resolution Ultrasonography (HRUS) combined with Colour Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS) has become the imaging modality of choice for evaluating scrotal diseases. US is helpful in differentiating extra- from i...

  6. COLOR DOPPLER EVALUA TION OF HEPATIC VESS ELS AND PORTAL VENOUS SYSTEM IN LIV ER DISEASES WITH PAT HOLOGICAL CPRRELATION

    Sanjeev; Preeti,; Rahul; Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography is an important noninvasive procedure for detecting abnormalities in hepatic vasculature in various liver diseases. Ultrasound findings associated with portal hypertension include enlarged diameter of the portal vein, lack of respiratory variation in the portal vein or its tributaries, hepatofungal portal flow direction, decreased portal velocity or volume, and the presence of collaterals or varices. Not only portal hypertension but various other liv...

  7. Eosinophilic Enteritis Confined to an Ileostomy Site

    Bernadette U. Laxa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition that can manifest anywhere from esophagus to rectum. Its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, malignancy, food allergy, parasitic or viral infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug sensitivity. We present the case of a 41-year-old male diagnosed with ulcerative colitis who underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and loop ileostomy formation utilizing Seprafilm®, who later developed eosinophilic enteritis of the loop ileostomy site. This is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis and its possible link to the use of bioabsorbable adhesion barriers.

  8. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  9. Time-resolved volumetric MRI blood flow: a Doppler ultrasound perspective

    van Pelt, Roy; Oliván Bescós, Javier; Nagel, Eike; Vilanova, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Hemodynamic information is increasingly inspected to assess cardiovascular disease. Abnormal blood-flow patterns include high-speed jet flow and regurgitant flow. Such pathological blood-flow patterns are nowadays mostly inspected by means of color Doppler ultrasound imaging. To date, Doppler ultrasound has been the prevailing modality for blood-flow analysis, providing non-invasive and cost-effective blood-flow imaging. Since recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly employed to measure time-resolved blood-flow data. Albeit more expensive, MRI enables volumetric velocity encoding, providing true vector-valued data with less noise. Domain experts in the field of ultrasound and MRI have extensive experience in the interpretation of blood-flow information, although they employ different analysis techniques. We devise a visualization framework that extends on common Doppler ultrasound visualizations, exploiting the added value of MRI velocity data, and aiming for synergy between the domain experts. Our framework enables experts to explore the advantages and disadvantages of the current renditions of their imaging data. Furthermore, it facilitates the transition from conventional Doppler ultrasound images to present-day high-dimensional velocity fields. To this end, we present a virtual probe that enables direct exploration of MRI-acquired blood-flow velocity data using user-friendly interactions. Based on the probe, Doppler ultrasound inspired visualizations convey both in-plane and through-plane blood-flow velocities. In a compound view, these two-dimensional visualizations are linked to state-of-the-art three-dimensional blood-flow visualizations. Additionally, we introduce a novel volume rendering of the blood-flow velocity data that emphasizes anomalous blood-flow patterns. The visualization framework was evaluated by domain experts, and we present their feedback.

  10. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    Yu Yinan; Wand, Vinzenz; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: yinan@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  11. Diabetic Nephropathy : Evaluation with Doppler Ultrasonography

    Sim, Jung Suk; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kang, Heung Sik; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To compare Doppler ultrasonography with laboratory tests in evaluation of diabetic nephropathy. Fifty-five patients (mean age = 60, M : F = 26 : 29) with diabetes mellitus underwent renal Doppler ultrasonography. Resistive indices were compared with degree of proteinuria, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance rate. Eighteen patients who showed no proteinuria or microscopic proteinuria had a mean resistive index (RI) of 0.72 (SD, 0.05), 16 patients with macroscopic proteinuria without nephrotic syndrome had a mean RI of 0.82 (SD, 0.13), and 21 patients with nephrotic syndrome had a mean RI of 0.90 (SD, 0.12). Renal RI correlated highly with serum creatinine level (r = 0.62) and creatinine clearance rate (r = -0.43). Renal Doppler ultrasonography provides a useful indication of renal function in diabetic nephropathy but cannot offer an advantage over conventional laboratory test

  12. The ionospheric response to disturbances initiated by an industrial explosion - The Doppler method

    Alebastrov, V. A.; Bezruchko, L. I.; Belenkii, M. I.; Borisov, B. B.; Drobzhev, V. I.

    An analysis of data obtained using the Doppler method during vertical, oblique, and back-oblique ionospheric sounding revealed the influence that ground-based explosions with a power of the order of several thousand tons of TNT have on the earth's ionosphere. Three types of surface-explosion generated disturbances propagating at epicentric distances approaching 3000 km at velocities of 1000, 300, and 100 m/s are found. The oblique sounding sonograms show additional signal tracks produced by radiowave scattering at the front of the shock disturbance entering the ionospheric E-region.

  13. Gallblader varices in children with portal cavernoma: duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound studies

    To determine the prevalence of varices in the gallbladder wall, observed by duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound, in children with cavernoma of the portal vein. Nineteen patients with portal hypertension were studied prospectively by duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound: 12 of the patients had developed a cavernoma of the portal vein. The presence of peri vesicular varices was assessed in the group of patients with portal cavernoma. Duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound disclosed the presence of varices in gallbladder wall in nine of the 12 patients (75%). The varices appeared as anechoic and serpiginous areas, and Doppler ultrasound revealed slowed venous flow. However, the three patients in whom gallbldder varices were not detected presented collateral gastric ciculation and spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Gallbladder varices are common in children with portal vein cavernoma; they present hepatopetal flow. Their developments is not related to the size of the portal cavernoma, the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts, or endoscopic obliteration of gastric and esophageal varices. The detection of gallbladder varices in patients with portal hypertension who are to undergo biliary surgery is highly important for the surgeon, helping to avoid perioperative complications. (Author) 15 refs

  14. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  15. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental...

  16. Isolated Enteric Cyst in the Neck

    Amit Mahore; Raghvendra Ramdasi; Palak Popat; Shilpa Sankhe; Vishakha Tikeykar

    2014-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of isolated enteric cyst in the neck region which was diagnosed on the histopathological examination. It was suspected to be duplication cyst on radiology. We have also evaluated the differential diagnosis and management issues.

  17. Ultrasonographic Doppler Use for Female Reproduction Management.

    Bollwein, Heinrich; Heppelmann, Maike; Lüttgenau, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography is a useful technique to get new information about physiologic and pathophysiologic alterations of the uterus and ovaries in female cattle. During all reproductive stages characteristic changes in uterine blood flow are observed. Cows with puerperal disturbances show delayed decrease in uterine blood flow in the first few weeks postparturition compared with healthy cows. Measurement of follicular blood flow is used to identify normally developing follicles and predict superovulatory response. Determination of luteal blood is more reliable than B-mode sonography to distinguish between functional and nonfunctional corpora lutea. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a promising tool to improve reproductive management in female cattle. PMID:26922117

  18. Preprocessing of ionospheric echo Doppler spectra

    FANG Liang; ZHAO Zhengyu; WANG Feng; SU Fanfan

    2007-01-01

    The real-time information of the distant ionosphere can be acquired by using the Wuhan ionospheric oblique backscattering sounding system(WIOBSS),which adopts a discontinuous wave mechanism.After the characteristics of the ionospheric echo Doppler spectra were analyzed,the signal preprocessing was developed in this paper,which aimed at improving the Doppler spectra.The results indicate that the preprocessing not only makes the system acquire a higher ability of target detection but also suppresses the radio frequency interference by 6-7 dB.

  19. Entering the Mindset of Violent Religious Activists

    Mark Juergensmeyer

    2015-01-01

    How can one enter the mindset of religious activists whose worldview and values are different from one’s own? This is the challenge for analyzing contemporary violent religious movements and individuals around the world. This essay suggests guidelines, based on the author’s interview experience, for entering religious minds through informative encounters, relational knowledge, bracketing assumptions, and constructing a view of the whole.

  20. Entering the Mindset of Violent Religious Activists

    Mark Juergensmeyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How can one enter the mindset of religious activists whose worldview and values are different from one’s own? This is the challenge for analyzing contemporary violent religious movements and individuals around the world. This essay suggests guidelines, based on the author’s interview experience, for entering religious minds through informative encounters, relational knowledge, bracketing assumptions, and constructing a view of the whole.

  1. Enteral Nutrition in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Rudra Prasad Doley; Thakur Deen Yadav; Jai Dev Wig; Gurpreet Singh; Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya Bharathy; Ashwini Kudari; Rajesh Gupta; Vikas Gupta; Rakesh Kochhar; Kuchhangi Sureshchandra Poornachandra; Usha Dutta; Chetna Vaishnavi

    2009-01-01

    Context There is controversy concerning the merits of enteral and pa renteral nutrition in the manage ment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Objective This study was undertaken to evalua te the effect of enteral nutrition versus parenteral nutrition on serum markers of inflammation and outcome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Setting Tertiary care centre in North India. Design A prospective clinical trial. Metho...

  2. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    Spanier, B.W.M.; Bruno, M.J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English language literature between 1999-2009. Results. Nasogastric tube feeding appears to be safe and well tolerated in the majority of patients with severe AP, rendering the concept of panc...

  3. Enteral nutrition: better navigation, yet unknown destination?

    Casaer, Michael P; Mesotten, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The nutrition dose truly absorbed by a patient is crucial information in the management or the investigation of nutrition during critical illness. In the present issue of Critical Care, assessment of nutritional losses in stools was studied. These losses together with enteral nutrition lost in gastric fluids and enteral nutrition prescribed but never infused make up the difference between the dose supposedly given to a patient and the amount effectively taken up. Additionally, the optimal dos...

  4. HIV, opiates and enteric neuron dysfunction

    Galligan, James J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV is an immunosuppressive virus that targets CD4+ T-lymphocytes. HIV infections cause increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancer. HIV infection can also alter central nervous system (CNS) function causing cognitive impairment. HIV does not infect neurons but it does infect astrocytes and microglia in the CNS. HIV can also infect enteric glia initiating an intestinal inflammatory response which causes enteric neural injury and gut dysfunction. Part of the inflammatory re...

  5. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feedin...

  6. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old man presented with a Hinchey II perforated diverticulitis and underwent laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. During the postoperative course the patient received enteral tube feeding which was followed by a bowel obstruction accompanied with pneumatosis intestinalis (PI). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once ag...

  7. EVALUATION OF TESTICULAR LESIONS, SCROTAL SWELLINGS BY HIGH RESOLUTION ULTRASONOGRAPHY AND COLOUR DOPPLER AND ITS CORRELATION WITH SURGICAL MANAGEMENT

    Shivanand S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The necessity for scrotal ultrasound scanning is when clinical examination does not identify any significant abnormality. For patients presenting with a scrotal mass, it is critical to determine whether the mass is intra- or extra-testicular. High Resolution Ultrasonography (HRUS combined with Colour Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS has become the imaging modality of choice for evaluating scrotal diseases. US is helpful in differentiating extra- from intratesticular lesions. US provides excellent anatomic detail; when colour Doppler and power Doppler imaging are added testicular perfusion can be assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data for study was collected from 50 patients attending/referred to Basaveshwara Teaching and General Hospital (BTGH, Gulbarga. The gray scale and colour Doppler sonography routinely performed in all these patients. Subsequently, these cases were followed up and correlated with either surgical findings, response to treatment or follow-up scans wherever applicable. RESULTS Commonest clinical presentation was scrotal swelling with/or without pain. Majority number of patients with scrotal pathologies presented in this study belongs to the age group of 20 to 50, which constitute 50% of all pathologies. Most of the diagnosis were epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis, hydrocele, varicocele, orchitis, testicular torsion, hematocele, pyocele, Fournier’s gangrene. Colour Doppler ultrasonography accurately diagnosed all cases of epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis, testicular torsion, varicocele and hydrocele. Overall, sensitivity of high frequency ultrasonography with colour Doppler in diagnosing scrotal diseases was 95%, while specificity was 66%. High frequency grey scale US with Colour Doppler sonography accurately differentiates between testicular ischemia/torsion from acute inflammatory diseases in acute painful scrotal conditions. CONCLUSION High frequency ultrasonography when supplemented with colour

  8. Knee loading for abnormal gait

    Hutchison, J.; Madsen, D.; Norman, T. L.; -Blaha, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a mathematical model for determining knee loads for abnormal gait. Abnormal gait was defined as a person with varus, i.e. “bowleggedness”, or a person who had an external rotation of the femur (or the inability to internally rotate the femur) which caused an indirect varus in the forward positions of gait. Conditions such as these have been observed clinically to result in increased wear on the medial condyle of total knee replacements. This problem was...

  9. Diagnosis of neonatal hemochromatosis with MR imaging and duplex Doppler sonography

    Oddone, M.; Toma, P. [Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Children' s Research Hospital, Genoa (Italy); Bellini, C.; Bonacci, W.; Bartocci, M.; Serra, G. [Department of Pediatrics, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University of Genoa, G. Gaslini Children' s Research Hospital, Largo G. Gaslini, 5, I-16147 Genoa (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare congenital disorder which affects both fetuses and newborns. It is characterized by hepatocellular failure, often appearing on the first day of life in the form of coagulopathy, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and jaundice. Most of the affected infants die early in life, and definitive diagnosis has often been made only by post-mortem evaluation. With the help of MRI, plus increasing awareness of the disorder, diagnosis is now often made early, even in utero. Duplex Doppler sonography does not provide information on siderosis but shows abnormalities in the liver or blood-flow patterns associated with liver disease. (orig.)

  10. Doppler string phantom for assessment of clinical doppler ultrasound velocity measurement

    Yi Zhang; Ted Lynch; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Doppler string phantom provides accurate velocity of the string motion; it can be used to calibrate Doppler ultrasound (US) velocity measurements and to evaluate variations due to intrinsic spectral broadening. We developed a semi‐automated method to estimate the mode velocity (Vmode) and peak velocity (Vmax) based on duplex US images from a string phantom, and use them to assess clinical Doppler US velocity measurement.Methods: Steady motion of a rubber O‐ring (20 – 110 cm/s) in...

  11. EVALUATING MORTALITY RATE CAUSED BY ELECTROLYTE ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED

    B. Khorasani

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustment of composition of body fluids and electrolytes is one of the most important aspects of patients care. Sodium and Potassium are the most important body cations, the improper adjustment of them will cause sever disorders in neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Acute renal failure indicated by increase in creatinine and nitrogen urea, brings an accumulation of fluids, salts and metabolites of nitrogen in body. This study intends to assess the status of electrolyte abnormalities and mortality rates of the patients hospitalized in ICU wards in our country. This is a descriptive and retrospective study on the records of 378 patients hospitalized in ICU. A questionnaire was prepared and the data were entered in SPSS system. They were statistically analyzed by using chi-square and fisher's Exact test methods. Out of 378 patients hospitalized in ICU, over 2/3 of them were male and over half of them were>45 years old. Frequency distribution of electrolyte abnormalities was as follows: Hyponatremia 59% hypernatremia 23% hypokalemia 37% hyperkalemia 28%, 35% and 21% of patients had respectively BUN and creatinine more than the normal range. 26% of patients hospitalized in ICU had nonsurgical problems and 74% of the patients had surgical problems. Average time of hospitalization in ICU was 85 days and mortality rate was 35%. The most common electrolyte abnormality was related to variation in serum sodium levels in the form of hyponatremia. And the highest prevalence electrolyte abnormality in dead patients was hyponatremia. This study proves that the prevalence of electrolyte abnormalities is directly related to mortality and increase in hospitalization period and those having undergone surgical operations during hospitalization in ICU, manifested more abnormalities.

  12. Analisis Efek Doppler pada Sistem Komunikasi ITS-Sat

    Agriniwaty Paulus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisa efek Doppler ini menggunakan pemrograman Matlab dengan citra yang berukuran 160 128 piksel, pada eksentrisitas (e satelit yang diasumsikan 0 sehingga bentuk lintasannya circular, dengan ketinggian 700 km dari stasiun bumi, sudut inklinasi sebesar 53° dan sinyal informasi ditransmisikan pada transmisi downlink dengan frekuensi carrier 2.4 GHz. Doppler shift terbesar terjadi saat satelit berada pada posisi terjauh dari terminal bumi yakni sebesar 51.077 KHz. Untuk  menghilangkan efek Doppler maka data output dikompensasi dengan invers dari efek Doppler tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil simulasi diperoleh bahwa BER untuk frekuensi Doppler maksimum maupun minimum adalah mendekati atau hampir sama yaitu 0.5001 dan 0.4998, dan dalam keadaan tanpa terkena Doppler shift yaitu ± 0.0197 untuk SNR 0 sampai 10 dB. Sedangkan dari segi kualitas citra, diperoleh bahwa untuk Doppler shift maksimum, kualitas citra lebih baik dibandingkan saat Doppler shift minimum.

  13. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  14. Fish embryo multimodal imaging by laser Doppler digital holography

    Verrier, Nicolas; Picart, Pascal; Gross, Michel

    2015-01-01

    A laser Doppler imaging scheme combined to an upright microscope is proposed. Quantitative Doppler imaging in both velocity norm and direction, as well as amplitude contrast of either zebrafish flesh or vasculature is demonstrated.

  15. Chromagen lenses and abnormal colour perception

    O. Matthew Oriowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chromagen lens system comprises of tinted spectacle or contact lenses, each with a specific colour wavelength filter which controls the spectra of the light entering the eye. This study investigated whether spectacle-mounted Chromagen lenses would enhance colour perception in individuals with abnormal colour vision.Methods: The Ishihara colour test was used to test for colour vision deficiency (CVD and also to evaluate the effect of the Chromagen spectacle lens on colour perception in 13 subjects. An Oculus Anomaloscope was used to confirm and sub-classify the types of CVD. Subjects comprised of school age children from the Riyadh area in Saudi Arabia.Results: The distribution amongst the male participants comprised two subjects with protanomaly, two with protanopia, five with deuteranomaly, and two with deuteranopia. Amongst the two female participants, one subject showed deuteranomaly, and one showed protanomaly. Different types of Chromagen spectacle lenses displayed some levels of colour vision enhancement depending on type of CVD.Conclusion: The findings support the notion that chromagen lenses could enhance colour vision perception in some cases of red-green colour vision defects. Clients with CVD should be managed on an individual case basis. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 69-74 

  16. Determination of Doppler Middle Cerebral Artery Waveform Indices in Normal 20 – 40 Weeks Pregnancies

    S. Vahdinia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The aim of prenatal evaluation is to prevent fetal death. One of the main methods of evaluation of fetus health before delivery is Doppler flow velocity waveform analysis of fetus vessels. Increasing of resistance in fetal circulatory system causes the preferential shunt of blood flow from non-critical organs toward critical organs such as brain. The increase in brain blood flow leads to reduction of brain vessels resistance and results in changes of fetal cerebral arteries Doppler flow velocity indices. Evaluation of Doppler wave of middle cerebral artery can predict most of the at risk fetuses in high-risk pregnancies."nIn this study we tried to obtain normal value (and their changes across the progress of pregnancy of Doppler flow velocity indices (PI, RI, S/D ratio and PSV of middle cerebral artery in 20 - 40 weeks normal pregnancies in an Iranian population and evaluate the effect of fetus heart rate according to the above mentioned indices."nPatients and Methods: In this cross section study, 400 pregnant women with normal pregnancies and gestational age between 20 to 40 weeks were studied about middle cerebral artery Doppler examination. Mothers with preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, abnormal uterine bleeding, induction ovulation, multifetal pregnancy, major fetal anomalies, history of LD or any other OCP usage and intra uterine growth retardation were excluded from the study. All cases were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography initially and then a Doppler study of middle cerebral artery was done."nResults: According to the results of this study, with progression of pregnancy PI, RI, S/D ratio values decrease and PSV value increases in middle cerebral artery. These changes were statistically significant and were more characteristic during late weeks of pregnancy. In addition, mean fetal heart rate had been significantly reduced with pregnancy progression."nConclusion: Values of RI, PI, S/D ratio and

  17. Therapy resistant septic enteritis due to a jejunal malformation in a 5-day-old Thoroughbred colt

    Staempfli, Simon A.; Saied, Ahmad; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Serra, Verna; Eades, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    A 5-day-old Thoroughbred colt was presented with profuse watery diarrhea, hypovolemic shock, and a patent urachus. Despite intensive medical therapy, the colt was euthanized 15 d later due to poor clinical response. Necropsy revealed a small intestinal structural abnormality that formed a closed jejunal ring. Although rare, intestinal malformations should be considered in neonatal foals with clinical signs resembling enteritis.

  18. Rotational Doppler effect in left-handed materials

    Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Shu, Weixing; Tang, Zhixiang; Zou, Yanhong; Fan, Dianyuan

    2008-01-01

    We explain the rotational Doppler effect associated with light beams carrying with orbital angular momentum in left-handed materials (LHMs). We demonstrate that the rotational Doppler effect in LHMs is unreversed, which is significantly different from the linear Doppler effect. The physics underlying this intriguing effect is the combined contributions of negative phase velocity and inverse screw of wave-front. In the normal dispersion region, the rotational Doppler effect induces a upstream ...

  19. Sperm abnormalities in exposed humans

    Šrám, Radim; Rubeš, J.

    Cambridge : Issue in Toxicology, Royal Society of Chemistry Publ.,, 2007, s. 247-258. ISBN 978-0-85404-847-2 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution exposure * sperm abnormalities * male reproductive health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  20. Equipment for flow measurements according to the ultrasonic Doppler method

    An instrument for flow measurements according to the ultrasonic Doppler method is described. It consists of an applicator with an ultrasonic oscillator and, connected to it, a Doppler instrument for the Doppler flow record. The angle of incidence of the ultrasonic beam may be taken into account, flow measurement independent of the angle thus becoming possible. (RW)

  1. Radar micro-doppler signatures processing and applications

    Chen, Victor C; Miceli, William J

    2014-01-01

    Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures: Processing and applications concentrates on the processing and application of radar micro-Doppler signatures in real world situations, providing readers with a good working knowledge on a variety of applications of radar micro-Doppler signatures.

  2. Applications of doppler effect in navigation and oceanography

    Joseph, A.

    . The Doppler effect is also used in sports, through Doppler radar systems to measure ball speed. Navigation technology received a boost in the 1960s with the introduction of the satellite navigation system, which applies the Doppler effect. In this system...

  3. On acceleration dependence of Doppler effect in light

    Sanjay M Wagh

    2013-09-01

    Using only the geometric relationships of suitable locations, we analyse Doppler effect in light to show how the acceleration of the source also contributes to the Doppler shift. We further propose that an experiment be performed using cyclotron-type devices to determine the acceleration dependence of the Doppler shift.

  4. Fifty Years of HF Doppler Observations

    Ogawa, T.; T. Ichinose

    2009-01-01

    High frequency Doppler observations of the ionosphere began in August of 1957 in Kyoto. The number of the observation points worldwide were about 40 in 1980 and are about 20 at present. By this method the movement of the ionosphere reflection height and electron density below the height can be observed. Such variations are occurred by a wide variety of sources.

