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Sample records for abnormal biomechanical properties

  1. Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes

    ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).

  2. Biomechanical Properties of Bone and Biomechanics of Age - Related Fractures - Review

    Rezzan Günaydın

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available From a biomechanical viewpoint, fractures are due to a structural failure of the bone. This failure occurs when the forces applied to the bone exceed its load – bearing capacity. The load – bearing capacity of a bone depends on the geometry (its size, shape and distribution of bone mass, and the material properties of a bone as well as the direction and magnitude of applied load. Bone fragility can be defined by biomechanical parameters such as strength, brittleness and work to failure. Strategies to reduce fracture risk must be based on a sound understanding of the cellular, molecular and biomechanical mechanisms that underlie the increased risk of fractures while aging. In this review biomechanics of bone and the etiology of age – related fractures from a biomechanical viewpoint have been discussed in the view of current literature. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:44-8

  3. Robotic palpation and mechanical property characterization for abnormal tissue localization.

    Ahn, Bummo; Kim, Yeongjin; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Jung

    2012-09-01

    Palpation is an intuitive examination procedure in which the kinesthetic and tactile sensations of the physician are used. Although it has been widely used to detect and localize diseased tissues in many clinical fields, the procedure is subjective and dependent on the experience of the individual physician. Palpation results and biomechanics-based mechanical property characterization are possible solutions that can enable the acquisition of objective and quantitative information on abnormal tissue localization during diagnosis and surgery. This paper presents an integrated approach for robotic palpation combined with biomechanical soft tissue characterization. In particular, we propose a new palpation method that is inspired by the actual finger motions that occur during palpation procedures. To validate the proposed method, robotic palpation experiments on silicone soft tissue phantoms with embedded hard inclusions were performed and the force responses of the phantoms were measured using a robotic palpation system. Furthermore, we carried out a numerical analysis, simulating the experiments and estimating the objective and quantitative properties of the tissues. The results indicate that the proposed approach can differentiate diseased tissue from normal tissue and can characterize the mechanical information of diseased tissue, which means that this method can be applied as a means of abnormality localization to diagnose prostate cancers. PMID:22772733

  4. Biomechanical abnormalities and ulcers of the great toe in patients with diabetes.

    Boffeli, Troy J; Bean, Jeffrey K; Natwick, James R

    2002-01-01

    A prospective analysis was conducted to identify structural and biomechanical first ray abnormalities in consecutive diabetic patients presenting with their first great toe ulcer. Twenty-six patients (33 feet) met the inclusion criteria, with seven patients having bilateral hallux ulcers. There was no other history of ulcer, trauma, or surgery on the respective limb. Data were obtained during the patients' initial presentation with a great toe ulcer and included verbal history, standardized weight bearing radiographs, and standardized objective clinical measurements. Four patients (four feet) with subungual ulcers were included because of mechanical etiology. Twenty-four of the remaining 29 involved limbs exhibited gastrocnemius/soleus equinus and two other limbs had gastrocnemius equinus. Twenty-eight of 29 had structural hallux limitus. Twenty-four had hallux interphalangeal abductus. Twenty of the 33 ulcers were located plantar-medially at the interphalangeal joint area. Other frequent findings were first ray elevatus or dorsiflexion deformity (18 of 29), functional hallux limitus (14 of 29), interphalangeal joint sesamoid bone (13 of 29), hyperextended interphalangeal joint (13 of 29), and a prominent plantar-medial condyle of the proximalaspect of the distalphalanx (7 of 29). Halluxmalleus was less common (4 of 29), but consistently associated with plantar-distal tip ulceration. Metatarsus primus adductus was also infrequent (6 of 29). This study identifies and illustrates the importance of several biomechanical and structural factors present on initial presentation of great toe ulcers. Addressing these factors may improve the success of treatment and lessen the occurrence of this common and complex problem. PMID:12500786

  5. The biomechanical and structural properties of CS2 fimbriae

    Mortezaei, Narges; Zakrisson, Johan; Bullitt, Esther; Andersson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide, and infection of children in underdeveloped countries often leads to high mortality rates. Isolated ETEC express a plethora of colonization factors (fimbriae/pili), of which CFA/I and CFA/II that are assembled via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP), are amongst the most common. Fimbriae are filamentous structures, whose shafts are primarily composed of helically arranged single pilin-protein subunits, with a unique biomechanical capability allowing them to unwind and rewind. A sustained ETEC infection, under adverse conditions of dynamic shear forces, is primarily attributed to this biomechanical feature of ETEC fimbriae. Recent understandings about the role of fimbriae as virulence factors are pointing to an evolutionary adaptation of their structural and biomechanical features. In this work, we investigated the biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae from the CFA/II group. Homology modelling its major structural subunit CotA ...

  6. Biomechanical properties of peripheral nerve after acellular treatment

    MA Xin-long; SUN Xiao-lei; YANG Zhao; LI Xiu-lan; MA Jian-xiong; ZHANG Yang; YUAN Zhen-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve injury causes a high rate of disability and a huge economic burden,and is currently one of the serious health problems in the world.The use of nerve grafts plays a vital role in repairing nerve defects.Acellular nerve grafts have been widely used in many experimental models as a peripheral nerve substitute.The purpose of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of acellular nerve grafts.Methods Thirty-four fresh sciatic nerves were obtained from 17 adult male Wistar rats (age of 3 months) and randomly assigned to 3 groups:normal control group,nerve segments underwent no treatment and were put in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and stored at 4℃ until further use; physical method group,nerve segments were frozen at -196℃ and then thawed at 37℃; and chemical method group,nerve segments were chemically extracted with the detergents Triton X-200,sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10) and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16).After the acellularization process was completed,the structural changes of in the sciatic nerves in each group were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy,then biomechanical properties were tested using a mechanical apparatus (Endura TEC ELF 3200,Bose,Boston,USA).Results Hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effects of acellularization,demyelination,and integrity of nerve fiber tube of the chemical method were better than that of the physical method.Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve grafts treated with the chemical method resulted in some decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load,ultimate stress,ultimate strain,and mechanical work to fracture) compared with normal control nerves,but the differences were not statistically significant (P >0.05).Conclusion Nerve treated with the chemical method may be more appropriate for use in implantation than nerve treated with the physical method.

  7. Biomechanical properties of decellularized porcine pulmonary valve conduits.

    Seebacher, Gernot; Grasl, Christian; Stoiber, Martin; Rieder, Erwin; Kasimir, Marie-Theres; Dunkler, Daniela; Simon, Paul; Weigel, Günter; Schima, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    Tissue-engineered heart valves constructed from a xenogeneic or allogeneic decellularized matrix might overcome the disadvantages of current heart valve substitutes. One major necessity besides effective decellularization is to preserve the biomechanical properties of the valve. Native and decellularized porcine pulmonary heart valve conduits (PPVCs) (with [n = 10] or without [n = 10] cryopreservation) were compared to cryopreserved human pulmonary valve conduits (n = 7). Samples of the conduit were measured for wall thickness and underwent tensile tests. Elongation measurement was performed with a video extensometer. Decellularized PPVC showed a higher failure force both in longitudinal (+73%; P < 0.01) and transverse (+66%; P < 0.001) direction compared to human homografts. Failure force of the tissue after cryopreservation was still higher in the porcine group (longitudinal: +106%, P < 0.01; transverse: +58%, P < 0.001). In comparison to human homografts, both decellularized and decellularized cryopreserved porcine conduits showed a higher extensibility in longitudinal (decellularized: +61%, P < 0.001; decellularized + cryopreserved: +51%, P < 0.01) and transverse (decellularized: +126%, P < 0.001; decellularized + cryopreserved: +118%, P < 0.001) direction. Again, cryopreservation did not influence the biomechanical properties of the decellularized porcine matrix. PMID:18181800

  8. Biomechanical properties of acellular sciatic nerves treated with a modified chemical method

    Xinlong Ma; Zhao Yang; Xiaolei Sun; Jianxiong Ma; Xiulan Li; Zhenzhen Yuan; Yang Zhang; Honggang Guo

    2011-01-01

    Nerve grafts are able to adapt to surrounding biomechanical environments if the nerve graft itself exhibits appropriate biomechanical properties (load, elastic modulus, etc.). The present study was designed to determine the differences in biomechanical properties between fresh and chemically acellularized sciatic nerve grafts. Two different chemical methods were used to establish acellular nerve grafts. The nerve was chemically extracted in the Sondell method with a combination of Triton X-100 (nonionic detergent) and sodium deoxycholate (anionic detergent), and in the modified method with a combination of Triton X-200 (anionic detergent), sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10, amphoteric detergents), and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16, amphoteric detergents). Following acellularization, hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effect of acellularization via the modified method was similar to the traditional Sondell method. However, effects of demyelination and nerve fiber tube integrity were superior to the traditional Sondell method. Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve graft treated using the chemical method resulted in decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, and mechanical work to fracture) compared with fresh nerves, but the differences had no statistical significance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated no significant effect on biomechanical properties of nerves treated using the chemical method. In conclusion, nerve grafts treated via the modified method removed Schwann cells, preserved neural structures, and ensured biomechanical properties of the nerve graft, which could be more appropriate for implantation studies.

  9. The biomechanical properties of F1C pili

    Castelain, Mickaël; Klinth, Jeanna; Lindberg, Stina; Andersson, Magnus; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) express various kinds of organelles, so-called pili or fimbriae, that mediate adhesion to host tissue in the urinary tract through specific receptor-adhesin interactions. The biomechanical properties of these pili have been considered important for the ability of bacteria to withstand shear forces from rinsing urine flows. Force measuring optical tweezers have been used to characterize individual organelles of F1C type expressed by UPEC bacteria with respect to such properties. Qualitatively, the force-vs.-elongation response was found to be similar to that of other types of helix-like pili expressed by UPEC, i.e. type 1, P, and S, with force-induced elongation in three regions of which one represents the important uncoiling mechanism of the helix-like quaternary structure. Quantitatively, the steady-state uncoiling force was assessed to 26.4(1.4) pN, which is similar to those of other pili (which range from 21 pN for SI to 30 pN for type 1). The corner velocity for dynam...

  10. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  11. Influence of Age on Ocular Biomechanical Properties in a Canine Glaucoma Model with ADAMTS10 Mutation

    Palko, Joel R.; Morris, Hugh J.; Pan, Xueliang; Harman, Christine D.; Koehl, Kristin L.; Gelatt, Kirk N.; Plummer, Caryn E.; Komáromy, András M.; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue often displays marked age-associated stiffening. This study aims to investigate how age affects scleral biomechanical properties in a canine glaucoma model with ADAMTS10 mutation, whose extracellular matrix is concomitantly influenced by the mutation and an increased mechanical load from an early age. Biomechanical data was acquired from ADAMTS10-mutant dogs (n = 10, 21 to 131 months) and normal dogs (n = 5, 69 to 113 months). Infusion testing was first performed in the whole glob...

  12. Age-related changes in biomechanical properties of transgenic porcine pulmonary and aortic conduits

    The limitations associated with conventional valve prosthesis have led to a search for alternatives. One potential approach is tissue engineering. Most tissue engineering studies have described the biomechanical properties of heart valves derived from adult pigs. However, because one of the factors affecting the function of valve prosthesis after implantation is appropriate sizing for a given patient, it is important to evaluate the usefulness of a heart valve given the donor animal’s weight and age. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the age of a pig can influence the biomechanical and hemodynamical properties of porcine heart valve prosthesis after acellularization. Acellular porcine aortic and pulmonary valve conduits were used. Hearts were harvested from animals differing in weight and age. The biomechanical properties of the valves were then characterized using a uniaxial tensile test. Moreover, computer simulations based on the finite element method (FEM) were used to study the influence of biomechanical properties on the hemodynamic conditions. Studying biomechanical and morphological changes in porcine heart valve conduits according to the weight and age of the animals can be valuable for developing age-targeted therapy using tissue engineering techniques. (paper)

  13. A Microfluidic Platform for Profiling Biomechanical Properties of Bacteria

    Sun, Xuanhao; Weinlandt, William D; Patel, Harsh; WU, Mingming; Hernandez, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to resist mechanical forces is necessary for the survival and division of bacteria and has traditionally been probed using specialized, low-throughput techniques such as atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic technique to profile the stiffness of individual bacteria and populations of bacteria. The approach is similar to micropipette aspiration used to characterize the biomechanical performance of eukaryotic cells. However, the small size ...

  14. Impaired physical function, loss of muscle mass and assessment of biomechanical properties in critical ill patients

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum

    2012-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment. A...... potential to counteract loss of muscle mass. Despite the obvious clinical significance of muscle atrophy for the functional impairment observed in ICU survivors, no preventive therapies have been identified as yet. The overall aim of the present dissertation is to characterize aspects of physical function...... and biomechanical properties in ICU patients and to provide new insights into ICU-induced muscle wasting and the underlying biomechanical mechanisms responsible for the residual impairment of physical function in ICU survivors....

  15. Biomechanical Properties of In Vivo Human Skin From Dynamic Optical Coherence Elastography

    Liang, Xing; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic optical coherence elastography is used to determine in vivo skin biomechanical properties based on mechanical surface wave propagation. Quantitative Young’s moduli are measured on human skin from different sites, orientations, and frequencies. Skin thicknesses, including measurements from different layers, are also measured simultaneously. Experimental results show significant differences among measurements from different skin sites, between directions parallel and orthogonal to Lange...

  16. Effect of estrogen on tendon collagen synthesis, tendon structural characteristics, and biomechanical properties in postmenopausal women

    Hansen, M.; Kongsgaard, M; Holm, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge about the effect of estradiol on tendon connective tissue is limited. Therefore, we studied the influence of estradiol on tendon synthesis, structure, and biomechanical properties in postmenopausal women. Nonusers (control, n = 10) or habitual users of oral estradiol replacement the...

  17. On the prospect of patient-specific biomechanics without patient-specific properties of tissues.

    Miller, Karol; Lu, Jia

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents main theses of two keynote lectures delivered at Euromech Colloquium "Advanced experimental approaches and inverse problems in tissue biomechanics" held in Saint Etienne in June 2012. We are witnessing an advent of patient-specific biomechanics that will bring in the future personalized treatments to sufferers all over the world. It is the current task of biomechanists to devise methods for clinically-relevant patient-specific modeling. One of the obstacles standing before the biomechanics community is the difficulty in obtaining patient-specific properties of tissues to be used in biomechanical models. We postulate that focusing on reformulating computational mechanics problems in such a way that the results are weakly sensitive to the variation in mechanical properties of simulated continua is more likely to bear fruit in near future. We consider two types of problems: (i) displacement-zero traction problems whose solutions in displacements are weakly sensitive to mechanical properties of the considered continuum; and (ii) problems that are approximately statically determinate and therefore their solutions in stresses are also weakly sensitive to mechanical properties of constituents. We demonstrate that the kinematically loaded biomechanical models of the first type are applicable in the field of image-guided surgery where the current, intraoperative configuration of a soft organ is of critical importance. We show that sac-like membranes, which are prototypes of many thin-walled biological organs, are approximately statically determinate and therefore useful solutions for wall stress can be obtained without the knowledge of the wall's properties. We demonstrate the clinical applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methods using examples from modeling neurosurgery and intracranial aneurysms. PMID:23491073

  18. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  19. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    Bae, Won C.; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Rachathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Biswas, Reni; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  20. Changes in Corneal Biomechanical Properties after Long-Term Topical Prostaglandin Therapy

    Yu, Xiaobo; Li, Mengwei; Wen, Wen; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare corneal biomechanical properties, measured by a newly developed tonometer (Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology, Corvis ST), in untreated primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, POAG patients with long-term topical prostaglandin analog (PGA) therapy and in normal controls. Further is to investigate the potential effects of PGA on corneal biomechanics. Methods In this case-control study, 35 consecutive medication naïve eyes with POAG, 34 POAG eyes with at least 2 years treatment by PGA and 19 normal eyes were included. Intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal biomechanical parameters, including deformation amplitude (DA), applanation time (AT1 and AT2), applanation length (AL1 and AL2), applanation velocity (AV1 and AV2), and peak distance and radius were measured using Corvis ST. Axial length and corneal curvature were measured with partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster, Zeiss, Germany). General linear model analysis was performed to investigate the corneal biomechanical property changes among the normal controls, newly diagnosed POAG patients and POAG patients with long-term PGA treatment, and among the subgroups of different types of PGA treatment, including bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons using Bonferroni correction for least squares means were employed. Results AT1 (p<0.0001), AV1 (p<0.0001), AT2 (p = 0.0001), AV2 (p<0.0001) and DA (p = 0.0004) in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were significantly different from those in normal subjects and in patients underwent at least 2 years topical PGA therapy after adjusting for age and gender. After adjusting for age, gender, IOP, CCT, axial length and corneal curvature, a significant difference was detected for DA between glaucoma patients without PGA treatment and patients with long-term PGA therapy (p = 0.0387). Furthermore, there were no statistical significant differences in all of the corneal

  1. Murine patellar tendon biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns during natural tendon-to-bone healing after acute injury

    Gilday, Steven D.; Casstevens, E. Chris; Kenter, Keith; Jason T Shearn; David L Butler

    2013-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing following acute injury is generally poor and often fails to restore normal tendon biomechanical properties. In recent years, the murine patellar tendon (PT) has become an important model system for studying tendon healing and repair due to its genetic tractability and accessible location within the knee. However, the mechanical properties of native murine PT, specifically the regional differences in tissue strains during loading, and the biomechanical outcomes of natura...

  2. Impacts of Hematite Nanoparticle Exposure on Biomechanical, Adhesive, and Surface Electrical Properties of Escherichia coli Cells

    Zhang, Wen; Hughes, Joseph; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of studies examining the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials, current knowledge on their cytotoxic mechanisms (particularly from a physical perspective) remains limited. In this work, we imaged and quantitatively characterized the biomechanical (hardness and elasticity), adhesive, and surface electrical properties of Escherichia coli cells with and without exposure to hematite nanoparticles (NPs) in an effort to advance our understanding of the cytotoxic impacts of nanomater...

  3. Topography of Acoustical Properties of Long Bones: From Biomechanical Studies to Bone Health Assessment

    Tatarinov, Alexey; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective view on the assessment of long bones condition using topographical patterns of the acoustic properties. The application of ultrasonic point-contact transducers with exponential waveguides on a short acoustic base for detailed measurements in human long bones by the surface transmission was initiated during the 1980s in Latvia. The guided wave velocity was mapped on the surface of the long bones and the topographical patterns reflected the biomechanical pec...

  4. Effects of refrigeration and freezing on the electromechanical and biomechanical properties of articular cartilage.

    Changoor, Adele; Fereydoonzad, Liah; Yaroshinsky, Alex; Buschmann, Michael D

    2010-06-01

    In vitro electromechanical and biomechanical testing of articular cartilage provide critical information about the structure and function of this tissue. Difficulties obtaining fresh tissue and lengthy experimental testing procedures often necessitate a storage protocol, which may adversely affect the functional properties of cartilage. The effects of storage at either 4°C for periods of 6 days and 12 days, or during a single freeze-thaw cycle at -20°C were examined in young bovine cartilage. Non-destructive electromechanical measurements and unconfined compression testing on 3 mm diameter disks were used to assess cartilage properties, including the streaming potential integral (SPI), fibril modulus (Ef), matrix modulus (Em), and permeability (k). Cartilage disks were also examined histologically. Compared with controls, significant decreases in SPI (to 32.3±5.5% of control values, prefrigeration at 4°C, but no significant changes were detected at day 6. A trend toward detecting a decrease in SPI (to 94.2±6.2% of control values, p=0.083) was identified following a single freeze-thaw cycle, but no detectable changes were observed for any biomechanical parameters. All numbers are mean±95% confidence interval. These results indicate that fresh cartilage can be stored in a humid chamber at 4°C for a maximum of 6 days with no detrimental effects to cartilage electromechanical and biomechanical properties, while one freeze-thaw cycle produces minimal deterioration of biomechanical and electromechanical properties. A comparison to literature suggested that particular attention should be paid to the manner in which specimens are thawed after freezing, specifically by minimizing thawing time at higher temperatures. PMID:20887036

  5. Sensitivity of quantitative UTE MRI to the biomechanical property of the temporomandibular joint disc

    Bae, Won C.; Biswas, Reni; Statum, Sheronda [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Sah, Robert L. [University of California-San Diego, Department of Bioengineering, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B. [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    To quantify MR properties of discs from cadaveric human temporomandibular joints (TMJ) using quantitative conventional and ultrashort time-to-echo magnetic resonance imaging (UTE MRI) techniques and to corroborate regional variation in the MR properties with that of biomechanical indentation stiffness. This study was exempt from the institutional review board approval. Cadaveric (four donors, two females, 74 ± 10.7 years) TMJs were sliced (n = 14 slices total) sagittally and imaged using quantitative techniques of conventional spin echo T2 (SE T2), UTE T2*, and UTE T1rho. The discs were then subjected to biomechanical indentation testing, which is performed by compressing the tissue with the blunt end of a small solid cylinder. Regional variations in MR and indentation stiffness were correlated. TMJ of a healthy volunteer was also imaged to show in vivo feasibility. Using the ME SE T2 and the UTE T1rho techniques, a significant (each p < 0.0001) inverse relation between MR and indentation stiffness properties was observed for the data in the lower range of stiffness. However, the strength of correlation was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for UTE T1rho (R{sup 2} = 0.42) than SE T2 (R{sup 2} = 0.19) or UTE T2* (R{sup 2} = 0.02, p = 0.1) techniques. The UTE T1rho technique, applicable in vivo, facilitated quantitative evaluation of TMJ discs and showed a high sensitivity to biomechanical softening of the TMJ discs. With additional work, the technique may become a useful surrogate measure for loss of biomechanical integrity of TMJ discs reflecting degeneration. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of Corneal Topographical and Biomechanical Properties in Cases with Atopic Dermatitis and Healthy Subjects

    Yusuf Yıldırım

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the topographic, biomechanical, and thickness properties of corneas of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD and of healthy individuals. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this prospective, cross-sectional, and comparative study, 28 healthy individuals (control group and 28 patients with AD (study group were enrolled. Corneal topographical measurements using Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius, corneal biomechanical properties using Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, and central corneal thickness (CCT using ultrasonic pachymeter were obtained for each participant. Re sults: Topographic parameters were not significantly different between both groups (p>0.05. Corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF were found same in both groups. CCT measured with ultrasonic pachymeter was significantly lower in patients with AD compared to health controls (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: No significant difference was found between patients with AD and age-matched healthy individuals regarding the corneal topographic findings and corneal biomechanical parameters. CCT was found to be lower in cases with AD than in healthy controls. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 140-4

  7. In Vivo Corneal Biomechanical Properties with Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology in Chinese Population

    Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the repeatability of recalculated corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST parameters and to study the variation of biomechanical properties and their association with demographic and ocular characteristics. Methods. A total of 783 healthy subjects were included in this study. Comprehensive ophthalmological examinations were conducted. The repeatability of the recalculated biomechanical parameters with 90 subjects was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to identify demographic and ocular factors. Results. The repeatability of the central corneal thickness (CCT, deformation amplitude (DA, and first/second applanation time (A1/A2-time exhibited excellent repeatability (CV% ≤ 3.312% and ICC ≥ 0.929 for all measurements. The velocity in/out (Vin/out, highest concavity- (HC- radius, peak distance (PD, and DA showed a normal distribution. Univariate linear regression showed a statistically significant correlation between Vin, Vout, DA, PD, and HC-radius and IOP, CCT, and corneal volume, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that IOP and CCT were negatively correlated with Vin, DA, and PD, while there was a positive correlation between Vout and HC-radius. Conclusion. The ICCs of the recalculated parameters, CCT, DA, A1-time, and A2-time, exhibited excellent repeatability. IOP, CCT, and corneal volume significantly influenced the biomechanical properties of the eye.

  8. Biomechanical properties of the transverse carpal ligament under biaxial strain.

    Holmes, Michael W R; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P; Keir, Peter J

    2012-05-01

    The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) influences carpal stability and carpal tunnel mechanics, yet little is known about its mechanical properties. We investigated the tissue properties of TCLs extracted from eight cadaver arms and divided into six tissue samples from the distal radial, distal middle, distal ulnar, proximal radial, proximal middle, and proximal ulnar regions. The 5% and 15% strains were applied biaxially to each sample at rates of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1%/s. Ligament thickness ranged from 1.22 to 2.90 mm. Samples from the middle of the TCL were thicker proximally than distally (p carpal bone attachments. These properties contribute to the understanding of carpal tunnel mechanics that is critical to understanding disorders of the wrist. PMID:22042748

  9. Nanoscale characterization of the biomechanical properties of collagen fibrils in the sclera

    Papi, M. [Institute of Physics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F.Vito 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Paoletti, P. [Centre for Engineering Dynamics, School of Engineering, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Geraghty, B.; Akhtar, R. [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    We apply the PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping (PFQNM) atomic force microscopy mode for the investigation of regional variations in the nanomechanical properties of porcine sclera. We examine variations in the collagen fibril diameter, adhesion, elastic modulus and dissipation in the posterior, equatorial and anterior regions of the sclera. The mean fibril diameter, elastic modulus and dissipation increased from the posterior to the anterior region. Collagen fibril diameter correlated linearly with elastic modulus. Our data matches the known macroscopic mechanical behavior of the sclera. We propose that PFQNM has significant potential in ocular biomechanics and biophysics research.

  10. Using robotic systems in order to determine biomechanical properties of soft tissues.

    Kunkel, M E; Moral, A; Westphal, R; Rode, D; Rilk, M; Wahl, F M

    2008-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of soft tissue are important not only during computer simulation for medical training but also for systems where tissue deformation must be estimated in real-time, for example, Robot Assisted Surgery. The purpose of this paper is to describe some biomechanical tests consisting in the measurement of contact forces and deformations in tissue phantoms and porcine soft tissues (liver, brain, stomach and intestine). During the measurements two different procedures were applied. First, we have used a 5DOF micromanipulator instrumented with a spherical probe and a 6-axis force/torque ATI sensor. In the second procedure instead of the micromanipulator a Stäubli RX60 robot was used to apply the force over the samples. During this last test a high noise-signal relationship was detected and in order to improve the accuracy of the experiments some results were obtained using a Stäubli TX40 robot. Major accuracy in research in the field of soft tissue could be reached using standard procedures. Robotic systems allow precise movements to carry on biomechanical tests, and also permit a wide range of tasks to be implemented. PMID:18376024

  11. Biomechanical properties of a novel biodegradable magnesium-based interference screw

    Marco Ezechieli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based interference screws may be an alternative in anterior/posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The well-known osteoconductive effects of biodegradable magnesium alloys may be useful. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the biomechanical properties of a magnesium based interference screw and compare it to a standard implant. A MgYREZr-alloy interference screw and a standard implant (Milagro®; De Puy Mitek, Raynham, MA, USA were used for graft fixation. Specimens were placed into a tensile loading fixation of a servohydraulic testing machine. Biomechanical analysis included pretensioning of the constructs at 20 N for 1 min following cyclic pretensioning of 20 cycles between 20 and 60 N. Biomechanical elongation was evaluated with cyclic loading of 1000 cycles between 50 and 200 N at 0.5 Hz. Maximum load to failure was 511.3±66.5 N for the Milagro® screw and 529.0±63.3 N for magnesium-based screw (ns, P=0.57. Elongations after preload, during cyclical loading and during failure load were not different between the groups (ns, P>0.05. Stiffness was 121.1±13.8 N/mm for the magnesiumbased screw and 144.1±18.4 for the Milagro® screw (ns, P=0.32. MgYREZr alloy interference screws show comparable results in biomechanical testing to standard implants and may be an alternative for anterior cruciate reconstruction in the future.

  12. Biomechanical properties of human thoracic spine disc segments

    B D Stemper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The objective was to determine the age-dependent compressive and tensile properties of female and male thoracic spine segments using postmortem human subjects (PMHS. Materials and Methods : Forty-eight thoracic disc segments at T4-5, T6-7, T8-9, and T10-11 levels from 12 PMHS T3-T11 spinal columns were divided into groups A and B based on specimen age and loaded in compression and tension. Stiffness and elastic modulus were computed. Stiffness was defined as the slope in the linear region of the force-displacement response. Elastic modulus was defined as the slope of the stress strain curve. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (P< 0.05 in the disc cross-sectional area, stiffness, and elastic modulus based on gender, spinal level, and group. Results : Specimen ages in group A (28 ± 8 years were significantly lower than in group B (70 ± 7 years. Male discs had significantly greater area (7.2 ± 2.0 sq cm than female discs (5.9 ± 1.8 sq cm. Tensile and compressive stiffness values were significantly different between the two age groups, but not between gender and level. Specimens in group A had greater tensile (486 ± 108 N/mm and compressive (3300 ± 642 N/mm stiffness values compared to group B specimens (tension: 397 ± 124 N/mm, compression: 2527 ± 734 N/mm. Tensile and compressive elastic modulus values depended upon age group and gender, but not on level. Group A specimens had significantly greater tensile and compressive moduli (2.9 ± 0.8 MPa, 19.5 ± 4.1 MPa than group B specimens (1.7 ± 0.6 MPa, 10.6 ± 3.4 MPa. Female specimens showed significantly greater tensile and compressive moduli (2.6 ± 1.0 MPa, 16.6 ± 6.4 MPa than male specimens (2.0 ± 0.7 MPa, 13.7 ± 5.0 MPa. Discussion: Using the two groups to represent "young" and "old" specimens, this study showed that the mechanical response decreases in older specimens, and the decrease is greater in compressive than distractive

  13. Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging System with Chirp-Coded Excitation for Assessing Biomechanical Properties of Elasticity Phantom

    Guan-Chun Chun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical properties of soft tissues vary with pathological phenomenon. Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a noninvasive method used to analyze the local biomechanical properties of soft tissues in clinical diagnosis. However, the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR is diminished because of the attenuation of ultrasonic energy by soft tissues. Therefore, to improve the quality of elastography, the eSNR and depth of ultrasound penetration must be increased using chirp-coded excitation. Moreover, the low axial resolution of ultrasound images generated by a chirp-coded pulse must be increased using an appropriate compression filter. The main aim of this study is to develop an ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation using a Tukey window for assessing the biomechanical properties of soft tissues. In this study, we propose an ultrasound elasticity imaging system equipped with a 7.5-MHz single-element transducer and polymethylpentene compression plate to measure strains in soft tissues. Soft tissue strains were analyzed using cross correlation (CC and absolution difference (AD algorithms. The optimal parameters of CC and AD algorithms used for the ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation were determined by measuring the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe of a homogeneous phantom. Moreover, chirp-coded excitation and short pulse excitation were used to measure the elasticity properties of the phantom. The elastographic qualities of the tissue-mimicking phantom were assessed in terms of Young’s modulus and elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe. The results show that the developed ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation modulated by a Tukey window can acquire accurate, high-quality elastography images.

  14. Influence of Age on Ocular Biomechanical Properties in a Canine Glaucoma Model with ADAMTS10 Mutation

    Palko, Joel R.; Morris, Hugh J.; Pan, Xueliang; Harman, Christine D.; Koehl, Kristin L.; Gelatt, Kirk N.; Plummer, Caryn E.; Komáromy, András M.; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue often displays marked age-associated stiffening. This study aims to investigate how age affects scleral biomechanical properties in a canine glaucoma model with ADAMTS10 mutation, whose extracellular matrix is concomitantly influenced by the mutation and an increased mechanical load from an early age. Biomechanical data was acquired from ADAMTS10-mutant dogs (n = 10, 21 to 131 months) and normal dogs (n = 5, 69 to 113 months). Infusion testing was first performed in the whole globes to measure ocular rigidity. After infusion experiments, the corneas were immediately trephined to prepare scleral shells that were mounted on a pressurization chamber to measure strains in the posterior sclera using an inflation testing protocol. Dynamic viscoelastic mechanical testing was then performed on dissected posterior scleral strips and the data were combined with those reported earlier by our group from the same animal model (Palko et al, IOVS 2013). The association between age and scleral biomechanical properties was evaluated using multivariate linear regression. The relationships between scleral properties and the mean and last measured intraocular pressure (IOP) were also evaluated. Our results showed that age was positively associated with complex modulus (page. The regression slopes were not different between the groups, although the complex modulus was significantly lower in the affected group (p = 0.041). The posterior circumferential tangential strain was negatively correlated with complex modulus (R = -0.744, p = 0.006) showing consistent mechanical evaluation between the testing methods. Normalized ocular rigidity was negatively correlated with the last IOP in the affected group (p = 0.003). Despite a mutation that affects the extracellular matrix and a chronic IOP elevation in the affected dogs, age-associated scleral stiffening and loss of mechanical damping were still prominent and had a similar rate of change as in the normal dogs. PMID:27271467

  15. Improving predictions of root biomechanical properties, is age a better determinant than diameter?

    Loades, Kenneth; Hallett, Paul; Lynch, Jonathan; Chimungu, Joseph; Bengough, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Roots mechanically reinforce many soils. Root tensile strength and stiffness is critical for soil stabilisation with plants potentially providing civil engineers a 'green' alternative for soil stabilisation. Relatively little is known on factors influencing root tensile strength. Through a better understanding of these factors the adoption of 'green engineering' techniques by civil engineers will improve. Existing models are limited in their accuracy due to simplistic assumptions to derive root contributions to the resistance of soil to failure. Current models typically use relationships between strength and diameter, however, there are a number of other factors potentially influencing root biomechanical properties. The effects of root age on biomechanical properties have largely been overlooked. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown under differing soil conditions, waterlogged, moderate mechanical impedance and in unimpeded, control, conditions. The root system was excavated and tensile tests performed on root sections along the length of each root axis. Root tensile strength increased with increasing distance along the root axes in control soil from 0.5 MPa to 7.0 MPa at a distance of 800mm from the root tip and from 1.0 Mpa to 8.0 MPa, 500mm from the root tip when under moderate mechanical impedance. Increases in strength were also observed when plants were subjected to waterlogging with tensile strength increasing from 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, 200mm from the root tip. Young's modulus increased from ~10 MPa at the root tip to ~60 MPa 400mm and 800mm from the root tip in mechanically impeded and control treatments respectively. Distance from root tip explained over 47% of the variance in root tensile strength and 34% of root stiffness. Including root diameter in the model led to further improvements in predicting root properties, explaining ~54% of root strength variance and ~49% of root stiffness. Root age has been shown to improve predictions of root tensile strength

  16. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone density, trace elements, biomechanical properties and immunocytochemicals

    Osteoporosis is defined as an absolute decrease in the amount of bone to a level below required for mechanical support. It is an important bone disease in elderly people in many countries. Unfortunately, there is no reliable statistical data in Turkey for the incidence of osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mass is the important cause in fractures in osteoporosis. Therefore, we intend to study both bone density and other variables such as trace elements, biomechanical properties and other immunocytochemicals in bone, all combined might give an information about the cause and prevention of osteoporosis. (author)

  17. Biomechanical properties of isolated fascicles of the Iliopsoas and Achilles tendons in African American and Caucasian men

    Hanson, P; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S Peter

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate biomechanical properties of the Iliopsoas and Achilles tendons in young African American (AA) and Caucasian (CC) men, and attempt to clarify whether the difference in Achilles tendon ruptures between AA and CC can be explained by differences in material properties. METH...

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the basic biomechanical properties of freeze-dried bovine pericardium (FDBP)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sterilization using gamma radiation on the basic biomechanical properties of freeze dried bovine pericardium (FDBP). Bovine pericardium was obtained from the Shah Alam Abattoir, Selangor. The pericardial sacs were cleaned, freeze-dried and irradiated with 25 kGy gamma rays at Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT), Bangi, Selangor. The biomechanical properties of one hundred strips (1 cm by 4 cm) each of the irradiated and non-irradiated of FDBP were measured respectively by instron tensometer (Instron 4301) using 5 m/min cross 'head speed. The strips thickness was measured by Mitutoyo thickness gauge. The mean values of the tensile strength (12.4±0.522 MPa/mm2), load at auto break (1 8.5±1.08 N/mm2), modulus of elasticity (stiffness) (62.69±2.48 MPa/mm2) and elongation rate (5 1 %) for non-irradiated FDBP were found to be significantly higher (P2, 9.3±4.2 N/mm2, 35.7±1.7 MPa/mm2 and 43% respectively. However, the thickness between the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). Although sterilization using gamma irradiation is effective against disease transmission by bioprosthesis, it can caused significant decreased in FDBP tensile strength, load at auto break, Yang modulus and elongation rate. (Author)

  19. Biomechanical properties of ileum after systemic treatment with epithelial growth factor

    Jian Yang; Jing-Bo Zhao; Yan-Jun Zeng; Hans Gregersen

    2003-01-01

    AIM:Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF)leads to growth of all parts of the small intestine in normal functioning rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of this growth process on morphometric and biomechanical parameters of ileum.METHODS: Rats were treated with EGF (150 μg@kg-1day-1)or placebo via osmotic minipumps for 2, 4, 7, and 14 days.A segment of ileum was removed. The morphology at noload state and zero-stress state was measured and passive biomechanical properties were assessed using a biaxial test machine (combined inflation and axial stretching).RESULTS: The ileum weight increased after EGF administration. After 4 days' EGF treatment, the wall thickness was increased. Significantly smaller inner perimeters were seen in 4 day and 7 day EGF treatment groups. The opening angle and residual strain began to increase after 7 days' EGF treatment. Wall stiffness, evaluated from the stress-strain curves, showed a continuous decrease in circumferential direction during the first 7 days' EGF treatment. The longitudinal stiffness increased during the first 7 days. The stress-strain curves for both circumferential and longitudinal direction tended to shift back to normal 14days after starting EGF administration.CONCLUSION: EGF can cause significant changes both in the morphology and in the passive mechanical properties of the rat ileum.

  20. Dynamic ultra high speed Scheimpflug imaging for assessing corneal biomechanical properties

    Renato Ambrósio Jr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel technique for clinical characterization of corneal biomechanics using non-invasive dynamic imaging. METHODS: Corneal deformation response during non contact tonometry (NCT is monitored by ultra-high-speed (UHS photography. The Oculus Corvis ST (Scheimpflug Technology; Wetzlar, Germany has a UHS Scheimpflug camera, taking over 4,300 frames per second and of a single 8mm horizontal slit, for monitoring corneal deformation response to NCT. The metered collimated air pulse or puff has a symmetrical configuration and fixed maximal internal pump pressure of 25 kPa. The bidirectional movement of the cornea in response to the air puff is monitored. RESULTS: Measurement time is 30ms, with 140 frames acquired. Advanced algorithms for edge detection of the front and back corneal contours are applied for every frame. IOP is calculated based on the first applanation moment. Deformation amplitude (DA is determined as the highest displacement of the apex in the highest concavity (HC moment. Applanation length (AL and corneal velocity (CVel are recorded during ingoing and outgoing phases. CONCLUSION: Corneal deformation can be monitored during non contact tonometry. The parameters generated provide clinical in vivo characterization of corneal biomechanical properties in two dimensions, which is relevant for different applications in Ophthalmology.

