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Sample records for abnormal cancer screens

  1. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  2. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    -up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone......Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow...... follow-up, or because of organizational aspects of the screening program, where communication regarding test results can fail either in content or with delay.This study will evaluate two interventions designed to increase follow-up: 1) A letter with the test result and potential recommendation for follow...

  3. Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer

    Deb Prabal; Iyer Venkateswaran; Bhatla Neerja; Markovic O; Verma Kusum

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP) test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap) staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation ...

  4. Cellphone based mobile colposcope for the evaluation of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening

    Kahn, Bruce S.; Kass, Alex J.; Waalen, Jill; Levitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Objective: Compare an inexpensive cell-phone based Mobile Colposcope, with a standard colposcope in the evaluation of women with abnormal Pap smear screening. Methodology: The study was a prospective, parallel noninferiority trial. Thirty women underwent colposcopy for the evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. After application of acetic acid, images of the cervix were obtained with both a standard colposcope and the Mobile Colposcope. An additional set of images using both devices were obtained using the red-free (green filter) mode. Eight experienced gynecologists then evaluated 100 paired images (plain and green filter) from two different sites in random order using a web based assessment program. After reviewing each set of paired images, the expert would make an assessment of: 1) normal (no biopsy/ random biopsy), or 2) abnormal. For abnormal images, the expert then electronically marked the site(s) on the image where a biopsy was recommended. In image analysis, the cervical image was divided into 12 radial sectors and the marked sites for biopsy on the matched pairs were compared. Matched pairs that were considered normal, or those where biopsy site recommendations were within +/- 30° were considered equivalent; unmatched biopsy sites were considered non-equivalent. Results were compared using Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test. Expert assessment of Mobile Colposcope images compared with assessment by standard colposcope is currently onging. Conclusions: if the Mobile Colposcope demonstrates non-inferiority to imaging obtained with a standard colposcope and due to its low cost, it has the potential help improve cervical cancer screening in low resource settings.

  5. Response to an Abnormal Ovarian Cancer Screening Test Result: Test of the Social Cognitive Processing and Cognitive Social Health Information Processing Models

    Andrykowski, Michael A.; Pavlik, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow-up. Consequently, the cancer screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioral response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the Social Cognitive Processing and Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n=278) receiving an ...

  6. Eliminating Disparities in Cancer Screening and Follow-up of Abnormal Results: What Will It Take?

    Fiscella, Kevin; Humiston, Sharon; Hendren, Samantha; Winters, Paul; Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Idris, Amna; Ford, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Health and health care disparities related to cancer are a major public health problem in the United States. Providing care that is truly patient-centered could address disparities in cancer screening and follow-up through better alignment between patient needs and health care resources available to address those needs. Key health care reforms offer promise for doing so.

  7. Factors in Quality Care—The Case of Follow-Up to Abnormal Cancer Screening Tests—Problems in the Steps and Interfaces of Care

    Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H.; Anhang Price, Rebecca; Cranos, Caroline; Yabroff, Robin

    2010-01-01

    To achieve the benefit of cancer screening, appropriate follow-up of abnormal screening test results must occur. Such follow-up requires traversing the transition between screening detection and diagnosis, including several steps and interfaces in care. This article reviews factors and interventions associated with follow-up of abnormal tests for cervical, breast and colorectal cancers. We synthesized 12 reviews of descriptive and intervention studies published between 1980 and 2008. There wa...

  8. Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up

    Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

  9. Cancer screening

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  10. Genetic variation on 9p22 is associated with abnormal ovarian ultrasound results in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Nicolas Wentzensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent ovarian cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS identified a locus on 9p22 associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers localize to the BNC2 gene, which has been associated with ovarian development. METHODS: We analyzed the association of 9p22 SNPs with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU screening results and CA-125 blood levels from participants without ovarian cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO; 1,106 women with adequate ultrasound screening results and available genotyping information were included in the study. RESULTS: We observed a significantly increased risk of abnormal suspicious TVU results for seven SNPs on 9p22, with odds ratios between 1.68 (95% CI: 1.04-2.72 for rs4961501 and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.31-3.38 for rs12379183. Associations were restricted to abnormal suspicious findings at the first TVU screen. We did not observe an association between 9p22 SNPs and CA-125 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that 9p22 SNPs, which were found to be associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer in a recent GWAS, are associated with sonographically detectable ovarian abnormalities. Our results corroborate the relevance of the 9p22 locus for ovarian biology. Further studies are required to understand the complex relationship between screening abnormalities and ovarian carcinogenesis and to evaluate whether this locus can influence the risk stratification of ovarian cancer screening.

  11. Breast Cancer Screening

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  13. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  14. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities in breast cancer screening: results from the breast cancer screening programme in Oslo 1996-2001.

    Sauer, Torin; Myrvold, Kristina; Lømo, Jon; Anderssen, Karin Yvonne; Skaane, Per

    2003-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of nonpalpable mammographic lesions has been under attack from two sides for some years. There has been much discussion and controversy as to the ability to differentiate between in situ and invasive carcinomas in cytological material. A further issue is that of optimal sampling to obtain adequate cell material in sufficient quantity. We present the results of FNAC from 832 nonpalpable mammographic abnormalities detected in the course of the breast cancer screening programme in Oslo during 1996-2001. In 11.6% of cases the smears were inadequate, and there were 7% false negatives (FN) and 1.3% false positives. Of the FN, 64% represented microcalcifications and 86% were due to sampling errors. Absolute sensitivity was 74%, complete sensitivity 88% and specificity 88%. In 255 carcinomas a cytological diagnosis of them as in situ or invasive was made. In 93% of the invasive cases (190/205) these had been correctly identified as invasive on FNAC. In 78% of cases proper follow-up could be resolved by cytology/radiology alone. Suboptimal sampling and localization remains the main cause of FN FNAC results. Problems in differentiating between in situ and invasive breast carcinomas can be significantly reduced by applying strict criteria for in situ lesions. PMID:14659146

  15. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

    Deshpande; Yelikar; Andurkar; Dahitankar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biops...

  16. Lung Cancer Screening

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Skin Cancer Screening

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  19. How reassuring is a normal breast ultrasound in assessment of a screen-detected mammographic abnormality? A review of interval cancers after assessment that included ultrasound evaluation

    Bennett, M.L. [Breastscreen WA, Perth (Australia); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia); Welman, C.J. [Breastscreen WA, Perth (Australia); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia); Department of Radiology, Fremantle Hospital and Health Service, Fremantle (Australia); Celliers, L.M., E-mail: liesl.celliers@health.wa.gov.au [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia); Department of Radiology, Fremantle Hospital and Health Service, Fremantle (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Aim: To review factors resulting in a false-negative outcome or delayed cancer diagnosis in women recalled for further evaluation, including ultrasound, after an abnormal screening mammogram. Materials and methods: Of 646,692 screening mammograms performed between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004, 34,533 women were recalled for further assessment. Nine hundred and sixty-four interval cancers were reported in this period. Forty-six of these women had been recalled for further assessment, which specifically included ultrasound evaluation in the preceding 24 months, and therefore, met the inclusion criteria for this study. Screening mammograms, further mammographic views, ultrasound scans, clinical findings, and histopathology results were retrospectively reviewed by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The interval cancer developed in the contralateral breast (n = 9), ipsilateral breast, but different site (n = 6), and ipsilateral breast at the same site (n = 31) as the abnormality for which they had recently been recalled. In the latter group, 10 were retrospectively classified as a false-negative outcome, nine had a delay in obtaining a biopsy, and 12 had a delay due to a non-diagnostic initial biopsy. Various factors relating to these outcomes are discussed. Conclusion: Out of 34,533 women who attended for an assessment visit and the 46 women who subsequently developed an interval breast cancer, 15 were true interval cancers, 10 had a false-negative assessment outcome, and 21 had a delay to cancer diagnosis on the basis of a number of factors. When there is discrepancy between the imaging and histopathology results, a repeat biopsy rather than early follow-up would have avoided a delay in some cases. A normal ultrasound examination should not deter the radiologist from proceeding to stereotactic biopsy, if the index mammographic lesion is suspicious of malignancy.

  20. How reassuring is a normal breast ultrasound in assessment of a screen-detected mammographic abnormality? A review of interval cancers after assessment that included ultrasound evaluation

    Aim: To review factors resulting in a false-negative outcome or delayed cancer diagnosis in women recalled for further evaluation, including ultrasound, after an abnormal screening mammogram. Materials and methods: Of 646,692 screening mammograms performed between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004, 34,533 women were recalled for further assessment. Nine hundred and sixty-four interval cancers were reported in this period. Forty-six of these women had been recalled for further assessment, which specifically included ultrasound evaluation in the preceding 24 months, and therefore, met the inclusion criteria for this study. Screening mammograms, further mammographic views, ultrasound scans, clinical findings, and histopathology results were retrospectively reviewed by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The interval cancer developed in the contralateral breast (n = 9), ipsilateral breast, but different site (n = 6), and ipsilateral breast at the same site (n = 31) as the abnormality for which they had recently been recalled. In the latter group, 10 were retrospectively classified as a false-negative outcome, nine had a delay in obtaining a biopsy, and 12 had a delay due to a non-diagnostic initial biopsy. Various factors relating to these outcomes are discussed. Conclusion: Out of 34,533 women who attended for an assessment visit and the 46 women who subsequently developed an interval breast cancer, 15 were true interval cancers, 10 had a false-negative assessment outcome, and 21 had a delay to cancer diagnosis on the basis of a number of factors. When there is discrepancy between the imaging and histopathology results, a repeat biopsy rather than early follow-up would have avoided a delay in some cases. A normal ultrasound examination should not deter the radiologist from proceeding to stereotactic biopsy, if the index mammographic lesion is suspicious of malignancy.

  1. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

    Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biopsies were obtained from the abnormal areas. In women with normal colposcopic findings four quadrant biopsies from squamo - columnar junction were taken .Eight women were excluded from analysis owing to unsatisfactory colp oscopy. Results of colposcopy were validated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value in diagnosing histopathologically confirmed lesions which served as gold standard. RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of colposcopy in all grades of lesions is around 90% or more, touching 100% in high order of histological lesions.Overall specificity is also high.It does have an excellent negative predictive value but comparatively lower positive predictive value especially in high order lesions with fair degree of accuracy in all grades of lesions in the hands of an experienced operator. CONCLUSION: Colposcopy using Modified Reid’s Index with high sensitivity and specificity is a good screening tool for cervical cancer

  2. Prostate cancer screenings

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  3. Breast cancer screenings

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  6. First trimester ultrasound screening of chromosomal abnormalities

    Trninić-Pjević Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A retrocervical subcutaneous collection of fluid at 11-14 weeks of gestation, can be visualized by ultrasound as nuchal translucency (NT. Objective. To examine the distribution of fetal nuchal translucency in low risk population, to determine the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in the population of interest based on maternal age and NT measurement. Method. Screening for chromosomal defects, advocated by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF, was performed in 1,341 pregnancies in the period January 2000 - April 2004. Initial risk for chromosomal defects (based on maternal and gestational age and corrected risk, after the NT measurement, were calculated. Complete data were collected from 1,048 patients. Results. Out of 1,048 pregnancies followed, 8 cases of Down’s syndrome were observed, 7 were detected antenatally and 6 out of 7 were detected due to screening that combines maternal age and NT measurement. According to our results, sensitivity of the screening for aneuploidies based on maternal age alone was 12.5% and false positive rate 13.1%, showing that screening based on NT measurement is of great importance. Screening by a combination of maternal age and NT, and selecting a screening-positive group for invasive testing enabled detection of 75% of fetuses with trisomy 21. Conclusion. In screening for chromosomal abnormalities, an approach which combines maternal age and NT is effective and increases the detection rate compared to the use of any single test. .

  7. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  9. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  10. Screening for fetal and genetic abnormalities.

    Simpson, J L

    1991-09-01

    Screening for genetic abnormalities is an integral part of obstetrics. Prior to initiating screening, however, several prerequisites must be met: (i) capacity to alter clinical management, (ii) cost effectiveness, (iii) reliable means (usually assays) of assessment, and (iv) capacity to handle problems. In all pregnancies one should determine in systematic fashion whether family history places a pregnant woman at increased risk over the background risk of 2-3% congenital anomalies. All women over age 35 years at delivery should be offered prenatal cytogenetic testing, and women of all ages should be offered maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects. Screening ostensibly normal populations is appropriate in certain ethnic groups to determine heterozygosity for selected disorders: Blacks for sickle-cell anaemia, Mediterranean people for beta-thalassaemia, Southeast Asians and Filipinos for alpha-thalassaemia, Ashkenazi Jews and perhaps French-Canadians for Tay-Sachs disease. Cystic fibrosis screening (delta F508 mutations) is not currently recommended for the general populations, but should be offered to relatives of an individual having delta F508 cystic fibrosis. Irrespective of the extent of screening programmes for Mendelian traits, the mutant allele will remain in the general population because by far the greatest genetic load lies in clinically normal heterozygotes, affected contributing far less to the load despite the obvious clinical effect. PMID:1720071

  11. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  12. Comprehensive Diagnostic Program for Medically Underserved Women With Abnormal Breast Screening Evaluations in an Urban Population

    Palmieri, Frances M.; Deperi, Elizabeth R.; Mincey, Betty A.; Smith, Judith A.; Wen, Lonnie K.; Chewar, Deborah M.; Abaya, Reza; Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Perez, Edith A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To institute a patient navigator program for underinsured women to eliminate delays in diagnostic resolution of abnormal screening mammograms, provide services for abnormalities noted during breast cancer screening, describe demographic and clinical characteristics of enrollees, and assess postscreening follow-up care.

  13. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Genetic Variation on 9p22 Is Associated with Abnormal Ovarian Ultrasound Results in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Kevin; Yang, Hannah P.; Berg, Christine D.; Caporaso, Neil; Peters, Ulrike; Ragard, Lawrence; Buys, Saundra S.; Chanock, Stephen; Hartge, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Background A recent ovarian cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a locus on 9p22 associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers localize to the BNC2 gene, which has been associated with ovarian development. Methods We analyzed the association of 9p22 SNPs with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) screening results and CA-125 blood levels from participants without ovarian cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Scre...

  15. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  16. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  18. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  19. Screening for colorectal cancer

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  20. Genetic abnormalities in pancreatic cancer

    Zamboni Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence and mortality of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are nearly coincident having a five-year survival of less than 5%. Enormous advances have been made in our knowledge of the molecular alterations commonly present in ductal cancer and other pancreatic malignancies. One significant outcome of these studies is the recognition that common ductal cancers have a distinct molecular fingerprint compared to other nonductal or endocrine tumors. Ductal carcinomas typically show alteration of K-ras, p53, p16INK4, DPC4 and FHIT, while other pancreatic tumor types show different aberrations. Among those tumors arising from the exocrine pancreas, only ampullary cancers have a molecular fingerprint that may involve some of the same genes most frequently altered in common ductal cancers. Significant molecular heterogeneity also exists among pancreatic endocrine tumors. Nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors have frequent mutations in MEN-1 and may be further subdivided into two clinically relevant subgroups based on the amount of chromosomal alterations. The present review will provide a brief overview of the genetic alterations that have been identified in the various subgroups of pancreatic tumors. These results have important implications for the development of genetic screening tests, early diagnosis, and prognostic genetic markers.

  1. Breast cancer screening

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  2. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  4. Abnormal cervical smears in the unchanged uterine cervix: difficulties in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and microinvasive cancer

    L. I. Korolenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes an algorithm for identifying and treating w omen with cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN and microinv asive cancer of the cervix uteri in cases of the hidden area of transformation and in the absence of visible cervical changes. There are excep- tional difficulties of making the diagnosis of epithelial damages due to the incomplete reproducibility of cytological abnormal ities and the low informative value of a histological study of scrapes from the cervical canal. To avoid hypodiagnosis, it is justifiable to prefer human papillomavirus testing (Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 to repeat smears for the choice of a management tactic. Conization is recommend ed as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure when the viral load is high in over 35-year-old patients with abnormal smears anda hidden transformation area.

  5. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  6. Colorectal cancer screening

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  7. Screening for lung cancer

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  8. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  9. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  10. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  11. Women with abnormal screening mammography lost to follow-up

    Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Chen, Guan-Ru; Hung, Shou-Hung; Liu, Yi-Lien; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Shao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer has the highest incidence among all cancers for women in Taiwan. The current screening policy in Taiwan suggested a biennial mammography for all women 40 to 69 years of age. A recommendation for additional testing is recommended for women with a BI-RADS result of 0 or 4; a request made via postal mail. Approximately 20% of high-risk patients do not receive additional follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to explore the causes of these patients being lost to follow-up, despite an abnormal mammogram. Two questionnaires were designed separately according to the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model. Study participants, women who received a screening mammography at the National Taiwan University Hospital in 2011 with a BI-RAD of 0 or 4, were interviewed via telephone. The dependent variable was receipt of follow-up or not. The analyses were performed by using χ2 tests and logistic regression models. In total, 528 women were enrolled in the study: 51.2% in BI-RADS 0 group and 56.6% in BI-RADS 4, respectively. In the BI-RADS 0 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the most likely causes to be physician suggestion, health implications, and concerns regarding breast cancer. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited a lack of time and a perception of good personal health as primary reasons. In the BI-RADS 4 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the physician's recommendation and a recognition of the importance of follow-up examinations. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited having received follow-up at another hospital and a desire for a second opinion. In the BI-RADS 0 group, multivariate analysis showed that patients with higher scores in the “perceived benefits” domain were statistically more likely to receive a follow-up examination. There was no significant difference in perceived threats, perceived barriers, action cues, or self-efficacy between

  12. Colorectal cancer screening

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  13. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  14. Screening for Lung Cancer.

    Stiles, Brendon M; Pua, Bradley; Altorki, Nasser K

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is a global health burden and is among the most common and deadliest of all malignancies worldwide. The goal of screening programs is to detect tumors in earlier, curable stages, consequently reducing disease-specific mortality. The issue of screening has great relevance to thoracic surgeons, who should play a leading role in the debate over screening and its consequences. The burden is on thoracic surgeons to work in a multidisciplinary setting to guide and treat these patients safely and responsibly, ensuring low morbidity and mortality of potential diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. PMID:27261909

  15. SCREENING FOR COLORECTAL CANCER

    M. Bărbulescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a review of the main procedures for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, especially for the asymptomatic individuals with high risk to develop this neoplasm, devise the risk groups to develop this cancer and to study the management of these. The advantages and disadvantages or limitations of screening modalities for colorectal cancer, such as faecal occult blood testing with old guaiac-based tests or the new tests for detecting faecal deoxyribonucleic acid of tumor cells, endoscopic screening by flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or CT-colonography and double contrast barium enema examination, are evaluated. The most accurate diagnosed sensibility (95-97% belong to total colonoscopy with biopsy, barium enema having a lower sensibility (83%; the easiest and cheaper screening method represent guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests but with a global predictive positive value of only 5-10%. In our country, as it’s known, most of the colorectal cancer patients presents to the doctor in an advanced local stage or with distant metastases or in other situations like perforation, obstructive or hemorrhaged complications. In all these cases the therapeutic resources are limited and the survival is much diminished. The situation would be different if in the precocious diagnosis in the incipient stage of the colorectal neoplasm, proper treatment resources may assure to these patients a higher life hope. A proper national healthy political program that will promote some fesabile screening programs could diagnose and treat patients with colorectal neoplasm in incipient stages, with the result of prolonged survival and disease-free interval and complete socio-professional reinstatement. These national screening programs may absolve the expensiveness on the patients care with the colorectal neoplasm cancer in the advanced stages that have a poor prognosis.

  16. Genetic abnormalities in pancreatic cancer

    Zamboni Giuseppe; Beghelli Stefania; Moore Patrick S; Scarpa Aldo

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The incidence and mortality of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are nearly coincident having a five-year survival of less than 5%. Enormous advances have been made in our knowledge of the molecular alterations commonly present in ductal cancer and other pancreatic malignancies. One significant outcome of these studies is the recognition that common ductal cancers have a distinct molecular fingerprint compared to other nonductal or endocrine tumors. Ductal carcinomas typically show alteratio...

  17. Who should be screened for chromosomal abnormalities before ICSI treatment?

    Dul, E. C.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C. M. A.; Groen, H.; van Echten-Arends, J.; Land, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Guidelines on karyotyping infertile men before ICSI treatment are not consistent. Most guidelines recommend chromosomal screening in azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic men, because they are assumed to have the highest risk of abnormalities. We performed a retrospective cohort study in azoospermi

  18. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  19. Controversies in Lung Cancer Screening.

    Gill, Ritu R; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jacobson, Francine L

    2016-02-01

    There remains an extensive debate over lung cancer screening, with lobbying for and against screening for very compelling reasons. The National Lung Screening Trial, International Early Lung Cancer Program, and other major screening studies favor screening with low-dose CT scans and have shown a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality. The increasing incidence of lung cancer and the dismal survival rate for advanced disease despite improved multimodality therapy have sparked an interest in the implementation of national lung cancer screening. Concerns over imaging workflow, radiation dose, management of small nodules, overdiagnosis bias, lead-time and length-time bias, emerging new technologies, and cost-effectiveness continue to be debated. The authors address each of these issues as they relate to radiologic practice. PMID:26846531

  20. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  1. Ultrasound screening program for chromosomal abnormalities: The first 2000 women

    Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Screening for chromosomal abnormalities identifies the group of women at higher risk for having a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities and the need for fetal karyotyping. In order to provide high quality screening, strict criteria for certification of operators are introduced, issued by the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF, which enables annual external control of results. The aim of this study was to review the results of five-year prenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities in Novi Sad, Serbia. Material and methods Ultrasound screening at 11-15 weeks gestation was performed, assessing fetal morphology, crowner-rump length and nuchal translucency (NT according to the FMF guidelines. Risk for chromosomal abnormalities included the initial risk, based on maternal age, gestational age and anamnestic data, and corrected risk, which took into account the initial risk and the value of the nuchal translucency. The corrected risk was issued by the computer program issued by the FMF. Results During the period 1999 - 2004, 4580 pregnant women were scanned. The risk for chromosomal abnormality was calculated using the FMF program in 2245 cases and the outcome was known in 1406 cases. The majority of women were between 25 and 29 years of age (37%, and 12% were older than 35 years. NT was below the median in 43% of cases and above in 57%, 3.7% of cases were above the 95th centile. 89% of women were younger than 35, and the risk was reduced in 97% of cases. There were three false negative cases. In 3% of women from this group the risk was increased, out of which there were five cases of trisomy 21 and two terminations were done due to major anomalies. In the group of women over 35 years, the risk was reduced in 95% of cases and in all of them but two the karyotype was normal. In one of the two cases there was a large omphalocele and the karyotype was trisomy 18, and in the other fetus appeared normal, but after amniocentesis due to maternal

  2. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  3. Screening for fetal chromosome abnormalities during the second trimester

    Objective: To develop a pre -natal screening program for fetal chromosome abnormalities based on risk values calculated from maternal serum markers levels during the second trimester. Methods: Serum levels of AFP, β-HCG, uE3 were determined with CLIA in 1048 pregnant women during 14-21w gestation period and the results were analyzed with a specific software (screening program for Down' s syndrome developed by Beckman) for the risk rate. In those women defined as being of high risk rate, cells from amniotic fluid or umbilical cord blood were studied for karyotype analysis. Results: Of these 1048 women, 77 were designated as being of high risk rate for several chromosome abnormalities i.e. Down's syndrome, open spina bifida and trisomy -18 syndrome (overall positive rate 7.3%). Further fetal chromosome study in 31 of them revealed three proven cases of abnormality. Another cord blood study was performed in a calculated low risk rate case but with abnormal sonographic finding at 31 w gestation and proved to be abnormal (software study false negative). The remaining 46 high risk rate cases either refused future study (n=35) or were lost for follow-up (n=11). Fortunately, all the 35 women refused further study gave birth to normal babies without any chromosome abnormalities discovered on peripheral blood study. Besides, in a trial study, five high risk rate women were again evaluated a few weeks later but with tremendous difference between the results. Conclusion: The present program proves to be clinically useful but needs further study and revision. Many factors may influence the result of the analysis and the duration of gestation period in weeks should be as accurate as possible. At present, in order to avoid getting false negatives, we don't advise a second check in 'high risk' cases. (authors)

  4. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Cancer Screenings: Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer

    ... aged 50–75 need to be screened for colorectal cancer, and 7 million women aged 50–74 need ... aged 50–75 are up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening. 56% Only 56% of uninsured women aged ...

  6. Colon cancer screening

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  7. Rastreamento anterior para câncer de colo uterino em mulheres com alterações citológicas ou histológicas Previous screening for cervical cancer among women with cytological and histological abnormalities

    C Rama

    2008-06-01

    do último exame citológico anterior.OBJECTIVE: To examine previous Pap smear history in women screened for cervical cancer with cytological or histological abnormalities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of 5,485 women (15-65 years old who self-referred to cervical cancer screening in Sao Paulo and Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between February 2002 and March 2003. A behavioral questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for testing by Pap smears or liquid-based cytology. Women who had abnormal cytology were referred for colposcopic examination and, if abnormal, for cervical punch biopsy. To explore factors associated to cervical abnormalities Pearson's chi-was conduted square test at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Cytological abnormalities were found in 354 women (6.4% and included 41 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions and 3 carcinomas; 92.7% were normal results. Colposcopy was performed in 289 women, and 145 (50.2% showed abnormal results. Punch biopsies showed 14 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 and 4 carcinomas. Previous Pap smears were reported in all women who had cytology suspected of carcinoma, 97.6% of those with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions, all women with histological diagnosis of carcinoma and 92.9% of those who had cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 histologically. Previous Pap smear in the last tree years was reported by 86.5% and 92.8% of women with abnormal cytology and biopsy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference regarding the number of Pap tests and time since their last test between women with histologically diagnosed carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 compared with those with normal cytology.

  8. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  9. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  10. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  11. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  12. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  13. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  14. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  15. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results.

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  16. Sociodemographic Characteristics, Distance to the Clinic, and Breast Cancer Screening Results

    Kim, Seijeoung; Chukwudozie, Beverly; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Timely detection and follow-up of abnormal cellular changes can aid in early diagnosis of breast cancer, thus leading to better treatment outcomes. However, despite substantial breast cancer screening initiatives, the proportion of female breast cancer cases diagnosed at late stages remains high. Distance to screening clinics may affect access to care, particularly for women living in impoverished areas with limited means of reliable transportation. Utilizing breast cancer screening data coll...

  17. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B. [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Thomsen, Laura H. [Hvidovre Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre (Denmark); Petersen, Jens [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, DIKU, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Bruijne, Marleen de [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, DIKU, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Erasmus MC -University Medical Center Rotterdam, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pedersen, Jesper H. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was found using quantitative measurements. Interstitial abnormalities were more common findings among participants with lung cancer (OR 5.1, p < 0.001 and OR 4.5, p < 0.001).There was no association between presence of emphysema and presence of interstitial abnormalities (OR 0.75, p = 0.499). Even early signs of emphysema and interstitial abnormalities are associated with lung cancer. Quantitative measurements of emphysema - regardless of type - do not show the same association. (orig.)

  18. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was found using quantitative measurements. Interstitial abnormalities were more common findings among participants with lung cancer (OR 5.1, p < 0.001 and OR 4.5, p < 0.001).There was no association between presence of emphysema and presence of interstitial abnormalities (OR 0.75, p = 0.499). Even early signs of emphysema and interstitial abnormalities are associated with lung cancer. Quantitative measurements of emphysema - regardless of type - do not show the same association. (orig.)