  5. HF Doppler Radar Observations of Geomagnetic Pulsations

    Fišer, Jiří; Chum, Jaroslav

    Prague : Matfyzpress, 2014, s. 304-309. ISBN 978-80-7378-276-4. [Week of Doctoral Students /23./ : focused on physical study branches. Prague (CZ), 03.06.2014-05.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Doppler sounding * ionosphere * geomagnetic pulsations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  6. Ultrasonic Doppler color in glaucoma: Concordance study

    Our study demonstrates that US color Doppler is a non invasive, reliable and reproducible method for the evaluation of the orbitary flow in normal and glaucomatous patients. However is suggested that every group evaluates the inter and intraobserver variability because of the lack of universal reference velocity measurements

  7. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    F. Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  8. The Doppler effect measurement on 238U

    The UO2 sample was irradiated in the RB zero power reactor in order to determine the Doppler effect on the 238 U by measuring the change in the 238 capture cross section with temperature. The measurement was meant to verify the indigenous developed computer codes and nuclear data library

  9. Measurements of the Doppler effect at Phenix

    A measurement of the Doppler effect has been performed at Phenix. Large corrections were necessary. Thus the measurement has been done again on another way. Results agree. A comparison has been made with the results of a theoretical calculation performed with the CARNAVAL IV ''formulaire''

  10. Method for Canceling Ionospheric Doppler Effect

    Vessot, R. F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unified transponder system with hydrogen-maser oscillators at both stations can compensate for both motional and ionospheric components of Doppler shift. Appropriate choices of frequency shift in output of mixer m3. System exploits proportionality between dispersive component of frequency shift and reciprocal of frequency to achieve cancellation of dispersive component at output.

  11. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  12. Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms

    Objective of Investigations: Development and creation of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms which allows to evaluate, in a real temporal scale, variations in the state of water suspension of micro-organisms under the effect of chemical, physical and other external actions. Statement of the Problem The main problem is absence of reliable, accessible for users and simple, in view of application, Doppler speedometers for micro-organisms. Nevertheless, correlation Doppler spectrometry in the regime of heterodyning the supporting and cell-scattered laser radiation is welt known. The main idea is that the correlation function of photo-current pulses bears an information on the averages over the assembly of cell velocities. For solving the biological problems, construction of auto-correlation function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, nearly, 100 me (10 khz) or higher is needed. Computers of high class manage this problem using but the program software. Due to this, one can simplify applications of the proposed techniques provided he creates the Doppler speedometer for micro-organism on a base of the Pentium. Expected Result Manufactured operable mock-up of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms in a form of the auxiliary computer block which allows to receive an information, in the real time scale, on the results of external effects of various nature on the cell assembly in transparent medium with a small volume of the studied cell suspension

  13. An electronic Doppler signal generator for assessing continuous-wave ultrasonic Doppler flowmeters

    Smallwood, R. H.; Dixon, P.

    1986-03-01

    The design and performance of the electric Doppler signal generator are described. The features of the CW ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter, which operates in the 2-10 MHz range, that are relevant to the design of the generator are examined. Methods for evaluating the bandwidth, dynamic range, directional separation, and linearity of the zero-crossing detector are discussed. The use of a polyphase network as a phase shifter to generate a single sideband (SSB) signal is analyzed. The SSB generation is performed at a frequency of 100 kHz and the advantages of generation at this frequency are stated. The selection of proper SSB signals for the system is investigated. The performance of the Doppler signal generator is evaluated with a frequency analyzer; sideband rejection ratios and phase error in the quadrature oscillator are calculated. The Doppler generator was applied to a CW flowmeter and output signal levels were measured. The test reveals that the Doppler signal generator's performance exceeds the flowmeter requirements; rejection of the unwanted sideband exceeds 40 dB for Doppler frequencies up to 10 kHz, which is the minimum upper frequency for 10 MHz flowmeters.

  14. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  15. Doppler ultrasonography in living donor liver transplantation recipients: Intra- and post-operative vascular complications

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Attia, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Living-donor liver transplantation has provided a solution to the severe lack of cadaver grafts for the replacement of liver afflicted with end-stage cirrhosis, fulminant disease, or inborn errors of metabolism. Vascular complications remain the most serious complications and a common cause for graft failure after hepatic transplantation. Doppler ultrasound remains the primary radiological imaging modality for the diagnosis of such complications. This article presents a brief review of intra- and post-operative living donor liver transplantation anatomy and a synopsis of the role of ultrasonography and color Doppler in evaluating the graft vascular haemodynamics both during surgery and post-operatively in accurately defining the early vascular complications. Intra-operative ultrasonography of the liver graft provides the surgeon with useful real-time diagnostic and staging information that may result in an alteration in the planned surgical approach and corrections of surgical complications during the procedure of vascular anastomoses. The relevant intra-operative anatomy and the spectrum of normal and abnormal findings are described. Ultrasonography and color Doppler also provides the clinicians and surgeons early post-operative potential developmental complications that may occur during hospital stay. Early detection and thus early problem solving can make the difference between graft survival and failure. PMID:27468207

  16. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  17. Enteric neuropathy associated to diabetes mellitus

    José Antonio Uranga-Ocio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a group of diseases highly prevalent nowadays. Its different types produce very similar symptoms with acute and chronic complications. Amongst these, gastrointestinal (GI dysmotility, associated with the development of neuropathy in the enteric nervous system (ENS is recognized. The objective is to review the current knowledge on GI dysmotility and enteric neuropathy associated to diabetes mellitus. The different functional and structural alterations within the digestive tract in diabetic patients and animal models are described. Finally, the therapeutic and preventive strategies tested so far in the context of enteric diabetic neuropathy are briefly summarized. In conclusion, amongst the alterations described in DM, the loss of inhibitory intrinsic innervation of the gut is most remarkable. Different therapeutic and/or preventive strategies, including the use of insulin, nerve growth factor or antioxidants, as well as myenteric neuron transplantation, are proposed.

  18. Transcranial doppler: Technique and common findings (Part 1

    Lokesh Bathala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Doppler (TCD can be aptly called as the doctor′s stethoscope of the brain. Since its introduction in 1982, by Rune Aaslid, TCD has evolved as a diagnostic, monitoring, and therapeutic tool. During evaluation of patients with acute ischemic stroke, TCD combined with cervical duplex ultrasonography provides physiological information on the cerebral hemodynamics, which is often complementary to structural imaging. Currently, TCD is the only diagnostic tool that can provide real time information about cerebral hemodynamics and can detect embolization to the cerebral vessels. TCD is a noninvasive, cost-effective, and bedside tool for obtaining information regarding the collateral flow across various branches of the circle of Willis in patients with cerebrovascular disorders. Advanced applications of TCD help in the detection of right-to-left shunts, vasomotor reactivity, diagnosis, and monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. This article describes the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD insonation methods, for detecting the flow in intracranial vessels in addition to the normal and abnormal spectral flow patterns.

  19. Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry in blood-mimicking fluids

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry provides a major opportunity to overcome limitations of existing blood flow measuring methods. By enabling measurements with high spatial resolution several millimetres deep in tissue, it could probe microvascular blood flow abnormalities characteristic of many different diseases. Although previous work has demonstrated feasibility in solid phantoms, measurements in blood have proved significantly more challenging. This difficulty is commonly attributed to the requirement that the absorber spatial distribution is heterogeneous relative to the minimum detectable acoustic wavelength. By undertaking a rigorous study using blood-mimicking fluid suspensions of 3 μm absorbing microspheres, it was discovered that the perceived heterogeneity is not only limited by the intrinsic detector bandwidth; in addition, bandlimiting due to spatial averaging within the detector field-of-view also reduces perceived heterogeneity and compromises velocity measurement accuracy. These detrimental effects were found to be mitigated by high-pass filtering to select photoacoustic signal components associated with high heterogeneity. Measurement under-reading due to limited light penetration into the flow vessel was also observed. Accurate average velocity measurements were recovered using “range-gating”, which furthermore maps the cross-sectional velocity profile. These insights may help pave the way to deep-tissue non-invasive mapping of microvascular blood flow using photoacoustic methods.

  20. Doppler string phantom for assessment of clinical doppler ultrasound velocity measurement

    Yi Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Doppler string phantom provides accurate velocity of the string motion; it can be used to calibrate Doppler ultrasound (US velocity measurements and to evaluate variations due to intrinsic spectral broadening. We developed a semi‐automated method to estimate the mode velocity (Vmode and peak velocity (Vmax based on duplex US images from a string phantom, and use them to assess clinical Doppler US velocity measurement.Methods: Steady motion of a rubber O‐ring (20 – 110 cm/s in a CIRS Doppler String phantom (Model 043 was studied using GE LOGIQ E9 system with a 9L probe. 5 s of Doppler spectral data was averaged to generate a mean spectral profile. It was fitted by a Gaussian function and Vmode was defined as the velocity of the Gaussian peak, while Vmax is defined as the velocity at which the spectral profile falls to within 1 SD of the background. Vmode and Vmax were evaluated against the prescribed motor velocity. Repeatability and variation to scanning parameters were analyzed and reported in % range, i.e. (max – min / mean.Results: Vmode and Vmax had good repeatability over six days (6.0% for Vmode, 2.9% for Vmax. Gain, compression, scale, sample volume (SV depth and length, frequency and beam steering all had minimal impact on Vmode and Vmax (variations ≤ 4.4%. Doppler angle θ had minimal effect on Vmode (2.2% but a strong effect on Vmax (26% increase as θ increased from 10° to 60°. Vmode was linearly correlated with but overestimated the motor velocity (Pearson’s r = 1.05, R2 = 1.Conclusion: This study developed a simple yet robust Vmode and Vmax estimation method. Combined with a string phantom, these velocity estimators are shown to be a useful tool to evaluate clinical Doppler US system performance. For the tested system, only Doppler angle has an appreciable impact on Vmax estimation.--------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Zhang Y, Lynch T, Hangiandreou NJ. Doppler string phantom

  1. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  2. Diagnostic evaluation of uterine artery Doppler sonography for the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Mojgan Barati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased impedance to flow in the uterine arteries assessed by value of the Doppler is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially pre-eclampsia. We investigated the predictive value of a uterine artery Doppler in the identification of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as ′pre-eclampsia′ and ′small fetus for gestational age′ (SGA. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and seventy-nine women, with singleton pregnancy, between 18 and 40 years of age, without risk factors, randomly underwent Doppler interrogation of the uterine arteries, between 16-22 weeks of gestation. Those who had a mean pulsatility index (PI of >1.45 were considered to have an abnormal result, and were evaluated and compared with those who had normal results for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age. The relationship between the variables was assessed with the use of the chi-square test. Results : There were 17 cases (4.5% of abnormal uterine artery Doppler results and 15 of them (88.2% developed pre-eclampsia and four cases (23.5% had neonates small for gestational age. For predicting pre-eclampsia, the mean uterine artery PI had to be >1.45, had to have a specificity of 95.5% (95% CI, 70-92%, a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI, 43-82%, a negative predictive value (NPV of 98.9% (95% CI, 72-96%, and a positive predictive value (PPV of 88.2% (95% CI, 68-98%. In the case of ′small for gestational age′ it had to have a specificity of 96.5% (95% CI, 42-68%, a sensitivity of 57% (95% CI, 53-76%, an NPV of 99.2% (95% CI, 70-92%, and a PPV of 23.5% (95% CI, 30-72%. Conclusion : Uterine artery Doppler evaluation at 16-22 weeks of gestation might be an appropriate tool for identifying pregnancies that may be at an increased risk for development of pre-eclampsia and small fetus for gestational age.

  3. Enteric glial cells have specific immunosuppressive properties.

    Kermarrec, Laetitia; Durand, Tony; Neunlist, Michel; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle

    2016-06-15

    Enteric glial cells (EGC) have trophic and neuroregulatory functions in the enteric nervous system, but whether they exert a direct effect on immune cells is unknown. Here, we used co-cultures to show that human EGC can inhibit the proliferation of activated T lymphocytes. Interestingly, EGC from Crohn's patients were effective at one EGC for two T cells whereas EGC from control patients required a ratio of 1:1. These data suggest that EGC contribute to local immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal wall. They also raise the possibility that EGC have particular immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease. PMID:27235353

  4. Diarrhea complicating enteral feeding after liver transplantation.

    Benya, R; Damle, P; Mobarhan, S

    1990-03-01

    In this case report we present in detail the complex nature of enteral feeding, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, and edema in a critically ill patient. We also discuss the use of a peptide-elemental formula in this patient, who suffered continuous diarrhea for 15 weeks after liver transplantation. Use of this formula was associated with cessation of the diarrhea and permitted adequate nutritional delivery. After 26 weeks of mechanical pulmonary ventilation, extubation was possible. This case illustrates the ineffectiveness of parenteral albumin infusions for treatment of enteral edema and demonstrates the restoration of normal intestinal absorptive capacity when ultrafiltration was instituted and the patient's generalized edematous state was corrected. PMID:2106103

  5. Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?

    Fuzfa, A.; Alimi, J. -M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still accounting for the pr...

  6. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  7. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  8. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  9. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syndrome) that has been described after acute stress. It is a reversible cardiac dysfunction with distinct imaging features(the echocardiographic or left ventricular angiographic image resembles a Tak...

  10. Carotid Artery Doppler Assessment In Patients Accussed Of Strokes

    H. Mazaher

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotid Doppler ultrasound assessment mostly indicated in patients accussed of TIAs or in younger patients with nonpersistant neurologic deficits. This assessment should be consisted of gray scale sonography, color Doppler Sonography, spectral Doppler sonography and power Doppler sonography. By gray scale sonography atherosclerotic plaques assessed from the point of Homogenousity, degree of echogenicity, surface regularity, calcification, length, Thichkness and sites of involvement. In color Doppler sonography hypoechoic Plaques which could not be identified in gray scale sonogarphy, arterial tortusity, Better and faster detection of Dis-turbed flow for flow spectrum analysis are assessed. Flow spectrum analysis and degree of stenosis in carotid arteries are assessed by Spectral Doppler sonography. Finally the main indication of carotid power Doppler sonography is differentiation Of high grade stenosis from occlusion.

  11. Power and color Doppler ultrasound settings for inflammatory flow

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Christensen, Robin; Szkudlarek, Marcin;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how settings for power and color Doppler ultrasound sensitivity vary on different high- and intermediate-range ultrasound machines and to evaluate the impact of these changes on Doppler scoring of inflamed joints. METHODS: Six different types of ultrasound machines were used....... On each machine, the factory setting for superficial musculoskeletal scanning was used unchanged for both color and power Doppler modalities. The settings were then adjusted for increased Doppler sensitivity, and these settings were designated study settings. Eleven patients with rheumatoid arthritis...... (RA) with wrist involvement were scanned on the 6 machines, each with 4 settings, generating 264 Doppler images for scoring and color quantification. Doppler sensitivity was measured with a quantitative assessment of Doppler activity: color fraction. Higher color fraction indicated higher sensitivity...

  12. ESTIMATION OF DOPPLER CENTROID FREQUENCY IN SPACEBORNE SCANSAR

    2008-01-01

    Doppler centroid frequency is an essential parameter in the imaging processing of the Scanning mode Synthetic Aperture Radar(ScanSAR).Inaccurate Doppler centroid frequency will result in ghost images in imaging result.In this letter,the principle and algorithms of Doppler centroid frequency estimation are introduced.Then the echo data of ScanSAR system is analyzed.Based on the algorithms of energy balancing and correlation Doppler estimator in the estimation of Doppler centroid fequency in strip mode SAR,an improved method for Doppler centroid frequency estimation in ScanSAR is proposed.The method has improved the accuracy of Doppler centroid fequency estimation in ScanSAR by zero padding between burst data.Finally,the proposed method is validated with the processing of ENVironment SATellite Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar(ENVISAT ASAR)wide swath raw data.

  13. Superharmonic microbubble Doppler effect in ultrasound therapy

    Pouliopoulos, Antonios N.; Choi, James J.

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of microbubbles in focused ultrasound therapies has enabled a diverse range of non-invasive technologies: sonoporation to deliver drugs into cells, sonothrombolysis to dissolve blood clots, and blood-brain barrier opening to deliver drugs into the brain. Current methods for passively monitoring the microbubble dynamics responsible for these therapeutic effects can identify the cavitation position by passive acoustic mapping and cavitation mode by spectral analysis. Here, we introduce a new feature that can be monitored: microbubble effective velocity. Previous studies have shown that echoes from short imaging pulses had a Doppler shift that was produced by the movement of microbubbles. Therapeutic pulses are longer (>1 000 cycles) and thus produce a larger alteration of microbubble distribution due to primary and secondary acoustic radiation force effects which cannot be monitored using pulse-echo techniques. In our experiments, we captured and analyzed the Doppler shift during long therapeutic pulses using a passive cavitation detector. A population of microbubbles (5  ×  104–5  ×  107 microbubbles ml‑1) was embedded in a vessel (inner diameter: 4 mm) and sonicated using a 0.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (peak-rarefactional pressure: 75–366 kPa, pulse length: 50 000 cycles or 100 ms) within a water tank. Microbubble acoustic emissions were captured with a coaxially aligned 7.5 MHz passive cavitation detector and spectrally analyzed to measure the Doppler shift for multiple harmonics above the 10th harmonic (i.e. superharmonics). A Doppler shift was observed on the order of tens of kHz with respect to the primary superharmonic peak and is due to the axial movement of the microbubbles. The position, amplitude and width of the Doppler peaks depended on the acoustic pressure and the microbubble concentration. Higher pressures increased the effective velocity of the microbubbles up to 3 m s‑1, prior to the onset

  14. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  15. The Abnormal Choroidal Vessels in Aged Patients

    Shizhou Huang; Feng Wen; Dezheng Wu; Guangwei Luo; Caijiao Liu

    2002-01-01

    Background: To show the abnormal choroidal vessels in aged patients with indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA).Methods: ICGA was performed in 350 patients with TOPCON TRC-50IA fundus camera.The images were recorded and retrospectively reviewed.Results: Five aged patients out of 350 cases were found to have abnormal choroidalvessels. The incidence was 1.43%. The abnormal choroidal vessels showed round- shapet,focal enlargement, abnormal shape and entrance, satellite appearance, and vascularloops. These might be due to congenital abnormality of choroid.Conclusion: ICGA could be used to observe the abnormal choroidal vessels.

  16. COLOR DOPPLER EVALUA TION OF HEPATIC VESS ELS AND PORTAL VENOUS SYSTEM IN LIV ER DISEASES WITH PAT HOLOGICAL CPRRELATION

    Sanjeev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Color Doppler sonography is an important noninvasive procedure for detecting abnormalities in hepatic vasculature in various liver diseases. Ultrasound findings associated with portal hypertension include enlarged diameter of the portal vein, lack of respiratory variation in the portal vein or its tributaries, hepatofungal portal flow direction, decreased portal velocity or volume, and the presence of collaterals or varices. Not only portal hypertension but various other liver diseases are associated with abnormalities noted in hepatic vasculature. An abnormal liver texture and ascites are also commonly seen and are usually related to accompanying cirrhosis. PORTAL VEIN : The portal vein is seen in about 97% of normal patients; failure to visualize it can suggest the presence of pathology, such as thrombosis. No intraluminal echoes with frequent echogenic border. HEPATIC ARTERY: Proximal hepatic artery is best seen at celiac trunk while distal hepatic artery is seen at the level of main portal vein. On Doppler assessment low resistant waveform pattern is seen with systolic and diastolic component. IVC ( INFERIOR VENA CAVA : Normal IVC has Low level intra luminal echoes within the lumen and changes occur during respiration. On Doppler assessment continuous triphasic waveform with respiratory variation. HEPATIC VEIN: Color Doppler is a key tool, since the hepatic veins may be difficu lt to visualize with B - mode imaging alone when the liver is enlarged or cirrhotic . AIM : To evaluate the abnormalities of hepatic vessels and portal vein in various liver diseases and role of colour Doppler in portal and hepatic vessels various liver diseas e with histopathological correlation. MATERIAL AND METHOD : A prospective study and is conducted in Department of Radiodiagnosis, N.S.C.B. Medical College, Jabalpur M.P., over a period of one year ( 2011 - 2012. To evaluate the colour Doppler of hepatic vess els and portal venous system in liver disease with

  17. Molecular physiology of enteric opioid receptors.

    Galligan, James J; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2014-09-10

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca(2+) channels and activation of K(+) channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl(-) secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  18. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  19. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support.

  20. Manipulation of enteric flora in ulcerative colitis

    Mario Guslandi

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Reviewing the available therapeutic options in the medical treatment of ulcerative colitis, Xu et al.[1], have omitted to mention an important aspect in the pharmacological management of the disease, namely the possibility to promote clinical and endoscopic improvement by manipulating the enteric flora.

  1. Astronaut Virgil Grissom Entering Liberty Bell 7

    1961-01-01

    Assisted by Astronaut John Glenn, Astronaut Virgil Grissom enters the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, for the MR-4 mission on July 21, 1961. Boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, the MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight.

  2. Color Doppler US of the penis

    Bertolotto, Michele (ed.) [Trieste Univ. Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy). Dept. Radiology

    2008-07-01

    This book provides a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the application of US to penile diseases and conditions. After introductory chapters on technical requirements and penile anatomy, subsequent chapters offer a systematic overview of the diverse applications of color Doppler US. The topics covered include erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, priapism, trauma, tumors, the postoperative penis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Each topic is introduced by a clinical overview with the purpose of clarifying the problems and elucidating what the urologist may expect from color Doppler US. Thereafter, performance of the US study is explained and the pathological anatomy reviewed. High-quality images obtained with high-end US equipment are included. Each chapter also contains a section on the diagnostic information provided by other imaging modalities, and in particular MRI. (orig.)

  3. Minior Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment

    Nolan E. Hertel; Dwayne Blaylock

    2008-04-10

    The "Minor Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment" was a Department of Energy (DOE) U-NERI funded project intended to assess the viability of using either the FLATTOP or the COMET critical assembly to measure high temperature Doppler coefficients. The goal of the project was to calculate using the MCNP5 code the gram amounts of Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-241, AM-241, AM-242m, Am-243, and CM-244 needed to produce a 1E-5 in reactivity for a change in operating temperature 800C to 1000C. After determining the viability of using the assemblies and calculating the amounts of each actinide an experiment will be designed to verify the calculated results. The calculations and any doncuted experiments are designed to support the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative in conducting safety analysis of advanced fast reactor or acceoerator-driven transmutation systems with fuel containing high minor actinide content.

  4. Laser Doppler measurement of cutaneous blood flow

    Laser Doppler velocimetry is an instrument system which has only recently been applied to the evaluation and quantitation of perfusion in the micro-vascular bed. The instrument is based on the Doppler principle, but uses low power laser light rather than the more commonly used ultrasound, and has a sample volume of approximately 1 mm/sup 3/. As it is non-invasive, it can be used on any skin surface or exposed microvascular bed and provides a continuous semi-quantitative measure of microcirculatory perfusion, it has a number of advantages as compared to other cutaneous blood flow measurement techniques. Initial studies have shown that it is easily used, and it has demonstrated good correlation with both xenon radio-isotope clearance and microsphere deposition techniques. Areas of current evaluation and utilization are in most major areas of medicine and surgery and include plastic, vascular and orthopaedic surgery, dermatology, gastro-enterology, rheumatology, burns and anaesthesiology

  5. Transcranial Doppler sonography in familial hemiplegic migraine

    A patient affected by familial hemiplegic migraine underwent transcranial Doppler sonography twice: the first during a spontaneous attack with right hemiparesis and aphasia, the second during a headachefree period. During the attack the following haemodynamic changes were seen: (a) bilateral increase in the middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery blood flow velocities (this increase was more pronounced on the left side), (b) decreased systo-diastolic ratio and pulsatility index on the right side, (c) increased systo-diastolic ratio and pulsatility index on the left side. The results indicate that during the attack in this familial hemiplegic migraine patient, a diffuse vasoconstriction of the basal cerebral arteries developed. Moreover, transcranial Doppler sonography data suggest that a prolonged vasoconstriction of the peripheral arterioles could play a role in determining the neurological symptoms in this syndrome. 13 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab

  6. Color Doppler US of the penis

    This book provides a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the application of US to penile diseases and conditions. After introductory chapters on technical requirements and penile anatomy, subsequent chapters offer a systematic overview of the diverse applications of color Doppler US. The topics covered include erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, priapism, trauma, tumors, the postoperative penis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Each topic is introduced by a clinical overview with the purpose of clarifying the problems and elucidating what the urologist may expect from color Doppler US. Thereafter, performance of the US study is explained and the pathological anatomy reviewed. High-quality images obtained with high-end US equipment are included. Each chapter also contains a section on the diagnostic information provided by other imaging modalities, and in particular MRI. (orig.)