  1. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties following penetrating keratoplasty using ocular response analyzer

    Vanathi Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate corneal biomechanical properties in eyes that has undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary care centre. Data recorded included ocular response analyzer (ORA values of normal and post-keratoplasty eyes [corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, and cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc], corneal topography, and central corneal thickness (CCT. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze the difference in ORA parameter between post-PK eyes and normal eyes. Correlation between parameters was evaluated with Spearman′s rho correlation. Results: The ORA study of 100 eyes of 50 normal subjects and 54 post-keratoplasty eyes of 51 patients showed CH of 8.340 ± 1.85 and 9.923 ± 1.558, CRF of 8.846 ± 2.39 and 9.577 ± 1.631 in post-PK eyes and normal eyes, respectively. CH and CRF did not correlate with post-keratoplasty astigmatism (P = 0.311 and 0.276, respectively while a significant correlation was observed with IOPg (P = 0.004 and IOPcc (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Biomechanical profiles were significantly decreased in post-keratoplasty eyes with significant correlation with higher IOP as compared with that in normal eyes.

  2. Effect of the hydration on the biomechanical properties in a fibrin-agarose tissue-like model.

    Scionti, Giuseppe; Moral, Monica; Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Durán, Juan D G; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio; López-López, Modesto T

    2014-08-01

    The effect of hydration on the biomechanical properties of fibrin and fibrin-agarose (FA) tissue-like hydrogels is reported. Native hydrogels with approximately 99.5% of water content and hydrogels with water content reduced until 90% and 80% by means of plastic compression (nanostructuration) were generated. The biomechanical properties of the hydrogels were investigated by tensile, compressive, and shear tests. Experimental results indicate that nanostructuration enhances the biomechanical properties of the hydrogels. This improvement is due to the partial draining of the water that fills the porous network of fibers that the plastic compression generates, which produces a denser material, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Results also indicate that the characteristic compressive and shear parameters increase with agarose concentration, very likely due to the high water holding capacity of agarose, which reduces the compressibility and gives consistency to the hydrogels. However, results of tensile tests indicate a weakening of the hydrogels as agarose concentration increases, which evidences the anisotropic nature of these biomaterials. Interestingly, we found that by adjusting the water and agarose contents it is possible to tune the biomechanical properties of FA hydrogels for a broad range, within which the properties of many native tissues fall. PMID:23963645

  3. Investigation of chemical and physical properties of carbon nanotubes and their effects on cell biomechanics

    Dong, Chenbo

    Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes, Applied Surface Science, 2013, 268, 261-268.) Chapter two shows how exposure to CNTs changes the biomechanical properties of fixed human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells). Specifically, by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation technology, we demonstrated that cellular exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for 24h induces significant changes in cellular biomechanics leading to increased cellular stiffness. The MWCNTs incubation also seemed to alter the surface area of the cells. Consequently, measures of the mechanical properties of the exposed cell could be used as indicators of its biological state and could offer valuable insights into the mechanisms associated with CNTs-induced genetic instability. (Publication: Chenbo Dong, Linda Sargent, Michael L Kashon, David Lowry, Jonathan S. Dordick, Steven H. Reynolds, Yon Rojanasakul and Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Expose to carbon nanotubes leads to change in cellular biomechanics, Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2013, 7, 945-951.) Chapter three links together the MWCNTs exposure duration, internalization and induced biomechanical changes in fixed cells. Our findings indicated that changes in biomechanical properties of the fixed cells are a function of the uptake and internalization of the MWCNTs as well as their uptake time. Specifically, short exposure time did not seem to lead to considerable changes in the elastic properties in the cellular system. However, longer cellular exposure to CNTs leads to a higher uptake and internalization of the nanotubes and a larger effect on the cell mechanics. Such changes could be related to CNTs interactions with cellular elements and could bring information on the CNT intrinsic toxicity. Chapter four talks about the potential of purified forms of CNTs with increased hydrophilicity to affect live human lung epithelial cells when used at occupational

  4. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  5. Rapid characterization of the biomechanical properties of drug-treated cells in a microfluidic device

    Cell mechanics is closely related to many cell functions. Recent studies have suggested that the deformability of cells can be an effective biomarker to indicate the onset and progression of diseases. In this paper, a microfluidic chip is designed for rapid characterization of the mechanics of drug-treated cells through stretching with dielectrophoresis (DEP) force. This chip was fabricated using PDMS and micro-electrodes were integrated and patterned on the ITO layer of the chip. Leukemia NB4 cells were considered and the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) drug on NB4 cells were examined via the microfluidic chip. To induce a DEP force onto the cell, a relatively weak ac voltage was utilized to immobilize a cell at one side of the electrodes. The applied voltage was then increased to 3.5 V pp and the cell started to be stretched along the applied electric field lines. The elongation of the cell was observed using an optical microscope and the results showed that both types of cells were deformed by the induced DEP force. The strain of the NB4 cell without the drug treatment was recorded to be about 0.08 (time t = 180 s) and the drug-treated NB4 cell was about 0.21 (time t = 180 s), indicating a decrease in the stiffness after drug treatment. The elastic modulus of the cell was also evaluated and the modulus changed from 140 Pa to 41 Pa after drug treatment. This microfluidic chip can provide a simple and rapid platform for measuring the change in the biomechanical properties of cells and can potentially be used as the tool to determine the biomechanical effects of different drug treatments for drug discovery and development applications. (paper)

  6. Relationship among bone mineral density, collagen composition, and biomechanical properties of callus in the healing of osteoporotic fracture

    SHEN Bin; MU Jian-xiong; PEI Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the change and relationship among bone mineral density (BMD), collagen composition and biomechanical properties of the callus in the healing process of osteoporotic fracture.Methods: The osteoporotic rat model and fracture model were established through bilateral ovariectomy(OVX) and osteotomy of the middle shaft of the right hind tibiae, respectively. Ninety female SD rats were randomly divided into OVX group and sham group. With the samples of blood and callus, roentgenoraphic and histological observation were performed for the assessment of the healing progress of the fracture, and the serum concentration of TRAP-5b, proportion of type Ⅰ collagen,BMD and biomechanical properties of the callus were measured.Results: The OVX group experienced a significant delay of fracture healing. The mean serum concentration of TRAP-5b of rats in the OVX group was much higher than that in the sham group after the operation (P < 0.05), but the difference at the same time point after fracture was smaller than that before fracture (P < 0.05 ). The BMD of the callus in both groups reached the peak value at the 6 th week after fracture while the proportion of the type Ⅰ collagen and the biomechanical strength reached the peak at the 8th week.Conclusions: The deficiency of estrogen after the ovariectomy could induce the up-regulation of the osteoclasts activities, whereas the potency of further activation after fracture was depressed. Although the synthesis of collagen together with its mineralization determines the biomechanical properties of new bone, the accumulation of collagen could be assessed as an index in the prediction of biomechanical strength of bones independent of the bone mineral deposition.

  7. Changes of calf muscle-tendon biomechanical properties induced by passive-stretching and active-movement training in children with cerebral palsy

    Zhao, Heng; Wu, Yi-Ning; Hwang, Miriam; Ren, Yupeng; Gao, Fan; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of calf muscles and Achilles tendon may be altered considerably in children with cerebral palsy (CP), contributing to childhood disability. It is unclear how muscle fascicles and tendon respond to rehabilitation and contribute to improvement of ankle-joint properties. Biomechanical properties of the calf muscle fascicles of both gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and soleus (SOL), including the fascicle length and pennation angle in seven children with CP, were evaluated usi...

  8. Murine patellar tendon biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns during natural tendon-to-bone healing after acute injury

    Gilday, Steven D.; Casstevens, E. Chris; Kenter, Keith; Shearn, Jason T.; Butler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing following acute injury is generally poor and often fails to restore normal tendon biomechanical properties. In recent years, the murine patellar tendon (PT) has become an important model system for studying tendon healing and repair due to its genetic tractability and accessible location within the knee. However, the mechanical properties of native murine PT, specifically the regional differences in tissue strains during loading, and the biomechanical outcomes of natural PT-to-bone healing have not been well characterized. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the global biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns of both normal and naturally healing murine PT at three time points (2, 5, and 8 weeks) following acute surgical rupture of the tibial enthesis. Normal murine PT exhibited distinct regional variations in tissue strain, with the insertion region experiencing approximately 2.5 times greater strain than the midsubstance at failure (10.80 ± 2.52% vs. 4.11 ± 1.40%; mean ± SEM). Injured tendons showed reduced structural (ultimate load and linear stiffness) and material (ultimate stress and linear modulus) properties compared to both normal and contralateral sham-operated tendons at all healing time points. Injured tendons also displayed increased local strain in the insertion region compared to contralateral shams at both physiologic and failure load levels. 93.3% of injured tendons failed at the tibial insertion, compared to only 60% and 66.7% of normal and sham tendons, respectively. These results indicate that 8 weeks of natural tendon-to-bone healing does not restore normal biomechanical function to the murine PT following injury. PMID:24210849

  9. EFFECT OF AGE ON THE BIOMECHANICAL AND MICROCIRCULATORY PROPERTIES OF THE SKIN IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS AND DURING VENOUS ULCERATION

    Mattar, Essam H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: With aging there is alteration of elastic properties of the skin and skin-blood flow. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare age-related changes in selected biomechanical parameters of the skin (skin hardness, skin extensibility, relaxation time constant, τ) and subcutaneous microcirculatory quality (SMQ) in individuals with and without venous diseases. Materials and Methods: Two groups were studied: the first group was of asymptomatic healthy individuals and the second gro...

  10. The influence of lead on the biomechanical properties of bone tissue in rats

    Grazyna Olchowik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Environmental lead (Pb is a serious public health problem. At high levels, Pb is devastating to almost all organs. On the other hand, it is difficult to determine a safe level of exposure to Pb. More than 90% of the Pb in the adult human body and 70% in a child’s body is stored in the bones. In the presented study, the effects of lead exposure on bones were studied for rats treated orally with Pb acetate in drinking water for 14 days. The hypothesis was tested that lead exposure negatively affects bone structure. materials and methods. Femur strength was measured in a three-point bending test, whereas infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was used to measure molecular structural changes. results. Lead significantly decreased the ratio of area of two types of vibrational transitions, which are highly specific to mineral to matrix ratio. The results of the biomechanical study show that femurs of rats treated by Pb-acetate appeared to be weaker than bones of the control group, and may produce a condition for the development of higher risk of fractures. Additionally, a great difference in body mass was observed between control and the Pb acetate-treated groups. conclusions. The lower bone mineral content and the weaker mechanical properties of bones from Pb-treated rats are associated with the pathologic state dependent of the exposure of lead.

  11. Dynamic observation of biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing.

    Jiang, Baoguo; Zhang, Peixun; Yan, Jiazhi; Zhang, Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    To observe the biomechanic properties of the sciatic nerve at the suture site following repairing in rats. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300~350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures with four stitches, laced in the epineurium 0, 1, 3, and 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, and the data analyzed statistically. The load elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had similar shape. There were significant differences between the tensile strength of the 0th and the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves recovered 48% of the normal nerve in the 1st week and 54% in 6 weeks after repairing. It may be concluded that the injured nerves can acquire mostly tensile strength stability in 1 week quickly and can maintain this relative tensile strength stability in 6 weeks. PMID:18293160

  12. Regional variation in tissue composition and biomechanical properties of postmenopausal ovine and human vagina.

    Daniela Ulrich

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are increasing numbers of reports describing human vaginal tissue composition in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare ovine and human posterior vaginal tissue in terms of histological and biochemical tissue composition and to assess passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina to further characterise this animal model for pelvic organ prolapse research. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal tissue was collected from ovariectomised sheep (n = 6 and from postmenopausal women (n = 7 from the proximal, middle and distal thirds. Tissue histology was analyzed using Masson's Trichrome staining; total collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assays, collagen III/I+III ratios by delayed reduction SDS PAGE, glycosaminoglycans by dimethylmethylene blue assay, and elastic tissue associated proteins (ETAP by amino acid analysis. Young's modulus, maximum stress/strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading were determined in ovine vagina. RESULTS: Both sheep and human vaginal tissue showed comparable tissue composition. Ovine vaginal tissue showed significantly higher total collagen and glycosaminoglycan values (p<0.05 nearest the cervix. No significant differences were found along the length of the human vagina for collagen, GAG or ETAP content. The proximal region was the stiffest (Young's modulus, p<0.05, strongest (maximum stress, p<0.05 compared to distal region, and most elastic (permanent strain. CONCLUSION: Sheep tissue composition and mechanical properties showed regional differences along the postmenopausal vaginal wall not apparent in human vagina, although the absolute content of proteins were similar. Knowledge of this baseline variation in the composition and mechanical properties of the vaginal wall will assist future studies using sheep as a model for vaginal surgery.

  13. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  14. The Effect of Phospholipids (Surfactant on Adhesion and Biomechanical Properties of Tendon: A Rat Achilles Tendon Repair Model

    T. Kursat Dabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion of the tendon is a major challenge for the orthopedic surgeon during tendon repair. Manipulation of biological environment is one of the concepts to prevent adhesion. Lots of biochemicals have been studied for this purpose. We aimed to determine the effect of phospholipids on adhesion and biomechanical properties of tendon in an animal tendon repair model. Seventy-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Achilles tendons of rats were cut and repaired. Phospholipids were applied at two different dosages. Tendon adhesion was determined histopathologically and biomechanical test was performed. At macroscopic evaluation of adhesion, there are statistically significant differences between multiple-dose phospholipid injection group and Control group and also hyaluronic acid group and Control group (p0.008. Ultimate strength was highest at hyaluronic acid injection group and lowest at multiple-dose phospholipid injection group. Single-dose phospholipids (surfactant application may have a beneficial effect on the tendon adhesion. Although multiple applications of phospholipids seem the most effective regime to reduce the tendon adhesion among groups, it deteriorated the biomechanical properties of tendon.

  15. Assessing the changes in the biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens induced by cold cataract with air-pulse OCE

    Wu, C.; Singh, M.; Liu, C.-H.; Han, Z.; Li, J.; Raghunathan, R.; Larin, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    A cataract is the increase in opacity of the crystalline lens that can pathologically degrade visual acuity. In this study, we utilized a phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) system to study the effects of a cold cataract on the biomechanical properties of the porcine crystalline lens in vitro. The cold cataract was induced by placing the whole lens in a low temperature environment until the lens was obviously clouded. Air-pulse OCE measurements were conducted on 6 lenses before and after cold cataract induction. A low amplitude displacement (≤ 10 µm) was induced by a focused air-pulse and the temporal deformation profiles from the surface and within the lenses were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the stiffness of the porcine lens increased after induction of the cold cataract, and it demonstrated the feasibility of OCE to assess the biomechanical changes in the lens due to cataract.

  16. Impacts of hematite nanoparticle exposure on biomechanical, adhesive, and surface electrical properties of Escherichia coli cells.

    Zhang, Wen; Hughes, Joseph; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-06-01

    Despite a wealth of studies examining the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials, current knowledge on their cytotoxic mechanisms (particularly from a physical perspective) remains limited. In this work, we imaged and quantitatively characterized the biomechanical (hardness and elasticity), adhesive, and surface electrical properties of Escherichia coli cells with and without exposure to hematite nanoparticles (NPs) in an effort to advance our understanding of the cytotoxic impacts of nanomaterials. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that E. coli cells had noticeable deformation with hematite treatment for 45 min with a statistical significance. The hematite-treated cells became significantly harder or stiffer than untreated ones, as evidenced by indentation and spring constant measurements. The average indentation of the hematite-treated E. coli cells was 120 nm, which is significantly lower (P hematite-treated E. coli cells (0.28 ± 0.11 nN/nm) was about 20 times higher than that of untreated ones (0.01 ± 0.01 nN/nm). The zeta potential of E. coli cells, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was shown to shift from -4 ± 2 mV to -27 ± 8 mV with progressive surface adsorption of hematite NPs, a finding which is consistent with the local surface potential measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Overall, the reported findings quantitatively revealed the adverse impacts of nanomaterial exposure on physical properties of bacterial cells and should provide insight into the toxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials. PMID:22467500

  17. Bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber composite: biomechanical properties and biocompatibility

    Qiao B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bo Qiao,1 Jidong Li,2 Qingmao Zhu,1 Shuquan Guo,1 Xiaotong Qi,1 Weichao Li,1 Jun Wu,1 Yang Liu,3 Dianming Jiang1 1Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 3Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: An ideal bone plate for internal fixation of bone fractures should have good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this study, we prepared a new nondegradable bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber (n-HA/PA66/GF composite. A breakage area on the n-HA/PA66/GF plate surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Its mechanical properties were investigated using bone-plate constructs and biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results confirmed that adhesion between the n-HA/PA66 matrix and the glass fibers was strong, with only a few fibers pulled out at the site of breakage. Fractures fixed by the n-HA/PA66/GF plate showed lower stiffness and had satisfactory strength compared with rigid fixation using a titanium plate. Moreover, the results with regard to mesenchymal stem cell morphology, MTT assay, Alizarin Red S staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed that the n-HA/PA66/GF composite was suitable for attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, and did not have a negative influence on matrix mineralization or osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. These observations indicate that the n-HA/PA66/GF plate has good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may be considered a new option for internal fixation in orthopedic surgery. Keywords: nano

  18. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Travis, Katherine E.; Neville H. Golden; FELDMAN, HEIDI M.; Murray Solomon; Jenny Nguyen; Aviv Mezer; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen ...

  19. Bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber composite: biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Qiao, Bo; Li, Jidong; Zhu, Qingmao; Guo, Shuquan; Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Weichao; Wu, Jun; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Dianming

    2014-01-01

    An ideal bone plate for internal fixation of bone fractures should have good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this study, we prepared a new nondegradable bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber (n-HA/PA66/GF) composite. A breakage area on the n-HA/PA66/GF plate surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Its mechanical properties were investigated using bone-plate constructs and biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results confirmed that adhesion between the n-HA/PA66 matrix and the glass fibers was strong, with only a few fibers pulled out at the site of breakage. Fractures fixed by the n-HA/PA66/GF plate showed lower stiffness and had satisfactory strength compared with rigid fixation using a titanium plate. Moreover, the results with regard to mesenchymal stem cell morphology, MTT assay, Alizarin Red S staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed that the n-HA/PA66/GF composite was suitable for attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, and did not have a negative influence on matrix mineralization or osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. These observations indicate that the n-HA/PA66/GF plate has good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may be considered a new option for internal fixation in orthopedic surgery. PMID:24669191

  20. Biomechanical and physical properties of human amniotic membrane after gamma irradiation and storage

    At MINT Tissue Bank, amniotic membranes are procured routinely from placenta of screened healthy mothers. They are processed, dried, packed and sterilised using gamma irradiation at minimum dose of 17 kGy. The sterilised membranes are delivered to several hospitals and clinics, locally and even abroad. The membranes are effectively used on patients with first and second degree bums, superficial wounds and scalds. At present the membrane is given 2 years expiry date if stored in dark and cool place. A study was carried to validate this expiry period under the quality system by determining any changes in biomechanical properties of amnion after irradiation and at various storage times. Random samples of amnion, stored at room temperature in dark were picked up for physical tests including tensile strength and elongation using Instron Universal Testing Instrument (Model 43 1 0) at MINT. After 4 months storage, irradiated freeze-dried amnion (79.79+20.27 kg/cm sup 2) had significantly lower tensile strength compared to air-dried amnion (304.97+66.92 kg/cm sup 2) at P<0.05. As for elongation, there was no significant different between air-dried and freeze dried. Further studies on the stability of air-dried amnion over storage time showed that there was no significant reduction in tensile strength (432.37 +208.1 1 kg/cm sup 2) and elongation (I 1.68+1.63%) for radiation sterilised amnion up to 12 months storage. Combination of radiation and storage at room temperature also did not alter the stability of the products stored up to 20 months when compared to newly processed amnion. We could not find any changes in physical appearance such as colour for amnion which have been kept for almost 5 years. Therefore the expiry date of 2 years (24 months) given to our amnion is acceptable. At present, MINT Tissue Bank only process air-dried amnion since the cost of processing of amniotic membranes can be reduced by 40% compared to freeze drying. Water content for both drying

  1. Effect of age on the biomechanical and microcirculatory properties of the skin in healthy individuals and during venous ulceration

    Essam H Mattar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With aging there is alteration of elastic properties of the skin and skin-blood flow. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare age-related changes in selected biomechanical parameters of the skin (skin hardness, skin extensibility, relaxation time constant, τ and subcutaneous microcirculatory quality (SMQ in individuals with and without venous diseases. Materials and Methods: Two groups were studied: the first group was of asymptomatic healthy individuals and the second group included patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI and venous ulceration, without edema. Both groups were subdivided to three age categories (21-40, 41-60 and 61-90 years old. Skin hardness was measured by durometer, extensibility and τ were measured using extensometer and SQM was assessed via postural vasoconstrictive response (LDF. Results: Results showed that skin hardness, extensibility, and τ-values were increased, whereas LDF was decreased in the older groups as compared with younger groups. These changes are attributed to alterations in the skin structure and reduced capillaries density networks. Similar behavior was found in the biomechanical and microcirculatory changes in patients with venous ulceration and CVI, but these changes were more increased further in older patients with venous ulceration as compared with older patients with CVI and that can be attribute to more intense response against tissue injury. Conclusions: Since aging elevated skin hardness and extensibility, but lowered vasoconstrictive response in individuals, with and without, venous diseases, we conclude that aging process is likely to cause an accumulation of damaged skin tissues and that could induce an apparent antigen-driven response that altered skin structure and the subsequent biomechanical properties obtained in this study.

  2. Effects of Mechanical Properties and Atherosclerotic Artery Size on Biomechanical Plaque Disruption - Mouse versus Human

    Riou, Laurent M.; Broisat, Alexis; Ghezzi, Catherine; Finet, Gérard; Rioufol, Gilles; Gharib, Ahmed M.; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models of atherosclerosis are extensively being used to study the mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque development and the results are frequently extrapolated to humans. However, major differences have been described between murine and human atherosclerotic lesions and the determination of similarities and differences between these species has been largely addressed recently. This study takes over and extends previous studies performed by our group and related to the biomechanical chara...

  3. On the prospect of patient-specific biomechanics without patient-specific properties of tissues

    Miller, Karol; Lu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents main theses of two keynote lectures delivered at Euromech Colloquium “Advanced experimental approaches and inverse problems in tissue biomechanics” held in Saint Etienne in June 2012. We are witnessing an advent of patient-specific biomechanics that will bring in the future personalized treatments to sufferers all over the world. It is the current task of biomechanists to devise methods for clinically-relevant patient-specific modeling. One of the obstacles standing before...

  4. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Katherine E. Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1, an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4 were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3. We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18 and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total. Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  5. Abnormal radiosensitizing and cytotoxic properties of ortho-substituted nitroimidazoles

    Various 5-substituted 4-nitroimidazoles have been shown to be much more efficient radiosensitizers and much more toxic than would have been predicted from their electron affinities, as measured by values of one-electron reduction potential, E71. Using Chinese hamster V79 cells in vitro, a comparison has been made with some isomeric 4-substituted 5-nitroimidazoles. These compounds have E71 values some 64 mV greater than the 4-nitroimidazoles, yet show much lower sensitizing efficiency and also lower toxicity. Neither series of compounds shows the greater toxicity towards hypoxic cells usually associated with nitroaromatic and nitroheterocyclic compounds. The second-order rate constants, k2, for reaction of these isomeric nitroimidazoles with glutathione and dithiothreitol were determined. Within each series the value of k2 increased with increasing electron affinity, however, the 4-nitroimidazoles were always more reactive than their corresponding 5-nitro isomers. The sensitizing and toxic properties of these compounds may involve depletion of intracellular thiols; this possibility is discussed. (author)

  6. Raman spectroscopy detects deterioration in biomechanical properties of bone in a glucocorticoid-treated mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Maher, Jason R.; Takahata, Masahiko; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2011-08-01

    Although glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed for the symptomatic management of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, extended glucocorticoid exposure is the leading cause of physician-induced osteoporosis and leaves patients at a high risk of fracture. To study the biochemical effects of glucocorticoid exposure and how they might affect biomechanical properties of the bone, Raman spectra were acquired from ex vivo tibiae of glucocorticoid- and placebo-treated wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. Statistically significant spectral differences were observed due to both treatment regimen and mouse genotype. These differences are attributed to changes in the overall bone mineral composition, as well as the degree of phosphate mineralization in tibial cortical bone. In addition, partial least squares regression was used to generate a Raman-based prediction of each tibia's biomechanical strength as quantified by a torsion test. The Raman-based predictions were as accurate as those produced by microcomputed tomography derived parameters, and more accurate than the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. These results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for monitoring bone biochemistry in studies of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, including tests of drugs being developed to combat these diseases.

  7. Biomechanics of chiasmal compression: Sensitivity of the mechanical behaviors of nerve fibers to variations in material property and geometry

    Wang, Xiaofei; Neely, Andrew J.; McIlwaine, Gawn G.; Lueck, Christian J.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanism of bitemporal hemianopia is still unclear. Previous research suggested that the nerve fiber packing pattern may contribute to the selective damage of nasal (crossed) nerve fibers. Numerical models were built using finite element modeling to study the biomechanics of optic nerve fibers. The sensitivity of the mechanical behaviors of the nerve fibers to variations of five parameters in the nerve fiber model were investigated using design of experiments (DOE). Results show that the crossing angle is a very significant factor that affects a wide range of responses of the model. The strain difference between the crossed and the uncrossed nerve fibers may account for the phenomenon of bitemporal hemianopia. This work also highlights the need for more accurate material properties of the tissues in the model and an improved understanding of the microstructure of the optic chiasm.

  8. Prediction of biomechanical properties of trabecular bone in MR images with geometric features and support vector regression.

    Huber, Markus B; Lancianese, Sarah L; Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Ikpot, Imoh Z; Lerner, Amy L; Wismuller, Axel

    2011-06-01

    Whole knee joint MR image datasets were used to compare the performance of geometric trabecular bone features and advanced machine learning techniques in predicting biomechanical strength properties measured on the corresponding ex vivo specimens. Changes of trabecular bone structure throughout the proximal tibia are indicative of several musculoskeletal disorders involving changes in the bone quality and the surrounding soft tissue. Recent studies have shown that MR imaging also allows non-invasive 3-D characterization of bone microstructure. Sophisticated features like the scaling index method (SIM) can estimate local structural and geometric properties of the trabecular bone and may improve the ability of MR imaging to determine local bone quality in vivo. A set of 67 bone cubes was extracted from knee specimens and their biomechanical strength estimated by the yield stress (YS) [in MPa] was determined through mechanical testing. The regional apparent bone volume fraction (BVF) and SIM derived features were calculated for each bone cube. A linear multiregression analysis (MultiReg) and a optimized support vector regression (SVR) algorithm were used to predict the YS from the image features. The prediction accuracy was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each image feature on independent test sets. The best prediction result with the lowest prediction error of RMSE = 1.021 MPa was obtained with a combination of BVF and SIM features and by using SVR. The prediction accuracy with only SIM features and SVR (RMSE = 1.023 MPa) was still significantly better than BVF alone and MultiReg (RMSE = 1.073 MPa). The current study demonstrates that the combination of sophisticated bone structure features and supervised learning techniques can improve MR-based determination of trabecular bone quality. PMID:21356612

  9. The Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Proximal Femur after Implant Removal

    Yang, Jae Hyuk; Jung, Tae Gon; Honnurappa, Arjun Rupanagudi; Cha, Jae Min; Ham, Chang Hwa; Kim, Tae Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To compare the biomechanical stability of the femur following the removal of proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA-II) and dynamic hip screw (DHS). Material and Methods. 56 paired cadaveric femurs were used as experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, PFNA-II and DHS were randomly inserted into femurs on both sides and then removed. Thereafter, compression load was applied until fracture occurred; biomechanical stability of the femurs and associated fracture patterns were studied. Results. The ultimate load and stiffness of the control group were 6227.8 ± 1694.1 N and 990.5 ± 99.8 N/mm, respectively. These were significantly higher than experimental group (p = 0.014, <0.001) following the removal of PFNA-II (4085.6 ± 1628.03 N and 656.3 ± 155.3 N/mm) and DHS (4001.9 ± 1588.3 N and 656.3 ± 155.3 N/mm). No statistical differences in these values were found between the 2 device groups (p = 0.84, 0.71), regardless of age groups. However, fracture patterns were different between two devices, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. Conclusions. Mechanical stability of the proximal femurs does not differ after the removal of 2 different of fixation devices regardless of the age. However, it was significantly lower compared to an intact femur. Different fracture patterns have been shown following the removal of different fixation devices as there are variations in the site of stress risers for individual implants. PMID:27597807

  10. Detection of the early keratoconus based on corneal biomechanical properties in the refractive surgery candidates

    Zofia Pniakowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Subclinical keratoconus is contraindication to refractive surgery. The currently used methods of preoperative screening do not always allow differentiating between healthy eyes and those with subclinical keratoconus. Aim: To evaluate biomechanical parameters of the cornea, waveform score (WS, and intraocular pressure (IOP as potentially useful adjuncts to the diagnostic algorithm for precise detection of the early keratoconus stages and selection of refractive surgery candidates. Settings and Design: Department of Ophthalmology and prospective cross-sectional study. Patients and Methods: Patients enrolled in the study were diagnosed with refractive disorders. We assessed parameters of corneal biomechanics such as corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldman-correlated IOP (IOPg, corneal compensated IOP, WS, and keratoconus match index (KMI. They were classified into one of three groups based on the predefined KMI range: Group 1 (from 0.352 to 0.757 – 45 eyes, Group 2 (from −0.08 to 0.313 – 52 eyes, and Group 0 - control group (from 0.761 to 1.642 – 80 eyes. Results: In both study groups, IOPg, CRF, and CH were decreased when compared to control (P < 0.0001. In control group, there was positive correlation between CH and KMI (P < 0.05, with no correlations in any of the two study groups. CRF correlated positively with KMI in control (P < 0.0001 and in Group 2 (P < 0.05. Conclusions: CH and CRF, together with WS and IOPg, consist a clinically useful adjunct to detect subclinical keratoconus in patients referred for refractive surgery when based on KMI staging.

  11. Evolution of bone biomechanical properties at the micrometer scale around titanium implant as a function of healing time

    The characterization of the biomechanical properties of newly formed bone tissue around implants is important to understand the osseointegration process. The objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of elastic properties of newly formed bone tissue as a function of healing time. To do so, nanoindentation and micro-Brillouin scattering techniques are coupled following a multimodality approach using histological analysis. Coin-shaped implants were placed in vivo at a distance of 200 µm from the cortical bone surface, leading to an initially empty cavity. Two rabbits were sacrificed after 7 and 13 weeks of healing time. The histological analyses allow us to distinguish mature and newly formed bone tissue. The bone mechanical properties were measured in mature and newly formed bone tissue. Analysis of variance and Tukey–Kramer tests reveals a significant effect of healing time on the indentation modulus and ultrasonic velocities of bone tissue. The results show that bone mass density increases by 12.2% (2.2% respectively) between newly formed bone at 7 weeks (13 weeks respectively) and mature bone. The dependence of bone properties on healing time may be explained by the evolution of bone microstructure and mineralization. (paper)

  12. Evolution of bone biomechanical properties at the micrometer scale around titanium implant as a function of healing time

    Vayron, Romain; Matsukawa, Mami; Tsubota, Ryo; Mathieu, Vincent; Barthel, Etienne; Haiat, Guillaume

    2014-03-01

    The characterization of the biomechanical properties of newly formed bone tissue around implants is important to understand the osseointegration process. The objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of elastic properties of newly formed bone tissue as a function of healing time. To do so, nanoindentation and micro-Brillouin scattering techniques are coupled following a multimodality approach using histological analysis. Coin-shaped implants were placed in vivo at a distance of 200 µm from the cortical bone surface, leading to an initially empty cavity. Two rabbits were sacrificed after 7 and 13 weeks of healing time. The histological analyses allow us to distinguish mature and newly formed bone tissue. The bone mechanical properties were measured in mature and newly formed bone tissue. Analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer tests reveals a significant effect of healing time on the indentation modulus and ultrasonic velocities of bone tissue. The results show that bone mass density increases by 12.2% (2.2% respectively) between newly formed bone at 7 weeks (13 weeks respectively) and mature bone. The dependence of bone properties on healing time may be explained by the evolution of bone microstructure and mineralization.

  13. Co-focused ultrasound and optical coherence elastography system for the study of age-related changes of biomechanical properties of crystalline lens in rabbit eyes

    Wu, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Wang, Shang; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Liu, Chih-hao; Aglyamov, Salavat; Emelianov, Stanislav; Manns, Fabrice; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we utilize a confocal ultrasound and phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) system to assess age-related changes in biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens in intact rabbit eyes in situ. Lowamplitude elastic deformations, induced on the surface of the lens by localized acoustic radiation force, were measured using phase-sensitive OCT. The results demonstrate that the displacements induced in young rabbit lenses are significantly larger than those in the mature lenses. Temporal analyses of the elastic waves are also demonstrated significant difference between young and old lenses, indicating that the stiffness of lens increases with the age. These results demonstrate possibility of OCE for completely noninvasive analysis and quantification of lens biomechanical properties, which could be used in many clinical and basic science applications such as surgeries and studies on lens physiology and function.

  14. Effect of Extension and Type of Composite-Restored Class II Cavities on Biomechanical Properties of Teeth: A Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    Azam Valian; Elham Moravej-Salehi; Allahyar Geramy; Elham Faramarzi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Controversy exists regarding cavity preparation for restoration of interproximal caries in posterior teeth in terms of preserving the tooth structure and suitable stress distribution. This study aimed to assess the effect of extension and type of class II cavities and the remaining tooth structure in maxillary premolars restored with composite resin on the biomechanical properties of teeth using finite element method (FEM). Materials and Methods: Using FEM, eight three-dimensional...

  15. Dynamic Observation on the Effects of Different Suture Techniques on the Biomechanical Properties in the Healing of Tendons

    2005-01-01

    To identify the best suture techniques for the tendon repair, the biomechanical properties of tendons sutured by different methods were dynamically examined. 140 chickens were divided into 2 groups equally: group A and group B. The tendon of the right side was subjected to injury-repair process, and the tendons of the left sides served as controls in both groups. In group A, "figure-of8" suture, modified Kessler suture and Bunnell suture were used for the 2nd to 4th paws respectively, while in group B, Kleinert suture, Tsuge suture and Ikuta suture were used. On the day 0, 3,7, 14, 21, 28, 42 after operation, 10 animals were sacrificed and the flexor tendons of both sides were harvested for strength test. The results showed that the initial strength of the repaired tendons and the strength after 6 weeks following tendon cut were far below those of intact tendons, irrespective of suture techniques used. With the 6 techniques, the Pmax of tendons repaired by Tsuge suture was increased continually, reaching the highest value on the 42nd day. The Pmax of tendons sutured by the modified Kessler suture was slightly lower than that by Tsuge suture, but it was increased steadily in healing. The tendons repaired by figure-of-8 suture yielded the lowest Pmax. It was concluded that Tsuge suture and modified Kessler suture were the best techniques for tendon repair.

  16. Abnormal Photoluminescence Properties of Polycrystalline ZnO Nanowire Arrays Synthesized by Electrodeposition

    XUE De-Sheng; GONG Yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Large-scale ZnO nanowire arrays are synthesized by electrodeposition with subsequent heat treatment in atmosphere ambient at 450-650℃. Photoluminescence (PL) is investigated at 295K. Abnormal PL properties of an unusual sharp emission at 485nm and a broad ultraviolet emission which are different from the other works of ZnO PL before are observed. Field emission scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results show that the length of ZnO nanowires is nearly 5μm and their diameter is about 70 nm. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction results reveal that the ZnO nanowires are a polycrystalline structure.

  17. Study of biomechanical, anatomical, and physiological properties of scorpion stingers for developing biomimetic materials.

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Shu, Tao; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Through natural selection, many animal organs have evolved superior mechanical properties and elegant hierarchical structures adaptive to their multiple biological functions. We combine experiments and theory to investigate the composition-structure-property-function relations of scorpion stingers. Their hierarchical structures and functionally gradient mechanical properties were revealed. Slow motion analysis of the penetration process of a scorpion stinger was performed to examine the refined survival skills of scorpions. An experiment-based mechanics model of the stinger was proposed, the results of which revealed an optimized range of penetration angle in an insertion event. Both theoretical and numerical results are in good agreement with our experimental measurements. The analysis method and physical insights of this work are potentially important for investigating a general class of sharp-edge biological materials, e.g., cattle horns, spider fangs, cat claws, and plant thorns. PMID:26478411

  18. Predictive Models with Patient Specific Material Properties for the Biomechanical Behavior of Ascending Thoracic Aneurysms.

    Trabelsi, Olfa; Duprey, Ambroise; Favre, Jean-Pierre; Avril, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the patient-specific material properties of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) using preoperative dynamic gated computed tomography (CT) scans. The identification is based on the simultaneous minimization of two cost functions, which define the difference between model predictions and gated CT measurements of the aneurysm volume at respectively systole and cardiac mid-cycle. The method is applied on five patients who underwent surgical repair of their ATAA at the University Hospital Center of St. Etienne. For these patients, the aneurysms were collected and tested mechanically using an in vitro bench. For the sake of validation, the mechanical properties found using the in vivo approach and the in vitro bench were compared. We eventually performed finite-element stress analyses based on each set of material properties. Rupture risk indexes were estimated and compared, showing promising results of the patient-specific identification method based on gated CT. PMID:26178871

  19. Biomechanics of pelvic system: Towards a definition of the required mechanical properties of implants

    Brieu M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Genital prolapse is a prevalent pelvic disorder inducing hypermobility of organs. Its physiopathology is not well understood as highlighted by the high rate of failure of the surgical treatments. A better definition of the pelvic tissues properties is needed to design more functional prostheses. Image registration is first used to describe the structure of the pelvic system. Experimental characterization is done to have a map of the mechanical properties of pelvic soft tissues and compare healthy and pathologic tissues behaviour. Then a model based on macromolecular approach and histologic composition is proposed.

  20. Shoulder biomechanics

    Lugo, Roberto; Kung, Peter; Ma, C. Benjamin [Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, University of California, San Francisco, 500 Parnassus Avenue, MU 320W-0728 San Francisco, CA 914143 (United States)], E-mail: maben@orthosurg.ucsf.edu

    2008-10-15

    The biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint depend on the interaction of both static and dynamic-stabilizing structures. Static stabilizers include the bony anatomy, negative intra-articular pressure, the glenoid labrum, and the glenohumeral ligaments along with the joint capsule. The dynamic-stabilizing structures include the rotator cuff muscles and the other muscular structures surrounding the shoulder joint. The combined effect of these stabilizers is to support the multiple degrees of motion within the glenohumeral joint. The goal of this article is to review how these structures interact to provide optimal stability and how failure of some of these mechanisms can lead to shoulder joint pathology.