  19. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  20. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  1. Study of mammography in mass screening for breast cancer

    In order to examine the rate of correct diagnosis by mammography at initial mass screening for breast cancer, we carried out a retrospective study of mammography findings in 267 cases of breast cancer detected at Asahikawa Cancer Screening Center. The screening was performed by physical examination, and in cases where disease was suspected, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy were done. Mammographically, 172 cases (64.4%) were cancer-positive, 58 cases (21.7%) were suspicious for cancer, and 37 cases (13.9%) were cancer-negative. Patients below 50 years of age and those with tumors of small diameter (<20 mm) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer positivity than patients aged 50 years or more and those with tumors 20 mm or more in diameter. Mammographic abnormalities were not specific, since these changes were also found in normal subjects and patients with benign diseases. Therefore, we concluded that mammography without physical examination at initial mass screening has a high risk of missing breast cancer. Mass screening for breast cancer should be performed by physical examination involving inspection and palpation at the first instance. If any suspicious findings are obtained, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy should be done. (author)

  2. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    Tohno, Eriko, E-mail: tohno@tmch.or.jp [Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, 1-2, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Umemoto, Takeshi, E-mail: umemoto@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Sasaki, Kyoko, E-mail: kdon@za.cyberhome.ne.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Morishima, Isamu, E-mail: morishima@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Ueno, Ei, E-mail: e-ueno@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening.

  3. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening

  4. Breast Cancer Screening in Women with Learning Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Considerations

    Willis, Diane S.; Kennedy, Catriona M.; Kilbride, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    As people with learning disabilities now live longer, they will experience the same age-related illnesses as the general population and cancer is a prime example of this. In women, cancer screening is used to detect early on-set of cancer of the breast and abnormalities of the cervix which might, if left untreated, develop into cancer.…

  5. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  6. An observational study of cancer treatment-induced dental abnormalities in paediatric cancer patients

    Kaberi Das; Munlima Hazarika; Manigreeva Krishnatreya; Amal Chandra Kataki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric cancer patients who receive radiation and chemotherapy (CT) suffer from various risks of oral complications and odontogenesis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at a regional cancer centre of North East India from 2010 to 2013. The impact of cancer treatment by CT and radiation on orodental health was studied on a total of 100 paediatric cancer patients. Results: The common dental abnormalities were microdontia, hypodontia, root abnormalities, abnorm...

  7. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-01

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%). PMID:15870440

  8. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  9. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    Wille, Mathilde M W; Thomsen, Laura H.; Petersen, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    difference was found using quantitative measurements. Interstitial abnormalities were more common findings among participants with lung cancer (OR 5.1, p ....499). Conclusions: Even early signs of emphysema and interstitial abnormalities are associated with lung cancer. Quantitative measurements of emphysema—regardless of type—do not show the same association. Key Points: • Visually detected emphysema on CT is more frequent in individuals who develop lung cancer......Objectives: Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial...

  10. Women with abnormal screening mammography lost to follow-up: An experience from Taiwan.

    Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Chen, Guan-Ru; Hung, Shou-Hung; Liu, Yi-Lien; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Shao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer has the highest incidence among all cancers for women in Taiwan. The current screening policy in Taiwan suggested a biennial mammography for all women 40 to 69 years of age. A recommendation for additional testing is recommended for women with a BI-RADS result of 0 or 4; a request made via postal mail. Approximately 20% of high-risk patients do not receive additional follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to explore the causes of these patients being lost to follow-up, despite an abnormal mammogram. Two questionnaires were designed separately according to the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model. Study participants, women who received a screening mammography at the National Taiwan University Hospital in 2011 with a BI-RAD of 0 or 4, were interviewed via telephone. The dependent variable was receipt of follow-up or not. The analyses were performed by using χ tests and logistic regression models. In total, 528 women were enrolled in the study: 51.2% in BI-RADS 0 group and 56.6% in BI-RADS 4, respectively. In the BI-RADS 0 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the most likely causes to be physician suggestion, health implications, and concerns regarding breast cancer. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited a lack of time and a perception of good personal health as primary reasons. In the BI-RADS 4 group, those patients who received a follow-up examination cited the physician's recommendation and a recognition of the importance of follow-up examinations. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination cited having received follow-up at another hospital and a desire for a second opinion. In the BI-RADS 0 group, multivariate analysis showed that patients with higher scores in the "perceived benefits" domain were statistically more likely to receive a follow-up examination. There was no significant difference in perceived threats, perceived barriers, action cues, or self-efficacy between groups. We

  11. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    ... have grown and spread. This can make the cancer harder to treat or cure. It is important to remember that when your ... Finds cancer before symptoms appear. Screens for a cancer that is easier to treat and cure when found early. Has few false-negative test ...

  12. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening Mammography In November 2009, the United States Preventive ...

  13. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening mode...

  14. Vibrational Microspectroscopy for Cancer Screening

    Fiona M. Lyng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Infrared (IR spectroscopy is a complementary vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of IR radiation by the sample. Molecules absorb specific frequencies of the incident light which are characteristic of their structure. IR and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level allowing spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports demonstrating the potential of IR and Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis techniques for the detection of a variety of cancers including, breast, lung, brain, colon, oral, oesophageal, prostate and cervical cancer. This paper discusses the recent advances and the future perspectives in relation to cancer screening applications, focussing on cervical and oral cancer.

  15. Computer screens and brain cancer

    Australia, both in the media and at the federal government level, over possible links between screen-based computer use and cancer, brain tumour in particular. The screen emissions assumed to be the sources of the putative hazard are the magnetic fields responsible for horizontal and vertical scanning of the display. Time-varying fluctuations in these magnetic fields induce electrical current flows in exposed tissues. This paper estimates that the induced current densities in the brain of the computer user are up to 1 mA/m2 (due to the vertical flyback). Corresponding values for other electrical appliances or installations are in general much less than this. The epidemiological literature shows no obvious signs of a sudden increase in brain tumour incidence, but the widespread use of computers is a relatively recent phenomenon. The occupational use of other equipment based on cathode ray tubes (such as TV repair) has a much longer history and has been statistically linked to brain tumour in some studies. A number of factors make this an unreliable indicator of the risk from computer screens, however. 42 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Performance of computer-aided detection in false-negative screening mammograms of breast cancers

    To analyze retrospectively the abnormalities visible on the false-negative screening mammograms of patients with breast cancer and to determine the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) in the detection of cancers. Of 108 consecutive cases of breast cancer diagnosed over a period of 6 years, of which previous screening mammograms were available, 32 retrospectively visible abnormalities (at which locations cancer later developed) were found in the previous mammograms, and which were originally reported as negative. These 32 patients ranged in age from 38 to 72 years (mean 52 years). We analyzed their previous mammographic findings, and assessed the ability of CAD to mark cancers in previous mammograms, according to the clinical presentation, the type of abnormalities and the mammographic parenchymal density. In these 32 previous mammograms of breast cancers (20 asymptomatic, 12 symptomatic), the retrospectively visible abnormalities were identified as densities in 22, calcifications in 8, and densities with calcifications in 2. CAD marked abnormalities in 20 (63%) of the 32 cancers with false-negative screening mammograms; 14 (70%) of the 20 subsequent screening-detected cancers, 5 (50%) of the 10 interval cancers, and 1 (50%) of the 2 cancers palpable after the screening interval. CAD marked 12 (50%) of the 24 densities and 9 (90%) of the 10 calcifications. CAD marked abnormalities in 7 (50%) of the 14 predominantly fatty breasts, and 13 (72%) of the 18 dense breasts. CAD-assisted diagnosis could potentially decrease the number of false-negative mammograms caused by the failure to recognize the cancer in the screening program, although its usefulness in the prevention of interval cancers appears to be limited

  17. Assessment of a cancer screening program.

    Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-12-01

    Several Asian countries are implementing nationwide cancer screening programs. Assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is critical to their success as this is the only way to ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms. In this paper we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to illustrate the principles of screening program assessment. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has defined organized screening, distinguishing it from opportunistic screening. The key advantage of organized screening is that it provides greater protection against the possible harms of screening. Since screening is a process, not simply a test, the effectiveness of a program depends on the quality of each step in the cancer screening process. The evaluation of long-term screening program outcomes (CRC incidence and mortality) will not be observable for many years, given the time it takes to plan, pilot and implement a program. However, early performance indicators of the impact of screening should be monitored to give an early indication whether the program is on track. The European Union (EU) has recommended a minimum dataset to be collected and reported regularly by a screening program. Using information from these data tables, early performance indicators can be generated (e.g., participation rate, proportion of screen-detected cancers that are early-stage). Subsequently, modeling the natural history of the disease can be very helpful to estimate long-term outcomes, making use of these directly measured early performance indicators. Modeling can also be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program and the potential impact of changes in policy, as illustrated by its recent use in the Netherlands to change the definition of a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for the CRC screening program. Programs should consider modeling as an important component of screening program evaluation. PMID:26651258

  18. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...

  19. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  20. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  1. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  2. Ovarian cancer screening in the general population.

    Menon, U

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapy, ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of death amongst women with gynaecological malignancies. Advanced stage at diagnosis is thought to be a major contributor to mortality. Hence, there is considerable interest in early detection through screening. In the 1990s, Professor Jacobs pioneered the development of a multimodal ovarian cancer screening (OCS) strategy using serum CA125 as the first line screen and pelvic ultrasound as the second l...

  3. Screening methods of ovarian cancer in adults

    Milenković Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality rate which has improved a little despite therapeutic advances. It causes more deaths than combined cervical and uterine cancer. High mortality is believed to be a direct result of already advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival is excellent in case of early stage disease but poor in late stage disease, regardless of histology. The goal of screening for ovarian cancer is restricted to detection of asymptomatic early stage disease, as precursor lesions of ovarian cancer have not been identified. At present, there is no reliable method of ovarian cancer screening which has been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Therefore, routine screening of women in general population can not be currently advised. Screening should be limited to high-risk population and subjects participating in research projects as long as the results of current studies are available.

  4. Continuous quality improvement of colorectal cancer screening

    Mariusz; Madalinski

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance is a key issue in colorectal cancer screening, because effective screening is able to improve primary prevention of the cancer. The quality measure may be described in terms:how well the screening test tells who truly has a disease (sensitivity) and who truly does not have a disease (specificity). This paper raises concerns about identification of the optimal screening test for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy vs flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening has been a source of ongoing debate. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing flexible sigmoidoscopy with usual care showed that flexible sigmoidoscopy screening is able to diminish the incidence of distal and proximal colorectal cancer, and also mortality related to the distal colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy provides a more complete examination and remains the more sensitive exam than flexible sigmoidoscopy. Moreover, colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer-related mortality in the general population. The article considers the relative merits of both methods and stresses an ethical aspect of patient’s involvement in decision-making. Patients should be informed not only about tests tolerability and risk of endoscopy complications, but also that different screening tests for bowel cancer have different strength to exclude colonic cancer and polyps. The authorities calculate effectiveness and costs of the screening tests, but patients may not be interested in statistics regarding flexible sigmoidoscopy screening and from an ethical point of view, they have the right to chose colonoscopy, which is able to exclude a cancer and precancerous lesions in the whole large bowel.

  5. Cancer screening with CT: dose controversy

    Computed tomographic (CT) cancer screening has seen a steady increase in interest with the introduction of multislice scanners. While the potential benefits of screening are obvious, radiation dose may pose a long-term risk for the screened individual. This article will discuss the basis for radiation risk estimation and give an overview of the current dose controversy surrounding CT screening. Given the current evidence, a non-negligible radiation risk has to be postulated even at very low doses, but estimates depend heavily on the chosen mathematical model. Lung cancer risk is the most important factor in a screening population because it peaks in the time interval between 40 and 70 years of age. Substantial risks for lung cancer development from yearly screening CT examinations are currently discussed in the literature. Risks for colon cancer screening are less because of less frequent screening intervals. For both indications substantial dose reduction up to factors of 5-10 may be possible. Full-body screening remains critical when performed at regular intervals because of the large doses required and the direct exposure of the lungs. If performed in a dose-conscious fashion, individual risks with lung and colon cancer screening are very small, but estimated population risks are non-negligible. (orig.)

  6. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Saurabh Bobdey; Ganesh Balasubramanium; Abhinendra Kumar; Aanchal Jain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a fatal disease and is on the rise across the globe. In India, breast, cervix and the oral cavity are the leading cancer sites, but, unfortunately, in-spite of availability of screening tools, there is no organized cancer screening program in India. The main objective of this study was to review the performance of various cancer screening modalities in a resource poor setting. Methods: MEDLINE and web of science electronic database was searched from January 1990 to D...

  7. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  8. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated. PMID:25772581

  9. Canadian cancer screening disparities: a recent historical perspective

    Kerner, J.; Liu, J; Wang, K.; Fung, S; Landry, C; Lockwood, G.; Zitzelsberger, L; Mai, V

    2015-01-01

    Across Canada, introduction of the Pap test for cervical cancer screening, followed by mammography for breast cancer screening and, more recently, the fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening, has contributed to a reduction in cancer mortality. However, another contribution of screening has been disparities in cancer mortality between certain populations. Here, we explore the disparities associated with breast and cervical cancer screening and preliminary data concerning dispar...

  10. Can delayed time to referral to a tertiary level urologist with an abnormal PSA level affect subsequent Gleason grade in the opportunistically screened population?

    O'Kelly, Fardod

    2013-09-01

    There is growing conflict in the literature describing the effect of delayed treatment on outcomes following radical prostatectomy. There is also evidence to suggest progression of low-risk prostate cancer to develop higher grades and volumes of prostate cancer during active surveillance. It is unknown as to what affect a delay in referral of those men with abnormal screened-PSA levels have on subsequent Gleason grade.

  11. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  12. Universal Screening for Extracardiac Abnormalities in Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

    Gonzalez, Javier H.; Shirali, Girish S.; Atz, Andrew M.; Taylor, Sarah N.; Forbus, Geoffrey A.; Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Hlavacek, Anthony M.

    2008-01-01

    Extracardiac or genetic abnormalities (EGA) represent a factor in the morbidity of patients with congenital heart disease. We evaluated the way neonates with CHD are screened at our institution and determined the yield for the screening tests. We reviewed the charts of 223 neonates with structural CHD. Subjects were categorized into 6 groups: univentricular, left-sided obstructive lesions, right-sided obstructive lesions, septal defects, conotruncal defects (CTD), and other. We reviewed which...

  13. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years...

  14. Screening of inherited metabolic abnormalities in 56 children with intractable epilepsy

    LIU, XIAOMING; LI, RUI; CHEN, SHENGZHI; SANG, YAN; ZHAO, JIAQIANG

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common children's neural disease that is largely controlled by anti-epileptic drugs. Nevertheless, children experience repeated attacks that develop into intractable epilepsy (IE). The aim of the present study was to examine the inherited metabolic abnormalities in children with IE to provide early etiological and symptomatic treatment. Urine and blood samples of 56 children with IE served as the experimental group and 56 cases of children with IE, who were successfully treated served as the control group, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry for the metabolic screening of amino, organic, and fatty acids. Urine routine, hepatic function, blood biochemistry, imageology of encephalon and brain stem-evoked potential (auditory and optical) were also examined. Of the 27 IE children confirmed as abnormal in urine and blood screening, there were 19 cases (70.3%) of hypoevolutism or retrogression of intelligence and motor function, 15 cases (55.5%) of brain stem-evoked potential and of encephalic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality, 6 cases (22.2%) of abnormal family history and of abnormal blood biochemistry and blood gas analysis, and 5 cases (18.5%) with skin change and of abnormal hepatic function. Of the 27 cases, 11 cases (19.6%) were diagnosed with inherited metabolic diseases. Among the children in the control group, 3 cases showed abnormal urine test results, one of which had family history, one had hypoevolutism or retrogression of intelligence and motor function, one had brain stem-evoked potential and encephalic CT or MRI abnormality, while two of the 3 cases had inherited metabolic abnormalities. The correlation analysis revealed that abnormal urine test was significantly correlated with inherited metabolic abnormalities (P<0.05). Of the 56 IE patients, 25 cases (44.6%) were identified as abnormal under urine screening, and of the 25 cases, 6 cases had simple

  15. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  16. Screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer

    刘晓红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of mismatch repair(MMR)genes proteins expression to screen for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer patients.Methods One hundred consecutive colorectal cancers cases collected from 2012 to 2013 were tested immunohistochemically for the protein expression of MLH1,MSH2,MSH6 and PMS2,and also by the ARMS method for the mutation

  17. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by more deta

  18. What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening

    ... you love): What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month ... the United States. Tests used for screening for colon cancer include digital rectal exam, stool blood test, barium ...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Lo, Gladys G.; Yuan, Jing; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationshi...

  20. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...... features of the disease, which make the possible gain from screening programs questionable. Thus, before embarking on expensive community or national screening programs, the beneficial effect of such an effort on morbidity and mortality must be demonstrated in large-scale trials comparing a screened...

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Genome-wide uniparental disomy screen in human discarded morphologically abnormal embryos.

    Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Meixiang; Niu, Wenbin; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Bo; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to be rare in human normal blastocysts, but its frequency in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and its relevance to embryonic self-correction of aneuploid remains unknown. The aim of this study was to detect UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Both discarded morphologically abnormal embryos, including zero-pronuclear zygotes (0PN), one-pronuclear zygotes (1PN), three-pronuclear zygotes (3PN) and 2PN embryos scored as low development potential were cultured into blastocysts then underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Genome-wide UPD screening of the trophectoderm of 241 discarded morphologically abnormal embryo sourced blastocysts showed that UPD occurred in nine embryos. Five embryos exhibited UPDs with euploid chromosomes, and four displayed UPDs with chromosomal aneuploid. The percentage of UPDs among the morphologically abnormal sourced blastocysts was 3.73%, which is significant higher than the percentage observed in normal blastocysts. The frequency of UPD in 3PN-sourced blastocysts was 7.69%, which is significantly higher than that in normal blastocysts. This study provides the first systematic genome-wide profile of UPD in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos. Our results indicated that UPD may be a common phenomenon in discarded morphologically abnormal embryos and may be relevant to human embryonic self-correction. PMID:26194013

  3. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  4. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill

  5. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  6. Who wants cancer screening with PET?

    Objectives: Cancer screening using whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has gradually become popular in Japan. Although some studies have reported high cancer detection rates with PET screening, the justification for such an approach is still unclear, and no evidence has been provided to indicate that PET screening reduces cancer mortality. We measured the general public's willingness to pay (WTP) for this service using a contingent valuation method, after providing them with sufficient information regarding the efficacy and limitations of the service. Methods: A computer-assisted questionnaire survey was conducted on males and females in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years. The study participants (n = 390) were provided with sufficient information about the PET procedure, the high cancer detection rate, false-negatives/false-positives and the fact that the mortality-reducing effect of PET screening has not yet been demonstrated. The participants' WTP was ascertained by a double-bound dichotomous choice approach. Results: The average WTP among all the participants was $68.0 (95% confidence interval: $56.9-79.2). A Weibull regression analysis showed that income, degree of concern about health, and family history of cancer were significant factors affecting WTP. Conclusions: The actual charge for PET screening in Japan is approximately $1000 on average, which is significantly higher than the participants' WTP for the actual benefit obtained from the service. If the Japanese healthcare consumers are well-informed, most of them would avoid purchasing such a costly service.

  7. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  8. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Lopamudra Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cytosensors over a frequency range offers instantaneous and quantitative means to monitor cellular events and is an upcoming technique in real time to classify cells as normal and abnormal ones. This technology is exploited for label-free detection of diseases by identifying and measuring nonbiological parameters of the cell which may carry the disease signature.

  9. Breast cancer screening with mammography as part of our comprehensive medical check-up

    In the breast cancer screening program adopted by our hospital's Health Care Center as part of a comprehensive medical check-up, mammography (MMG) is performed in addition to a clinical breast examination to provide better screening quality. The clinical breast examination is performed by our surgeons. Two-view MMG is performed for women in their 40's and one-view MMG for the others. If any abnormality is detected in the clinical breast examination, or if MMG reveals abnormalities of category 3 or over, a more thorough diagnostic work-up is recommended. Each year, 1,400 or more women undergo breast cancer screening at the center, with an average recall rate of 12% and an average breast cancer detection rate of 0.14%. The high recall rate indicates the need for improvement of screening accuracy. Although the breast cancer detection rate and positive predictive value are somewhat low, the majority of the detected cases are early-stage breast cancer, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the screening. Herein, we describe the current state of MMG screening in our comprehensive medical check-up, along with a discussion of the screening procedure. However, further efforts are needed to improve screening accuracy. (author)

  10. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  11. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  12. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  13. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  14. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  15. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  16. Evolving Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Brawley, Otis W; Thompson, Ian M; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient. PMID:27249774

  17. Differences in Patient Outcomes of Prevalence, Interval, and Screen-Detected Lung Cancers in the CT Arm of the National Lung Screening Trial

    Massion, Pierre P.; Thompson, Zachary J.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Goldof, Dmitry; Aberle, Denise R.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    to patients who had at least one positive screen prior to cancer diagnosis. As such, the observation that de novo screen-detected are associated with poorer survival could be attributed to faster growing, more aggressive cancers that arose from a lung environment previously lacking focal abnormalities. PMID:27509046

  18. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening

    Simon K

    2016-01-01

    Karen Simon Ventura County Gastroenterology Medical Group, Inc., Camarillo, CA, USA Abstract: Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known b...

  2. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality from Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Lee, Christoph I.; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J.; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimates of radiation-induced breast cancer risk from mammography screening have not previously considered dose exposure variation or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening. Objective To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening, considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation across women. Design Two simulation-modeling approaches using common data on screening mammography from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and radiation dose from mammography from the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial. Setting U.S. population. Patients Women aged 40–74 years. Interventions Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 until 74. Measurements Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 women screened (harms). Results On average, annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]=88–178) leading to 16 deaths (95% CI=11–23) relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 radiation-induced breast cancers leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete breast examination (8% of population) were projected to have higher radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (266 cancers, 35 deaths per 100,000 women), compared to women with small or average breasts (113 cancers, 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 reduced risk of radiation-induced cancers 5-fold. Limitations We were unable to estimate years of life lost from radiation-induced breast cancer. Conclusions Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are impacted by dose

  3. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace...... cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management...... decisions. Objectives To determine women's preferences for the follow-up of low-grade cervical screening abnormalities. Search strategy Using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, PubMed was searched for articles published up to December 2010. The reference lists of the retrieved studies were consulted...

  4. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  6. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment. There

  7. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  8. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the suggested benefits of cancer screening is the peace of mind and reassurance experienced by those women who are given negative results. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there was a difference in the expression of psychosocial aspects in a population of...

  9. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta;

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT) to...

  10. [Sharing uncertainties of prostate cancer screening].

    Selby, Kevin; Auer, Reto; Valerio, Massimo; Jichlinski, Patrice; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The decision of whether our patients should undergo prostate cancer screening with the prostate specifc antigen (PSA) test remains daunting. The role of the primary care doctor is to help men decide between a potential decrease in mortality from a slow evolving but sometimes lethal cancer, and the risk of diagnosing and treating cancers that would have otherwise been indolent and asymptomatic. We can structure our discussions with three steps: choice, option, and decision making. A decision aid, such as the one that we have adapted and simplifed from the Collège des médecins du Québec, can help with this complex decision. PMID:26742351

  11. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Investigation to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  12. Lethal Prostate Cancer in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Shoag, Jonathan; Mittal, Sameer; Halpern, Joshua A; Scherr, Douglas; Hu, Jim C; Barbieri, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial randomized men to usual care or annual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for 6 yr and digital rectal examination for 4 yr. This trial found no difference between the intervention and usual care arms of the study in the primary end point of prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality. The PLCO trial results have had a major impact on health policy and the rate of PSA screening in the United States. We analyzed the 13-yr screening and outcomes data from the 151 participants who died of PCa in the screening arm of the trial to better understand how randomization to screening failed to prevent PCa death in these men. We found that of these men, 81 (53.6%) either were never screened as part of the trial or had an initial positive screen. Only 17 (11.3%) of those who died reached year 6 of the trial with a PSA <4.0 ng/ml. The men who died in the screening arm were also older at study entry than the average PLCO participant (66 vs 62 yr; p < 0.001). Our analysis should inform the interpretation of the PLCO trial and provide insight into future trial design. PMID:27166670

  13. Prostate Cancer – To screen, or not to screen, is that the question?

    Rosser Charles J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There continues to be controversy regarding serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA and prostate cancer screening. We anxiously await the results of two large prospective randomized clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary-PCLO screening trial in the US and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-ERSPC in Europe assessing the benefits of prostate cancer screening. However the true question to answer may be which cancer to treat and when should we treat it.

  14. Place of digital X-ray tomography in improving the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, lung cancer and mediastinal abnormality

    To assess the role of current digital X-ray fluorography in the diagnosis of various diseases of the lung (primarily its tuberculosis and cancer, and abnormalities of the mediastinum). 2500 cases from different patient groups (those registered at dispensary or identified at screening, those with a previously verified pathology). In addition to a particularly diagnostic section organizational and methodological problems in the introduction of digital X-ray fluorography into practical public health of Russia are discussed

  15. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  16. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  17. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  18. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  19. Impact of Job Status on Accessibility of Cancer Screening

    Kim, Seung Ju; Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 75,000 cancer deaths in Korea alone in 2013. Cancer screening is an important method of prevention; however, only 63.4% of Koreans sought cancer screening in 2012 even though it was widely offered at no cost. We focused on part time workers because they often experience job instability and relative discrimination. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between job status and cancer screening. Materials and Methods Dat...

  20. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  1. Application of ultrasound in fetal cardiac abnormalitis screening and analyzing of influencing factors

    Objective: To identify the application value of ultrasound in the screening of fetal cardiac abnormalities and to reduce its affecting factors, in order to maximally decrease the birth of oaf. Methods: Adopting the method of four chamber hearts cross-section and sound beam plane head laterodeviation, 3821 fetal hearts were screened by ultrasonocardiography in middle and late fetal period. The influencing factors were also analyzed. Screening results were compared with the autopsy following induced labor and the ultrasonocardiogram after borne. Results: Total 23 cases of the cardiac anomalies were confirmed by odinopoeia or after borned, 21 cases were diagnosed by antepartum ultrasonocardiography, the detectable rate were 91.3%(21/23). And the complex cardiac anomalies were 19 cases, accounted for 82.61%(19/23), the general malformation were 4 cases, accounted for 17.39%(4/23). In 19 cases of the complex anomalies, 17 cases were diagnosed by antepartum examination in the first time, 2 cases were diagnosed by reexamination, the total detectable rate were 100%(19/19). Conclusion: Ultrasonography is not only non-invasive but also unique method in detecting fetal heart defects. It will help to diagnose definitely the vast majority of congenital malformation in the fetal heart, especially complex malformation in the middle and later fetal period. There are some limitations and chronergy in ultrasonography for the screening of fetal heart defects, which should be followed-up when the fetal appeared 'normal' in the early screening. (authors)

  2. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  3. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  4. An observational study of cancer treatment-induced dental abnormalities in paediatric cancer patients

    Kaberi Das

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Dental abnormalities such as microdontia, over-retention of deciduous teeth and hypoplasia were the major findings. Close dental follow-up should be advised to paediatric cancer survivors and their parents during therapy and upon completion of the therapy.