  7. Design of a Doppler reflectometer for KSTAR

    Lee, K. D., E-mail: kdlee@nfri.re.kr; Nam, Y. U.; Seo, Seong-Heon; Kim, Y. S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A Doppler reflectometer has been designed to measure the poloidal propagation velocity on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak. It has the operating frequency range of V-band (50-75 GHz) and the monostatic antenna configuration with extraordinary mode (X-mode). The single sideband modulation with an intermediate frequency of 50 MHz is used for the heterodyne measurement with the 200 MHz in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) phase detector. The corrugated conical horn antenna is used to approximate the Gaussian beam propagation and it is installed together with the oversized rectangular waveguides in the vacuum vessel. The first commissioning test of the Doppler reflectometer system on the KSTAR tokamak is planned in the 2014 KSTAR experimental campaign.

  8. Renal duplex Doppler ultrasound findings in diabetics

    The correlation between clinical-laboratory findings and renal duplex Doppler ultrasound findings was studied in 45 patients with diabetes mellitus to see the role of duplex Doppler ultrasound in the detection of diabetic nephropathy. The resistive indices in patients with elevated serum creatinine, BUN, proteinuria, and systolic blood pressure levels were statistically significantly higher than those in patients with normal levels (p<0.05). Also resistive indics in patients with retinopathy were higher than that in patients without retinopathy (p<0.05). But the ultrasound morphologic changes of kidney such as renal length, cortical eye-catching, and corticomedullarycontrast were not well correlated with clinical-laboratory data and resistive index. The resistive index of the kidney in conjunction with clinical-laboratory data in diabetics may be helpful in the evaluation of diabetic nephropathy

  9. Enteral Nutrition in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Rudra Prasad Doley

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Context There is controversy concerning the merits of enteral and pa renteral nutrition in the manage ment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Objective This study was undertaken to evalua te the effect of enteral nutrition versus parenteral nutrition on serum markers of inflammation and outcome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Setting Tertiary care centre in North India. Design A prospective clinical trial. Methods Fifty consecutive patients with severe acute pancreatitis were randomized in a prospective trial to receive total enteral nutrition (n=25 or total parenteral nutrition (n=25. Enteral nutrition was deliver ed distal to the ligament of Treitz. Serum C-reactive protein, transferrin le vels, albumin, surgical intervention, infections, duration of h ospital stay and mortality were compared in the two groups. Results The mean age in the enteral nutrition group was 38.4±13.8 years and in the total parenteral nutrition group 41.1±11.3 years. The etiologi cal factors were alcohol (n=19, gallstones (n=23, idiopathi c (n=7 and drug-induced (n=1. There was a significant decrease in seru m C-reactive protein values in both the enteral nutrition group and the total parenteral nutrition group at one week and two weeks (P<0.001 for both. Serum albumin rose from a prenutritional val ue of 2.82±0.51 g/dL to 3.34±0.45 g/dL on day 14 of nutritional support in the enteral nutrition group (P=0.003; in the total parent eral nutrition group, the level rose from 3.10±0.59 g/dL to 3.21±0.30 g/dL (P=0.638. A signi ficant rise in transferrin value was ob served from day 0 to day 14 in enteral nutrition group (169±30 to 196±36 mg/dL; P<0.001 whereas, in the total parenteral nutrition gr oup, a less significant difference (191±41 to 201±29 mg/dL; P=0.044 was observed. There was no significant difference in surgical intervention (56.0% versus 60.0%; P=1.000, infectiv e complications (64.0% versus 60.0%; P=1.000, hospital stay (42 days

  10. Right Ventricular Doppler Echocardiographic Study of Indeterminate Form of Chagas Disease

    Rogério Gomes Furtado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with indeterminate form of Chagas disease/cardiac normality (ICD/CN exhibited normal electrocardiograms and chest X-rays; however, more sophisticated tests detected some degree of morphological and functional changes in the heart. Objective: To assess the prevalence of systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV in patients with ICD/CN. Methods: This was a case–control and prevalence study. Using Doppler two-dimensional echocardiography (2D, 92 patients were assessed and divided into two groups: group I (normal, n = 31 and group II (ICD/CN, n = 61. Results: The prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction in patients in groups I and II was as follows: fractional area change (0.0% versus 0.6%, mobility of the tricuspid annulus (0.0% versus 0.0%, and S-wave tissue Doppler (6.4% versus 26.0%, p = 0.016. The prevalence of global disorders such as the right myocardial performance index using tissue Doppler (16.1% versus 27.8%, p = 0.099 and pulsed Doppler (61.3% versus 68%, p = 0.141 and diastolic disorders such as abnormal relaxation (0.0% versus 6.0%, pseudonormal pattern (0.0% versus 0.0%, and restrictive pattern (0.0% versus 0.0% was not statistically different between groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction was estimated to be 26% (S wave velocity compared with other variables, suggesting incipient changes in RV systolic function in the ICD/CN group.

  11. Single mode, extreme precision Doppler spectrographs

    Schwab, Christian; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Betters, Christopher H.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2012-01-01

    The 'holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Ho...

  12. Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Wind speed and direction, together with pressure, temperature, and relative humidity, are the most fundamental atmospheric state parameters. Accurate measurement of these parameters is crucial for numerical weather prediction. Vertically resolved wind measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer are particularly important for modeling pollutant and aerosol transport. Raw data from a scanning coherent Doppler lidar system can be processed to generate accurate height-resolved measurements of wind speed and direction in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  13. Colour Doppler ultrasound of the penis

    Wilkins, C.J.; Sriprasad, S.; Sidhu, P.S. E-mail: paulsidhu@compuserve.com

    2003-07-01

    Because it is a superficial structure, the penis is ideally suited to ultrasound imaging. A number of disease processes, including Peyronie's disease, penile fractures and penile tumours, are clearly visualized with ultrasound. An assessment of priapism can also be made using spectral Doppler waveform technology. Furthermore, dynamic assessment of cavernosal arterial changes after pharmaco-stimulation allows diagnosis of arterial and venogenic causes for impotence. This pictorial review illustrates the range of diseases encountered with ultrasound of the penis.

  14. El doppler en podología

    Albiol Ferrer, Josep Maria; Giralt de Veciana, Enrique; Hernández Galayo, Fco. Javier (Francisco Javier); Novel Martí, Virginia; Padrós Sánchez, Carolina; Valero, L.

    1990-01-01

    El sistema doppler por ultrasonido es un método de exploración incruento y no invasivo, que permite tener acceso a los fenómenos hemodinamicos producido en el interior de los vasos. Es un sistema de relativa sencillez de manejo, pero que utilizado correelamente aporta datos fidedignos de la velocidad del flujo como del estado de la pared de los vasos.

  15. Sub-Nyquist Radar via Doppler Focusing

    Bar-Ilan, Omer; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the problem of a monostatic pulse-Doppler radar transceiver trying to detect targets, sparsely populated in the radar's unambiguous time-frequency region. Several past works employ compressed sensing (CS) algorithms to this type of problem, but either do not address sample rate reduction, impose constraints on the radar transmitter, propose CS recovery methods with prohibitive dictionary size, or perform poorly in noisy conditions. Here we describe a sub-Nyquist sampling and re...

  16. Colour Doppler ultrasound of the penis

    Because it is a superficial structure, the penis is ideally suited to ultrasound imaging. A number of disease processes, including Peyronie's disease, penile fractures and penile tumours, are clearly visualized with ultrasound. An assessment of priapism can also be made using spectral Doppler waveform technology. Furthermore, dynamic assessment of cavernosal arterial changes after pharmaco-stimulation allows diagnosis of arterial and venogenic causes for impotence. This pictorial review illustrates the range of diseases encountered with ultrasound of the penis

  17. Color Doppler imaging of cervicocephalic fibromuscular dysplasia

    Grzyska Ulrich; Arning Christian

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a possible cause of stroke, especially in middle-aged women. However, only few reports are available on ultrasonographic detection and monitoring. Methods Among the 15,000 patients who underwent color Doppler imaging (CDI) of the cervicocephalic arteries during the study period, all cases fulfilling ultrasound criteria of FMD were included into the case series. Criteria of FMD were: 1. Segmental string-of-beads pattern, 2. Localization in t...

  18. Poincare's relativistic Doppler-Fizeau formula

    Pierseaux, Yves

    2006-01-01

    We deduce from Poincare's ellipsoidal wavefronts a relativistic Doppler-Fizeau formula that is not the same as 1905 Einstein's one. Longitudinally, Einstein's formula and Poincare's formula are the same. The question of an experimental test is connected with the possibility or the impossibility of directly measuring the relativistic transverse effect. Hasselkamp's 1978 experiment becomes a crucial experiment because Poincare's relativistic kinematics predicts an expansion of sapce directly co...

  19. Doppler-free magnetic optical activity

    Giraud-Cotton, S.; Kaftandjian, V.P.; Talin, B.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of Doppler-free magnetic optical activity associated with a single absorption line is presented. The transmission of tunable laser light, linearly polarized, through a dilute gaseous medium along a steady magnetic field is studied in the presence of a second counterpropagating saturating laser. The third order non linear susceptibility is calculated for a two-level system exhibiting a normal Zeeman effect, with arbitrary J values.

  20. Blazar sequence - an artefact of Doppler boosting

    Nieppola, E.; Valtaoja, E.; Tornikoski, M.; Hovatta, T.; Kotiranta, M.

    2008-01-01

    The blazar sequence is a scenario in which the bolometric luminosity of the blazar governs the appearance of its spectral energy distribution. The most prominent result is the significant negative correlation between the synchrotron peak frequencies and the synchrotron peak luminosities of the blazar population. Observational studies of the blazar sequence have, in general, neglected the effect of Doppler boosting. We study the dependence of both the synchrotron peak frequency and luminosity ...

  1. Doppler cooling to the Quantum limit

    Chalony, Maryvonne; Kastberg, Anders; Klappauf, Bruce; Wilkowski, David

    2011-01-01

    Doppler cooling on a narrow transition is limited by the noise of single scattering events. It shows novel features, which are in sharp contrast with cooling on a broad transition, such as a non-Gaussian momentum distribution, and divergence of its mean square value close to the resonance. We have observed those features using 1D cooling on an intercombination transition in strontium, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations. We also find that for...

  2. Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements on Venus

    Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, George D.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. The transmitter portion of the transceiver employs the high-pulse-energy, Ho:Tm:LuLiF, partially conductively cooled laser technology developed at NASA Langley. The transceiver is capable of 250 mJ pulses at 10 Hz. It is very similar to the technology envisioned for coherent Doppler lidar wind measurements from Earth and Mars orbit. The transceiver is coupled to the large optics and data acquisition system in the NASA Langley VALIDAR mobile trailer. The large optics consists of a 15-cm off-axis beam expanding telescope, and a full-hemispheric scanner. Vertical and horizontal vector winds are measured, as well as relative backscatter. The data acquisition system employs frequency domain velocity estimation and pulse accumulation. It permits real-time display of the processed winds and archival of all data. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Mary-land, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other sensors will be presented. A simulation and data product for wind measurement at Venus will be presented.

  3. COLOUR DOPPLER EVALUATION OF ACUTE RENAL COLIC

    Vallepu Ramaiah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIMS Can Doppler index–RI be a predictor of renal colics impending obstruction in acute and emergency clinical settings. To compare the results of RI in cases of obstructive, nondilated and normal kidneys. METHODS A total of 90 patients were included in this prospective study. The patients were grouped into three categories based on the clinical settings. Group 1 with acute unilateral obstruction were 44, group 2 who were presented with flank pain without stone disease were 26 and group 3 were 20 patients with sonologically normal kidneys. Grey scale ultrasonography and colour Doppler study carried out in all the groups and index – RI value were compared. RESULTS The study showed differences in RI values among the groups (0.726±0.04, 0.63±0.039 and 0.608±0.03 respectively. CONCLUSION In acute and emergency clinical setting, grey scale ultrasonography and interrogation with colour Doppler index– RI improved the assessment and detection of impending obstructive uropathy.

  4. Precise Doppler Monitoring of Barnard's Star

    Choi, Jieun; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Fischer, Debra A; Johnson, John A; Isaacson, Howard; Wright, Jason T

    2012-01-01

    We present 248 precise Doppler measurements of Barnard's Star (Gl 699), the second nearest star system to Earth, obtained from Lick and Keck Observatories during 25 years between 1987 and 2012. The early precision was 20 \\ms{} but was 2 \\ms{} during the last 8 years, constituting the most extensive and sensitive search for Doppler signatures of planets around this stellar neighbor. We carefully analyze the 136 Keck radial velocities spanning 8 years by first applying a periodogram analysis to search for nearly circular orbits. We find no significant periodic Doppler signals with amplitudes above $\\sim$2 \\ms{}, setting firm upper limits on the minimum mass (\\msini) of any planets with orbital periods from 0.1 to 1000 days. Using a Monte Carlo analysis for circular orbits, we determine that planetary companions to Barnard's Star with masses above 2 \\mearth{} and periods below 10 days would have been detected. Planets with periods up to 2 years and masses above 10 \\mearth{} (0.03 \\mjup) are also ruled out. A sim...

  5. Doppler changes as the earliest parameter in fetal surveillance to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses

    Bansal Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is estimated that 3-10% of infants are growth restricted. Growth disturbances may have long-term issues. Doppler allows insight into the fetal response to intrauterine stress. Objective. The aim of this study was to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR fetuses by means of biophysical profile (BPP vis-а-vis Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery, and to find out which of the two is a better and earlier predictor of fetal compromise. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on a total of 50 singleton pregnancies with IUGR between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation. Study patients were managed expectantly with nonstress testing and amniotic fluid assessment, BPP and Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery. Results. Fetal outcome was poor in 5/50 (10% of the fetuses, defined as presence of all of the following: poor Apgar test score, neonatal intensive care unit stay, necrotizing enterocolitis, and low birth weight. Of the four with abnormal BPP, 50% had poor fetal outcomes. Out of 46 with normal BPP, 6.5% had poor fetal outcomes. Conclusion. Inference drawn from the study is that the Doppler technology provides us the opportunity for repetitive noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in IUGR pregnancies.

  6. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  7. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  8. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SPERM DISORDERS

    L. Y. Pylyp; L. A. Spinenko; V. D. Zukin; N. M. Bilko

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intrac...

  9. Doppler angle correction in the measurement of intrarenal parameters

    Mennitt K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing Gao¹, Keith Hentel¹, Qiang Zhu², Teng Ma², George Shih¹, Kevin Mennitt¹, Robert Min¹¹Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, USA; ²Division of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, ChinaBackground: The aim of this study was to assess differences in intrarenal artery Doppler parameters measured without and with Doppler angle correction.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed color duplex sonography in 30 normally functioning kidneys (20 native kidneys in 10 subjects and 10 transplanted kidneys in 10 subjects performed between January 26, 2010 and July 26, 2010. There were 10 age-matched men and10 age-matched women (mean 39.8 ± 12.2, range 21–60 years in this study. Depending on whether the Doppler angle was corrected in the spectral Doppler measurement, Doppler parameters including peak systolic velocity (PSV, end-diastolic velocity (EDV, and resistive index (RI measured at the interlobar artery of the kidney were divided into two groups, ie, initial Doppler parameters measured without Doppler angle correction (Group 1 and remeasured Doppler parameters with Doppler angle correction (Group 2. Values for PSV, EDV, and RI measured without Doppler angle correction were compared with those measured with Doppler angle correction, and were analyzed statistically with a paired-samples t-test.Results: There were statistical differences in PSV and EDV at the interlobar artery in the upper, mid, and lower poles of the kidney between Group 1 and Group 2 (all P < 0.001. PSV and EDV in Group 1 were significantly lower than in Group 2. RI in Group 1 was the same as that in Group 2 in the upper, mid, and lower poles of the kidneys.Conclusion: Doppler angle correction plays an important role in the accurate measurement of intrarenal blood flow velocity. The true flow velocity converted from the maximum Doppler velocity shift

  10. Ventilation abnormalities in pulmonary embolus

    The ventilation scans of 11 patients with angiographically-proven PE were reviewed. All patients had one or more lung perfusion defects. The chest roentgenograph was abnormal in 11 of the patients. The ventilation studies were performed in the posterior positron prior to the perfusion lung scan using Xe-133. The ventilation study consists of washin, equilibrium, and washout images. In four patients with normal washin there was retention of the Xe-133 (delayed washout) at the site of the perfusion defect. All had roentgenographic abnormalities. Another pattern was observed at the sites of some perfusion defects in six patients. In these, there was decreased washin at the perfusion defect location. Two patients had both decreased washin and delayed washout. In only one case was the typical ventilation pattern of normal washin and normal washout. The method of retention is unclear, but may be due to decreased clearance of Xe-133 secondary to decreased blood flow in the area or deposition of some fat soluble component left at the site of embolization. The etiology of the reduced washin is unclear, but may be due to reduced surfactant production. This study suggests that more attention must be paid to the ventilation study, where there may be additional clues to the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

  11. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine;

    2012-01-01

    to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad. The......Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of pigs are object of emission reporting. Hitherto they were treated as part of the energy balance of pigs, in accordance with IPCC guidance documents. They were calculated from the gross energy intake rate and a constant methane conversion ratio....... Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...

  12. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis.

    Beer, W H; Fan, A; Halsted, C H

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value. PMID:3917601

  13. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value

  14. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  15. Enteral nutrition of the premature infant

    Su Jin Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutritional support for preterm infants is critical because such support influences long-term outcome. Minimal enteral feeding should be initiated as soon as possible if an infant is stable and if feeding advancement is recommended as relevant to the clinical course. Maternal milk is the gold standard for enteral feeding, but fortification may be needed to achieve optimal growth in a rapidly growing premature infant. Erythromycin may aid in promoting gastrointestinal motility in cases that exhibit feeding intolerance. Selected preterm infants need vitamins, mineral supplements, and calorie enhancers to meet their nutritional needs. Despite all that is known about this topic, additional research is needed to guide postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants in order to maintain optimal growth and neurodevelopment.

  16. Recommendations for terminology and display for doppler echocardiography

    Doppler echocardiography has recently emerged as a major noninvasive technique with many applications in cardiology. To a large extent, this has been based upon a combination of clinical and engineering advances which now make possible the use of quantitative Doppler echocardiography in combination with two-dimensional imaging for measurement of volume flows, transvalve gradients, and other physiologic flow parameters which reflect cardiac function. It was the purpose of this Committee to provide a glossary of terms which could be used in standard fashion for papers and discussions related to Doppler echocardiography. As part of its task, the Committee also undertook an attempt to recommend a standard for display of Doppler information which would be useful, both for manufacturers and for clinicians. The document, therefore, includes: Section I, the Committee's recommendations for Doppler display. Section II, the glossary of Doppler terms, related to engineering and to clinical applications

  17. Enteric fever in Mediterranean North Africa

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Franka, Ezzedin; Tawil, Khaled; Wasfy, Momtaz; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Rubino, Salvatore; Klena, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in the Mediterranean North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) with an estimated incidence of 10-100 cases per 100,000 persons. Outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are common and mainly due to the consumption of untreated or sewage-contaminated water. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B is more commonly involved in nosocomial cases of enteric fever in North Africa than expected and leads to high mortality rates among infants w...

  18. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    Salvatore Buscemi; Giuseppe Damiano; Palumbo, Vincenzo D.; Gabriele Spinelli; Silvia Ficarella; Giulia Lo Monte; Antonio Marrazzo; Attilio I Lo Monte

    2015-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN) and postoperative complications. O...

  19. Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors

    Galligan, James J.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

    2014-01-01

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca2+ channels and activation of K+ channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter rel...

  20. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERAL NUTRITION PRODUCTS

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh; Patil Amol Vilas; Jamadar Shahaji Ambadas; Mirajkar Nilesh Sharadchandra

    2011-01-01

    This review mainly deals with the Formulation Development of Enteral Nutrition Products. Nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and management of many diseases. Chronic illness is associated with many complications such as anorexia, hypermetabolism, malabsorption, atrophy of muscles, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract heart, and impaired cell mediated immunity, susceptibility to infection, poor wound healing, anaemia, death. Hence it is important to correct caloric and nutrien...

  1. Separation of a child when entering kindergarten

    SOMMEROVÁ, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The work deals with the separation of a child when entering kindergarten and aims to describe the symptoms of a child who is separated from his parents. First, we define the concept of preschool age, and then it is characterized in terms of developmental psychology, which is investigated further by the socialization of the child. Other chapters describe pre-school education and kindergarten as an institution and of course the very notion of separation. The subchapters deal with the connection...

  2. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle

    Moraes, LE; Strathe, AB; Fadel, JG; Casper, DP; Kebreab, E.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source...

  3. HIV, opiates, and enteric neuron dysfunction.

    Galligan, J J

    2015-04-01

    Human immune deficient virus (HIV) is an immunosuppressive virus that targets CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. HIV infections cause increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancer. HIV infection can also alter central nervous system (CNS) function causing cognitive impairment. HIV does not infect neurons but it does infect astrocytes and microglia in the CNS. HIV can also infect enteric glia initiating an intestinal inflammatory response which causes enteric neural injury and gut dysfunction. Part of the inflammatory response is HIV induced production of proteins including, Transactivator of transcription (Tat) which contribute to neuronal injury after release from HIV infected glial cells. A risk factor for HIV infection is intravenous drug use with contaminated needles and chronic opiate use can exacerbate neural injury in the nervous system. While most research focuses on the actions of Tat and other HIV related proteins and opiates on the brain, recent data indicate that Tat can cause intestinal inflammation and disruption of enteric neuron function, including alteration of Na(+) channel activity and action potential generation. A paper published in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility extends these findings by identifying an interaction between Tat and morphine on enteric neuron Na(+) channels and on intestinal motility in vivo using a Tat expressing transgenic mouse model. These new data show that Tat protein can enhance the inhibitory actions of morphine on action potential generation and propulsive motility. These findings are important to our understanding of how HIV causes diarrhea in infected patients and for the use of opioid drugs to treat HIV-induced diarrhea. PMID:25817054

  4. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  5. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  6. Diabetes and the enteric nervous system.

    Chandrasekharan, B; Srinivasan, S

    2007-12-01

    Diabetes is associated with several changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and associated symptoms such as nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and constipation. The pathogenesis of altered GI functions in diabetes is multifactorial and the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in this respect has gained significant importance. In this review, we summarize the research carried out on diabetes-related changes in the ENS. Changes in the inhibitory and excitatory enteric neurons are described highlighting the role of loss of inhibitory neurons in early diabetic enteric neuropathy. The functional consequences of these neuronal changes result in altered gastric emptying, diarrhoea or constipation. Diabetes can also affect GI motility through changes in intestinal smooth muscle or alterations in extrinsic neuronal control. Hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of these ENS changes. Antioxidants to prevent or treat diabetic GI motility problems have therapeutic potential. Recent research on the nerve-immune interactions demonstrates inflammation-associated neurodegeneration which can lead to motility related problems in diabetes. PMID:17971027

  7. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality...... measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature is...