  1. Exogenous normal lymph alleviates microcirculation disturbances and abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Niu, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Ping [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China); Hou, Ya-Li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China); Li, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Jing [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (China)

    2013-02-01

    Disturbances of the microcirculation and abnormal hemorheological properties are important factors that play an important role in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and result in organ dysfunction or failure. In the present study, we established an animal model of DIC using intravenous Dextran 500 in rats, and used exogenous normal lymph corresponding to 1/15 of whole blood volume for injection through the left jugular vein. We found that normal lymph could improve the blood pressure and survival time of rats with DIC. The results regarding the mesenteric microcirculation showed that the abnormality of the diameter of mesenteric microvessels and micro-blood flow speed in the DIC+lymph group was significantly less than in the DIC+saline group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and electrophoresis time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+saline group compared to the control group. The electrophoretic length and migration of erythrocytes from the DIC+saline and DIC+lymph groups were significantly slower than the control group. Blood relative viscosity, Hct, ESR, and electrophoretic time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+lymph group compared to the control group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity and reduced viscosity were significantly lower in the DIC+lymph group than in the DIC+saline group, and erythrocyte deformability index was also significantly higher than in the DIC+saline and control groups. These results suggest that exogenous normal lymph could markedly improve the acute microcirculation disturbance and the abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with DIC induced by Dextran 500.

  2. Overexpression of DMP1 accelerates mineralization and alters cortical bone biomechanical properties in vivo

    Bhatia A.; Miller L.; Albazza, M.; Espinoza Orias, A.A.; Inoue, N.; Acerbo, A.; George, A.; Sumner, D.R.

    2011-09-29

    Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) is a key regulator of biomineralization. Here, we examine changes in structural, geometric, and material properties of cortical bone in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing DMP1. Micro-computed tomography and three-point bending were performed on 90 femora of wild type and transgenic mice at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Fourier transform infrared imaging was performed at 2 months. We found that the transgenic femurs were longer (p < 0.01), more robust in cross-section (p < 0.05), stronger (p < 0.05), but had less post-yield strain and displacement (p < 0.01), and higher tissue mineral density (p < 0.01) than the wild type femurs at 1 and 2 months. At 2 months, the transgenic femurs also had a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio (p < 0.05) and lower carbonate substitution (p < 0.05) compared to wild type femurs. These findings indicate that increased mineralization caused by overexpressing DMP1 led to increased structural cortical bone properties associated with decreased ductility during the early post-natal period.

  3. Characterization of biomechanical properties of aged human and ovine mitral valve chordae tendineae.

    Zuo, Keping; Pham, Thuy; Li, Kewei; Martin, Caitlin; He, Zhaoming; Sun, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The mitral valve (MV) is a highly complex cardiac valve consisting of an annulus, anterior and posterior leaflets, chordae tendineae (chords) and two papillary muscles. The chordae tendineae mechanics play a pivotal role in proper MV function: the chords help maintain proper leaflet coaptation and rupture of the chordae tendineae due to disease or aging can lead to mitral valve insufficiency. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties of aged human and ovine mitral chordae tendineae. The human and ovine chordal specimens were categorized by insertion location (i.e., marginal, basal and strut) and leaflet type (i.e., anterior and posterior). The results show that human and ovine chords of differing types vary largely in size but do not have significantly different elastic and failure properties. The excess fibrous tissue layers surrounding the central core of human chords added thickness to the chords but did not contribute to the overall strength of the chords. In general, the thinner marginal chords were stiffer than the thicker basal and strut chords, and the anterior chords were stiffer and weaker than the posterior chords. The human chords of all types were significantly stiffer than the corresponding ovine chords and exhibited much lower failure strains. These findings can be explained by the diminished crimp pattern of collagen fibers of the human mitral chords observed histologically. Moreover, the mechanical testing data was modeled with the nonlinear hyperelastic Ogden strain energy function to facilitate accurate computational modeling of the human MV. PMID:27315372

  4. Using 3D fluid-structure interaction model to analyse the biomechanical properties of erythrocyte

    Chee, C.Y. [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Science Park Road, Capricorn S117528 (Singapore)], E-mail: cheecy@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Lee, H.P. [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Science Park Road, Capricorn S117528 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Lu, C. [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Science Park Road, Capricorn S117528 (Singapore)

    2008-02-25

    This Letter presents a newly developed three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model of the red blood cell (RBC). The model consists of a deformable liquid capsule modelled as Newtonian fluid enclosed by a hyperelastic membrane with viscoelastic property. Numerical results show that viscosity in the cytoplasm affects the deformed shape of RBC under loading. This observation is contrary to the earlier belief that viscosity of the cytoplasm can be neglected. Numerical simulations carried out to investigate large deformation induced on the RBC model using direct tensile forces show significant improvement in terms of correlation with experimental results. The membrane shear modulus estimated from the model ranges between 3.7 to 9.0 {mu}Nm{sup -1} compares well with results obtained from micropipette aspiration experiments.

  5. Biomechanics finds practical applications in aerospace research

    Yanghe, X.

    1984-10-01

    Biomechanics is a branch of science which studies the mechanical properties of biological parts using the basic principles of mechanics and engineering. Formulas and quantitative calculations are used to analyze and understand physiological phenomena. Problems caused by weightlessness, coronary heart disease, blood circulation, use of medication, and application of biomechanics in aviation rescue are discussed.

  6. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical...

  7. Impact of oral contraceptive use and menstrual phases on patellar tendon morphology, biochemical composition and biomechanical properties in female athletes

    Hansen, Mette Damborg; Couppe, Christian; Hansen, Christina;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Gender differences exist with regards to ligament and tendon injuries. Lower collagen synthesis has been observed in exercising females vs. males, and in users of oral contraceptives (OC) vs non-users, but it is unknown if OC will influence tendon biomechanics of females undergoing...

  8. Waves and high nutrient loads jointly decrease survival and separately affect morphological and biomechanical properties in the seagrass

    La Nafie, Y.A.; de los Santos, C.B.; Brun, F.G.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Bouma, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    In an 8-week aquarium experiment, we investigated the interactive effects of waves (present vs. absent) and water-column nutrient level (high vs. low) on the survival, growth, morphology, and biomechanics of the seagrass, Zostera noltii. Survival was reduced when plants were exposed to both waves an

  9. Effects of strontium malonate (NB S101) on the compositional, structural and biomechanical properties of calcified tissues in rats and dogs

    Raffalt, Anders Christer

    were examined for treatment-related changes in concentrations of Sr, Ca, Mg and P using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and the biomechanical properties of the bones were assessed using bending and...... of Ca and P was caused by the increased weight of HAp following adsorption and incorporation of Sr. It was found that respectively 70 – 72% of femur, 78% of rat incisor and 85% of dog molar was made up by HAp. The maximum strength of the dog femurs (three-point bending) was significantly reduced (19...

  10. Corrosion properties of sealing surface material for RPV under abnormal working conditions

    Based on the corrosion issue of sealing surface material for RPV in some nuclear projects, the corrosion properties of sealing surface material for RPV under abnormal working conditions were investigated. The corrosion behavior of 308L stainless steel were studied by using autoclave in different contents of Cl- solutions, and these samples were observed and analyzed by means of the metalloscope and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that no pitting, crevice and stress corrosion occurred, when the content of Cl- was lower than 1 mg/L at the temperatures of 270℃ and the pressure of 5.5 MPa. However, with the increase of the content of Cl-, the susceptibility to pitting, crevice and stress corrosion of 308L was enhanced remarkably. (authors)

  11. Construction and Biomechanical Properties of PolyAxial Self-Locking Anatomical Plate Based on the Geometry of Distal Tibia

    Weiguo Liang; Weixiong Ye; Dongping Ye; Ziqiang Zhou; Zhiguang Chen; Aiguo Li; Zong-Han Xie; Lihai Zhang; Jiake Xu

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide scientific and empirical evidence for the clinical application of the polyaxial self-locking anatomical plate, 80 human tibias from healthy adults were scanned by spiral CT and their three-dimensional images were reconstructed using the surface shaded display (SSD) method. Firstly, based on the geometric data of distal tibia, a polyaxial self-locking anatomical plate for distal tibia was designed and constructed. Biomechanical tests were then performed by applying axial lo...

  12. Biomechanics in Schools.

    Vincent, J. F. V.

    1980-01-01

    Examines current usage of the term "biomechanics" and emphasizes the importance of differentiating between structure and material. Describes current prolects in biomechanics and lists four points about the educational significance of the field. (GS)

  13. Research Techniques in Biomechanics.

    Ward, Terry

    Biomechanics involves the biological human beings interacting with his/her mechanical environment. Biomechanics research is being done in connection with sport, physical education, and general motor behavior, and concerns mechanics independent of implements. Biomechanics research falls in the following two general categories: (1) that specific…

  14. Corneal biomechanical properties changes after coaxial 2.2-mm microincision and standard 3.0-mm phacoemulsification

    Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Hua; Dong, Hui; Wang, Li; Jia, Ya-Ding; Zhang, Su-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the changes in corneal biomechanics measured by ocular response analyzer (ORA) after 2.2-mm microincision cataract surgery and 3.0-mm standard coaxial phacoemulsification. METHODS The prospective nonrandomized study comprised eyes with cataract that had 2.2-mm coaxial microincision or 3.0-mm standard incision phacoemulsification. The corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were measured by ORA preoperatively and at 1d, 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week postoperatively. Results were analyzed and compared between groups. RESULTS In both groups, CH decreased in the immediate postoperative period (Pcataract surgery group seemed recovery faster compared to the 3.0-mm standard coaxial phacoemulsification group. PMID:26949640

  15. Biomechanics principles and practices

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  16. Gingival Recessions and Biomechanics

    Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen

    Gingival recessions and biomechanics “Tissue is the issue, but bone sets the tone.“ A tooth outside the cortical plate can result in loss of bone and development of a gingival recession. The presentation aims to show biomechanical considerations in relation to movement of teeth with gingival...... by moving the root back in the alveolus. The tooth movement is accompanied by bone gain and thus increase the success rate for soft tissue augmentation. The choice of biomechanical system influences the treatment outcome. If a standard straight wire appliance is used, a biomechanical dilemma can arise...

  17. Next generation covered stents made from nanocomposite materials: A complete assessment of uniformity, integrity and biomechanical properties.

    Farhatnia, Yasmin; Pang, Jun Hon; Darbyshire, Arnold; Dee, Ryan; Tan, Aaron; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    Covered stents are stents wrapped with a thin polymeric membrane, and are typically used to treat vessel aneurysms and seal perforated arteries. Current covered stents suffer from restenosis due to limitations in material and fabrication methods which leaves metallic struts directly exposed to blood. We have developed a biocompatible and haemocompatible nanocomposite polymer, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU). We devised a novel combination of ultrasonic spray atomisation system and dip-coating process to produce small calibre covered stents with metal struts fully embedded within the membrane, which also yields greater coating uniformity. Stent-polymer bonding was enhanced via silanisation and coating of reactive pre-polymer. Platelet studies supported the non-thrombogenicity of POSS-PCU. Biomechanical performances including diametrical compliance, bending strength, radial strength and recoil were evaluated and optimised. This proof-of-principle manufacturing technique could lead to the development of next-generation small calibre adult and paediatric covered stents. These stents are currently undergoing preclinical trial. From the Clinical Editor: The use of stents to treat vascular diseases is now the standard of care in the clinical setting. Nonetheless, a major problem of the current stents is the risk of restenosis and thrombosis. The authors developed a nanocomposite material using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) and incorporated into metallic stents. Preliminary data have already shown promising results. It is envisaged that this would further lead to better stent technology in the future. PMID:26238080

  18. Effect of Extension and Type of Composite-Restored Class II Cavities on Biomechanical Properties of Teeth: A Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    Azam Valian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding cavity preparation for restoration of interproximal caries in posterior teeth in terms of preserving the tooth structure and suitable stress distribution. This study aimed to assess the effect of extension and type of class II cavities and the remaining tooth structure in maxillary premolars restored with composite resin on the biomechanical properties of teeth using finite element method (FEM.Using FEM, eight three-dimensional (3D models of class II cavities in maxillary premolars with variable mesiodistal (MD dimensions, variable thickness of the residual wall in-between the mesial and distal cavities and different locations of the wall were designed. Other dimensions were the same in all models. Cavities were restored with composite resin. A load equal to the masticatory force (200N was applied to the teeth. Finite element analysis (FEA was used to calculate the von Mises stress.Stress in the enamel margin increased by increasing the MD dimensions of the cavities. Deviation of the residual wall between the mesial and distal cavities from the tooth center was found to be an important factor in increasing stress concentration in the enamel. Increasing the MD dimensions of the cavity did not cause any increase in stress concentration in dentin.Increasing the MD dimensions of the cavities, decreasing the thickness of the residual wall between the mesial and distal cavities and its deviation from the tooth center can increase stress concentration in the enamel but not in dentin.

  19. Computational modeling in biomechanics

    Mofrad, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a glimpse of the diverse and important roles that modern computational technology is playing in various areas of biomechanics. It includes unique chapters on ab initio quantum mechanical, molecular dynamic and scale coupling methods..

  20. Biomechanics of the brain

    Miller, Karol

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from scientists at major institutions, this book presents an introduction to brain anatomy for engineers and scientists. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive resource in the field of brain biomechanics.

  1. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  2. Microstructure, mechanical properties and wetting behavior of F: Si–C–N films as bio-mechanical coating grown by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Shi, Zhifeng, E-mail: scut0533@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang, Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Huang, Nan [Key Lab. for Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu (China); Ning, Chengyun; Wang, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2013-03-05

    Highlights: ► The F: Si–C–N film coating on Co–Cr alloy as bio-mechanical coating was put forward. ► Significant role of F and C doped on structure and properties in the film was observed. ► The as-deposited F: Si–C–N films are amphipathic nature. ► F: Si–C–N coatings show improvement in the tribological behavior over the uncoated Co–Cr–Mo. ► Compared with Co–Cr alloy, F: Si–C–N films could improve hardness enhances 1.7 times. -- Abstract: A systematic structure and properties investigation on the deposition of fluorinated silicon–carbon–nitride (Si–C–N) films under varying CF{sub 4} flows was carried out by direct current unbalanced magnetron sputtering techniques. Significant role of fluorine and carbon-doped on growth characteristics and mechanical properties in the film was observed. The chemical bonding configurations, surface topography and mechanical properties were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman and infrared spectroscopies, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-indentation technique and CSM pin-on-disk tribometer. It was found that the as-deposited F: Si–C–N films are amphipathic nature, and large variations took place these films’ deposition rate, composition, microstructure and mechanical properties when CF{sub 4} flows varied from 0 to 9 sccm. At CF{sub 4} gas flow rate 9 sccm, the F: Si–C–N coatings demonstrated a fluorine content of 5.95 at.% and a moderate friction coefficient of 0.03. It is obvious from the hardness results that the F: Si–C–N coating enhances the hardness of the Co–Cr–Mo alloy to approximately 16.3 GPa on a smoother surface. The tribological characterization of Co–Cr–Mo alloy with F: Si–C–N coating sliding against ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) counter-surface in fetal bovine serum, shows that the wear resistance of the F: Si–C–N coated Co–Cr–Mo alloy/UHMWPE sliding pair show much obviously

  3. Microstructure, mechanical properties and wetting behavior of F: Si–C–N films as bio-mechanical coating grown by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Highlights: ► The F: Si–C–N film coating on Co–Cr alloy as bio-mechanical coating was put forward. ► Significant role of F and C doped on structure and properties in the film was observed. ► The as-deposited F: Si–C–N films are amphipathic nature. ► F: Si–C–N coatings show improvement in the tribological behavior over the uncoated Co–Cr–Mo. ► Compared with Co–Cr alloy, F: Si–C–N films could improve hardness enhances 1.7 times. -- Abstract: A systematic structure and properties investigation on the deposition of fluorinated silicon–carbon–nitride (Si–C–N) films under varying CF4 flows was carried out by direct current unbalanced magnetron sputtering techniques. Significant role of fluorine and carbon-doped on growth characteristics and mechanical properties in the film was observed. The chemical bonding configurations, surface topography and mechanical properties were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman and infrared spectroscopies, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-indentation technique and CSM pin-on-disk tribometer. It was found that the as-deposited F: Si–C–N films are amphipathic nature, and large variations took place these films’ deposition rate, composition, microstructure and mechanical properties when CF4 flows varied from 0 to 9 sccm. At CF4 gas flow rate 9 sccm, the F: Si–C–N coatings demonstrated a fluorine content of 5.95 at.% and a moderate friction coefficient of 0.03. It is obvious from the hardness results that the F: Si–C–N coating enhances the hardness of the Co–Cr–Mo alloy to approximately 16.3 GPa on a smoother surface. The tribological characterization of Co–Cr–Mo alloy with F: Si–C–N coating sliding against ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) counter-surface in fetal bovine serum, shows that the wear resistance of the F: Si–C–N coated Co–Cr–Mo alloy/UHMWPE sliding pair show much obviously improvement over that of

  4. Muscle-skeletal model of the thigh: a tool for understanding the biomechanics of gait in patients with cerebral palsy

    Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Catalfamo Formento, Paola Andrea; José Crespo, Marcos; Andrés Braidot, Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.

  5. Muscle-skeletal model of the thigh: a tool for understanding the biomechanics of gait in patients with cerebral palsy

    Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.

  6. 谷子秸秆生物力学性质试验研究%Experimental study on the biomechanical properties of millet stem

    武翠卿; 李楠; 张帅; 武新慧; 郭玉明

    2016-01-01

    Millet stem can be used as forage to fed livestock directly such as horse and mule.It also can be used as bur-den of the mixed feed.The biomechanical properties of millet stem should be studied to provide the selection of some design parameters on processing equipment like crushing process,dissection process,pulverization process and its process parameters optimization.In this paper,biomechanical properties of natural drying millet stem have been stud-ied,mainly testing its bending strength,shear strength,tensile strength and elastic modulus.The results showed that the bending strength of millet stem was superior,with its tensile strength closing to wooden materials.While its shear-ing strength varied along different internodes,greater in the root and lower in the upper.What the bending strength reflects on was the limit value of bending failure of integral tubular section.Elastic modulus hardly change,manifesting its integration was uniform.All of these provide the beneficial reference for many sides such as the millet stem reaping, processing and utilization as well as the designing of agricultural equipment and facilities.%谷子茎秆自然干燥后可作为饲草直接饲喂骡马类大牲畜,或应用于混合饲料的配料。在粉碎、切段、揉丝等加工装备参数优化中,需要研究其秸秆材料的生物力学性质。本文试验研究了自然干燥后的谷子秸秆材料的生物力学性质,主要测试了弯曲强度、剪切强度、拉伸强度、弹性模量等力学性质指标。试验结果表明,谷子茎秆的拉伸强度较高,抗拉能力接近木质类材料;剪切强度沿节间有变化,根部较强,上面节较低;弯曲强度值反映出的是整体管状截面皱褶弯折失效的极限值;弹性模量随节间位置的变化不大,表明谷子茎秆材料整体比较均匀。结果可为谷子茎秆收获、加工及利用装备设计和农业设施材料利用提供参考。

  7. Biomechanical response of two fast-growing tropical seagrass species subjected to in situ shading and sediment fertilization

    La Nafie, Y.A.; de los Santos, C.B.; Brun, F.G.; Mashoreng, S.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Bouma, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although seagrasses experience strong hydrodynamic forces, little is known about their biomechanical response in spite of the potential importance for their ecological success. We investigated how light reduction and sediment-nutrient enrichment affect biomechanical and morphological properties of t

  8. Understanding the biomechanical nature of musculoskeletal tissue.

    Karduna, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a general overview of the biomechanical principles associated with hand therapy. Specifically, it reviews the basic topics of material properties (including both theoretical principles and practical concepts), static analysis (including forces, moments, muscle forces, and Newton's laws), and ends with a clinical example involving analysis of the risk of damage to the A3 pulley. PMID:22507212

  9. Differential effects of IGF-1 deficiency during the life span on structural and biomechanical properties in the tibia of aged mice.

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Estep, Patrick N; Logan, Sreemathi; Hodges, Erik L; Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Sonntag, William E

    2016-04-01

    Advanced aging is associated with the loss of structural and biomechanical properties in bones, which increases the risk for bone fracture. Aging is also associated with reductions in circulating levels of the anabolic signaling hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. While the role of IGF-1 in bone development has been well characterized, the impact of the age-related loss of IGF-1 on bone aging remains controversial. Here, we describe the effects of reducing IGF-1 at multiple time points in the mouse life span--early in postnatal development, early adulthood, or late adulthood on tibia bone aging in both male and female igf (f/f) mice. Bone structure was analyzed at 27 months of age using microCT. We find that age-related reductions in cortical bone fraction, cortical thickness, and tissue mineral density were more pronounced when IGF-1 was reduced early in life and not in late adulthood. Three-point bone bending assays revealed that IGF-1 deficiency early in life resulted in reduced maximum force, maximum bending moment, and bone stiffness in aged males and females. The effects of IGF-1 on bone aging are microenvironment specific, as early-life loss of IGF-1 resulted in decreased cortical bone structure and strength along the diaphysis while significantly increasing trabecular bone fraction and trabecular number at the proximal metaphysis. The increases in trabecular bone were limited to males, as early-life loss of IGF-1 did not alter bone fraction or number in females. Together, our data suggest that the age-related loss of IGF-1 influences tibia bone aging in a sex-specific, microenvironment-specific, and time-dependent manner. PMID:26968399

  10. Chimpanzees preferentially select sleeping platform construction tree species with biomechanical properties that yield stable, firm, but compliant nests.

    Samson, David R; Hunt, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    The daily construction of a sleeping platform or "nest" is a universal behavior among large-bodied hominoids. Among chimpanzees, most populations consistently select particular tree species for nesting, yet the principles that guide species preferences are poorly understood. At Semliki, Cynometra alexandri constitutes only 9.6% of all trees in the gallery forest in which the study populations ranges, but it was selected for 73.6% of the 1,844 chimpanzee night beds we sampled. To determine whether physical properties influence nesting site selection, we measured the physical characteristics of seven common tree species at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. We determined stiffness and bending strength for a sample of 326 branches from the seven most commonly used tree species. We selected test-branches with diameters typically used for nest construction. We measured internode distance, calculated mean leaf surface area (cm2) and assigned a tree architecture category to each of the seven species. C. alexandri fell at the extreme of the sample for all four variables and shared a tree architecture with only one other of the most commonly selected species. C. alexandri was the stiffest and had the greatest bending strength; it had the smallest internode distance and the smallest leaf surface area. C. alexandri and the second most commonly selected species, Cola gigantea, share a 'Model of Koriba' tree architecture. We conclude that chimpanzees are aware of the structural properties of C. alexandri branches and choose it because its properties afford chimpanzees sleeping platforms that are firm, stable and resilient. PMID:24740283

  11. Chimpanzees preferentially select sleeping platform construction tree species with biomechanical properties that yield stable, firm, but compliant nests.

    David R Samson

    Full Text Available The daily construction of a sleeping platform or "nest" is a universal behavior among large-bodied hominoids. Among chimpanzees, most populations consistently select particular tree species for nesting, yet the principles that guide species preferences are poorly understood. At Semliki, Cynometra alexandri constitutes only 9.6% of all trees in the gallery forest in which the study populations ranges, but it was selected for 73.6% of the 1,844 chimpanzee night beds we sampled. To determine whether physical properties influence nesting site selection, we measured the physical characteristics of seven common tree species at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. We determined stiffness and bending strength for a sample of 326 branches from the seven most commonly used tree species. We selected test-branches with diameters typically used for nest construction. We measured internode distance, calculated mean leaf surface area (cm2 and assigned a tree architecture category to each of the seven species. C. alexandri fell at the extreme of the sample for all four variables and shared a tree architecture with only one other of the most commonly selected species. C. alexandri was the stiffest and had the greatest bending strength; it had the smallest internode distance and the smallest leaf surface area. C. alexandri and the second most commonly selected species, Cola gigantea, share a 'Model of Koriba' tree architecture. We conclude that chimpanzees are aware of the structural properties of C. alexandri branches and choose it because its properties afford chimpanzees sleeping platforms that are firm, stable and resilient.

  12. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F;

    2008-01-01

    properties during bending (displacement [mm], load [N], energy absorption [J] and stiffness [N/mm]) were measured. Sixteen foxes (EXP) were fed a wet food containing 7.7% OC-polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber in two periods of body fat deposition (Aug-Dec) and two periods of body fat...... mobilisation (Jan-July) in which the food contained less energy and only 2% blubber. SigmaOC food concentration in the food containing 7.7% whale blubber was 309 ng/g wet mass. This corresponded to a SigmaOC exposure of ca. 17 microg/kg body mass/d and a responding SigmaOC residue in subcutaneous adipose...... order to avoid confounding effects from body condition....

  13. Modeling of abnormal mechanical properties of nickel-based single crystal superalloy by three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics

    Unlike common single crystals, the nickel-based single crystal superalloy shows surprisingly anomalous flow strength (i.e. with the increase of temperature, the yield strength first increases to a peak value and then decreases) and tension–compression (TC) asymmetry. A comprehensive three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (3D-DDD) procedure was developed to model these abnormal mechanical properties. For this purpose, a series of complicated dynamic evolution details of Kear–Wilsdorf (KW) locks, which are closely related to the flow strength anomaly and TC asymmetry, were incorporated into this 3D-DDD framework. Moreover, the activation of the cubic slip system, which is the origin of the decrease in yield strength with increasing temperature at relatively high temperatures, was especially taken into account by introducing a competition criterion between the unlocking of the KW locks and the activation of the cubic slip system. To test our framework, a series of 3D-DDD simulations were performed on a representative volume cell model with a cuboidal Ni3Al precipitate phase embedded in a nickel matrix. Results show that the present 3D-DDD procedure can successfully capture the dynamic evolution of KW locks, the flow strength anomaly and TC asymmetry. Then, the underlying dislocation mechanisms leading to these abnormal mechanical responses were investigated and discussed in detail. Finally, a cyclic deformation of the nickel-based single crystal superalloy was modeled by using the present DDD model, with a special focus on the influence of KW locks on the Bauschinger effect and cyclic softening. (paper)

  14. Modeling of abnormal mechanical properties of nickel-based single crystal superalloy by three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics

    Yang, Hui; Li, Zhenhuan; Huang, Minsheng

    2014-12-01

    Unlike common single crystals, the nickel-based single crystal superalloy shows surprisingly anomalous flow strength (i.e. with the increase of temperature, the yield strength first increases to a peak value and then decreases) and tension-compression (TC) asymmetry. A comprehensive three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (3D-DDD) procedure was developed to model these abnormal mechanical properties. For this purpose, a series of complicated dynamic evolution details of Kear-Wilsdorf (KW) locks, which are closely related to the flow strength anomaly and TC asymmetry, were incorporated into this 3D-DDD framework. Moreover, the activation of the cubic slip system, which is the origin of the decrease in yield strength with increasing temperature at relatively high temperatures, was especially taken into account by introducing a competition criterion between the unlocking of the KW locks and the activation of the cubic slip system. To test our framework, a series of 3D-DDD simulations were performed on a representative volume cell model with a cuboidal Ni3Al precipitate phase embedded in a nickel matrix. Results show that the present 3D-DDD procedure can successfully capture the dynamic evolution of KW locks, the flow strength anomaly and TC asymmetry. Then, the underlying dislocation mechanisms leading to these abnormal mechanical responses were investigated and discussed in detail. Finally, a cyclic deformation of the nickel-based single crystal superalloy was modeled by using the present DDD model, with a special focus on the influence of KW locks on the Bauschinger effect and cyclic softening.

  15. Carrier trapping induced abnormal temperature dependent photoluminescence properties of novel sandwiched structure InGaN quantum wells

    He, Juan; Li, Ding; Rajabi, K.; Yang, Wei; Hu, Xiaodong [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Lei [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2014-04-15

    A dual-wavelength LED sample with novel sandwiched structure in high-In-content MQWs is studied by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL) and the abnormal temperature dependence of emission intensity is obtained. The novel MQWs structure which contains staggered quantum wells and an ultra-thin InN interlayer in the wells shows better luminescence property than the reference sample which has conventional quantum wells. Under 325 nm continuous wave laser excitation the LED sample of novel structure exhibits unexpected increasing luminescence intensity as temperature goes up from 140 K to 220 K and reaches its maximum at 220 K. This could be attributed to (1) the carrier redistribution and the novel sandwiched MQWs' high carrier trapping capability; (2) the intrinsic emission property of the MQWs enhanced by improvement of electron-hole overlap and reduction of quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) and compositional fluctuation. TDPL under 405 nm laser excitation is also measured to support this view. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FEMUR BONE

    RAJI NARELIYA,; VEERENDRA KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanics is the theory of how tissues, cells, muscles, bones, organs and the motion of them and how their form and function are regulated by basic mechanical properties. A finite element model of bones with accurate geometry and material properties retrieved from CT scan data are being widely used to make realistic investigations on the mechanical behavior of bone structures. The aim of this study is to create a model of real proximal human femur bone for evaluating the finite element ana...

  17. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra. PMID:21303323

  18. Low-level laser therapy, at 60 J/cm2 associated with a Biosilicate® increase in bone deposition and indentation biomechanical properties of callus in osteopenic rats

    Fangel, Renan; Sérgio Bossini, Paulo; Cláudia Renno, Ana; Araki Ribeiro, Daniel; Chenwei Wang, Charles; Luri Toma, Renata; Okino Nonaka, Keico; Driusso, Patrícia; Antonio Parizotto, Nivaldo; Oishi, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the effects of a novel bioactive material (Biosilicate®) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT), at 60 J/cm2, on bone-fracture consolidation in osteoporotic rats. Forty female Wistar rats are submitted to the ovariectomy, to induce osteopenia. Eight weeks after the ovariectomy, the animals are randomly divided into four groups, with 10 animals each: bone defect control group; bone defect filled with Biosilicate group; bone defect irradiated with laser at 60 J/cm2 group; bone defect filled with Biosilicate and irradiated with LLLT, at 60 J/cm2 group. Laser irradiation is initiated immediately after surgery and performed every 48 h for 14 days. Histopathological analysis points out that bone defects are predominantly filled with the biomaterial in specimens treated with Biosilicate. In the 60-J/cm2 laser plus Biosilicate group, the biomaterial fills all bone defects, which also contained woven bone and granulation tissue. Also, the biomechanical properties are increased in the animals treated with Biosilicate associated to lasertherapy. Our results indicate that laser therapy improves bone repair process in contact with Biosilicate as a result of increasing bone formation as well as indentation biomechanical properties.

  19. Single Cell Biomechanical Phenotyping using Microfluidics and Nanotechnology

    Babahosseini, Hesam

    2016-01-01

    Cancer progression is accompanied with alterations in the cell biomechanical phenotype, including changes in cell structure, morphology, and responses to microenvironmental stress. These alterations result in an increased deformability of transformed cells and reduced resistance to mechanical stimuli, enabling motility and invasion. Therefore, single cell biomechanical properties could be served as a powerful label-free biomarker for effective characterization and early detection of single ca...

  20. Biomechanics of Rowing

    Hase, Kazunori; Andrews, Brian J.; Zavatsky, Amy B.; Halliday, Suzanne E.

    A new control model for the study of biomechanical simulation of human movement was investigated using rowing as an example. The objectives were to explore biological and mechanical alternatives to optimal control methods. The simulation methods included simple control mechanisms based on proportional and derivative (PD) control, consideration of a simple neural model, introduction of an inverse dynamics system for feedback, and computational adjustment of control parameters by using an evaluative criterion and optimization method. By using simulation, appropriate rowing motions were synthesized. The generated rowing motion was periodic, continuous, and adaptable so that the pattern was stable against the mechanical force and independent of the initial condition. We believe that the simulation model is not only practical as a computational research tool from a biomechanical-engineering viewpoint but also significant from the point of view of fundamental biological theories of movement.

  1. Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility

    Bernal, Yaritza

    2016-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) is equipped with anthropometric and biomechanical instrumentation and regularly performs population analysis based on analytical and modeling capabilities to test and verify if all eligible crew/passengers can be accommodated, and fitted with a protective suit that enables performance of reach and access tasks. The ABF's unique expertise can aid in identifying potential ergonomic and occupational biomechanical problems with recommended solutions to improve a suited passenger's safety, comfort, and injury protection. My involvement was in the following projects: The ABF is currently trying to define human performance capabilities in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit. Subjects are tested in an effort to further understand shoulder and elbow strength performance deficits when suited compared to unsuited. Another ongoing project is to develop a protocol to reliably characterize human health and performance metrics for individuals working inside various extravehicular activity (EVA) suits under realistic spaceflight conditions. This project will provide benchmarking data and protocols to be used in the making of future EVA suit configurations.

  2. Homogenization of biomechanical models for plant tissues

    Piatnitski, Andrey; Ptashnyk, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper homogenization of a mathematical model for plant tissue biomechanics is presented. The microscopic model constitutes a strongly coupled system of reaction-diffusion-convection equations for chemical processes in plant cells, the equations of poroelasticity for elastic deformations of plant cell walls and middle lamella, and Stokes equations for fluid flow inside the cells. The chemical process in cells and the elastic properties of cell walls and middle lamella are coupled becau...

  3. Morphology and biomechanics of human heart

    Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Polienko, Asel V.; Ivanov, Dmitry V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: A study of the biomechanical characteristics of the human heart ventricles was performed. 80 hearts were extracted during autopsy of 80 corpses of adults (40 women and 40 men) aged 31-70 years. The samples were investigated in compliance with the recommendations of the ethics committee. Methods: Tension and compression tests were performed with help of the uniaxial testing machine Instron 5944. Cardiometry was also performed. Results: In this work, techniques for human heart ventricle wall biomechanical properties estimation were developed. Regularities of age and gender variability in deformative and strength properties of the right and left ventricle walls were found. These properties were characterized by a smooth growth of myocardial tissue stiffness and resistivity at a relatively low strain against reduction in their strength and elasticity from 31-40 to 61-70 years. It was found that tissue of the left ventricle at 61-70 years had a lower stretchability and strength compared with tissues of the right ventricle and septum. These data expands understanding of the morphological organization of the heart ventricles, which is very important for the development of personalized medicine. Taking into account individual, age and gender differences of the heart ventricle tissue biomechanical characteristics allows to rationally choosing the type of patching materials during reconstructive operations on heart.

  4. Biological and biomechanical properties of reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament of knee joint%膝关节前交叉韧带重建的生物学及生物力学特性

    李俊敏; 李增炎

    2005-01-01

    目的:通过总结前交叉韧带重建的生物学及生物力学特性,探讨早期锻炼对膝关节前交叉韧带重建后移植物愈合及膝关节运动功能恢复的作用.资料来源:应用计算机检索MEDLINE1970-01/2004-01期间有关膝关节前交叉韧带重建及其生物力学特征的文献,检索词"anterior cruciate ligament,knee ioint,biomechanics",并限定文章语言种类为英文.资料选择:对资料进行初审,选择有关膝关节前交叉韧带重建及其生物力学特征的文献,开始查找全文.选择随机对照类文章,当同一作者有多篇文章时,选择病例数最多的予以纳入;排除综述类及Mete分析类文章.质量评价主要考察资料的真实性,调查、实施过程是否严密.资料提炼:共检索到46篇有关膝关节前交叉韧带重建及其生物力学特征的文章,29篇符合以上纳入标准,排除的17篇文章中,9篇为小样本分析,8篇为综述类或Mete分析类文章.资料综合:通过了解正常前交叉韧带的生物力学特征制定重建措施及康复计划指导.重建后前交叉韧带动物实验提示膝关节运动功能恢复均不理想,而人体实验结果优于动物.随机对照实验表明,前交叉韧带重建后立即持重不增加膝关节的松弛性,反而有利于减轻髌骨疼痛.结论:前交叉韧带损伤重建后固定膝关节,限制关节周围肌肉收缩活动,导致韧带、关节及周围肌肉运动功能受限.早期康复锻炼可以减轻疼痛,改善关节软骨代谢,防止关节囊挛缩,有助于重建后膝关节前交叉韧带运动功能的恢复.%OBJECTIVE: To probe into the function of early exercises on healing of grafts after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and on motor function recovery of knee joint by summarizing biology and biomechanical properties of ACL reconstruction.DATA SOURCES: The relevant literatures on ACL reconstruction of knee joint and its biomechanical properties were looked up in

  5. Effect of knee physiological anatomy environment on knee biomechanical properties%膝关节生理解剖环境对膝关节生物力学特性的影响

    张美娟

    2012-01-01

    背景:了解膝关节的生物力学特点对理解人工膝关节假体的设计原理和手术操作原则是至关重要的.目的:分析膝关节周围的力学环境及与膝关节生物力学的关系,进一步探索膝关节的稳定性及损伤机制.方法:应用计算机检索CNKI和PubMed数据库中1998-01/2011-08关于膝关节生物力学方面的文章,在标题和摘要中以"膝关节,韧带,半月板,关节软骨,生物力学"或"knee joints,ligament,meniscus,cartilage,biomechanical"为检索词进行检索.选择文章内容与膝关节生物力学有关者,同一领域文献则选择近期发表或发表在权威杂志文章.初检得到163篇文献,根据纳入标准选择关于膝关节损伤生物力学特性方面的25篇文献进行综述.结果与结论:膝关节的稳定除了依赖膝关节骨以外,还以依赖前后交叉韧带的制约、内外副韧带的平衡、以及伸膝装置与股四头肌及腘绳肌的力量均衡,尤其是内外侧副韧带的平衡和稳定作用.说明膝关节的解剖环境决定了膝关节在负荷、运动及稳定等生物力学特性上的复杂性,因此,了解膝关节生理结构和解剖特点有利于掌握膝关节的生物力学特点,因此此方面的研究对膝关节疼痛、损伤及组织工程研究至关重要.%BACKGROUND: The understanding of the knee biomechanical properties is critical to understand the design and operative principles of the knee prosthesis.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the relationship between peripheral mechanics environment and biomechanics of the knee joint, and to investigate the stability and injury mechanism of the knee joint.METHODS: The CNKI database and PubMed database (1998-01/2011-08) were used to search the related articles about biomechanics of the knee joint. The keywords of “knee joints, ligament, meniscus, cartilage, biomechanical” in English and Chinese were put into the title and the abstract to search the articles. The articles that related to

  6. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    Kas, Josef A.

    2014-03-01

    Already the Roman Celsus recognized rigid tissue as characteristic for solid tumors. Conversely, changes towards a weaker cytoskeleton have been described as a feature of cancer cells since the early days of tumor biology. It remains unclear if a carcinoma's rigid signature stems from more inflexible cells or is caused by the stroma. Despite that the importance of cell biomechanics for tumor progression becomes more and more evident the chicken-and-egg problem to what extent cancer cells already change their mechanical properties within the solid tumor in order to transgress its boundary or mechanical changes are induced by the microenvironment when the cell has left the tumor has been discussed highly controversial. Comprehensive clinical biomechanical measurements only exist from tumor tissue without the possibility to identify individual cells or from individual cancer cells from pleural effusions. Since the biomechanical properties of cells in carcinomas remain unknown measurements on individual cells that directly stem out of primary tumor samples are required, which we have conducted. We found in cervix and mammary carcinomas a distinctive increase of softer cells as well as contractile cells. A soft and contractile cell is like a strong elastic rope. The cell can generate a strong tensile tension to pull its self along and is soft against compression to avoid jamming.