  5. Spectrum of early lung cancer presentation in low-dose screening CT: a pictorial review.

    Rampinelli, Cristiano; Calloni, Sonia Francesca; Minotti, Marta; Bellomi, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The typical presentation of early stage lung cancers on low-dose CT screening are non-calcified pulmonary nodules. However, there is a wide spectrum of unusual focal abnormalities that can be early presentations of lung cancer. These abnormalities include, for example, cancers associated with 'cystic airspaces' or scar-like cancers. The detection of lung cancer with low-dose CT can be affected by the absence of intravenous contrast medium. As a consequence, endobronchial and central lesions can be difficult to recognize, raising the potential for missed cancers. Focal lesions arising within pre-existing lung disease, such as lung fibrosis or apical scars, can also be early lung cancer manifestations and deserve particular consideration as recognition of these lesions may be hindered by the underlying disease. Furthermore, the unpredictable growth rate of lung cancer, which ranges from indolent to aggressive cancers, necessitates attention to the wide spectrum of progression in lung cancer appearance on serial low-dose CT scans. In this pictorial review we discuss the spectrum of early lung cancer presentation in low-dose CT screening, highlighting typical as well as unusual radiological features and the varied growth rates of early lung cancer. Teaching Points • There is a wide spectrum of early presentations of lung cancer on LDCT. • Low radiation dose and the absence of contrast medium injection can affect lung cancer detection. • Lung cancer growth shows various behaviours, ranging from indolent to aggressive cancers. • Familiarity with LDCT technique can improve CT screening effectiveness and avoid missed diagnosis. PMID:27188380

  6. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed

  7. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  8. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  9. Studies Comparing Screen-Film Mammography and Full-Field Digital Mammography in Breast Cancer Screening: Updated Review

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) has several potential benefits as compared with screen-film mammography (SFM) in mammography screening. Digital technology also opens for implementation of advanced applications, including computer-aided detection (CAD) and tomosynthesis. Phantom studies and experimental clinical studies have shown that FFDM is equal or slightly superior to SFM for detection and characterization of mammographic abnormalities. Despite obvious advantages, the conversion to digital mammography has been slower than anticipated, and not only due to higher costs. Until very recently, some countries did not even permit the use of digital mammography in breast cancer screening. The reason for this reluctant attitude was concern about lower spatial resolution and about using soft-copy reading. Furthermore, there was a lack of data supporting improved diagnostic accuracy using FFDM in a screening setting, since two pioneer trials both showed nonsignificantly lower cancer detection rate at FFDM. The 10 studies comparing FFDM and SFM in mammography screening published so far have shown divergent and rather conflicting results. Nevertheless, there is a rapid conversion to digital mammography in breast cancer screening in many western countries. The aim of this article is to give an updated review of these studies, discuss the conflicting findings, and draw some conclusions from the results

  10. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    Leeds, Ira L.; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors earl...

  11. Ultrasound screening of periarticular soft tissue abnormality around metal-on-metal bearings.

    Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Takao, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Although metal hypersensitivity or pseudotumors are concerns for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings, detailed pathologies of patterns, severity, and incidence of periprosthetic soft tissue lesions are incompletely understood. We examined the potential of ultrasound for screening of periarticular soft tissue lesions around MoM bearings. Ultrasound examinations were conducted in 88 hips (79 patients) with MoM hip resurfacings or MoM total hip arthroplasties with a large femoral head. Four qualitative ultrasound patterns were shown, including normal pattern in 69 hips, joint-expansion pattern in 11 hips, cystic pattern in 5 hips, and mass pattern in 3 hips. Hips with the latter 3 abnormal patterns showed significantly higher frequency of clinical symptoms, without significant differences of sex, duration of implantation, head sizes, and cup abduction/anteversion angles, compared with hips with normal pattern. Ultrasound examination provides sensitive screening of soft tissue reactions around MoM bearings and may be useful in monitoring progression and defining treatment for periarticular soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:22047978

  12. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  13. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  14. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen W; Miccinesi, Guido;

    2012-01-01

    Overdiagnosis, the detection through screening of a breast cancer that would never have been identified in the lifetime of the woman, is an adverse outcome of screening. We aimed to determine an estimate range for overdiagnosis of breast cancer in European mammographic service screening programmes....

  15. Prostate cancer screening with PSA: new data, old debate

    Stefania Sciallero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prostate cancer screening randomised controlled trials from Europe (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer—ERSPC and U.S. (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Program— PLCO have been published earlier this year...

  16. Randomization to screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large cancer screening trials.

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials.We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST. In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for thyroid cancer.In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96-2.71. This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47, but not subsequently (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49-2.37. In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.95 but not women (HR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66-1.26. Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO.Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer.

  17. Randomization to Screening for Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancers and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Two Large Cancer Screening Trials

    O'Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Boscoe, Francis P.; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials. Methods We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer. Results In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR  = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96–2.71). This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR  = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07–4.47), but not subsequently (HR  = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49–2.37). In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR  = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.95) but not women (HR  = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66–1.26). Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO. Conclusion Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer. PMID:25192282

  18. Sociodemographic gradients in breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS 2005-2009

    Jun Jae

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer screening rates in Korea for five cancer types have increased steadily since 2002. With regard to the life-time cancer screening rates in 2009 according to cancer sites, the second highest was breast cancer (78.1% and the third highest was cervical cancer (76.1%. Despite overall increases in the screening rate, disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening, based on sociodemographic characteristics, still exist. Methods Data from 4,139 women aged 40 to74 years from the 2005 to 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey were used to analyze the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and receiving mammograms and Pap smears. The main outcome measures were ever having had a mammogram and ever having had a Pap smear. Using these items of information, we classified women into those who had had both types of screening, only one screening type, and neither screening type. We used logistic regression to investigate relationships between screening history and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Results Being married, having a higher education, a rural residence, and private health insurance were significantly associated with higher rates of breast and cervical cancer screening after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Household income was not significantly associated with mammograms or Pap smears after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Conclusions Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening associated with low sociodemographic status persist in Korea.

  19. The Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET as a Cancer Screening Test

    Ko, Doo Heun; Choi, Joon Young; Song, Yun Mi; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Moon Kyu [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects. The subjects were 1,762 men and 259 women who voluntarily underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET for cancer screening as a part of a routine health examination. Final diagnosis was decided by other diagnostic studies, pathological results or clinical follow-up for 1 year. Of 2,021 subjects, 40 (2.0%) were finally proved to have cancer. Abnormal focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake suggesting malignancy was found in 102 subjects (5.0%). Among them, 21 subjects (1.0%) were proved to have cancer. Other tests in the routine health examination could not find 9 of 21 cancers (42.9%) detected by PET. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET for cancer screening were 52.5%, 95.9%, 20.6%, and 99.0%, respectively. Pathologies of cancers missed on PET were adenocarcinoma (n=9; 3 colon cancers, 3 prostate cancers, 2 stomach cancers, and 1 rectal cancer), differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n=6), bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma (n=2), urinary bladder cancer (n=1), and melanoma (n=1). More than half of cancers which were not detected by PET were smaller than 1 cm in diameter. {sup 18}F-FDG PET might be useful for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects due to its high specificity and negative predictive value and play a supplementary role to the conventional health check-up, but it could not replace due to limited sensitivity for urological cancers, small-sized tumors and some hypometaboic cancers.

  20. The Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET as a Cancer Screening Test

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects. The subjects were 1,762 men and 259 women who voluntarily underwent 18F-FDG PET for cancer screening as a part of a routine health examination. Final diagnosis was decided by other diagnostic studies, pathological results or clinical follow-up for 1 year. Of 2,021 subjects, 40 (2.0%) were finally proved to have cancer. Abnormal focal 18F-FDG uptake suggesting malignancy was found in 102 subjects (5.0%). Among them, 21 subjects (1.0%) were proved to have cancer. Other tests in the routine health examination could not find 9 of 21 cancers (42.9%) detected by PET. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET for cancer screening were 52.5%, 95.9%, 20.6%, and 99.0%, respectively. Pathologies of cancers missed on PET were adenocarcinoma (n=9; 3 colon cancers, 3 prostate cancers, 2 stomach cancers, and 1 rectal cancer), differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n=6), bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma (n=2), urinary bladder cancer (n=1), and melanoma (n=1). More than half of cancers which were not detected by PET were smaller than 1 cm in diameter. 18F-FDG PET might be useful for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects due to its high specificity and negative predictive value and play a supplementary role to the conventional health check-up, but it could not replace due to limited sensitivity for urological cancers, small-sized tumors and some hypometaboic cancers

  1. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation to...... screening....

  2. Promoting Quality of Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in India

    Krishnan, S.; Madsen, E.; Porterfield, D.; Varghese, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is highly cost effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable in higher and lower income settings across the world. According to the World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum, screening for cervical cancer is an evidence-based best buy prevention intervention (1). However, to be effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality, screenin...

  3. To screen or not to screen: ongoing debate in the early detection of prostate cancer.

    Marroquin, Joanna Marie

    2011-02-01

    Debate about the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen prostate cancer in men is ongoing. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer after skin cancer in men and the second most deadly after lung cancer. An elevated PSA level can lead to this cancer's diagnosis and treatment even before the onset of symptoms. However, other causes also can create a high PSA level, which may lead to men being unnecessarily treated for prostate cancer. This article will shed some light on the issue and discuss prostate cancer screening. PMID:21278045

  4. Value of computed tomography as a screening examination of pancreatic cancer

    The abdominal CT films of 50 patients were reviewed by ten radiologists to evaluate the role of CT examination in the screening of pancreatic cancer. The 50 patients consisted of 10 with pancreatic cancer, 8 with other pancreatic abnormalities, and 32 with normal pancreas. Ten radiologists were divided into two groups according to their experience in evaluating CT examinations, an experienced group and an unexperienced group, respectively. In the detectability of pancreatic abnormality, the experienced group showed a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 86.2%. The unexperienced group showed a sensitivity of 70.9% and a specificity of 72.0%. In the detectability of pancreatic cancer, the experienced group showed a sensitivity of 62.0% and a specificity of 83.4%. The unexperienced group showed a sensitivity of 66.0% and a specificity of 81.8%. In the localization of the pancreatic cancer, there was no difference between the two groups. Pancreatic abnormality can be detected with high accuracy, but diagnosis of the nature of pancreatic cancer is difficult. Experience in evaluating CT examinations elevates the detectability of pancreatic abnormality but does not elevate the detectability of pancreatic cancer. These results suggest the difficulty in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (author)

  5. Radiation doses to screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2005 and 2006

    The radiographers report exposure data for approximately 50 women annually to the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Based on reported data from all laboratories involved in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program average glandular dose (AGD) to the screened. (author)

  6. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  7. Most Breast Cancer Screening Trials Have a Flawed Design

    Gurnani, Nishant; Srivastava, Anurag

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we discuss that why most breast cancer screening trials have a flawed origin. We suggest some solutions to correct these flaws so that more valid and reliable screening trials can be conducted in the future.

  8. Data on Medicare eligibility and cancer screening utilization

    Christian P. Meyer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Health insurance is associated with increased utilization of cancer screening services. Data on breast, prostate and colorectal cancer screening were abstracted from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System. This data in brief includes two sets of analyses: (i the use of cancer screening in individuals within the low-income bracket and (ii determinants for each of the three approaches to colorectal cancer screening (fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy+fecal occult blood test. Covariates included education attainment, residency, and access to health care provider. The data supplement our original research article on the effect of Medicare eligibility on cancer screening utilization “The impact of Medicare eligibility on cancer screening behaviors” [1].

  9. Access to cancer screening for women with mobility disabilities.

    Angus, Jan; Seto, Lisa; Barry, Nancy; Cechetto, Naomi; Chandani, Samira; Devaney, Julie; Fernando, Sharmini; Muraca, Linda; Odette, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Women with mobility disabilities are less likely to access cancer screening, even when they have a primary care provider. The Gateways to Cancer Screening project was initiated to document the challenges for women with disabilities in their access and experiences of screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. The study followed the tenets of participatory action research. Five peer-led focus groups were held with 24 women with mobility disabilities. Study participants identified multiple and interacting institutional barriers to cancer screening. Their discussions highlighted the complex work of (1) arranging and attending health-related appointments, (2) confronting normative assumptions about women's bodies and (3) securing reliable health care and information. These overlapping, mutually reinforcing issues interact to shape how women with disabilities access and experience cancer screening. We explore implications for redesign of cancer screening services and education of health providers, providing specific recommendations suggested by our participants and the findings. PMID:21927868

  10. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  11. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  12. Abnormal TREC-Based Newborn Screening Test in a Premature Neonate with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of the Placenta

    Kostadinov, Stefan; Robbins, Karen A.; Hayward, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a primary immunodeficiency arising from variable defects in lymphocyte development and survival, is characterized by significant deficiency of thymus derived (T-) lymphocytes and variable defects in the B-lymphocyte population. Newborn screening for SCID is based on detection of low numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This screening allows for early identification of individuals with SCID and other disorders characterized by T-lymphopenia. Higher rates of abnormal screens are commonly seen in premature and critically ill neonates, often representing false positives. It is possible that many abnormal screens seen in these populations are result of conditions that are characterized by systemic inflammation or stress, possibly in the context of stress-induced thymic involution. We present a case of a male infant delivered at 27 weeks, 6 days of gestation, with severe intrauterine growth restriction who had an abnormal TREC screen and a massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) of the placenta. This association has not been reported previously. We are raising the awareness to the fact that conditions, such as MPFD, that can create adverse intrauterine environment are capable of causing severe stress-induced thymic involution of the fetus which can present with abnormal TREC results on newborn screening.

  13. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  14. What dentists should know about oral cancer screening?

    Omar B Kujan

    2013-01-01

    Although the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer, it remains one of the most devastating malignancies. Early detection and prevention is a major key in combating policy of cancer. Screening offers an important opportunity for early detection. Several screening methods, visual examination, toluidine blue, fluorescence imaging, and brush biopsy, were used in oral cancer screening programs. General dental practitioner plays an important role in such programs. Therefore, this r...

  15. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E.; Berry, Michael J.; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey ...

  16. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  17. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Xilomenos, Apostolos; Mauri, Davide; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Gkinosati, Athanasia; Zacharias, Georgios; Sidiropoulou, Varvara; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Chatzimichalis, Georgios; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Peponi, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012). No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054). Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality. PMID:16756674

  18. A simple way to measure the burden of interval cancers in breast cancer screening

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2014-01-01

    . This resulted in 5 papers describing 12 mammography screening programs. RESULTS: Covering initial screens only, the ICR varied from 0.10 to 0.28 while the PICR varied from 0.22 to 0.51. For subsequent screens only, the ICR varied from 0.22 to 0.37 and the PICR from 0.28 to 0.51. There was a strong......BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of a mammography program is normally evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate to the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, i.e. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The expected breast cancer incidence in absence of screening is, however...... systematic review and included studies: 1) covering a service screening program, 2) women aged 50-69 years, 3) observed data, 4) interval cancers, women screened, or interval cancer rate, screen detected cases, or screen detection rate, and 5) estimated breast cancer incidence rate of background population...

  19. Pancreatic Cancer and Cancer Screening Programs: From Nihilism to Hope

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The most common incipit of papers published regarding exocrine pancreatic neoplasms is that pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers, with a rate of incidence equal to that of mortality. Pancreatic cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms in which pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common. For the most part, the problems related to the early diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are three: 1 to better understand the biology of this tumor; 2 to better investigate the precursors of this tumor; and 3 to plan projects for pancreatic cancer screening in high-risk individuals. Recently, Yachida et al. [1] performed rapid autopsies on seven individuals with Stage IV pancreatic cancer and they found that the clonal populations which give rise to distant metastases are represented within the primary carcinoma, but these clones are genetically evolved from the original parental, non-metastatic clone. Thus, the genetic heterogeneity of the metastases reflects that of the primary carcinoma. Most important, when the authors performed a quantitative analysis of the timing of the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer, they found that there was at least a decade between the occurrence of the initial mutation and the birth of the parental, non-metastatic founder cell. At least five more years are required for the acquisition of metastatic ability and patients die an average two years thereafter. As underscored by the authors, these data have an important implication in planning population screening for the purpose of preventing pancreatic cancer deaths: in fact, quantitative analysis indicated a large window, of at least a decade, in which the disease could be diagnosed while it is still in the curative stage. This model also predicts an average of 6.8 years between the birth of the cell giving rise to the parental clone and the seeding of the index metastasis.

  20. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  1. Results and analysis of screening for breast cancer

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of death in most countries of the world. Screening of asymptomatic women can detect a large percentage of cancers at an early stage. This is the basis for a possible cure or at least a prolongation of the survival time. The percentage of minimal cancers (smaller than 1 cm without dissemination) may be as high as 48% depending on the screening modality (10% without screening), axillary lymph node involvement can be reduced to 20% (40% without screening), and the percentage of stage II to IV cancers can be reduced to 8-20% (60% without screening). Mortality in the study group over age 50 years was reduced by 30%. Disadvantages of screening are: high cost; biopsies prompted by false positive results; psychological stress for the patients; radiation hazards which have, however, become almost negligible thanks to improved technique (2 cancers in 1 million mammographies and year). (Author)

  2. Importance of Smoking Cessation in a Lung Cancer Screening Program

    Munshi, Vidit; McMahon, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation interventions can decrease lung cancer mortality, but information on the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation and lung cancer screening is sparse and inconsistent. This review aims to synthesize recent studies in two major areas of interest. First, we explore the interactions and potential for synergies between lung cancer screening programs and smoking cessation by summarizing reported changes in smoking behavior observe...

  3. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  4. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  5. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    TainyaC.Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors increases.

  6. Screening for familial and hereditary prostate cancer.

    Lynch, Henry T; Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Leslie, Stephen W; Rendell, Marc; Shaw, Trudy; Snyder, Carrie; D'Amico, Anthony V; Buxbaum, Sarah; Isaacs, William B; Loeb, Stacy; Moul, Judd W; Powell, Isaac

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) has the highest degree of genetic transmission of any form of malignancy. In some families, the hereditary pattern is so strong as to mimic an autosomal dominance trait. We reviewed the known predisposing genetic markers to assess possible strategies for screening of families at risk. We carried out a systematic literature search using the Pubmed service of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and several gene libraries, including the NCBI SNP Library, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man® Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders (OMIM) and SNPedia to obtain known gene loci, SNPs and satellite markers associated with PC. We further cross referenced information on identified loci comparing data from different articles and gene reference sites. Whenever possible, we recorded the odds ratio (OR) for the allele associated with PC. In multiple different linkage studies, many independent PC associated loci have been identified on separate chromosomes. Genome-wide association studies have added many more markers to the set derived from linkage investigations. A subset of the alleles is associated with early onset and aggressive cancer. Due to the great heterogeneity, the OR for any one allele predicting future development of this malignancy is low. The strongest predictors are the BRCA2 mutations, and the highly penetrant G84E mutation in HOXB13. The presence of multiple risk alleles is more highly predictive than a single allele. Technical limitations on screening large panels of alleles are being overcome. It is appropriate to begin supplementing prostate specific antigen testing with alleles, such as BRCA2 and HOXB13, disclosed by targeted genomic analysis in families with an unfavorable family cancer history. Future population studies of PC should include genomic sequencing protocols, particularly in families with a history of PC and other malignancies. PMID:26638190

  7. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based. PMID:26165196

  8. Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients w...

  9. The patient's subjective attitude towards screening for breast cancer. Should screening be extended to other forms of cancer?

    Taylor, T V; Rimmer, S.; Forrest, A P

    1980-01-01

    A sample of 500 consecutive women without symptoms of breast disease attending a breast screening clinic were investigated regarding their attitude to breast screening and to the extension of the screening programme to other forms of cancer. Attendance at the screening clinic was found to be reassuring by 94.2%, and 96.4% felt that the screening programme should be extended to include other forms of malignancy. There was a history of either respiratory or alimentary tract symptoms, and of smo...

  10. The Human Gut Microbiome as a Screening Tool for Colorectal Cancer

    Zackular, Joseph P; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Patrick D Schloss

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the gut microbiome may be an important factor in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Abnormalities in the gut microbiome have been reported in patients with CRC; however, this microbial community has not been explored as a potential screen for early stage disease. We characterized the gut microbiome in patients from three clinical groups representing the stages of CRC development: health, adenoma, and carcinoma. Analysis of the gut microbiome from st...

  11. New Screening Proposals: the Federal Joint Commission Defines the Parameters for Cervical Cancer Screening from 2018

    Hillemanns, P.; Mallmann, P.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    The Gynecology Oncology Working Group (AGO e. V.) unequivocally welcomes the decision taken by the German Federal Joint Commission (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) on March 19, 2015 regarding screening for cervical cancer. AGO is convinced that, in view of recent medical advances, this evidence-based decision will improve screening for cervical cancer. PMID:26941445

  12. Big screens with small RNAs : loss of function genetic screens to identify novel cancer genes

    Mullenders, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis described the construction and screening of one of the first large scale RNAi libraries for use in human cells. Functional genetic screens with this library have led to the identification of novel cancer genes. These cancer genes function in several pathways including the p53 tumor suppr

  13. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Screening, Diagnosis, and Staging

    Ferreira, J; Magalhães, M; Rocha, E; Marques, F

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Tobacco consumption is the primary cause of lung cancer, accounting for more than 85% 90% of all lung cancer deaths. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers. Several studies have shown that low-dose helical CT of the lung detects more nodules and lung cancers, including early-stage cancers, than does chest radiography. The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial results show that three annual roun...

  14. Screening for breast cancer in England: past and future.

    2006-01-01

    The NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) began in 1988. It aims to invite all women aged 50-70 years for mammographic screening once every three years. The programme now screens 1.3 million women each year, about 75% of those invited, and diagnoses about 10,000 breast cancers annually. Although some have questioned the value of screening for breast cancer, the scientific evidence demonstrates clearly that regular mammographic screening between the ages of 50 and 70 years reduces mortality from the malignancy. Screened women are slightly more likely than unscreened women to be diagnosed with breast cancer. The cancers in screened women are smaller and are less likely to be treated with mastectomy than they would have been if diagnosed without screening. For every 400 women screened regularly by the NHSBSP over a 10-year period, one woman fewer will die from breast cancer than would have died without screening. The current NHSBSP saves an estimated 1400 lives each year in England. The screening programme spends about pound sterling 3000 for every year of life saved. PMID:16792825

  15. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening

    Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.......Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening....

  16. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...

  17. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  18. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review.

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-27

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening among Greek students: a short report.

    Bakogianni, Giannoula D; Goutsou, Spiridoula C; Liti, Maria V; Rizopoulou, Sophia I; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos M; Nikolakopoulou, Nikoleta M

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in the developing world. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a screening test that detects abnormal cells before they advance to cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening among Greek students. A sample of 472 female students participated in the present study. Interviews were performed using a structured questionnaire. Of the participants, 94.07% were aware of the Pap test and 67.34% reported that the Pap test should be done yearly. The majority of them were informed about cervical cancer screening test by their parents. Of the participants, 44.82% had received Pap testing at least once in their life, whereas 36.2% had a Pap test yearly. The reported mean time of the respondents' first Pap test was 13.3±10.6 months after their first sexual intercourse. The reasons given by the participants for being noncompliant were lack of appreciation of the importance of the screening, embarrassment, fear, and high cost. Of the participants, 9.23% declared that those who had been administered the human papillomavirus vaccine do not need a Pap test. The results highlight the need for additional education and health promotion regarding cervical cancer screening. PMID:23183733

  20. Breast cancer screening for severely disabled patients. Present status and future problems

    Recently, the attendance rate for breast screening has been increasing in Japan. However, little is known about how to conduct effective breast cancer screening, especially for patients with mental disability. The purpose of this study was to clarify the present status of breast cancer screening for severely disabled patients. Breast screening was performed for 160 disabled patients by physical examination and ultrasound from 2002 to 2005. The patients included 158 women and two men, with an average age of 59 years old. Ten disabled patients (10/160; 6.3%) showed abnormal findings on physical examination and four (4/160; 2.5%) showed probably benign findings by ultrasound examination. Mammography (MMG) screening was performed for only 33 patients (33/160; 21%), one of whom needed further examination. One lesion was diagnosed as breast cancer (1/160; 0.63%). Breast ultrasound is useful for severely disabled patients because it is painless, easy and rapid to perform. On the other hand, it is sometimes difficult for such patients to participate in MMG screening because of their inability to adapt to the examination. Therefore, some psychological method, for example operant conditioning, will be necessary for breast screening of patients with severe mental disability. (author)

  1. Colorectal cancer screening: Time for action in Iran

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. According to the Iranian Annual National Cancer Registration Report, CRC is the third most common cancer in Iranian women and fifth in men. The incidence of CRC has increased during the last 25 years. CRC screening is an efficient way to reduce the burden of CRC through detection of precursor lesions of cancer or early stage cancer. Iran may benefit even more from screening programs. According to...

  2. Functional health literacy in Spanish-speaking Latinas seeking breast cancer screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Samantha Garbers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Garbers1, Karen Schmitt2, Anne Marie Rappa2, Mary Ann Chiasson11Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USA; 2Columbia University Breast Cancer Screening Program, New York, NY, USABackground: This analysis examines the association between functional health literacy and follow-up after mammography among women receiving breast cancer screening at a National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program site in New York City that provides universal bilingual case management.Methods: A total of 707 Latinas who spoke Spanish as their primary language completed a survey of health and demographic characteristics and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Spanish (TOFHLA-S. Survey results were matched with clinical outcome data.Results: Among the survey participants, 98% were foreign-born and 99% had no health insurance. While the study found significant differences in access to health information and past screening behavior, women without adequate health literacy in Spanish were no less likely to receive clinical resolution of abnormal mammograms within 60 days (81.8% overall; n = 110 or to return for a repeat mammogram within 18 months (57.2% overall; n = 697. In fact, among those referred for a Pap test (n = 310, women without adequate health literacy were more likely to receive a Pap test within 60 days of their mammogram than those with adequate health literacy (82% compared to 71%, OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.04–3.22.Discussion: The lack of significantly lower follow-up outcomes among women with inadequate and marginal functional health literacy in this population of primary Spanish-speaking Latinas suggests that, once women have accessed screening services, programmatic approaches may exist to mitigate barriers to follow-up and to ensure optimal cancer screening outcomes for women of all literacy levels.Keywords: health literacy, mammography, Latinas, case management, cancer screening

  3. Health professionals' agreement on density judgements and successful abnormality identification within the UK Breast Screening Programme

    Darker, Iain T.; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2011-03-01

    Higher breast density is associated with a greater chance of developing breast cancer. Additionally, it is well known that higher mammographic breast density is associated with increased difficulty in accurately identifying breast cancer. However, comparatively little is known of the reliability of breast density judgements. All UK breast screeners (primarily radiologists and technologists) annually participate in the PERFORMS self-assessment scheme where they make several judgements about series of challenging recent screening cases of known outcomes. As part of this process, for each case, they provide a radiological assessment of the likelihood of cancer on a confidence scale, alongside an assessment of case density using a three point scale. Analysis of the data from two years of the scheme found that the degree of agreement on case density was significantly greater than no agreement (p < .001). However, only a moderate degree of inter-rater reliability was exhibited (κ = .44) with significant differences between the occupational groups. The reasons for differences between the occupational groups and the relationship between agreement on density rating and case reading ability are explored.

  4. Sociocultural Barriers to Lung Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrant Men.

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Ha, Ara; Taylor, Vicky

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is a commonly occurring cancer among Korean American men. Korean Americans have lower rates of cancer screening participation than other Asian American sub-groups. However, little is known about factors that influence the cancer screening behavior of Korean immigrants. The purpose of this study was to explore facilitators of and barriers to lung cancer screening (i.e., low dose CT of the chest) among Korean immigrant men, using qualitative individual interviews and focus groups. A convenience sample of 24 Korean men who were immigrants, Washington State residents, able to speak Korean, aged 55-79, and eligible for lung cancer screening (based on current guidelines) were recruited from Korean churches and senior centers. Five focus groups (that included between two and five men) and nine individual interviews were conducted. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Facilitators of lung cancer screening included perceptions about positive aspects of the health care system in South Korea, recommendations from others (physicians, family members, and community organizations), existing health problems and respiratory symptoms, interest in health, and the health consequences of aging. Barriers included costs of health care in the US, lack of time, lack of knowledge (about lung cancer and screening), attitudes about prevention, and lack of physician recommendation. This study adds new knowledge to a field where little information is available. It also lays the groundwork for developing culturally relevant lung cancer screening interventions for Korean Americans and the health care providers who serve them. PMID:26846627

  5. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    ... best in your individual situation. WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER? — Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate, a ... most of them do not die from their cancer. Prostate cancer often grows so slowly that many men ...