  8. Spacecraft Doppler Tracking as a Xylophone Detector of Gravitational Radiation

    Tinto, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spacecraft Doppler tracking is discussed for detecting gravitational waves in which Doppler data recorded on the ground are linearly combined with Doppler measurements made on board a spacecraft. A new method is derived for removing from combined data the frequency fluctuations due to the Earth troposphere, ionosphere, and mechanical vibrations of the antenna on the ground. The remaining non-zero gravitational wave signal could be used for detecting gravitational waves.

  9. Ionospheric Doppler measurements by means of HF-radar techniques

    D. Altadill; Bianchi, C

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the dynamics of the ionosphere and its related phenomena are mainly based on Doppler Drift measurements. The time variation (ionisation/recombination) of plasma density, thermospheric wind and others can be observed by means of HF-radars. The technique of Doppler Drift measurements is a quite complex technique that is now affordable by means of an advanced ionospheric sounder. The combination of vertical sounding and interferometric Doppler detection discloses the Doppl...

  10. A Rayleigh Doppler frequency estimator derived from maximum likelihood theory

    Hansen, Henrik; Affes, Sofiéne; Mermelstein, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Reliable estimates of Rayleigh Doppler frequency are useful for the optimization of adaptive multiple access wireless receivers. The adaptation parameters of such receivers are sensitive to the amount of Doppler and automatic reconfiguration to the speed of terminal movement can optimize cell capacities in low and high speed situations. We derive a Doppler frequency estimator using the maximum likelihood method and Jakes model (1974) of a Rayleigh fading channel. This estimator requires an FF...

  11. Analysis on rotational Doppler Effect based on modal expansion method

    Zhou, Hailong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical rotational Doppler Effect using modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the change of mode index. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler Effect. It can provide theoretical guidance for many related applications, such as detection of rotating bodies, detection of OAM and frequency shift.

  12. Range-instantaneous Doppler imaging of inverse synthetic aperture sonar

    XU Jia; JIANG Xingzhou; TANG Jingsong

    2003-01-01

    Because the existing range-Doppler algorithm in inverse synthetic aperture sonar (ISAS) is based on target model of uniform motion, it may be invalidated for maneuvering targets due to the time-varying changes of both individual scatter′s Doppler and imaging projection plane. To resolve the problem, a new range-instantaneous Doppler imaging method is proposed for imaging maneuvering targets based on time-frequency analysis. The proposed approach is verified using real underwater acoustic data.

  13. Doplerovi brodski navigacioni brzinomjeri / Maritime navigational Doppler logs

    Milovan Unković

    2006-01-01

    Doplerovi navigacioni brodski brzinomjeri rade na principu Doplerovog efekta. Doplerov predajni projektor emituje snop ultrazvučnih vibracija u vodi, a drugi (ili isti) projektor prima odbijeni signal od dna ili od sloja vode. U ovom radu opisana je teorija Doplerovog efekta, primjena te teorije na brodskim brzinomjerima, konstrukcija i karakteristike savremenih Doplerovih brzinomjera. / The Doppler maritime navigational logs are based on measurement of the Doppler effect. A Doppler log trans...

  14. Minimally destructive, Doppler measurement of a quantized, superfluid flow

    Kumar, A.; Anderson, N.; Phillips, W. D.; Eckel, S.; Campbell, G. K.; Stringari, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Doppler effect, the shift in the frequency of sound due to motion, is present in both classical gases and quantum superfluids. Here, we perform an in-situ, minimally destructive measurement, of the persistent current in a ring-shaped, superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate using the Doppler effect. Phonon modes generated in this condensate have their frequencies Doppler shifted by a persistent current. This frequency shift will cause a standing-wave phonon mode to be "dragged" along with the...

  15. Interpretation of Doppler blood flow velocity waveforms using neural networks.

    Baykal, N; Reggia, J. A.; Yalabik, N.; Erkmen, A.; Beksac, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Doppler umbilical artery blood flow velocity waveform measurement is used in perinatal surveillance for the evaluation of pregnancy status. There is an ongoing debate on the predictive value of Doppler measurements concerning the critical effect of the selection of parameters for the evaluation of Doppler output. In this paper, we describe how neural network methods can be used both to discover relevant classification features and subsequently to classify patients. Classification accuracy var...

  16. Doppler-like effect and doubtful expansion of universe

    Szaraniec, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The distance contraction, as observed in electrical soundings over horizontally stratified earth (static system), is identified as a counterpart of Doppler shift in dynamical systems. Identification of Doppler-like effect in a stock-still systems makes it possible to give an al-ternative answer to the question about an effective cause of the Doppler shift, which sounds: the inhomogeneities. This answer opens different static as well as kinematic possibilities, which challenge established theo...

  17. Analysis on rotational Doppler Effect based on modal expansion method

    Zhou, Hailong; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical rotational Doppler Effect using modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the change of mode index. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler Effect. It can provide theoretical guidance for many related applications, such as detection of rotating bodies, detection of OAM and frequency...

  18. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  19. Angular distributions by the conventional and the Doppler shift method

    The angular distribution of elastically scattered metastable Ne*(3P2) has been measured by the conventional and the Doppler shift method. The conventional method shows a good angular resolution and signal to noise ratio. For the Doppler shift method, the angular resolution and the signal to noise ratio are much worse. By Monte Carlo-calculations it is shown that the influence of the residual velocity profiles of the supersonic atomic beams is large for the Doppler method, but can nearly be neglected for the conventional method. For nonsymmetric systems (such as Na2-Xe) and for inelastic processes the Doppler method is expected to be more successful. (Auth.)

  20. Eliminating Doppler Effects in Synthetic-Aperture Radar Optical Processors

    Constantindes, N. J.; Bicknell, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Pair of photodetectors generates correction signals. Instrument detects Doppler shifts in radar and corrects processing parameters so ambiguities caused by shifts not manifested as double or overlapping images.

  1. Burst Format Design for Optimum Joint Estimation of Doppler-Shift and Doppler-Rate in Packet Satellite Communications

    Luca Giugno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of optimizing the burst format of packet transmission to perform enhanced-accuracy estimation of Doppler-shift and Doppler-rate of the carrier of the received signal, due to relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver. Two novel burst formats that minimize the Doppler-shift and the Doppler-rate Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs for the joint estimation of carrier phase/Doppler-shift and of the Doppler-rate are derived, and a data-aided (DA estimation algorithm suitable for each optimal burst format is presented. Performance of the newly derived estimators is evaluated by analysis and by simulation, showing that such algorithms attain their relevant CRBs with very low complexity, so that they can be directly embedded into new-generation digital modems for satellite communications at low SNR.

  2. Current-induced spin wave Doppler shift

    Bailleul, Matthieu

    2010-03-01

    In metal ferromagnets -namely Fe, Co and Ni and their alloys- magnetism and electrical transport are strongly entangled (itinerant magnetism). This results in a number of properties such as the tunnel and giant magnetoresistance (i.e. the dependence of the electrical resistance on the magnetic state) and the more recently addressed spin transfer (i.e. the ability to manipulate the magnetic state with the help of an electrical current). The spin waves, being the low-energy elementary excitations of any ferromagnet, also exist in itinerant magnets, but they are expected to exhibit some peculiar properties due the itinerant character of the carriers. Accessing these specific properties experimentally could shed a new light on the microscopic mechanism governing itinerant magnetism, which -in turn- could help in optimizing material properties for spintronics applications. As a simple example of these specific properties, it was predicted theoretically that forcing a DC current through a ferromagnetic metal should induce a shift of the frequency of the spin waves [1,2]. This shift can be identified to a Doppler shift undergone by the electron system when it is put in motion by the electrical current. We will show how detailed spin wave measurements allow one to access this current-induced Doppler shift [3]. From an experimental point of view, we will discuss the peculiarities of propagating spin wave spectroscopy experiments carried out at a sub-micrometer length-scale and with MHz frequency resolution. Then, we will discuss the measured value of the Doppler shift in the context of both the old two-current model of spin-polarized transport and the more recent model of adiabatic spin transfer torque. [4pt] [1] P.Lederer and D.L. Mills, Phys.Rev. 148, 542 (1966).[0pt] [2] J. Fernandez-Rossier et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, 174412 (2004)[0pt] [3] V. Vlaminck and M. Bailleul, Science 322, 410 (2008).

  3. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  4. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  5. Doppler Studies of Near-Antapex UHF Radar Micrometeors

    Janches, D.; Mathews, J. D.; Meisel, D. D.; Getman, V. S.; Zhou, Q.-H.

    2000-02-01

    A "radar micrometeor" is the radar-scattering signature from the free electrons in the plasma generated by entry of a dust-sized meteoroid into the atmosphere. We report the first direct Doppler measurements, made using the Arecibo Observatory 430-MHz radar, of the so-called meteor head echo. Our observations demonstrate that this region is moving with the speed of the meteoroid as determined from the meteor head-echo altitude-time trajectory and that this radar return is distinct spatially and in velocity from the much more commonly observed trail echo. We also report the first observations of near-antapex micrometeors which are characterized by the very slow atmospheric speeds expected from low-ecliptic-inclination objects entering the atmosphere from behind Earth's orbital path. Of the 32 meteors observed during four early evening hours of observations on 10 January 1997, velocities were determined for 18 of the meteors of which 7 were at or just below Earth escape velocity (11.2 km/s). We give heliocentric orbits for the 11 meteor events with speeds greater than the escape velocity and present a detailed analysis of these orbital parameters and their possible origins. One particle was determined to be interstellar: a preliminary analysis indicates that the ecliptic coordinates of the radiant relative to the local standard of rest (LSR) (with the solar motion relative to the nearby stars removed) are λ=43.02°, β=-43.28°, V=-25.11 km/s or, in system II galactic coordinates lII=219.8°, bII=-52.4°, V=-25.1 km/s.

  6. Applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    A major development in biomedical imaging in the last decade has been optical coherence tomography (OCT). This technique enables microscale resolution, depth resolved imaging of the detailed morphology of transparent and nontransparent biological tissue in a noncontact and quasi-noninvasive way. In the first part of this dissertation, we will describe the development and the performance of our home-made OCT systems working with different wavelength regions based on free-space and optical fiber Michelson interferometers. The second part will focus on Doppler OCT (DOCT), an important extension of OCT, which enables the simultaneous evaluation of the structural information and of the fluid flow distribution at a localized position beneath the sample surface. Much effort has been spent during the past few years in our laboratory aimed at providing more accurate velocity measurements with an extended dynamic range. We also applied our technique in different research areas such as microfluidics and hemodynamics. Investigations on the optical properties of the biological tissues (such as absorption and scattering) corresponding to different center wavelengths, have been performed in our laboratory. We used a 10 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser centered at about 810 nm associated with a free-space Michelson interferometer. The infrared sources were centered at about 1310 and 1560 nm with all-fiber interferometers. Comparative studies using three different sources for several in vitro biological tissues based on a graphical method illustrated how the optical properties affect the quality of the OCT images in terms of the penetration depth and backscattering intensity. We have shown the advantage of working with 810-nm emission wavelength for good backscattering amplitude and contrast, while sources emitting at 1570 nm give good penetration depth. The 1330-nm sources provide a good compromise between the two. Therefore, the choice of the source will ultimately determine the

  7. Coherent Detection in Laser Doppler Velocimeters

    Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1974-01-01

    The possibility of heterodyning between electromagnetic waves scattered by particles separated in space is explained from a classical point of view and from a quantum mechanical point of view. The last description being carried out using only the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and a rather coarse......, but intelligible particle picture of electromagnetic waves. The analysis is carried out with special emphasis on the heterodyning process in the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) because the main purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of this instrument. An aid for this purpose is...

  8. Transmission media effects on precise Doppler tracking

    Callahan, P. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of the transmission media - the earth's troposphere and ionosphere, and the solar wind - on precise Doppler tracking are discussed. The charged particle effects can be largely removed by dual frequency observations; however there are limitations to these corrections (besides system noise and/or finite integration times) including the effects of magnetic fields, diffraction, and differential refraction, all of which must be carefully evaluated. The earth's troposphere can contribute an error of delta f/f approximately 10 to the minus 14th power.

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopy - applications of the Doppler principle

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is an experimental method based on the application of the Doppler principle in the velocity modulation system for variation of γ-ray energy. The object of observations is a resonating nucleus. From Moessbauer spectra one can gain information on the electronic and magnetic environment (based on hyperfine interactions) and on the vibrational states of atoms (based on the Debey-Waller factor). It is a typical microscopic method which has found applications in all disciplines of natural sciences as well as in medicine, art, archaeology and materials science. (author) 5 figs., 37 refs

  10. Doppler cooling to the quantum limit.

    Chalony, M; Kastberg, A; Klappauf, B; Wilkowski, D

    2011-12-01

    Doppler cooling on a narrow transition is limited by the noise of single scattering events. It shows novel features, which are in sharp contrast with cooling on a broad transition, such as a non-gaussian momentum distribution, and divergence of its mean square value close to the resonance. We have observed those features using 1D cooling on an intercombination transition in strontium, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations. We also find that for very a narrow transition, cooling can be improved using a dipole trap, where the clock shift is canceled. PMID:22242994

  11. Doppler cooling and trapping on forbidden transitions

    Binnewies, T.; Wilpers, G.; Sterr, U.; Riehle, F.; Helmcke, J.; Mehlstäubler, T. E.; Rasel, E. M.; Ertmer, W.

    2001-01-01

    Ultracold atoms at temperatures close to the recoil limit have been achieved by extending Doppler cooling to forbidden transitions. A cloud of ^40Ca atoms has been cooled and trapped to a temperature as low as 6 \\mu K by operating a magneto-optical trap on the spin-forbidden intercombination transition. Quenching the long-lived excited state with an additional laser enhanced the scattering rate by a factor of 15, while a high selectivity in velocity was preserved. With this method more than 1...

  12. Doppler cooling to the Quantum limit

    Chalony, Maryvonne; Klappauf, Bruce; Wilkowski, David

    2011-01-01

    Doppler cooling on a narrow transition is limited by the noise of single scattering events. It shows novel features, which are in sharp contrast with cooling on a broad transition, such as a non-Gaussian momentum distribution, and divergence of its mean square value close to the resonance. We have observed those features using 1D cooling on an intercombination transition in strontium, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations. We also find that for very a narrow transition, cooling can be improved using a dipole trap, where the clock shift is canceled.

  13. Longitudinal microvascularity in achilles tendinopathy (power doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging time-intensity curves and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire): a pilot study

    To evaluate the imaging of the natural history of Achilles tendinopathy microvascularisation in comparison with symptoms, using a validated disease-specific questionnaire [the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A)]. A longitudinal prospective pilot study of nine patients with post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), time-intensity curve (TIC) enhancement, ultrasound (US) and power Doppler (PD) evaluation of tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon undergoing conservative management (eccentric exercise) over 1 year. There were five men and four women [mean age 47 (range 30-62) years]. Six asymptomatic tendons with normal US and MRI appearance showed less enhancement than the tibial metaphysis did and showed a flat, constant, but very low rate of enhancement in the bone and Achilles tendon (9-73 arbitrary TIC units). These normal Achilles tendons on imaging showed a constant size throughout the year (mean 4.9 mm). At baseline the TIC enhancement in those with tendinopathy ranged from 90 arbitrary units to 509 arbitrary units. Over time, 11 abnormal Achilles tendons, whose symptoms settled, were associated with a reduction in MRI enhancement mirrored by a reduction in the number of vessels on power Doppler (8.0 to 2.7), with an improvement in morphology and a reduction in tendon size (mean 15-10.6 mm). One tendon did not change its abnormal imaging features, despite improving symptoms. Two patients developed contralateral symptoms and tendinopathy, and one had more abnormal vascularity on power Doppler and higher MRI TIC peaks in the asymptomatic side. In patient with conservatively managed tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon over 1 year there was a reduction of MRI enhancement and number of vessels on power Doppler, followed by morphological improvements and a reduction in size. Vessels per se related to the abnormal morphology and size of the tendon rather than symptoms. Symptoms improve before the Achilles size reduces and the

  14. Longitudinal microvascularity in achilles tendinopathy (power doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging time-intensity curves and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire): a pilot study

    Richards, Paula J. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (UHNS), Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); North Staffs. Royal Infirmary, X-ray Department, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); McCall, Iain W. [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); North Staffordshire NHS Trust, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Day, Christopher [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (UHNS), Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Belcher, John [Cardiff University, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, North Wales Clinical School, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Maffulli, Nicola [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    To evaluate the imaging of the natural history of Achilles tendinopathy microvascularisation in comparison with symptoms, using a validated disease-specific questionnaire [the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A)]. A longitudinal prospective pilot study of nine patients with post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), time-intensity curve (TIC) enhancement, ultrasound (US) and power Doppler (PD) evaluation of tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon undergoing conservative management (eccentric exercise) over 1 year. There were five men and four women [mean age 47 (range 30-62) years]. Six asymptomatic tendons with normal US and MRI appearance showed less enhancement than the tibial metaphysis did and showed a flat, constant, but very low rate of enhancement in the bone and Achilles tendon (9-73 arbitrary TIC units). These normal Achilles tendons on imaging showed a constant size throughout the year (mean 4.9 mm). At baseline the TIC enhancement in those with tendinopathy ranged from 90 arbitrary units to 509 arbitrary units. Over time, 11 abnormal Achilles tendons, whose symptoms settled, were associated with a reduction in MRI enhancement mirrored by a reduction in the number of vessels on power Doppler (8.0 to 2.7), with an improvement in morphology and a reduction in tendon size (mean 15-10.6 mm). One tendon did not change its abnormal imaging features, despite improving symptoms. Two patients developed contralateral symptoms and tendinopathy, and one had more abnormal vascularity on power Doppler and higher MRI TIC peaks in the asymptomatic side. In patient with conservatively managed tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon over 1 year there was a reduction of MRI enhancement and number of vessels on power Doppler, followed by morphological improvements and a reduction in size. Vessels per se related to the abnormal morphology and size of the tendon rather than symptoms. Symptoms improve before the Achilles size reduces and the

  15. Hepatic vein flow pattern in children: assesment with Doppler sonography

    Background: Aim of this study is to establish normal hepatic vein flow pattern and effect of age, sex, activity and feeding status on the hepatic flow pattern in normal Turkish children less than 15 years of ages and also to compare our values with the previously reported studies. Method: Hepatic vein flow patterns were evaluated in 150 children (83 male, 67 female) without any cardiac, pulmonary and liver disease by using Doppler sonography. Blood flow patterns were compared with age, sex, activity, and feeding status of the children. Results: Only 44% of the children had triphasic flow pattern in all hepatic veins. Monophasic flow pattern was the most common flow pattern in children less then 1 year of age. Triphasic flow pattern increase after 1 year of age. Although most of the children older than 1 year of age had triphasic flow pattern, there is some variation in the flow patterns of the hepatic veins in the same subject. Triphasic hepatic flow pattern is most commonly seen in the left hepatic vein and least commonly seen in the right hepatic vein. There was no significant difference between male and girl, children who were agitated or calm and fasting or not fasting in respect to triphasic flow pattern. Conclusion: Liver stiffening is not only the reason for abnormal hepatic flow pattern and some other physiologic factors may also lead to mono and/or diphasic flow pattern in the children. Absence of triphasic flow pattern must not be accepted as a liver pathology in children especially younger than 1 year of age

  16. Doppler term in the galaxy two-point correlation function: wide-angle, velocity, Doppler lensing and cosmic acceleration effects

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bertacca, Daniele; Jeong, Donghui; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    We study the parity-odd part (that we shall call Doppler term) of the linear galaxy two-point correlation function that arises from wide-angle, velocity, Doppler lensing and cosmic acceleration effects. As it is important at low redshift and at large angular separations, the Doppler term is usually neglected in the current generation of galaxy surveys. For future wide-angle galaxy surveys such as Euclid, SPHEREx and SKA, however, we show that the Doppler term must be included. The effect of t...

  17. Development of the enteric nervous system: bringing together cells, signals and genes.

    Burns, A J; Pachnis, V

    2009-02-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract that controls essential functions such as motility, secretion and blood flow, comprises a vast number of neurons and glial cells that are organized into complex networks of interconnected ganglia distributed throughout the entire length of the gut wall. Enteric neurons and glia are derived from neural crest cells that undergo extensive migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival in order to form a functional ENS. Investigations of the developmental processes that underlie ENS formation in animal models, and of the common human congenital ENS abnormality Hirschsprung's disease, have been intimately related and recently led to major advances in the field. This review touches on some of these advances and introduces two topics that are elaborated upon in this journal issue: (i) genome wide approaches for profiling gene expression in wild type and mutant ENS that have been used to identify novel molecules with important roles in enteric neurogenesis, and (ii) the use of multilineage ENS progenitors isolated from embryonic or postnatal gut as novel cell replacement therapies for Hirschsprung's disease. Such studies will not only unravel the mechanisms underlying ENS development, but will also shed light on the pathogenesis of ENS developmental disorders and help to establish novel therapeutic strategies for restoring or repairing malfunctioning enteric neural circuits prevalent in numerous gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:19215587

  18. Delayed gastric emptying and enteric nervous system dysfunction in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

    Greene, James G; Noorian, Ali Reza; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of GI dysmotility in PD include early satiety and weight loss from delayed gastric emptying and constipation from impaired colonic transit. Understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of these symptoms in PD patients has been hampered by the lack of investigation into GI symptoms and pathology in PD animal models. We report that the parkinsonian neurotoxin and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone causes delayed gastric emptying and enteric neuronal dysfunction when administered chronically to rats in the absence of major motor dysfunction or CNS pathology. When examined 22-28 days after initiation of rotenone infusion by osmotic minipump (3 mg/kg/day), 45% of rotenone-treated rats had a profound delay in gastric emptying. Electrophysiological recording of neurally-mediated muscle contraction in isolated colon from rotenone-treated animals confirmed an enteric inhibitory defect associated with rotenone treatment. Rotenone also induced a transient decrease in stool frequency that was associated with weight loss and decreased food and water intake. Pathologically, no alterations in enteric neuron numbers or morphology were apparent in rotenone-treated animals. These results suggest that enteric inhibitory neurons may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of mitochondrial inhibition by parkinsonian neurotoxins and provide evidence that parkinsonian gastrointestinal abnormalities can be modeled in rodents. PMID:19409896

  19. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation; Ecografia Doppler en la gestacion normal: circulacion umbilical

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J. [Hospital Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs.

  20. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  1. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  2. Lithium treatment and thyroid abnormalities

    Bocchetta Alberto

    2006-09-01

    autoimmunity do not much differ from those observed in the general population; h hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer are observed rarely during lithium treatment. Recommendations Thyroid function tests (TSH, free thyroid hormones, specific antibodies, and ultrasonic scanning should be performed prior to starting lithium prophylaxis. A similar panel should be repeated at one year. Thereafter, annual measurements of TSH may be sufficient to prevent overt hypothyroidism. In the presence of raised TSH or thyroid autoimmunity, shorter intervals between assessments are advisable (4–6 months. Measurement of antibodies and ultrasonic scanning may be repeated at 2-to-3-year intervals. The patient must be referred to the endocrinologist if TSH concentrations are repeatedly abnormal, and/or goitre or nodules are detected. Thyroid function abnormalities should not constitute an outright contraindication to lithium treatment, and lithium should not be stopped if a patient develops thyroid abnormalities. Decisions should be made taking into account the evidence that lithium treatment is perhaps the only efficient means of reducing the excessive mortality which is otherwise associated with affective disorders.

  3. Musculoskeletal colour/power Doppler in sports medicine

    Boesen, M I; Boesen, M; Langberg, Henning;

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the aspects of sports medicine where musculoskeletal Doppler ultrasound has valuable contribution in diagnosis and/or treatment of some of the typical musculoskeletal sports injuries. Also, conditions where the Doppler ultrasound has no value are discussed. Some...