  7. Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics

    Iacoviello, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This book collects the state-of-art and new trends in image analysis and biomechanics. It covers a wide field of scientific and cultural topics, ranging from remodeling of bone tissue under the mechanical stimulus up to optimizing the performance of sports equipment, through the patient-specific modeling in orthopedics, microtomography and its application in oral and implant research, computational modeling in the field of hip prostheses, image based model development and analysis of the human knee joint, kinematics of the hip joint, micro-scale analysis of compositional and mechanical properties of dentin, automated techniques for cervical cell image analysis, and iomedical imaging and computational modeling in cardiovascular disease.   The book will be of interest to researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to image analysis and understanding, medical imaging, biomechanics, simulation and modeling, experimental analysis.

  8. Congenital Abnormalities

    ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase the risk that a baby will be born with abnormalities (e.g. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders ). Eating raw or uncooked foods during pregnancy can also be dangerous to health of the ...

  9. Laser Metrology In Biomechanics

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    1983-12-01

    Modern treatment of sceletal disharmonies and malocclusions utilizes application of external forces. In order to effectively use these therapeutic forces, knowledge of three-dimensional displacements of bones with correlation to biological changes is required. In the past, this problem has been studied in a number of ways using, for example, strain gauges, brittle coatings, photoelasticity, as well as clinical observations and mathematical modeling. Becouse of their inherent limitations, these techniques did not always provide all the information necessary for development of meaningful relationships between the applied force system and the resulting biological remodeling. However, recent advances in the field of la-ser metrology allowed to overcome some of the dificulties found in the earlier methods and permitted development of new techniques for non-invasive measurements of bone motions in three-dimensional space. These laser techniques are particularly useful in biomechanics because they provide for rapid and accurate determination of displacements over the entire surface of the investigate object. In this paper, application of laser techniques for quantitative in-vivo and in-vitro measurements in biomechanics will be discussed and illustrated with representative examples.

  10. The Contributions of the Amino and Carboxy Terminal Domains of Flightin to the Biomechanical Properties of Drosophila Flight Muscle Thick Filaments.

    Gasek, Nathan S; Nyland, Lori R; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2016-01-01

    Flightin is a myosin binding protein present in Pancrustacea. In Drosophila, flightin is expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM), where it is required for the flexural rigidity, structural integrity, and length determination of thick filaments. Comparison of flightin sequences from multiple Drosophila species revealed a tripartite organization indicative of three functional domains subject to different evolutionary constraints. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the functional roles of the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain that show different patterns of sequence conservation. Thick filaments containing a C-terminal domain truncated flightin (fln(ΔC44)) are significantly shorter (2.68 ± 0.06 μm; p biomechanics. We propose these distinct roles arise from the interplay between natural selection and sexual selection given IFM's dual role in flight and courtship behaviors. PMID:27128952

  11. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome...

  12. Quantitative characterization of changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties in two rat strains with different Ah-receptor structures after long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Background: Both industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants can interfere with bone modeling and remodeling. Recently, detailed toxicological bone studies have been performed following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which exerts most of its toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Objectives: The aims of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties following long-term exposure to TCDD, and to further investigate the role of AhR in TCDD-induced bone alterations. To this end, tissue material used in the study was derived from TCDD-exposed Long-Evans (L-E) and Han/Wistar (H/W) rats, which differ markedly in sensitivity to TCDD-induced toxicity due to a strain difference in AhR structure. Methods: Ten weeks old female L-E and H/W rats were administered TCDD s.c. once per week for 20 weeks, at doses corresponding to calculated daily doses of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng TCDD/kg bw (H/W only). Femur, tibia and vertebra from the L-E and H/W rats were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and biomechanical testing at multiple sites. Dose-response modeling was performed to establish benchmark doses for the analyzed bone parameters, and to quantify strain sensitivity differences for those parameters, which were affected by TCDD exposure in both rat strains. Results: Bone geometry and bone biomechanical parameters were affected by TCDD exposure, while bone mineral density parameters were less affected. The trabecular area at proximal tibia and the endocortical circumference at tibial diaphysis were the parameters that showed the highest maximal responses. Significant strain differences in response to TCDD treatment were observed, with the L-E rat being the most sensitive strain. For the parameters that were affected in both strains, the differences in sensitivity were quantified, showing the most pronounced (about 49-fold) strain

  13. The biomechanics of vertical hopping: a review.

    Lamontagne, Mario; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive vertical hopping is a simple and relatively controlled task useful for studying basic neuromuscular properties and tissue mechanics. However, several biomechanical and physiological factors are involved. This article provides an overview of muscle and tendon properties and how these interact during vertical hopping. Muscle properties discussed are force-velocity and force-length relationships, electromechanical delay, muscle fiber type, stretch induced contraction amplification, and muscle spindle afferent feedback. Tendon properties include storage and reuse of elastic energy, tendon stiffness, afferent information from Golgi tendon organs, and failure points. These muscle and tendon properties interact to generate vertical hopping force and power. In addition to these basic properties, there are other more complicated factors to consider when analyzing vertical hopping such as balance and coordination. A wealth of information can be gathered by studying vertical hopping. Caution should be taken, however, to prevent inappropriate conclusions being drawn about hop performance due to oversimplification. PMID:24067123

  14. Abnormal Calcium Handling Properties Underlie Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Pathology in Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Lan, Feng; Lee, Andrew S.; Liang, Ping; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Nguyen, Patricia K; Wang, Li; Han, Leng; Yen, Michelle; Wang, Yongming; Sun, Ning; Abilez, Oscar J.; Hu, Shijun; Ebert, Antje D.; Navarrete, Enrique G.; Simmons, Chelsey S.

    2013-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a prevalent hereditary cardiac disorder linked to arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. While the causes of HCM have been identified as genetic mutations in the cardiac sarcomere, the pathways by which sarcomeric mutations engender myocyte hypertrophy and electrophysiological abnormalities are not understood. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying HCM development, we generated patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs)...

  15. Biomechanical conditions of walking

    Fan, Y F; Luo, L P; Li, Z Y; Han, S Y; Lv, C S; Zhang, B

    2015-01-01

    The development of rehabilitation training program for lower limb injury does not usually include gait pattern design. This paper introduced a gait pattern design by using equations (conditions of walking). Following the requirements of reducing force to the injured side to avoid further injury, we developed a lower limb gait pattern to shorten the stride length so as to reduce walking speed, to delay the stance phase of the uninjured side and to reduce step length of the uninjured side. This gait pattern was then verified by the practice of a rehabilitation training of an Achilles tendon rupture patient, whose two-year rehabilitation training (with 24 tests) has proven that this pattern worked as intended. This indicates that rehabilitation training program for lower limb injury can rest on biomechanical conditions of walking based on experimental evidence.

  16. Systems biomechanics of the cell

    Maly, Ivan V

    2013-01-01

    Systems Biomechanics of the Cell attempts to outline systems biomechanics of the cell as an emergent and promising discipline. The new field owes conceptually to cell mechanics, organism-level systems biomechanics, and biology of biochemical systems. Its distinct methodology is to elucidate the structure and behavior of the cell by analyzing the unintuitive collective effects of elementary physical forces that interact within the heritable cellular framework. The problematics amenable to this approach includes the variety of cellular activities that involve the form and movement of the cell body and boundary (nucleus, centrosome, microtubules, cortex, and membrane). Among the elementary system effects in the biomechanics of the cell, instability of symmetry, emergent irreversibility, and multiperiodic dissipative motion can be noted. Research results from recent journal articles are placed in this unifying framework. It is suggested that the emergent discipline has the potential to expand the spectrum of ques...

  17. Biomechanical analysis of plate stabilization on cervical part of spine

    M. Kiel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the work was determination of biomechanical analysis of cervical spine – stabilizer system made of stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.Design/methodology/approach: To define biomechanical characteristic of the system the finite elements method (FEM was applied. Geometric model of part of spine C5-C7 and stabilizer were discretized by SOLID95 element. Appropriate boundary conditions imitating phenomena in real system with appropriate accuracy were established.Findings: The result of biomechanical analysis was calculation of displacements and stresses in the vertebras and the stabilizer in a function of the applied loading: 50-300 N for the stabilizer made of stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.Research limitations/implications: The result of biomechanical analysis for plate stabilizer obtained by FEM can be use to determine a construction features of the stabilizer, and to select mechanical properties of metallic biomaterial and estimation of stabilization quality. The calculation of displacements for part C5-C7 show that the proposed type of stabilizer enables correct stabilization used to clinical apply.Practical implications: The results of biomechanical analysis showed correct mechanical properties used to made the plate stabilizer.Originality/value: The obtained numerical results should be verified in “in vitro” tests.

  18. Biomechanics: basic and applied research

    This volume presents the state of the art in biomechanics. The most recent achievements of biomechanical research in the fields of orthopaedics, dynamics of the musculoskeletal system, hard and soft tissues, rehabilitation, sports, cardiovascular problems and research methodology have been selected and edited by a distinguished panel of reviewers. The material is such that the volume will serve as a reference for many years for bioengineers, sports scientists, clinicians and clinical researchers in rehabilitation, orthopaedics and cardiovascular surgery

  19. Atraumatic extractions: a biomechanical rationale.

    Misch, Carl E; Perez, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Biomechanical aspects of force have been applied to tooth extraction for centuries. However, the mechanical advantages available to extract the teeth were primarily applied to hold the crown of the tooth, rather than help extract it. An extraction device (Physics Forceps) has been developed to apply a biomechanical rationale to the extraction process of a tooth using a class 1 lever, creep, and shear components of force. PMID:18717405

  20. Structural differences in cortical shell properties between upper and lower human fibula as described by pQCT serial scans. A biomechanical interpretation.

    Cointry, Gustavo R; Nocciolino, Laura; Ireland, Alex; Hall, Nicolas M; Kriechbaumer, Andreas; Ferretti, José L; Rittweger, Jörn; Capozza, Ricardo F

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the structural features of fibula cortical shell as allowed by serial pQCT scans in 10/10 healthy men and women aged 20-40years. Indicators of cortical mass (mineral content -BMC-, cross-sectional area -CSA-), mineralization (volumetric BMD, vBMD), design (perimeters, thickness, moments of inertia -MIs-) and strength (Bone Strength Indices, BSIs; polar Strength-Strain Index, pSSI) were determined. All cross-sectional shapes and geometrical or strength indicators suggested a sequence of five different regions along the bone, which would be successively adapted to 1. transmit loads from the articular surface to the cortical shell (near the proximal tibia-fibular joint), 2. favor lateral bending (central part of upper half), 3. resist lateral bending (mid-diaphysis), 4. favor lateral bending again (central part of the lower half), and 5. resist bending/torsion (distal end). Cortical BMC and the cortical/total CSA ratio were higher at the midshaft than at both bone ends (peffect, plocal tissue stiffness) was higher at proximal than distal bone regions (p<0.001). The results from the study suggest that human fibula is primarily adapted to resist bending and torsion rather than compression stresses, and that fibula's bending strength is lower at the center of its proximal and distal halves and higher at the mid-shaft and at both bone's ends. This would favor, proximally, the elastic absorption of energy by the attached muscles that rotate or evert the foot, and distally, the widening of the heel joint and the resistance to excessive lateral bending. Results also suggest that biomechanical control of structural stiffness differs between proximal and distal fibula. PMID:27302664

  1. The Contributions of the Amino and Carboxy Terminal Domains of Flightin to the Biomechanical Properties of Drosophila Flight Muscle Thick Filaments

    Nathan S. Gasek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flightin is a myosin binding protein present in Pancrustacea. In Drosophila, flightin is expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM, where it is required for the flexural rigidity, structural integrity, and length determination of thick filaments. Comparison of flightin sequences from multiple Drosophila species revealed a tripartite organization indicative of three functional domains subject to different evolutionary constraints. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the functional roles of the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain that show different patterns of sequence conservation. Thick filaments containing a C-terminal domain truncated flightin (flnΔC44 are significantly shorter (2.68 ± 0.06 μm; p < 0.005 than thick filaments containing a full length flightin (fln+; 3.21 ± 0.05 μm and thick filaments containing an N-terminal domain truncated flightin (flnΔN62; 3.21 ± 0.06 μm. Persistence length was significantly reduced in flnΔN62 (418 ± 72 μm; p < 0.005 compared to fln+ (1386 ± 196μm and flnΔC44(1128 ± 193 μm. Statistical polymer chain analysis revealed that the C-terminal domain fulfills a secondary role in thick filament bending propensity. Our results indicate that the flightin amino and carboxy terminal domains make distinct contributions to thick filament biomechanics. We propose these distinct roles arise from the interplay between natural selection and sexual selection given IFM’s dual role in flight and courtship behaviors.

  2. Judo Biomechanical Optimization

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, there is comprehensively tackling the problem of biomechanical optimization of a sport of situation such as judo. Starting from the optimization of more simple sports, optimization of this kind of complex sports is grounded on a general physics tool such as the analysis of variation. The objective function is divided for static and dynamic situation of Athletes couple, and it is proposed also a sort of dynamic programming problem Strategic Optimization. A dynamic programming problem is an optimization problem in which decisions have to be taken sequentially over several time periods linked in some fashion. A strategy for a dynamic programming problem is just a contingency plan, a plan that specifies what is to be done at each stage as a function of all that has transpired up to that point. It is possible to demonstrate, under some conditions, that a Markovian optimal strategy is an optimal strategy for the dynamic programming problem under examination. At last we try to appr...

  3. New Trends in Dental Biomechanics with Photonics Technologies

    Lídia Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Engineering techniques used to evaluate strain-stress fields, materials’ mechanical properties, and load transfer mechanisms, among others, are useful tools in the study of biomechanical applications. These engineering tools, as experimental and numerical ones, were imported to biomechanics, in particular in dental biomechanics, a few decades ago. Several experimental techniques have been used in dental biomechanics, like photoelasticity, ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry, strain gages, and other kinds of transducers. However, these techniques have some limitations. For instance, photoelasticity and ESPI give the overall field pattern of the strain, showing the stress-strain concentration points. These methods cannot give an accurate measurement at all points. On the contrary, strain gages can be used to perform local measurements. However, as they use electrical resistances, their use is limited to perform in vivo measurements. Optical fiber sensors have already been used in dentistry, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and in dental biomechanics studies. Lasers have also been used in clinical dentistry for a few decades. Other optical technologies, like optical coherence tomography (OCT, became suitable for dental practice and nowadays it is perhaps one that has had more development in dentristry, along with lasers.

  4. A review of probabilistic analysis in orthopaedic biomechanics

    Laz, P.J.; Browne, M.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic analysis methods are being increasingly applied in the orthopaedics and biomechanics literature to account for uncertainty and variability in subject geometries, properties of various structures, kinematics and joint loading, as well as uncertainty in implant alignment. As a complement to experiments, finite element modelling, and statistical analysis, probabilistic analysis provides a method of characterizing the potential impact of variability in parameters on performa...

  5. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  6. Kinesiology/Biomechanics: Perspectives and Trends.

    Atwater, Anne E.

    1980-01-01

    Past and recent developments and future directions in kinesiology and biomechanics are reviewed. Similarities and differences between these two areas are clarified. The areas of kinesiology and biomechanics have distinct unique qualities and should be treated as separate disciplines. (CJ)

  7. The characteristics of keratoconus biomechanical properties measuring by Corvis ST and ORA%圆锥角膜生物力学在Corvis ST与ORA下的变化特点

    李勇; 魏升升; 李晶; 刘建国; 叶璐; 万雅群; 李娟; 杜婧

    2015-01-01

    数均有改变.可视化角膜生物力学分析仪(Corvis ST)和眼反应分析仪(ORA)均能较好反映圆锥角膜生物力学改变特点,多项参数具有明显的相关性.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of keratoconus biomechanical properties by comparing normal eyes.Methods In this case control study,patients from March 2009 to June 2014 were included.The corneal biomechanical properties of 34 keratoconus patients (42 eyes) and 61 normal patients (61 eyes) were measured with Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (Corvis ST) and Ocular Response Analyze (ORA).The Length of Appl 1 (lst A length),Velocity of Appl 1 (Vin),Length of Appl 2 (2nd A length),Velocity of Appl 2 (Vout),Deformation Amplitude (DA),P.Dist and Radius were measured with Corvis ST.CH and CRF were measured with ORA.Comparison of keratoconic and normal eye's measurement values from ORA and Corvis ST were performed using Paired t test or Two independent tests.Pearson or Spearman correlations were used to evaluate the relationship between Corvis ST and ORA in measurement of keratoconus biomechanical.Results Comparing normal eye's biomechanical properties measurement values,the l stA length and Radius significantly decreased in keratoconus eyes,and there were significantly statistical difference (t =-0.51,-6.54;P =0.01,0.00),however,the Vout absolute value and Def.Ampl increased in keratoconus eyes,and there were significantly statistical difference (Z =-2.25,t =4.27;P =0.03,0.00).The CH and CRF of ORA also decreased in keratoconus eyes,and there were significantly statistical difference (t =-5.20,-7.06;P =0.00,0.00).There were significant correlations between CH of ORA and 1stA length,Vout,Def.Ampl and Radius of Corvis ST (P =0.00,0.04,0.03,0.00).There were significant correlations between CRF of ORA and lstA length,Vout,Def.Ampl and Radius of Corvis ST (P =0.02,0.03,0.00,0.00).Conclusions Comparing normal eyes,the biomechanical properties parameters changed obviously in

  8. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:17766290

  9. Problems of Sport Biomechanics and Robotics

    Erdmann, Wlodzimierz S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on...

  10. 脊柱腰骶段生物力学特性及内固定材料的应用%Biomechanical properties of the lumbosacral spine and application of internal fixation materials

    孙弘昊; 郭庆升; 朱志勇

    2016-01-01

    steel, titanium and titanium aloys have been widely used in rigid internal fixation, but metal sedimentation, non-transparency, stress shielding and osteoporosis after internal fixation impact the fusion effects and imaging observation. Absorbable materials as newly-developing materials have good biocompatibility and biodegradability in orthopedic internal fixation. To select the appropriate material for internal fixation, the biomechanical properties of internal fixation materials wil be investigated according to the degree of vertebral damage and lumbosacral stability.

  11. Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking

    Alkjaer, T; Larsen, Peter K; Pedersen, Gitte;

    2006-01-01

    The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects.......The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects....

  12. Laryngeal biomechanics of the singing voice.

    Koufman, J A; Radomski, T A; Joharji, G M; Russell, G B; Pillsbury, D C

    1996-12-01

    By transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy, patients with functional voice often demonstrate abnormal laryngeal biomechanics, commonly supraglottic contraction. Appropriately, such conditions are sometimes termed muscle tension dysphonias. Singers working at the limits of their voice may also transiently demonstrate comparable tension patterns. However, the biomechanics of normal singing, particularly for different singing styles, have not been previously well characterized. We used transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy to study 100 healthy singers to assess patterns of laryngeal tension during normal singing and to determine whether factors such as sex, occupation, and style of singing influence laryngeal muscle tension. Thirty-nine male and 61 female singers were studied; 48 were professional singers, and 52 were amateurs. Examinations of study subjects performing standardized and nonstandardized singing tasks were recorded on a laser disk and subsequently analyzed in a frame-by-frame fashion by a blinded otolaryngologist. Each vocal task was graded for muscle tension by previously established criteria, and objective muscle tension scores were computed. The muscle tension score was expressed as a percentage of frames for each task with one of the laryngeal muscle tension patterns shown. The lowest muscle tension scores were seen in female professional singers, and the highest muscle tension scores were seen in amateur female singers. Male singers (professional and amateur) had intermediate muscle tension scores. Classical singers had lower muscle tension scores than nonclassical singers, with the lowest muscle tension scores being seen in those singing choral music (41%), art song (47%), and opera (57%), and the highest being seen in those singing jazz/pop (65%), musical theater (74%), bluegrass/country and western (86%), and rock/gospel (94%). Analyzed also were the influences of vocal nodules, prior vocal training, number of performance and practice hours per week

  13. Abnormal mechanical property evolution induced by heat treatment for a semi-solid forming hypereutectic Al-Fe base alloy

    Run-xia Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Al-5.5Fe-4Cu-2Zn-0.4Mg-0.5Mn alloy samples were prepared by electromagnetic stirring and semi-solid forming processing, and then the effects of T6 and T1 heat treatments on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the semi-solid forming samples were investigated. The results indicate that after semi-solid forming, the mechanical properties of the sample improved significantly compared to that of the merely electromagnetically stirred sample. The grains of semi-solid forming alloy became almost fine equiaxed; big long strip-shaped Al3Fe phases became short rod-like morphology and distributed uniformly in the matrix. However, the mechanical properties of the T6-treated semi-solid forming sample decreased significantly instead of increasing and, with solution temperature rising, the tensile strength of the alloy decreased further. The results of EDS show that after high temperature solid-solution treatment, the Cu element in the semi-solid forming alloy sample is mainly concentrated at the boundaries of the Al3Fe phases instead of being dissolved in the matrix. At the same time, the grains of the semi-solid forming sample grew slightly after solid-solution treatment. Therefore, the growth of the grains and the accumulation of Cu element at Al3Fe phase boundaries during solution treatment of the semi-solid forming alloy were the main reasons for the mechanical properties decreasing after T6 treatment. The mechanical properties of the alloy were improved after T1 heat treatment due to aging strengthening phase being precipitated in the matrix.

  14. Radiologic evaluation of structural abnormalities of the foot

    This exhibit concentrates on often overlooked, unfamiliar biomechanical or structural abnormalities of the foot. Pericalcaneal pathology and its correlation with the presence of heel spurs is illustrated. In the tarsal area, coalitions, prehallux, and their relationships to abnormalities of the longitudinal arch are discussed. Distally, medial, dorsal and tailor's bunions are demonstrated. Pain and disability often precede obvious deformity, and a radiologist familiar with the early findings on x-ray studies may be the first member of the medical team to identify structural abnormalities. Diagnosis allows prompt institution of appropriate therapy, reducing the period of patient discomfort and disability

  15. Assessment and characterization of in situ rotator cuff biomechanics

    Trent, Erika A.; Bailey, Lane; Mefleh, Fuad N.; Raikar, Vipul P.; Shanley, Ellen; Thigpen, Charles A.; Dean, Delphine; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a degenerative disorder that is a common, costly, and often debilitating, ranging in severity from partial thickness tear, which may cause pain, to total rupture, leading to loss in function. Currently, clinical diagnosis and determination of disease extent relies primarily on subjective assessment of pain, range of motion, and possibly X-ray or ultrasound images. The final treatment plan however is at the discretion of the clinician, who often bases their decision on personal experiences, and not quantitative standards. The use of ultrasound for the assessment of tissue biomechanics is established, such as in ultrasound elastography, where soft tissue biomechanics are measured. Few studies have investigated the use of ultrasound elastography in the characterization of musculoskeletal biomechanics. To assess tissue biomechanics we have developed a device, which measures the force applied to the underlying musculotendentious tissue while simultaneously obtaining the related ultrasound images. In this work, the musculotendinous region of the infraspinatus of twenty asymptomatic male organized baseball players was examined to access the variability in tissue properties within a single patient and across a normal population. Elastic moduli at percent strains less than 15 were significantly different than those above 15 percent strain within the normal population. No significant difference in tissue properties was demonstrated within a single patient. This analysis demonstrated elastic moduli are variable across individuals and incidence. Therefore threshold elastic moduli will likely be a function of variation in local-tissue moduli as opposed to a specific global value.

  16. Biomechanical Properties of Hemlocks: A Novel Approach to Evaluating Physical Barriers of the Plant–Insect Interface and Resistance to a Phloem-Feeding Herbivore

    Paul Ayayee; Fuqian Yang; Lynne K. Rieske

    2014-01-01

    Micromechanical properties that help mediate herbivore access may be particularly important when considering herbivorous insects that feed with piercing-sucking stylets. We used microindentation to quantify the micromechanical properties of hemlock, Tsuga spp., to quantify the hardness of the feeding site of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. We measured hardness of the hemlock leaf cushion, the stylet insertion point of the adelgid, across four seasons in a 1 y period for...

  17. An experimental model for studying the biomechanics of embryonic tendon: Evidence that the development of mechanical properties depends on the actinomyosin machinery

    Kalson, Nicholas S.; Holmes, David F.; Kapacee, Zoher; Otermin, Iker; Lu, Yinhui; Ennos, Roland A.; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth G.; Kadler, Karl E.

    2010-01-01

    Tendons attach muscles to bone and thereby transmit tensile forces during joint movement. However, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that establish the mechanical properties of tendon has remained elusive because of the practical difficulties of studying tissue mechanics in vivo. Here we have performed a study of tendon-like constructs made by culturing embryonic tendon cells in fixed-length fibrin gels. The constructs display mechanical properties (toe–linear–fail stress–strain curve, stiffness, ultimate tensile strength, and failure strain) as well as collagen fibril volume fraction and extracellular matrix (ECM)/cell ratio that are statistically similar to those of embryonic chick metatarsal tendons. The development of mechanical properties during time in culture was abolished when the constructs were treated separately with Triton X-100 (to solubilise membranes), cytochalasin (to disassemble the actin cytoskeleton) and blebbistatin (a small molecule inhibitor of non-muscle myosin II). Importantly, these treatments had no effect on the mechanical properties of the constructs that existed prior to treatment. Live-cell imaging and 14C-proline metabolic labeling showed that blebbistatin inhibited the contraction of the constructs without affecting cell viability, procollagen synthesis, or conversion of procollagen to collagen. In conclusion, the mechanical properties per se of the tendon constructs are attributable to the ECM generated by the cells but the improvement of mechanical properties during time in culture was dependent on non-muscle myosin II-derived forces. PMID:20736063

  18. Clinical applications of biomechanics cinematography.

    Woodle, A S

    1986-10-01

    Biomechanics cinematography is the analysis of movement of living organisms through the use of cameras, image projection systems, electronic digitizers, and computers. This article is a comparison of cinematographic systems and details practical uses of the modality in research and education. PMID:2946390

  19. 骨水泥加固椎弓根螺钉的生物力学特性%Biomechanical properties of bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw

    隆海滨; 孙桂森; 王卫国

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Bony and structural feature often cause pulout strength decrease of pedicle screw, which induces loosening and pulout, and finaly results in fixation failure. Thus, it is very important to elevate the stability of pedicle screw. OBJECTIVE:To detect the biomechanical stability of bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw, and to provide reference for bone cement dosage. METHODS: We selected T11-L4 samples of seven fresh adult corpses, containing 40 vertebral bodies. They were randomly divided into bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw group and DTPSTM pedicle screw group (n=20). After screw implantation, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mL bone cement was injected. The diffuse distribution of bone cement was observed by imaging. The maximum axial pulout strength was measured. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:When the dose of bone cement was 1-3 mL, the average maximum axial pulout strength was significantly greater in the bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw group than in the DTPSTM pedicle screw group (P 0.05). The regression equation was Y=25.269X+133.681 (R2=0.837) in the bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw, and Y=32.039X+99.251 (R2=0.936) in the DTPSTM pedicle screw group. When the dosage of bone cement was 1-5 mL, the maximum axial pulout strength was highly positively correlated with bone cement dosage (|R| > 0.8). These results suggested that bone cement augmentation pedicle screw could apparently elevate the stability of the screw. The maximum axial pulout strength of the pedicle screw was positively correlated with bone cement dosage. After reaching the satisfactory fixation effects, the bone cement injectable canulated pedicle screw can reduce bone cement dosage, diminish the risk of bone cement leakage, and have more advantages than DTPSTM pedicle screw.%背景:由于骨质原因及结构特点导致椎弓根螺钉经常出现把持力下降,从而发生松动、拔出,导致内固定失败,因此提高椎弓根螺钉的稳定

  20. Surface modification of PCL-TCP scaffolds in rabbit calvaria defects : Evaluation of scaffold degradation profile, biomechanical properties and bone healing patterns

    Yeo, Alvin; Wong, Wah Jie; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, polycaprolactone (PG.) based scaffolds tend to degrade at a slow rate. Pretreatment of polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffolds under alkaline conditions can be utilized to increase the degradation rate and improve mechanical properties. Three groups of PCL-TCP sc

  1. Biomechanical properties of monosegmental pedicle screw fixation via the fractured thoracolumbar vertebrae%经胸腰段伤椎单节段椎弓根螺钉固定后的生物力学特性

    刘上楼; 徐军; 倪卓民; 张云庆; 周枫; 姜雪峰

    2013-01-01

    背景:临床常采用经伤椎椎弓根螺钉内固定治疗胸腰椎骨折,研究已证实经伤椎双侧椎弓根螺钉固定后脊柱稳定性加强,但也有研究认为经伤椎单节段椎弓根螺钉固定足以增加脊柱的稳定性,但此结论缺乏生物力学结果支持。  目的:观察胸腰段椎体骨折经伤椎单节段固定的相关生物力学特性。  方法:取扬州大学医学院解剖教研室提供8具中国人新鲜胸腰段标本(T11-L3),锯条横断2/3椎体,制成完整胸腰段椎体实验标本,将8具标本等分成跨伤椎固定组和单节段经伤椎固定组,分别在跨伤椎临近椎体四钉固定和临近椎体四钉固定+经伤椎单侧椎弓根固定。  结果与结论:胸腰段椎体骨折后经跨伤椎固定与经单节段伤椎固定的载荷-应变关系相差12%、载荷-位移关系相差11%、强度相差18%、轴向刚度相差11%、扭转力相差11%及拔出力相差1.8%,两组差异有显著性意义(P OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the biomechanical properties of monosegmental pedicle screws fixation via fractured vertebrae for thoracolumbar fracture. METHODS:Eight cadavers’ thoracolumbar specimens (T11-L3) were provided by the Department of Anatomy, Yangzhou University School of Medicine. Saw was used to transect 2/3 of the vertebrae in order to make complete experimental thoracolumbar specimens. Eight specimens were divided into two group;beyond-fractured vertebrae fixation group and monosegmental fixation via fracture vertebrae group. The specimens in the two groups were treated with adjacent vertebral four screw fixation beyond fractured vertebrae and adjacent vertebral four screw fixation+monosegmental pedicle screw fixation via fractured vertebrae respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After thoracolumbar fracture, the differences between beyond fractured vertebrae fixation and monosegmental pedicle screw fixation via fractured vertebrae were as fol ows

  2. Biomechanical Properties of Hemlocks: A Novel Approach to Evaluating Physical Barriers of the Plant–Insect Interface and Resistance to a Phloem-Feeding Herbivore

    Paul Ayayee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Micromechanical properties that help mediate herbivore access may be particularly important when considering herbivorous insects that feed with piercing-sucking stylets. We used microindentation to quantify the micromechanical properties of hemlock, Tsuga spp., to quantify the hardness of the feeding site of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. We measured hardness of the hemlock leaf cushion, the stylet insertion point of the adelgid, across four seasons in a 1 y period for four hemlock species growing in a common garden, including eastern, western, mountain, and northern Japanese hemlocks. Leaf cushion hardness was highest in the fall and winter and lowest in summer for all species. Northern Japanese hemlock had relatively greater hardness than the remaining species. Our data contributes an additional perspective to the existing framework within which greater susceptibility and subsequent mortality of eastern hemlocks is observed. The potential application of microindentation to understanding the nature and relevance of plant mechanical defenses in plant–herbivore interactions is also demonstrated and highlighted.

  3. Surface modification of PCL-TCP scaffolds in rabbit calvaria defects: Evaluation of scaffold degradation profile, biomechanical properties and bone healing patterns.

    Yeo, Alvin; Wong, Wah Jie; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2010-06-15

    Traditionally, polycaprolactone (PCL) based scaffolds tend to degrade at a slow rate. Pretreatment of polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffolds under alkaline conditions can be utilized to increase the degradation rate and improve mechanical properties. Three groups of PCL-TCP scaffolds with varying pretreatment exposures with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were studied in a rabbit calvaria defect model and analyzed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. (Group A: Untreated, Group B: 3 M NaOH/ 48 h and Group C: 3 M NaOH/96 h). Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that scaffolds with increased surface roughness (Groups B and C) showed a greater impact on the overall volume loss during the early healing period between 2 and 8 weeks as compared to the untreated group. In addition, greater bone formation was detected in NaOH treated scaffolds as compared to the untreated group throughout the experiment. Scaffolds with increased surface roughness generally reported higher push out test and compressive strength values from 4 to 8 weeks of early healing. Interestingly, the mechanical properties displayed a decline in values from 12 weeks onwards in the modified groups suggesting a favorable breakdown or weakening of PCL-TCP scaffolds tailored for replacement by new bone formation. PMID:19911382

  4. Cell biomechanics and its applications in human disease diagnosis

    Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2015-04-01

    Certain diseases are known to cause changes in the physical and biomechanical properties of cells. These include cancer, malaria, and sickle cell anemia among others. Typically, such physical property changes can result in several fold increases or decreases in cell stiffness, which are significant and can result in severe pathology and eventual catastrophic breakdown of the bodily functions. While there are developed biochemical and biological assays to detect the onset or presence of diseases, there is always a need to develop more rapid, precise, and sensitive methods to detect and diagnose diseases. Biomechanical property changes can play a significant role in this regard. As such, research into disease biomechanics can not only give us an in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms underlying disease progression, but can also serve as a powerful tool for detection and diagnosis. This article provides some insights into opportunities for how significant changes in cellular mechanical properties during onset or progression of a disease can be utilized as useful means for detection and diagnosis. We will also showcase several technologies that have already been developed to perform such detection and diagnosis.

  5. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising. PMID:17493851

  6. 有氧运动配合雷洛昔芬对骨生物力学性能影响的研究%Aerobic Exercise Combined with Effects of Raloxifene on Bone Biomechanical Properties

    谢江涛; 罗珊

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对去势大鼠骨生物力学指标的检测,探讨有氧运动与雷洛昔芬联合作用对去势大鼠骨生物力学性能的影响。方法:将50只雌性SD大鼠随机分为5组:假手术组、模型组、有氧运动组、雷洛昔芬组、有氧运动+雷洛昔芬组。假手术组不去卵巢,其余各组去卵巢造模;有氧运动组、雷洛昔芬组、有氧运动+雷洛昔芬组分别在去卵巢的基础上进行有氧运动训练和(或)灌胃选择性雌激素受体调节剂雷洛昔芬。8周后比较各组大鼠股骨结构力学和材料力学指标的变化。结果:(1)与模型组相比,有氧运动组、雷洛昔芬组、有氧运动+雷洛昔芬组大鼠的各项指标都显著优于模型组(P<0.05),部分指标出现显著性差异(P<0.01)。(2)模型组各项指标都与假手术组有显著性差别(P<0.05)。结论:有氧运动配合雷洛昔芬治疗联合应用预防废用性骨质疏松比单独应用能获得更好的效果;并且更加安全易行。%Objective: ovariectomized rats bone biomechanical indicators detect, investigate the combined effects of aerobic exercise and raloxifene on ovariectomized rats bone biomechanical properties. Methods: 50 female SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham operation group, model group, aerobic exercise group, the raloxifene group, aerobic exercise + raloxifene group. Sham group only surgery but not ovariectomy, the rest of the group of ovariectomized modeling; aerobic exercise group, the raloxifene group aerobic exercise + raloxifene groups, respectively, based on ovariectomized aerobic exercise training and (or) orally selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene. After eight weeks, comparing changes in the rat femur structural mechanics and material mechanics index. Results: (1) Compared with model group, the aerobic exercise group, raloxifene group, the indicators of aerobic exercise + raloxifene rats

  7. Comparison of biomechanical properties of different internal fixation methods for the treatment of posterior ankle fractures%后踝关节骨折不同内固定方式的生物力学性能对比

    万全会

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Different fixtures can be used for the internal fixation treatment of patients with posterior ankle fractures in clinic, however, different internal fixation methods wil produce different biomechanical effect. OBJECTIVE:To compare and analyze the biomechanical properties of mini steel plate internal fixation and tension screw internal fixation in the treatment of posterior ankle fracture. METHODS:The clinical data of 95 patients with posterior ankle fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Al patients were treated with internal fixation. Mini steel plate group (n=48 cases) and tension screw group (n=47 cases) were divided according to the internal fixation methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The fixation effect of these two groups was simulated and analyzed using three-dimensional finite element model. The results showed that when the posterior ankle joint fracture block spreaded to the distal tibial articular surface of more than 25%, the mean pressure of internal fixation failure of tension screw group was significantly less than that of the mini steel plate group (P  目的:比较分析后踝关节骨折行微型钢板内固定以及拉力螺钉内固定治疗的生物力学性能。  方法:回顾性分析95例后踝关节骨折患者的临床资料,均接受内固定治疗,按照内固定方法分为微型钢板组48例和拉力螺钉组47例。  结果与结论:对两组的固定效果进行三维有限元模型模拟和分析,经分析发现,在后踝关节骨折块波及到胫骨远端关节面25%以上的情况下,在内固定失效平均压力方面,拉力螺钉组显著小于微型钢板组(P<0.05);而当后踝关节骨折块波及到胫骨远端关节面25%以下的情况下,在内固定失效平均压力方面,拉力螺钉组显著大于微型钢板组(P <0.05)。拉力螺钉组的踝关节内固定优良率显著高于微型钢板组(P <0.05)。两组治疗过程中均未出现任何内固定材料相关不

  8. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  9. Sport and Exercise Biomechanics (Bios Instant Notes)

    Paul Grimshaw; Adrian Lees; Neil Fowler; Adrian Burden

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Instant Notes on Sport and Exercise Biomechanics provides a broad overview of the fundamental concepts in exercise and sport biomechanics. PURPOSE The book aims to provide instant notes on essential information about biomechanics, and is designed to help undergraduate students to grasp the corresponding subjects in physical effort rapidly and easily. AUDIENCE The book provides a useful resource for undergraduate and graduate students as a fundamental reference book. For the resear...