  7. Temporal Trends in Colorectal Cancer Screening among Asian Americans.

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-06-01

    Asian Americans (AA) are less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), with a widening disparity for some AA subgroups in the early 2000s. Whether these patterns have continued in more recent years is unknown. We examined temporal trends in colorectal cancer screening among AA overall compared with NHWs and by AA subgroup (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, Vietnamese) using data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys. Unadjusted (PR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios for colorectal cancer screening, accounting for sociodemographic, health care, and acculturation factors, were calculated for respondents ages 50 to 75 years (NHW n = 60,125; AA n = 6,630). Between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening prevalence increased from 43.3% to 64.6% in AA (P ≤ 0.001) and from 58.1% to 71.4% in NHW (P ≤ 0.001). Unadjusted colorectal cancer screening was significantly lower among AA compared with NHW in 2003 [PR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.82], 2005 (PR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84), 2007 (PR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), and 2009 (PR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), though disparities narrowed over time. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in colorectal cancer screening between the two groups, except in 2003. In subgroup analyses, between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening significantly increased by 22% in Japanese, 56% in Chinese, 47% in Filipino, and 94% in Koreans. In our study of California residents, colorectal cancer screening disparities between AA and NHW narrowed, but were not eliminated and screening prevalence among AA remains below nationwide goals, including the Healthy People 2020 goal of increasing colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 70.5%. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 995-1000. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197273

  8. Lung Cancer Screening and clinical implications

    S.C. van 't Westeinde (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer is divided into two subgroups: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 10-20% and 75% of lung cancer cases, respectivel

  9. Population based screening for prostate cancer : tumor characteristics

    Cruijsen, Ingrid W

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer is a multi-centre randomized controlled trial to examine whether screening for prostate cancer has an effect on prostate cancer mortality. The total study cohort consists of 268.000 men in eight different European Countries. In the Netherlands the study is being conducted in the region of Rotterdam by the study group of the Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam. Between 1993 and 2000 a total of 42,376 men (...

  10. Metoder til screening for kolorektal cancer kan forbedres

    Rasmussen, Louise; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk; Vilandt, Jesper; Klærke, Michael; Andersen, Jens; Nielsen, Knud T; Khalid, Ali; Laurberg, Søren; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    Screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in various countries worldwide including Denmark. The majority of programmes rely on faecal occult blood testing with subsequent colonoscopy. This approach is challenged by limited compliance, which reduces the efficiency of the...... screening programme. Current research into improve-ments of screening of CRC includes biological markers identified in blood. Combining blood-based biological markers with clinical and demographical parameters have shown promising results, which may improve the present approach to screening....

  11. Effectiveness of ultrasound for breast cancer screening

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound (US) for breast cancer screening, we conducted a retrospective survey of 856 breast cancer patients who were preoperatively examined by mammography (MMG) and US. Their average age was 54.7 years, with a range of 24 to 92 years. MMG revealed positive findings in 771 patients (90.1%), and negative findings in the remaining 85 patients (9.9%). Likewise, US revealed positive findings in 835 patients (97.5%), and negative findings in the remaining 21 patients (2.5%). Accordingly, the proportion of positive finding in US was significantly higher than that in MMG (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of negative findings with MMG was inversely related to age: 5.8% for patients in their 70s, 5.7% for those in their 60s, 8.3% for those in their 50s, 11.1% for those in their 40s, and 26.2% for those in their 30s or younger, because of the higher breast density in younger women (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of positive findings was 99.4% for tumors 2.1 to 3.0 cm in size, 96.3% for those measuring 1.6 to 2.0 cm, 94.3% for those measuring 1.1 to 1.5 cm, and 75.4% for those less than or equal to 1.0 cm (chi-square test, p<0.0001). Among the 85 patients with negative findings by MMG, 70(82.4%) were positive and 15 (17.6%) were negative by US. As findings of calcification by US, high echo spots plus a tumor lesion were observed in 59 patients (71.1%), high echo spots only were noted in 22 patients (26.5%), and high echo spots were not seen in 2 patients (2.4%). In conclusion, parallel use of MMG and US is recommended for breast cancer screening, especially for women in their 50s or younger, to reduce the incidence of misdiagnosis. (author)

  12. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false......-positive result, or live more years as a patient with breast cancer. Systematic reviews of the randomized trials have shown that for every 2000 women invited for mammography screening throughout 10 years, only 1 will have her life prolonged. In addition, 10 healthy women will be overdiagnosed with breast cancer...... whether screening with mammography does more good than harm. Women invited to screening should be informed according to the best available evidence, data should be reported in absolute numbers, and benefits and harms should be reported using the same denominator so that they can be readily compared....

  13. Previous imaging findings of breast cancers that occurred in combined screening negatives

    Han, Boo-Kyung, E-mail: bkhan@skku.ed [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Soo Yeon; Ko, Eun Young; Shin, Jung Hee; Kang, Seok Seon [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate previous imaging findings of breast cancers that occurred in women whose combined screening using both mammography and ultrasonography was negative. Materials and methods: A search of the institutional database identified 65 patients with breast cancers who had comparable previous negative screening mammography and ultrasonography (BI-RADS category 1 or 2) within 2 years. We classified each case as true or false negative. The previous imaging findings and the final outcome were analyzed. Results: Among 65 cases, 42 (65%) were true negatives, 23 (35%) were false negatives. The abnormalities of false negatives were underestimated in 16 (70%) and unrecognized in 7 (30%). The findings were calcifications (n = 8) or a mass (n = 6) on mammography, a mass (n = 5) or a non-mass (n = 3) on ultrasonography and a density on mammography correlated with non-mass on ultrasonography (n = 1). Ductal carcinoma in situ among false and true negatives accounted for 5 (22%) and 7 (17%), respectively. Symptomatic cancers among false and true negatives were 6 (26%) and 13 (31%), respectively. Conclusion: Breast cancers that rarely occurred in combined screening negatives are often retrospectively seen as minimal abnormalities on previous imaging studies.

  14. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  15. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  16.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma;

    2010-01-01

    objective of this study was to evaluate the information breast cancer screening units send to women invited for screening in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all breast cancer screening units in Finland in 2005 and 2008, and the information (eg, invitations, results letters......, leaflets) the units sent to women was collected. Results from 2005 were sent as feedback to the units. Data were analyzed descriptively, and results from the 2 years were compared. RESULTS: Screening units sent personal invitation letters usually providing fixed appointment times. Most units informed about...... participation free of charge and the benefits of detecting breast cancer early. Harm associated with screening was seldom mentioned; no unit mentioned the possibility of false-negative results or overtreatment. CONCLUSION: The screening units provided very variable information, which often was biased toward...

  17. Colon and Rectal Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    ... on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin 2008; 58:130. Whitlock EP, Lin JS, Liles E, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149:638. ...

  18. The association between general practitioners’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s screening participation

    Jensen Line

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s participation in the screening programme. Methods Data on women’s screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. Results The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7% had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34% more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. Conclusion The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

  19. Breast Cancer Screening: What are the Last Changes?

    Selda Secginli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammography, clinical breast-examination (CBE and breast self-examination (BSE are the mainly recommended screening methods for early diagnosis of breast cancer. In recent years, guidelines concerning screening methods were revised. To date, CBE and BSE are not routinely recommended for early diagnosis of breast cancer in western countries. Due to important value in decreasing breast cancer mortality rate, mammography, is the recommended breast cancer screening method; but the changes related with the time of mammography screening is rised to notice. In 2010, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF which is one of the important health authority, guidelines concerning screening mammography were revised. Accordingly, while the mammography that is recommended for women starting aged 40 years by many health authorities, the USPSTF no longer advises routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 and for those aged ≥75.; and biennial screening is advised for those aged 50–74. It is necessary for health professionals working in breast health area to learn the last changes concerning about breast cancer screening methods. Together with CBE and BSE, it is also important to encourage women to participate mammography screening with an understanding of its benefits and risks. In this article, it is aimed to critique new guidelines about breast cancer screening methods. It is also critiqued the potential benefits and risks of mammography that is currently considered the ‘‘gold standard’’ for breast cancer screening for women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 193-200

  20. High prevalence of high grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women screened for anal cancer.

    Hou, June Y; Smotkin, David; Grossberg, Robert; Suhrland, Mark; Levine, Rebecca; Smith, Harriet O; Negassa, Abdissa; McAndrew, Thomas C; Einstein, Mark H

    2012-06-01

    There is no consensus on optimal screening for anal cancer (AC) in HIV+ women. Seven hundred fifteen unique asymptomatic women in a high-prevalence HIV+ community were screened for AC with anal cytology and triage to high-resolution anoscopy after routine screening was implemented in a large urban hospital system. Of these, 75 (10.5%) had an abnormal anal cytology and 29 (38.7%) of those with an abnormality had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Women with poorly controlled HIV were significantly more likely to have high-grade AIN (P = 0.03). Given the high rate of AIN in screened HIV-infected women, routine AC screening in all HIV-infected women should be strongly considered. PMID:22466085

  1. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  2. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  3. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... recommended. The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear...

  4. Screening study on new tumor marker periplakin for lung cancer

    Shuqin Dai; Wei Li; Mian Kong; Yuzhen Zheng; Shuying Chen; Junye Wang; Linquan Zang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use lung cancer targeting binding polypeptide ZS-9 to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer and obtain ZS-9 specific ligand to confirm tumor marker of non small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Artificially synthesize biotin labeled peptide ZS-9, anchored ZS-9 in the enzyme label plate coupled by avidin, used ZS-9 as probe to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer, after screening, obtained bacteriophage clone specifically binding with anchored polypeptide ZS-9. Extracted plasmid of bacteriophage and performed sequencing after amplified by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis on the sequence of ligand binded by lung cancer specific peptide ZS-9 that the ligand was the cytoskeletal protein periplakin on the surface of lung cancer cells, suggesting that periplakin might be a new marker for non-small-cell lung cancer in lung cancer. Conclusion: Use specific lung cancer binding peptide to screen new tumor marker periplakin in lung cancer and further studies on its biologic functions in genesis and development of lung cancer are still needed.

  5. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ladelund, Steen; Bernstein, Inge T

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictors...... of compliance with the screening among women from families with HNPCC....

  6. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer Institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammography was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  7. Breast Cancer Screening in Black and Hispanic Subpopulations

    Sarah J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective was to examine and compare the breast cancer screening adherence rates between black (African American and Afro-Caribbean and Hispanic (foreign born Hispanic and US-born Hispanic subpopulations. Methods: Study data was collected in community settings in New York City between the years of 2011-2012. Participants (N=592 were black and Hispanic individuals who attended a breast cancer screening community outreach program. Breast cancer screening rates as well as demographic data were collected. Results: Results revealed that Afro-Caribbean and foreign-born Hispanics are at a greater risk for non-adherence in breast cancer screening compared with African Americans and US-born Hispanics. Conclusions: The majority of breast screening research and community outreach programs categorize people into broad racial and ethnic groups (e.g., black and Hispanic. The results revealed significant variability within these broader racial/ethnic categories with regard to breast cancer screening. Community outreach programs and future research efforts should target the subpopulations that are at particular risk for breast cancer screening non-adherence.

  8. Lung Cancer Screening: The Radiologist's Perspective

    Prokop, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and accounts for more deaths than breast, prostate, colon, and pancreatic cancers combined. A distinct minority (15\\%) of lung cancers are diagnosed at an early stage; 5-year survival (all lung cancers) approximates 15\\%. Randomized, control

  9. Serum alpha-antitrypsin in patients with lung cancer or abnormal sputum cytology

    Harris, C.C.; Cohen, M.H.; Connor, R.; Primack, A.; Saccomanno, G.; Talamo, R.C.

    1976-10-01

    Scrum alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin Pi types and trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC) were measured in 72 patients with lung cancer and in 196 patients with abnormal sputum cytology but no clinical evidence of lung cancer to determine if a genetic deficiency of alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin (AAT) predisposes to lung cancer. The distributions of Pi types in these two groups of patients and healthy adults are similar. Serum TIC and AAT concentrations are elevated in lung cancer patients. However, patients with abnormal sputum cytology and no clinical lung cancer have normal levels of serum TIC and AAT. A genetic deficiency of AAT probably does not produce a state of increased susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of respiratory carcinogens such as tobacco smoke.

  10. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  11. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest. PMID:21854094

  12. Social support and non-participation in breast cancer screening

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social support may have an impact on screening participation. We studied the association between social support in 2006, defined as frequencies of contacts, instrumental support and emotional support and participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. METHODS: This population......-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who also were in the target group for the first round of organized breast cancer screening in the Central Denmark region in 2008-09. RESULTS: Women with infrequent contacts with friends and family in 2006 were more...... non-participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. Targeted social interventions may, therefore, have an impact on future screening behaviour, which calls for further research....

  13. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  14. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  15. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  16. Occurrence of cancer in a cohort of 183 persons with constitutional chromosome 7 abnormalities

    Hasle, H; Olsen, J H; Hansen, J;

    1998-01-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities in human malignancies frequently involve chromosome 7. The existence of several tumor suppressor genes on the long arm of chromosome 7 has been suggested in both epithelial and hematologic malignancies. From the Danish Cytogenetic Register, we identified 183 persons with...... constitutional abnormalities involving chromosome 7, including 16 patients with Williams syndrome. By linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, we found five persons with cancer, including one thyroid carcinoma, three carcinomas of the digestive tract, and one malignant melanoma. There were no cases of leukemia...

  17. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  18. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...

  19. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. Expression of two viral ...

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities across Ethnicities: An Application to Cervical Cancer Screening

    Walsh, B.; O'Neill, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim is to investigate socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening utilization among and between ethnic groups in the United States. Study Design: Observational study. Methods: Data on 26,338 women aged 21 to 64 years were obtained from the 2007 to 2011 years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Data on cervical cancer screening utilization in the preceding 12 months and 3 years, and a range of sociodemographic characteristics were included. Analyses were...

  1. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    Sonoda, Hideto; Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained fro...

  2. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  3. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  4. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  5. Value of audits in breast cancer screening quality assurance programmes

    Geertse, Tanya D.; Holland, Roland; Timmers, Janine M. H.; Paap, Ellen; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of all audits performed in the past and to assess their value in the quality assurance of the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The audit team of the Dutch Reference Centre for Screening (LRCB) conducts triennial audits of all 17 reading uni

  6. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst;

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality...

  7. A Social Marketing Approach To Increasing Breast Cancer Screening Rates.

    Bryant, Carol A.; Forthofer, Melinda S.; McCormack Brown, Kelli; Alfonso, Moya Lynn; Quinn, Gwen

    2000-01-01

    Used social marketing to identify factors influencing women's breast cancer screening behaviors. Data from focus groups and interviews with diverse women highlighted women's attitudes, knowledge, and barriers regarding screening. Results were used to develop a comprehensive social marketing plan to motivate irregular users of breast cancer…

  8. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  9. Lung cancer screening: history, current perspectives, and future directions

    Sharma, Divakar; Newman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has remained the leading cause of death worldwide among all cancers. The dismal 5-year survival rate of 16% is in part due to the lack of symptoms during early stages and lack of an effective screening test until recently. Chest X-ray and sputum cytology were studied extensively as potential screening tests for lung cancer and were conclusively proven to be of no value. Subsequently, a number of studies compared computed tomography (CT) with the chest X-ray. These studies did identify lung cancer in earlier stages. However, they were not designed to prove a reduction in mortality. Later trials have focused on low-dose CT (LDCT) as a screening tool. The largest US trial – the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) – enrolled approximately 54,000 patients and revealed a 20% reduction in mortality. While a role for LDCT in lung cancer screening has been established, the issues of high false positive rates, radiation risk, and cost effectiveness still need to be addressed. The guidelines of the international organizations that now include LDCT in lung cancer screening are reviewed. Other methods that may improve earlier detection such as positron emission tomography, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, and molecular biomarkers are also discussed. PMID:26528348

  10. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  11. Secondary solid cancer screening following hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Inamoto, Y; Shah, NN; Savani, BN; Shaw, BE; Abraham, AA; Ahmed, IA; Akpek, G; Atsuta, Y; Baker, KS; Basak, GW; Bitan, M; DeFilipp, Z; Gregory, TK; Greinix, HT; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, BK; Hayashi, RJ; Jacobsohn, DA; Kamble, RT; Kasow, KA; Khera, N; Lazarus, HM; Malone, AK; Lupo-Stanghellini, MT; Margossian, SP; Muffly, LS; Norkin, M; Ramanathan, M; Salooja, N; Schoemans, H; Wingard, JR; Wirk, B; Wood, WA; Yong, A; Duncan, CN; Flowers, MED; Majhail, NS

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have a substantial risk of developing secondary solid cancers, particularly beyond 5 years after HCT and without reaching a plateau overtime. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to facilitate implementation of cancer screening appropriate to HCT recipients. The working group reviewed guidelines and methods for cancer screening applicable to the general population and reviewed the incidence and risk factors for secondary cancers after HCT. A consensus approach was used to establish recommendations for individual secondary cancers. The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid. Risks of cancers are increased after HCT compared with the general population in skin, thyroid, oral cavity, esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues. Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GVHD and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment beyond 24 months were well-documented risk factors for many types of secondary cancers. All HCT recipients should be advised of the risks of secondary cancers annually and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition. Here we propose guidelines to help clinicians in providing screening and preventive care for secondary cancers among HCT recipients. PMID:25822223

  12. Screening in breast cancer: a view from the front line

    Mammography screning presents the only real breakthrough in breast cancer in this century. Twenty-five percent of all cancer in women is breast cancer. About 50 percent of these women die from their disease. It has not been possible to reduce breast cancer mortality more than marginally by any mode of treatment. Single view mammography screening can do so, however, at the rate of 30 to 40 percent. Screening has many detractors, especially in the treatment camp. These detractors do not always act in the patients' best interests. Considering the vast resources used up until now in trying to improve on breast cancer treatment, and to little avail, it is time to divert some of these efforts to set up screening programmes wherever possible. Well handled, these are able to reduce suffering and health care costs and save lines

  13. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States. | The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20% lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

  14. Development of computer aided diagnosis for lung cancer CT screening

    The introduction of low dose lung cancer helical CT screening to the clinical site has been the fundamental basis of research on Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) using thoracic CT images. Our purpose is the early detection of lung cancer leading to its early treatment, in order to reduce the mortality of lung cancer. From multi-slice CT, lung cancer screening has been activated more. Since CT screening contains a lot of images compared with the conventional X-ray, research and development on the utilization of computer and network using the new diagnosis support technology is required. Due to the demand from actual clinical site, the research group from The University of Tokushima has started the research and development of CAD using lung cancer CT images. We report the result and the future works. (author)

  15. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  16. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24787379

  17. Imaging screening of breast cancer: primary results in 5307 cases

    Objective: To discuss the values of three screening methods for the detection of early breast cancer, and to analyze the features of the screening cancer. Methods: The first screening of breast cancer were performed in 5307 women who aged from 20 to 76 years with median age of 49 years. The three screening methods included physical examination with ultrasound and mammography, physical examination with mammography and mammography only. The rate of recall, biopsy, cancer detection of three methods were analyzed and the mammographic findings were reviewed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: The recall rates were 4.90% (49/1001), 6.90% (166/2407) and 4. 48% (85/1899) in three methods respectively, the biopsy rates were 1.60% (16/1001), 1.04% (25/2407) and 0.63% (12/1899), the cancer detection rates were 0.50% (5/1001), 0.17% (4/2407) and 0 (0/1899). There were statistical differences among the three groups (χ2=12.99,6.264,8.764, P<0.05). Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography had the highest cancer detection rate, ten breast cancers were detected and 8 were early stage breast cancer. Of seven cancers detected by mammography, only two were found by ultrasound. A cluster of calcifications were found in 2 cases, linear calcifications in 2 cases. One case presented as a asymmetric density, one as a asymmetric density with calcifications, one as multiple nodules with a cluster of calcifications. Two breast cancers presented as asymmetric density were missed on mammography and diagnosed correctly after retrospective review. Conclusion: Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening. The breast cancer can be detected by mammography earlier than other methods. (authors)

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Homeless Women of New York City Shelters.

    Asgary, Ramin; Alcabes, Analena; Feldman, Rebecca; Garland, Victoria; Naderi, Ramesh; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sckell, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Homeless persons have minimal opportunities to complete recommended cancer screening. The rates and predictors of cervical cancer screening are understudied among homeless women in the US. Methods We enrolled 297 homeless women 21-65 years old residing in 6 major New York City shelters from 2012 to 2014. We used a validated national survey to determine the proportion and predictors of cervical cancer screening using cytology (Pap test). Results Mean age was 44.72 (±11.96) years. Majority was Black, heterosexual, single, with high school or lower education; 50.9 % were smokers and 41.7 % were homeless more than a year. Despite a 76.5 % proportion of self-reported Pap test within the past 3 years, 65 % of women assumed their Pap test results were normal or did not get proper follow up after abnormal results. Forty-five-point-nine percent of women did not know about frequency of Pap test or causes of cervical cancer. Lower proportion of up-to-date Pap test was associated with lack of knowledge of recommended Pap test frequency (p homeless women was similar to a national sample. However, the majority of women surveyed were not aware of their results, received limited if any follow up and had significant education gaps about cervical cancer screening. We recommend improved counseling and patient education, patient navigators to close screening loops, and consideration of alternative test-and-treat modalities to improve effective screening. PMID:26649876

  19. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  20. Cervical cancer screening: on the way to a shift from cytology to full molecular screening.

    Dijkstra, M G; Snijders, P J F; Arbyn, M; Rijkaart, D C; Berkhof, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2014-05-01

    Cytology-based nation-wide cervical screening has led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer in western countries. However, the sensitivity of cytology for the detection of high-grade precursor lesions or cervical cancer is limited; therefore, repeated testing is necessary to achieve program effectiveness. Additionally, adenocarcinomas and its precursors are often missed by cytology. Consequently, there is a need for a better screening test. The insight that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the causal agent of cervical cancer and its precursors has led to the development of molecular tests for the detection of hrHPV. Strong evidence now supports the use of hrHPV testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss the arguments in favor of, and concerns on aspects of implementation of hrHPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening, such as the age to start hrHPV-based screening, ways to increase screening attendance, requirements for candidate hrHPV tests to be used, and triage algorithms for screen-positive women. PMID:24445150

  1. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

  2. PSA Screening Has Led to Overtreatment of Many Prostate Cancers

    Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has led to overtreatment of many prostate cancers, including aggressive treatments in older men considered to be at low risk for progression of the disease according to a study published in the July 26, 2010 Archives of Internal Medicine.

  3. Only a minority of sex chromosome abnormalities are detected by a national prenatal screening program for Down syndrome

    Viuff, Mette Hansen; Stochholm, Kirstine; Uldbjerg, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How does a national prenatal screening program for Down syndrome (DS) perform in detecting sex chromosome abnormalities (SCAs)-Turner syndrome (TS), Klinefelter syndrome, 47,XXX and 47,XYY syndromes. SUMMARY ANSWER: The SCA detection rate resulting from DS screening was below 50......% for all four groups of SCAs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The detection rates of SCAs are higher in countries with DS screening. TS is associated with greater nuchal translucency (NT) and lower pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). However, specific detection rates of SCAs using prenatal DS...... of accompanying conditions. There is limited information about pre- and perinatal status that distinguishes SCA embryogenesis from normal fetal development. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A register-based case-control study from the Danish Central Cytogenetic Register (DCCR), cross-linked with the...

  4. The impact of radiologists' expertise on screen results decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial

    To evaluate the impact of radiological expertise on screen result decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial. In the NELSON lung cancer screening trial, the baseline CT result was based on the largest lung nodule's volume. The protocol allowed radiologists to manually adjust screen results in cases of high suspicion of benign or malignant nodule nature. Participants whose baseline CT result was based on a solid or part-solid nodule were included in this study. Adjustments by radiologists at baseline were evaluated. Histology was the reference for diagnosis or to confirm benignity and stability on subsequent CT examinations. A total of 3,318 participants (2,796 male, median age 58.0 years) were included. In 195 participants (5.9 %) the initial baseline screen result was adjusted by the radiologist. Adjustment was downwards from positive or indeterminate to negative in two and 119 participants, respectively, and from positive to indeterminate in 65 participants. None of these nodules turned out to be malignant. In 9/195 participants (4.6 %) the screen result was adjusted upwards from negative to indeterminate or indeterminate to positive; two nodules were malignant. In one in 20 cases of baseline lung cancer screening, nodules were reclassified by the radiologist, leading to a reduction of false-positive screen results. (orig.)

  5. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  6. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities. PMID:23331785

  7. Transillumination in breast cancer detection: screening failures and potential

    This prospective study of 1265 women referred to a multimodality breast diagnostic center compares the sensitivity for breast cancer detection of state-of-the-art transillumination light scanning and film-screen mammography. Of 33 biopsy-proven cancers, transillumination light scanning detected 58%, while mammography detected 97% of the cancers. Light scanning did detect 55% of the nonpalpable breast cancers, and 30% of those tumors smaller than 1 cm. Detection of breast cancer by light scanning was affected by breast size, but not architecture, and was directly related to tumor size. Although transillumination light scanning can detect some small curable breast cancers (smaller than 1 cm), it does not do so at a sensitivity adequate for screening

  8. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  9. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  10. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national...... registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: The register-based studies on cancer screening in Denmark could be grouped into research concerning effectiveness, in terms of mortality and incidence reduction, short-term indicators, e.g. in relation to recommended quality assurance indicators, and side effects, e.g. as false...

  11. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  12. Chemical genetics and drug screening in Drosophila cancer models

    Mara Gladstone; Tin Tin Su

    2011-01-01

    Drug candidates often fail in preclinical and clinical testing because of reasons of efficacy and/or safety.It would be time- and cost-efficient to have screening models that reduce the rate of such false positive candidates that appear promising at first but fail later.In this regard,it would be particularly useful to have a rapid and inexpensive whole animal model that can pre-select hits from high-throughput screens but before testing in costly rodent assays.Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a potential whole animal model for drug screening.Of particular interest have been drugs that must act in the context of multi-cellularity such as those for neurological disorders and cancer.A recent review provides a comprehensive summary of drug screening in Drosophila,but with an emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders.Here,we review Drosophila screens in the literature aimed at cancer therapeutics.

  13. Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening

    Cristina Modak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Casein kinase I is a group of ubiquitous Serine/Threonine kinases that have been implicated in both normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions including Alzheimer’ s disease and cancer. Recent findings in colon and pancreatic cancer have brought tremendous attention to these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of digestive cancers. In this review, we summarize up to date what is known about this family of kinases and their involvement in carcinogenesis and other pathological conditions. Our emphasis is on their implications in digestive cancers and their potential for cancer screening and therapy.

  14. December 2013 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung cancer screening

    Manoj Mathew

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. During this month’s pulmonary journal club we reviewed several of the sentinel studies looking at lung cancer screening. Since the National Lung Screening Research Team (NLSRT (1 published the impressive results showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality, the debate on when and if to initiate a national lung cancer screening program has been at the forefront of debate. The American Lung Association and American Cancer Society have issued statements that are not guidelines, but did offer insight on the price we pay for earlier lung cancer detection and reduction in mortality…which is the increased rates of false positives detected and increased rates of biopsies. The US Task Force on Lung Cancer Screening has yet to decide on a screening program and have yielded a statement that neither supports nor refutes the current level of evidence. Prior to the NLSRT study there were others that showed conflicting results on …

  15. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker

    Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Bicheng; Doll, Donald; Shen, Kui; Kloecker, Goetz; Freter, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential ...