  4. Monitoring and Analysis of Respiratory Patterns Using Microwave Doppler Radar

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Noncontact detection characteristic of Doppler radar provides an unobtrusive means of respiration detection and monitoring. This avoids additional preparations, such as physical sensor attachment or special clothing, which can be useful for certain healthcare applications. Furthermore, robustness of Doppler radar against environmental factors, such as light, ambient temperature, interference from other signals occupying the same bandwidth, fading effects, reduce environmental constraints and ...

  5. Diagnosis of aortic dissection by color-coded doppler

    Using a new ultrasound technique, the Color-Coded Doppler Echocardiography, the thoracic extension of a previously diagnosed dissecting aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was detected in an asymptomatic patient. The Color-Coded Doppler seems to be a reliable method in diagnosing aortic dissecting aneurysm and the technique of choice for the follow-up of the chronic forms of disease

  6. The Doppler and gravitational components of the cosmological redshift

    We decompose the cosmological redshift in the standard Friedmann cosmologies into two shifts: a Doppler shift attributable to the recession of the galaxies, and a gravitational shift attributable to the curvature of the universe. For galaxies nearby enough for their recessional motion to be non-relativistic, we interpret our results for the Doppler and gravitational shifts with the aid of Birkhoff's theorem. (author)

  7. A study for developing an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter

    Biermans, M.; Bregman, R.

    1984-06-01

    The system parameters for low cost ultrasonic Doppler flowmeters for medical applications were investigated. A flowmeter was built. A phase locked loop is used to find the correct Doppler shift. Laboratory and field tests prove the success of the development, although very often insufficient reflectors exist in the liquids. The accuracy is + or - 5%; the reproducibility is + or - 0.5%.

  8. Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capabilities

    Kuntman, Daryal

    1991-01-01

    The status of Bendix research on Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capability is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the RDR-4A, a fully coherent, solid state transmitter having Doppler turbulence capability. Frequency generation data, plans, modifications, system characteristics and certification requirements are covered.

  9. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  10. "An analysis of the classical Doppler Effect"[1] revisited

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Nafornita, Corina

    2004-01-01

    After having shown that the formula which describes the Doppler effect in the general case holds only in the case of the "very high" frequency assumption, we derive free of assumptions Doppler formulas for two scenarios presented in the revisited paper.

  11. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Daniela Mierla; Viorica Radoi; Veronica Stoian

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, ka...

  12. ABNORMAL CARDIOVASCULAR REFLEXES IN PATIENTS WITH ACHALASIA

    戈峰; 李泽坚; 柯美云

    1994-01-01

    Using 3 non-invasive tests,abnormalities of cardiovascular reflex function were found in 7 of 15 patients with achalasia.Abnormalities of heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver,deep breathing ,and standing were moted in patients with autonomic neuropathy defect.The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an abnormality of vagal function may contribute to the pathogenesis of achalasia.

  13. Do Stock Dividends Generate Abnormal Returns?

    Torgal, Kishan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I have studied and understood the concepts of stock dividends, stock splits and the announcement effects and the effective day effects by using the standard event studies methodology which measures the significance of the abnormal returns. The previous studies have significant positive abnormal returns. In my results its shown that the as there is some significant abnormal returns which are connected with the announcement and effective day of the stock splits but it changes...

  14. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  15. Sensorial abnormalities: Smell and taste

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taste and smell abnormalities have proven to be an extremely more complex subject than previously regarded. Wide-ranging nosologic entities arise along with smell and taste alterations, and they can be congenital or acquired. Objective: Analyze the main features of smell and taste dysfunctions. Method: Automated databases were used to collect data, by searching keywords like 'alteration', 'smell', and 'taste'. A non-systematic search was also made in scientific printings and medical books. Literature Review: Smell and taste dysfunctions have a vast etiology, the most significant of which are obstructive nasal and sinusal disease, infections of the upper respiratory tract, cranioencephalic trauma, aging, exposure to toxics and some drugs, nasal or intracranial neoplasias, psychiatric and neurological pathologies, iatrogenic disease, idiopathic and congenital causes. A detailed anamnesis, a careful physical examination and supplementary evaluations are important for the diagnosis of these alterations. Conclusion: As a rule, smell and taste dysfunctions occur in a combined way. The early discovery of such dysfunctions can lead to a more efficient treatment, making the progress of diseases causing them retard and the symptoms less severe. In many cases, treating these alterations is not easy and there needs to be a multidisciplinary cooperation among the otorhinolaryngologist, endocrinologist, neurologist, psychiatrist, among others.

  16. Doppler spectral characteristics of infrainguinal vein bypasses

    Nielsen, Tina G; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T V

    1993-01-01

    arteriovenous fistulas the initially antegrade diastolic velocity was replaced by a retrograde flow within 3 months, whereas a forward flow in diastole was sustained in grafts with patent fistulas. Abnormal Duplex findings in 31 patients led to angiography and revision in 13 cases. Four revised grafts failed...

  17. Holoprosencephaly due to numeric chromosome abnormalities.

    Solomon, Benjamin D; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N; Meck, Jeanne M; Muenke, Maximilian

    2010-02-15

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been reported. Such chromosome number abnormalities are almost universally fatal early in gestation or in infancy. Clinical features of specific chromosome number abnormalities may be recognized by phenotypic manifestations in addition to the HPE. PMID:20104610

  18. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities

  19. Ionospheric Doppler measurements by means of HF-radar techniques

    D. Altadill

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the dynamics of the ionosphere and its related phenomena are mainly based on Doppler Drift measurements. The time variation (ionisation/recombination of plasma density, thermospheric wind and others can be observed by means of HF-radars. The technique of Doppler Drift measurements is a quite complex technique that is now affordable by means of an advanced ionospheric sounder. The combination of vertical sounding and interferometric Doppler detection discloses the Doppler sources. The echo signal contains the Doppler shift in frequency imposed on the wave carrier by each point source where the signal is reflected. Other phenomena like environmental noise and the intrinsic error of the measurements that, together with the change in time of the refractive index, affect the measurements in various ways impeding to better quantify the results.

  20. Limits on Planetary Companions from Doppler Surveys of Nearby Stars

    Howard, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Most of our knowledge of planets orbiting nearby stars comes from Doppler surveys. For spaced-based, high-contrast imaging missions, nearby stars with Doppler-discovered planets are attractive targets. The known orbits tell imaging missions where and when to observe, and the dynamically-determined masses provide important constraints for the interpretation of planetary spectra. Quantifying the set of planet masses and orbits that could have been detected will enable more efficient planet discovery and characterization. We analyzed Doppler measurements from Lick and Keck Observatories collected by the California Planet Survey. We focused on stars that are likely targets for three space-based planet imaging mission concepts studied by NASA--WFIRST-AFTA, Exo-C, and Exo-S. The Doppler targets are primarily F8 and later main sequence stars, with observations spanning 1987-2014. We identified 76 stars with Doppler measurements from the prospective mission target lists. We developed an automated planet search and a ...

  1. Use of GPS network data for HF Doppler measurements interpretation

    Petrova, Inna R; Latypov, Ruslan R

    2014-01-01

    The method of measurement of Doppler frequency shift of ionospheric signal - HF Doppler technique - is one of well-known and widely used methods of ionosphere research. It allows to research various disturbances in the ionosphere. There are some sources of disturbances in the ionosphere. These are geomagnetic storms, solar flashes, metrological effects, atmospheric waves. This method allows to find out the influence of earthquakes, explosions and other processes on the ionosphere, which occur near to the Earth. HF Doppler technique has the high sensitivity to small frequency variations and the high time resolution, but interpretation of results is difficult. In this work we make an attempt to use GPS data for Doppler measurements interpretation. Modeling of Doppler frequency shift variations with use of TEC allows to separate ionosphere disturbances of medium scale.

  2. Doplerovi brodski navigacioni brzinomjeri / Maritime navigational Doppler logs

    Milovan Unković

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Doplerovi navigacioni brodski brzinomjeri rade na principu Doplerovog efekta. Doplerov predajni projektor emituje snop ultrazvučnih vibracija u vodi, a drugi (ili isti projektor prima odbijeni signal od dna ili od sloja vode. U ovom radu opisana je teorija Doplerovog efekta, primjena te teorije na brodskim brzinomjerima, konstrukcija i karakteristike savremenih Doplerovih brzinomjera. / The Doppler maritime navigational logs are based on measurement of the Doppler effect. A Doppler log transmitting transducer emits beam of sound vibration in the water, and a second (or the same transducer receives the echo from the sea bed or -water layer. In this article describes theory of Doppler effect, using this theory in maritime logs, construction and performance of modern Doppler logs.

  3. Is enteral nutrition a primary therapy in cancer patients?

    Bozzetti, F

    1994-01-01

    At present, there is limited evidence for the role of enteral nutrition as a primary therapy in cancer patients. Cachexia commonly occurs in patients with advanced cancer. A consensus view from a large number of studies suggests that cachexia cannot be fully reversed by vigorous enteral nutritional support. A review is included of the available data on the effects of enteral nutritional support on the common indices of nutritional state and on the final outcome of patients receiving enteral n...

  4. Artificial Nutrition: Principles and Practice of Enteral Feeding

    Lloyd, David A. J.; Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a commonly used form of nutritional supplementation for patients with intestinal failure, both in hospitals and in the community. This article concentrates on the basic principles of enteral feeding, including the physiological effects of feeding into the intestinal tract. It covers the indications for enteral feeding, the different methods of supplying enteral feeds to the gastrointestinal tract, and the potential complications. There is also a discussion of the indication...

  5. [Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular diastolic function: methodology, clinical and prognostic value].

    Galderisi, Maurizio; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Colonna, Paolo; de Simone, Giovanni

    2004-02-01

    To date, left ventricular diastolic function can be clinically assessed by Doppler echocardiography. The Doppler recording of mitral inflow and pulmonary venous flow provides main information about ventricular diastolic properties. At the level of the mitral inflow we can measure the early diastolic peak velocity (E), atrial peak velocity and derive their ratio, the E velocity deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time, and calculate atrial filling fraction. At the level of the pulmonary veins, the peak systolic velocity (S), the peak diastolic velocity (D), the S/D ratio, the peak of reverse atrial velocity and its duration, above all in terms of difference with the mitral A duration, characterize the different patterns of diastolic function. Also the new ultrasound technologies are clinically useful to define ventricular diastolic properties. The myocardial early diastolic velocity (Em) detectable by pulsed tissue Doppler at the level of the mitral annulus, and the flow propagation velocity (Vp) recordable by color M-mode of left ventricular inflow, both relatively preload-independent, are measurements related to tau, the reference hemodynamic variable. The E/Em and E/Vp ratios provide accurate estimation of the changes in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. They allow us to distinguish the pseudonormal and restrictive patterns from the normal pattern and are, therefore, alternative tools to Valsalva maneuver of mitral inflow and pulmonary venous flow. The predictive value of the pattern of abnormal relaxation (grade I of diastolic dysfunction) and both the reversible and irreversible restrictive patterns (grade III and IV respectively) is now demonstrated and permits important prognostic stratification and appropriate therapeutic management. PMID:15080528

  6. Doppler Ultrasound Assessment of Well-Functioning Native Hemodialysis Access: Comparison with Sufficient Dialysis

    A. Alamdaran

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Malfunction of vascular accesses is a common cause of morbidity in hemodialysis patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the flow volume and the diameter of the feeding artery in asymptomatic, well-functioning hemodialysis access with Doppler ultrasound."nPatients and Methods: From March 2006 to February 2007, we examined the functioning mature arteriovenous fistula (AVF of 69 hemodialysis patients by Doppler ultrasound in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad. The measured flow volume, primary renal disease, AVF type and location, and the demographic data were recorded. All statistical analyses were performed with the Chi square test, the Student's t test and one-way ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficient was also calculated."nResults: Of the 69 patients, 30 (43% had an antecubital AVF. Overall, the mean±SD flow volume was 1665±554 mL/min. The majority of accesses (n=52 had normal flow volume (500-1200 mL/min, 15 patients had high-flow fistulas (>1200 mL/min and 4 had critical flow rates of <500 mL/min. The flow volume was significantly higher in the antecubital AVF than that placed in more distal positions. The mean diameter of the feeding artery at the measurement site was 6.0 mm. There is a linear correlation between the diameter of the feeding artery and the mean flow rate (r=0.76, p<0.001. No significant difference was observed between the type of anastomosis and the flow rate (p=0.14. "nConclusion: There is a high level of abnormalities, especially high flow volume, in well-functioning mature AVFs. Color Doppler ultrasonography makes early detection of the patients with a higher risk possible and it can also guide the surgeon to select the surgical procedure.

  7. Evaluation of Hepatic Vasculature in Fatty Liver Patients with Duplex Doppler Sonography

    Nahid Sedighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Duplex Doppler ultrasonography (US has been newly suggested as an important diagnostic technique in the non-invasive evaluation of hepatic vasculature and some hepatic parenchymal diseases. New findings suggest that diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver can alter normal hepatic vein and artery Doppler indices. The following study has been performed to evaluate the effect of fatty infiltration on portal vein indices."nPatients and Methods: Forty-eight patients with various degrees of fatty infiltration of the liver and 48 normal subjects without any signs of hepatic fatty infiltration in ultrasonography were examined using standard color Doppler sonography. Maximum and minimum peak velocity and resistance index were compared in the two groups."nResults: The mean of maximum peak velocity in the portal vein was 25.9±9.9 and 34.3±18.3 in the case and control group, respectively (P=0.006. The mean of minimum peak velocity in the portal vein was 19.2±9.9 and 18.7±8.7 in the case and control group, respectively (P=0.795. The mean of resistance index was 0.25±0.09 and 0.41±0.15 in the case and control group, respectively (P<0.001."nConclusion: The mean of maximum peak velocity and the mean of resistance index in the portal vein was significantly lower in patients with fatty infiltration compared to those who had no abnormality in the liver ultrasonography .

  8. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  9. The study of left ventricular diastolic function by Doppler echocardiography: the essential for the clinician

    Livio Dei Cas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal diastolic function of left ventricle represents the main pathophysiological mechanism responsible for different clinical states such as restrictive cardiomyopathy, infiltrative myocardial disease and, specially, diastolic heart failure (also called heart failure with preserved systolic function, which is present in a large number of patients with a clinical picture of pulmonary congestion. Although the invasive approach, through cardiac catheterization allowing the direct measurement of left ventricular filling pressure, myocardial relaxation and compliance, is considered the gold standard for the identification of diastolic dysfunction, several noninvasive methods have been proposed for the study of left ventricular diastolic function. Doppler echocardiography represents an excellent noninvasive technique to fully characterize the diastolic function in health and disease. (Heart International 2007; 3: 42-50

  10. Systemic and enteric salmonellosis in calves

    Fernanda Morcatti Coura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical manifestation of different Salmonella serovars in dairy calves. S. typhimurium was identified in faecal samples of a calf with rectal prolapse and in faecal samples and mesenteric lymph nodes of a calf with necrosis at the tip of the tail. S. agona was identified in faecal samples of a calf with diarrhoea but no other clinical manifestation, and S. dublin was observed in faecal and organ samples from a calf with neurological symptoms. Assays to differentiate between the main enteric pathogens (Enteropathogenic E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus were performed and were negative. Due to the negative impact of salmonellosis and occurrence of different serovars and clinical manifestations in calves, the correct diagnosis is important to identify control and prophylactic measures in a dairy herd.

  11. Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era

    After a period of extensive growth in the 2000's, the Russian gas industry is now facing numerous challenges. Mounting competition by independent producers and the development of new production by Gazprom, combined with stagnating domestic demand and weakening export markets, have created a situation of overproduction, made worse by western sanctions and low oil and gas prices. Expansion to the East thanks to the recent China deal is not expected to provide much relief before 2024. The coming decade will be critical for the industry and its outcome will largely depend on the government's pricing and institutional policies but the role of the state should remain essential. This document presents the key findings of the New CEDIGAZ report 'Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era'. The report analyses the ongoing changes in the Russian industry and the challenges to be met

  12. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  13. The Doppler peaks from a generic defect

    Magueijo, J

    1996-01-01

    We investigate which of the exotic Doppler peak features found for textures and cosmic strings are generic novelties pertaining to defects. We find that the ``out of phase'' texture signature is an accident. Generic defects, when they generate a secondary peak structure similar to inflation, apply to it an additive shift. It is not necessary for this shift to be ``out of phase''. We also show which factors are responsible for the absence of secondary oscillations found for cosmic strings. Within this general analysis we finally consider the conditions under which topological defects and inflation can be confused. It is argued that only \\Omega=1 inflation and a defect with a horizon size coherence length have a chance to be confused. Any other inflationary or defect model always differ distinctly. (To appear in the proceedings of the XXXIth Moriond meeting, ``Microwave Background Anisotropies'')

  14. Spacecraft Doppler tracking with a VLBI antenna

    Comoretto, G.; Iess, L.; Bertotti, B.; Brenkle, J. P.; Horton, T.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported from Doppler-shift measurements to the Voyager-2 spacecraft at a distance of 26 AU, obtained using the 32-m VLBI antenna at Medicina (Italy) during July and August 1988. The apparatus comprises the el-az antenna, an S-X-band receiver, a hydrogen maser to generate the reference signal, a Mark III VLBI terminal, and a digital tone extractor capable of isolating a tone of known frequency from a noisy signal and giving its phase and amplitude. A signal transmitted in S-band from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) station in Australia and retransmitted coherently in X-band by Voyager, was received 7 h 6 min later at Medicina and at the DSN station in Madrid. Sample data are presented graphically and shown to be of generally high quality; further in-depth analysis is under way.

  15. Microscale Heat Conduction Models and Doppler Feedback

    The objective of this project is to establish an approach for providing the fundamental input that is needed to estimate the magnitude and time-dependence of the Doppler feedback mechanism in Very High Temperature reactors. This mechanism is the foremost contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Therefore, its correct prediction is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat deposition, heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. To achieve the above objective, this project will explore an approach that accounts for lattice effects as well as local temperature variations and the correct definition of temperature and related local effects.

  16. Correlation and Sequential Filtering with Doppler Measurements

    WANGJianguo; HEPeikun; HANYueqiu; WUSiliang

    2004-01-01

    Two sequential filters are developed for Doppler radar measurements in the presence of correlation between range and range rate measurement errors. Two ideal linear measurement equations with the pseudo measurements are constructed via block-partitioned Cholesky factorization and the practical measurement equationswith the pseudo measurements are obtained through the direction cosine estimation and error compensation. The resulting sequential filters make the position measurement be possibly processed before the pseudo measurement and hence the more accurate direction cosine estimate can be obtained from the filtered position estimate rather than the predicted state estimate. The numerical simulations with different rangerange rate correlation coefficients show thatthe proposed two sequential filters are almost equivalent in performance but both superior to the conventional extended Kalman filter for different correlation coefficients.

  17. Position finding using simple Doppler sensors

    S. Schelkshorn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of modern applications and services is based on the knowledge of the users actual position. Depending on the application a rough position estimate is sufficient, e. g. services in cellular networks that use the information about the users actual cell. Other applications, e. g. navigation systems use the GPS-System for accurate position finding. Beyond these outdoor applications a growing number of indoor applications requires position information. The previously mentioned methods for position finding (mobile cell, GPS are not usable for these indoor applications.

    Within this paper we will present a system that relies on the simultaneous measurement of doppler signals at four different positions to obtain position and velocity of an unknown object. It is therefore suiteable for indoor usage, extendig already existing wireless infrastructure.

  18. Implementation of Doppler backscattering for MAST

    Hillesheim, J C; Peebles, W A; Meyer, H; Meakins, A; Field, A R; Dunai, D; Carr, M; Hawkes, N

    2014-01-01

    A sixteen channel millimeter-wave diagnostic system, covering the frequency range 30-75 GHz, has been installed on MAST [B. Lloyd et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1665 (2003)] and has been successfully used for both Doppler backscattering (DBS) and conventional (normal-incidence) fluctuation reflectometry. DBS has become a well-established and versatile diagnostic technique for the measurement of intermediate- k ($k_{\\bot} \\rho_i \\sim 1$, and higher) density fluctuations and flows in magnetically confined fusion experiments. The $180^{\\circ}$ backscattering for DBS requires three dimensional wave-vector matching between the launched beam and the plasma fluctuations inducing the scattering, which are expected to be highly elongated along the magnetic field. The large pitch angle in MAST means that DBS implementation depends strongly on the capability to accurately launch the probing beam at a toroidal and poloidal angle that is matched to the magnetic field at the scattering location. We report on the scattering consi...

  19. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation. PMID:22254704

  20. The recondite intricacies of Zeeman Doppler mapping

    Stift, M J; Cowley, C R

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the reliability of abundance and magnetic maps of Ap stars obtained by Zeeman Doppler mapping (ZDM). It is shown how they can be adversely affected by the assumption of a mean stellar atmosphere instead of appropriate "local" atmospheres corresponding to the actual abundances in a given region. The essenceof the difficulties was already shown by Chandrasekhar's picket-fence model. The results obtained with a suite of Stokes codes written in the Ada programming language and based on modern line-blanketed atmospheres are described in detail. We demonstrate that the high metallicity values claimed to have been found in chemically inhomogeneous Ap star atmospheres would lead to local temperature structures, continuum and line intensities, and line shapes that differ significantly from those predicted by a mean stellar atmosphere. Unfortunately, past applications of ZDM have consistently overlooked the intricate aspects of metallicity with their all-pervading effects. The erroneou...

  1. Microscale Heat Conduction Models and Doppler Feedback

    Hawari, Ayman I. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Ougouag, Abderrafi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project is to establish an approach for providing the fundamental input that is needed to estimate the magnitude and time-dependence of the Doppler feedback mechanism in Very High Temperature reactors. This mechanism is the foremost contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Therefore, its correct prediction is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat deposition, heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. To achieve the above objective, this project will explore an approach that accounts for lattice effects as well as local temperature variations and the correct definition of temperature and related local effects.

  2. Widefield laser doppler velocimeter: development and theory.

    Hansche, Bruce David; Reu, Phillip L.; Massad, Jordan Elias

    2007-03-01

    The widefield laser Doppler velocimeter is a new measurement technique that significantly expands the functionality of a traditional scanning system. This new technique allows full-field velocity measurements without scanning, a drawback of traditional measurement techniques. This is particularly important for tests in which the sample is destroyed or the motion of the sample is non-repetitive. The goal of creating ''velocity movies'' was accomplished during the research, and this report describes the current functionality and operation of the system. The mathematical underpinnings and system setup are thoroughly described. Two prototype experiments are then presented to show the practical use of the current system. Details of the corresponding hardware used to collect the data and the associated software to analyze the data are presented.

  3. Doppler cooling and trapping on forbidden transitions

    Binnewies, T; Sterr, U; Riehle, F; Helmcke, J; Mehlstäubler, T E; Rasel, E M; Ertmer, W

    2001-01-01

    Ultracold atoms at temperatures close to the recoil limit have been achieved by extending Doppler cooling to forbidden transitions. A cloud of ^40Ca atoms has been cooled and trapped to a temperature as low as 6 \\mu K by operating a magneto-optical trap on the spin-forbidden intercombination transition. Quenching the long-lived excited state with an additional laser enhanced the scattering rate by a factor of 15, while a high selectivity in velocity was preserved. With this method more than 10% of pre-cooled atoms from a standard magneto-optical trap have been transferred to the ultracold trap. Monte-Carlo simulations of the cooling process are in good agreement with the experiments.