  10. 几种组织工程支架材料生物力学性能的研究%Study on biomechanical properties of several scaffold materials for tissue engineering

    徐志强; 刘彬; 王艳萍; 徐世荣; 麻开旺; 戴小珍; 徐志玲; 付小兵; 李校堃; 蔡绍皙

    2007-01-01

    的断裂强度最低,介于1.16~1.40 MPa.同时,与PLGA共混后的脱细胞血管的断裂强度明显低于脱细胞血管,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).③杨氏模量:明胶的杨氏模量及硬度最大,而且远远大于其他各种材料.脱细胞猪皮的杨氏模量及硬度最低.与PLGA共混后的脱细胞血管及脱细胞猪皮的硬度均增大,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05),并于PLGA相当.除明胶以外,其他各材料硬度由大到小的排列顺序依次是:脱细胞血管-PLGA、PLGA、脱细胞猪皮-PLGA、脱细胞血管、壳聚糖、海藻酸钠、胶原、脱细胞猪皮.结论:①脱细胞血管及脱细胞猪皮具有良好的力学性质.②与组织来源的材料即脱细胞血管及脱细胞猪皮相比,PLGA的韧性较好,强度较低,硬度偏高.③海藻酸钠、明胶、壳聚糖的力学性质有望通过与PLGA的复合而得到改善.%BACKGROUND:It is still a research focus on constructing substitution of the human tissues and organs, or producing the alliance for grafting by engineering methods in tissue engineering. Among these researches, it is pivotal to choose appropriate materials. The prepared scaffolds should have suitable tensile strength and mechanical toughness to withstand the various outside forces without being damaged. So, it is very necessary to evaluate the biomechanical properties of candidated materials in tissue engineering, which can supply the references for selecting materials for tissue scaffolds and their designation.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biomechanical properties of nine kinds of scaffold materials, in order to supply a biomechanical basis for the selection and design of scaffold materials for tissue engineering.DESIGN: A repetitive measurement study.SETTING: College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University.MATERIALS: The materials involved in this study were poly (DL-lactic-co - glycolic acid) (PLGA), sodium polymannuronate, gelatine, chitosan, collagen, acellular porcine dermis (APD), acellular vascular

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of an expansive pedicle screw in calf vertebrae

    Lei, Wei; Wu, Zixiang

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to evaluate biomechanically a newly designed expansive pedicle screw (EPS) using fresh pedicles from calf lumber vertebrae in comparison with conventional pedicle screws, (CDH) CD Horizon, Universal Spine System pedicle screw (USS) and Tenor (Sofamor Denek). Pull-out and turning-back tests were performed on these pedicle screws to compare their holding strength. Additionally, revision tests were undertaken to evaluate the mechanical properties of EPS...

  12. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  13. Tibiofemoral cartilage contact biomechanics in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament.

    Hosseini, Ali; Van de Velde, Samuel; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint in patients after reconstruction of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A dual fluoroscopic and MR imaging technique was used to investigate the cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint during in vivo weight-bearing flexion of the knee in eight patients 6 months following clinically successful reconstruction of an acute isolated ACL rupture. The location of tibiofemoral cartilage contact, size of the contact area, cartilage thickness at the contact area, and magnitude of the cartilage contact deformation of the ACL-reconstructed knees were compared with those previously measured in intact (contralateral) knees and ACL-deficient knees of the same subjects. Contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral cartilage after ACL reconstruction were similar to those measured in intact knees. However, at lower flexion, the abnormal posterior and lateral shift of cartilage contact location to smaller regions of thinner tibial cartilage that has been described in ACL-deficient knees persisted in ACL-reconstructed knees, resulting in an increase of the magnitude of cartilage contact deformation at those flexion angles. Reconstruction of the ACL restored some of the in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint to normal. Clinically, recovering anterior knee stability might be insufficient to prevent post-operative cartilage degeneration due to lack of restoration of in vivo cartilage contact biomechanics. PMID:22528687

  14. A review of biomechanics of the shoulder and biomechanical concepts of rotator cuff repair

    Nobuyuki Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the basic knowledge about shoulder biomechanics, which is thought to be useful for surgeons. Some clinical reports have described that the excellent outcome after cuff repair without acromioplasty and a limited acromioplasty might be enough for subacromial decompression. It was biomechanically demonstrated that a 10-mm medial shift of the tendon repair site has a minimum effect on biomechanics. Many biomechanical studies reported that the transosseous equivalent repair was superior to other techniques, although the tendon may lose its inherent elasticity. We herein introduce our recent experiment data and latest information on biomechanics.

  15. Propiedades biomecánicas y proceso de esterilización de las matrices alodérmicas usadas en periodoncia Biomechanical properties and sterilization process of allodermics matrix used on periodontic

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2011-12-01

    . Due to the increased use of allografts on periodontics and other areas of health sciences, has brought more focus to the safety of allogenic tissue and the efficacy of various sterilization techniques. Unfortunately, these sterilization techniques could produce deleterious effects on the biomechanical properties of allogenic tissues, causing undesirable results on the interventions. Moreover, it has been suggested that despite the thoroughness of the evaluation processes and tissue donors, in addition to the processing of the matrices, there is possibility of retention of genetic material on allografts commercially available

  16. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) can assess microstructural and biomechanical properties of both human distal radius and tibia: Ex vivo computational and experimental validations.

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Yu, Y Eric; Zhang, Zhendong; Nawathe, Shashank; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Rosete, Fernando Rey; Keaveny, Tony M; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) provides in vivo three-dimensional (3D) imaging at the distal radius and tibia and has been increasingly used to characterize cortical and trabecular bone morphology in clinical studies. In this study, we comprehensively examined the accuracy of HR-pQCT and HR-pQCT based micro finite element (μFE) analysis predicted bone elastic stiffness and strength through comparisons with gold-standard micro computed tomography (μCT) based morphological/μFE measures and direct mechanical testing results. Twenty-six sets of human cadaveric distal radius and tibia segments were imaged by HR-pQCT and μCT. Microstructural analyses were performed for the registered HR-pQCT and μCT images. Bone stiffness and yield strength were determined by both HR-pQCT and μCT based linear and nonlinear μFE predictions and mechanical testing. Our results suggested that strong and significant correlations existed between the HR-pQCT standard, model-independent and corresponding μCT measurements. HR-pQCT based nonlinear μFE overestimated stiffness and yield strength while the linear μFE underestimated yield strength, but both were strongly correlated with those predicted by μCT μFE and measured by mechanical testing at both radius and tibia (R(2)>0.9). The microstructural differences between HR-pQCT and μCT were also examined by the Bland-Altman plots. Our results showed HR-pQCT morphological measurements of BV/TV(d), Tb.Th, and Tb.Sp, can be adjusted by correction values to approach true values measured by gold-standard μCT. In addition, we observed moderate correlations of HR-pQCT biomechanical and microstructural parameters between the distal radius and tibia. We concluded that morphological and mechanical properties of human radius and tibia bone can be assessed by HR-pQCT based measures. PMID:26924718

  17. Applied Biomechanics in an Instructional Setting

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics is the science of how people move better, meaning more skillfully and more safely. This article places more emphasis on skill rather than safety, though there are many parallels between them. It shares a few features of the author's paradigm of applied biomechanics and discusses an integrated approach toward a middle school football…

  18. Mechatronic support of present robotics and biomechanics

    Ehrenberger, Zdeněk; Kratochvíl, Ctirad; Janíček, P.

    Brno: VUT, 2003 - (Ehrenberger, Z.; Houfek, L.; Kratochvíl, C.), s. 1-2 ISBN 80-21423-12-9. [Mechanotronic, Robotics and biomechanics 2003. Hrotovice (CZ), 24.03.2003-27.03.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : mechatronics * robotics * biomechanics Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  19. Scapholunate Interosseous Ligament Anatomy and Biomechanics.

    Rajan, Prashant V; Day, Charles S

    2015-08-01

    Injury to the scapholunate interosseous ligament is one of the most common causes of carpal instability and can impart considerable compromise to the patient's hand function. However, the management of scapholunate ligament injuries remains a dynamic concept, especially with regard to the multitude of options and techniques that exist for its surgical treatment. We present a thorough review of scapholunate anatomy and morphology, and the role of the scapholunate articulations in the kinetics and pathomechanics of wrist instability. We also review the current literature on the biomechanical properties of the scapholunate ligament and its subcomponents. A sound understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the scapholunate ligament can clarify its instability and may better orient current reconstructive procedures or pioneer better future techniques. PMID:26143029

  20. Biomechanical tactics of chiral growth in emergent aquatic macrophytes

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Zhao, Hong-Ping; Li, Bing-Wei; Nie, Ben-Dian; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2015-07-01

    Through natural selection, many plant organs have evolved optimal morphologies at different length scales. However, the biomechanical strategies for different plant species to optimize their organ structures remain unclear. Here, we investigate several species of aquatic macrophytes living in the same natural environment but adopting distinctly different twisting chiral morphologies. To reveal the principle of chiral growth in these plants, we performed systematic observations and measurements of morphologies, multiscale structures, and mechanical properties of their slender emergent stalks or leaves. Theoretical modeling of pre-twisted beams in bending and buckling indicates that the different growth tactics of the plants can be strongly correlated with their biomechanical functions. It is shown that the twisting chirality of aquatic macrophytes can significantly improve their survivability against failure under both internal and external loads. The theoretical predictions for different chiral configurations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  2. Patient-specific models of cardiac biomechanics

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T.; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R.; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E.; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy C. P.

    2013-07-01

    Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-diastole from patients with heart failure. Human myofiber and sheet architecture is modeled using eigenvectors computed from diffusion tensor MR images from an isolated, fixed human organ-donor heart and transformed to the patient-specific geometric model using large deformation diffeomorphic mapping. Semi-automated methods were developed for optimizing the passive material properties while simultaneously computing the unloaded reference geometry of the ventricles for stress analysis. Material properties of active cardiac muscle contraction were optimized to match ventricular pressures measured by cardiac catheterization, and parameters of a lumped-parameter closed-loop model of the circulation were estimated with a circulatory adaptation algorithm making use of information derived from echocardiography. These components were then integrated to create a multi-scale model of the patient-specific heart. These methods were tested in five heart failure patients from the San Diego Veteran's Affairs Medical Center who gave informed consent. The simulation results showed good agreement with measured echocardiographic and global functional parameters such as ejection fraction and peak cavity pressures.

  3. Biomechanics of cross-sectional size and shape in the hominoid mandibular corpus.

    Daegling, D J

    1989-09-01

    Mandibular cross sections of Pan, Pongo, Gorilla, Homo, and two fossil specimens of Paranthropus were examined by computed tomography (CT) to determine the biomechanical properties of the hominoid mandibular corpus. Images obtained by CT reveal that while the fossil hominids do not differ significantly from extant hominoids in the relative contribution of compact bone to total subperiosteal area, the shape of the Paranthropus corpora indicates that the mechanical design of the robust australopithecine mandible is fundamentally distinct from that of modern hominoids in terms of its ability to resist transverse bending and torsion. It is also apparent that, among the modern hominoids, interspecific and sexual differences in corpus shape are not significant from a biomechanical perspective. While ellipse models have been used previously to describe the size, shape, and subsequent biomechanical properties of the corpus, the present study shows that such models do not predict the biomechanical properties of corpus cross-sectional geometry in an accurate or reliable manner. The traditional "robusticity" index of the mandibular corpus is of limited utility for biomechanical interpretations. The relationship of compact bone distribution in the corpus to dimensions such as mandibular length and arch width may provide a more functionally meaningful definition of mandibular robusticity. PMID:2508480

  4. Biomechanical analysis of tibia – double threaded screw fixation

    W. Walke

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was determination of biomechanical characteristics of a tibia – double threaded screw system with the use of finite element method.Design/methodology/approach: Geometrical model of the tibia was worked out on the basis of data from computer tomography of real bone. Geometrical model of the double threaded screw was prepared in ANSYS v. 11. Meshing was realized with the use of SOLID95 elements, applied in analyses of volumes. The model was loaded with forces in the range F = 100-2000 N.Findings: Initial biomechanical analysis, carried out with the use of finite element method, showed usefulness of the analyzed form of the double threaded screw made of Ti6Al4V alloy in fractured tibia treatment.Research limitations/implications: Due to applied simplifications of the tibia – double threaded screw fixation model, the analysis results should be experimentally verified in laboratory conditions.Originality/value: The obtained biomechanical characteristics of the tibia – double threaded screw system (u = f(F, σmax = f(F are the basis for selection of degree of strain hardening of the applied metallic biomaterial and optimization of geometrical features of the analyzed form of implant. Appropriate selection of mechanical properties and geometrical features of the implant is the main factor determining a stability of the fixation.

  5. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian;

    2010-01-01

    several years, several studies demonstrated that experimental diabetes induces GI morphological and biomechanical remodeling. Following the development of diabetes, the GI wall becomes thicker and the stiffness of the GI wall increases in a time-dependent manner. It is well known that mechanosensitive...... the biomechanical environment of the mechanosensitive nerve endings, therefore, the structure as well as the tension, stress and strain distribution in the GI wall is important for the sensory and motor function. Biomechanical remodeling of diabetic GI tract including alterations of residual strain and increase...

  6. Biomechanical performance of new cardiovascular needles.

    Thacker, J G; Ferguson, R E; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular needles are now being manufactured from new stainless steel alloys containing high concentrations of nickel, Surgalloy and Ethalloy. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of a cardiovascular needle made of Surgalloy with a comparably sized needle made of Ethalloy. The parameters of biomechanical performance included sharpness, maintenance of sharpness, resistance to bending, and ductility. Because the biomechanical performance of these needles was remarkably similar, cardiovascular needles made of either the Surgalloy or Ethalloy alloys are recommended for cardiovascular surgery. PMID:11495105

  7. Speckle photography in biomechanical testing

    Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Podbielska, Halina

    1994-02-01

    The application of speckle photography in biomechanical testing of bones and surgical fixing devices is presented. Double-exposure speckle photography is used for measuring the in-plane deformation of broken lower leg bones supported with different fixing devices under axial loading. An osteosynthesis plate, an external fixator, and an intramedullar nail mounted on the tibia shaft are tested. The results for different loading conditions are analyzed and compared with those obtained by holographic interferometry. Further, the human hyoid bone is investigated by this method. The load is applied to the anterior surface of the body of the bone. All tested specimen show an asymmetric displacement, the greatest in a plane vertical to the load. An evaluation of fracture behavior can be done from the displacement pattern.

  8. Occupational biomechanics of athletes and dancers: a comparative approach.

    Bejjani, F J

    1987-07-01

    Muscle strains represent more than a third of all injuries in both dancers and athletes. Although often overlooked, anatomic variations play an important role in the etiology of these injuries, as does strength imbalance between agonists and antagonists. The incidence of spondylolysis is unusually high in ballet dancers and certain athletic groups, such as gymnasts, javelin throwers, and weight-lifters. Mechanical factors play a major role and can be exacerbated by congenital abnormalities. Various permanent adaptive musculoskeletal changes have been described both in dancers and athletes, especially those that start at a very young age. Task-related adaptive changes can also be seen in isokinetic strength measurements of various muscle groups, such as the spine muscles of Flamenco dancers. Shoes and floor surfaces can be directly responsible in part or in whole for many sports and dance injuries. "Vibration-pressure" diagrams are suggested as an objective way to document their effect on biomechanical behavior. PMID:2886209

  9. Musculoskeletal Biomechanics in Cross-country Skiing

    Holmberg, L. Joakim

    2012-01-01

    Why copy the best athletes? When you finally learn their technique, they may have already moved on. Using muscluloskeletal biomechanics you might be able to add the "know-why" so that you can lead, instead of being left in the swells. This dissertation presents the theoretical framework of musculoskeletal modeling using inverse dynamics with static optimization. It explores some of the possibilities and limitations of musculoskeletal biomechanics in cross-country skiing, especially double-pol...

  10. [Dynamics of hip joint biomechanics in patients with coxarthrosis at the time of hippotherapy].

    Nareklishvili, T M

    2008-02-01

    The problems of degenerative-dystrophic abnormalities stimulate the development of new skills and methods of treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases. The goal of the study was to determine the efficacy of hippotherapy in patients with coxarthrosis, according to functional and biomechanical parameters. Hippotherapy involves the utilization of horseback riding to stimulate the patient's normal reactions and locomotion; to improve the balance and coordination of movement, normalize muscle tension, and eliminate pathological reflexes. The advantage of the hippotherapy is in the specific posture, which is adopted by hip joint at the time of riding and in movement, which is accomplished by rider, at different paces of the horse. 10 female patients from 14 to 32 years old with coxarthrosis were under the observation. The rehabilitation of the patients was carried out by means of hippotherapy, which consisted of three months riding three times a week. To evaluate the efficacy of treatment, a new method of biomechanical registration of hip joint movement during hippotherapy on pacing horse was developed. The dynamics of biomechanical curves before and after the treatment, as well as the clinical and functional parameters of the patients allowed the authors to conclude: hippotherapy improves a hip joint functional state in patients with coxarthrosis; improves the muscle-tendineous component of hip joint movement. Hippotherapy may be considered as the pathogenetic method of treatment of coxarthrosis. Drawing the biomechanical curve of hip joint movement at the time of riding is the objective method of studying its function. PMID:18401052

  11. Towards a Biomechanical Understanding of Tempo in the Golf Swing

    Grober, R D; Cholewicki, Jacek; Grober, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that aspects of the tempo of the golf swing can be understood in terms of a biomechanical clock. This model explains several aspects of tempo in the golf swing; including total duration of the golf swing, the ratio of backswing to downswing time, and the relative insensitivity of tempo on the length of the golf shot. We demonstrate that this clock and the resulting tempo are defined by of the rotational inertia of the body/club system and the elastic properties of the body, yielding a system which can be modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator.

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  13. [Hoarseness: biomechanisms and quantitative laryngoscopy].

    Eysholdt, U

    2014-07-01

    Every phonosurgical procedure alters endolaryngeal anatomy; be it by removing tissue, or injection or implantation of autologous or foreign material. However, the effect that an altered airflow cross section and changed soft tissue elasticity will have on the voice cannot be predicted. With the aim of promoting rational indications for phonosurgery, the current article explains the biomechanisms of the normal and the disordered voice, including the complex interdependence of tissue viscoelasticity, glottal airstream and sound production. According to European Laryngological Society (ELS) recommendations, five - not entirely mutually independent - evaluation criteria form the basis of indication assessments: self-rating (by the patient), proxy rating (by the physician), technical signal analysis (computerized), aerodynamics (spirometry) and vibration analysis (stroboscopy). The ELS evaluation standards agreed upon in 2001 enable indications and - by virtue of pre- and postoperative comparisons - therapeutic successes to be assessed. The 10-year-old ELS protocol has been updated by a real-time method for visualizing vocal fold vibrations: the phonovibrogram (PVG) has replaced stroboscopy. Independently of the morphological anatomic details of the larynx, PVG visualizes the symmetry and regularity of vocal fold motion, thus allowing preoperative estimation of tissue elasticity. PMID:25056650

  14. Biomechanical and nonfunctional assessment of physical capacity in male ICU survivors

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Rose, Martin Høyer; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2013-01-01

    : ICU admission is associated with decreased physical function for years after discharge. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this muscle function impairment are undescribed. The aim of this study was to describe the biomechanical properties of the quadriceps muscle in ICU survivors 12 months...

  15. A Novel Fixation System for Acetabular Quadrilateral Plate Fracture: A Comparative Biomechanical Study

    Guo-Chun Zha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the biomechanical properties of a novel fixation system (named AFRIF and to compare it with other five different fixation techniques for quadrilateral plate fractures. This in vitro biomechanical experiment has shown that the multidirectional titanium fixation (MTF and pelvic brim long screws fixation (PBSF provided the strongest fixation for quadrilateral plate fracture; the better biomechanical performance of the AFRIF compared with the T-shaped plate fixation (TPF, L-shaped plate fixation (LPF, and H-shaped plate fixation (HPF; AFRIF gives reasonable stability of treatment for quadrilateral plate fracture and may offer a better solution for comminuted quadrilateral plate fractures or free floating medial wall fracture and be reliable in preventing protrusion of femoral head.

  16. Biomechanical evaluation of wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis in persons with spinal cord injury

    Yeoun-Seung Kang, MD, PhD, CPO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis (WDFHO is a device used to restore hand function in persons with tetraplegic spinal cord injury by furnishing three-point prehension. We assessed the effectiveness and biomechanical properties of the WDFHO in 24 persons with cervical 6 or 7 tetraplegia who have severely impaired hand function. This study introduces a mechanical operating model to assess the efficiency of the WDFHO. Experimental results showed that pinch force increased significantly (p < 0.001 after using the WDFHO and was found to positively correlate with the strength of wrist extensor muscles (r = 0.41, p < 0.001. However, when the strength of the wrist extensors acting on the WDFHO was greater, the reciprocal wrist and finger motion that generates three-point prehension was less effective (r = 0.79, p < 0.001. Reliable and valid biomechanical evaluation of the WDFHO could improve our understanding of its biomechanics.

  17. Pilot biomechanical design of biomaterials for artificial nucleus prosthesis using 3D finite-element modeling

    Qijin Huang; Guoquan Liu; Yong Li; Jin Gao; Zhengqiu Gu; Yuanzheng Ma; Haibin Xue

    2004-01-01

    Pilot biomechanical design of biomaterials for artificial nucleus prosthesis was carried out based on the 3D finite-element method. Two 3D models of lumbar intervertebral disc respectively with a real human nucleus and with the nucleus removed were developed and validated using published experimental and clinical data. Then the models with a stainless steel nucleus prosthesis implanted and with polymer nucleus prostheses of various properties implanted were used for the 3D finite-element biomechanical analysis. All the above simulation and analysis were carried out for the L4/L5 disc under a human worst-daily compression load of 2000 N. The results show that the polymer materials with Young's modulus of elasticity E = 0.1-100 MPa and Poisson's ratio v=0.35-0.5 are suitable to produce artificial nucleus prosthesis in view of biomechanical consideration.

  18. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5−/−), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0+/−; homozygous KO: AQP0−/−; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0+/− lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  19. SPORT AND EXERCISE BIOMECHANICS (BIOS INSTANT NOTES

    Paul Grimshaw

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION Instant Notes on Sport and Exercise Biomechanics provides a broad overview of the fundamental concepts in exercise and sport biomechanics. PURPOSE The book aims to provide instant notes on essential information about biomechanics, and is designed to help undergraduate students to grasp the corresponding subjects in physical effort rapidly and easily. AUDIENCE The book provides a useful resource for undergraduate and graduate students as a fundamental reference book. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a starting point to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in the field of exercise and sport biomechanics. It would also be interest to anyone who wonders the concepts like momentum possessed, whole body angular momentum, opposite parallel forces, superman position, parabolic flight path, joint/normal reaction force, etc. FEATURES This textbook is divided into following sections from A to F: kinematics of motion, kinetics of linear motion, kinetics of angular motion, special topics, applications and measurement techniques, respectively. In sub-sections the kinematics of motion are reviewed in detail, outlining the physics of motion. Furthermore, the discussions of mechanical characteristics of motion, the mechanisms of injury, and the analysis of the sport technique provide a source of valuable information for both students and lecturers in appropriate fields. ASSESSMENT This book is an important reading for biomechanics students, teachers and even researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion.

  20. Lower limb biomechanics during running in individuals with achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review

    Munteanu Shannon E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal lower limb biomechanics is speculated to be a risk factor for Achilles tendinopathy. This study systematically reviewed the existing literature to identify, critique and summarise lower limb biomechanical factors associated with Achilles tendinopathy. Methods We searched electronic bibliographic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Current contents, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus in November 2010. All prospective cohort and case-control studies that evaluated biomechanical factors (temporospatial parameters, lower limb kinematics, dynamic plantar pressures, kinetics [ground reaction forces and joint moments] and muscle activity associated with mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy were included. Quality of included studies was evaluated using the Quality Index. The magnitude of differences (effect sizes between cases and controls was calculated using Cohen's d (with 95% CIs. Results Nine studies were identified; two were prospective and the remaining seven case-control study designs. The quality of 9 identified studies was varied, with Quality Index scores ranging from 4 to 15 out of 17. All studies analysed running biomechanics. Cases displayed increased eversion range of motion of the rearfoot (d = 0.92 and 0.67 in two studies, reduced maximum lower leg abduction (d = -1.16, reduced ankle joint dorsiflexion velocity (d = -0.62 and reduced knee flexion during gait (d = -0.90. Cases also demonstrated a number of differences in dynamic plantar pressures (primarily the distribution of the centre of force, ground reaction forces (large effects for timing variables and also showed reduced peak tibial external rotation moment (d = -1.29. Cases also displayed differences in the timing and amplitude of a number of lower limb muscles but many differences were equivocal. Conclusions There are differences in lower limb biomechanics between those with and without Achilles tendinopathy that may have implications for the prevention and management of

  1. Biomechanical properties of relevant blood vessels in the heterogeneic heart transplantation from swine to human%猪→人异种心脏移植中相关血管的生物力学特性

    张一飞; 余明华; 唐杰; 黄铁柱

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The source of conspecific heart transplantation organ is very limited and deficiency becomes more and more obvious.OBJECTIVE: To observe the mechanical properties of ascending aorta at one-dimensional loading between healthy persons and swine of different months, so as to provide necessary biomechanical experimental basis for anastomosing blood vessel in heterogeneic heart transplantation from swine to human.DESIGN: Open design SETTING: Staff Room of Anatomy, Yunyang Medical College MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Biomechanics, Yunyang Medical College from April 2002 to July 2003.Ascending aortas of human were obtained from the 6 adult male corpses without cardiovascular diseases, aged 18 to 30 years, who died for accident and donated by Yunyang Medical College. Totally 42 conspecific swine of 1 month old, with certification number of QN0202, were provided by Animal Experimental Center of Yunyang Medical College. They were raised with common foodstuff. The 42 swine were butchered respectively at 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7 months, 6 swine once. After anatomical isolation and in situ measurement of respective in vivo length, ascending aorta from aorta valve ring base plane to initiation part of innominate artery was taken out (Artherosclerosis was not presented in all the samples) and divided into five equal segments, and the second and fourth segments were used for mechanical test of one-dimensional loading.METHODS: Six adult male corpses and ascending aorta of 42 swine of 1 to 7 months were performed mechanical test of one-dimensional loading.All the blood segments were pre-treated ten times with the same strain rate at room temperature 32 ℃(loading range from 0 to 0.5 N). Hysteresis disappeared after blood vessel was given periodic permanent loading and unloading, and repeated force-deformed data were obtained. Blood vessel was given loading and unloading once with the same loading range and strain rate. The recorded force

  2. Biomechanical analysis of lumbosacral fixation.

    McCord, D H; Cunningham, B W; Shono, Y; Myers, J J; McAfee, P C

    1992-08-01

    Flexion testing was performed until failure on 66 lumbosacral bovine spinal segments comparing ten different lumbosacral instrumentation techniques. Maximum flexion moment at failure, flexural stiffness, and maximum angulation of the lumbosacral joint at failure were determined as well as strain measurements across the anterior aspect of the lumbosacral intervertebral disc using an extensometer. The maximum moment at failure was significantly greater for the only two devices that extended fixation into the ilium anterior to the projected image of the middle osteoligamentous column: ISOLA Galveston and ISOLA iliac screws (F = 12.2, P less than 0.001). The maximum stiffness at failure reinforced these findings (F = 23.7, P less than 0.001). A second subset of stability showed the advantages of S2 pedicle fixation by increasing the flexural lever arm (Cotrel-Dubousset butterfly plate, and Cotrel-Dubousset Chopin block, P less than 0.05). This exhaustive in vitro biomechanical study introduces the concept of a pivot point at the lumbosacral joint at the intersection of the middle osteoligamentous column (sagittal plane) and the lumbosacral intervertebral disc (transverse plane). A spinal surgeon can increase the stability of lumbosacral instrumentation by extending fixation through the anterior sacral cortex (Steffee plate group with pedicle screws that medially converge in a triangular fashion). A means of enhancing this fixation was to achieve more inferior purchase by extending the fixation down to the S2 pedicle (Cotrel-Dubousset Chopin and Cotrel-Dubousset butterfly groups). However, the best fixation was achieved by obtaining purchase between the iliac cortices down into the superior acetabular bone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1523506

  3. Biomechanics of Degenerative Spinal Disorders

    Iorio, Justin A.; Jakoi, Andre M.

    2016-01-01

    The spine has several important functions including load transmission, permission of limited motion, and protection of the spinal cord. The vertebrae form functional spinal units, which represent the smallest segment that has characteristics of the entire spinal column. Discs and paired facet joints within each functional unit form a three-joint complex between which loads are transmitted. Surrounding the spinal motion segment are ligaments, composed of elastin and collagen, and joint capsules which restrict motion to within normal limits. Ligaments have variable strengths and act via different lever arm lengths to contribute to spinal stability. As a consequence of the longer moment arm from the spinous process to the instantaneous axis of rotation, inherently weaker ligaments (interspinous and supraspinous) are able to provide resistance to excessive flexion. Degenerative processes of the spine are a normal result of aging and occur on a spectrum. During the second decade of life, the intervertebral disc demonstrates histologic evidence of nucleus pulposus degradation caused by reduced end plate blood supply. As disc height decreases, the functional unit is capable of an increased range of axial rotation which subjects the posterior facet capsules to greater mechanical loads. A concurrent change in load transmission across the end plates and translation of the instantaneous axis of rotation further increase the degenerative processes at adjacent structures. The behavior of the functional unit is impacted by these processes and is reflected by changes in the stress-strain relationship. Back pain and other clinical symptoms may occur as a result of the biomechanical alterations of degeneration. PMID:27114783

  4. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  7. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species.

    Zhijie Jack Tseng

    Full Text Available Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences.

  8. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species.

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Flynn, John J

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences. PMID:25923776

  9. Multiscale modeling in biomechanics and mechanobiology

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a state-of-the-art overview of theoretical and computational models that link characteristic biomechanical phenomena, this book provides guidelines and examples for creating multiscale models in representative systems and organisms. It develops the reader's understanding of and intuition for multiscale phenomena in biomechanics and mechanobiology, and introduces a mathematical framework and computational techniques paramount to creating predictive multiscale models.   Biomechanics involves the study of the interactions of physical forces with biological systems at all scales – including molecular, cellular, tissue and organ scales. The emerging field of mechanobiology focuses on the way that cells produce and respond to mechanical forces – bridging the science of mechanics with the disciplines of genetics and molecular biology. Linking disparate spatial and temporal scales using computational techniques is emerging as a key concept in investigating some of the complex problems underlying these...

  10. Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop

    Nielsen, Poul MF; Miller, Karol; Computational Biomechanics for Medicine : Deformation and Flow

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for mechanical engineers is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, biomedical sciences, and medicine. This book is an opportunity for computational biomechanics specialists to present and exchange opinions on the opportunities of applying their techniques to computer-integrated medicine. Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Deformation and Flow collects the papers from the Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop held in Toronto in conjunction with the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention conference. The topics covered include: medical image analysis, image-guided surgery, surgical simulation, surgical intervention planning, disease prognosis and diagnostics, injury mechanism analysis, implant and prostheses design, and medical robotics.

  11. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics.

    Sindhu Kumari, S; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G; Menon, Anil G; Mathias, Richard T; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5(-/-)), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0(+/-); homozygous KO: AQP0(-/-); all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0(+/-) lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  12. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    Bing Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to middle ones. Thus it provides references for training of short-distance items in biomechanics and psychology, etc.

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of a Filiform Mechanosensory Hair Socket of Crickets.

    Joshi, Kanishka; Mian, Ahsan; Miller, John

    2016-08-01

    Filiform mechanosensory hairs of crickets are of great interest to engineers because of the hairs' highly sensitive response to low-velocity air-currents. In this study, we analyze the biomechanical properties of filiform hairs of the cercal sensory system of a common house cricket. The cercal sensory system consists of two antennalike appendages called cerci that are situated at the rear of the cricket's abdomen. Each cercus is covered with 500-750 flow sensitive filiform mechanosensory hairs. Each hair is embedded in a complex viscoelastic socket that acts as a spring and dashpot system and guides the movement of the hair. When a hair deflects due to the drag force induced on its length by a moving air-current, the spiking activity of the neuron that innervates the hair changes and the combined spiking activity of all hairs is extracted by the cercal sensory system. Filiform hairs have been experimentally studied by researchers, though the basis for the hairs' biomechanical characteristics is not fully understood. The socket structure has not been analyzed experimentally or theoretically from a mechanical standpoint, and the characterization that exists is mathematical in nature and only provides a very rudimentary approximation of the socket's spring nature. This study aims to understand and physically characterize the socket's behavior and interaction with the filiform hair by examining hypotheses about the hair and socket biomechanics. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was first created using confocal microscopy images of the hair and socket structure of the cricket, and then finite-element analyses (FEAs) based on the physical conditions that the insect experiences were simulated. The results show that the socket can act like a spring; however, it has two-tier rotational spring constants during pre- and postcontacts of iris and hair bulge due to its constitutive nonstandard geometric shapes. PMID:27322099

  14. Interdisciplinary Vertical Integration: The Future of Biomechanics

    Gregor, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The field of biomechanics has grown rapidly in the past 30 years in both size and complexity. As a result, the term might mean different things to different people. This article addresses the issues facing the field in the form of challenges biomechanists face in the future. Because the field is so diverse, strength within the different areas of…

  15. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  16. Biomechanics/risk management (Working Group 2)

    Sanz, Mariano; Naert, Ignace; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The remit of this workgroup was to update the existing knowledge base in biomechanical factors, navigation systems and medications that may affect the outcome of implant therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The literature was systematically searched and critically reviewed. Five manuscrip...

  17. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the ho

  18. The Value of Biomechanical Research in Dance.

    Ranney, D. A.

    Simple observation of dance movement, while very useful, can lead to misconceptions, about the physical realities of dance movement, that make learning difficult. This gap between reality and understanding can be reduced by the application of biomechanical techniques such as cinematography, electromyography, and force-plate analysis. Biomechanical…

  19. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination...... abnormality independently predicted transition to disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 1.53 (1.01-2.34)]. The hazard increased with increasing number of abnormalities. Among MRI lesions, only ARWMC of severe grade independently predicted disability or death [HR (95 % CI) 2.18 (1.37-3.48)]. In our cohort...

  20. Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

    Nuckley, David J; Linders, David R; Ching, Randal P

    2013-04-01

    Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (pmechanics exhibited significant relationships with age. Nonlinear flexibility curves described the functional response of the cervical spine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects. PMID:23415075

  1. Abnormal variation of magnetic properties with Ce content in (PrNdCe)2Fe14B sintered magnets prepared by dual alloy method

    Xue-Feng, Zhang; Jian-Ting, Lan; Zhu-Bai, Li; Yan-Li, Liu; Le-Le, Zhang; Yong-Feng, Li; Qian, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Resource-saving (PrNdCe)2Fe14B sintered magnets with nominal composition (PrNd)15‑x Ce x Fe77B8 (x = 0‑10) were prepared using a dual alloy method by mixing (PrNd)5Ce10Fe77B8 with (PrNd)15Fe77B8 powders. For Ce atomic percent of 1% and 2%, coercivity decreases dramatically. With further increase of Ce atomic percent, the coercivity increases, peaks at 6.38 kOe in (PrNd)11Ce4Fe77B8, and then declines gradually. The abnormal dependence of coercivity is likely related to the inhomogeneity of rare earth chemical composition in the intergranular phase, where PrNd concentration is strongly dependent on the additive amount of (PrNd)5Ce10Fe77B8 powders. In addition, for Ce atomic percent of 8%, 7%, and 6% the coercivity is higher than that of magnets prepared by the conventional method, which shows the advantage of the dual alloy method in preparing high abundant rare earth magnets. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51461033, 51571126, 51541105, and 11547032), the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia, China (Grant No. 2013MS0110), and the Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology Innovation Fund, China.

  2. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  3. The biomechanics of solids and fluids: the physics of life

    Alexander, David E.

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanics borrows and extends engineering techniques to study the mechanical properties of organisms and their environments. Like physicists and engineers, biomechanics researchers tend to specialize on either fluids or solids (but some do both). For solid materials, the stress–strain curve reveals such useful information as various moduli, ultimate strength, extensibility, and work of fracture. Few biological materials are linearly elastic so modified elastic moduli are defined. Although biological materials tend to be less stiff than engineered materials, biomaterials tend to be tougher due to their anisotropy and high extensibility. Biological beams are usually hollow cylinders; particularly in plants, beams and columns tend to have high twist-to-bend ratios. Air and water are the dominant biological fluids. Fluids generate both viscous and pressure drag (normalized as drag coefficients) and the Reynolds number (Re) gives their relative importance. The no-slip conditions leads to velocity gradients (‘boundary layers’) on surfaces and parabolic flow profiles in tubes. Rather than rigidly resisting drag in external flows, many plants and sessile animals reconfigure to reduce drag as speed increases. Living in velocity gradients can be beneficial for attachment but challenging for capturing particulate food. Lift produced by airfoils and hydrofoils is used to produce thrust by all flying animals and many swimming ones, and is usually optimal at higher Re. At low Re, most swimmers use drag-based mechanisms. A few swimmers use jetting for rapid escape despite its energetic inefficiency. At low Re, suspension feeding depends on mechanisms other than direct sieving because thick boundary layers reduce effective porosity. Most biomaterials exhibit a combination of solid and fluid properties, i.e., viscoelasticity. Even rigid biomaterials exhibit creep over many days, whereas pliant biomaterials may exhibit creep over hours or minutes. Instead of rigid materials

  4. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shiels, Alan [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); FitzGerald, Paul G. [Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Menon, Anil G. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mathias, Richard T. [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  5. Evaluation of Corneal Topography and Biomechanical Parameters after Use of Systemic Isotretinoin in Acne Vulgaris

    Yusuf Yildirim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We report the effect of isotretinoin on corneal topography, corneal thickness, and biomechanical parameters in patients with acne vulgaris. Method. Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who received oral isotretinoin for treatment of acne vulgaris were evaluated. All patients underwent a corneal topographical evaluation with a Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido-disk (Sirius, ultrasonic pachymetry measurements, and corneal biomechanical evaluation with an ocular response analyzer at baseline, in the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months of treatment, and 6 months after isotretinoin discontinuation. Results. The thinnest corneal thickness measured with Sirius differed significantly in the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months compared with the baseline measurement; there was no significant change in ultrasonic central corneal thickness measurements and biomechanical parameters (corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor throughout the study. Average simulated keratometry and surface asymmetry index increased significantly only in the first month of treatment according to the baseline. All changes disappeared 6 months after the end of treatment. Conclusion. Basal tear secretion and corneal morphologic properties were significantly influenced during the systemic isotretinoin treatment and the changes were reversible after discontinuation. No statistical important biomechanical differences were found to be induced by isotretinoin.

  6. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    张文娟; 安宇

    2015-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70%as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models.

  7. Biomechanical study of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy

    Objective: To investigate the stiffness of lumbar spine after the injury caused by percutaneous diskectomy and evaluate the efficiency of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy by biomechanical study. Methods: Four fresh lumbar specimens were used to analyse load-displacement curves in the intact lumbar spine and vertical disc-injured lumbar spine. The concepts of average flexibility coefficient (f) and standardized average flexibility coefficient (fs) were also introduced. Results: The load-displacement curves showed a good stabilization effect of the intact lumbar spine and disc-injured lumbar spine in flexion, extension, right and left bending. The decrease of anti-rotation also can be detected (P<0.05). Conclusion: In biomechanical study, percutaneous lumbar diskectomy is one of the efficiency methods to treat lumbar diac hernia

  8. Ultrasonography of splenic abnormalities

    Ming-Jen Chen; Ming-Jer Huang; Wen-Hsiung Chang; Tsang-En Wang; Horng-Yuan Wang; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This report gives a comprehensive overview of ultrasonography of splenic abnormalities. Certain ultrasonic features are also discussed with pathologic correlation.METHODS: We review the typical ultrasonic characteristics of a wide range of splenic lesions, illustrating them with images obtained in our institution from 2000 to 2003.One hundred and three patients (47 men, 56 women),with a mean age of 54 years (range 9-92 years), were found to have an abnormal ultrasonic pattern of spleen.RESULTS: We describe the ultrasonic features of various splenic lesions such as accessory spleen, splenomegaly,cysts, cavernous hemangiomas, lymphomas, abscesses,metastatic tumors, splenic infarctions, hematomas, and rupture, based on traditional gray-scale and color Doppler sonography.CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is a widely available, noninvasive,and useful means of diagnosing splenic abnormalities. A combination of ultrasonic characteristics and clinical data may provide an accurate diagnosis. If the US appearance alone is not enough, US may also be used to guide biopsy of suspicious lesions.