  16. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins of....... CONCLUSION: CL-L1, M-ficolin and MAp44 in combination discriminate between CRC and patients without cancer. The markers did not have sufficient discriminatory value for CRC detection, but may prove useful for screening when combined with other markers....

  17. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  18. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    Fedele, S.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals ex...

  19. Joint breast and colorectal cancer screenings in medically underserved women

    Davis, Terry C; Arnold, Connie L; Wolf, Michael S; Bennett, Charles L; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast and colon cancer screening in rural community clinics is underused. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions designed to promote simultaneous screening for breast and colon cancer in community clinics. Methods A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted during May 2008-August 2011 in 8 federally qualifed health clinics in predominately rural Louisiana. Baseline screening rates reported by the clinics was <10% for breast cancer (using mammography) and 1%-2% for colon cancer (using the fecal occult blood test [FOBT]). 744 women aged 50 years or older who were eligible for routine mammography and an FOBT were recruited. The combined screening efforts included: enhanced care; health literacy-informed education (education alone), or health literacy-informed education with nurse support (nurse support). Results Postintervention screening rates for completing both tests were 28.1% with enhanced care, 23.7% with education alone, and 38.7% with nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, and literacy, patients who received nurse support were 2.21 times more likely to complete both screenings than were those who received the education alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.38; P = .023). The incremental cost per additional woman completing both screenings was $3,987 for education with nurse support over education alone, and $5,987 over enhanced care. Limitations There were differences between the 3 arms in sociodemographic characteristics, literacy, and previous screening history. Not all variables that were significantly different between arms were adjusted for, therefore adjustments for key variables (age, race, literacy) were made in statistical analyses. Other limitations related generalizability of results. Conclusions Although joint breast and colon cancer screening rates were increased substantially over existing baseline rates in all 3 arms, the completion rate for both tests was

  20. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  1. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  2. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  3. Screening for ovarian cancer in women with varying levels of risk, using annual tests, results in high recall for repeat screening tests

    Nobbenhuis Marielle AE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed ovarian cancer screening outcomes in women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer divided into a low-, moderate- or high-risk group for development of ovarian cancer. Methods 545 women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer referred to the Ovarian Screening Service at the Royal Marsden Hospital, London from January 2000- December 2008 were included. They were stratified into three risk-groups according to family history (high-, moderate- and low-risk of developing ovarian cancer and offered annual serum CA 125 and transvaginal ultrasound screening. The high-risk group was offered genetic testing. Results The median age at entry was 44 years. The number of women in the high, moderate and low-risk groups was 397, 112, and 36, respectively. During 2266 women years of follow-up two ovarian cancer cases were found: one advanced stage at her fourth annual screening, and one early stage at prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO. Prophylactic BSO was performed in 138 women (25.3%. Forty-three women had an abnormal CA125, resulting in 59 repeat tests. The re-call rate in the high, moderate and low-risk group was 14%, 3% and 6%. Equivocal transvaginal ultrasound results required 108 recalls in 71 women. The re-call rate in the high, moderate, and low-risk group was 25%, 6% and 17%. Conclusion No early stage ovarian cancer was picked up at annual screening and a significant number of re-calls for repeat screening tests was identified.

  4. Oral Cancer Screening in Dental Set Up

    Saini, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in the United States and many other parts of the world. One in 4 deaths in the United States is due to cancer. Oral cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Oral cancer can be divided into three clinic-pathological categories: carcinoma of the lip vermillion, carcinoma of the oral cavity proper, and carcinoma of the oropharynx. The chief predisposing factors are tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and persistent viral infections such as HPV ...

  5. Lung Nodule and Cancer Detection in CT Screening

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to the diagnosis of lung cancer in CT scans is the detection and interpretation of lung nodules. As the capabilities of CT scanners have advanced, higher levels of spatial resolution reveal tinier lung abnormalities. While not all detected lung nodules should be reported, radiologists strive to detect all nodules that might have relevance to cancer diagnosis. Although medium to large lung nodules are detected consistently, inter-reader agreement and reader sensitivity for lung nod...

  6. Psychosocial consequences of cancer screening - development and validation of a questionnaire

    Brodersen, John; Thorsen, H; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    COS were tested on participants in a lung cancer screening program. The results were thematically analyzed to identify the key consequences of abnormal and false-positive screening results. Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used to analyze data. Dimensionality, objectivity, and...... reliability were established by item analysis, examining the fit between item responses and Rasch models. Results: Eight themes specifically relevant for participants in lung cancer screening results were identified: “self-blame,” “focus on symptoms,” “stigmatization,” “introvert,” “harm of smoking...... experience in lung cancer screening. Part I: “anxiety,” “behavior,” “dejection,” “sleep,” “selfblame,” “focus on airway symptoms,” “stigmatization,” “introvert,” and “harm of smoking.” Part II: “calm/relax,” “social network,” “existential values,” “impulsivity,” “empathy,” and “regretful of still smoking...

  7. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  8. The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial: Background, Goals, Organization, Operations, Results.

    Gohagan, John K; Prorok, Philip C; Greenwald, Peter; Kramer, Barnett S

    2015-01-01

    The randomized PLCO trial was designed to answer four primary questions: does screening for these cancers using often promoted tests reduce cancer-specific mortality? Nearly 155,000 men and women were allocated to screening or usual care arms in a 1:1 ratio under a centralized, secure randomization algorithm at ten competitively selected screening centers nationwide. Screened men received PSA blood tests and digital rectal examinations. Screened women received CA125 blood tests and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Both men and women in the screened arm received anterolateral view chest x-ray and 60 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy. Blood specimens were collected at each screening visit and buccal cell DNA was collected once from the usual care participants. Histology slides were collected for cancer cases. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire covering health and risk factors and a dietary questionnaire. Data collected on standardized machine-readable forms were scanned remotely at screening and laboratory sites utilizing PLCO dedicated, NCI provided and configured computer systems for quality checks, archiving, and analysis. Comprehensive quality assurance was implemented over recruitment, consenting, randomization, screening, data management, records keeping, patient-specific screening results reporting, follow-up, and data analysis. Performance and data quality were monitored on-site and remotely by data edits, site visits, and random record audits. Specially trained and certified professionals performed screening procedures and medical record abstracting. An independent committee of medical specialists reviewed and certified case-specific cause of death. Scientific leadership was provided by NCI Project Officers, PLCO principal investigators, external consultants, and an independent data and safety monitoring board. PMID:26238115

  9. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease | Division of Cancer Prevention

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care. |

  10. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  11. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012. PMID:26608273

  12. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  13. Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America

    Kathleen M Decker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CRC screening, and promising methods at the individual, provider, and system levels to reduce these disparities. Overall, to achieve high CRC participation rates and reduce the burden of CRC in the population, a multi-faceted approach that uses strategies at all levels to reduce CRC screening disparities is urgently required.

  14. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea. PMID:25975449

  15. Panel Reviews Benefits and Harms of CT Scans for Lung Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    A panel of experts has reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) and concluded that the technology may benefit some individuals at high risk for lung cancer. But the panel cautioned that many questions remain about the potential harms of screening and how to translate screening into clinical practice. |

  16. Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer

    Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

  17. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review.

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jasmine

    2015-06-01

    Similar to other Middle Eastern countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Qatar with increasing incidence and mortality rates. High mortality rates of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern countries are primarily due to delayed diagnosis of the disease. Thus screening and early detection of breast cancer are important in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. With the aim of updating knowledge on existing interventions and developing effective intervention programs to promote breast cancer screening in Arabic populations in Qatar, this review addresses the question: What interventions are effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge and breast cancer screening rates in Arabic populations in Arabic countries and North America? Systematic literature review was performed to answer the proposed question. As the result of the search, six research studies were identified and appraised. From the findings, we infer several insights: (a) a language-appropriate and culturally sensitive educational program is the most important component of a successful intervention regardless of the study setting, (b) multi-level interventions that target both women, men, health care professionals, and/or larger health care system are more likely to be successful than single educational interventions or public awareness campaigns, and (c) more vigorous, personal and cognitive interventions that address psychosocial factors are likely to be more effective than less personal and informative interventions. This review has important implications for health care providers, intervention planners, and researchers. PMID:23975014

  18. How do people interpret information about colorectal cancer screening: observations from a think-aloud study

    Smith, S. G.; Vart, G.; Wolf, M. S.; Obichere, A; Baker, H. J.; Raine, R; Wardle, J.; Von Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme biennially invites individuals aged 60-74 to participate in screening. The booklet, 'Bowel Cancer Screening: The Facts' accompanies this invitation. Its primary aim is to inform potential participants about the aims, advantages and disadvantages of colorectal cancer screening.

  19. Patient Test Preference for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Screening Uptake in an Insured Urban Minority Population.

    Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-06-01

    The study examines the role of patient colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test preference and CRC screening uptake in an insured, urban minority population. Study subjects were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote CRC screening. The interventions were educational, with an emphasis on colonoscopy screening. Subjects were 50+ years of age, fully insured for CRC screening, and out of compliance with current CRC screening recommendations. This paper includes those who answered a question about CRC screening test preference and indicated that they intended to receive such a test in the coming year (n = 453). CRC screening uptake was ascertained from medical claims data. Regardless of test preference, few received CRC screening (22.3 %). Those preferring the home stool test (HST) were less likely to get tested than those preferring a colonoscopy (16.6 vs 29.9 %, χ(2) = 9.9, p = .002). Preference for HST was more strongly associated with beliefs about colonoscopy than with knowledge about colonoscopy. In the context of an RCT emphasizing colonoscopy screening for CRC, patients expressing a preference for HST are at heightened risk of remaining unscreened. Colonoscopy should be recommended as the preferred CRC test, but HSTs should be accessible and encouraged for patients who are averse to colonoscopy.Clinical trials.gov: Identifier: NCT02392143. PMID:26585609

  20. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Michl, Patrick, E-mail: michlp@med.uni-marburg.de; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments.

  1. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments

  2. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... screening finding and all women with a false positive or a benign biopsy finding were included (N=1942). Data were collected with postal questionnaires 1-month before screening invitation and 2 and 12 months after screening. Response rate was 63% at baseline; 86, and 80% of the baseline participants...... responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women with...

  3. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  4. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059

  5. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    Melany Cueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428 were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305 wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162, 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59, 31% having a colon screening (76, and 44% increasing physical activity (110. Conclusions. Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...

  7. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K;

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed....

  8. Cervical cancer screening and adherence to follow-up among Hispanic women study protocol: a randomized controlled trial to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women

    Duggan Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the US, Hispanic women have a higher incidence of, and mortality from, cervical cancer than non-Hispanic white women. The reason for this disparity may be attributable to both low rates of screening and poor adherence to recommended diagnostic follow-up after an abnormal Pap test. The 'Cervical Cancer Screening and Adherence to Follow-up Among Hispanic Women' study is a collaboration between a research institution and community partners made up of members from community based organizations, the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic and the Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program of the Yakima District . The study will assess the efficacy of two culturally-appropriate, tailored educational programs designed to increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women, based in the Yakima Valley, Washington, US. Methods/design A parallel randomized-controlled trial of 600 Hispanic women aged 21–64, who are non-compliant with Papanicolau (Pap test screening guidelines. Participants will be randomized using block randomization to (1 a control arm (usual care; (2 a low-intensity information program, consisting of a Spanish-language video that educates women on the importance of cervical cancer screening; or (3 a high-intensity program consisting of the video plus a ‘promotora’ or lay-community health educator-led, home based intervention to encourage cervical cancer screening. Participants who attend cervical cancer screening, and receive a diagnosis of an abnormal Pap test will be assigned to a patient navigator who will provide support and information to promote adherence to follow-up tests, and any necessary surgery or treatment. Primary endpoint: Participants will be tracked via medical record review at community-based clinics, to identify women who have had a Pap test within 7 months of baseline assessment. Medical record reviewers will be blinded to randomization arm. Secondary endpoint: An evaluation of the patient

  9. Mammography - importance, possibilities, current screening situation of the breast cancer and further expansion possibilities

    Breast cancer still remains the most frequent cancer in women population. Incidence of breast cancer is increasing, but mortality is decreasing. The most important for decreasing of breast cancer mortality is early diagnostic, especially screening. Screening is a form of secondary prevention. Although many screening studies have shown that mammography decreases of the breast cancer death, there are still many controversies. The published recommendations for the breast screening are sometimes very different. (author)

  10. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:133-151. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26663383

  11. The Effect of National Cancer Screening on Disparity Reduction in Cancer Stage at Diagnosis by Income Level

    Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Lairson, David R.; Kim, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Early detection of cancer is an effective and efficient cancer management strategy. In South Korea, the National Health Insurance administers the National Cancer Screening Program to its beneficiaries. We examined the impact of the National Cancer Screening Program on socioeconomic disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods Cancer patients registered in the Korean Central Cancer Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 with a diagnosis of gastric cancer (n = 22,470...

  12. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV. METHODS: HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators. RESULTS: 1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  13. Equity and practice issues in colorectal cancer screening

    Buchman, Sandy; Rozmovits, Linda; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate overall colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates, patterns in the use of types of CRC screening, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; and to gain insight into physicians’ perceptions about and use of fecal occult blood testing [FOBT] and colonoscopy for patients at average risk of CRC. Design Mixed-methods study using cross-sectional administrative data on patient sociodemographic characteristics and semistructured telephone interviews with physicians. Setting Toronto, Ont. Participants Patients aged 50 to 74 years and physicians in family health teams in the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Main outcome measures Rates of CRC screening by type; sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; thematic analysis using constant comparative method for semistructured interviews. Main findings Ontario administrative data on CRC screening showed lower overall screening rates among those who were younger, male patients, those who had lower income, and recent immigrants. Colonoscopy rates were especially low among those with lower income and those who were recent immigrants. Semistructured interviews revealed that physician opinions about CRC screening for average-risk patients were divided: one group of physicians accepted the evidence and recommendations for FOBT and the other group of physicians strongly supported colonoscopy for these patients, believing that the FOBT was an inferior screening method. Physicians identified specialist recommendations and patient expectations as factors that influenced their decisions regarding CRC screening type. Conclusion There was considerable variation in CRC screening by sociodemographic characteristics. A key theme that emerged from the interviews was that physicians were divided in their preference for FOBT or colonoscopy; factors that influenced physician preference included the health care system, recommendations by other

  14. Cancer Screening Among Peer-Led Community Wellness Center Enrollees.

    Rockson, Lois E; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Pratt, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests health disparities exist in services for individuals with mental disorders served by the public mental health system. The current study assessed the use of cancer screening services among New Jersey residents in publicly funded mental health programs. Self-administered written surveys were completed by 148 adults using peer-led community wellness centers throughout New Jersey. Information was collected on (a) the use of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening services; (b) barriers to receiving preventive services; and (c) perceptions of overall health. More males than females participated in the study, with equal participation among White and African American individuals. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most common self-reported psychiatric condition. Colorectal cancers had lower screening levels compared to those of the general population. Physicians not advising patients to complete tests emerged as a main cause of low screening rates. Wellness initiatives designed by peers collaborating with health care providers may improve adherence to preventive cancer screening measures. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(3), 36-40.]. PMID:26935189

  15. Optoelectronic image processing for cervical cancer screening

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1994-05-01

    Automation of the Pap-smear cervical screening method is highly desirable as it relieves tedium for the human operators, reduces cost and should increase accuracy and provide repeatability. We present here the design for a high-throughput optoelectronic system which forms the first stage of a two stage system to automate pap-smear screening. We use a mathematical morphological technique called the hit-or-miss transform to identify the suspicious areas on a pap-smear slide. This algorithm is implemented using a VanderLugt architecture and a time-sequential ANDing smart pixel array.

  16. Preferences and acceptance of colorectal cancer screening in Thailand.

    Saengow, Udomsak; Chongsuwiwatvong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Birch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now common in Thailand with an increase in incidence over time. Health authorities are planning to implement a nationwide CRC screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as a primary screening tool. This study aimed to estimate preferences and acceptance of FIT and colonoscopy, explore factors influencing the acceptance, and investigate reasons behind choosing and rejecting to screen before the program was implemented. Patients aged 50-69, visiting the primary care unit during the study period, were invited to join this study. Patients with a history of cancer or past CRC screening were excluded. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Subjects were informed about CRC and the screening tests: FIT and colonoscopy. Then, they were asked for their opinions regarding the screening. The total number of subjects was 437 (86.7% response rate). Fifty-eight percent were females. The median age was 58 years. FIT was accepted by 74.1% of subjects compared to 55.6% for colonoscopy. The acceptance of colonoscopy was associated with perceived susceptibility to CRC and family history of cancer. No symptoms, unwilling to screen, healthy, too busy and anxious about diagnosis were reasons for refusing to screen. FIT was preferred for its simplicity and non-invasiveness compared with colonoscopy. Those rejecting FIT expressed a strong preference for colonoscopy. Subjects chose colonoscopy because of its accuracy; it was refused for the process and complications. If the screening program is implemented for the entire target population in Thailand, we estimate that 106,546 will have a positive FIT, between 8,618 and 12,749 identified with advanced adenoma and between 2,645 and 3,912 identified with CRC in the first round of the program. PMID:25824749

  17. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  18. Decision aid for women considering breast cancer screening

    Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... balanced information for women invited to breast cancer screening is demanding and requires careful planning. Professionals and service providers need to be engaged in the HTA process to ensure proper dissemination and implementation of the information. End user participation is essential in the...

  19. Breast cancer screening; cost-effective in practice?

    The main aim of national breast screening is a reduction in breast cancer mortality. The data on the reduction in breast cancer mortality from three (of the five) Swedish trials in particular gave rise to the expectation that the Dutch programme of 2-yearly screening for women aged 50-70 would produce a 16% reduction in the total population. In all likelihood, many of the years of life gained as a result of screening are enjoyed in good health. According to its critics the actual benefit that can be achieved from the national breast cancer screening programmes is overstated. Considerable benefits have recently been demonstrated in England and Wales. However, the fall was so considerable in such a relatively short space of time that screening (started in 1987) was thought to only have played a small part. As far as the Dutch screening programme is concerned it is still too early to reach any conclusions about a possible reduction in mortality. The first short-term results of the screening are favourable and as good as (or better than) expectations. In Swedish regions where mammographic screening was introduced, a 19% reduction in breast cancer mortality can be estimated at population level, and recently a 20% reduction was presented in the UK. In countries where women are expected to make appointments for screening themselves, the attendance figures are significantly lower and the quality of the process as a whole is sometimes poorer. The benefits of breast cancer screening need to be carefully balanced against the burden to women and to the health care system. Mass breast screening requires many resources and will be a costly service. Cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme can be estimated using a computer model. Published cost-effectiveness ratios may differ tremendously, but are often the result of different types of calculation, time periods considered, including or excluding downstream cost. The approach of simulation and estimation is here

  20. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  1. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV infections. Expression of two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, in epithelial stem cells is required to initiate and maintain cervical carcinogenesis and results in significant overexpression of the cellular p16INK4a protein. Since this protein is not expressed in normal cervical squamous epithelia, screening for p16INK4a over-expressing cells allows to specifically identify dysplastic lesions, and significantly reduces the inter-observer disagreement of the conventional cytological or histological tests. Progression of preneoplastic lesions to invasive cancers is associated with extensive recombination of viral and cellular genomes which can be monitored by detection of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT assay derived from integrated viral genome copies. Detection of integrated type oncogene transcripts points to far advanced dysplasia or invasive cancers and thus represents a progression marker for cervical lesions. These new assays discussed here will help to improve current limitations in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and therapy control.

  2. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  3. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  5. Colorectal cancer screening:The role of CT colonography

    Andrea; Laghi; Franco; Iafrate; Marco; Rengo; Cesare; Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography(CTC) in colorectal cancer(CRC) screening has two roles:one present and the other potential.The present role is,without any further discussion,the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy.The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test,sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.However,despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC scre...

  6. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  7. Risk of cancer radioinduced by mammographic screening

    This work aims to estimate the risk benefit of mammography, in terms of the number of lives saved/number of lives lost, in the female population of the State of Goias, Brazil, depending on the age range indicated for screening and the type of technology available

  8. Are Religious Women More Likely to Have Breast Cancer Screening?

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A.

    2002-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate whether women who frequently attend religious services are more likely to have breast cancer screening—mammography and clinical breast examinations—than other women. Multivariate logistic regression models show that white women who attended religious services frequently had more than twice the odds of breast cancer screening than white women who attended less frequently (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.12, 6.06). The behavior of ...

  9. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer: Registration, Screening and Prognostic Biomarker Analysis

    Barrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of the research was to investigate the benefits of a hereditary colorectal cancer registry in the management of patients and families with Lynch syndrome. In study one, a systematic review was performed to quantify the impact of registration and screening on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, with comparison between familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (LS). In study two, a regional Lynch syndrome registry was utilised to evaluate the uptake ...

  10. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Ko Celine M; Dong Adam

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 t...

  11. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emph...

  12. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. Genetic Counseling for Patients Considering Screening and Diagnosis for Chromosomal Abnormalities.

    Chard, Renée L; Norton, Mary E

    2016-06-01

    With the introduction of cell-free DNA screening for fetal aneuploidy and chromosomal microarray for prenatal diagnostic testing, options for pregnant women have become increasingly complex. Discussions regarding options for prenatal testing for aneuploidy should occur prior to any testing and should include pertinent risks and benefits of each alternative test. There is no single screening or diagnostic test option that is the right choice for all patients; patient decisions should be based on each individual woman's values and preferences after a discussion of all options. PMID:27235908

  14. SCREENING FOR A 21-CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITY IN PREIMPLANTED EMBRYOS OF ELDERLY WOMEN

    Fang-yin Meng; Xiao-hong Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ Increasing maternal age is the only etiological factor unequivocally linked to Down's syndrome in humans. The occurrence rate of newborns with Down's syndrome is about 1/220 in women over 35 years old. However, the occurrence rate in embryos fertilized in vitro, of the elder woman is unclear. Using FISH we screened the number of chromosome 21 in preimplanted embryos of 5 elderly women (average age, 38.4 years) to study the feasibility and necessity of screening trisomy 21 in embryos in patients over 35 years old at the in vitro fertilization (IVF) center.

  15. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    Z Heidari; H. R Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb; N. Sakhavar

    2008-01-01

    "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were...

  16. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  17. Application of PET and PET/CT imaging for cancer screening

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and PET/CT for cancer screening in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: The subjects consisted of 3631 physical check up examinees (1947 men, 1684 women; mean age ±SD, 52.1±8.2 y) with non-specific medical histories. Whole-body FDG PET (or PET/CT), ultrasound and tumor markers were performed on all patients. Focal hypermetabolic areas with intensities equal to or exceeding the level of FDG uptake in the brain and bladder were considered abnormal and interpreted as neoplasia. Follow-up periods were longer than one year. Results: Among the 3631 FDG PET (including 1687 PET/CT), ultrasound and tumor markers examinations, malignant tumors were discovered in 47 examinees (1.29%). PET findings were true-positive in 38 of the 47 cancers (80.9%). In addition, 32 of the 47 cancers were performed with the PET-CT scan. PET detected cancer lesions in 28 of the 32 examinees. However, the CT detected cancer lesions in only 15 of 32 examinees. Conclusion: The sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of a wide variety of cancers is high. Most cancer can be detected with FDG PET in a resectable stage. CT of the PET/CT for localization and characteristics of the lesion shows an increased specificity of the PET scan. Using ultrasound and tumor markers may complement the PET scan in cancer screening for hepatic and urologic neoplasms. (authors)

  18. Morphological feature detection for cervical cancer screening

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Duke, Heather J.; Stewart, Rosemary J.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1995-03-01

    An optoelectronic system has been designed to pre-screen pap-smear slides and detect the suspicious cells using the hit/miss transform. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 pap-smear images detected 95% of the suspicious region as suspect while tagging just 5% of the normal regions as suspect. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform using a 4f Vander-Lugt correlator architecture is proposed and demonstrated with experimental results.

  19. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping. PMID:26493173

  20. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  1. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  3. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:20)

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  4. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:60)

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  5. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Lopamudra Das; Soumen Das; Jyotirmoy Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cy...

  6. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    New results from the NCI-sponsored PLCO Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  7. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identif

  8. Screening for Breast Cancer: #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test ... cancer survivor, you may not have gotten your screening mammogram. What is your message to other women ...

  9. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  10. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    ... Using tobacco , especially smoking cigarettes. Having a family history of bladder cancer. Having certain changes in the genes . Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, ...

  11. An update in breast cancer screening and management.

    Warrier, Sanjay; Tapia, Grace; Goltsman, David; Beith, Jane

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the main controversies in a number of key areas of breast cancer management. Relevant studies that have contributed to guide the treatment of this heterogeneous disease in the field of breast screening, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted. Mammography and ultrasound are the main methods of breast screening. MRI and tomosynthesis are emerging as new screening tools for a selected group of breast cancer patients. From a surgical perspective, oncoplastic techniques and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are improving cosmetic results in breast-conserving surgery. For high-risk patients, controversies still remain regarding prophylactic mastectomies. Finally, the appropriate management of the axilla continues evolving with the increasing role of radiotherapy as an alternative treatment to axillary dissection. PMID:26689336

  12. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  13. CT Lung Cancer Screening Program Development: Part 2.

    Yates, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Radiology administrators must use innovative strategies around clinical collaboration and marketing to ensure that patients access the service in sufficient numbers. Radiology Associates of South Florida in collaboration with Baptist Health South Florida have developed a successful lung cancer screening program. The biggest factors in their success have been the affordability of their service and the quality of the program. Like mammography, lung cancer screening programs serve as an entry point to other services that generate revenue for the hospital. Patients may require further evaluation in the form of more imaging or surgical services for biopsy. Part 1 provided background and laid out fundamentals for starting a program. Part 2 focuses on building patient volume, marketing, and issues related to patient management after the screen is performed. PMID:26314180

  14. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  15. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  16. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  17. Population screening for breast cancer in the European Community

    Although our understanding of the causes of breast cancer is increasing, it is as yet not possible to recommend measures to decrease its occurrence. Therefore we have to resort to a substitute called secondary prevention which aims at preventing the occurrence of metastatic breast cancer and death by detecting the primary cancer in the breast at an earlier point in its natural history. The question whether this can be achieved can only be answered by scientific study. Such studies are being called: population-based screening programmes. Screening requires one or more tests by which one can partition a population in those who probably have a cancer and those who have not. Since an early breast cancer does not produce symptoms like pain the test has to be some sort of objective assessment. In the field of detecting breast cancer we have been greatly helped by the development of a radiologic technique called mammography. Mammography basically is not an easy technique since there is little contrast between structures in the breast compared with e.g. bone. The quality of mammograms, therefore, was not very high in the pioneering era during the nineteen-fifties and -sixties. This presentation discusses a move of a few doctors in New York city: a radiologist, a surgeon and epidemiologist, to design a scientific study which could answer the question whether mammography, added to a standard clinical examination of the breast would decrease mortality from breast cancer

  18. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  19. Factors Associated with Parental Perception of Child Vulnerability 12 months After Abnormal Newborn Screening Results

    Tluczek, Audrey; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with elevated parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) 12 months after newborn screening (NBS) of 136 children: healthy, normal results (H, n=37), cystic fibrosis carriers (CF-C, n=40), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n=36), and cystic fibrosis (CF, n=23). Controlling for infant and parent characteristics, mixed logit structural equation modeling showed direct paths to PPCV included parent female sex, CF diagnosis, and high documented illness frequenc...