  4. Doppler cooling and trapping on forbidden transitions.

    Binnewies, T; Wilpers, G; Sterr, U; Riehle, F; Helmcke, J; Mehlstäubler, T E; Rasel, E M; Ertmer, W

    2001-09-17

    Ultracold atoms at temperatures close to the recoil limit have been achieved by extending Doppler cooling to forbidden transitions. A cloud of (40)Ca atoms has been cooled and trapped to a temperature as low as 6 microK by operating a magnetooptical trap on the spin-forbidden intercombination transition. Quenching the long-lived excited state with an additional laser enhanced the scattering rate by a factor of 15, while a high selectivity in velocity was preserved. With this method, more than 10% of precooled atoms from a standard magnetooptical trap have been transferred to the ultracold trap. Monte Carlo simulations of the cooling process are in good agreement with the experiments. PMID:11580503

  5. Ultrasonic intrusion sensor using the Doppler effect; Choonpa Doppler hoshiki shinnyu sensor

    Kani, H.; Iwasaki, N.; Goto, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuzuki, T.; Nakamura, T. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    For vehicle anti-theft alarm systems which cope with vehicle and car component theft, EU initiated vehicle security regulations from Jan 1997. Also, the insurance industry has instituted the insurance certification of vehicle anti-theft alarm systems. We have developed an ultrasonic intrusion sensor using the doppler effect for vehicle anti-theft alarm systems specifically for these EU regulations and insurance certification. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Association of coexisting morphological umbilical cord abnormality and clinical cord compromise with hypoxic and thrombotic placental histology.

    Stanek, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    To assess the usefulness and limitations of placental histology when morphological umbilical cord (UC) abnormality coexists with clinical UC compromise, 5634 consecutive placentas were divided into four groups and statistically compared: group 1-182 placentas from pregnancies with clinical features of UC compromise (variable decelerations, UC entanglement, prolapse, or true knot at delivery); group 2-1355 placentas with abnormal UC morphology or insertion; group 3-152 placentas with at least one phenotype from group 1 and one from group 2; group 4-3945 placentas with no clinical or morphological UC-related phenotypes (control group).Differences were analyzed by ANOVA or χ (2). Of 68 phenotypes studied, 13 clinical and 18 placental phenotypes were statistically significant. In group 1, 2 phenotypes were most common (oligohydramnios and abnormal fetal heart rate tracing). In group 2, 6 phenotypes were most common, including 4 clinical (abnormal umbilical artery Dopplers, nonmacerated stillbirth, multiple pregnancy, and fetal growth restriction) and 2 placental. In group 3, 23 phenotypes were most common, including 7 clinical (gestational hypertension, polyhydramnios, induction of labor, cesarean section, macerated stillbirth, congenital malformations, and abnormal 3rd stage of labor) and 16 placental. The existence of clinical signs of UC compromise alone was associated with the absence of pathomorphological placental abnormalities. However, the coexistence of clinical and abnormal morphological UC phenotypes was statistically significantly associated with placental histological signs of decreased fetal blood flow, hypoxia (acute and chronic post uterine), shallow placental implantation, and/or amnion nodosum. Thus, confirmation of clinical UC compromise should not be expected on placental examination if no morphological UC abnormality or abnormal UC insertion has been found. PMID:26983702

  7. Wind Field Measurements With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    In collaboration with lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, we have developed and flown the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) lidar on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The scientific motivations for this effort are: to obtain measurements of subgrid scale (i.e. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in global/regional-scale models; to improve understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to assess the performance of Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurements. MACAWS is a scanning Doppler lidar using a pulsed transmitter and coherent detection; the use of the scanner allows 3-D wind fields to be produced from the data. The instrument can also be radiometrically calibrated and used to study aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering characteristics at the lidar wavelength in the thermal infrared. MACAWS was used to study surface winds off the California coast near Point Arena, with an example depicted in the figure below. The northerly flow here is due to the Pacific subtropical high. The coastal topography interacts with the northerly flow in the marine inversion layer, and when the flow passes a cape or point that juts into the winds, structures called "hydraulic expansion fans" are observed. These are marked by strong variation along the vertical and cross-shore directions. The plots below show three horizontal slices at different heights above sea level (ASL). Bottom plots are enlargements of the area marked by dotted boxes above. The terrain contours are in 200-m increments, with the white spots being above 600-m elevation. Additional information is contained in the original.

  8. Complex radiation diagnosis of associated intracardiac abnormality

    It is shown that patients with congenital heart diseases having signs of cardiodismorphic complex in form of associated intercardiac abnormalities require special attention after surgical correction of the principal defect. It is connected with the fact that the associated abnormalities may become with time the basic factors influencing the progress and forecast of the disease

  9. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  10. An Abnormal Vibrational Mode of Torsion Pendulum

    赵亮; 涂英; 顾邦明; 胡忠坤; 罗俊

    2003-01-01

    In the experiment for the determination of the gravitational constant G, we found an abnormal vibrational mode of the torsion pendulum. The abnormal mode disappeared as a magnetic damper was introduced to the torsion pendulum system. Our experimental results also show that the magnetic damper can be used to suppress the high frequency vibrational noises to torsion pendulums effectively.

  11. ROLE OF DOPPLER STUDY IN THE EVALUATION OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a fetal growth disorder defined on the basis of a fetal weight below 10 th percentile for the corresponding gestational age. Our study was an effort at establishing the role of Umbilical artery (UA and Middle cere bral artery (MCA Doppler indices in predicting the adverse perinatal out come in clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies, and to determine the role of Doppler velocimetry in clinical management of such pregnancies. Elevation of the umbilical artery systolic /diastolic ratio or of the pulsatility index (PI; absent or reversed end - diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and decreased systolic/diastolic ratio or pulsatility index in the fetal internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries are the predictors of ab normal perinatal outcome. Our study was to evaluate the role of ratio of pulsatility index (PI which is called as Cerebroplacental Ratio i.e. MCAPI/UAPI Doppler ratio as the most accurate predictor of adverse perinatal outcome among women with clinical sus picion of IUGR attending our (SVRR Govt. hospital. METHODOLOGY : 50 Antenatal women attending the antenatal O.P.D who were clinically suspected as having growth retardation based on clinical history of previous child with growth retardation , signs of pallor ( anaemia and high documented Blood pressures – s/o PIH, reduced abdominal height for gestational age , were evaluated using screening ultrasound. Doppler velocity wave forms were obtained from umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery fro m all the 50 cases. 16 cases were followed up with repeat Doppler. Pulsatility index ratio of middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery, also called as Cerebroplacental ratio was evaluated in each case. Abnormal ratio is defined as Cerebroplacental ratio < 1.08 was considered as a cut off value. Ratio was calculated and correlated clinically with the perinatal outcomes – in the form of IUD’s, low APGAR

  12. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  13. Ultrasonographic abnormalities and inter-reader reliability in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus - a comparison with clinical examination of wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints

    Dreyer, L; Jacobsen, Søren; Juul, L; Terslev, L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine 1) ultrasound (US) abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without hand arthralgia at the day of examination compared with clinical evaluation and healthy controls, and 2) inter-observer reliability of the US abnormalities....... METHODS: Thirty-three female SLE patients were twice examined with US by three trained examiners. Using B-mode and Doppler US, unilateral wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were examined for synovitis and erosions as well as signs of hand tenosynovitis using a GE Logiq 9 US machine with Doppler...... settings for slow flow. All patients also underwent clinical joint evaluation and were compared with 11 healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: Among the patients with SLE 16 (48%) had signs of wrist synovitis, which was only observed in one HC (p = 0.03). Corresponding figures for any MCP joint were 12 (36%) and...

  14. Duplex Doppler ultrasound study of the temporomandibular joint

    Stagnitti, A.; Marini, A.; Impara, L.; Drudi, F.M.; Lo mele, L.; Lillo Odoardi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The anatomy and physiology of the temporomandibular joint can be studied clinically and by diagnostic imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiography (X-ray) and computed tomography (CT) have thus for many years contributed to the study of the kinetics in the mandibular condyle. However, also duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) examination is widely used in the study of structures during movement, particularly vascular structures. Materials and methods A total of 30 patients were referred by the Department of Orthodontics to the Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome “La Sapienza”. All patients underwent duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) examination of the temporomandibular joint using Toshiba APLIO SSA-770A equipment and duplex Doppler multi-display technique, which allows simultaneous display of US images and color Doppler signals. A linear phased array probe with crystal elements was used operating at a basic frequency of 6 MHz during pulsed Doppler spectral analysis and 7.5 MHz during US imaging. Results In normal patients a regular alternation in the spectral Doppler waveforms was obtained, while in patients with temporomandibular joint meniscus dysfunction there was no regularity in the sum of the Fourier series with an unsteady waveform pattern related to irregular movements of the temporomandibular joint. Conclusions In all cases duplex Doppler US examination proved able to differentiate between normal and pathological patients and among the latter this technique permitted identification of the most significant aspects of the dysfunctional diseases. PMID:23397016

  15. Doppler ultrasound evaluation of pattern of venous incompetance and relation with skin changes in varicose vein patients

    HP Pant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Varicosity of lower limb is a common problem in agricultural country like Nepal. Doppler ultrasound is a standard investigation modality for confirmation of diagnosis, evaluation of severity and venous mapping to plan treatment. We aim to find out the epidemiology, common pattern of incompetance, severity assessment by doppler and association of the important doppler variables with skin changes. METHODOLOGY Doppler venous study was done in 56 patients from june 2013 to july 2014. Patients with deep vein thrombosis and peripheral arterial disease were excluded. Altogether 56 patients, 96 limbs were studied. Data was entered in preformed proforma. Doppler study was conducted by senior radiologist with linear probes. Data was entered in SPSS software version 16 and statistical significance was calculated using chi square test. RESULTS Bilateral limb involvement was seen in 40 patients and unilateral in 16 patuents only. Skin related changes were seen in 58 limbs. Saphenofemoral junction incompetance was seen in 79(82.2% limbs and was most common pattern of incompetance. Overall, superficial veins were involved in 88(91.7% limbs and deep in 30(31.2% limbs. Prolonged duration of varicosity (>9 year (p=0.000, bilateral limb involvement(p=0.024, reflux in deep venous system(p=0.002, larger Greater Saphenous Vein (GSV size(p=0.003, prolonged duration of reflux(p=0.000 and perforator incompetence (p=0.002 were associated with skin changes. GSV diameter more than 7 mm was associated with reflux significantly (P=0.002. CONCLUSION Superficial vein incompetance is common pattern compared to deep venous system. Sapheno Femoral Junction (SFJ incompetance is the commonest pattern. Larger caliber of vein, prolonged duration of reflux, reflux in deep venous system and perforator insufficiency are significantly associated with skin changes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12770 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3

  16. Pulsed Doppler echocardiographic analysis of mitral regurgitation after myocardial infarction.

    Loperfido, F; Biasucci, L M; Pennestri, F; Laurenzi, F; Gimigliano, F; Vigna, C; Rossi, E; Favuzzi, A; Santarelli, P; Manzoli, U

    1986-10-01

    In 72 patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI), mitral regurgitation (MR) was assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography and compared with physical and 2-dimensional echocardiographic findings. MR was found by Doppler in 29 of 42 patients (62%) with anterior MI, 11 of 30 (37%) with inferior MI (p less than 0.01) and in none of 20 normal control subjects. MR was more frequent in patients who underwent Doppler study 3 months after MI than in those who underwent Doppler at discharge (anterior MI = 83% vs 50%, p less than 0.01; inferior MI = 47% vs 27%, p = not significant). Of 15 patients who underwent Doppler studies both times, 3 (all with anterior MI) had MR only on the second study. Of the patients with Doppler MR, 12 of 27 (44%) with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) greater than 30% and 1 of 13 (8%) with an EF of 30% or less (p less than 0.01) had an MR systolic murmur. Mitral prolapse or eversion and papillary muscle fibrosis were infrequent in MI patients, whether or not Doppler MR was present. The degree of Doppler MR correlated with EF (r = -0.61), LV systolic volume (r = 0.47), and systolic and diastolic mitral anulus circumference (r = 0.52 and 0.51, respectively). Doppler MR was present in 24 of 28 patients (86%) with an EF of 40% or less and in 16 of 44 (36%) with EF more than 40% (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3766410

  17. Contribution of spiral artery blood flow changes assessed by transvaginal color Doppler sonography for predicting endometrial pathologies

    Suna Kabil Kucur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ive: To investigate the diagnostic value of blood flow measurements in spiral artery by transvaginal color Doppler sonography (CDS in predicting endometrial pathologies.Methods: Ninety-seven patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding and requiring endometrial assessment were included in this prospective observational study. Endometrial thickness, structure and echogenicity were recorded. Pulsatility index (PI and resistive index (RI of the spiral artery were measured by transvaginal CDS. Endometrial sampling was performed for all subjects. Sonographic and hystopathologic findings were compared.Results: The histopathological diagnoses were as follows; 39 cases (40.2% endometrial polyp, 9 cases (9.3% endometrial hyperplasia, 10 cases (10.3 submucous myoma, 7 cases (7.2% endometrium cancer, and 32 cases (33% nonspecific findings. The spiral artery PI in endometrium cancer group was highly significantly lower than other groups (p<0.01. The spiral artery RI was also significantly lower in the patients with malignant histology (p<0.05. Conclusion: Endometrial pathologies are associated significantly with endometrial spiral artery Doppler changes.Key words: Spiral artery, Doppler ultrasonography, endometrium

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  19. Mitigating Doppler shift effect in HF multitone data modem

    Sonlu, Yasar

    1989-09-01

    Digital communications over High Frequency (HF) radio channels are getting important in recent years. Current HF requirements are for data transmission at rates 2.4 kbps or more to accommodate computer data links and digital secure voice. HF modems which were produced to meet these speeds are, serial modems and parallel modems. On the other hand, the HF sky-wave communication medium, the ionosphere, has some propagation problems such as multipath and Doppler shift. The effect of Doppler shift in a parallel modem which employs Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation is considered and a correction method to mitigate the Doppler Shift effect is introduced.

  20. [Feasibility study of the Doppler exploration of the renal artery].

    Milon, P; Clavier, E; Genevois, A; Benozio, M

    1990-03-01

    Using arteriography as a reference, the authors investigate the feasibility of pulsed doppler exploration of the normal or pathological renal arteries in 46 successive patients. The poor sensitivity of pulsed doppler, mainly due to the considerable anatomical variations of the renal pedicle, does not currently allow using this technique for the detection of renal arterial stenosis. When combined with angiography, pulsed doppler becomes a definite asset in therapeutic radiology to help in the choice of a treatment and in follow-up. PMID:2191123

  1. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of potassium atoms

    Landini, M; Carcagni', L; Trypogeorgos, D; Fattori, M; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G

    2011-01-01

    We investigate sub-Doppler laser cooling of bosonic potassium isotopes, whose small hyperfine splitting has so far prevented cooling below the Doppler temperature. We find instead that the combination of a dark optical molasses scheme that naturally arises in this kind of systems and an adiabatic ramping of the laser parameters allows to reach sub-Doppler temperatures for small laser detunings. We demonstrate temperatures as low as 25(3)microK and 47(5)microK in high-density samples of the two isotopes 39K and 41K, respectively. Our findings will find application to other atomic systems.

  2. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of potassium atoms

    Landini, M. [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di fisica, Universita di Trento, I-38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Roy, S.; Carcagni, L.; Trypogeorgos, D. [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fattori, M.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G. [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the sub-Doppler laser cooling of bosonic potassium isotopes, whose small hyperfine splitting has so far prevented cooling below the Doppler temperature. We find instead that the combination of a dark optical molasses scheme that naturally arises in this kind of system and an adiabatic ramping of the laser parameters allows us to reach sub-Doppler temperatures for small laser detunings. We demonstrate temperatures as low as 25{+-}3 {mu}K and 47{+-}5 {mu}K in high-density samples of the two isotopes {sup 39}K and {sup 41}K, respectively. Our findings should find application to other atomic systems.

  3. Procedures for quality control in Doppler ultrasound equipment

    Different international recommendations suggest an application of quality control programs in ultrasound equipment. However, procedures and reference values for Doppler test are not yet well defined. This work aims to present quantitative and qualitative tests for evaluation of quality control at Doppler ultrasound equipment. The following tests were performed: Doppler Signal Sensitivity; Color Flow Sensitivity; Flow Sensitivity at Depth; Color Flow B-Mode Image Congruency; Directional Discrimination; Accuracy of Flow Velocity Readout and Accuracy of Sample Gate Positioning. The values found will be used as baseline for comparisons over time. (author)

  4. Rotational Doppler Effect and Barnett Field in Spinning NMR

    Chudo, Hiroyuki; Harii, Kazuya; Matsuo, Mamoru; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Ono, Masao; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    We report the observation of the rotational Doppler effect using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We have developed a coil-spinning technique that enables measurements by rotating a detector and fixing a sample. We found that the rotational Doppler effect gives rise to NMR frequency shifts equal to the rotation frequency. We formulate the rotational Doppler effect and the Barnett field using a vector model for the nuclear magnetic moment. This formulation reveals that, with just the sample rotating, both effects cancel each other, thereby explaining the absence of an NMR frequency shift in conventional sample-spinning NMR measurements.

  5. Coherent Doppler wind lidars in a turbulent atmosphere

    Banakh, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Radiophysical tools for measuring atmospheric dynamics include sodars, Doppler radars, and Doppler lidars. Among these, coherent Doppler lidars (CDLs) have been considered the best for remote measurement of wind turbulence. This is important not only for understanding the exchange processes in the boundary layer, but also in the applied aspect, such as aviation safety. CDLs significantly extend possibilities of experimental investigation of not only wind turbulence, but also coherent structures such as aircraft wake vortices. The authors of this book conducted field tests of the developed meth

  6. Considerations pertinent to the Doppler effect for space reactors

    This paper describes various theoretical aspects pertinent to the estimation of the Doppler effect for space reactors. The distinct characteristics of space reactors give rise to various issues that are not present in the more thoroughly studied Doppler effect of fast breeder reactors. Key issues concerning the existing resonance data and computational models are extensively discussed. Calculations of the Doppler coefficient for a generic space reactor design having features of current designs have also been carried out to illustrate various aspects of practical importance

  7. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  8. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  9. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission.

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO(2), CH(4) is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH(4) emissions. Emission of CH(4) in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH(4) emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH(4) prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH(4) emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH(4) emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH(4) emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH(4) more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because

  10. A feasibility trial of computer-aided diagnosis for enteric lesions in capsule endoscopy

    Tao Gan; Jun-Chao Wu; Ni-Ni Rao; Tao Chen; Bing Liu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and evaluate the feasibility of the computer-aided screening diagnosis for enteric lesions in the capsule endoscopy (CE).METHODS: After developing a series of algorithms for the screening diagnosis of the enteric lesions in CE based on their characteristic colors and contours,the normal and abnormal images obtained from 289 patients were respectively scanned and diagnosed by the CE readers and by the computer-aided screening for the enteric lesions with the image-processed software (IPS). The enteric lesions shown by the images included esoenteritis, mucosal ulcer and erosion, bleeding, spaceoccupying lesions, angioectasia, diverticula, parasites,etc. The images for the lesions or the suspected lesions confirmed by the CE readers and the computers were collected, and the effectiveness rate of the screening and the number of the scanned images were evaluated,respectively.RESULTS: Compared with the diagnostic results obtained by the CE readers, the total effectiveness rate (sensitivity) in the screening of the commonlyencountered enteric lesions by IPS varied from 42.9%to 91.2%, with a median of 74.2%, though the specificity and the accuracy rates were still low, and the images for the rarely-encountered lesions were difficult to differentiate from the normal images. However, the number of the images screened by IPS was 5000 on average, and only 10%-15% of the original images were left behind. As a result, a large number of normal images were excluded, and the reading time decreased from 5 h to 1 h on average.CONCLUSION: Though the total accuracy and specificity rates by the computer-aided screening for the enteric lesions with IPS are much lower than those by the CE readers, the computer-aided screening diagnosis can exclude a large number of the normal images and confine the enteric lesions to 5000 images on average,which can reduce the workload of the readers in the scanning of the images. This computer-aided screening technique can make a

  11. Effect of non-linearity in predicting doppler waveforms through a novel model

    Sengupta Amit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnancy, the uteroplacental vascular system develops de novo locally in utero and a systemic haemodynamic & bio-rheological alteration accompany it. Any abnormality in the non-linear vascular system is believed to trigger the onset of serious morbid conditions like pre-eclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Exact Aetiopathogenesis is unknown. Advancement in the field of non-invasive doppler image analysis and simulation incorporating non-linearities may unfold the complexities associated with the inaccessible uteroplacental vessels. Earlier modeling approaches approximate it as a linear system. Method We proposed a novel electrical model for the uteroplacental system that uses MOSFETs as non-linear elements in place of traditional linear transmission line (TL model. The model to simulate doppler FVW's was designed by including the inputs from our non-linear mathematical model. While using the MOSFETs as voltage-controlled switches, a fair degree of controlled-non-linearity has been introduced in the model. Comparative analysis was done between the simulated data and the actual doppler FVW's waveforms. Results & Discussion Normal pregnancy has been successfully modeled and the doppler output waveforms are simulated for different gestation time using the model. It is observed that the dicrotic notch disappears and the S/D ratio decreases as the pregnancy matures. Both these results are established clinical facts. Effects of blood density, viscosity and the arterial wall elasticity on the blood flow velocity profile were also studied. Spectral analysis on the output of the model (blood flow velocity indicated that the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD falls during the mid-gestation. Conclusion Total harmonic distortion (THD is found to be informative in determining the Feto-maternal health. Effects of the blood density, the viscosity and the elasticity changes on the blood FVW are simulated. Future works are

  12. Diabetes-related alterations in the enteric nervous system and its microenvironment

    Mária Bagyánszki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal symptoms common among diabetic patients are often caused by intestinal motility abnormalities related to enteric neuropathy. It has recently been demonstrated that the nitrergic subpopulation of myenteric neurons are especially susceptible to the development of diabetic neuropathy. Additionally, different susceptibility of nitrergic neurons located in different intestinal segments to diabetic damage and their different levels of responsiveness to insulin treatment have been revealed. These findings indicate the importance of the neuronal microenvironment in the pathogenesis of diabetic nitrergic neuropathy. The main focus of this review therefore was to summarize recent advances related to the diabetes-related selective nitrergic neuropathy and associated motility disturbances. Special attention was given to the findings on capillary endothelium and enteric glial cells. Growing evidence indicates that capillary endothelium adjacent to the myenteric ganglia and enteric glial cells surrounding them are determinative in establishing the ganglionic microenvironment. Additionally, recent advances in the development of new strategies to improve glycemic control in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are also considered in this review. Finally, looking to the future, the recent and promising results of metagenomics for the characterization of the gut microbiome in health and disease such as diabetes are highlighted.

  13. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  14. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. 1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. 2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. 3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author)

  15. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response.

  16. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study.