  9. Complex dental structure and wear biomechanics in hadrosaurid dinosaurs.

    Erickson, Gregory M; Krick, Brandon A; Hamilton, Matthew; Bourne, Gerald R; Norell, Mark A; Lilleodden, Erica; Sawyer, W Gregory

    2012-10-01

    Mammalian grinding dentitions are composed of four major tissues that wear differentially, creating coarse surfaces for pulverizing tough plants and liberating nutrients. Although such dentition evolved repeatedly in mammals (such as horses, bison, and elephants), a similar innovation occurred much earlier (~85 million years ago) within the duck-billed dinosaur group Hadrosauridae, fueling their 35-million-year occupation of Laurasian megaherbivorous niches. How this complexity was achieved is unknown, as reptilian teeth are generally two-tissue structures presumably lacking biomechanical attributes for grinding. Here we show that hadrosaurids broke from the primitive reptilian archetype and evolved a six-tissue dental composition that is among the most sophisticated known. Three-dimensional wear models incorporating fossilized wear properties reveal how these tissues interacted for grinding and ecological specialization. PMID:23042891

  10. Computer Models in Biomechanics From Nano to Macro

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This book contains a collection of papers that were presented at the IUTAM Symposium on “Computer Models in Biomechanics: From Nano to Macro” held at Stanford University, California, USA, from August 29 to September 2, 2011. It contains state-of-the-art papers on: - Protein and Cell Mechanics: coarse-grained model for unfolded proteins, collagen-proteoglycan structural interactions in the cornea, simulations of cell behavior on substrates - Muscle Mechanics: modeling approaches for Ca2+–regulated smooth muscle contraction, smooth muscle modeling using continuum thermodynamical frameworks, cross-bridge model describing the mechanoenergetics of actomyosin interaction, multiscale skeletal muscle modeling - Cardiovascular Mechanics: multiscale modeling of arterial adaptations by incorporating molecular mechanisms, cardiovascular tissue damage, dissection properties of aortic aneurysms, intracranial aneurysms, electromechanics of the heart, hemodynamic alterations associated with arterial remodeling followin...

  11. Biomechanics and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Vercillo Fabio; Dede Ozgur; Wu Changfu; Woo Savio; Noorani Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract For years, bioengineers and orthopaedic surgeons have applied the principles of mechanics to gain valuable information about the complex function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The results of these investigations have provided scientific data for surgeons to improve methods of ACL reconstruction and postoperative rehabilitation. This review paper will present specific examples of how the field of biomechanics has impacted the evolution of ACL research. The anatomy and biome...

  12. Numerical Simulation of Some Biomechanical Problems

    Nedoma, Jiří; Klézl, Z.; Fousek, J.; Kestřánek, Zdeněk; Stehlík, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-6 (2003), s. 283-295. ISSN 0378-4754. [MODELLING 2001. IMACS Conference on Mathematical Modelling and Computational Methods in Mechanics, Physics, Biomechanics and Geodynamics /2./. Pilsen, 19.06.2001-25.06.2001] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : non-linear elasticity * contact problems * variational inequality * finite element method * wrist * spine * fracture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2003

  13. SERVICE IN BADMINTON: A BIOMECHANICAL STUDY

    Saleem Ahmed; Sartaj Khan; Manu Mishra; Touheed Akhter

    2015-01-01

    To find out the differences between forehand and backhand short services in badminton, the present study was designed to analyze the biomechanical variables and segmental angles - shuttle velocity, wrist angle, elbow angle and shoulder angle of six male badminton players. The data were recorded during “North-Zone Intervarsity Championship” held at Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. All subjects in the study were right handed badminton players. The mean age, body height ...

  14. Patient-Specific Models of Cardiac Biomechanics

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T.; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R.; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy CP

    2012-01-01

    Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-di...

  15. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    Bing Zhang; Xinping You; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to midd...

  16. Computational Biomechanics Theoretical Background and BiologicalBiomedical Problems

    Tanaka, Masao; Nakamura, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments have taken place in biological/biomedical measurement and imaging technologies as well as in computer analysis and information technologies. The increase in data obtained with such technologies invites the reader into a virtual world that represents realistic biological tissue or organ structures in digital form and allows for simulation and what is called “in silico medicine.” This volume is the third in a textbook series and covers both the basics of continuum mechanics of biosolids and biofluids and the theoretical core of computational methods for continuum mechanics analyses. Several biomechanics problems are provided for better understanding of computational modeling and analysis. Topics include the mechanics of solid and fluid bodies, fundamental characteristics of biosolids and biofluids, computational methods in biomechanics analysis/simulation, practical problems in orthopedic biomechanics, dental biomechanics, ophthalmic biomechanics, cardiovascular biomechanics, hemodynamics...

  17. Basic biomechanic principles of knee instability.

    Zlotnicki, Jason P; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Ferrer, Gerald A; Debski, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Motion at the knee joint is a complex mechanical phenomenon. Stability is provided by a combination of static and dynamic structures that work in concert to prevent excessive movement or instability that is inherent in various knee injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a main stabilizer of the knee, providing both translational and rotatory constraint. Despite the high volume of research directed at native ACL function, pathogenesis and surgical reconstruction of this structure, a gold standard for objective quantification of injury and subsequent repair, has not been demonstrated. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that novel anatomic structures may play a significant role in knee stability. The use of biomechanical principles and testing techniques provides essential objective/quantitative information on the function of bone, ligaments, joint capsule, and other contributing soft tissues in response to various loading conditions. This review discusses the principles of biomechanics in relation to knee stability, with a focus on the objective quantification of knee stability, the individual contributions of specific knee structures to stability, and the most recent technological advances in the biomechanical evaluation of the knee joint. PMID:27007474

  18. Biomechanics aspects of technique of high jump

    Adashevskiy V.M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work consists in the theoretical ground of optimum biomechanics descriptions in high jumps. A mathematical model is developed for determination of influence on the height of jump: speed and corner of flight of centre-of-mass during pushing away, positions of centre-of-mass body of sportsman in the phases of pushing away and transition through a slat, forces of resistance of air environment, influences of moment of inertia of body. The basic technical run-time errors of sportsman are selected exercises. To biomechanics descriptions, to the step-up effectiveness of high jumps belong: speed of flight of centre-of-mass sportsman (4.2-5.8 meters in a second, corner of flight of centre-of-mass body (50-58 degrees, height of flight of centre-of-mass body (0.85-1.15 meter. Directions of choice of necessary biomechanics descriptions which a sportsman can realize are shown. Offered recommendation on the increase of effectiveness of high jumps.

  19. Degrees of freedom of tongue movements in speech may be constrained by biomechanics

    Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan; Zandipour, Majid; Guenther, Franck; Khalighi, Ali

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies carried out on different languages have found that tongue movements in speech are made along two primary degrees of freedom (d.f.s): the high-front to low-back axis and the high-back to low-front axis. We explore the hypothesis that these two main d.f.s could find their origins in the physical properties of the vocal tract. A large set of tongue shapes was generated with a biomechanical tongue model using a Monte-Carlo method to thoroughly sample the muscle control space. The resulting shapes were analyzed with PCA. The first two factors explain 84% of the variance, and they are similar to the two experimentally observed d.f.s. This finding suggests that the d.f.s. are not speech-specific, and that speech takes advantage of biomechanically based tongue properties to form different sounds.

  20. An introduction to biomechanics solids and fluids, analysis and design

    Humphrey, Jay D

    2004-01-01

    Designed to meet the needs of undergraduate students, Introduction to Biomechanics takes the fresh approach of combining the viewpoints of both a well-respected teacher and a successful student. With an eye toward practicality without loss of depth of instruction, this book seeks to explain the fundamental concepts of biomechanics. With the accompanying web site providing models, sample problems, review questions and more, Introduction to Biomechanics provides students with the full range of instructional material for this complex and dynamic field.

  1. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players.

    Eygendaal, D.; Rahussen, F.T.; Diercks, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis can will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a different repetitive biomechanical nature which can result in tennis related injuries. In this article a biomechanically based evaluation of tennis strokes is presented. This overview includes all...

  2. Jet-Ricci Geometry of Time-Dependent Human Biomechanics

    Ivancevic, Tijana T.

    2009-01-01

    We propose the time-dependent generalization of an `ordinary' autonomous human biomechanics, in which total mechanical + biochemical energy is not conserved. We introduce a general framework for time-dependent biomechanics in terms of jet manifolds derived from the extended musculo-skeletal configuration manifold. The corresponding Riemannian geometrical evolution follows the Ricci flow diffusion. In particular, we show that the exponential-like decay of total biomechanical energy (due to exh...

  3. Recent microfluidic devices for studying gamete and embryo biomechanics.

    Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D

    2015-06-25

    The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation. PMID:25801423

  4. Relationships between job organisational factors, biomechanical and psychosocial exposures.

    Bao, Stephen S; Kapellusch, Jay M; Merryweather, Andrew S; Thiese, Matthew S; Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T; Silverstein, Barbara A

    2016-02-01

    The relationships between work organisational, biomechanical and psychosocial factors were studied using cross-sectional data from a pooled dataset of 1834 participants. The work organisational factors included: job rotation, overtime work, having second jobs and work pace. Task and job level biomechanical variables were obtained through sub-task data collected in the field or analysed in the laboratory. Psychosocial variables were collected based on responses to 10 questions. The results showed that job rotations had significant effects on all biomechanical and most psychosocial measures. Those with job rotations generally had higher job biomechanical stressors, and lower job satisfaction. Overtime work was associated with higher job biomechanical stressors, and possibly self-reported physical exhaustion. Those having second jobs reported getting along with co-workers well. Work pace had significant influences on all biomechanical stressors, but its impact on job biomechanical stressors and psychosocial effects are complicated. Practitioner Summary: The findings are based on a large number of subjects collected by three research teams in diverse US workplaces. Job rotation practices used in many workplaces may not be effective in reducing job biomechanical stressors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Overtime work is also associated with higher biomechanical stressors. PMID:26102483

  5. Biomechanical evaluation of wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis in persons with spinal cord injury

    Yeoun-Seung Kang, MD, PhD, CPO; Yoon-Ghil Park, MD, PhD; Bum-Suk Lee, MD; Hyung-Soon Park, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis (WDFHO) is a device used to restore hand function in persons with tetraplegic spinal cord injury by furnishing three-point prehension. We assessed the effectiveness and biomechanical properties of the WDFHO in 24 persons with cervical 6 or 7 tetraplegia who have severely impaired hand function. This study introduces a mechanical operating model to assess the efficiency of the WDFHO. Experimental results showed that pinch force increased significantly (p ...

  6. A Biomechanical Comparison between Taylor’s Spatial Frame and Ilizarov External Fixator

    Tan, BB; Shanmugam, R; Gunalan, R; Chua, YP; Hossain, G; Saw, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Taylor’s spatial frame (TSF) and Ilizarov external fixators (IEF) are two circular external fixator commonly used to address complex deformity and fractures. There is currently no data available comparing the biomechanical properties of these two external fixators. This study looks into the mechanical characteristics of each system. TSF rings with 6 oblique struts, 4 tube connectors, 4 threaded rods, and 6 threaded rods were compared to a standard IEF rings with 4 threaded rods. Comp...

  7. A scoping review of biomechanical testing for proximal humerus fracture implants

    Cruickshank, David; Lefaivre, Kelly A.; Johal, Herman; MacIntyre, Norma J; Sprague, Sheila A; Scott, Taryn; Guy, Pierre; Cripton, Peter A.; McKee, Michael; Bhandari, Mohit; Slobogean, Gerard P

    2015-01-01

    Background Fixation failure is a relatively common sequela of surgical management of proximal humerus fractures (PHF). The purpose of this study is to understand the current state of the literature with regard to the biomechanical testing of proximal humerus fracture implants. Methods A scoping review of the proximal humerus fracture literature was performed, and studies testing the mechanical properties of a PHF treatment were included in this review. Descriptive statistics were used to summ...

  8. Homogenization of a system of elastic and reaction-diffusion equations modelling plant cell wall biomechanics

    Ptashnyk, Mariya; Seguin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a derivation and multiscale analysis of a mathematical model for plant cell wall biomechanics that takes into account both the microscopic structure of a cell wall coming from the cellulose microfibrils and the chemical reactions between the cell wall's constituents. Particular attention is paid to the role of pectin and the impact of calcium-pectin cross-linking chemistry on the mechanical properties of the cell wall. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the stro...

  9. Biomechanical and immunohistochemical analysis of high hydrostatic pressure-treated Achilles tendons

    Reconstruction of bone defects caused by malignant tumors is carried out in different ways. At present, tumor-bearing bone segments are devitalized mainly by extracorporeal irradiation or autoclaving, but both methods have substantial disadvantages. In this regard, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of the bone is a new, advancing technology that has been used in preclinical testing to inactivate normal cells and tumor cells without altering the biomechanical properties of the bone. The aim of this study was to examine the biomechanical and immunohistochemical properties of tendons after exposure to HHP and to evaluate whether preservation of the bony attachment of tendons and ligaments is possible. For this, 19 paired Achilles tendons were harvested from both hindlimbs of 4-month-old pigs. After preparation, the cross-sectional area of each tendon was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For each animal, one of the two tendons was taken at random and exposed to a pressure of 300 MPa (n=9) or 600 MPa (n=10). The contralateral tendon served as an untreated control. The biomechanical properties of the tendons remained unchanged with respect to the tested parameters: Young's modulus (MPa) and tensile strength (MPa). This finding is in line with immunohistochemical labeling results, as no difference in the labeling pattern of collagen I and versican was observed when comparing the HHP group (at 600 MPa) to the untreated control group. We anticipate that during orthopedic surgery HHP can serve as a novel, promising methodical approach to inactivate Achilles tendon and bone cells without altering the biomechanical properties of the tendons. This should allow one to preserve the attachment of tendon and ligaments to the devitalized bone and to facilitate functional reconstruction. (author)

  10. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  11. Role of biomechanics in the understanding of normal, injured, and healing ligaments and tendons

    Jung Ho-Joong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ligaments and tendons are soft connective tissues which serve essential roles for biomechanical function of the musculoskeletal system by stabilizing and guiding the motion of diarthrodial joints. Nevertheless, these tissues are frequently injured due to repetition and overuse as well as quick cutting motions that involve acceleration and deceleration. These injuries often upset this balance between mobility and stability of the joint which causes damage to other soft tissues manifested as pain and other morbidity, such as osteoarthritis. The healing of ligament and tendon injuries varies from tissue to tissue. Tendinopathies are ubiquitous and can take up to 12 months for the pain to subside before one could return to normal activity. A ruptured medial collateral ligament (MCL can generally heal spontaneously; however, its remodeling process takes years and its biomechanical properties remain inferior when compared to the normal MCL. It is also known that a midsubstance anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear has limited healing capability, and reconstruction by soft tissue grafts has been regularly performed to regain knee function. However, long term follow-up studies have revealed that 20–25% of patients experience unsatisfactory results. Thus, a better understanding of the function of ligaments and tendons, together with knowledge on their healing potential, may help investigators to develop novel strategies to accelerate and improve the healing process of ligaments and tendons. With thousands of new papers published in the last ten years that involve biomechanics of ligaments and tendons, there is an increasing appreciation of this subject area. Such attention has positively impacted clinical practice. On the other hand, biomechanical data are complex in nature, and there is a danger of misinterpreting them. Thus, in these review, we will provide the readers with a brief overview of ligaments and tendons and refer them to

  12. Biomechanics of the Optic Nerve Sheath in VIIP Syndrome

    Ethier, C. Ross; Raykin, Julia; Gleason, Rudy; Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry; Nelson, Emily; Samuels, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration space flight carries the risk of developing Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a spectrum of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, distension of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), optic nerve kinking and potentially permanent degradation of visual function. The slow onset of VIIP, its chronic nature, and certain clinical features strongly suggest that biomechanical factors acting on the ONS play a role in VIIP. Here we measure several relevant ONS properties needed to model VIIP biomechanics. The ONS (meninges) of fresh porcine eyes (n7) was reflected, the nerve proper was truncated near the sclera, and the meninges were repositioned to create a hollow cylinder of meningeal connective tissue attached to the posterior sclera. The distal end was cannulated, sealed, and pressure clamped (mimicking cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] pressure), while the eye was also cannulated for independent control of intraocular pressure (IOP). The meninges were inflated (CSF pressure cycling 7-50 mmHg) while ONS outer diameter was imaged. In another set of experiments (n4), fluid permeation rate across the meninges was recorded by observing the drainage of an elevated fluid reservoir (30 mmHg) connected to the meninges. The ONS showed behavior typical of soft tissues: viscoelasticity, with hysteresis in early preconditioning cycles and repeatable behavior after 4 cycles, and nonlinear stiffening, particularly at CSF pressures 15 mmHg (Figure). Tangent moduli measured from the loading curve were 372 101, 1199 358, and 2050 379 kPa (mean SEM) at CSF pressures of 7, 15 and 30 mmHg, respectively. Flow rate measurements through the intact meninges at 30mmHg gave a permeability of 1.34 0.46 lmincm2mmHg (mean SEM). The ONS is a tough, strain-stiffening connective tissue that is surprisingly permeable. The latter observation suggests that there could be significant CSF drainage through the ONS into the orbit, likely important

  13. Physical limits to biomechanical sensing

    Beroz, Farzan; Münster, Stefan; Weitz, David A; Broedersz, Chase P; Wingreen, Ned S

    2016-01-01

    Cells actively probe and respond to the stiffness of their surroundings. Since mechanosensory cells in connective tissue are surrounded by a disordered network of biopolymers, their in vivo mechanical environment can be extremely heterogeneous. Here, we investigate how this heterogeneity impacts mechanosensing by modeling the cell as an idealized local stiffness sensor inside a disordered fiber network. For all types of networks we study, including experimentally-imaged collagen and fibrin architectures, we find that measurements applied at different points throughout a given network yield a strikingly broad range of local stiffnesses, spanning roughly two decades. We verify via simulations and scaling arguments that this broad range of local stiffnesses is a generic property of disordered fiber networks, and show that the range can be further increased by tuning specific network features, including the presence of long fibers and the proximity to elastic transitions. These features additionally allow for a h...

  14. Spinal biomechanics and functional anatomy.

    Denoix, J M

    1999-04-01

    Knowledge of the normal functional behavior and mechanical properties of the vertebral column is important to understand the pathogenesis of back lesions, to identify the clinical manifestations of back pain, and to ensure a rational approach to physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to present a synthesis of in vivo and in vitro data obtained from different but complementary investigations. Presently, in vivo studies are limited; few gait-specific kinematic and electromyographic investigations are in process. Higher stresses to reach the maximal range of intervertebral motion can be applied on the spine on anatomical specimens than in living horses, and anatomical functional data can be obtained at the level of intervertebral structures. For each movement of flexion, extension, lateroflexion, and rotation, regional and intervertebral mobility is presented with an emphasis on craniocaudal variations and their anatomical causes. Because of the location of their ICR, the dorsoventral movements of a thoracolumbar intervertebral joint can be defined as a rotation around the center of the more caudal vertebral body. This information supports the new concept of intervertebral mobility in the horse and provides additional elements to facilitate understanding of the pathogenesis of back problems in the horse. PMID:10218240

  15. Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, and the 75th Anniversary of RQES

    Hamill, Joseph; Haymes, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the biomechanics and exercise physiology studies published in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) over the past 75 years. Studies in biomechanics, a relatively new subdiscipline that evolved from kinesiology, first appeared in the journal about 40 years ago. Exercise physiology studies have…

  16. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  17. The Undergraduate Biomechanics Experience at Iowa State University.

    Francis, Peter R.

    This paper discusses the objectives of a program in biomechanics--the analysis of sports skills and movement--and the evolution of the biomechanics program at Iowa State University. The primary objective of such a course is to provide the student with the basic tools necessary for adequate analysis of human movement, with special emphasis upon…

  18. Biomechanics aspects of technique of high jump

    Adashevskiy V.M.; Iermakov S.S.; Marchenko A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of work consists in the theoretical ground of optimum biomechanics descriptions in high jumps. A mathematical model is developed for determination of influence on the height of jump: speed and corner of flight of centre-of-mass during pushing away, positions of centre-of-mass body of sportsman in the phases of pushing away and transition through a slat, forces of resistance of air environment, influences of moment of inertia of body. The basic technical run-time errors of sportsma...

  19. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  20. Distributed Data Acquisition For Biomechanics Research

    Myklebust, J.; Geisler, M.; Prieto, T.; Weiss, R.

    1987-01-01

    Biomechanics research at the Medical College of Wisconsin is directed to the determination of the mechanisms of head and spine injury and the evaluation of surgical treatments for these injuries. This work involves mechanical testing of components of the spine (disks, vertebral bodies, and ligaments) as well as testing of composite spines and in situ evaluation of intact human cadavers (1,3). Other studies utilize experimental animals to measure neurologic and physiologic effects due to injury producing loads and accelerations (2). An integrated system has been developed to facilitate the acquisition and analysis of the diverse types of data from these experiments.

  1. Pathophysiology and Biomechanics of the Aging Spine

    Papadakis, Michael; Sapkas, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Katonis, Pavlos

    2011-01-01

    Aging of the spine is characterized by two parallel but independent processes: the reduction of bone mineral density and the development of degenerative changes. The combination of degeneration and bone mass reduction contribute, to a different degree, to the development of a variety of lesions. This results in a number of painful and often debilitating disorders. The present review constitutes a synopsis of the pathophysiological processes that take place in the aging spine as well as of the consequences these changes have on the biomechanics of the spine. The authors hope to present a thorough yet brief overview of the process of aging of the human spine. PMID:21966338

  2. Tubulin bond energies and microtubule biomechanics determined from nanoindentation in silico

    Kononova, Olga; Theisen, Kelly E; Marx, Kenneth A; Dima, Ruxandra I; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules, the primary components of the chromosome segregation machinery, are stabilized by longitudinal and lateral non-covalent bonds between the tubulin subunits. However, the thermodynamics of these bonds and the microtubule physico-chemical properties are poorly understood. Here, we explore the biomechanics of microtubule polymers using multiscale computational modeling and nanoindentations in silico of a contiguous microtubule fragment. A close match between the simulated and experimental force-deformation spectra enabled us to correlate the microtubule biomechanics with dynamic structural transitions at the nanoscale. Our mechanical testing revealed that the compressed MT behaves as a system of rigid elements interconnected through a network of lateral and longitudinal elastic bonds. The initial regime of continuous elastic deformation of the microtubule is followed by the transition regime, during which the microtubule lattice undergoes discrete structural changes, which include first the reversib...

  3. A new statistical biomechanics modeling of physical and biochemical parameters of bone strength

    Soboyejo, A.B.O. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Aviation; Nestor, K.E. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Animal Sciences

    2001-07-01

    New multiparameter biomechanics models were developed in this work for the characterization of bone strength, as functions of the major physical and biochemical parameters, which can contribute to mechanical properties of bone strength. Theoretical and experimental methods had been developed to model bone strength as functions of (a) the physical parameters and (b) the biochemical parameters, The choice of any particular methodology will depend on the availability of either the physical or biochemical parameters. Experimental data of compressive strength of tibia and femur bones of broiler chickens and turkeys together with their corresponding physical and biochemical parameters were collected and used as examples in this study. These data were used to validate the theoretical principles developed in this work. Useful practical applications of the statistical biomechanics principles developed in this study, particularly in the field of bone strength enhancement in turkeys and broiler chickens are discussed. Similar medical applications to human beings are also highlighted in the discussions. (orig.)

  4. Jet Methods in Time-Dependent Lagrangian Biomechanics

    Ivancevic, Tijana T

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the time-dependent generalization of an `ordinary' autonomous human biomechanics, in which total mechanical + biochemical energy is not conserved. We introduce a general framework for time-dependent biomechanics in terms of jet manifolds associated to the extended musculo-skeletal configuration manifold, called the configuration bundle. We start with an ordinary configuration manifold of human body motion, given as a set of its all active degrees of freedom (DOF) for a particular movement. This is a Riemannian manifold with a material metric tensor given by the total mass-inertia matrix of the human body segments. This is the base manifold for standard autonomous biomechanics. To make its time-dependent generalization, we need to extend it with a real time axis. By this extension, using techniques from fibre bundles, we defined the biomechanical configuration bundle. On the biomechanical bundle we define vector-fields, differential forms and affine connections, as well as the associat...

  5. Biomechanical factors associated with the development of tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis

    van Tunen, Joyce A C; Dell'Isola, Andrea; Juhl, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered biomechanics, increased joint loading and tissue damage, might be related in a vicious cycle within the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We have defined biomechanical factors as joint-related factors that interact with the forces, moments and kinematics in and around...... a synovial joint. Although a number of studies and systematic reviews have been performed to assess the association of various factors with the development of KOA, a comprehensive overview focusing on biomechanical factors that are associated with the development of KOA is not available. The aim...... of this review is (1) to identify biomechanical factors that are associated with (the development of) KOA and (2) to identify the impact of other relevant risk factors on this association. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies investigating the association of a biomechanical...

  6. Inframammary Fold Reconstruction: A Biomechanical Analysis

    Schell, Julia; Uener, Jens; Prescher, Andreas; Scaal, Martin; Puppe, Julian; Warm, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inframammary fold reconstruction has scarcely been evaluated in literature. No biomechanical analyses have been performed comparing different reconstructive methods. This evaluation compares the gold-standard suture reconstruction with an intrarib anchor system (Micro BioComposite SutureTak, Arthrex). Methods: Three analysis groups were compared including 8 Sawbone blocks, 22 embalmed cadaver, and 27 regular cadaver specimens (N = 57). Transient mechanical analysis was performed at 5 N/s using an Instron 5565 test frame. Results: Ultimate load favored the anchor system (compared with the gold-standard suture) by a factor of 9.8 (P group and a factor of 1.7 (P group. A similar statistically significant benefit was shown for stiffness and load at 2-mm displacement. Conclusions: This analysis showed an anchor system to be the biomechanically superior fixation method in terms of ultimate load, fixation stiffness, and displacement at failure when compared with the gold-standard suture method in inframammary fold reconstruction. Because of superior stability in every aspect, an anchor system may be considered for inframammary fold reconstruction. PMID:27257564

  7. Biomechanical analysis of jaw-closing movements.

    Koolstra, J H; van Eijden, T M

    1995-09-01

    This study concerns the complex interaction between active muscle forces and passive guiding structures during jaw-closing movements. It is generally accepted that the ligaments of the joint play a major role in condylar guidance during these movements. While these ligaments permit a wide range of motions, it was assumed that they are not primarily involved in force transmission in the joints. Therefore, it was hypothesized that muscle forces and movement constraints caused by the articular surfaces imply a necessary and sufficient condition to generate ordinary jaw-closing movements. This hypothesis was tested by biomechanical analysis. A dynamic six-degrees-of-freedom mathematical model of the human masticatory system has been developed for qualitative analysis of the contributions of the different masticatory muscles to jaw-closing movements, it was found that the normally observed movement, which includes a swing-slide condylar movement along the articular eminence, can be generated by various separate pairs of masticatory muscles, among which the different parts of the masseter as well as the medial pterygoid muscle appeared to be the most suitable to complete this action. The results seem to be in contrast to the general opinion that a muscle with a forward-directed force component may not be suitable for generating jaw movements in which the condyle moves backward. The results can be explained, however, by biomechanical analysis which includes not only muscle and joint forces as used in standard textbooks of anatomy, but also the torques generated by these forces. PMID:7560417

  8. Integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC)

    Löberg, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna.Loberg@dentsply.com [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Mattisson, Ingela [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Ahlberg, Elisabet [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-01-30

    In an attempt to reduce the need for animal studies in dental implant applications, a new model has been developed which combines well-known surface characterization methods with theoretical biomechanical calculations. The model has been named integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC), and gives a comprehensive description of the surface topography and the ability of the surface to induce retention strength with bone. IBTSC comprises determination of 3D-surface roughness parameters by using 3D-scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and calculation of the ability of different surface topographies to induce retention strength in bone by using the local model. Inherent in this integrated approach is the use of a length scale analysis, which makes it possible to separate different size levels of surface features. The IBTSC concept is tested on surfaces with different level of hierarchy, induced by mechanical as well as chemical treatment. Sequential treatment with oxalic and hydrofluoric acid results in precipitated nano-sized features that increase the surface roughness and the surface slope on the sub-micro and nano levels. This surface shows the highest calculated shear strength using the local model. The validity, robustness and applicability of the IBTSC concept are demonstrated and discussed.

  9. Integrative Structural Biomechanical Concepts of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Alfonse T. Masi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is not fully explained by inflammatory processes. Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and course of disease features indicate additional host-related risk processes and predispositions. Collectively, the pattern of predisposition to onset in adolescent and young adult ages, male preponderance, and widely varied severity of AS is unique among rheumatic diseases. However, this pattern could reflect biomechanical and structural differences between the sexes, naturally occurring musculoskeletal changes over life cycles, and a population polymorphism. During juvenile development, the body is more flexible and weaker than during adolescent maturation and young adulthood, when strengthening and stiffening considerably increase. During middle and later ages, the musculoskeletal system again weakens. The novel concept of an innate axial myofascial hypertonicity reflects basic mechanobiological principles in human function, tissue reactivity, and pathology. However, these processes have been little studied and require critical testing. The proposed physical mechanisms likely interact with recognized immunobiological pathways. The structural biomechanical processes and tissue reactions might possibly precede initiation of other AS-related pathways. Research in the combined structural mechanobiology and immunobiology processes promises to improve understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of AS than prevailing concepts. The combined processes might better explain characteristic enthesopathic and inflammatory processes in AS.

  10. Biomechanical Energy Harvester Design For Active Prostheses

    Akın Oğuz Kaptı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors restricting the functions of active prostheses is limited charge times and weights of the batteries. Therefore, some biomechanical energy harvesting studies are conducted for reducing the dependence on batteries and developing the systems that produce energy by utilizing one's own actions during daily living activities. In this study, as a new approach to meet energy needs of active-controlled lower limb prostheses, the design of a biomechanical energy harvester that produces electrical energy from the movements of the knee joint during gait were carried out. This harvester is composed of the generator, planetary gear system and one-way clutch that transmit just the knee extension. Low weight, low additional metabolic power consumption requirement and high electrical power generation are targeted in design process. The total reduction ratio of the transmission is 104, and the knee joint reaction torque applied by the system is 6 Nm. Average electrical powers that can be obtained are 17 W and 5,8 W for the swing extension phase and the entire cycle, respectively. These values seem to be sufficient for charging the battery units of many prostheses and similar medical systems, and portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, navigation devices and laptops.

  11. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    Kas, Josef A.; Fritsch, Anatol; Kiessling, Tobias; Nnetu, David K.; Pawlizak, Steve; Wetzel, Franziska; Zink, Mareike

    2011-03-01

    With an increasing knowledge in tumor biology an overwhelming complexity becomes obvious which roots in the diversity of tumors and their heterogeneous molecular composition. Nevertheless in all solid tumors malignant neoplasia, i.e. uncontrolled growth, invasion of adjacent tissues, and metastasis, occurs. Physics sheds some new light on cancer by approaching this problem from a functional, materials perspective. Recent results indicate that all three pathomechanisms require changes in the active and passive cellular biomechanics. Malignant transformation causes cell softening for small deformations which correlates with an increased rate of proliferation and faster cell migration. The tumor cell's ability to strain harden permits tumor growth against a rigid tissue environment. A highly mechanosensitive, enhanced cell contractility is a prerequisite that tumor cells can cross its tumor boundaries and that this cells can migrate through the extracellular matrix. Insights into the biomechanical changes during tumor progression may lead to selective treatments by altering cell mechanics. Such drugs would not cure by killing cancer cells, but slow down tumor progression with only mild side effects and thus may be an option for older and frail patients.

  12. Integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC)

    Löberg, Johanna; Mattisson, Ingela; Ahlberg, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the need for animal studies in dental implant applications, a new model has been developed which combines well-known surface characterization methods with theoretical biomechanical calculations. The model has been named integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC), and gives a comprehensive description of the surface topography and the ability of the surface to induce retention strength with bone. IBTSC comprises determination of 3D-surface roughness parameters by using 3D-scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and calculation of the ability of different surface topographies to induce retention strength in bone by using the local model. Inherent in this integrated approach is the use of a length scale analysis, which makes it possible to separate different size levels of surface features. The IBTSC concept is tested on surfaces with different level of hierarchy, induced by mechanical as well as chemical treatment. Sequential treatment with oxalic and hydrofluoric acid results in precipitated nano-sized features that increase the surface roughness and the surface slope on the sub-micro and nano levels. This surface shows the highest calculated shear strength using the local model. The validity, robustness and applicability of the IBTSC concept are demonstrated and discussed.

  13. Modeling the biomechanics of fetal movements.

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W; Loo, Jessica H W; Hayat, Tayyib T A; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary A; Phillips, Andrew T M; Nowlan, Niamh C

    2016-08-01

    Fetal movements in the uterus are a natural part of development and are known to play an important role in normal musculoskeletal development. However, very little is known about the biomechanical stimuli that arise during movements in utero, despite these stimuli being crucial to normal bone and joint formation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to create a series of computational steps by which the forces generated during a kick in utero could be predicted from clinically observed fetal movements using novel cine-MRI data of three fetuses, aged 20-22 weeks. A custom tracking software was designed to characterize the movements of joints in utero, and average uterus deflection of [Formula: see text] mm due to kicking was calculated. These observed displacements provided boundary conditions for a finite element model of the uterine environment, predicting an average reaction force of [Formula: see text] N generated by a kick against the uterine wall. Finally, these data were applied as inputs for a musculoskeletal model of a fetal kick, resulting in predicted maximum forces in the muscles surrounding the hip joint of approximately 8 N, while higher maximum forces of approximately 21 N were predicted for the muscles surrounding the knee joint. This study provides a novel insight into the closed mechanical environment of the uterus, with an innovative method allowing elucidation of the biomechanical interaction of the developing fetus with its surroundings. PMID:26534772

  14. Circadian Rhythm Abnormalities

    Zee, Phyllis C.; Attarian, Hrayr; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of the fundamental properties of circadian rhythms and discusses the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs).

  15. Estudo comparativo de propriedades biomecânicas da porção central do tendão calcâneo congelado e a fresco Comparative study on biomechanical properties of the central portion of frozen and fresh calcaneus tendon

    Rodrigo Bezerra de Menezes Reiff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Métodos de armazenamento de aloenxertos podem alterar certas características mecânicas dos tecidos. Com o objetivo de analisar a influência do fenômeno de congelamento e do tempo de armazenamento sobre as propriedades biomecânicas de tendões, os autores estudaram 40 tendões calcâneos obtidos de 20 cadáveres humanos com idade média de 41,95 anos, variando de 31 a 54 anos, sendo 17 do sexo masculino e três do sexo feminino. De cada cadáver foram retirados dois tendões, sendo que um foi testado a fresco e o contralateral congelado a - 85º C em freezer elétrico, durante um período de seis ou 12 semanas. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a ensaios de tração em uma máquina de ensaios mecânicos Kratos K5002, fornecendo gráficos força-deformação. Foram analisados os parâmetros de força no limite de resistência máxima, rigidez, tensão no limite de resistência máxima, deformação relativa e módulo de elasticidade. Os resultados foram comparados e a analisados estatisticamente pelo método de "t-student", com índice de significância de 0,05, sendo que não houve diferença significativa nos valores obtidos entre os grupos. Concluímos que o congelamento a - 85º C não altera as propriedades biomecânicas de tendões, a despeito do tempo de armazenamento.Allograft storage methods can change some mechanical characteristics of tissues. With the objective of analyzing the influence of freezing phenomenon and storage time on tendons’ biomechanical properties, the authors studied 40 calcaneus tendons obtained from 20 human cadavers, with an average age of 41.95 years, ranging from 31 to 54 years old, being 17 males and three females. From each cadaver, two tendons were removed, one tested in its fresh state and the contralateral one frozen at -85º C in an electric freezer, during a period of six or 12 weeks. The bodies of evidence were submitted to traction assays in a Kratos K5002 mechanical assay machine, delivering

  16. Experimental techniques for single cell and single molecule biomechanics

    Lim, C.T. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail: ctlim@nus.edu.sg; Zhou, E.H. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Li, A. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Vedula, S.R.K. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Fu, H.X. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2006-09-15

    Stresses and strains that act on the human body can arise either from external physical forces or internal physiological environmental conditions. These biophysical interactions can occur not only at the musculoskeletal but also cellular and molecular levels and can determine the health and function of the human body. Here, we seek to investigate the structure-property-function relationship of cells and biomolecules so as to understand their important physiological functions as well as establish possible connections to human diseases. With the recent advancements in cell and molecular biology, biophysics and nanotechnology, several innovative and state-of-the-art experimental techniques and equipment have been developed to probe the structural and mechanical properties of biostructures from the micro- down to picoscale. Some of these experimental techniques include the optical or laser trap method, micropipette aspiration, step-pressure technique, atomic force microscopy and molecular force spectroscopy. In this article, we will review the basic principles and usage of these techniques to conduct single cell and single molecule biomechanics research.

  17. Experimental techniques for single cell and single molecule biomechanics

    Stresses and strains that act on the human body can arise either from external physical forces or internal physiological environmental conditions. These biophysical interactions can occur not only at the musculoskeletal but also cellular and molecular levels and can determine the health and function of the human body. Here, we seek to investigate the structure-property-function relationship of cells and biomolecules so as to understand their important physiological functions as well as establish possible connections to human diseases. With the recent advancements in cell and molecular biology, biophysics and nanotechnology, several innovative and state-of-the-art experimental techniques and equipment have been developed to probe the structural and mechanical properties of biostructures from the micro- down to picoscale. Some of these experimental techniques include the optical or laser trap method, micropipette aspiration, step-pressure technique, atomic force microscopy and molecular force spectroscopy. In this article, we will review the basic principles and usage of these techniques to conduct single cell and single molecule biomechanics research

  18. Biomechanical risk factors of non-contact ACL injuries:A stochastic biomechanical modeling study

    Cheng-Feng; Lin; Hui; Liu; Michael; T.Gros; Paul; Weinhold; William; E.Garrett; Bing; Yu

    2012-01-01

    <正>Background:Significant efforts have been made to identify modifiable risk factors of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) injuries in male and female athletes.However,current literature on the risk factors for ACL injury are purely descriptive.An understanding of biomechanical relationship between risk and risk factors of the non-contact ACL injury is necessary to develop effective prevention programs. Purpose:To compare lower extremity kinematics and kinetics between trials with and without non-contact ACL injuries and to determine if any difference exists between male and female trials with non-contact ACL injuries regarding the lower extremity motion patterns. Methods:In this computer simulation study,a stochastic biomechanical model was used to estimate the ACL loading at the time of peak posterior ground reaction force(GRF) during landing of the stop-jump task.Monte Carlo simulations were performed to simulate the ACL injuries with repeated random samples of independent variables.The distributions of independent variables were determined from in vivo laboratory data of 40 male and 40 female recreational athletes. Results:In the simulated injured trials,both male and female athletes had significantly smaller knee flexion angles,greater normalized peak posterior and vertical GRF.greater knee valgus moment,greater patella tendon force,greater quadriceps force,greater knee extension moment. and greater proximal tibia anterior shear force in comparison to the simulated uninjured trials.No significant difference was found between genders in any of the selected biomechanical variables in the trials with simulated non-contact ACL injuries. Conclusion:Small knee flexion angle,large posterior GRF.and large knee valgus moment are risk factors of non-contact ACL injury determined by a stochastic biomechanical model with a cause-and-effect relationship.