  20. Health literacy and meeting breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines among Asians and whites in California

    Sentell, Tetine; Braun, Kathryn L; Davis, James; Davis, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Empirical evidence regarding cancer screening and health literacy is mixed. Cancer is the leading cause of death in Asian Americans, yet screening rates are notably low. Using a population-based sample, we determined if health literacy: (1) was associated with breast and cervical cancer screening, and (2) helped to explain Asian cancer screening disparities. Methods We analyzed the 2007 California Health Interview Survey for Asian (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, o...

  1. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2014-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C ...

  2. Melanoma skin cancer screenings. A how-to approach.

    Dobes, W L

    1995-01-15

    Development of a workshop on skin cancer screening should begin with physicians who are able to best diagnose and treat skin cancer, that is, dermatologists who are board certified or board eligible. Local societies should then be involved as well as organizations that can offer ancillary help such as screening, clinics' location and assisting with personnel financial aid, and exposure to the public, such as advertising. Support groups then become essential to a good screening. The help of the American Cancer Society, local churches, clubs, and others is beneficial. The organization should have a central organizing body that sets the dates and locations for the clinics and that helps get supplies, such as tables, screens for privacy, and literature. Volunteers can help with sign-in and sign-out sheets for the screening and can act as traffic directors and assist the physicians. Media exposure then becomes important. A TV or radio show can get the public's attention, for example, by releasing the latest data on skin cancer or by presenting a solar meter project showing the local risk of ultraviolet radiation. The workshop itself should begin on time. Additionally, a cutoff time is also needed. In the final stage, the forms should be processed and a follow-up evaluation should be done on the number of patients seen, precancerous and cancerous lesions found, and the potential for future functions. Popular ancillary aids are good literature on the subjects discussed, and samples of sunscreens (SPF 15 or better) that are donated by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:7804998

  3. Contrary to Evidence, Some Doctors Recommend Ovarian Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    One in three doctors believes that screening for ovarian cancer is effective, according to a recently published survey of practicing physicians, even though substantial evidence to the contrary exists. |

  4. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial was a population-based randomized trial to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in more than 150,000 men and women aged 55 to 74.  The PLCO Biorepository, accessible by the Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) web portal, contains about 2.7 million biologic specimens from intervention participants during their six trial screening years, and buccal cell specimens from control participants. The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) component has biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before diagnosis of disease.  | A repository of data from a large randomized trial on the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in men and women aged 55 to 74.

  5. Abnormal expression of Pygopus 2 correlates with a malignant phenotype in human lung cancer

    Pygopus 2 (Pygo2) is a Pygo family member and an important component of the Wnt signaling transcriptional complex. Despite this data, no clinical studies investigating Pygo2 expression in lung cancer have yet been reported. In the present study, the expression patterns of Pygo2 were evaluated by immunochemistry in 168 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically silence Pygo2, and investigated its effect on cell growth by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry analysis in human lung cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis showed low expression of Pygo2 in normal lung tissues and increased nuclear expression in lung cancer tissues, either with or without perinuclear expression. Abnormal Pygo2 expression was associated with poor differentiation and a high Tumor (T), Node (N) and Metastases (M) stage in NSCLC patients, and correlated with poor prognosis. Using MTT assay we observed that Pygo2 downregulation inhibited cell proliferation; in addition, flow cytometry analysis showed that Pygo2 knockdown induced apoptosis and increased numbers of G1-phase cells and a reduction in S-phase cells. We therefore conclude that abnormal Pygo2 protein expression may be a marker for advanced NSCLC. Furthermore, Pygo2 knockdown suppresses cell growth

  6. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report.

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D; Wisbuba, Ignacio I; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L

    2012-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer deaths fell by 20%. The Task Force's Position Statement outlined a number of the major opportunities to further improve the CT screening in lung cancer approach, based on experience with cancer screening from other organ sites.The IASLC CT Screening Workshop 2011 further developed these discussions, which are summarized in this report. The recommendation from the workshop, and supported by the IASLC Board of Directors, was to set up the Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee (IASLC-SSAC). The Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee is currently engaging professional societies and organizations who are stakeholders in lung cancer CT screening implementation across the globe, to focus on delivering guidelines and recommendations in six specific areas: (i) identification of high-risk individuals for lung cancer CT screening programs; (ii) develop radiological guidelines for use in developing national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs. PMID:22173661

  7. [Why reconsider the recommendation of breast cancer screening?].

    Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; d'Ávila, Thiago Luiz de Campos

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this article was to discuss the recommendation of mammogram screening for breast cancer and its technical basis. The first part discusses criteria for the decision, which should be consistent with high-quality scientific evidence. The second part discusses over-diagnosis (the greatest harm of screening) and its meaning in questioning the natural history of disease model. The third part summarizes studies on the efficacy, effectiveness, and harms of screening, showing that the latter (especially over-diagnosis and false-positives) are significant, shedding doubt on the balance between harms and benefits. In conclusion, the recommendation of mammogram screening at any age should be reconsidered by Brazilian health authorities. PMID:27253456

  8. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up.......To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  9. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... of early detection of prostate cancer: (i) A screening digital rectal examination. (ii) A...

  10. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  11. Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology

    Saccomanno, G.

    2000-06-30

    ''Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology'' was funded by the Department of Energy to monitor the health effects of radon exposure and/or cigarette smoke on uranium workers from the Colorado Plateau. The resulting Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive and data base has been used as a source of information to prove eligibility for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act and as the source of primary data tissue for a subcontract and other collaborations with outside investigators. The latter includes a study of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in a non-smoking cohort of uranium miners (subcontract); a study of genetic markers for lung cancer susceptibility; and a study of {sup 210}Pb accumulation in the skull as a biomarker of radon exposure.

  12. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  13. Cancer Screening on the Hopi Reservation: A Model for Success in a Native American Community

    Brown, Sylvia R.; Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin

    2015-01-01

    American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based s...

  14. A favorable view: progress in cancer prevention and screening.

    Greenwald, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Clifton Leaf, in his article "Why We're Losing the War on Cancer," presents criticisms of past research approaches and the small impact of this research thus far on producing cures or substantially extending the life of many cancer patients. It is true that gains in long-term survival for people with advanced cancers have been modest, hindered in part by the heterogeneity of tumors, which allows the cancers to persist using alternate molecular pathways and so evade many cancer therapeutics. In contrast, clinical trials have demonstrated that it is possible to reduce the incidence or improve cancer survival through prevention and early detection. Strides have been made in preventing or detecting early the four deadliest cancers in the United States (i.e., lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal). For example, 7-year follow-up data from the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) provides evidence that tamoxifen reduces the occurrence of invasive breast tumors by more than 40%; recent studies using aromatase inhibitors and raloxifene are also promising. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) showed that finasteride reduced prostate cancer incidence by 25%, and the ongoing Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) is investigating selenium and vitamin E for prostate cancer prevention based on encouraging results from earlier studies. Living a healthy lifestyle, including regular physical activity, avoiding obesity, and eating primarily a plant-based diet has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, noninvasive stool DNA tests for early detection are being studied, which may lessen the reluctance of people to be screened for colorectal polyps and cancer. Behavioral and medical approaches for smoking prevention are ways to reduce the incidence of lung cancer, with antinicotine vaccines on the horizon that may help former smokers to avoid relapse. The US National Lung Screening Trial is testing whether early detection via

  15. Breast cancer screening in Japan. Present status and recent movement

    As the incidence of breast cancer and deaths from breast cancer have been increasing, the Ministry of Public Welfare and Labor has been promoting breast cancer screening. Mammography screening began in fiscal year 2000 for those women 50 years of age or over, but attendance has not been increasing. This year (2004), the Ministry determined that mammography would be applicable to those 40 years of age or over and that screening with palpation alone would be abolished. To determine the effectiveness of the measures, mammography equipment, technologists, and readers were calculated. If the attendance were 50% of the 35,497 thousand women in this biennial screening, 40 persons would be examined by one apparatus per day, and, as there are 200 working days in a year, 1,109 apparatus would be needed. In the same way, if a technologist can examine 5,000 women, and a doctor can read 10,000 cases a year, both are apparently deficient in some prefectures. The standards of quality control for digital mammography have been determined by the Japan Radiological Society, and a ''step phantom for mammography'' has been developed. Qualitative evaluation of hard-copy clinical images has also started. All of the standards are presented in ''Mammography Guidelines, Second Edition,'' published by Igakushoin, Tokyo, Japan, 2004. (author)

  16. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  17. Cancer screening behaviours among South Asian immigrants in the UK, US and Canada: a scoping study.

    Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Beaton, Dorcas; Bierman, Arlene S

    2016-03-01

    South Asian (SA) immigrants settled in the United Kingdom (UK) and North America [United States (US) and Canada] have low screening rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. Incidence rates of these cancers increase among SA immigrants after migration, becoming similar to rates in non-Asian native populations. However, there are disparities in cancer screening, with low cancer screening uptake in this population. We conducted a scoping study using Arksey & O'Malley's framework to examine cancer screening literature on SA immigrants residing in the UK, US and Canada. Eight electronic databases, key journals and reference lists were searched for English language studies and reports. Of 1465 identified references, 70 studies from 1994 to November 2014 were included: 63% on breast or cervical cancer screening or both; 10% examined colorectal cancer screening only; 16% explored health promotion/service provision; 8% studied breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening; and 3% examined breast and colorectal cancer screening. A thematic analysis uncovered four dominant themes: (i) beliefs and attitudes towards cancer and screening included centrality of family, holistic healthcare, fatalism, screening as unnecessary and emotion-laden perceptions; (ii) lack of knowledge of cancer and screening related to not having heard about cancer and its causes, or lack of awareness of screening, its rationale and/or how to access services; (iii) barriers to access including individual and structural barriers; and (iv) gender differences in screening uptake and their associated factors. Findings offer insights that can be used to develop culturally sensitive interventions to minimise barriers and increase cancer screening uptake in these communities, while recognising the diversity within the SA culture. Further research is required to address the gap in colorectal cancer screening literature to more fully understand SA immigrants' perspectives, as well as research to

  18. Effects of repeated mammographic screening on breast cancer stage distribution

    A randomised controlled trial of mass screening for breast cancer by single-view mammography was begun in Sweden in 1977. All women aged 40 and older and resident in the counties of Koppaberg and Oestergoetland were enrolled. The present report is confined to the Oestergoetland study, which started in 1978 and comprised 92934 women. After randomisation, which was done on the basis of communities rather than individuals, 47001 women were allocated to the study group and offered repeated mammographic screening; 45933 were allocated to the control group. As compliance among women over 74 years of age was poor these were excluded from the present report. The yearly incidence of stage II or more advanced breast cancers after the initial screening round up to and including the second was reduced by 40 per cent in the study group compared with the controls. This effect was less marked in the age group 40-49. After 5.5 years average from the date of entry the absolute number of women with stage II-IV disease in the control group exceeded that for the study group by 44, whereas there was a large excess of cancer in situ and stage I cancer in the study group. (orig.)

  19. Screening for prostate cancer: How to manage in 2006

    Lobel B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available National Societies usually recommend screening for Prostate Cancer (PC with Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA and digital rectal examination annually beginning at age 50. In high risk population including men with a family history of PC or African population screening should start at age of 45 years. PSA has been widely used to detect PC despite the fact that PSA is not specific for PC. Over the years serum PSA level of greater than 4,0ng/ml was considered the threshold to perform prostate biopsy, searching for PC. In 2005 the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT demonstrated that the cut-off of 4,0ng/ml for PSA is not anymore adapted1 due to the fact that this survey found in 15% of men with PSA < or = 4,0ng/ml a prostate cancer on sextant biopsies. Today the value of PSA and the cut-off for Prostate biopsy is questioned suggesting that PSA level higher than 2,6ng/ml must be the case to propose Prostate Biopsy. Catalona confirms that approximately 25% to 30% of men with PSA 2,6 to 4,0ng/ml have prostate cancer2. Schröder and Gosselaar3 assert that screening for PC at low PSA levels (<4,0ng/ml risks to detect clinically insignificant cancers which are no threat to man. So far in the year 2006 screening for PC demonstrates accumulating evidences of efficacy but persistent uncertainty4. The major question for an urologist at work when facing a young men searching early diagnosis of PC is: at which level of PSA do we have to perform rectal biopsy ?.

  20. Are U.S. cancer screening test patterns consistent with guideline recommendations with respect to the age of screening initiation?

    Kadiyala Srikanth

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. cancer screening guidelines communicate important information regarding the ages for which screening tests are appropriate. Little attention has been given to whether breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test use is responsive to guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Methods The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Social Survey and the 2003 National Health Interview Surveys were used to compute breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test rates by single year of age. Graphical and logistic regression analyses were used to compare screening rates for individuals close to and on either side of the guideline recommended screening initiation ages. Results We identified large discrete shifts in the use of screening tests precisely at the ages where guidelines recommend that screening begin. Mammography screening in the last year increased from 22% [95% CI = 20, 25] at age 39 to 36% [95% CI = 33, 39] at age 40 and 47% [95% CI = 44, 51] at age 41. Adherence to the colorectal cancer screening guidelines within the last year increased from 18% [95% CI = 15, 22] at age 49 to 19% [95% CI = 15, 23] at age 50 and 34% [95% CI = 28, 39] at age 51. Prostate specific antigen screening in the last year increased from 28% [95% CI = 25, 31] at age 49 to 33% [95% CI = 29, 36] and 42% [95% CI = 38, 46] at ages 50 and 51. These results are robust to multivariate analyses that adjust for age, sex, income, education, marital status and health insurance status. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that cancer screening test utilization is consistent with guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Screening test and adherence rates increased by approximately 100% at the breast and colorectal cancer guideline recommended ages compared to only a 50% increase in the screening test rate for prostate cancer screening. Since information regarding the age of cancer screening

  1. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  2. Personalized prostate cancer care: from screening to treatment.

    Conran, Carly A; Brendler, Charles B; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented progress has been made in genomic personalized medicine in the last several years, allowing for more individualized healthcare assessments and recommendations than ever before. However, most of this progress in prostate cancer (PCa) care has focused on developing and selecting therapies for late-stage disease. To address this issue of limited focus, we propose a model for incorporating genomic-based personalized medicine into all levels of PCa care, from prevention and screening to diagnosis, and ultimately to the treatment of both early-stage and late-stage cancers. We have termed this strategy the "Pyramid Model" of personalized cancer care. In this perspective paper, our objective is to demonstrate the potential application of the Pyramid Model to PCa care. This proactive and comprehensive personalized cancer care approach has the potential to achieve three important medical goals: reducing mortality, improving quality of life and decreasing both individual and societal healthcare costs. PMID:27184548

  3. Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system

    Salmerón-Castro Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican official norm. A general framework for institutionaling CCSP is outlined. Furthermore, strategies to strengthen CCSP performance through managerial strategies and quality assurance activities are described. The focus is on the following activities: 1 improving coverage; 2 implementing smear-taking quality control; 3 improving quality in interpretation of Pap test; 4 guaranteeing treatment for women for whom abnormalities are detected; 5 improving follow-up; 6 development of quality control measures and 7 development of monitoring and epidemiological surveillance information systems. Changes within the screening on cervical cancer may be advocated as new technologies present themselves and shortcomings in the existing program appear. It is crucial that these changes should be measured through careful evaluation in order to tally up potential benefits.

  4. Screening of human bocavirus in surgically excised cancer specimens.

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; El-Fol, Hosam A; Kamel, Mahmoud M; Soliman, Ahmed S A; Mahdi, Emad A; El-Gammal, Ahmed S; Mahran, Taha Z M

    2016-08-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a prevalent virus worldwide and is mainly associated with respiratory disorders. Recently, it was detected in several disease conditions, including cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third main cause of cancers worldwide. Risk factors that initiate cell transformation include nutritional, hereditary and infectious causes. The aim of the current study was to screen for the presence of HBoV in solid tumors of colorectal cancer and to determine the genotypes of the detected strains. Surgically excised and paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissue specimens from 101 male and female patients with and without metastasis were collected over the last four years. Pathological analysis and tumor stages were determined. The presence of HBoV was screened by polymerase chain reaction, and the genotype of the detected HBoV was determined by direct gene sequencing. Most of the examined specimens were adenocarcinoma with mucinous activity in many of them. Twenty-four out of 101 (23.8 %) CRC tissue specimens were found to contain HBoV-1. Low sequence diversity was recorded in the detected strains. The virus was detected in both male and female patients with an age range of 30-75 years. It is proposed that HBoV-1 could play a potential role in the induction of CRC. PMID:27155943

  5. Reducing Cancer Screening Disparities in Medicare Beneficiaries Through Cancer Patient Navigation

    Braun, Kathryn L; Thomas, William L.; Domingo, Jermy-Leigh B.; Allison, Amanda L; Ponce, Avette; Kamakana, P. Haunani; Brazzel, Sandra S.; Aluli, N. Emmett; Tsark, JoAnn U.

    2015-01-01

    Significant racial disparities in cancer mortality are seen between Medicare beneficiaries. A randomized controlled trial tested the use of lay navigators (care managers) to increase cancer screening of Asian and Pacific Islander Medicare beneficiaries. The study setting was Moloka‘i General Hospital on the island of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, which was one of six sites participating in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration sponsored by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Betw...

  6. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values......, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant...

  7. Distinct breast cancer characteristics between screen- and self-detected breast cancers recorded in the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry.

    Iwamoto, Takayuki; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Niikura, Naoki; Kawai, Masaaki; Anan, Keisei; Hayashi, Naoki; Masuda, Shinobu; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Aogi, Kenjiro; Ishida, Takanori; Masuoka, Hideji; Iijima, Kotaro; Matsuoka, Junji; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seigo; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    The rate of breast cancer screening for women of all ages in Japan is increasing. However, little is known about the biological differences between screen- and self-detected tumors. We used data from the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry (JBCR), a nationwide registry of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in Japan, to investigate patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We compared the clinicopathological features of tumors and assessed yearly trends regarding the proportion of screen-detected cases during the study period. We found that 31.8 % (65,358/205,544) of cancers were detected by screening. Asymptomatic tumors detected by screening (asymptomatic) were more likely to have favorable prognostic features than those that were self-detected (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]: 19.8 versus 4.1 %, node-negative: 77.0 versus 61.6 %, and estrogen receptor-positive [ER+]: 82.0 versus 72.9 %, respectively). All these findings were statistically significant (p DCIS increased from 41.5 to 66.0 % and that of ER+ cancers increased from 23.2 to 39.7 %. This study demonstrated that low-risk tumors, including DCIS, ER+, and lower TNM stage, account for a substantial proportion of clinical screening-detected cancers. The differences in biological characteristics between screen- and self-detected cancers may account in part for the limited efficacy of breast cancer screening programs aimed at improving breast cancer mortality. PMID:27048417

  8. CT screening for lung cancer: Is the evidence strong enough?

    Field, J K; Devaraj, A; Duffy, S W; Baldwin, D R

    2016-01-01

    The prevailing questions at this time in both the public mind and the clinical establishment is, do we have sufficient evidence to implement lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening in Europe? If not, what is outstanding? This review addresses the twelve major areas, which are critical to any decision to implement CT screening and where we need to assess whether we have sufficient evidence to proceed to a recommendation for implementation in Europe. The readiness level of these twelve categories in 2015 have been with colour coded, where green indicates we have sufficient evidence, amber is borderline evidence and red requires further evidence. Recruitment from the 'Hard to Reach' community still remains at red, while mortality data, cost effectiveness and screening interval are all categorised as amber. The integration of smoking cessation into CT screening programmes is still considered to be category amber. The US Preventive Services Task Force have recommended that CT screening is implemented in the USA utilising the NLST criteria, apart from continuing screening to 80 years of age. The cost effectiveness of the NLST was calculated to be $81,000/QALY, however, its well recognised that the costs of medical care in the USA, is far higher than that of Europe. Medicare have agreed to cover the cost of screening but have stipulated a number of stringent requirements for inclusion. To date we do not have good CT screening mortality data available in Europe and eagerly await the publication of the NELSON trial data in 2016 and then the pooled UKLS and NELSON data thereafter. However in the meantime we should start planning for implementation in Europe, especially in the areas of the radiological service provision and accreditation, as well as identifying novel mechanisms to recruit from the hardest to reach communities. PMID:26711931

  9. Access to cancer screening in people with learning disabilities in the UK: cohort study in the health improvement network, a primary care research database.

    David P J Osborn

    Full Text Available To assess whether people with learning disability in the UK have poorer access to cancer screening.Four cohort studies comparing people with and without learning disability, within the recommended age ranges for cancer screening in the UK. We used Poisson regression to determine relative incidence rates of cancer screening.The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care database with over 450 General practices.Individuals with a recorded diagnosis of learning disability including general diagnostic terms, specific syndromes, chromosomal abnormalities and autism in their General Practitioner computerised notes. For each type of cancer screening, a comparison cohort of up to six people without learning disability was selected for each person with a learning disability, using stratified sampling on age within GP practice.Incidence rate ratios for receiving 1 a cervical smear test, 2 a mammogram, 3 a faecal occult blood test and 4 a prostate specific antigen test.Relative rates of screening for all four cancers were significantly lower for people with learning disability. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (95% confidence intervals were Cervical smears: Number eligible with learning disability = 6,254; IRR = 0.54 (0.52-0.56. Mammograms: Number eligible with learning disability = 2,956; IRR = 0.76 (0.72-0.81; Prostate Specific Antigen: Number eligible = 3,520; IRR = 0.87 (0.80-0.96 and Faecal Occult Blood Number eligible = 6,566; 0.86 (0.78-0.94. Differences in screening rates were less pronounced in more socially deprived areas. Disparities in cervical screening rates narrowed over time, but were 45% lower in 2008/9, those for breast cancer screening appeared to widen and were 35% lower in 2009.Despite recent incentives, people with learning disability in the UK are significantly less likely to receive screening tests for cancer that those without learning disability. Other methods for reducing inequalities in access to cancer screening should be

  10. Results of lung cancer screening in atomic bomb survivors

    Risk of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors is reportedly increased. The screening in the title has been conducted since 1988 and this report summarizes its results of the latest 6-year term (2004-2009). The total number of subjects who visited authors' facility for the screening in the period was 39,147 men (average age 70.6 y) and 45,351 women (71.8 y), of the age range of 60-89 y. The screening results of the cancer were examined concerning with sex, age and exposure situation. As well, the relationship between the found cancer incidence and exposure in never, formerly and currently smoking subjects were also examined. Exposure situation was divided in 3 groups of the exposure by entrance in the city/by other reasons, within 2 km close (Close, C) to, and out of 2.1 km afar (Distant, D) from, the city. Statistic analysis was performed by Chi-squire and/or Fisher's exact test. The index of positive finding in the screening of the lung cancer per 1,000 subjects was the highest in C men of ages 70s, 2.88 subjects, which was statistically significant from 0.85 in D men of the same generation. In current smokers, the index 5.40 in C men of ages 70s was significantly higher than 0.90 in D men of the same generation. Overall, positive results tended to be high in survivors of C regardless to sex and smoking, and was significantly high in current smokers of C as above, both implying the particular necessity of promotion to stop smoking in survivors. (T.T.)

  11. Behavioral Theory in the Context of Applied Cancer Screening Research

    Zapka, Jane; Cranos, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is indeed challenged to provide effective, equitable, and efficient care for its citizens (Aday, Begley, Lairson, & Balkrishnan, 2004). The past decades have witnessed profound concern about the quality of care Americans receive, the equality of care across racial ethnic communities, and the escalating costs of private and public coverage. These concerns apply to the cancer care continuum, including screening. This commentary reflects on the methods, findings, and ...

  12. Comment on ‘Psychological distress in patients with cancer: is screening the effective solution?'

    Dekker, J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Boenink, A D; Bomhof-Roordink, H; Braamse, A.M.; Collette, E.H.; Huijgens, P.C.; Linden, M.H.M. van der; van Meijel, Berno; F. J. Snoek; Visser, O; Verheul, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Screening for psychological distress in patients with cancer is currently being debated in the British Journal of Cancer. Screening has been recommended, as elevated levels of distress have been consistently observed and clinicians tend to overlook the need of psychological support (Carlson et al, 2012; Carlson et al, 2013; National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2013). On the other hand, it has been argued that screening should not be implemented, as the true benefit of screening and subseque...

  13. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer. PMID:23625730

  14. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  15. Cardiotoxicity of cancer therapeutics: current issues in screening, prevention and therapy

    Richard Joseph Sheppard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modern cancer chemotherapeutics, cancer survivors are living longer and being exposed to potential comorbidities related to non-cancer side effects of such treatments. With close monitoring of cancer patients receiving potentially cardiotoxic medical therapies, oncologists and cardiologists alike are identifying patients in both clinical and subclinical phases of cardiovascular disease related to such chemotherapies. Specifically, cardiotoxicity at the level of the myocardium and potential for the development of heart failure are becoming a growing concern with increasing survival of cancer patients.Traditional chemotherapeutic agents used commonly in the treatment of breast cancer and hematologic malignancies, such as anthracyclines and HER-2 antagonists, are well known to be associated with cardiovascular sequelae. Patients often present without symptoms and an abnormal cardiac imaging study performed as part of routine evaluation of patients receiving cardiotoxic therapies. Additionally, patients can present with signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease months to years after receiving the chemotherapies. As the understanding of the physiology underlying the various cancers has grown, therapies have been developed that target specific molecules that represent key aspects of physiologic pathways responsible for cancer growth. Inhibition of these pathways, such as those involving tyrosine kinases, has lead to the potential for cardiotoxicity as well. In view of the potential cardiotoxicity of specific chemotherapies, there is a growing interest in identifying patients who are at risk of cardiotoxicity prior to becoming symptomatic or developing cardiotoxicity that may limit the use of potentially life-saving chemotherapy agents. Serological markers and novel cardiac imaging techniques have become the source of many investigations with the goal of screening patients for pre-clinical cardiotoxicity. Additionally, studies have

  16. Start-Up of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five sites to implement the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP. An evaluation is being conducted that includes a multiple case study. Case study results for the start-up period, the time between initial funding and screening initiation, provide details about the program models and start-up process and reveal important lessons learned.MethodsThe multiple case study includes all five CRCSDP sites, each representing a unique case. Data were collected from August 2005 through September 2006 from documents, observations, and more than 70 interviews with program staff and stakeholders.ResultsSites differed by geographic service area, screening modality selected, and service delivery structure. Program models were influenced by two factors: preexisting infrastructure and the need to adapt programs to fit local service delivery structures. Several sites modeled program components after their National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Medical advisory boards convened by all sites provided clinical support for developing program policies and quality assurance plans. Partnerships with comprehensive cancer control programs facilitated access to financial and in-kind resources.ConclusionThe program models developed by the CRCSDP sites offer a range of prototypes. Case study results suggest benefits in employing a multidisciplinary staff team, assembling a medical advisory board, collaborating with local partners, using preexisting resources, designing programs that are easily incorporated into existing service delivery systems, and planning for adequate start-up time.

  17. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  18. Conspicuity of breast cancer according to histopathological type and breast density when imaged by full-field digital mammography compared with screen-film mammography

    To compare the conspicuity of different histopathological types of breast cancer according to breast density and mammographic imaging in patients with screen-detected breast cancers undergoing both full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and screen-film mammography (SFM) in the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). 185 patients underwent routine screening with SFM followed by further imaging using FFDM with consequent diagnosis of breast cancer. All SFM and soft-copy FFDM images were evaluated by two readers in an independent, retrospective review. The visualisation and conspicuity of the mammographic abnormality were recorded and graded using a four-level scale. Conspicuity of breast cancer was qualitatively evaluated. Breast density and conspicuity were correlated with histopathological diagnosis and inter-observer correlation was calculated. Mixed Model ANOVA demonstrated significant differences between FFDM and SFM (p < 0.001) and breast densities (p = 0.009): conspicuity of the mammographic abnormality (p < 0.001) and visualisation of the dominant mammographic feature (p < 0.001) were significantly greater with FFDM than SFM. This held true for both readers and for all histopathological tumour types with no significant differences between each tumour type. FFDM is significantly superior to SFM for conspicuity of screen-detected breast cancers for all histopathological types and breast densities. (orig.)