    Loiudice, T A; Lang, J A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response. PMID:6410908

  17. Growth of bacteria in enteral feeding solutions.

    Anderton, A

    1985-08-01

    Solutions of Clinifeed ISO, Triosorbon, Vivonex Standard (full- and half-strength) and Vivonex HN were experimentally contaminated with two strains each of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae at concentrations of 10(2)-10(3) organisms/ml. Samples were incubated at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C and viable counts were made at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h. No increase in numbers of any of the organisms was observed in any of the feeds during 24 h at 4 degrees C. All organisms multiplied rapidly in Clinifeed ISO and in Triosorbon at 25 and 37 degrees C. There was less rapid growth in half-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, although at 37 degrees C all strains multiplied rapidly except for the two S. aureus strains, the growth of which was inhibited in half-strength Vivonex Standard at both 25 and 37 degrees C. In full-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, only P. aeruginosa showed any increase in numbers during 24 h, whereas P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes and E. cloacae all multiplied at 37 degrees C. None of the test organisms multiplied in full strength Vivonex HN at any of the temperatures studied. The results of the study show that bacteria survive and may multiply even in feeds with low pH and high osmolarity, and emphasise the importance of strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feeds. PMID:3927003

  18. Pathophysiology of enteric infections with Giardia duodenalis

    Buret A.G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia is the most prevalent human intestinal parasitic protist in the world, and one of the most common parasite of companion animals and young livestock. Giardia is a major cause of diarrhea in children and in travelers. The host-microbial interactions that govern the outcome of infection remain incompletely understood. Findings available to date indicate that the infection causes diarrhea via a combination of intestinal malabsorption and hypersecretion. Malabsorption and maldigestion mainly result from a diffuse shortening of epithelial microvilli. This enterocytic injury is mediated by activated host T lymphocytes. Pathophysiological activation of lymphocytes is secondary to Giardia-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions, which in turn increases intestinal permeability. Loss of epithelial barrier function is a result of Giardia-induced enterocyte apoptosis. Recent findings suggest that these effects may facilitate the development of chronic enteric disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergies, via mechanisms that remain poorly understood. A newly discovered SGLT-1 glucose uptake-mediated host cytoprotective mechanism may represent an effective modulator of the epithelial apoptosis induced by this parasite, and, possibly, by other enteropathogens. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of giardiasis will shed light on new potential therapeutic targets.

  19. Campylobacter Enteritis among Children in Iran

    MR Pourmand

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter enteritis is a common form of acute gastroenteritis. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause sever life-threatening diarrheal disease. The incidence of Campylobacter infection among children is age related with a higher incidence among younger children in the developing world whereas in industrialized countries the incidence is highest in older children. In a study of American children, Campylobacter was isolated in 4.8% of diarrheal stools in aged 1-4 years. In 1985 the prevalence of Campylobacter diarrheal was 4.4%, whereas in current report 6% of stool samples from children aged<5 years with diarrhea grew Campylobacter jejuni. There were no significant differences between age groups of patients. All thirteen isolated strains of Campylobacter were resistance to Bactrim, Colistin and Polymyxin B and were sensitive to Neomycin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic acid. The incidence of human campylobacteriosis is increasing worldwide. Thus, public health awareness about the problem is necessary, with a view towards setting up national surveillance programs.

  20. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

    Guillou, P J

    1999-07-01

    Conventional wisdom has previously dictated that, in order to avoid stimulation of pancreatic secretion during acute pancreatitis, and thus avoid the perpetuation of the enzymatic activation from which the pancreatitis originated, enteral feeding should be avoided. With greater understanding of the potential role of the gastrointestinal tract in the development of a systemic inflammatory response within a number of scenarios, this dogma has recently been challenged. Moreover, there is some evidence to suggest that starving the gastrointestinal tract and providing nutritional support via the parenteral route may be associated with an increased incidence of septic complications. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that feeding the gut may diminish intestinal permeability to endotoxin and diminish bacterial translocation, thus reducing the cytokine drive to the generalized inflammatory response and preventing organ dysfunction. Preliminary experience suggests that the institution of jejunal (but not gastric or duodenal) nutrition within 48 hours of the onset of severe acute pancreatitis diminishes endotoxic exposure, diminishes the cytokine and systemic inflammatory responses, avoids antioxidant consumption and does not cause the radiological appearances of the pancreas to deteriorate. These observations are paralleled by improvements in clinical outcome measures such as intensive care unit stay, septic complications and mortality. Whist parenteral nutrition continues to have a role in the management of acute pancreatitis particularly when complicated by fistulae or prolonged ileus, the early introduction of jejunal nutrition merits further investigation in acute pancreatitis. PMID:11030611

  1. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    Salvatore Buscemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications.

  2. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response

  3. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  5. Analysis of multiple scattering effects in optical Doppler tomography

    Yura, H.T.; Thrane, L.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Doppler frequency spectrum. Thus, in the present analysis, the dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the Doppler shift on the scattering properties of the flowing medium are obtained. Taking the multiple scattering effects into account, we are able to explain previous measurements of depth......Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler velocimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of particle flow velocity in scattering media such as the human retina and skin. Here, we present the results of a theoretical analysis of ODT where...... multiple scattering effects are included. The purpose of this analysis is to determine how multiple scattering affects the estimation of the depth-resolved localized flow velocity. Depth-resolved velocity estimates are obtained directly from the corresponding mean or standard deviation of the observed...

  6. Laser Doppler instrument measures fluid velocity without reference beam

    Bourquin, K. R.; Shigemoto, F. H.

    1971-01-01

    Fluid velocity is measured by focusing laser beam on moving fluid and measuring Doppler shift in frequency which results when radiation is scattered by particles either originally present or deliberately injected into moving fluid.

  7. Numerical studies of HF Doppler variations caused by ionospheric disturbances

    Takefu, M.; Hiroshige, N.

    HF Doppler variations caused by ionospheric disturbances are studied using an ionosphere model containing sinusoidal traveling electron density fluctuations. The present study uses a more realistic ionosphere model and a more accurate numerical method than previous works using corrugated specular reflector models. The study gives a clue to estimate the TID-associated fluctuations of ionospheric electron density by means of HF Doppler measurements. It is shown that some kinds of characteristic HF Doppler traces result depending on the wavelength of the disturbance and its traveling direction. Numerical results suggest that more or less 5 percent of the background electron density can explain most of the quasi-periodic variations on the observed HF Doppler records.

  8. Doppler Signatures of the Atmospheric Circulation on Hot Jupiters

    Showman, Adam P; Lewis, Nikole K; Shabram, Megan

    2013-01-01

    The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation--and Doppler signature--of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows toward Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blue- and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps...

  9. Doppler electron velocimetry : notes on creating a practical tool.

    Reu, Phillip L.; Milster, Tom (University of Arizona)

    2008-11-01

    The Doppler electron velocimeter (DEV) has been shown to be theoretically possible. This report attempts to answer the next logical question: Is it a practical instrument? The answer hinges upon whether enough electrons are available to create a time-varying Doppler current to be measured by a detector with enough sensitivity and bandwidth. The answer to both of these questions is a qualified yes. A target Doppler frequency of 1 MHz was set as a minimum rate of interest. At this target a theoretical beam current signal-to-noise ratio of 25-to-1 is shown for existing electron holography equipment. A detector is also demonstrated with a bandwidth of 1-MHz at a current of 10 pA. Additionally, a Linnik-type interferometer that would increase the available beam current is shown that would offer a more flexible arrangement for Doppler electron measurements over the traditional biprism.

  10. Apparatus and method for noninvasive particle detection using doppler spectroscopy

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively detecting the presence of solid particulate matter suspended in a fluid flowing through a pipe or an oil and gas wellbore are described. Fluid flowing through a conduit containing the particulate solids is exposed to a fixed frequency (>1 MHz) of ultrasonic vibrations from a transducer attached to the outside of the pipe. The returning Doppler frequency shifted signal derived from the scattering of sound from the moving solid particles is detected by an adjacent transducer. The transmitted signal and the Doppler signal are combined to provide sensitive particulate detection. The magnitude of the signal and the Doppler frequency shift are used to determine the particle size distribution and the velocity of the particles. Measurement of the phase shift between the applied frequency and the detected Doppler shifted may be used to determine the direction of motion of the particles.

  11. Estimation of amputation level with a laser Doppler flowmeter

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Jørgensen, J P; Vollmer-Larsen, B;

    1989-01-01

    Leg amputation levels were decided in 24 patients suffering from atherosclerosis, using the conventional techniques of segmental blood pressure and radioisotope skin clearance. The skin microcirculation was measured and recorded before operation with a laser doppler flowmeter. A high correlation...

  12. Modifications and Moving Measurements of Mobile Doppler LIDAR

    Liu, Bing-Yi; Liu, Zhi-Shen; Song, Xiao-Quan; Wu, Song-Hua; Bi, De-Cang; Wang, Xi-Tao; Yin, Qi-Wei; Reitebuch, Oliver

    2010-10-01

    In the last annual report of ID. 5291 LIDAR Cal/Val, a mobile Doppler lidar had been developed for 3D wind measurements by the Chinese partners from Ocean Remote Sensing Institute, Ocean University of China. In this year, in order to further improve the mobility of the mobile Doppler lidar for lidar calibration and validation, both GPS and inertial navigation system are integrated on the vehicle for performing measurements during movement. The modifications of the system and the results of the moving measurements are presented. This work simplifies the construction of the mobile Doppler system and makes the lidar more flexible for ground-based wind measurements and validation with the ADM-Aeolus spaceborne Doppler lidar.

  13. Calculation of doppler coefficient of reactivity by WIMS code

    The Doppler coefficient of reactivity is an important factor in prediction of several transients in light water reactors. Some of the past studies raised the question about the 10% uncertainty that traditionally was taken in calculations of Doppler coefficient by LWR lattice code. In order to bridge the gap of lack of accurate benchmark problem to evaluate the accuracy of Doppler effect, Mosteller et al. proposed a computational benchmark problem of Doppler coefficient to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of LWR lattice physics code. In this paper we present the results obtained from WIMS-D4 lattice code and compare it with those obtained by CELL-2 lattice code part of the EPRI-PRESS reactor physics package. The results obtained from the Monte Carlo code MCNP-3A served as reference for both cases, and was taken from ref 1. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. The Doppler Effect: A Consideration of Quasar Redshifts.

    Gordon, Kurtiss J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the calculation of the redshift to blueshift ratio introduced by the transverse Doppler effect at relativistic speeds. Indicates that this shift should be mentioned in discussions of whether quasars are "local" rather than "cosmological" objects. (GS)

  15. Doppler Compensation by using of Segmented Match Filter

    Nader Ghadimi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Match filter is one of the important parts of radar receiver. By using of Match Filter, the signal to noise ratio can be maximized so that the probability of detection is increased. Match Filter can be used as a pulse compression filter in radar receiver. Binary phase code is one of the pulse compression methods that, the compression can be down with a Match Filter in the receiver. Doppler effect is one of the problems that degrade the performance of Match Filter. In this paper, two methods “Mixer Array” and “Segmented Match Filter” are proposed for Doppler compensation. The operation of these two methods as Doppler compensation techniques are considered theoretically. The simulation is used to demonstrate the Doppler compensation performance of new techniques compared to conventional methods.

  16. Design of new seismometer based on laser Doppler effect

    Zhenhui Du(杜振辉); Fuxiang Huang(黄福祥); Chengzhi Jiang(蒋诚志); Zhifei Tao(陶知非); Hua Gao(高华); Lina Lü(吕丽娜)

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve the resolution of seismic acquisition, a new seismic acquisition system based on tangential laser Doppler effect with an optimized differential optical configuration is proposed. The relative movement of the inertia object and the immobile frame is measured by laser Doppler effect, which can avoid the electromagnetic and thermometric interference, and the adoption of frequency-modulated (FM)transmission can improve the ability of anti-jamming. The frequency bandwidth is properly determined by analyzing the frequency of the Doppler signal. The velocity, displacement, acceleration, and frequency to be measured can be real-time acquired by frequency/velocity (F/V) converting the FM Doppler signal.A 100-dB dynamic range and the linear frequency range of 1.0 to 1000 Hz are realized.

  17. Calculation of the Doppler broadening function using Fourier analysis

    An efficient and precise method for calculation of Doppler broadening function is very important to obtain average group microscopic cross sections, self shielding factors, resonance integrals and others reactor physics parameter. In this thesis two different methods for calculation of Doppler broadening function and interference term will be presented. The main method is based on a new integral form for Doppler broadening function ψ(x,ζ) which gives a mathematical interpretation of the approximation proposed by Bethe and Placzek, as the convolution of the Lorentzian function with a Gaussian function. This interpretation besides leading to a new integral form for ψ(x,ζ), enables to obtain a simple analytic solution for the Doppler broadening function. (author)

  18. Laser Doppler technology applied to atmospheric environmental operating problems

    Weaver, E. A.; Bilbro, J. W.; Dunkin, J. A.; Jeffreys, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser Doppler ground wind data were very favorably compared with data from standard anemometers. As a result of these measurements, two breadboard systems were developed for taking research data: a continuous wave velocimeter and a pulsed Doppler system. The scanning continuous wave laser Doppler velocimeter developed for detecting, tracking and measuring aircraft wake vortices was successfully tested at an airport where it located vortices to an accuracy of 3 meters at a range of 150 meters. The airborne pulsed laser Doppler system was developed to detect and measure clear air turbulence (CAT). This system was tested aboard an aircraft, but jet stream CAT was not encountered. However, low altitude turbulence in cumulus clouds near a mountain range was detected by the system and encountered by the aircraft at the predicted time.

  19. Ultrasonic Doppler methods to extract signatures of a walking human.

    Mehmood, Asif; Sabatier, James M; Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2012-09-01

    Extraction of Doppler signatures that characterize human motion has attracted a growing interest in recent years. These Doppler signatures are generated by various components of the human body while walking, and contain unique features that can be used for human detection and recognition. Although, a significant amount of research has been done in radio frequency regime for human Doppler signature extraction, considerably less has been done in acoustics. In this work, 40 kHz ultrasonic sonar is employed to measure the Doppler signature generated by the motion of body segments using different electronic and signal processing schemes. These schemes are based on both analog and digital demodulation with homodyne and heterodyne receiver circuitry. The results and analyses from these different schemes are presented. PMID:22979839

  20. Doppler ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    Maulik, D. [Winthrop Univ. Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Zalud, I. (eds.) [Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The second edition of Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology has been expanded and comprehensively updated to present the current standards of practice in Doppler ultrasound and the most recent developments in the technology. Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology encompasses the full spectrum of clinical applications of Doppler ultrasound for the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist, including the latest advances in 3D and color Doppler and the newest techniques in 4D fetal echocardiography. Written by preeminent experts in the field, the book covers the basic and physical principles of Doppler ultrasound; the use of Doppler for fetal examination, including fetal cerebral circulation; Doppler echocardiography of the fetal heart; and the use of Doppler for postdated pregnancy and in cases of multiple gestation. Chapters on the use of Doppler for gynecologic investigation include ultrasound in ectopic pregnancy, for infertility, for benign disorders and for gynecologic malignancies. (orig.)

  1. Doppler ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    The second edition of Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology has been expanded and comprehensively updated to present the current standards of practice in Doppler ultrasound and the most recent developments in the technology. Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology encompasses the full spectrum of clinical applications of Doppler ultrasound for the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist, including the latest advances in 3D and color Doppler and the newest techniques in 4D fetal echocardiography. Written by preeminent experts in the field, the book covers the basic and physical principles of Doppler ultrasound; the use of Doppler for fetal examination, including fetal cerebral circulation; Doppler echocardiography of the fetal heart; and the use of Doppler for postdated pregnancy and in cases of multiple gestation. Chapters on the use of Doppler for gynecologic investigation include ultrasound in ectopic pregnancy, for infertility, for benign disorders and for gynecologic malignancies. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative measurement of total cerebral blood flow using 2D phase-contrast MRI and doppler ultrasound

    To compare of quantitative measurement of the total cerebral blood flow using two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound. In 16 volunteers (mean age, 26 years; mean body weight, 66 kg) without abnormal medical histories, two-dimensional phase-contrast MR imaging was performed at the level of the C2-3 inter vertebral disc for flow measurement of the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries. Volume flow measurements using Doppler ultrasound were also performed at the internal carotid arteries 2cm above the carotid bifurcation, and at the vertebral arteries at the level of the upper pole of the thyroid gland. Flows in the four vessels measured by the two methods were compared using Wilcoxon's correlation analysis and the median score. Total cerebral blood flows were calculated by summing these four vessel flows, and mean values for the 16 volunteers were calculated. Cerebral blood flows measured by 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasounds were 233 and 239 ml/min in the right internal carotid artery, 250 and 248 ml/min in the left internal carotid artery, 62 and 56 ml/min in the right vertebral artery, and 83 and 68 ml/min in the left vertebral artery. Correlation coefficients of the blood flows determined by the two methods were 0.48, 0.54, 0.49, and 0.62 in each vessel, while total cerebral blood flows were 628±68 (range, 517 to 779) ml/min and 612±79 (range, 482 to 804)ml/min, respectively. Total cerebral blood flow was easily measured using 2-D phase-contrast MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound, and the two noninvasive methods can therefore be used clinically for the measurement of total cerebral blood flow

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation : prediction of perinatal distress by doppler ultrasound

    Reuwer, P.J.H.M.; Rietman, G.W.; Sijmens, E.A.; Tiel, M.W.M. van; Bruinse, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the ability of umbilical artery Doppler findings to identify true cases at risk of fetal distress among 51 pregnancies clinically judged to be compromised by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) Doppler data were related to pregnancy outcome, which was classified into three groups—group 1, healthy babies with normal placental function (16 fetuses), group 2, fetuses with definite signs of placental failure (30), and group 3, non-classifiable pregnancies (5). Group 2 was subdiv...

  4. Use of GPS network data for HF Doppler measurements interpretation

    Petrova, Inna R.; Bochkarev, Vladimir V.; Latypov, Ruslan R.

    2014-01-01

    The method of measurement of Doppler frequency shift of ionospheric signal - HF Doppler technique - is one of well-known and widely used methods of ionosphere research. It allows to research various disturbances in the ionosphere. There are some sources of disturbances in the ionosphere. These are geomagnetic storms, solar flashes, metrological effects, atmospheric waves. This method allows to find out the influence of earthquakes, explosions and other processes on the ionosphere, which occur...

  5. Fetal echo doppler for early detection of congenital heart block

    Bergman, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fetal echo Doppler methods detecting prolonged atrioventricular (AV) time intervals, a mechanical PR interval corresponding to the electrical PR interval in ECG, have been proposed for surveillance of pregnancies at risk of complete congenital heart block (CCHB). The aim of this thesis was; to validate these Doppler methods by comparing AV time intervals from left ventricular inflow (MV), inflow and aortic outflow (MV-Ao) and superior vena cava and aortic flow ...

  6. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    Doerry, Armin W.; Jordan, Jay D.; Kim, Theodore J.

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  7. Diagnosis of cervical cancer with transvaginal color Doppler sonography

    Li-bo DENG; Wei ZHOU; Chang, Shu-Fang; Ming-jie LIN

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the imaging features of cervical cancer by transvaginal color Doppler sonography(TVCS),and evaluate the diagnostic value of TVCS.Methods A hundred and thirty cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ and cervical cancer,diagnosed by Thinprep cytologic test(TCT),cervical biopsy and pathological examination,received TVCS examination.The image characters and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI) were collected and analyzed.Another 41 cases with normal cervice...

  8. Color doppler ultrasound diagonosis in cesarean scar pregnancy

    Objective: To study the sonographic characteristics of cesarean scar pregnancy(CSP), and the value of color Doppler in the diagnosis of CSP. Methods: Twelve cases of CSP were all confirmed by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound. Results: The ultrasonogram of CSP could be divided into gestational sac type and mixed mass type. Conclusion: Color Doppler can give guidance to the early diagnosis, treatment and following-up of CSP because of the sonographic specifity of CSP. (authors)

  9. Doppler Tomography in Cataclysmic Variables: an historical perspective

    Echevarria, J.

    2012-01-01

    To mark the half-century anniversary of this newly-born field of Cataclysmic Variables, a special emphasis is made in this review, on the Doppler Effect as a tool in astrophysics. The Doppler Effect was in fact, discovered almost 170 years ago, and has been since, one of the most important tools which helped to develop modern astrophysics. We describe and discuss here, its use in Cataclysmic Variables which, combined with another important tool, the tomography, first devised for medical purpo...

  10. Physiological and pathophysiological cerebrovascular regulation monitored by transcranial doppler

    Hellström, Gunnar

    1997-01-01

    PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CEREBROVASCULAR REGULATION MONITORED BY TRANSCRANIAL DOPPLER Thesis by Gunnar Hellström, M D., Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Neurology, Karolinska Hospital and Insbtute, Stocknolm, Sweden Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) became available in the middle of the 1980s as a new technique for examinmg cerebral circulation. With this technique it is possible to measure the velocity of blood flow in major ...

  11. Experimental Observation of Reversed Doppler Effects in Acoustic Metamaterials

    Zhai, Shilong; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Liu, Song; Luo, Chunrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental observation of broadband reversed Doppler effects using an acoustic metamaterial with seven flute-like double-meta-molecule clusters. Simulations and experiments verify that this locally resonant acoustic metamaterial with simultaneous negative elastic modulus and mass density can realize negative refraction in a broad frequency range. The constructed metamaterial exhibits broadband reversed Doppler effects. The frequency shift increases continuously as the ...

  12. Doppler velocimetry for predicting fetal death in a twin pregnancy.

    Soikkeli, Pia; Dubiel, Mariusz; Gudmundsson, Saemundur

    2002-01-01

    Diagnosis of discordant twins is easily accomplished with modern ultrasound equipment, though diagnosing twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS) at an early stage might be a problem. The possibility of excluding TTS by Doppler ultrasound is demonstrated in a case with early severe growth restriction of one fetus. Characteristic blood velocity changes in a dying fetus are also illustrated. The Doppler technique has become an accepted method in obstetrics for antenatal surveillance, perm...

  13. Radar target recognition based on micro-Doppler effect

    DONG Wei-guang; LI Yan-jun

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical vibration of target structures will modulate the phase function of radar backscattering, and will induce thefrequency modulation of returned signals from the target. It generates a side bands of the target body Doppler frequencyshift, which is helpful for target recognition. Based on this.a micro-Doppler atomic storehouse is built for the targetrecognition, and four kinds of common classifiers are used separately to perform the classified recognition. The simulationexperimental results show that this method has high recognition rate above 90%.

  14. Multiple and dependent scattering effects in Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Kalkman, J; Bykov, A. V.; Faber, D.J.; Leeuwen, van

    2010-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique to image tissue morphology and to measure flow in turbid media. In its most basic form, it is based on single (Mie) scattering. However, for highly scattering and dense media multiple and concentration dependent scattering can occur. For Intralipid solutions with varying scattering strength, the effect of multiple and dependent scattering on the OCT signal attenuation and Doppler flow is investigated. We observe a non-linear increase i...

  15. Narrowing of EIT resonance in a Doppler Broadened Medium

    Javan, Ali; Kocharovskaya, Olga; Lee, Hwang; Scully, Marlan O.

    2001-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the linewidth of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened system. It is shown here that for relatively low intensity of the driving field the EIT linewidth is proportional to the square root of intensity and is independent of the Doppler width, similar to the laser induced line narrowing effect by Feld and Javan. In the limit of high intensity we recover the usual power broadening case where EIT linewidth is proportional to the intensity and inversely proporti...

  16. Precision Measuring of Velocities via the Relativistic Doppler Effect

    Ozernoy, Leonid M.

    1997-01-01

    Just as the ordinary Doppler effect serves as a tool to measure radial velocities of celestial objects, so can the relativistic Doppler effect be implemented to measure a combination of radial and transverse velocities by using recent improvements in observing techniques. A key element that makes a further use of this combination feasible is the periodicity in changes of the orbital velocity direction for the source. Two cases are considered: (i) a binary star; and (ii) a solitary star with t...

  17. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  18. Abnormal Events for Emergency Trip in HANARO

    This report gathers abnormal events related to emergency trip of HANARO that happened during its operation over 10 years since the first criticality on February 1995. The collected examples will be utilized to the HANARO's operators as a useful guide

  19. The glycometabolism abnormality among schizophrenia patients

    吴小立

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential glycometabolism abnormality and the related factors of schizophrenia patients in China. Methods This cross-sectional study included 44 healthy controls(group 1) and 178 inpatient

  20. Amphibian abnormalities on National Wildlife Refuges

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet outlines a study done to 1 find the percentage of abnormal frogs and toads on the nations National Wildlife Refuges and 2 determine how the...