  19. Biomechanical and structural parameters of tendons in rats subjected to swimming exercise.

    Bezerra, M A; Santos de Lira, K D; Coutinho, M P G; de Mesquita, G N; Novaes, K A; da Silva, R T B; de Brito Nascimento, A K; Inácio Teixeira, M F H B; Moraes, S R A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of swimming exercise, without overloading, on the biomechanical parameters of the calcaneal tendon of rats. 27 male Wistar rats (70 days) were distributed randomly into 2 groups, Control Group (CG; n=15) with restricted movements inside the cage and Swimming Group (SG; n=12), subjected to exercise training in a tank with a water temperature of 30±1°C, for 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. All animals were kept in a reversed light/dark cycle of 12 h with access to food and water ad libitum. After that, they were anesthetized and had their calcaneus tendons collected from their left rear paws. The tendon was submitted to a mechanical test on a conventional test machine. From the stress vs. strain curve, the biomechanical data were analyzed. For the statistical analysis, the Student-T test was used (pexercise training, without overloading, was an important stimulus for improving the biomechanical parameters and structural properties of the calcaneal tendon. PMID:23740340

  20. Structural and biomechanical changes in the Achilles tendon after chronic treatment with statins.

    de Oliveira, L P; Vieira, C P; Guerra, F D; Almeida, M S; Pimentel, E R

    2015-03-01

    Cases of tendinopathy and tendon ruptures have been reported as side effects associated with statin therapy. This work assessed possible changes in the structural and biomechanical properties of the tendons after chronic treatment with statins. Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: treated with atorvastatin (A-20 and A-80), simvastatin (S-20 and S-80) and the group that received no treatment (C). The doses of statins were calculated using allometric scaling, based on the doses of 80 mg/day and 20 mg/day recommended for humans. The morphological aspect of the tendons in A-20, S-20 and S-80 presented signals consistent with degeneration. Both the groups A-80 and S-80 showed a less pronounced metachromasia in the compression region of the tendons. Measurements of birefringence showed that A-20, A-80 and S-80 groups had a lower degree of organization of the collagen fibers. In all of the groups treated with statins, the thickness of the epitenon was thinner when compared to the C group. In the biomechanical tests the tendons of the groups A-20, A-80 and S-20 were less resistant to rupture. Therefore, statins affected the organization of the collagen fibers and decreased the biomechanical strength of the tendons, making them more predisposed to ruptures. PMID:25544391

  1. Carpal tunnel release: do we understand the biomechanical consequences?

    Morrell, Nathan T; Harris, Andrew; Skjong, Christian; Akelman, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Carpal tunnel release is a very common procedure performed in the United States. While the procedure is often curative, some patients experience postoperative scar sensitivity, pillar pain, grip weakness, or recurrent median nerve symptoms. Release of the carpal tunnel has an effect on carpal anatomy and biomechanics, including increases in carpal arch width and carpal tunnel volume and changes in muscle and tendon mechanics. Our understanding of how these biomechanical changes contribute to postoperative symptoms is still evolving. We review the relevant morphometric and biomechanical changes that occur following release of the transverse carpal ligament. PMID:25364635

  2. Biomechanical ToolKit: Open-source framework to visualize and process biomechanical data.

    Barre, Arnaud; Armand, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    C3D file format is widely used in the biomechanical field by companies and laboratories to store motion capture systems data. However, few software packages can visualize and modify the integrality of the data in the C3D file. Our objective was to develop an open-source and multi-platform framework to read, write, modify and visualize data from any motion analysis systems using standard (C3D) and proprietary file formats (used by many companies producing motion capture systems). The Biomechanical ToolKit (BTK) was developed to provide cost-effective and efficient tools for the biomechanical community to easily deal with motion analysis data. A large panel of operations is available to read, modify and process data through C++ API, bindings for high-level languages (Matlab, Octave, and Python), and standalone application (Mokka). All these tools are open-source and cross-platform and run on all major operating systems (Windows, Linux, MacOS X). PMID:24548899

  3. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

  4. Biomechanics of knee joint — A review

    Madeti, Bhaskar Kumar; Chalamalasetti, Srinivasa Rao; Bolla Pragada, S. K. Sundara siva rao

    2015-06-01

    The present paper is to know how the work is carried out in the field of biomechanics of knee. Various model formulations are discussed and further classified into mathematical model, two-dimensional model and three-dimensional model. Knee geometry is a crucial part of human body movement, in which how various views of knee is shown in different planes and how the forces act on tibia and femur are studied. It leads to know the forces acting on the knee joint. Experimental studies of knee geometry and forces acting on knee shown by various researchers have been discussed, and comparisons of results are made. In addition, static and dynamic analysis of knee has been also discussed respectively to some extent.

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of T2 Exercise

    DeWitt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Everett, Meghan; Newby, Nathaniel; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Crewmembers regularly perform treadmill exercise on the ISS. With the implementation of T2 on ISS, there is now the capacity to obtain ground reaction force (GRF) data GRF data combined with video motion data allows biomechanical analyses to occur that generate joint torque estimates from exercise conditions. Knowledge of how speed and load influence joint torque will provide quantitative information on which exercise prescriptions can be based. The objective is to determine the joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, and joint kinetics associated with treadmill exercise on the ISS. This study will: 1) Determine if specific exercise speed and harness load combinations are superior to others in exercise benefit; and 2) Aid in the design of exercise prescriptions that will be most beneficial in maintaining crewmember health.

  6. A multi-scale biomechanical model based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw.

    Chen, Longjian; Li, Aiwei; He, Xueqin; Han, Lujia

    2015-11-20

    Biomechanical behavior is a fundamental property for the efficient utilization of wheat straw in such applications as fuel and renewable materials. Tensile experiments and lignocellulose analyses were performed on three types of wheat straw. A multi-scale finite element model composed of the microscopic model of the microfibril equivalent volume element and the macroscopic model of straw tissue was proposed based on the physiological structure and lignocellulose components of wheat straw. The tensile properties of wheat straw were simulated by ANSYS software. The predicted stress-strain data were compared with the observed data, and good correspondence was achieved for all three types of wheat straw. The validated multi-scale finite-element (FE) model was then used to investigate the effect of the lignocellulose components on the biomechanical properties of wheat straw. More than 80% of stress is carried by the cellulose fiber, whereas the strain is mainly carried by the amorphous cellulose. PMID:26344265

  7. Do cells contribute to tendon and ligament biomechanics?

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Acellular scaffolds are increasingly used for the surgical repair of tendon injury and ligament tears. Despite this increased use, very little data exist directly comparing acellular scaffolds and their native counterparts. Such a comparison would help establish the effectiveness of the acellularization procedure of human tissues. Furthermore, such a comparison would help estimate the influence of cells in ligament and tendon stability and give insight into the effects of acellularization on collagen.Eighteen human iliotibial tract samples were obtained from nine body donors. Nine samples were acellularized with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, while nine counterparts from the same donors remained in the native condition. The ends of all samples were plastinated to minimize material slippage. Their water content was adjusted to 69%, using the osmotic stress technique to exclude water content-related alterations of the mechanical properties. Uniaxial tensile testing was performed to obtain the elastic modulus, ultimate stress and maximum strain. The effectiveness of the acellularization procedure was histologically verified by means of a DNA assay.The histology samples showed a complete removal of the cells, an extensive, yet incomplete removal of the DNA content and alterations to the extracellular collagen. Tensile properties of the tract samples such as elastic modulus and ultimate stress were unaffected by acellularization with the exception of maximum strain.The data indicate that cells influence the mechanical properties of ligaments and tendons in vitro to a negligible extent. Moreover, acellularization with SDS alters material properties to a minor extent, indicating that this method provides a biomechanical match in ligament and tendon reconstruction. However, the given protocol insufficiently removes DNA. This may increase the potential for transplant rejection when acellular tract scaffolds are used in soft tissue repair. Further research

  8. Do Cells Contribute to Tendon and Ligament Biomechanics?

    Hammer, Niels; Huster, Daniel; Fritsch, Sebastian; Hädrich, Carsten; Koch, Holger; Schmidt, Peter; Sichting, Freddy; Wagner, Martin Franz-Xaver; Boldt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acellular scaffolds are increasingly used for the surgical repair of tendon injury and ligament tears. Despite this increased use, very little data exist directly comparing acellular scaffolds and their native counterparts. Such a comparison would help establish the effectiveness of the acellularization procedure of human tissues. Furthermore, such a comparison would help estimate the influence of cells in ligament and tendon stability and give insight into the effects of acellularization on collagen. Material and Methods Eighteen human iliotibial tract samples were obtained from nine body donors. Nine samples were acellularized with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), while nine counterparts from the same donors remained in the native condition. The ends of all samples were plastinated to minimize material slippage. Their water content was adjusted to 69%, using the osmotic stress technique to exclude water content-related alterations of the mechanical properties. Uniaxial tensile testing was performed to obtain the elastic modulus, ultimate stress and maximum strain. The effectiveness of the acellularization procedure was histologically verified by means of a DNA assay. Results The histology samples showed a complete removal of the cells, an extensive, yet incomplete removal of the DNA content and alterations to the extracellular collagen. Tensile properties of the tract samples such as elastic modulus and ultimate stress were unaffected by acellularization with the exception of maximum strain. Discussion The data indicate that cells influence the mechanical properties of ligaments and tendons in vitro to a negligible extent. Moreover, acellularization with SDS alters material properties to a minor extent, indicating that this method provides a biomechanical match in ligament and tendon reconstruction. However, the given protocol insufficiently removes DNA. This may increase the potential for transplant rejection when acellular tract scaffolds are used in

  9. Development of a biomechanical energy harvester

    Donelan J Maxwell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomechanical energy harvesting–generating electricity from people during daily activities–is a promising alternative to batteries for powering increasingly sophisticated portable devices. We recently developed a wearable knee-mounted energy harvesting device that generated electricity during human walking. In this methods-focused paper, we explain the physiological principles that guided our design process and present a detailed description of our device design with an emphasis on new analyses. Methods Effectively harvesting energy from walking requires a small lightweight device that efficiently converts intermittent, bi-directional, low speed and high torque mechanical power to electricity, and selectively engages power generation to assist muscles in performing negative mechanical work. To achieve this, our device used a one-way clutch to transmit only knee extension motions, a spur gear transmission to amplify the angular speed, a brushless DC rotary magnetic generator to convert the mechanical power into electrical power, a control system to determine when to open and close the power generation circuit based on measurements of knee angle, and a customized orthopaedic knee brace to distribute the device reaction torque over a large leg surface area. Results The device selectively engaged power generation towards the end of swing extension, assisting knee flexor muscles by producing substantial flexion torque (6.4 Nm, and efficiently converted the input mechanical power into electricity (54.6%. Consequently, six subjects walking at 1.5 m/s generated 4.8 ± 0.8 W of electrical power with only a 5.0 ± 21 W increase in metabolic cost. Conclusion Biomechanical energy harvesting is capable of generating substantial amounts of electrical power from walking with little additional user effort making future versions of this technology particularly promising for charging portable medical devices.

  10. Biomechanical research in dance: a literature review.

    Krasnow, Donna; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Wyon, Matthew; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-03-01

    The authors reviewed the literature, published from 1970 through December 2009, on biomechanical research in dance. To identify articles, the authors used search engines, including PubMed and Web of Science, five previous review articles, the Dance Medicine and Science Bibliography, and reference lists of theses, dissertations, and articles being reviewed. Any dance research articles (English language) involving the use of electromyography, forceplates, motion analysis using photography, cinematography or videography, and/or physics analysis were included. A total of 89 papers, theses/dissertations, and abstracts were identified and reviewed, grouped by the movement concept or specialized movements being studied: alignment (n = 8), plié (8), relevé (8), passé (3), degagé (3), développé (7), rond de jambe (3), grand battement (4), arm movements (1), forward stepping (3), turns (6), elevation work (28), falls (1), and dance-specific motor strategies (6). Several recurring themes emerged from these studies: that elite dancers demonstrate different and superior motor strategies than novices or nondancers; that dancers perform differently when using a barre as opposed to without a barre, both in terms of muscle activation patterns and weight shift strategies; that while skilled dancers tend to be more consistent across multiple trials of a task, considerable variability is seen among participants, even when matched for background, years of training, body type, and other variables; and that dance teachers recommend methods of achieving movement skills that are inconsistent with optimal biomechanical function, as well as inconsistent with strategies employed by elite dancers. Measurement tools and the efficacy of study methodologies are also discussed. PMID:21442132

  11. The effects of a lateral in-flight perturbation on lower extremity biomechanics during drop landings.

    Yom, Jae P; Simpson, Kathy J; Arnett, Scott W; Brown, Cathleen N

    2014-10-01

    One potential ACL injury situation is due to contact with another person or object during the flight phase, thereby causing the person to land improperly. Conversely, athletes often have flight-phase collisions but do land safely. Therefore, to better understand ACL injury causation and methods by which people typically land safely, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an in-flight perturbation on the lower extremity biomechanics displayed by females during typical drop landings. Seventeen collegiate female recreational athletes performed baseline landings, followed by either unexpected laterally-directed perturbation or sham (nonperturbation) drop landings. We compared baseline and perturbation trials using paired-samples t tests (P flight perturbation leads to abnormal GRF and angular motions and joint moments of the lower extremity. PMID:25010630

  12. The corneoscleral shell of the eye: potentials of assessing biomechanical parameters in normal and pathological conditions

    E. N. Iomdina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews modern methods of evaluating the biomechanical properties of the corneoscleral shell of the eye that can be used both in the studies of the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic pathologies and in clinical practice. The biomechanical parameters of the cornea and the sclera have been shown to be diagnostically significant in assessing the risk of complications and the effectiveness of keratorefractive interventions, in the diagnosis and the prognosis of keratoconus, progressive myopia, or glaucoma. In clinical practice, a special device, Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, has been used on a large scale. The analyzer is used to assess two parameters that characterize viscoelastic properties of the cornea — corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF. Reduced levels of CH and CRF have been noted after eximer laser surgery, especially that administered to patients who demonstrate a regression in the refraction effect or suffer from keratoconus. This fact justifies the use of these biomechanical parameters as additional diagnostic criteria in the evaluation of the state of the cornea. At the same time, ORA data are shown to reflect the biomechanical response to the impact of the air pulse not only from the cornea alone but also from the whole corneoscleral capsule. This is probably the cause of reduced CH in children with progressive myopia and a weakened supportive function of the sclera, as well as such reduction in glaucomatous adult patients. It is hypothesized that a low CH value is a result of remodeling of the connective tissue matrix of the corneoscleral shell of the eye and can be an independent factor testifying to a risk of glaucoma progression. Reduced CH in primary open-angle glaucoma occurs in parallel with the development of pathological structural changes of the optic disc, and deterioration of visual fields, which is an evidence of a specific character and sensitivity of this parameter. The

  13. Soft Tissue Biomechanical Modeling for Computer Assisted Surgery

    2012-01-01

      This volume focuses on the biomechanical modeling of biological tissues in the context of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS). More specifically, deformable soft tissues are addressed since they are the subject of the most recent developments in this field. The pioneering works on this CAS topic date from the 1980's, with applications in orthopaedics and biomechanical models of bones. More recently, however, biomechanical models of soft tissues have been proposed since most of the human body is made of soft organs that can be deformed by the surgical gesture. Such models are much more complicated to handle since the tissues can be subject to large deformations (non-linear geometrical framework) as well as complex stress/strain relationships (non-linear mechanical framework). Part 1 of the volume presents biomechanical models that have been developed in a CAS context and used during surgery. This is particularly new since most of the soft tissues models already proposed concern Computer Assisted Planning, with ...

  14. Biomechanical properties of a titanium alloy pelvic prosthesis individually manufactured by 3D printing: a finite element analysis%3D打印钛合金个性化骨盆假体生物力学的初步有限元分析

    叶堃; 王金武; 胡志刚; 王成焘; 干耀凯; 韦建和; 江川; 邓源; 李雨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the biomechanical properties of a titanium alloy pelvic prosthesis individually manufactured by 3D printing through finite element analysis.Methods A male patient with a huge chondrosarcoma at the right ilium was recruited for the present study who had been arranged for hemipelvectomy and artificial hemi-pelvic replacement.After the patient underwent CT and MRI examinations before operation,scope of tumor invasion around the ilium,surgical margins and plane for osteotomy were determined using the 3D image fusion technique.A finite element model of the pelvis of the patient was established on the basis of the defective area after pelvic osteotomy using computer aided design (CAD).After the finite element analysis,a customized titanium alloy pelvic prosthesis was manufactured using 3D printing technology.The software Abaqus was used to conduct finite element analysis of the model of the pelvic prosthesis manufactured by 3D printing.The von Mises stress,relative displacement and stress concentration point in the finite element model of the pelvis were measured and analyzed.Results The maximum von Mises stress in the titanium alloy pelvic prosthesis manufactured by 3D printing was 25.29 MPa,far smaller than the yield strength of titanium alloy (950 MPa).The stress concentration area was near the nail holes where the prosthesis and the sacrum were connected.The patient was able to walk without crutches 3 months post-surgery.After half a year,the implant was stable and the patient could perform normal activities.Conclusions The titanium alloy pelvic prosthesis individually manufactured by 3D printing based on the results of finite element analysis met the biomechanical requirements of a pelvis.The calculation results of finite element analysis were consistent with the postoperative follow-up outcomes of the patient.This method can provide biomechanical evidence for clinical application of 3D printing implants in orthopedics.%目的 通过

  15. The search for performance related factors in biomechanics

    Richter, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The identification of performance related factors (PRFs) is a major goal in sports biomechanics. However, PRFs identified across studies are inconsistent and this might be explained by the limitations of discrete point analysis, which is commonly used. New data analysis techniques involving continuous waveform analysis (e.g. functional principal component analysis, fPCA) have been suggested, but their use in biomechanics is not widespread, and they also have limitations. Anot...

  16. Carpal Tunnel Release: Do We Understand the Biomechanical Consequences?

    Morrell, Nathan T.; Harris, Andrew; Skjong, Christian; Akelman, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel release is a very common procedure performed in the United States. While the procedure is often curative, some patients experience postoperative scar sensitivity, pillar pain, grip weakness, or recurrent median nerve symptoms. Release of the carpal tunnel has an effect on carpal anatomy and biomechanics, including increases in carpal arch width and carpal tunnel volume and changes in muscle and tendon mechanics. Our understanding of how these biomechanical changes contribute to ...

  17. BIOMECHANICAL PRINCIPLES PHYSICAL REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    S. D. Korshunov; K. V. Davletyarova; L. V. Kapilevich

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We studied the basic biomechanical principles of physical rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy.Materials and methods. Methods of Motion Tracking and electromyography investigated the biomechanical characteristics of gait in children with cerebral palsy. It is shown that the main differences between dynamic stereotype walk pediatric patients is to delay moving forward center of gravity and the disorganization of the lower limb movements (especially knee) in the vertical plane. P...

  18. Biomechanics and Cycling BIOMECÁNICA Y CICLISMO

    M. Gutierrez

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this essay is giving a general overview about sport cycling from a biomechanical perspective. Although it is necessary to say that the extraordinary dimension of the huge scientific production related to the topic makes difficult to deal this area in just one essay. Due to the variety of contents included into cycling biomechanics, contents in this essay have been restricted into three units: the first, focusing the study of forces opposed to displacement, and specially to the anal...

  19. Biomechanics and control of vocalization in a non-songbird

    Elemans, Coen P.H; Zaccarelli, Riccardo; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2007-01-01

    The neuromuscular control of vocalization in birds requires complicated and precisely coordinated motor control of the vocal organ (i.e. the syrinx), the respiratory system and upper vocal tract. The biomechanics of the syrinx is very complex and not well understood. In this paper, we aim to unravel the contribution of different control parameters in the coo of the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria) at the syrinx level. We designed and implemented a quantitative biomechanical syrinx model that ...

  20. Jet Methods in Time-Dependent Lagrangian Biomechanics

    Ivancevic, Tijana T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the time-dependent generalization of an `ordinary' autonomous human biomechanics, in which total mechanical + biochemical energy is not conserved. We introduce a general framework for time-dependent biomechanics in terms of jet manifolds associated to the extended musculo-skeletal configuration manifold, called the configuration bundle. We start with an ordinary configuration manifold of human body motion, given as a set of its all active degrees of freedom (DOF) for ...

  1. Linking suckling biomechanics to the development of the palate

    Li, Jingtao; Johnson, Chelsey A.; Smith, Andrew A.; Hunter, Daniel J.; Singh, Gurpreet; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-02-01

    Skulls are amongst the most informative documents of evolutionary history but a complex geometry, coupled with composite material properties and complicated biomechanics, have made it particularly challenging to identify mechanical principles guiding the skull’s morphogenesis. Despite this challenge, multiple lines of evidence, for example the relationship between masticatory function and the evolution of jaw shape, nonetheless suggest that mechanobiology plays a major role in skull morphogenesis. To begin to tackle this persistent challenge, cellular, molecular and tissue-level analyses of the developing mouse palate were coupled with finite element modeling to demonstrate that patterns of strain created by mammalian-specific oral behaviors produce complementary patterns of chondrogenic gene expression in an initially homogeneous population of cranial neural crest cells. Neural crest cells change from an osteogenic to a chondrogenic fate, leading to the materialization of cartilaginous growth plate-like structures in the palatal midline. These growth plates contribute to lateral expansion of the head but are transient structures; when the strain patterns associated with suckling dissipate at weaning, the growth plates disappear and the palate ossifies. Thus, mechanical cues such as strain appear to co-regulate cell fate specification and ultimately, help drive large-scale morphogenetic changes in head shape.

  2. Biomechanical Dynamics of Cranial Sutures during Simulated Impulsive Loading.

    Zhang, Z Q; Yang, J L

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cranial sutures are deformable joints between the bones of the skull, bridged by collagen fibres. They function to hold the bones of the skull together while allowing for mechanical stress transmission and deformation. Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate how cranial suture morphology, suture material property, and the arrangement of sutural collagen fibres influence the dynamic responses of the suture and surrounding bone under impulsive loads. Methods. An idealized bone-suture-bone complex was analyzed using a two-dimensional finite element model. A uniform impulsive loading was applied to the complex. Outcome variables of von Mises stress and strain energy were evaluated to characterize the sutures' biomechanical behavior. Results. Parametric studies revealed that the suture strain energy and the patterns of Mises stress in both the suture and surrounding bone were strongly dependent on the suture morphologies. Conclusions. It was concluded that the higher order hierarchical suture morphology, lower suture elastic modulus, and the better collagen fiber orientation must benefit the stress attenuation and energy absorption. PMID:27019589

  3. Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    Lizhen Wang

    Full Text Available Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6-7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury.

  4. Effects of spaceflight on rat humerus geometry, biomechanics, and biochemistry

    Vailas, A. C.; Zernicke, R. F.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Durnova, G. N.; Li, K. C.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) on the geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical characteristics of humeri of male specific pathogen-free rats were examined. Humeri of age-matched basal control, synchronous control, and vivarium control rats were contrasted with the flight bones to examine the influence of growth and space environment on bone development. Lack of humerus longitudinal growth occurred during the 12.5 days in spaceflight. In addition, the normal mid-diaphysial periosteal appositional growth was affected; compared with their controls, the spaceflight humeri had less cortical cross-sectional area, smaller periosteal circumferences, smaller anterior-posterior periosteal diameters, and smaller second moments of area with respect to the bending and nonbending axes. The flexural rigidity of the flight humeri was comparable to that of the younger basal control rats and significantly less than that of the synchronous and vivarium controls; the elastic moduli of all four groups, nonetheless, were not significantly different. Generally, the matrix biochemistry of the mid-diaphysial cross sections showed no differences among groups. Thus, the spaceflight differences in humeral mechanical strength and flexural rigidity were probably a result of the differences in humeral geometry rather than material properties.

  5. Biomechanics of occlusion--implications for oral rehabilitation.

    Peck, C C

    2016-03-01

    The dental occlusion is an important aspect of clinical dentistry; there are diverse functional demands ranging from highly precise tooth contacts to large crushing forces. Further, there are dogmatic, passionate and often diverging views on the relationship between the dental occlusion and various diseases and disorders including temporomandibular disorders, non-carious cervical lesions and tooth movement. This study provides an overview of the biomechanics of the masticatory system in the context of the dental occlusion's role in function. It explores the adaptation and precision of dental occlusion, its role in bite force, jaw movement, masticatory performance and its influence on the oro-facial musculoskeletal system. Biomechanics helps us better understand the structure and function of biological systems and consequently an understanding of the forces on, and displacements of, the dental occlusion. Biomechanics provides insight into the relationships between the dentition, jaws, temporomandibular joints, and muscles. Direct measurements of tooth contacts and forces are difficult, and biomechanical models have been developed to better understand the relationship between the occlusion and function. Importantly, biomechanical research will provide knowledge to help correct clinical misperceptions and inform better patient care. The masticatory system demonstrates a remarkable ability to adapt to a changing biomechanical environment and changes to the dental occlusion or other components of the musculoskeletal system tend to be well tolerated. PMID:26371622

  6. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPORTS BIOMECHANICS: NEW DAWN OR FALSE HOPE?

    Roger Bartlett

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews developments in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI in sports biomechanics over the last decade. It outlines possible uses of Expert Systems as diagnostic tools for evaluating faults in sports movements ('techniques' and presents some example knowledge rules for such an expert system. It then compares the analysis of sports techniques, in which Expert Systems have found little place to date, with gait analysis, in which they are routinely used. Consideration is then given to the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs in sports biomechanics, focusing on Kohonen self-organizing maps, which have been the most widely used in technique analysis, and multi-layer networks, which have been far more widely used in biomechanics in general. Examples of the use of ANNs in sports biomechanics are presented for javelin and discus throwing, shot putting and football kicking. I also present an example of the use of Evolutionary Computation in movement optimization in the soccer throw in, which predicted an optimal technique close to that in the coaching literature. After briefly overviewing the use of AI in both sports science and biomechanics in general, the article concludes with some speculations about future uses of AI in sports biomechanics.

  7. Propriedades biomecânicas da fáscia lata e do ligamento cruzado cranial de cães Biomechanical properties of canine fascia lata and cranial cruciate ligament

    A.P. Brendolan

    2001-02-01

    properties were found for the strips of fascia lata straight and twisted, although twisted strips presented a higher deformation than straight ones. External and internal tibial rotation did not influence the maximum force and maximum stress of the cranial cruciate ligament, that were of about 660 Newtons and 75 Megapascal, respectively. Fascia lata strips reached 44% of ligaments maximum force and 37% of maximum strain, and twisted strips reached 70% of ligaments maximum deformation, deserving straight strips to be recommended for cranial cruciate ligament substitution in dogs.

  8. Chemical and biomechanical characterization of hyperhomocysteinemic bone disease in an animal model

    Howell David S

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS deficiency and characterized by distinctive alterations of bone growth and skeletal development. Skeletal changes include a reduction in bone density, making it a potentially attractive model for the study of idiopathic osteoporosis. Methods To investigate this aspect of hyperhomocysteinemia, we supplemented developing chicks (n = 8 with 0.6% dl-homocysteine (hCySH for the first 8 weeks of life in comparison to controls (n = 10, and studied biochemical, biomechanical and morphologic effects of this nutritional intervention. Results hCySH-fed animals grew faster and had longer tibiae at the end of the study. Plasma levels of hCySH, methionine, cystathionine, and inorganic sulfate were higher, but calcium, phosphate, and other indices of osteoblast metabolism were not different. Radiographs of the lower limbs showed generalized osteopenia and accelerated epiphyseal ossification with distinct metaphyseal and suprametaphyseal lucencies similar to those found in human homocystinurics. Although biomechanical testing of the tibiae, including maximal load to failure and bone stiffness, indicated stronger bone, strength was proportional to the increased length and cortical thickness in the hCySH-supplemented group. Bone ash weights and IR-spectroscopy of cortical bone showed no difference in mineral content, but there were higher Ca2+/PO43- and lower Ca2+/CO32- molar ratios than in controls. Mineral crystallization was unchanged. Conclusion In this chick model, hyperhomocysteinemia causes greater radial and longitudinal bone growth, despite normal indices of bone formation. Although there is also evidence for an abnormal matrix and altered bone composition, our finding of normal biomechanical bone strength, once corrected for altered morphometry, suggests that any increase in the risk of long bone fracture in human hyperhomocysteinemic

  9. Brain injury biomechanics in closed-head impact : Studies on injury epidemiology, tolerance criteria, biomechanics and traffic injury prevention

    Viano, David

    1997-01-01

    Permanent disability from traumatic brain injury is a devastating consequence of traffic crashes. Injury prevention is a fruitful approach to reduce the incidence and severity of disabling brain injury. However, the development of effective prevention techniques requires better knowledge on the mechanisms and biomechanics of brain injury in closed-head impact. The overall aim of this study is focused on brain injury mechanisms, biomechanics, and tolerances in closed-head ...

  10. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  11. Effects of nonlinearity in the materials used for the semi-rigid pedicle screw systems on biomechanical behaviors of the lumbar spine after surgery

    Recently, various types of semi-rigid pedicle screw fixation systems have been developed for the surgical treatment of the lumbar spine. They were introduced to address the adverse issues commonly found in traditional rigid spinal fusion--abnormally large motion at the adjacent level and subsequent degeneration. The semi-rigid system uses more compliant materials (nitinol or polymers) and/or changes in rod design (coiled or twisted rods) as compared to the conventional rigid straight rods made of Ti alloys (E = 114 GPa, υ = 0.32). However, biomechanical studies on the semi-rigid pedicle screw systems were usually limited to linear modeling of the implant and anatomic elements, which may not be capable of reflecting realistic post-operative motions of the spine. In this study, we evaluated the effects of nonlinearity in materials used for semi-rigid pedicle screw fixation systems to evaluate the changes in biomechanical behaviors using finite element analysis. Changes in range of motion (ROM) and center of rotation (COR) were assessed at the operated and adjacent levels. Actual load-displacement results of the semi-rigid rod from mechanical test were carried out to reflect the nonlinearity of the implant. In addition, nonlinear material properties of various spinal ligaments studies were used for the finite element modeling. The post-operative models were constructed by modifying the previously validated intact model of the L1-S1 spine. Eight different post-operative models were made to address the effects of nonlinearity-with a traditional stiffness modulus rod (with linear ligaments, case 1; with nonlinear ligaments, case 5), with a rigid rod (with linear ligaments, case 2; with nonlinear ligaments, case 6), with a soft rod (with linear ligaments, case 3; with nonlinear ligaments, case 7), and with a nonlinear rod (with linear ligaments, case 4; with nonlinear ligaments, case 8). To simulate the load on the lumbar spine in a neutral posture, follower load (400 N

  12. Effects of nonlinearity in the materials used for the semi-rigid pedicle screw systems on biomechanical behaviors of the lumbar spine after surgery

    Kim, Hyun; Lee, Sung-Jae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Hyung [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan 331825 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Ju [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 363951 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwon-Yong, E-mail: sjl@bme.inje.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Recently, various types of semi-rigid pedicle screw fixation systems have been developed for the surgical treatment of the lumbar spine. They were introduced to address the adverse issues commonly found in traditional rigid spinal fusion--abnormally large motion at the adjacent level and subsequent degeneration. The semi-rigid system uses more compliant materials (nitinol or polymers) and/or changes in rod design (coiled or twisted rods) as compared to the conventional rigid straight rods made of Ti alloys (E = 114 GPa, {upsilon} = 0.32). However, biomechanical studies on the semi-rigid pedicle screw systems were usually limited to linear modeling of the implant and anatomic elements, which may not be capable of reflecting realistic post-operative motions of the spine. In this study, we evaluated the effects of nonlinearity in materials used for semi-rigid pedicle screw fixation systems to evaluate the changes in biomechanical behaviors using finite element analysis. Changes in range of motion (ROM) and center of rotation (COR) were assessed at the operated and adjacent levels. Actual load-displacement results of the semi-rigid rod from mechanical test were carried out to reflect the nonlinearity of the implant. In addition, nonlinear material properties of various spinal ligaments studies were used for the finite element modeling. The post-operative models were constructed by modifying the previously validated intact model of the L1-S1 spine. Eight different post-operative models were made to address the effects of nonlinearity-with a traditional stiffness modulus rod (with linear ligaments, case 1; with nonlinear ligaments, case 5), with a rigid rod (with linear ligaments, case 2; with nonlinear ligaments, case 6), with a soft rod (with linear ligaments, case 3; with nonlinear ligaments, case 7), and with a nonlinear rod (with linear ligaments, case 4; with nonlinear ligaments, case 8). To simulate the load on the lumbar spine in a neutral posture, follower load

  13. Biomechanical characteristics of polymeric UHMWPE composites with hybrid matrix and dispersed fillers

    Panin, Sergey; Kornienko, Lyudmila; Shilko, Sergey; Thuc, Nguyen Xuan; Korchagin, Mikhail; Chaikina, Marina

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop artificial joint implants some biomechanical properties of composites with UHMWPE and hybrid (polymer-polymeric) "UHMWPE+PTFE" matrix with dispersed fillers were studied. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of adding hydroxyapatite micron- and nanopowders as a biocompatible filler was carried out. It was shown that under dry sliding friction the wear rate of nanocomposites with the hybrid matrix is lower as compared with composites with the non-hybrid one. Mechanical activation of components further enhances the durability of nano- and microcomposites to almost double it without any significant reduction in the strength characteristics.

  14. Biomechanical Comparison of Different Volar Fracture Fixation Plates for Distal Radius Fractures

    Sobky, Kareem; Baldini, Todd; Thomas, Kenneth; Bach, Joel; Williams, Allison; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of four volar fixed-angle fracture fixation plate designs in a novel sawbones model as well as in cadavers. Four volar fixed angle plating systems (Hand Innovations DVR-A, Avanta SCS/V, Wright Medical Lo-Con VLS, and Synthes stainless volar locking) were tested on sawbones models using an osteotomy gap model to simulate a distal radius fracture. Based on a power analysis, six plates from each system were tested to failure i...

  15. Distension of the renal pelvis in kidney stone patients: sensory and biomechanical responses

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Liao, Donghua; Osther, Susanne Sloth;

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of symptoms in urolithiasis is poorly understood. Traditionally increased endoluminal pressure is considered the main mechanism causing pain in the upper urinary tract but clinical data are sparse. The aim of the present study was to develop a new model related to mechanosensation...... was a relation between pressure and pain score, the non-homogenous spatial strain distribution suggests that the 3D biomechanical properties of the renal pelvis are not reflected by simple estimates of tension based on pressure and volume....

  16. Sensory and biomechanical responses to distension of the renal pelvis in kidney stone patients

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Liao, Donghua; Osther, Susanne Sloth;

    The pathogenesis of symptoms in urolithiasis is poorly understood. Traditionally increased endoluminal pressure is considered the main mechanism causing pain in the upper urinary tract but clinical data are sparse. The aim of the present study was to develop a new model related to mechanosensation...... was a relation between pressure and pain score, the non-homogenous spatial strain distribution suggests that the 3D biomechanical properties of the renal pelvis are not reflected by simple estimates of tension based on pressure and volume....

  17. Degrees of freedom of tongue movements in speech may be constrained by biomechanics

    Perrier, Pascal; Perkell, Joseph; Payan, Yohan; Zandipour, Majid; Guenther, Franck; Khalighi, Ali

    2007-01-01

    International audience A number of studies carried out on different languages have found that tongue movements in speech are made along two primary degrees of freedom (d.f.s): the high-front to low-back axis and the high-back to low-front axis. We explore the hypothesis that these two main d.f.s could find their origins in the physical properties of the vocal tract. A large set of tongue shapes was generated with a biomechanical tongue model using a Monte-Carlo method to thoroughly sample ...

  18. Biomechanical metrics of aesthetic perception in dance.

    Bronner, Shaw; Shippen, James

    2015-12-01

    The brain may be tuned to evaluate aesthetic perception through perceptual chunking when we observe the grace of the dancer. We modelled biomechanical metrics to explain biological determinants of aesthetic perception in dance. Eighteen expert (EXP) and intermediate (INT) dancers performed développé arabesque in three conditions: (1) slow tempo, (2) slow tempo with relevé, and (3) fast tempo. To compare biomechanical metrics of kinematic data, we calculated intra-excursion variability, principal component analysis (PCA), and dimensionless jerk for the gesture limb. Observers, all trained dancers, viewed motion capture stick figures of the trials and ranked each for aesthetic (1) proficiency and (2) movement smoothness. Statistical analyses included group by condition repeated-measures ANOVA for metric data; Mann-Whitney U rank and Friedman's rank tests for nonparametric rank data; Spearman's rho correlations to compare aesthetic rankings and metrics; and linear regression to examine which metric best quantified observers' aesthetic rankings, p < 0.05. The goodness of fit of the proposed models was determined using Akaike information criteria. Aesthetic proficiency and smoothness rankings of the dance movements revealed differences between groups and condition, p < 0.0001. EXP dancers were rated more aesthetically proficient than INT dancers. The slow and fast conditions were judged more aesthetically proficient than slow with relevé (p < 0.0001). Of the metrics, PCA best captured the differences due to group and condition. PCA also provided the most parsimonious model to explain aesthetic proficiency and smoothness rankings. By permitting organization of large data sets into simpler groupings, PCA may mirror the phenomenon of chunking in which the brain combines sensory motor elements into integrated units of behaviour. In this representation, the chunk of information which is remembered, and to which the observer reacts, is the elemental mode shape of

  19. Comparative biomechanics: life's physical world (second edition)

    Vogel, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Why do you switch from walking to running at a specific speed? Why do tall trees rarely blow over in high winds? And why does a spore ejected into air at seventy miles per hour travel only a fraction of an inch? Comparative Biomechanics is the first and only textbook that takes a comprehensive look at the mechanical aspects of life--covering animals and plants, structure and movement, and solids and fluids. An ideal entry point into the ways living creatures interact with their immediate physical world, this revised and updated edition examines how the forms and activities of animals and plants reflect the materials available to nature, considers rules for fluid flow and structural design, and explores how organisms contend with environmental forces. Drawing on physics and mechanical engineering, Steven Vogel looks at how animals swim and fly, modes of terrestrial locomotion, organism responses to winds and water currents, circulatory and suspension-feeding systems, and the relationship between size and mech...