  19. Conspicuity of breast cancer according to histopathological type and breast density when imaged by full-field digital mammography compared with screen-film mammography

    Pinker, Katja [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Divison of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Perry, Nicholas [St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Breast Unit, Barts and The London Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); The Princess Grace Hospital, The London Breast Institute, London (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S.; Shiel, S. [St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Breast Unit, Barts and The London Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Weber, M. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    To compare the conspicuity of different histopathological types of breast cancer according to breast density and mammographic imaging in patients with screen-detected breast cancers undergoing both full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and screen-film mammography (SFM) in the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). 185 patients underwent routine screening with SFM followed by further imaging using FFDM with consequent diagnosis of breast cancer. All SFM and soft-copy FFDM images were evaluated by two readers in an independent, retrospective review. The visualisation and conspicuity of the mammographic abnormality were recorded and graded using a four-level scale. Conspicuity of breast cancer was qualitatively evaluated. Breast density and conspicuity were correlated with histopathological diagnosis and inter-observer correlation was calculated. Mixed Model ANOVA demonstrated significant differences between FFDM and SFM (p < 0.001) and breast densities (p = 0.009): conspicuity of the mammographic abnormality (p < 0.001) and visualisation of the dominant mammographic feature (p < 0.001) were significantly greater with FFDM than SFM. This held true for both readers and for all histopathological tumour types with no significant differences between each tumour type. FFDM is significantly superior to SFM for conspicuity of screen-detected breast cancers for all histopathological types and breast densities. (orig.)

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening, Yes or No? the Current Controversy

    Ali Razi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: The increasing incidence of prostate cancer and different viewpoints of medical authorities to it, has lead to conversion of preliminary plan of screening test to a requisite. The objective of this study is to clarify the obscure aspects of this subject using the literature review.

    Materials and Methods: We reviewed the following items in the literature: prostate cancer screening, introduction of relevant tests, screening criteria according to World Health Organization, screening experience in different countries, community notification, specialists training in order to establish an integrated approach and treatment, anxiety relief, and promotion of patient awareness in this field.

    Results: It has been shown that, except in China, programmed and official screening of prostatic cancer has not been accepted by concordant responsible authorities, neither in developed countries nor in developing ones. However, it is performed informally in different parts of the world.

    Conclusion: There is no unanimous consensus about performance of screening for prostate cancer. Continuing

  1. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study

    Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Design Nationwide register-based cohort study. Setting In 2003–2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. Participants After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25–69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Interventions Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. Main outcome measures We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. Results 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25–33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34–69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25–33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34–69 years. Conclusions The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25–33 years and

  2. Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition

  3. Screening for breast cancer: the three traffic lights

    José Agostinho Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of breast cancer screening as three different traffic lights invites the reader for a quick review of the scientific evidence and the retention of the main points that this procedure reveals. The recommendations for the screening are produced by authors that give a green light for the screening advance, because they believe that the risk/benefit balance is favorable to its application in women at the target ages and average risk. However, as the expression “risk/benefit” implies, there is a risk that must be taken into account at the time of starting the screening, which assumes an alert for the red light. It is clear, from the evidence evaluated by independent authors, that there is a balance of pros and cons (yellow light. The role of ensuring the balance of this scale belongs perhaps to the General Practitioner and the role of putting the last weight on one of the two plates belongs to the women at the target-ages to screening.

  4. Mass Spectrometric Screening of Ovarian Cancer with Serum Glycans

    Jae-Han Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of glycosylation pattern in serum proteins have been linked to various diseases including cancer, suggesting possible development of novel biomarkers based on the glycomic analysis. In this study, N-linked glycans from human serum were quantitatively profiled by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS and compared between healthy controls and ovarian cancer patients. A training set consisting of 40 healthy controls and 40 ovarian cancer cases demonstrated an inverse correlation between P value of ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC of each candidate biomarker peak from MALDI-TOF MS, providing standards for the classification. A multibiomarker panel composed of 15 MALDI-TOF MS peaks resulted in AUC of 0.89, 80~90% sensitivity, and 70~83% specificity in the training set. The performance of the biomarker panel was validated in a separate blind test set composed of 23 healthy controls and 37 ovarian cancer patients, leading to 81~84% sensitivity and 83% specificity with cut-off values determined by the training set. Sensitivity of CA-125, the most widely used ovarian cancer marker, was 74% in the training set and 78% in the test set, respectively. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS-mediated serum N-glycan analysis could provide critical information for the screening of ovarian cancer.

  5. Measuring the burden of interval cancers in long-standing screening mammography programmes

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Kilpeläinen, Sini;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mammography screening programme sensitivity is evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate (ICR) with the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, ie. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The PICR is usually found by extrapolating pre-screening incidence rates......, whereas ICR is calculated from data available in the screening programmes. As there is no consensus regarding estimation of background incidence, we seek to validate the ICR measure against the PICR. METHODS: Screening data from the three mammography screening programmes of Stockholm, Copenhagen, and...

  6. Is mammography screening history a predictor of future breast cancer risk?

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Kilpeläinen, Sini;

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the model by Walter and Day for risk of cervical cancer following negative screens, one might hypothesize that women in a mammography screening programme with a certain number of negative screens had a lower remaining breast cancer risk than that of women in general. We studied whether...... number of negative screens was a predictor for a low remaining breast cancer risk in women participating in the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Copenhagen and Funen. Data were collected from the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Sweden (1989-2012), Copenhagen, Denmark (1991...... was not a predictor of a low remaining breast cancer risk in women participating in the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Sweden, Copenhagen and Funen, Denmark. The history of previous negative screens is therefore not suitable for personalisation of mammography screening....

  7. Systematic review of 3D mammography for breast cancer screening.

    Hodgson, Robert; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Harvey, Susan C; Edwards, Mary; Shaikh, Javed; Arber, Mick; Glanville, Julie

    2016-06-01

    This review investigated the relative performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) (alone or with full field digital mammography (FFDM) or synthetic digital mammography) compared with FFDM alone for detecting breast cancer lesions in asymptomatic women. A systematic review was carried out according to systematic reviewing principles provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. A protocol was developed a priori. The review was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42014013949). Searches were undertaken in October 2014. Following selection, five studies were eligible. Higher cancer detection rates were observed when comparing DBT + FFDM with FFDM in two European studies: the summary difference per 1000 screens was 2.43 (95% CI: 1.8 to 3.1). Both European studies found lower false positive rates for individual readers. One found a lower recall rate based on conditional recall. The second study was not designed to compare post-arbitration recall rates between FFDM and DBT + FFDM. One European study presented data on interval cancer rates; sensitivity and specificity for DBT + FFDM were both higher compared to FFDM. One large multicentre US study showed a higher cancer detection rate for DBT + FFDM, while two smaller US studies did not find statistically significant differences. Reductions in recall and false positive rates were observed in the US studies in favour of DBT + FFDM. In comparison to FFDM, DBT, as an adjunct to FFDM, has a higher cancer detection rate, increasing the effectiveness of breast cancer screening. Additional benefits of DBT may also include reduced recalls and, consequently, reduced costs and distress caused to women who would have been recalled. PMID:27212700

  8. Addressing Breast Cancer Health Disparities in the Mississippi Delta Through an Innovative Partnership for Education, Detection, and Screening.

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Fastring, Danielle; Fortune, Melody; White-Johnson, Freddie

    2016-06-01

    Projects to reduce disparities in cancer treatment and research include collaborative partnerships and multiple strategies to promote community awareness, education, and engagement. This is especially needed in underserved areas such as the Mississippi Delta where more women are diagnosed at regional and distant stages of breast cancer. The purpose for this project was to increase the relatively low screening rate for African American women in the Mississippi Delta through a partnership between the Mississippi Network for Cancer Control and Prevention at The University of Southern Mississippi, The Fannie Lou Hamer Cancer Foundation and the Mississippi State Department of Health to decrease health disparities in breast cancer through increased awareness on self-early detection methods, leveraging resources to provide mammography screenings, and adequate follow-up with services and treatment for abnormal findings. Through this collaborative effort, over 500 women in three rural Mississippi Delta counties were identified, provided community education on early self-detection, and given appointments for mammography screenings within one fiscal year. PMID:26578349

  9. Volumetric computed tomography screening for lung cancer : three rounds of the NELSON trial

    Horeweg, Nanda; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zhao, Yingru; Xie, Xueqian; Scholten, Ernst Th; Mali, Willem; Thunnissen, Erik; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry J. M.; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Several medical associations recommended lung cancer screening by low-dose computed tomography scanning for high-risk groups. Counselling of the candidates on the potential harms and benefits and their lung cancer risk is a prerequisite for screening. In the NELSON trial, screenings are considered p

  10. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  11. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  12. Seventeen-years overview of breast cancer inside and outside screening in Denmark

    Domingo, Laia; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-term data on breast cancer detection in mammography screening programs are warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which screening changes the breast cancer pattern in the population. We aimed to analyze 17 years of breast cancer detection rates inside and outside...... to women aged 50-69 years. We identified targeted, eligible, invited and participating women. We calculated screening detection and interval cancer rates for participants, and breast cancer incidence in non-screened women (= targeted women excluding participants) by biennial invitation rounds. Tumor...... characteristics were tabulated for each of the three groups of cancers. Results. Start of screening resulted in a prevalence peak in participants, followed by a decrease to a fairly stable detection rate in subsequent invitation rounds. A similar pattern was found for breast cancer incidence in non-screened women...

  13. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Great Britain: Dynamic interrelated processes.

    Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank

    2015-12-01

    No previous analysis has investigated the determinants of screening uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening for possible spillover effects from one type of screening examination to the other type of screening examination with a dynamic bivariate panel probit model. For our analysis, we used a dynamic random effects bivariate panel probit model with initial conditions (Wooldridge-type estimator) and dependent variables were the participation of breast and cervical cancer screening in the recent year. The balanced panel sample consisted of 844 women from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) from the time period 1992 to 2008. Our analysis showed the high relevance of past screening behaviour and the importance of state dependency for the same and the other type of cancer screening examinations even after controlling for covariates and unobserved heterogeneity. The uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening was higher when the same screening examination was done one or three years earlier. This result is in accordance with the medical screening programmes in Great Britain. With regard to breast and cervical cancer screening positive spillover effects existed between screening examinations in the third order lags. Women with a previous visit to a general practitioner and individuals in the recommended age groups had a higher uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening. Other socioeconomic and health related variables had non-uniform results in both screening examinations. Promoting the uptake of one female prevention activity could also enhance the uptake of the other prevention activity. PMID:26487452

  14. [Primary peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the vagina incidentally found at cervical cancer screening].

    Isobe, Rei; Mituishi, Toshimi; Omote, Mayuko; Mori, Yuichi; Ida, Koichi; Oguchi, Osamu; Nakai, Ikuko; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because a mass lesion had been palpable through the vaginal wall during a cervical cancer screening examination. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed marked thickening of the vaginal wall, constituting a mass 96 mm in diameter. Abnormal FDG uptake was observed in the vaginal mass, but no other lesions were detected by positron emission tomography (PET/CT). A transvaginal biopsy from the tumor revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Although endoscopic examinations revealed no signs of infiltration in either the bladder or the rectum, the MRI findings suggested invasion into the adjacent rectal wall. She achieved complete remission after six courses of biweekly THP-COP therapy, to which field radiation (39.6 Gy) was added. PTCL of the vagina is rare and this case therefore merits description in the literature. PMID:26861099

  15. Network-based reading system for lung cancer screening CT

    Fujino, Yuichi; Fujimura, Kaori; Nomura, Shin-ichiro; Kawashima, Harumi; Tsuchikawa, Megumu; Matsumoto, Toru; Nagao, Kei-ichi; Uruma, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Takizawa, Hotaka; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Nakayama, Tomio

    2006-03-01

    This research aims to support chest computed tomography (CT) medical checkups to decrease the death rate by lung cancer. We have developed a remote cooperative reading system for lung cancer screening over the Internet, a secure transmission function, and a cooperative reading environment. It is called the Network-based Reading System. A telemedicine system involves many issues, such as network costs and data security if we use it over the Internet, which is an open network. In Japan, broadband access is widespread and its cost is the lowest in the world. We developed our system considering human machine interface and security. It consists of data entry terminals, a database server, a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, and some reading terminals. It uses a secure Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) encrypting method and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) based secure DICOM image data distribution. We carried out an experimental trial over the Japan Gigabit Network (JGN), which is the testbed for the Japanese next-generation network, and conducted verification experiments of secure screening image distribution, some kinds of data addition, and remote cooperative reading. We found that network bandwidth of about 1.5 Mbps enabled distribution of screening images and cooperative reading and that the encryption and image distribution methods we proposed were applicable to the encryption and distribution of general DICOM images via the Internet.

  16. Healthcare costs in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer CT-screening trial

    Rasmussen, J.F.; Siersma, V.; Pedersen, Jesper H.;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low dose computerised tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer can reduce lung-cancer-specific mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation of participants in the Danish lung cancer CT-screening trial (DLCST). MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  17. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 Report

    Field, John K.; Smith, Robert A.; Aberle, Denise R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R.; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D.; Wisbuba, Ignacio I.; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L.

    2012-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer de

  18. Clinical Perspectives on Colorectal Cancer Screening at Latino-Serving Federally Qualified Health Centers

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Petrik, Amanda F.; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal…

  19. Stage and survival in breast cancer patients in screened and non-screened Danish and Swedish populations

    Jensen, Anni R; Garne, Jens P; Storm, Hans H;

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons between the Danish and Swedish Cancer Registry revealed a 9% difference in 5-year survival for breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1983 and 1989. The purpose of this study was to determine whether previous differences in survival and stage still exist or whether the Danish figures...... approach those of the Swedish registry. Complete population-based cohorts of patients with breast cancer in the years 1996-1997 from well-defined areas in Denmark and Sweden were compared. The study regions were a Danish (Funen) and a Swedish (Malmö) county with mammography screening and two Danish...... counties without screening. No difference in extent of disease or survival was observed between screening areas regardless of country. However, there were significant differences in stage distribution and survival between screening populations and Danish non-screening populations, to the benefit of...

  20. Opinion of nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs

    M Venkatramana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Found to be effective in its treatment. The increased incidence of breast cancer supports the implementation of breast cancer screening programs. The present study evaluates the opinion among nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs in United Arab Emirates (UAE. Materials and Methods: The study population included 154 nurses practicing at different hospitals in United Arab Emirates (UAE, all nurses who participated in the breast cancer awareness programme organized by Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE. A self-administered, pretested, structured, close-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis was performed using Predictive Analytic Software (PASW 17. Results: The participants′ age ranged between 20 and 59 years. Fifty percent of the participants strongly agreed with the early detection of breast cancer by performing breast self examination. Thirty-nine percent were of the opinion that women aged 40 years and older should have a mammogram every year and continue to do so and 25.3% strongly felt that women in their 20s and 30s should have clinical breast examination as part of their periodic health examination by health professionals. 33.8% of the respondents strongly agree on providing information on the benefits and limitations of BSE to the female population. Twenty-six percent of the participants strongly agree that women at high risk should get magnetic resonance imaging and mammogram done every year. Conclusion: The present study indicates the need for providing workplace training programs thus equipping them with better knowledge and enhancing their service among the general population.

  1. Functional health literacy in Spanish-speaking Latinas seeking breast cancer screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Samantha Garbers; Karen Schmitt; Anne Marie Rappa; Mary Ann Chiasson

    2010-01-01

    Samantha Garbers1, Karen Schmitt2, Anne Marie Rappa2, Mary Ann Chiasson11Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USA; 2Columbia University Breast Cancer Screening Program, New York, NY, USABackground: This analysis examines the association between functional health literacy and follow-up after mammography among women receiving breast cancer screening at a National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program site in New York City that provides universal bilingual case management.Methods:...

  2. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    Ryujin Lisa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG: Group A [H. pylori (− PG (−], Group B [H. pylori (+ PG (−], Group C [H. pylori (+ PG (+], and Group D [H. pylori (− PG (+]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1 high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2 high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3 low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1, every two years in (2, and annually in (3 should be considered.

  4. Screen-detected breast cancer: Does presence of minimal signs on prior mammograms predict staging or grading of cancer?

    Aim: To investigate whether the presence of minimal signs on prior mammograms predict staging or grading of cancer. Materials and methods: The previous mammograms of 148 consecutive patients with screen-detected breast cancer were examined. Women with an abnormality visible (minimal signs) on both current and prior mammograms formed the study group; the remaining patients formed the control group. Age, average size of tumour, tumour characteristic, histopathology, grade, and lymph node status were compared between the two groups, using Fisher's exact test. Cases in which earlier diagnosis would have made a significant prognostic difference were also evaluated. Results: Eighteen percent of patients showed an abnormality at the site of the tumour on previous mammograms. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to age, average size of tumour, histopathology, grade or lymph node status with p-values being 0.609, 0.781, 0.938, and 0.444, respectively. The only statistically significant difference between the two groups was tumour characteristics with more microcalcifications associated with either mass or asymmetrical density seen in the study group (p = 0.003). Five patients in the study group showed lymph node positivity and were grade 3, and therefore, may have had possible gain from earlier diagnosis. Conclusion: The present study did not demonstrate a statistical difference in grading or staging between the group that showed 'minimal signs' on prior mammograms versus normal prior mammograms. Microcalcification seems to be the most common characteristic seen in the missed cancer and a more aggressive management approach is suggested for breast microcalcifications.

  5. Designing Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Support: A Cognitive Engineering Enterprise

    Militello, Laura G.; Saleem, Jason J.; Borders, Morgan R.; Sushereba, Christen E.; Haverkamp, Donald; Wolf, Steven P.; Doebbeling, Bradley N.

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of clinical decision support has been limited. Important barriers include an emphasis on algorithmic approaches to decision support that do not align well with clinical work flow and human decision strategies, and the expense and challenge of developing, implementing, and refining decision support features in existing electronic health records (EHRs). We applied decision-centered design to create a modular software application to support physicians in managing and tracking colorectal cancer screening. Using decision-centered design facilitates a thorough understanding of cognitive support requirements from an end user perspective as a foundation for design. In this project, we used an iterative design process, including ethnographic observation and cognitive task analysis, to move from an initial design concept to a working modular software application called the Screening & Surveillance App. The beta version is tailored to work with the Veterans Health Administration’s EHR Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS). Primary care providers using the beta version Screening & Surveillance App more accurately answered questions about patients and found relevant information more quickly compared to those using CPRS alone. Primary care providers also reported reduced mental effort and rated the Screening & Surveillance App positively for usability. PMID:26973441

  6. Medical exposure in lung cancer screening by helical computed tomography

    The object of this study was to clarify the medical exposure in lung cancer Screening CT (LSCT) using helical scan focusing on the dose characteristics of helical scanning, comparisons with conventional chest mass screening, and risk benefit analysis. Radiation dose was measured at both the center and surface of chest and abdominal standard phantoms using a thermoluminescene dosimeter. Scanning parameters employed were 120 kV, 50 mA, 10 mm X-ray beam width, 1 s/rotation scanning speed, 20 mm/s couch top movement speed, and 260 mm scanning range. The dose at the center of the phantom using LSCT was 2.6 mGy, ten times higher than that for conventional mass chest fluorography. On the other hand, the dose was almost the same as that for mass screening fluorography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, only 1.3 times higher. Balance ages in risk benefit analysis were 33 years old for men and 38 years old for women. Clarification of the characteristics of LSCT has demonstrated that LSCT is suitable for mass chest screening examinations. (author)

  7. Psychological research and the prostate-cancer screening controversy.

    Arkes, Hal R; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    In October of 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a draft report in which they recommended against using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer. We attempt to show that four factors documented by psychological research can help explain the furor that followed the release of the task force's report. These factors are the persuasive power of anecdotal (as opposed to statistical) evidence, the influence of personal experience, the improper evaluation of data, and the influence of low base rates on the efficacy of screening tests. We suggest that augmenting statistics with facts boxes or pictographs might help such committees communicate more effectively with the public and with the U.S. Congress. PMID:22555966

  8. Regulatory mechanisms for abnormal expression of the human breast cancer specific gene 1 in breast cancer cells

    LU; Aiping; LI; Qing; LIU; Jingwen

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer-specific gene 1 (BCSG1), also referred as synuclein γ, was originally isolated from a human breast cancer cDNA library and the protein is mainly localized to presynaptic terminals in the nervous system. BCSG1 is not expressed in normal or benign breast lesions, but expressed at an extremely high level in the vast majority of the advanced staged breast carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas. Overexpression of BCSG1 in cancer cells led to significant increase in cell proliferation, motility and invasiveness, and metastasis. To elucidate the molecular mechanism and regulation for abnormal transcription of BCSG1, a variety of BCSG1 promoter luciferase reporters were constructed including 3' end deleted sequences, Sp1 deleted, and activator protein-1 (AP1) domains mutated. Transient transfection assay was used to detect the transcriptional activation of BCSG1 promoters. Results showed that the Sp1 sequence in 5'-flanking region was involved in the basal transcriptional activities of BCSG1 without cell-type specificity. In comparison to pGL3-1249, the reporter activities of pGL3-1553 in BCSG1-negative MCF-7 cells and pGL3-1759 in HepG2 cells were notably decreased. Mutations at AP1 sites in BCSG1 intron 1 significantly reduced the promoter activity in all cell lines. Transcription factors, c-jun, c-fos and cyclin AMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein, could markedly enhance the promoter activities. Thus, our results suggest that the abnormal expression of BCSG1 in breast cancer cells is likely regulated by multiple mechanisms. The 5' flanking region of BCSG1 provides the basal transcriptional activity without cell type specificity. A critical promoter element involved in abnormal expression of BCSG1 presents in the first exon. The cell type specificity of BCSG1 transcription is probably affected through intronic cis-regulatory sequences. AP1 domains in the first intron play an important role in control of BCSG1 transcription.

  9. Psychological barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening: a French qualitative study

    Morgiane Bridou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the psychological barriers to and facilitators of undergoing the Hemoccult-II® colorectal cancer screening test in France. Sixty-nine French people aged 50 to 74 years were divided into seven qualitative focus groups. Three issues were discussed with participants: knowledge and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening; facilitators of colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®; barriers to colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. All the discussions were led by two psychologists and were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Correspondence factor analyses identified three dimensions for each topic. The main psychological facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were: information about colorectal cancer screening, perceived simplicity of using Hemoccult-II®, and perception of risk. Uncertainty about the reliability of Hemoccult-II®, health anxiety, and embarrassment emerged as the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional analyses identified the differences between the views expressed by women and men. Women appeared more embarrassed about Hemoccult-II® and men seemed to be more worried about colorectal cancer. This preliminary study suggests that psychological factors play an important role in colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. This finding may help health organizations to conceive better awareness campaigns to promote colorectal cancer screening in order to reduce the related mortality rate by taking into account psychological determinants.

  10. Consequences of screening in lung cancer: development and dimensionality of a questionnaire

    Brodersen, John; Thorsen, Hanne; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the Consequences of Screening (COS) Questionnaire for use in a lung cancer screening by testing for comprehension, content coverage, dimensionality, and reliability....

  11. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  12. Image Quality Assurance in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Network of the National Lung Screening Trial

    Moore, Stephen M.; Gierada, David S.; Clark, Kenneth W.; Blaine, G. James

    2005-01-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial is evaluating the effectiveness of low-dose spiral CT and conventional chest X-ray as screening tests for persons who are at high risk for developing lung cancer. This multicenter trial requires quality assurance (QA) for the image quality and technical parameters of the scans. The electronic system described here helps manage the QA process. The system includes a workstation at each screening center that de-identifies the data, a DICOM storage service at the...

  13. Attitudes towards Lung Cancer Screening in an Australian High-Risk Population

    Alexandra E. Flynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine whether persons at high risk of lung cancer would participate in lung cancer screening test if available in Australia and to elicit general attitudes towards cancer screening and factors that might affect participation in a screening program. Methods. We developed a 20-item written questionnaire, based on two published telephone interview scripts, addressing attitudes towards cancer screening, perceived risk of lung cancer, and willingness to be screened for lung cancer and to undertake surgery if lung cancer were detected. The questionnaire was given to 102 current and former smokers attending the respiratory clinic and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Results. We gained 90 eligible responses (M:F, 69:21. Mean [SD] age was 63 [11] and smoking history was 32 [21] pack years. 95% of subjects would participate in a lung cancer screening test, and 91% of these would consider surgery if lung cancer was detected. 44% of subjects considered that they were at risk of lung cancer. This was lower in ex-smokers than in current smokers. Conclusions. There is high willingness for lung cancer screening and surgical treatment. There is underrecognition of risk among ex-smokers. This misperception could be a barrier to a successful screening or case-finding programme in Australia.

  14. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; Fugo, Kazunori; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; Kishimoto, Takashi; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0...

  15. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    Atkin Wendy; Power Emily; Solarin Ijeoma; Robb Kathryn A; Wardle Jane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and...

  16. Persistent demographic differences in colorectal cancer screening utilization despite Medicare reimbursement

    Kreuter William; Ko Cynthia W; Baldwin Laura-Mae

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal cancer screening is widely recommended, but often under-utilized. In addition, significant demographic differences in screening utilization exist. Insurance coverage may be one factor influencing utilization of colorectal cancer screening tests. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of claims for outpatient services for Washington state Medicare beneficiaries in calendar year 2000. We determined the proportion of beneficiaries utilizing screening fecal o...

  17. The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe

    Moss, S M; Nyström, L; Jonsson, H.;

    2012-01-01

    Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value.......Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value....

  18. ACCISS study rationale and design: activating collaborative cancer information service support for cervical cancer screening

    Bullard Emily

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-quality cancer information resources are available but underutilized by the public. Despite greater awareness of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service among low-income African Americans and Hispanics compared with Caucasians, actual Cancer Information Service usage is lower than expected, paralleling excess cancer-related morbidity and mortality for these subgroups. The proposed research examines how to connect the Cancer Information Service to low-income African-American and Hispanic women and their health care providers. The study will examine whether targeted physician mailing to women scheduled for colposcopy to follow up an abnormal Pap test can increase calls to the Cancer Information Service, enhance appropriate medical follow-up, and improve satisfaction with provider-patient communication. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in two clinics in ethnically diverse low-income communities in Chicago. During the formative phase, patients and providers will provide input regarding materials planned for use in the experimental phase of the study. The experimental phase will use a two-group prospective randomized controlled trial design. African American and Hispanic women with an abnormal Pap test will be randomized to Usual Care (routine colposcopy reminder letter or Intervention (reminder plus provider recommendation to call the Cancer Information Service and sample questions to ask. Primary outcomes will be: 1 calls to the Cancer Information Service; 2 timely medical follow-up, operationalized by whether the patient keeps her colposcopy appointment within six months of the abnormal Pap; and 3 patient satisfaction with provider-patient communication at follow-up. Discussion The study examines the effectiveness of a feasible, sustainable, and culturally sensitive strategy to increase awareness and use of the Cancer Information Service among an underserved population. The goal of linking a

  19. Who and when should we screen for prostate cancer? Interviews with key opinion leaders

    Carlsson, Sigrid; Leapman, Michael; Carroll, Peter; Schröder, Fritz; Albertsen, Peter; Ilic, Dragan; Barry, Michael; Frosch, Dominick L.; Vickers, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer screening using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is highly controversial. In this Q & A, Guest Editors for BMC Medicine's 'Spotlight on Prostate Cancer' article collection, Sigrid Carlsson and Andrew Vickers, invite some of the world's key opinion leaders to discuss who, and when, to screen for prostate cancer. In response to the points of view from the invited experts, the Guest Editors summarize the experts' views and give their own personal opinions on PSA screen...