  1. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  2. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  3. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin.

  4. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin

  5. New developments in photon Doppler velocimetry

    Photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has made the transition among many experimental groups from being a new diagnostic to being routinely fielded as a means of obtaining velocity data in high-speed test applications. Indeed, research groups both within and outside of the shock physics community have taken note of PDV's robust, high-performance measurement capabilities. As PDV serves as the primary diagnostic in an increasing number of experiments, it will continue to find new applications and enable the measurement of previously un-measurable phenomena. This paper provides a survey of recent developments in PDV system design and feature extraction as well as a discussion of new applications for PDV. More specifically, changes at the system level have enabled the collection of data sets that are far richer than those previously attainable in terms of spatial and temporal coverage as well as improvements over PDV's previously measurable velocity ranges. And until recently, PDV data have been analyzed almost exclusively in the frequency-domain; although the use of additional data analysis techniques is beginning to show promise, particularly as it pertains to extracting information from a PDV signal about surface motion that is not along the beam's axis.

  6. Single mode, extreme precision Doppler spectrographs

    Schwab, Christian; Betters, Christopher H; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2012-01-01

    The 'holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Horton 2006, Bland-Hawthorn et al. 2010) and adaptive optics (AO) enable single mode fiber (SMF) fed, high resolution spectrographs, which can realize the next step in precision. SMF feeds have intrinsic advantages over multimode fiber or slit coupled spectrographs: The intensity distribution at the fiber exit is extremely stable, and as a result the line spread function of a well-designed spectrograph is fully decoupled from input coupling conditions, like guiding or seeing variations (Ihle et al. 2010). Modal noise, a...

  7. Hydronephrosis and pregnancy: study with Doppler echography

    An 18-month study was performed to establish the normal intrarenal resistance index during pregnancy, in order to determine whether it differed significantly depending on the week of gestation or the degree of hydronephrosis. For this purpose , the flow velocity waves obtained in right kidney were analyzed in a group of 112 patients on the basis of 209 explorations. The kidneys were classified as grade 0,I,II, or III according to the degree of hydronephrosis. Doppler signal sampling was carried out at the level of the corticomedullary junction. From the results of the study it can be deduced that the index of intrarenal resistance during pregnancy is similar to that of the general population, that there are no significant differences among the groups with different degree of hydronephrosis and that the index does not vary according to the different weeks of gestation. These findings suggest that, during pregnancy, a pathological resistance index in a kidney should not be attributed to the physiological changes associated with normal gestation. (Author) 21 refs

  8. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-03-01

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  9. Evaluating microcirculation by pulsatile laser Doppler signal

    Chao, P. T.; Jan, M. Y.; Hsiu, H.; Hsu, T. L.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Y. Y. Lin

    2006-02-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a popular method for monitoring the microcirculation, but it does not provide absolute measurements. Instead, the mean flux response or energy distribution in the frequency domain is generally compared before and after stimulus. Using the heartbeat as a trigger, we investigated whether the relation between pressure and flux can be used to discriminate different microcirculatory conditions. We propose the following three pulsatile indices for evaluating the microcirculation condition from the normalized pressure and flux segment with a synchronized-averaging method: peak delay time (PDT), pressure rise time and flux rise time (FRT). The abdominal aortic blood pressure and renal cortex flux (RCF) signals were measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). The mean value of the RCF did not differ between SHR and WKY. However, the PDT was longer in SHR (87.14 ± 5.54 ms, mean ± SD) than in WKY (76.92 ± 2.62 ms; p discriminate RCF signals that cannot be discriminated using traditional methods.

  10. Microbial shifts associated with necrotic enteritis.

    Antonissen, Gunther; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Driessche, Karolien; Onrust, Lonneke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Moore, Robert J; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of necrotic enteritis (NE) is a complex process requiring one or a number of predisposing factors rather than just the presence of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens. Examples are dietary influences, such as high levels of non-starch polysaccharides and fishmeal, and factors that evoke epithelial cell damage, such as Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and Eimeria infections. Recent studies have shown that different predisposing factors induce similar shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition. Butyrate-producing-strains of the Ruminococcaceae family are decreased in abundance by both fishmeal and Eimeria. Similarly, a decreased abundance of butyrate-producing-strains belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family has been induced by fishmeal. Also shifts are observed in the lactic acid-producing bacteria, such as decreased abundance of Lactobacillus johnsonii or Weissella confusa, when broilers were fed a fishmeal-based diet or a Fusarium mycotoxin contaminated diet. Finally, the abundance of Candidatus Savagella was decreased in broilers following Eimeria challenge or feeding a fumonisins contaminated diet. The nature of the microbiota shifts indicate that immune modulatory actions of the intestinal microbiota may play a critical role in the effect on the necrosis inducing activity of C. perfringens. Indeed, colonization with butyrate-producing bacteria plays a key role in counteracting inflammation in the gut and preserving intestinal integrity, while Candidatus Savagella is involved in stimulating Th17 and immunoglobulin A responses. Lactic acid bacteria stimulate colonization of lactate-utilizing and butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae. Future research needs to clarify the role of the microbiota changes in the pathogenesis of NE. PMID:26950294

  11. Psychopathology among cocaine abusers entering treatment.

    Kleinman, P H; Miller, A B; Millman, R B; Woody, G E; Todd, T; Kemp, J; Lipton, D S

    1990-07-01

    A number of different indicators of psychopathology were assessed in this study of 76 cocaine and crack abusers who entered outpatient treatment in New York City between June and December 1987. The majority (75%) had used cocaine for 4 years or more, and the majority (62%) spent over one thousand dollars a month on cocaine in the 6 months before entry into treatment. Forty-seven percent of the sample were found to be clinically depressed. Phobic disorders were the only other axis I diagnoses found in addition to depression, and all persons who were found to have phobic disorders also were diagnosed as having some form of depressive disorder. The four most common axis II diagnoses were antisocial personality (21%), passive-aggressive (21%), borderline (18%) and self-defeating (18%). Subjects were classified as falling into one of the following three categories of a newly developed "psychopathology classification": a) no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse or dependency; b) one or more axis II diagnoses, but no axis I diagnoses except for substance abuse or dependency; c) at least one axis I diagnosis in addition to drug disorders whether or not accompanied by an axis II diagnosis. Mean scores on subscales and total score on the SCL-90, as well as total score on the Beck Depression Inventory, were ordered by category of the classification scheme, with those having no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse having the lowest score and persons in the third category having the highest score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2366058

  12. Enteral nutrient solutions. Limiting bacterial growth.

    Paauw, J D; Fagerman, K E; McCamish, M A; Dean, R E

    1984-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of enteral nutrient solutions ( ENS ) in FFcess of food product standards is known to occur in the hospital setting. The large amounts of bacteria often given with ENS have been shown to create a reservoir for nosocomial infections, and nonpathogenic bacteria have been implicated. Patient tolerance is dependent on immune status and the bacterial load delivered to the gut. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial growth-sustaining properties of various ENS and to devise methods to limit bacterial growth. Five commercial products were prepared under sterile conditions. After inoculation with approximately 5 X 10(3) organisms/cm3 of Enterobacter cloacae, each solution was hung at room temperature for 24 hours with samples drawn at fixed intervals and plated for bacterial counts. Bacterial growth rates in Ensure, Travasorb , and Vital were markedly higher than those in Precision and Vivonex. Vivonex was noted to contain potassium sorbate (KS) used as a fungistatic agent. Recent studies have identified KS as a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic food preservative that is federally approved for this use. KS (0.03%) was added to Travasorb inoculated with 5 X 10(3) organisms/cm(3) of E. cloacae. The bacterial growth rate was reduced by 75 per cent, and the final count of 2-3 X 10(4) organisms/ml was within the federally regulated limit for milk. This study suggests that initial inoculum, growth rate, and hang time can be altered to provide a significant reduction in final bacterial counts in ENS . PMID:6428286

  13. A test and simulation device for Doppler-based fetal heart rate monitoring

    Mert, Ahmet; Mana SEZDİ; Akan, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    The Doppler effect is the preferred technique in fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring devices. The main objective of the recent studies on the Doppler FHR has been to improve the accuracy. On the other hand, a reliable fetal heart simulator becomes essential for testing Doppler FHR monitoring devices. The motivation of this study is to design a reliable system that will be used to test Doppler FHR monitors. This device generates a similar Doppler frequency shift of fetal cardiac activity includi...

  14. Echocardiographic abnormalities in type IV mucopolysaccharidosis.

    John, R. M.; Hunter, D; Swanton, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is well recognised in most forms of the mucopolysaccharidoses but there is poor documentation of abnormalities specific to Morquio's syndrome (type IV mucopolysaccharidosis). Ten patients with the classic form or type A Morquio's syndrome with a median age of 12.5 years underwent echocardiographic assessment. Abnormalities were detected in six (60%) cases with mitral valve involvement in five patients and aortic valve disease in four. One patient had severe mitral leaflet ...

  15. Abnormalities of gut vessels in Turner's syndrome.

    Reinhart, W H; Mordasini, C.; Stäubli, M.; Scheurer, U.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a 57-year-old patient with Turner's syndrome, iron deficiency anaemia and intestinal vascular abnormalities. Colonoscopy revealed 2 widely dilated, tortuous veins in the terminal ileum and several smaller ectatic veins and haemangioma-like malformations throughout the colon. Laparotomy for herniotomy showed only minimal vascular abnormalities of the serosal surface. Patients with Turner's syndrome and anaemia should be checked for these lesions by endoscopy, and conversely, in pat...

  16. Carbamazepine for acute psychosis with eeg abnormalities

    Ivković Maja; Damjanović Aleksandar; Marinković Dragan; Paunović Vladimir R.

    2004-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the efficacy of carbamazepine as adjuvant drug therapy in acute paranoid psychosis with associated EEG abnormalities, compared to sole antipsychotic treatment. Methods. Eleven medication-naive patients diagnosed with acute paranoid psychosis with associated EEG abnormalities were divided into two treatment groups: sole fluphenazine group, with flexible dosing of 5-10 mg/day (n=6), and carbamazepine group (n=5) with the addition of carbamazepine (600 mg/day) to fluphenazine...

  17. Remote disassembly of an abnormal multiplication system

    The method of abnormal multiplying systems remote disassembling is described. This method was worked through in actual operations as response to the nuclear accident at the RFNC-VNIIEF criticality test facility FKBN-2M on 17 June 1997. The abnormal assembly was a sphere of 235U (90%), surrounded by a copper reflector. The detailed information on the multiplying system disassembly operations could be of use to the experts at other institutions when they develop emergency response plans. (author)

  18. Holoprosencephaly due to Numeric Chromosome Abnormalities

    Solomon, Benjamin D.; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N.; Meck, Jeanne M.; Muenke, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been ...

  19. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    Susana Noval; Mar González-Manrique; José María Rodríguez-Del Valle; José María Rodríguez-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or ta...

  20. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E.; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apno...

  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding: a clinicohistopathological analysis

    Anupamasuresh Y; Suresh YV; Prachi Jain*,

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common problem for the patients and the gynecologists. It adversely effects on the quality of life and psychology of women. It is of special concern in developing country as it adds to the causes of anemia. Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is not complete without tissue diagnosis especially in perimenopausal and post-menopausal women. Histological characteristics of endometrial biopsy material as assessed by light mic...

  2. Evidence of portuguese stock market abnormal returns

    Duarte, Elisabete Mendes; Oliveira, Lisete Trindade

    2011-01-01

    According to the stock market efficiency theory, it is not possible to consistently beat the market. However, technical analysis is more and more spread as an efficient way to achieve abnormal returns. In fact there is evidence that momentum investing strategies provide abnormal returns in different stock markets, Jegadeesh, N. and Titman, S. (1993), George, T. and Hwang, C. (2004) and Du, D. (2009). In this work we study if like other markets, the Portuguese stock market also allows to obtai...

  3. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  4. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  5. Medical Costs of Abnormal Serum Sodium Levels

    Shea, Alisa M.; Hammill, Bradley G.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Szczech, Lynda A.; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    An abnormal serum sodium level is the most common electrolyte disorder in the United States and can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The direct medical costs of abnormal serum sodium levels are not well understood. The impact of hyponatremia and hypernatremia on 6-mo and 1-yr direct medical costs was examined by analyzing data from the Integrated HealthCare Information Services National Managed Care Benchmark Database. During the period analyzed, there were 1274 patients ...

  6. Analysis of Radar Doppler Signature from Human Data

    M. ANDRIĆ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of time (autocorrelation and time-frequency (spectrogram analyses of radar signals returned from the moving human targets. When a radar signal falls on the human target which is moving toward or away from the radar, the signals reflected from different parts of his body produce a Doppler shift that is proportional to the velocity of those parts. Moving parts of the body causes the characteristic Doppler signature. The main contribution comes from the torso which causes the central Doppler frequency of target. The motion of arms and legs induces modulation on the returned radar signal and generates sidebands around the central Doppler frequency, referred to as micro-Doppler signatures. Through analyses on experimental data it was demonstrated that the human motion signature extraction is better using spectrogram. While the central Doppler frequency can be determined using the autocorrelation and the spectrogram, the extraction of the fundamental cadence frequency using the autocorrelation is unreliable when the target is in the clutter presence. It was shown that the fundamental cadence frequency increases with increasing dynamic movement of people and simultaneously the possibility of its extraction is proportional to the degree of synchronization movements of persons in the group.

  7. Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave Searches Using Spacecraft Doppler Tracking

    Armstrong J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (~millihertz gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity $2 Delta v/c = Delta u/ u_0$, where $Delta u$ is the Doppler shift and $ u_0$ is the radio link carrier frequency. A gravitational wave having strain amplitude $h$ incident on the earth-spacecraft system causes perturbations of order $h$ in the time series of $Delta u/ u_0$. Unlike other detectors, the ~1-10 AU earth-spacecraft separation makes the detector large compared with millihertz-band gravitational wavelengths, and thus times-of-flight of signals and radio waves through the apparatus are important. A burst signal, for example, is time-resolved into a characteristic signature: three discrete events in the Doppler time series. I discuss here the principles of operation of this detector (emphasizing transfer functions of gravitational wave signals and the principal noises to the Doppler time series, some data analysis techniques, experiments to date, and illustrations of sensitivity and current detector performance. I conclude with a discussion of how gravitational wave sensitivity can be improved in the low-frequency band.

  8. Doppler Monitoring of the WASP-47 Multiplanet System

    Dai, Fei; Arriagada, Pamela; Butler, R Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D; Johnson, John Asher; Shectman, Stephen A; Teske, Johanna K; Thompson, Ian B; Vanderburg, Andrew; Wittenmyer, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    We present precise Doppler observations of WASP-47, a transiting planetary system featuring a hot Jupiter with both inner and outer planetary companions. This system has an unusual architecture and also provides a rare opportunity to measure planet masses in two different ways: the Doppler method, and the analysis of transit-timing variations (TTV). Based on the new Doppler data, obtained with the Planet Finder Spectrograph on the Magellan/Clay 6.5m telescope, the mass of the hot Jupiter is $370 \\pm 29~M_{\\oplus}$. This is consistent with the previous Doppler determination as well as the TTV determination. For the inner planet WASP-47e, the Doppler data lead to a mass of $12.2\\pm 3.7~ M_{\\oplus}$, in agreement with the TTV-based upper limit of $<$22~$M_{\\oplus}$ ($95\\%$ confidence). For the outer planet WASP-47d, the Doppler mass constraint of $10.4\\pm 8.4~M_{\\oplus}$ is consistent with the TTV-based measurement of $15.2^{+6.7}_{-7.6}~ M_{\\oplus}$.

  9. Transcranial Doppler sonography in children: Review of a seven-year experience

    Hirsch, Wolfgang; Hiebsch, Wolfgang; Teichler, Heike; SchlUeter, Andreas

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We report the use of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) examinations in children (mean age 12.7 years; range 0.5-18 years) without an open fontanelle, using TCD equipment with a 2 MHz pulse wave transducer. Our results over a 7-year period are described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 858 children were referred from the paediatric outpatient department. All patients were divided into three groups according to the reason for referral. RESULTS: We found positive pathological results in the following: (1) headache and orthostatic dysregulation (0.4%, three out of 728); (2) acute neurological symptoms (5.4%, six out of 112); (3) other indications (22.2%, four out of 18). The positive predictive value of finding an abnormality was very low (0.50) . CONCLUSION: TCD examination is ineffective in children with non-specific headache or orthostatic dysregulation due to the specific limitations of this method. We found a higher percentage of abnormal results in children referred for other indications. However, since these children usually undergo MR imaging (and MR angiography, if necessary), in our opinion the TCD examination does not add any additional information. The value of TCD in children is not in the primary diagnosis of disease but in the follow up of known vascular processes (e.g. stenoses) or in chronic diseases including angiitis and sickle cell disease. Hirsch, W. et al. (2002)

  10. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Bolton, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Section of Developmental Psychiatry; Verity, C. [Addenbrooke`s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  11. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  12. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  13. Enteric infections, diarrhea, and their impact on function and development

    Petri, William A.; Miller, Mark; Binder, Henry J.; Levine, Myron M.; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Enteric infections, with or without overt diarrhea, have profound effects on intestinal absorption, nutrition, and childhood development as well as on global mortality. Oral rehydration therapy has reduced the number of deaths from dehydration caused by infection with an enteric pathogen, but it has not changed the morbidity caused by such infections. This Review focuses on the interactions between enteric pathogens and human genetic determinants that alter intestinal function and inflammatio...

  14. Clostridium difficile enteritis in a patient after total proctocolectomy

    Peacock, Oliver; Speake, William; Shaw, Aidan; Goddard, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is associated with antibiotic therapy and usually limited to the colonic mucosa. However, it is also a rare cause of enteritis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In the present report, the case of a 30-year-old woman with Clostridium difficile enteritis who previously had a panproctocolectomy with end ileostomy for severe ulcerative colitis is described. Previously reported cases of Clostridium difficile enteritis are also reviewed. Previous ant...

  15. Damage to the Enteric Nervous System in Experimental Colitis

    Sanovic, Srdan; Lamb, Damian P.; Blennerhassett, Michael G

    1999-01-01

    Inflammation of the intestine causes pain and altered motility, at least in part through effects on the enteric nervous system. While these changes may be reversed with healing, permanent damage may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and post-enteritis irritable bowel syndrome. Since little information exists, we induced colitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and used immunocytochemistry to examine the number and distribution of enteric neurons at ti...

  16. Enteral nutrition discontinuation and outcomes in general critically ill patients

    Marco Antonio Silva; Saionara da Graca Freitas dos Santos; Cristiane Damiani Tomasi; Gabrielle da Luz; Marcos Marques da Silva Paula; Felipe Dal Pizzol; Cristiane Ritter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between enteral nutrition discontinuation and outcome in general critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients admitted to a mixed intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital from May-August 2009 were screened for an indication for enteral nutrition. Patients were followed up until leaving the intensive care unit or a maximum of 28 days. The gastrointestinal failure score was calculated daily by adding values of 0 if the enteral nutr...

  17. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis

    Hegazi, Refaat A.; DeWitt, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modu...

  18. Why do recent graduates enter into flexible jobs?

    Bertrand-Cloodt, D.A.M.; Cörvers, F.; Kriechel, B.; van Thor, J.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    The share of flexible jobs on the Dutch labour market is among the highest in Western countries,in particular for recent graduates. In this study we examine why recent graduates enter intotemporary contracts and whether flexible jobs match their qualifications worse than permanent jobsdo. Graduates that enter into flexible jobs face large wage penalties, a worse job match and lesstraining participation than those entering into permanent jobs, even after correcting for abilitydifferences. When...

  19. Morphologic and functional assessment of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula with duplex doppler sonography

    The pattern of morphologic and functional status of the hemodialysis AV fistula was studied using doppler ultrasound to define the useful parameter and its normal range for detecting the initial dysfunctional. Sixty patients of chronic renal failure with radial artery-cephalic vein fistula for hemodialysis (50 clinically normal and 10 clinically abnormal functioning AV fistula) were studied by duplex ultrasound. The examination followed the feeding artery to the draining vein and observed the morphology and waveform of the vessels. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), End diastolic velocity (EDV) and Systolic/Diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) were measured in the feeding artery. In the draining vein, peak velocity was measured and the presence of arterial pulsation was observed. Normal range of these measuring parameters and its significance and reliability for detecting dysfunction AV fistula were studied. In normally functioning fistula, waveforms of flow in the feeding artery were monophasic, with PSV 0.5-3.48 m/sec (average 1.75 ± 0.79 m/sec), EDV 0.2-1.47 m/sec (average 0.82 ± 0.41 m/sec) and S/D ratio 1.44-3.48 (average 2.34 ± 0.56). The draining vein showed components of arterial pulsations with peak velocity of 0.21-1.20 m/sec (average 0.54 ± 0.23 m/sec). Of the 10 clinically dysfunctional AV fistula, two cases had arteriosclerous vessel wall calcification and showed normal function on doppler sonography. Two cases of focal stenotic lesion of the draining vein showed significantly increased PSV which were more than 4.0 m/sec. Six cases of venous thrombosis showed a high resistance pattern of reversed diastolic flow with a measured S/D ratio of more than 4.0 and the absence of flow was noted within the draining S/D ratio was statically very reliable parameter (P=0.003) for defining normal and abnormal functioning AV fistula, however PSV and EDVV were unreliable (P=0.459). Duplex ultrasound is a useful diagnostic method for interpretating function of the hemodialysis

  20. Morphologic and functional assessment of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula with duplex doppler sonography

    Cho, On Koo; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Bong Soo; Song, Soon Young; Park, Chan Hyun [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The pattern of morphologic and functional status of the hemodialysis AV fistula was studied using doppler ultrasound to define the useful parameter and its normal range for detecting the initial dysfunctional. Sixty patients of chronic renal failure with radial artery-cephalic vein fistula for hemodialysis (50 clinically normal and 10 clinically abnormal functioning AV fistula) were studied by duplex ultrasound. The examination followed the feeding artery to the draining vein and observed the morphology and waveform of the vessels. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), End diastolic velocity (EDV) and Systolic/Diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) were measured in the feeding artery. In the draining vein, peak velocity was measured and the presence of arterial pulsation was observed. Normal range of these measuring parameters and its significance and reliability for detecting dysfunction AV fistula were studied. In normally functioning fistula, waveforms of flow in the feeding artery were monophasic, with PSV 0.5-3.48 m/sec (average 1.75 {+-} 0.79 m/sec), EDV 0.2-1.47 m/sec (average 0.82 {+-} 0.41 m/sec) and S/D ratio 1.44-3.48 (average 2.34 {+-} 0.56). The draining vein showed components of arterial pulsations with peak velocity of 0.21-1.20 m/sec (average 0.54 {+-} 0.23 m/sec). Of the 10 clinically dysfunctional AV fistula, two cases had arteriosclerous vessel wall calcification and showed normal function on doppler sonography. Two cases of focal stenotic lesion of the draining vein showed significantly increased PSV which were more than 4.0 m/sec. Six cases of venous thrombosis showed a high resistance pattern of reversed diastolic flow with a measured S/D ratio of more than 4.0 and the absence of flow was noted within the draining S/D ratio was statically very reliable parameter (P=0.003) for defining normal and abnormal functioning AV fistula, however PSV and EDVV were unreliable (P=0.459). Duplex ultrasound is a useful diagnostic method for interpretating function of the