  20. Stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed before and after implementation of population-based mammographic screening

    Purpose: The German mammographic screening program is very similar to the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), which started about 10 years earlier. This study analyzes the stage distribution of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening and screening period, and evaluates the overall mortality in women aged 55 - 74 in the pilot and non-pilot counties of the NBCSP. Materials and Methods: The NBCSP invites women aged 50 - 69 to participate in two-view mammography biennially. Chi-square statistics were used to compare percentages of the stage and treatment of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in women residing in the four pilot counties in the pre-screening (1984 - 1995) and screening (1996 - 2007) period. An ecological approach was used to analyze the age-specific mortality in the pilot and non-pilot counties for the period 1970 - 2007. Results: 50 % of the breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening period, 70 % of the cases detected with screening, 43 % of the interval cancers, and 52 % of the cancers diagnosed outside the NBCSP were stage I. Stage III + was present in 11 % of the cancers in the pre-screening period, and in 1 % of the cancers detected with screening. In the screening period, the breast cancer mortality rate decreased substantially more in the pilot counties than in the non-pilot counties. Conclusion: The stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed in the NBCSP is prognostically favorable compared to cancers diagnosed outside the screening program. The reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate was more pronounced in the four pilot counties compared to the non-pilot counties. It is necessary to evaluate the program based on individual data. (orig.)

  1. Screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer: is improved survival due to stage migration alone?

    Wishart, G. C.; Greenberg, D. C.; Britton, P D; Chou, P; Brown, C.H.; Purushotham, A. D.; Duffy, S W

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines whether screen-detected breast cancer confers additional prognostic benefit to the patient, over and above that expected by any shift in stage at presentation. In all, 5604 women (aged 50–70 years) diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were identified by the Eastern Cancer Registration and Information Centre (ECRIC) and mammographic screening status was determined. Using proportional hazards regression, we estimated the effect of screen detection comp...

  2. The performance of NLST screening criteria in Asian lung cancer patients

    Kumar, Vivek; Becker, Kevin; Zheng, Huo Xiang; Huang, Yiwu; Xu, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening high-risk individuals with low dose CT decreased lung cancer mortality in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), but the validity of directly extrapolating these results to an Asian population is unclear. Using statistical models on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) data, 27 % of lung cancer patients in the United States were estimated to meet the screening criteria. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the NLST criteria in Asian lung cancer pa...

  3. Efficacy of an educational material on second primary cancer screening practice for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer surivors have limited knowledge about second primary cancer (SPC screening and suboptimal rates of completion of screening practices for SPC. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an educational material on the knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices for SPC among cancer survivors. METHODS: Randomized, controlled trial among 326 cancer survivors from 6 oncology care outpatient clinics in Korea. Patients were randomized to an intervention or an attention control group. The intervention was a photo-novel, culturally tailored to increase knowledge about SPC screening. Knowledge and attitudes regarding SPC screening were assessed two weeks after the intervention, and screening practices were assessed after one year. RESULTS: At two weeks post-intervention, the average knowledge score was significantly higher in the intervention compared to the control group (0.81 vs. 0.75, P<0.01, with no significant difference in their attitude scores (2.64 vs. 2.57, P = 0.18. After 1 year of follow-up, the completion rate of all appropriate cancer screening was 47.2% in both intervention and control groups. CONCLUSION: While the educational material was effective for increasing knowledge of SPC screening, it did not promote cancer screening practice among cancer survivors. More effective interventions are needed to increase SPC screening rates in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00948337.

  4. Effective screening for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    Hanada, Keiji; Okazaki, Akihito; Hirano, Naomichi; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Minami, Tomoyuki; Ikemoto, Juri; Kanemitsu, Kozue; Hino, Fumiaki

    2015-12-01

    Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) at an early stage with curative surgery should improve long-term patient outcome. At present, improving survival should lie in identifying those cases with high-risk factors or precursor lesions through an effective screening including ultrasonography, some biological markers, or national familial pancreatic cancer registration. Recently, cases with PC detection was higher on endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) than on CT or other modalities, and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration was helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis. Additionally, for the diagnosis of cases with PC in situ, EUS and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) may play important roles in detecting the local irregular stenosis of the pancreatic duct. Cytodiagnosis of pancreatic juice using endoscopic nasopancreatic drainage multiple times may be useful in the final diagnosis. PMID:26651254

  5. An ingestible, NIR-fluorometric, cancer-screening capsule.

    Demosthenous, Panayiota; Georgiou, Julius

    2015-08-01

    Asymptomatic, early-stage, cancer detection is a problem in the small intestine, that is largely inaccessible. This paper presents a cost-effective screening capsule prototype, which is able to detect infrared (IR) fluorescence emitted by indocyanine green (ICG) fluorophore dye. The presented mixed-signal system has a small size, consumes little power and works as a high-sensitivity fluorometer that records fluorescence levels throughout the small intestine, rather than collecting images that need labour intensive video analysis. Ex-vivo experiments, on ICG-impregnated swine intestine, have shown that the prototype system is able to detect low concentrations of ICG in the nanomolar and micromolar region, which is required to detect early cancer in the small intestine. PMID:26736713

  6. Age appropriate screening for cancer: Evidence-based practice in the United States of America

    T S Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a well established and integral part of routine care in the Western world including United States. Men and women are recommended to get age-specific screening for common cancers like breast, cervical, prostate, and colon. The goal of screening is primary and secondary prevention. Cancer prevention and early detection of cancers has been shown to improve survival rates and decrease mortality by prompt appropriate treatment. This article serves to outline the current guidelines in the United States for cancer screening and the evidence for them as well as discusses the possibility of a similar model of care in India as well as barriers to such a screening program for cancer. The evidence was mostly obtained from systematic reviews done by the United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines and other peer institutions like American Cancer Society and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  7. What we have learned from randomized trials of prostate cancer screening

    Richard M Hoffman; Anthony Y Smith

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer screening in the late 1980s led to an epidemic of prostate cancer, particularly in developed countries. However, the first valid reports from randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of screening were not published until 2009. Men in the screening group in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer were 20% less likely than those in the control group to die from prostate cancer. The absolute difference was only 0.7/1000, implying that over 1400 men needed to be screened to prevent one prostate cancer death. Screening was also associated with a 70% increased risk for being diagnosed with prostate cancer. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial found no survival benefit for screening. Results were not conclusive because a substantial proportion of study subjects had previously undergone PSA testing, over half of the control group had PSA testing, follow-up was relatively short, and fewer than 100 subjects died from prostate cancer. Balancing the potential survival benefit from screening is the risk of overdiagnosis-finding cancers that would not otherwise cause clinical problems-and the risk of treatment complications, including urinary, sexual and bowel dysfunction. Prostate cancer screening efforts would benefit from improved biomarkers, which more readily identify clinically important cancers. Cancer control efforts might also need to include chemoprevention, though currently available agents are controversial. In the meantime, patients need to be supported in achieving informed decisions on whether to be screened for prostate cancer.

  8. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior. PMID:26275881

  9. A comparative study of breast cancer mass screening using ultrasonography and mammography at a single institution

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonic screening for breast cancer (US group) in comparison with mammographic screening (MMG group), we analyzed 78,214 breast screening examinees presenting between 2007 and 2008 at our institution. The cancer detection rate in the US group was lower than that in the MMG group. However, the average age in the US group was significantly younger than that in the MMG group, and the rate of annual screening was significantly higher in the former than in the latter. In the US subgroup who underwent annual screening, the recall rate and the cancer detection rate were significantly lower, and the rate of detection of early breast cancers was significantly higher than that in the subgroup who underwent screening biennially or at longer intervals, and there was no significant inter-group difference in the cancer detection rate between women in their 40s and those aged 50 or above who underwent annual screening. The proportion of early breast cancers detected was almost the same in the both groups. In summary, US screening as well as MMG screening seems to be useful for detection of early breast cancer. Although a high recall rate for US screening has been reported previously, annual screening and sufficient quality control based on the guidelines proposed by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) are considered to reduce the recall rate. (author)

  10. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefor...... screening. This stresses the need for monitoring of individual screening programmes and developing information strategies targeted to the local participation pattern....... it is important to understand the barriers to FOBT screening. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search through PUBMED, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO in order to identify studies that provide information on socio-demographic determinants of participation in FOBT screening. RESULTS: FOBT participation...

  11. Detection and impact on cancer causation of persons exhibiting abnormal susceptibility to carcinogenic agents

    The so-called 'late biological effects', like cancer and genetic consequences and cytotoxic effects (cell killing, at higher doses), were once thought to be an inevitable consequence of a given level of exposure, whether to background radiation, to chemicals in our biosphere, or form spontaneous damage, the 'wear and tear' of living. The measurement of exposure, which results in living organisms in the formation of a related amount of DNA damage, became a surrogate for the end-effects that constitute risk. This may not be entirely appropriate. The concept of 'equal exposure -- equal risk' assumes a homogeneous response of individuals. However, there are subgroups within the human population of persons whose cultured cells exhibit abnormal sensitivity to specific carcinogenic agents and who may be at increased risk of cancer induced by these of similar agents. Modern molecular biology has shown that the majority of the damage in DNA is repaired by enzymatic DNA repair processes that restitute or ameliorate the lesions and restore normal DNA structure and function. In this view, it is not the initial damage that is of consequence but rather the residual damage left after the repair processes have acted. Since the vast majority of the initial DNA damage undergoes repair normally, variation in the efficiency of these processes in different persons may affect the actual risk of exposure. The human side of the cancer causation formula, that is, considerable importance. To understand how human DNA repair processes function, our laboratories at Chalk River have studied 'mutant' human cell strains in tissue culture. Generally, these DNA repair-defective cell strains are derived from individual donors with heritable disorders that are associated with carcinogen-hypersensitivity and cancer-proneness. Such studies, together with related epidemiological research, have highlighted the importance of this new 'human' factor in carcinogenesis

  12. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients

    Giacomo Accardo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules 1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions.

  13. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  14. Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis in New Zealand: impacts of socio-demographic factors, breast cancer screening and biology

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Harvey, Vernon; Ramsaroop, Reena; Elwood, Mark; Scott, Nina; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of factors associated with late stage diagnosis of breast cancer is useful to identify areas which are amenable to intervention. This study analyses trends in cancer stage at diagnosis and impact of socio-demographic, cancer biological and screening characteristics on cancer stage in a population-based series of women with invasive breast cancer in New Zealand. Methods All women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 were identified from two regiona...

  15. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate ...

  16. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  17. U.S. Panel Says Evidence 'Insufficient' to Recommend Skin Cancer Screenings

    ... html U.S. Panel Says Evidence 'Insufficient' to Recommend Skin Cancer Screenings But dermatology experts disagree and worry opportunities ... proof to recommend regular full-body exams for skin cancer as a means of preventing deaths from these ...

  18. Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women

    Johanna E. Maree

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preventable, cervical cancer, an AIDS-related disease, is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and the most common cancer amongst black women. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening. Method: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248 indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198 knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer.

  19. Genome-Wide Screening of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients Using Array-CGH Technique: A Czech Multicenter Experience

    Jan Smetana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs play a key role in multiple myeloma (MM pathogenesis and have important prognostic significance for MM patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH provides a powerful tool for genome-wide classification of CNAs and thus should be implemented into MM routine diagnostics. We demonstrate the possibility of effective utilization of oligonucleotide-based aCGH in 91 MM patients. Chromosomal aberrations associated with effect on the prognosis of MM were initially evaluated by I-FISH and were found in 93.4% (85/91. Incidence of hyperdiploidy was 49.5% (45/91; del(13(q14 was detected in 57.1% (52/91; gain(1(q21 occurred in 58.2% (53/91; del(17(p13 was observed in 15.4% (14/91; and t(4;14(p16;q32 was found in 18.6% (16/86. Genome-wide screening using Agilent 44K aCGH microarrays revealed copy number alterations in 100% (91/91. Most common deletions were found at 13q (58.9%, 1p (39.6%, and 8p (31.1%, whereas gain of whole 1q was the most often duplicated region (50.6%. Furthermore, frequent homozygous deletions of genes playing important role in myeloma biology such as TRAF3, BIRC1/BIRC2, RB1, or CDKN2C were observed. Taken together, we demonstrated the utilization of aCGH technique in clinical diagnostics as powerful tool for identification of unbalanced genomic abnormalities with prognostic significance for MM patients.

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities in Breast Cancer Screening in Hawaii

    Timothy Halliday, PhD

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDespite evidence that breast cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, many women do not obtain mammograms. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between income and mammography screening for members enrolled in a large health plan in Hawaii.MethodsWe analyzed claims data for women (N = 46,328 aged 50 to 70 years during 2003 and 2004. We used parametric and nonparametric regression techniques. We used probit estimation to conduct multivariate analysis.ResultsAt the 5th percentile of the earnings distribution, the probability of mammography is 57.1%, and at the 95th percentile, it is 67.7%. Movement from the 5th percentile to the 35th percentile of the earnings distribution increases the probability of mammography by 0.0378 percentage points. A similar movement from the 65th percentile to the 95th percentile increases the probability by 0.0394 percentage points. Also, we observed an income gradient within narrowly defined geographic regions where physical access to medical care providers is not an issue.ConclusionWe observed a steep income gradient in mammography screening in Hawaii. Because of the prevalence of measurement error, this gradient is probably far greater than our estimate. We cannot plausibly attribute our findings to disparities in coverage because 100% of our sample had health insurance coverage. The gradient also does not appear to result from poorer people residing in areas that are geographically isolated from providers of medical care.

  1. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Schootman Mario; Lian Min; Yun Shumei

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variati...

  2. Participation in bowel cancer screening: a qualitative exploration of the factors influencing participation and uptake

    Azodo, Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    Bowel cancer is major global public health problem. In the United Kingdom, it is the third most common cancer in men and women and second major cause of cancer deaths. It has been suggested that the risk of bowel cancer deaths can be reduced by 16% through regular bowel screening. However, screening uptake remains low. This research explored factors influencing participation in the NHS bowel cancer screening programme, specifically ‘the faecal occult blood test (FOBt)’ in the North East, York...

  3. Relation between breast cancer mortality and screening effectiveness: systematic review of the mammography trials

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    The mammography screening trials have shown varying results. This could be because screening was better in some trials than in others at advancing the time of diagnosis. If so, more cancers would be identified in such trials relative to the control group, and fewer of the cancers would have reached...... an advanced stage. I performed a systematic review of the mammography screening trials using metaregression. Finding many cancers was not related to the size of the reduction in breast cancer mortality (p = 0.19 after seven and p = 0.73 after 13 years of follow-up). In contrast, finding few cancers...

  4. Influences on uptake of cancer screening in mental health service users: a qualitative study

    Clifton, Abigail; Burgess, Caroline; Clement, Sarah; Ohlsen, Ruth; Ramluggun, Pras; Sturt, Jackie; Walters, Paul; Barley, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancers are a leading cause of death worldwide. People with mental illness are 30 % more likely to die from cancer than the general population. One reason for this may be low uptake of nationally offered cancer screening tests by people with mental illness. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for breast, cervical and bowel cancer screening uptake by people with mental illness in order to inform interventions to promote equal access. Methods The interview study was conduc...

  5. An ongoing case–control study to evaluate the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme

    Massat, Nathalie J; Sasieni, Peter D; Parmar, Dharmishta; Duffy, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death in both males and females in England. A national bowel cancer screening programme was rolled out in England between 2006 and 2010. In the post-randomised controlled trials epoch, assessment of the impact of the programme using observational studies is needed. This study protocol was set up at the request of the UK Policy Research Unit in Cancer Awareness, Screening and Early Diagnosis to evaluate the effect of the cur...

  6. Oral Cancer Screening at Workplace in India—One-year Follow-up

    P A Uplap; G A Mishra; Majumdar, P.; S D Gupta; P S Rane; P K Sadalge; A M Avasare; S S Goswami; V A Dhar; S S Shastri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer remains the commonest form of cancer and cancer-related deaths among Indian males due to popularity of avoidable risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol use. A workplace oral cancer screening and tobacco cessation study was commenced on World No Tobacco Day 2007 at a chemical industry in rural Maharashtra. Aims: The objectives were to screen the employees for oral neoplasia and to correlate it with their tobacco consumption pattern. In addition, the objective was to p...

  7. The `Ohana Day Project: A Community Approach to Increasing Cancer Screening

    Gellert, Kapuaola; Braun, Kathryn L.; Morris, Robert; Starkey, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    Background Native Hawaiians have higher cancer mortality rates and lower cancer screening rates compared with non-Hawaiians in Hawaii. People living in rural areas have particularly limited options for cancer services, especially for services that are culturally attractive and convenient. Context `Ohana Day, offered in a small, rural, and predominantly Hawaiian community, was designed to attract underserved Hawaiians to cancer screening. Methods The year-long project involved a 1-day ho`olaul...

  8. Hepatitis B vaccinations among Koreans: Results from 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey

    Kwak Min-Son; Park Eun-Cheol; Choi Kui; Juon Hee-Soon; Lee Sunmin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening and vaccination programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the status of HBV infection and the predictors associated with HBV vaccination. Methods The study population was derived from the 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS). The KNCSS is an annua...

  9. The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia

    Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...

  10. Yield of claims data and surveys for determining colon cancer screening among health plan members.

    Pignone, Michael; Scott, Tracy L; Schild, Laura A; Lewis, Carmen; Vázquez, Raquel; Glanz, Karen

    2009-03-01

    Screening can reduce incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer but has been underutilized. Efforts to increase screening depend on accurate data about screening status. We sought to evaluate the independent and combined yield of claims and direct survey for identifying colorectal cancer screening among average-risk health plan beneficiaries. Participants were Aetna members ages between 52 and 80 years from 32 primary care practices in Florida and Georgia participating in the Communicating Health Options through Information and Cancer Education study. Main outcomes were the proportion of average-risk patients who were up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening based on claims data and the estimated additional yield of survey data for patients with no evidence of screening in their claims history. Of 4,020 average-risk members identified, claims data indicated that 1,066 (27%) had recent colorectal cancer screening. Among the 1,269 average-risk members with no evidence of screening by claims data who returned surveys, 498 (39%) reported being up-to-date with screening. Combining claims data and survey data and accounting for survey nonresponse, we estimate that 47% to 59% of member patients were actually up-to-date with screening, an additional yield of 20 to 32 percentage points. We conclude that, among health plan members, the combination of claims data and survey information had substantially higher yield than claims data alone for identifying colorectal cancer screening. PMID:19273480

  11. A history of breast cancer screening and future problems in Japan

    In Europe and the United States, mortality due to breast cancer is decreasing. There are various reasons for this trend, including an increase in the detection of early-stage breast cancers due to the increased use of mammographic screening, and the establishment of standardized systemic treatments derived from evidence-based medicine (EBM). On the other hand, in Japanese women, both morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer are increasing. This paper describes the process of breast cancer screening in the past, its current status, and the quality control system for mammographic screening in Japan, as well as the status of breast cancer screening in Europe and the United States. Furthermore, problems of breast cancer screening in Japan discussed, together with the need for practical measures such as implementation of quality control systems aimed at improving the cancer screening rate (with a target of 50%), financial support, and population-based screening (organized screening), based on the Cancer Control Act. Current measures for screening of dense breast tissue in women in their 40s in Japan are also described. (author)

  12. Intrinsic motivation factors based on the self-determinant theory for regular breast cancer screening.

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended. PMID:25556433

  13. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

    Hasmeena Kathuria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention.

  14. Characteristics and prognosis of interval cancers after biennial screen-film or full-field digital screening mammography.

    Weber, Roy J P; van Bommel, Rob M G; Louwman, Marieke W; Nederend, Joost; Voogd, Adri C; Jansen, Frits H; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Duijm, Lucien E M

    2016-08-01

    We determined the characteristics and prognosis of interval breast cancers (IC) at screen-film (SFM) and full-field digital (FFDM) screening mammography. The study population consisted of 417,746 consecutive screening mammograms (302,699 SFM screens and 115,047 FFDM screens), obtained between 2000 and 2011. During 2-year follow-up, we collected breast imaging reports, surgical reports, and pathology results. A total of 800 ICs had been diagnosed in the screened population, of which 288 detected in the first year (early ICs) and 512 in the second year (late ICs) after a negative screen. 31.3 % of early IC's and 19.1 % of late IC's, respectively, were visible in retrospect on the latest previous screens, but had been missed during screening (P < 0.001). Missed invasive ICs were larger (28.5 mm vs. 23.9 mm, P = 0.003) and showed a higher fraction of T3+cancers (16.9 vs. 8.5 %, P = 0.02) than true ICs (i.e., not visible at the latest screen). A higher portion of missed than true ICs underwent mastectomy (44.7 vs. 30.8 %, P = 0.002). We found no differences in mammographic and tumor characteristics for early ICs, detected either after SFM or FFDM. Late ICs following FFDM were more often true ICs than missed ICs (69.0 vs. 57.6 %, P = 0.03) and more often receptor triple negative (P = 0.02), compared to late ICs at SFM. Interval cancer subgroups showed comparable overall survival. Interval cancer subgroups show distinctive mammographic and tumor characteristics but a comparable overall survival. PMID:27393617

  15. Differences between men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers in the USA

    Stone S Noell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing in the United States of America (USA has led to a dramatic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in the United States as well as the number of men undergoing aggressive treatment with radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. We compared patient characteristics and treatment selection between American men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers. Methods We evaluated 3,173 men with prostate cancer in the USA. Surveys and medical records provided information on demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, symptoms, tumor characteristics, and treatment. We classified men presenting with symptoms of advanced cancer – bone pain, weight loss, or hematuria – as "clinically diagnosed"; asymptomatic men and those with only lower urinary tract symptoms were considered "screening-detected." We used multivariate analyses to determine whether screening predicted receiving aggressive treatment for a clinically localized cancer. Results We classified 11% of cancers as being clinically diagnosed. Men with screening-detected cancers were more often non-Hispanic white (77% vs. 65%, P Conclusion Most cancers were detected by screening in this American cohort. Appropriately, younger, healthier men were more likely to be diagnosed by screening. Minority status and lower socio-economic status appeared to be screening barriers. Screening detected earlier-stage cancers and was associated with receiving aggressive treatment.

  16. Comparative pathology of breast cancer in a randomised trial of screening.

    Anderson, T J; Lamb, J; Donnan, P; Alexander, F E; Huggins, A; Muir, B B; Kirkpatrick, A E; Chetty, U; Hepburn, W; Smith, A

    1991-07-01

    In the Edinburgh Randomised Breast Screening Project (EBSP) to December 1988 there were 500 cancers in the study population invited to screening and 340 cancers identified in the control population. The size and negative lymph node status characteristics of invasive cancers from the two populations were significantly different (P less than 0.05). The cancers detected by screening were predominantly 'early stage', with 16% noninvasive (PTIS) and 42% invasive stage I (pT1 node negative), whereas cancers were frequently 'late stage' (more than pT2) and inoperable in nonattenders (44%) and controls (36%). Grouped according to customary size ranges of invasive cancers, the proportion of cases lymph node positive differed in those screen detected compared with controls, but the benefit in favour of screen detection was not constant. In comparisons of cancers detected at prevalence and incidence screens, as a test of conformity with screening theory, no significant differences were apparent according to size and lymph node status, yet the characteristics of histological type of cancer discriminated significantly (P less than 0.05). When these same histological characteristics were used to compare survival, the capacity to separate invasive cancers into two groups having good and poor survival probabilities was evident, with a significant improvement for the screen detected poor survival group compared with controls (P less than 0.05). PMID:1854609

  17. Radial scars detected mammographically in a breast cancer screening programme

    Radial scars are getting more and more common since implementation of mammography as diagnostic tool in screening women for breast cancer. At Karolinska Hospital, 18987 asymptomatic women, aged 50-69, were screened for breast cancer through mammography during August 1989-May 1991. A total of 735 (3.87%) were recalled for additional views after initial mammograms and 463 (2.44%) were assessed with help of cytology. In all 175 women (0.92%) were selected for surgery and 146 (0.77%) had histologically verified cancers. The remaining 29 (0.15%) had non- malignant lesions of which 11 (0.06%) were radial scars. All radial scars were diagnosed on mammograms and later confirmed with histology. The radiologic characteristics were found to be a) rather thick and long radiating structures accompanied by radiolucent linear structures parallel to some of the spicules, b) absence of calcifications, c) radiolucent areas in the body of the lesion, d) an average mean size of 6 mm and e) changing image in different views. Most of the lesions, 73% (8/11), were in moderately dense breasts and there was no specific relation to the right or left breast. A majority of radial scars, 64% (7/11), were found in the upper outer quadrants, 3/11 in the lower outer quadrants and 1/11 in the lower inner quadrant. Literature shows that histology uses many synonyms for radial scars and therefore team work between radiologists and pathologists is suggested for better conformity of the diagnosis. (author). 32 refs.; 1 fig

  18. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Page, Elizabeth C; Castro, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in ...

  19. Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in a clinical setting: essential elements of a screening program.

    McKee, Brady J; McKee, Andrea B; Kitts, Andrea Borondy; Regis, Shawn M; Wald, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review clinical computed tomography (CT) lung screening program elements essential to safely and effectively manage the millions of Americans at high risk for lung cancer expected to enroll in lung cancer screening programs over the next 3 to 5 years. To optimize the potential net benefit of CT lung screening and facilitate medical audits benchmarked to national quality standards, radiologists should interpret these examinations using a validated structured reporting system such as Lung-RADS. Patient and physician educational outreach should be enacted to support an informed and shared decision-making process without creating barriers to screening access. Programs must integrate smoking cessation interventions to maximize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of screening. At an institutional level, budgets should account for the necessary expense of hiring and/or training qualified support staff and equipping them with information technology resources adequate to enroll and track patients accurately over decades of future screening evaluation. At a national level, planning should begin on ways to accommodate the upcoming increased demand for physician services in fields critical to the success of CT lung screening such as diagnostic radiology and thoracic surgery. Institutions with programs that follow these specifications will be well equipped to meet the significant oncoming demand for CT lung screening services and bestow clinical benefits on their patients equal to or beyond what was observed in the National Lung Screening Trial. PMID:25658476

  20. Screening for vulnerability in older cancer patients: the ONCODAGE Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study.

    Pierre Soubeyran

    Full Text Available Geriatric Assessment is an appropriate method for identifying older cancer patients at risk of life-threatening events during therapy. Yet, it is underused in practice, mainly because it is time- and resource-consuming. This study aims to identify the best screening tool to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment by comparing the performance of two short assessment tools the G8 and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13.The diagnostic accuracy of the G8 and the (VES-13 were evaluated in a prospective cohort study of 1674 cancer patients accrued before treatment in 23 health care facilities. 1435 were eligible and evaluable. Outcome measures were multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA, sensitivity (primary, specificity, negative and positive predictive values and likelihood ratios of the G8 and VES-13, and predictive factors of 1-year survival rate.Patient median age was 78.2 years (70-98 with a majority of females (69.8%, various types of cancer including 53.9% breast, and 75.8% Performance Status 0-1. Impaired MGA, G8, and VES-13 were 80.2%, 68.4%, and 60.2%, respectively. Mean time to complete G8 or VES-13 was about five minutes. Reproducibility of the two questionnaires was good. G8 appeared more sensitive (76.5% versus 68.7%, P =  0.0046 whereas VES-13 was more specific (74.3% versus 64.4%, P<0.0001. Abnormal G8 score (HR = 2.72, advanced stage (HR = 3.30, male sex (HR = 2.69 and poor Performance Status (HR = 3.28 were independent prognostic factors of 1-year survival.With good sensitivity and independent prognostic value on 1-year survival, the G8 questionnaire is currently one of the best screening tools available to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment, and we believe it should be implemented broadly in daily practice. Continuous research efforts should be pursued to refine the selection process of older cancer patients before potentially life-threatening therapy.