  20. SERVICE IN BADMINTON: A BIOMECHANICAL STUDY

    Saleem Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To find out the differences between forehand and backhand short services in badminton, the present study was designed to analyze the biomechanical variables and segmental angles - shuttle velocity, wrist angle, elbow angle and shoulder angle of six male badminton players. The data were recorded during “North-Zone Intervarsity Championship” held at Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. All subjects in the study were right handed badminton players. The mean age, body height and body weight were reported as 18.33 years (±1.71, 166.5cm (±3.30 and 57.17kg (±7.93 respectively. The movements were recorded by ‘Canon Legria HF S10 Comcorder’ operating at 60 Hz. The identified clips were analyzed with the help of ‘Silicon Coach Pro 7’ motion analysis software. The result revealed that there was significant difference found between forehand and backhand short service in respect to shoulder angle at 0.05 level of significance.

  1. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.)

  2. The biomechanics of throwing: simplified and cogent.

    Weber, Alexander E; Kontaxis, Andreas; O'Brien, Stephen J; Bedi, Asheesh

    2014-06-01

    The majority of shoulder injuries occur due to repetitive overhead movements, with baseball pitching being the most common mechanism for overuse injury. Before studying the treatment of these shoulder injuries, it is paramount that the health professional have an understanding of the etiology of and the underlying mechanisms for shoulder pathology. The act of overhead throwing is an eloquent full-body motion that requires tremendous coordination from the time of force generation to follow-through. The shoulder complex is a crucial component of the upper body kinetic chain as it transmits force created in the lower body to the arm and hand to produce velocity and accuracy with ball release. The focus of this article is on the biomechanics of the throwing motion, with emphasis on the kinematics of the shoulder. The established phases of the throwing motion will be reviewed in a stepwise manner and the contributions of osseous and soft-tissue structures to the successful completion of each phase will be discussed. PMID:24787720

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of the locking titanium cable in the fixture of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury

    Shu-zhi YAO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  The article aims at evaluating the biological properties of tibiofibular titanium cable fixation device in terms of both anti-separation and stress shielding by comparison to the interior fixation with lag screw based on experimental observation. Methods  Six corpse ankle specimens were first tested of pressure-separation and stress measurement, the data from which were compared to the normal group, and then a syndesmosis injury model was established. All the samples are randomly divided into 2 groups of 3 specimens each, which were treated with tibiofibula locked titanium cable and lag screw fixation respectively for syndesmosis injury. Then, the samples were tested for pressure-separation and stress measurement. The biomechanical properties as anti-separation ability and stress shielding were analyzed and compared between the two fixation method. Results  Both tibiofibula locked titanium cables and lag screws were able to provide enough strong lateral anti-separation ability, but strong fixation screws were inferior to tibiofibular titanium cable fixation device in fibular longitudinal stress transduction. Conclusion  Tibiofibular titanium cable fixation device not only provide sufficient lateral anti-separation, but also reduces the tibial and fibular longitudinal stress shielding, thus being superior to the traditional lag screw in biomechanical properties. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.09

  4. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  5. STUDY OF BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DENTAL IMPLANTS

    PITRU, Allma R.; DUȚĂ, Alina; POPA, Dragoș Laurentiu

    2014-01-01

    Dental implantology that become a predictable and highly acceptable treatment modality for the restoration of the human dental and oral apparatus, has need not even for a series of surgical, prosthetics and periodontal skills of the dentists, but also synthetic substance for tissue replacements that combine different design and materials concepts for surgical implants

  6. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Prasanna Byna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: AUB is a common but complicated clinical presentation and occurs in 15-20% of women between menarche to menopause and significantly affects the women's health. Women with thyroid dysfunction often have menstrual irregularities, infertility and increased morbidity during pregnancy. The objective of present study is to find the correlation between thyroid disorders and AUB in perimenopausal women attending gynecology OPD. Methods: In the present study, fifty five patients with AUB were included and were evaluated for the cause including thyroid abnormality. Thyroid function tests were done in all patients. Results: Among 55 patients, 12 patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism and 7 as hyperthyroidism, women with AUB 36 (65.4% were euthyroid. Among 19 women with thyroid abnormality, heavy menstrual bleeding was seen in 8 (42% women, 6 (31.57% had polymenorrhagia, 5 (26.31% had oligomenorrhoea. The frequent menstrual abnormality in women with hypothyroidism (12 women was heavy menstrual bleeding in 5 (41.6% women, 3 (25% had oligomennorhoea, 4 (33.3% had polymenorrhagia. Out of 7 women with hyperthyroidism, 2 (28.57% had oligomenorrhoea, 3 (42.8% had heavy menstrual bleeding, 2 (28.57% had polymenorrhagia. In a total of 55 patients with AUB, 11 (20% had structural abnormalities in uterus and ovaries. 5 (9% had adenomyosis, 3 (5.4% had ovarian cysts, 3 (5.4% had fibroids. Conclusions: It is important to screen all women for thyroid abnormality who are presenting with AUB especially with non-structural causes of AUB. Correction of thyroid abnormalities also relieves AUB. This will avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3250-3253

  7. Athletic groin pain: a biomechanical diagnosis

    Marshall, Brendan; Moran, Kieran; Richter, Chris; Gore, Shane; King, Enda; Franklyn-Miller, Andy; Strike, Siobhan; Falvey, Eanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic athletic groin pain is commonly experienced in a range of football codes including soccer (Holmich et al. 2014) and gaelic football (Murphy et al. 2012). Much debate surrounds the specific aetiology of AGP but several authors have implicated, at least in part, abnormal movement control and loading in and around the hip and pelvis during play (Rabe et al. 2010, Pizarri et al. 2008). Movement control during change of direction cutting is of particular interest as it is thi...

  8. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  9. A selection of biomechanical research problems: From modeling to experimentation

    Abbasi, Cyrus Omid

    The research undertakings within this manuscript illustrate the importance of biomechanics in today's science. Without doubt, biomechanics can be utilized to obtain a better understanding of many unsolved mysteries involved in the field of medicine. Moreover, biomechanics can be used to develop better prosthetic or surgical devices as well. Chapter 2 represents a medical problem, which has not been solved for more than a century. With the use of fundamental principles of biomechanics', a better insight of this problem and its possible causes were obtained. Chapter 3 investigates the mechanical interaction between the human teeth and some processed food products during mastication, which is a routine but crucial daily activity of a human being. Chapter 4 looks at a problem within the field of surgery. In this chapter the stability and reliability of two different Suturing-Techniques are explored. Chapters 5 and 6 represent new patent designs as a result of the investigations made in Chapter 4. Chapter 7 studies the impact and load transfer patterns during the collision between a child's head and the ground. All of the above mentioned chapters show the significance of biomechanics in solving a range of different medical problems that involve physical and or mechanical characters.

  10. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  11. A three-dimensional finite element model for biomechanical analysis of the hip.

    Chen, Guang-Xing; Yang, Liu; Li, Kai; He, Rui; Yang, Bin; Zhan, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Yu, Bing-Nin; Jian, Zhe

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the hip. The images of the hip were obtained from Chinese visible human dataset. The hip model includes acetabular bone, cartilage, labrum, and bone. The cartilage of femoral head was constructed using the AutoCAD and Solidworks software. The hip model was imported into ABAQUS analysis system. The contact surface of the hip joint was meshed. To verify the model, the single leg peak force was loaded, and contact area of the cartilage and labrum of the hip and pressure distribution in these structures were observed. The constructed 3D hip model reflected the real hip anatomy. Further, this model reflected biomechanical behavior similar to previous studies. In conclusion, this 3D finite element hip model avoids the disadvantages of other construction methods, such as imprecision of cartilage construction and the absence of labrum. Further, it provides basic data critical for accurately modeling normal and abnormal loads, and the effects of abnormal loads on the hip. PMID:23504633

  12. Knee loading for abnormal gait

    Hutchison, J.; Madsen, D.; Norman, T. L.; -Blaha, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a mathematical model for determining knee loads for abnormal gait. Abnormal gait was defined as a person with varus, i.e. “bowleggedness”, or a person who had an external rotation of the femur (or the inability to internally rotate the femur) which caused an indirect varus in the forward positions of gait. Conditions such as these have been observed clinically to result in increased wear on the medial condyle of total knee replacements. This problem was...

  13. Ti-Ni Rods with Variable Stiffness for Spine Stabilization: Manufacture and Biomechanical Evaluation

    Brailovski, Vladimir; Facchinello, Yann; Brummund, Martin; Petit, Yvan; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    A new concept of monolithic spinal rods with variable flexural stiffness is proposed to reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration and vertebral fracture, while providing adequate stability to the spine. The variability of mechanical properties is generated by locally annealing Ti-Ni shape memory alloy rods. Ten-minute Joule effect annealing allows the restoration of the superelasticity in the heated portion of the rod. Such processing also generates a mechanical property gradient between the heated and the unheated zones. A numerical model simulating the annealing temperature and the distributions of the mechanical properties was developed to optimize the Joule-heating strategy and to modulate the rod's overall flexural stiffness. Subsequently, the rod model was included in a finite element model of a porcine lumbar spine to study the effect of the rod's stiffness profiles on the spinal biomechanics.

  14. Biomechanics of Kuzushi-Tsukuri and Interaction in Competition

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper it is performed the comparative biomechanical analysis of the Kuzushi (Unbalance) -Tsukuri (the entry and proper fitting of Tori's body into the position taken just before throwing) phases of Judo Throwing techniques. The whole effective movement is without separation, as already stated by old Japanese biomechanical studies (1972 -1978), only one skilled connected action, but the biomechanical analysis is able to separate the whole in didactic steps called Action Invariants. The first important finding singled out is the existence of two classes of Action Invariants the first the General one' connected to the whole body motion is specific of shortening distance in the Kuzushi Tsukuri Phase. The second one, the Specific Action Invariants is connected to the superior and inferior kinetic chains motion and right positioning connected both to Kuzushi and Tsukuri phases. Some interesting findings derive from this analysis: among throwing techniques, couple techniques could be independent from Kuzushi...

  15. Computational biomechanics for medicine new approaches and new applications

    Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologiesand advancements. Thisvolumecomprises twelve of the newest approaches and applications of computational biomechanics, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, France, Spain and Switzerland. Some of the interesting topics discussed are:real-time simulations; growth and remodelling of soft tissues; inverse and meshless solutions; medical image analysis; and patient-specific solid mechanics simulations. One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. We hope the research presented within this book series will contribute to overcoming this grand challenge.

  16. Computational biomechanics for medicine imaging, modeling and computing

    Doyle, Barry; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul; Miller, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements. This volume comprises eighteen of the newest approaches and applications of computational biomechanics, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, UK, Switzerland, Scotland, France and Russia. Some of the interesting topics discussed are: tailored computational models; traumatic brain injury; soft-tissue mechanics; medical image analysis; and clinically-relevant simulations. One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. We hope the research presented within this book series will contribute to overcoming this grand challenge.

  17. The increasing importance of the biomechanics of impact trauma

    Murray Mackay

    2007-08-01

    The evolution of experimental biomechanics and crash injury research is summarized briefly to show that they both play a major role in mitigating traffic deaths and injuries. Historically, the subject has been based largely in western countries and thus focused on vehicle occupants, whereas some 80% of traffic casualties in the world are outside the vehicle as pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. The subject is close to the regulatory process which controls vehicle design and is thus heavily influenced by government and industry, yet it is now in an expanding period because of new techniques to replicate the human frame’s response to impact forces. New knowledge is likely to emerge from addressing population variations and combining real world accident investigations with experimental biomechanics. The application of impact biomechanics to the vulnerable road users is of particular importance.

  18. Biomechanical analysis technique choreographic movements (for example, "grand battman jete"

    Batieieva N.P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : biomechanical analysis of the execution of choreographic movement "grand battman jete". Material : the study involved students (n = 7 of the department of classical choreography faculty of choreography. Results : biomechanical analysis of choreographic movement "grand battman jete" (classic exercise, obtained kinematic characteristics (path, velocity, acceleration, force of the center of mass (CM bio parts of the body artist (foot, shin, thigh. Built bio kinematic model (phase. The energy characteristics - mechanical work and kinetic energy units legs when performing choreographic movement "grand battman jete". Conclusions : It was found that the ability of an athlete and coach-choreographer analyze the biomechanics of movement has a positive effect on the improvement of choreographic training of qualified athletes in gymnastics (sport, art, figure skating and dance sports.

  19. Biomechanical Profile of Danish Elite and Sub-elite Soccer Goalkeepers

    Sørensen, Henrik; Thomassen, Martin; Zacho, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define a biomechanical profile of the soccer goalkeeper. We tested whether the skill level of 6 goalkeepers correlated with a number of biomechanical tests. The skill level of each goalkeeper was defined as the league he played in. The biomechanical tests were...

  20. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties.

  1. A dynamic distention protocol for whole-organ bladder decellularization: histological and biomechanical characterization of the acellular matrix.

    Consolo, F; Brizzola, S; Tremolada, G; Grieco, V; Riva, F; Acocella, F; Fiore, G B; Soncini, M

    2016-02-01

    A combined physical-chemical protocol for whole full-thickness bladder decellularization is proposed, based on organ cyclic distention through repeated infusion/withdrawal of the decellularization agents through the urethra. The dynamic decellularization was intended to enhance cell removal efficiency, facilitating the delivery of detergents within the inner layers of the tissue and the removal of cell debris. The use of mild chemical detergents (hypotonic solution and non-ionic detergent) was employed to limit adverse effects upon matrix 3D ultrastructure. Inspection of the presence of residual DNA and RNA was carried out on decellularized matrices to verify effective cell removal. Histological investigation was focused on assessing the retention of adequate structural and functional components that regulate the biomechanical behaviour of the acellular tissue. Biomechanical properties were evaluated through uniaxial tensile loading tests of tissue strips and through ex vivo filling cystometry to evaluate the whole-organ mechanical response to a physiological-like loading state. According to our results, a dynamic decellularization protocol of 17 h duration with a 5 ml/min detergent infusion flow rate revealed higher DNA removal efficiency than standard static decellularization, resulting in residual DNA content < 50 ng/mg dry tissue weight. Furthermore, the collagen network and elastic fibres distribution were preserved in the acellular ECM, which exhibited suitable biomechanical properties in the perspective of its future use as an implant for bladder augmentation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23737121

  2. Sperm abnormalities in exposed humans

    Šrám, Radim; Rubeš, J.

    Cambridge : Issue in Toxicology, Royal Society of Chemistry Publ.,, 2007, s. 247-258. ISBN 978-0-85404-847-2 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution exposure * sperm abnormalities * male reproductive health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  3. The modern biomechanics technology in practice of preparedness athletes.

    Akhmetov R.F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized information about directions of application of biomechanics technologies in modern sport is resulted. Some aspects of the use of biomechanics ergogenical tools of the moved delayed action in the system of preparation of athletes-jumpers are considered. Presents the possibility of using training complex «easy leading» for perfection of structure of motive actions of sportsmen, specialized in high jumps. The introduction of a vast arsenal of technical tools in practice the training process open new prospects associated with increased efficiency in the preparation of athletes.

  4. Forward lunge knee biomechanics before and after partial meniscectomy

    Hall, Michelle; Nielsen, Jonas Høberg; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    partial meniscectomy (APM) on knee joint mechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in knee joint biomechanics during a forward lunge in patients with a suspected degenerative meniscal tear from before to three months after APM. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (35-55years old......) with a suspected degenerative medial meniscal tear participated in this study. Three dimensional knee biomechanics were assessed on the injured and contralateral leg before and three months after APM. The visual analogue scale was used to assess knee pain and the Knee Injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score was used...

  5. Advances in compression nails - principles and biomechanical photoelastic evaluation

    Mittelmeier, W.; Hauschild, M.; Bader, R.; Steinhauser, E. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik fuer Orthopaedie und Sportorthopaedie

    2001-12-01

    The nail-osteosynthesis is an established concept for shaft-fractures of long bones. The compression-nail ICN enables a favourable primary-stability and also a former full weight-bearing over a precompression of the nail-bone-system. The indications of the compression-nail include beside more diaphyseal cross fractures and short oblique fractures non-unions and correction-osteotomies. Newer modular nail-types like the tandem compression nail (TCN) can improve the biomechanical prerequisites of the compression nail principle. Key-words: internal fixation - interlocking-nail - modular - compression - biomechanics - non-union (orig.)

  6. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R. PMID:24414293

  7. Fixation performance of an ultrasonically fused, bioresorbable osteosynthesis implant: A biomechanical and biocompatibility study.

    Augat, P; Robioneck, P B; Abdulazim, A; Wipf, F; Lips, K S; Alt, V; Schnettler, R; Heiss, C

    2016-01-01

    Bioresorbable implants may serve as an alternative option for the fixation of bone fractures. Because of their minor inherent mechanical properties and insufficient anchorage within bone bioresorbable implants have so far been limited to mechanically nondemanding fracture types. By briefly liquefying the surface of the biomaterial during insertion, bioresorbable implants can be ultrasonically fused with bone to improve their mechanical fixation. The objective of this study was to investigate the biomechanical fixation performance and in vivo biocompatibility of an ultrasonically fused bioresorbable polymeric pin (SonicPin). First, we biomechanically compared the fused pin with press fitted metallic and bioresorbable polymeric implants for quasi-static and fatigue strength under shear and tensile loading in a polyurethane foam model. Second, fused implants were inserted into cancellous bovine bone and tested biomechanically to verify the reproducibility of their fusion behavior. Finally, the fused pins were tested in a lapine model of femoral condyle osteotomies and were histologically examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. While comparable under static shear loads, fixation performance of ultrasonically fused pins was significantly (p = 0.001) stronger under tensile loading than press fit implants and showed no pull-out. Both bioresorbable implants withstood comparable fatigue shear strength, but less than the K-wire. In bovine bone the ultrasonic fusion process worked highly reproducible and provided consistent mechanical fixation. In vivo, the polymeric pin produced no notable foreign body reactions or resorption layers. Ultrasonic fusion of polymeric pins achieved adequate and consistent mechanical fixation with high reproducibility and exhibits good short-term resorption and biocompatibility. PMID:25678144

  8. Effects of G6PD activity inhibition on the viability, ROS generation and mechanical properties of cervical cancer cells.

    Fang, Zishui; Jiang, Chengrui; Feng, Yi; Chen, Rixin; Lin, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Han, Luhao; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Hongyi; Guo, Yibin; Jiang, Weiying

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been revealed to be involved in the efficacy to anti-cancer therapy but the mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the anti-cancer mechanism of G6PD deficiency. In our study, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and shRNA technology were used for inhibiting the activity of G6PD of cervical cancer cells. Peak Force QNM Atomic Force Microscopy was used to assess the changes of topography and biomechanical properties of cells and detect the effects on living cells in a natural aqueous environment. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe cell morphology. Moreover, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe the alterations in cytoskeleton to explore the involved mechanism. When G6PD was inhibited by DHEA or RNA interference, the abnormal Young's modulus and increased roughness of cell membrane were observed in HeLa cells, as well as the idioblasts. Simultaneously, G6PD deficiency resulted in decreased HeLa cells migration and proliferation ability but increased ROS generation inducing apoptosis. What's more, the inhibition of G6PD activity caused the disorganization of microfilaments and microtubules of cytoskeletons and cell shrinkage. Our results indicated the anti-cervix cancer mechanism of G6PD deficiency may be involved with the decreased cancer cells migration and proliferation ability as a result of abnormal reorganization of cell cytoskeleton and abnormal biomechanical properties caused by the increased ROS. Suppression of G6PD may be a promising strategy in developing novel therapeutic methods for cervical cancer. PMID:27217331

  9. Biomechanical exploration on dynamic modes of lifting.

    Gagnon, M; Smyth, G

    1992-03-01

    Whatever the lifting method used, dynamic factors appear to have an effect on the safe realization of movement, and NIOSH guidelines recommend smooth lifting with no sudden acceleration effects. On the other hand, inertial forces may play an important role in the process of transfer of momentum to the load. The direction by which these inertial forces may affect the loadings on body structures and processes of energy transfers cannot be determined a priori. A biomechanical experiment was performed to examine if there were differences in the execution processes between a slow-continuous lift and an accelerated-continuous lift, and also between accelerated lifts either executed continuously or interrupted with a pause. The lifts were executed from a height of 15 cm to a height of 185 cm above the head and with two different loads (6.4 and 11.6 kg). Five experienced workers in manual materials handling were used as subjects. Films and force platforms recordings supplied the data; dynamic segmental analyses were performed to calculate net muscular moments at each joint; a planar single-muscle equivalent was used to estimate compression loadings at L5/S1; total mechanical work, joint work distribution, and energy transfers were determined from a kinetic approach based on the integration of joint power as a function of time. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were applied to the three treatments. The results showed that joint muscular moments, spinal loadings, mechanical work, and muscular utilization ratios were generally increased by the presence of acceleration without inducing benefits of improved energy transfers; therefore slower lifts with reduced acceleration may be safer when handling moderately heavy loads. The maximum values of kinematic and kinetic factors were generally not affected by the pause, but the occurrence of jerks in the movement (acceleration, ground forces, and muscular moments) suggests that the pause may not be indicated when

  10. Expandable intramedullary nail - experimental biomechanical evaluation

    A. Kajzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents results of experimental analysis of femur and femur – expandable intramedullary nail system. The aim of the work was to determine displacement in three models. In addition, the torsion of the system aiming at determining the moments depending on the torsional angle of the bone was carried out.Design/methodology/approach: Three femurs were selected for studies. The analysis was carried out on the femur – expandable intramedullary nail system. The influence of the loads and displacements on the bone – nail system on the results of experimental analysis was analysed. In order to carry out calculations, three models were selected: model I – bone without fracture gap, model II and III – femur with expansion intramedullary nails – fracture gap was located 100 mm under greater trochanter. The studies were performed on femur models produced by Swedish company Sawbones. The intramedullary „Fixion IM” nails (Ti-6Al-4V alloy were implanted into the bone. Displacements of determinated models were being recorded from the sensors every 100 N from 10 N to 2000 N.Findings: The analyses showed the difference in displacements, depending on the selected models.Research limitations/implications: The limitations were connected with simplification of boundary conditions during analysis which were the result of the simplification of the models. While studying, muscles and ligaments supporting the bone in anatomic position were not taken into consideration. Instead, the system has been loaded with the axial force (compression.Practical implications: The obtained results can be useful in clinical practice. They can be applied in selection of stabilization methods or rehabilitation as well as in describing the biomechanical conditions connected with type of bone fracture obtained from medical imaging.Originality/value: . The work compares the values of displacement of characteristic points of femur (healthy – model I with the

  11. Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility Spring 2016 Internship

    Boppana, Abhishektha

    2016-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at Johnson Space Center supports the Space Human Factors Engineering portfolio of the Human Research Program. ABF provides capability to verify the accommodation and comfort of crewmembers through anthropometry and biomechanics analyses. Anthropometric measurements are derived from three-dimensional (3D) whole body scan images. The scans are currently taken by a Human Solutions Vitus 3D Laser Scanning System. ABF has purchased a 3dMD photogrammetry scanner system to speed up the process of collecting 3D scans. The photogrammetry scanner system features a faster data collection time, as well as fewer holes in the scans. This internship was mainly focused on developing calibration, measurement, data acquisition, and analysis processes for the new system. In addition, I also participated in a project to validate the use of a pressure mat sensor on the shoulder during in-suit testing. My duties for the scanner validation project started with identifying and documenting a calibration process. The calibration process proved vital to using the system as the quality of the scans was directly related to the success of the calibration. In addition, the calibration process suggested by the system vendor required the user to hold a large calibration board at precise locations. To aid in this, I built a calibration stand which held a calibration board at constant positions throughout numerous calibration process. The calibration process was tested extensively until proven acceptable. The standardized process reduced calibration time from over 10 minutes to just below three minutes. As a result, the calibration process could be completed painlessly and precisely, and scan quality was constant between sessions. After standardizing the calibration process, I proceeded to modify the locations of the cameras in order to capture the full volume of a person. The scanning system needed to capture a full T-pose of a person in one scan

  12. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  13. Ankyrin-B in lens architecture and biomechanics: Just not tethering but more.

    Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha; Maddala, Rupalatha

    2016-01-01

    The ankyrins are a family of well-characterized metazoan adaptor proteins that play a key role in linking various membrane-spanning proteins to the underlying spectrin-actin cytoskeleton; a mechanistic understanding of their role in tissue architecture and mechanics, however, remains elusive. Here we comment on a recent study demonstrating a key role for ankyrin-B in maintaining the hexagonal shape and radial alignment of ocular lens fiber cells by regulating the membrane organization of periaxin, dystrophins/dystroglycan, NrCAM and spectrin-actin network of proteins, and revealing that ankyrin-B deficiency impairs fiber cell shape and mechanical properties of the ocular lens. These observations indicate that ankyrin-B plays an important role in maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture, cell shape and biomechanical properties via engaging in key protein: protein interactions required for membrane anchoring and organization of the spectrin-actin skeleton, scaffolding proteins and cell adhesive proteins. PMID:27044909

  14. Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?

    Fuzfa, A.; Alimi, J. -M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still accounting for the pr...

  15. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  16. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  17. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  18. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syndrome) that has been described after acute stress. It is a reversible cardiac dysfunction with distinct imaging features(the echocardiographic or left ventricular angiographic image resembles a Tak...

  19. Using Clinical Gait Case Studies to Enhance Learning in Biomechanics

    Chester, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case studies facilitate the development of clinical reasoning strategies through knowledge and integration of the basic sciences. Case studies have been shown to be more effective in developing problem-solving abilities than the traditional lecture format. To enhance the learning experiences of students in biomechanics, clinical case…

  20. Quantitative modelling of the biomechanics of the avian syrinx

    Elemans, Coen P. H.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Hoffmann, Marc R.;

    2003-01-01

    We review current quantitative models of the biomechanics of bird sound production. A quantitative model of the vocal apparatus was proposed by Fletcher (1988). He represented the syrinx (i.e. the portions of the trachea and bronchi with labia and membranes) as a single membrane. This membrane acts...

  1. Biomechanics Curriculum: Its Content and Relevance to Movement Sciences

    Hamill, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    While the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) has outlined a number of learning outcomes for undergraduate biomechanics, there are a number of factors that can influence the curriculum in such courses. These factors create a situation that indeed can influence students and their attitude towards these classes.…

  2. Focusing on the Hard parts: A Biomechanics Laboratory Exercise

    Fingerut, Jonathan; Orbe, Kristina; Flynn, Daniel; Habdas, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    As part of a biomechanics course aimed at both upper-division Biology and Physics majors, this laboratory exercise introduces students to the ingenious ways in which organisms vary the composition and form of support and defensive structures such as bone and shell to maximize their strength while minimizing the energetic cost needed to produce…

  3. Corneal biomechanical changes following toric soft contact lens wear

    Somayeh Radaie-Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: CH and CRF decreased significantly one month after fitting toric soft contact lenses while CCT and K mean did not change significantly. Corneal biomechanical parameters may alter with toric soft contact lens use and such changes may have implications with long-term use such lenses.

  4. How to Assess the Biomechanical Risk Levels in Beekeeping.

    Maina, G; Rossi, F; Baracco, A

    2016-01-01

    Beekeepers are at particular risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders, but many of the studies lack detailed exposure assessment. To evaluate the biomechanical overload exposure in a specific farming activity, a multitasking model has been developed through the characterization of 37 basic operational tasks typical of the beekeeping activity. The Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) Checklist and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Index methodologies have been applied to these elementary tasks to evaluate the exposure, and the resulting risk indices have been time-weighted averaged. Finally, an easy access, computer-assisted toolkit has been developed to help the beekeepers in the biomechanical risk assessment process. The risk of biomechanical overload for the upper limbs ranges from acceptable (maintenance and recovery of woody material and honey packaging with dosing machine tasks) to high (distribution of the top supers) risk level. The risk for back injury is always borderline in women and increases with exposure time, whereas it ranges from acceptable to borderline in men. The definition of the biomechanical risk levels allows for planning of corrective actions aimed at preventing and reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders through engineering, administrative, and behavioral interventions. The methodology can be used for risk assessment in other mainly manual agricultural activities. PMID:26765780

  5. Computational modelling of biomechanical behaviour of skeletal elements and implants

    Jíra, J.; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Jírová, Jitka

    Anaheim Calgary Zurich : ACTA Press, 2004 - (Hamza, M.), s. 170 ISBN 0-88986-448-9. [Biomechanics /2./. Honolulu (US), 23.08.2004-25.08.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : FE model of pelvis * skull and long bone * CT scan Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics

  6. The Biomechanical Implications of Obesity in K-12 Learners

    Strohmeyer, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have examined obese individuals as primary subjects. However, some mechanical differences have been identified between overweight or obese individuals and nonoverweight movers. It is not clear how obesity affects the onset of osteoarthritis, for example, but it is evident that obesity does place significant limitations on…

  7. Pathobiology of obesity and osteoarthritis: integrating biomechanics and inflammation

    Rita I. Issa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing osteoarthritis in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. Although the pathogenesis of obesity-associated osteoarthritis is not completely understood, recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory metabolic factors contribute to an increase in osteoarthritis risk. Adipose tissue, and in particular infrapatellar fat, is a local source of pro-inflammatory mediators that are increased with obesity and have been shown to increase cartilage degradation in cell and tissue culture models. One adipokine in particular, leptin, may be a critical mediator of obesity-associated osteoarthritis via synergistic actions with other inflammatory cytokines. Biomechanical factors may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis by activating cellular inflammation and promoting oxidative stress. However, some types of biomechanical stimulation, such as physiologic cyclic loading, inhibit inflammation and protect against cartilage degradation. A high percentage of obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis are sedentary, suggesting that a lack of physical activity may increase the susceptibility to inflammation. A more comprehensive approach to understanding how obesity alters daily biomechanical exposures within joint tissues may provide new insight into the protective and damaging effects of biomechanical factors on inflammation in osteoarthritis.

  8. LUMBAR SPINAL STENOSIS. A REVIEW OF BIOMECHANICAL STUDIES

    戴力扬; 徐印坎

    1998-01-01

    ObjectS. To investigate the biomechanical aspects of etiology, pathology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and surgical treatment of the lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods. A series of biomechanical methods, such as three-dimensional finite element models, threedimensional kinematic measurement, cadeveric evaluation, and imaging assessment was applied to correlate lumbar biomechanics and lumber spinal stenosls. Surgery of lumber spinal stenosis has been improved. Results.The stresses significantly concentrate on the posterolateral part of the annulus fibrcsms of disc, the posterior surface of vertebral body, the pedlcle, the interarticularis and the beet joints. This trend is intensified by disc degeneration and lumber backward extension. Posterior elcxnent resection has a definite effect upon the biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebrae. The improved operations proved satisfactory. Conclusion. Stress concentration in the lumber vertebrae is of importance to the etiology of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosls, and disc degeneratkm is the initial key of this process. Than these will be aggravatnd by backward extension. Functloval radiography and myelography are of assistance to the diagnosis of the lumhar spinal stenosls. For the surgcal treatment of the lumber spinal stenosis, destruction of the posterior element should be avoid as far as possible based upon the thorough decmnpression. Maintaining the lumbar spine in flexion by fusion after decorapression has been proved a useftd method. When developmental spinal stenoals is combined with disc herniation, discectoray through laminotomy is recommend for decompression.

  9. Unified Approach to the Biomechanics of Dental Implantology

    Grenoble, D. E.; Knoell, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    The human need for safe and effective dental implants is well-recognized. Although many implant designs have been tested and are in use today, a large number have resulted in clinical failure. These failures appear to be due to biomechanical effects, as well as biocompatibility and surgical factors. A unified approach is proposed using multidisciplinary systems technology, for the study of the biomechanical interactions between dental implants and host tissues. The approach progresses from biomechanical modeling and analysis, supported by experimental investigations, through implant design development, clinical verification, and education of the dental practitioner. The result of the biomechanical modeling, analysis, and experimental phases would be the development of scientific design criteria for implants. Implant designs meeting these criteria would be generated, fabricated, and tested in animals. After design acceptance, these implants would be tested in humans, using efficient and safe surgical and restorative procedures. Finally, educational media and instructional courses would be developed for training dental practitioners in the use of the resulting implants.

  10. A highly versatile autonomous underwater vehicle with biomechanical propulsion

    Simons, D.G.; Bergers, M.M.C.; Henrion, S.; Hulzenga, J.I.J.; Jutte, R.W.; Pas, W.M.G.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Vercruyssen, T.G.A.; Wilken, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle with a biomechanical propulsion system is a possible answer to the demand for small, silent sensor platforms in many fields. The design of Galatea, a bio-mimetic AUV, involves four aspects: hydrodynamic shape, the propulsion, the motion control systems and payload. T

  11. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players.

    Eygendaal, D.; Rahussen, F.T.; Diercks, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis can will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a

  12. Failure modes and materials design for biomechanical layer structures

    Deng, Yan

    Ceramic materials are finding increasing usage in the area of biomechanical replacements---dental crowns, hip and bone implants, etc.---where strength, wear resistance, biocompatibility, chemical durability and even aesthetics are critical issues. Aesthetic ceramic crowns have been widely used in dentistry to replace damaged or missing teeth. However, the failure rates of ceramic crowns, especially all-ceramic crowns, can be 1%˜6% per year, which is not satisfactory to patients. The materials limitations and underlying fracture mechanisms of these prostheses are not well understood. In this thesis, fundamental fracture and damage mechanisms in model dental bilayer and trilayer structures are studied. Principle failure modes are identified from in situ experimentation and confirmed by fracture mechanics analysis. In bilayer structures of ceramic/polycarbonate (representative of ceramic crown/dentin structure), three major damage sources are identified: (i) top-surface cone cracks or (ii) quasiplasticity, dominating in thick ceramic bilayers; (iii) bottom-surface radial cracks, dominating in thin ceramic bilayers. Critical load P for each damage mode are measured in six dental ceramics: Y-TZP zirconia, glass-infiltrated zirconia and alumina (InCeram), glass-ceramic (Empress II), Porcelain (Mark II and Empress) bonded to polymer substrates, as a function of ceramic thickness d in the range of 100 mum to 10 mm. P is found independent of d for mode (i) and (ii), but has a d 2 relations for mode (iii)---bottom surface radial cracking. In trilayer structures of glass/core-ceramic/polycarbonate (representing veneer porcelain/core/dentin structures), three inner fracture origins are identified: radial cracks from the bottom surface in the (i) first and (ii) second layers; and (iii) quasiplasticity in core-ceramic layer. The role of relative veneer/core thickness, d1/d 2 and materials properties is investigated for three core materials with different modulus (114--270GPa

  13. Energetics, Biomechanics, and Performance in Masters' Swimmers: A Systematic Review.

    Ferreira, Maria I; Barbosa, Tiago M; Costa, Mário J; Neiva, Henrique P; Marinho, Daniel A

    2016-07-01

    Ferreira, MI, Barbosa, TM, Costa, MJ, Neiva, HP, and Marinho, DA. Energetics, biomechanics, and performance in masters' swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2069-2081, 2016-This study aimed to summarize evidence on masters' swimmers energetics, biomechanics, and performance gathered in selected studies. An expanded search was conducted on 6 databases, conference proceedings, and department files. Fifteen studies were selected for further analysis. A qualitative evaluation of the studies based on the Quality Index (QI) was performed by 2 independent reviewers. The studies were thereafter classified into 3 domains according to the reported data: performance (10 studies), energetics (4 studies), and biomechanics (6 studies). The selected 15 articles included in this review presented low QI scores (mean score, 10.47 points). The biomechanics domain obtained higher QI (11.5 points), followed by energetics and performance (10.6 and 9.9 points, respectively). Stroke frequency (SF) and stroke length (SL) were both influenced by aging, although SF is more affected than SL. Propelling efficiency (ηp) decreased with age. Swimming performance declined with age. The performance declines with age having male swimmers deliver better performances than female counterparts, although this difference tends to be narrow in long-distance events. One single longitudinal study is found in the literature reporting the changes in performance over time. The remaining studies are cross-sectional designs focusing on the energetics and biomechanics. Overall, biomechanics parameters, such as SF, SL, and ηp, tend to decrease with age. This review shows the lack of a solid body of knowledge (reflected in the amount and quality of the articles published) on the changes in biomechanics, energetics, and performance of master swimmers over time. The training programs for this age-group should aim to preserve the energetics as much as possible and, concurrently, improve the

  14. Computational biomechanics of bone's responses to dental prostheses - osseointegration, remodeling and resorption

    Clinical and experimental studies showed that human bone has the ability to remodel itself to better adapt to its biomechanical environment by changing both its material properties and geometry. As a consequence of the rapid development and extensive applications of major dental restorations such as implantation and fixed partial denture (FPD), the effect of bone remodeling on the success of a dental restorative surgery is becoming critical for prosthetic design and pre-surgical assessment. This paper aims to provide a computational biomechanics framework to address dental bone's responses as a result of dental restoration. It explored three important issues of resorption, apposition and osseointegration in terms of remodeling simulation. The published remodeling data in long bones were regulated to drive the computational remodeling prediction for the dental bones by correlating the results to clinical data. It is anticipated that the study will provide a more predictive model of dental bone response and help develop a new design methodology for patient-specific dental prosthetic restoration.

  15. Biomechanical testing of a polymer-based biomaterial for the restoration of spinal stability after nucleotomy

    Kaps Christian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery for disc herniations can be complicated by two major problems: painful degeneration of the spinal segment and re-herniation. Therefore, we examined an absorbable poly-glycolic acid (PGA biomaterial, which was lyophilized with hyaluronic acid (HA, for its utility to (a re-establish spinal stability and to (b seal annulus fibrosus defects. The biomechanical properties range of motion (ROM, neutral zone (NZ and a potential annulus sealing capacity were investigated. Methods Seven bovine, lumbar spinal units were tested in vitro for ROM and NZ in three consecutive stages: (a intact, (b following nucleotomy and (c after insertion of a PGA/HA nucleus-implant. For biomechanical testing, spinal units were mounted on a loading-simulator for spines. In three cycles, axial loading was applied in an excentric mode with 0.5 Nm steps until an applied moment of ± 7.5 Nm was achieved in flexion/extension. ROM and NZ were assessed. These tests were performed without and with annulus sealing by sewing a PGA/HA annulus-implant into the annulus defect. Results Spinal stability was significantly impaired after nucleotomy (p Conclusion PGA/HA biomaterial seems to be well suited for cell-free and cell-based regenerative treatment strategies in spinal surgery. Its abilities to restore spinal stability and potentially close annulus defects open up new vistas for regenerative approaches to treat intervertebral disc degeneration and for preventing implant herniation.

  16. A biomechanical comparison of four different fixation methods for midshaft clavicle fractures.

    Chen, Yang; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Weiguo; Ma, Jianxiong; Zhu, Shaowen; Ma, Baoyi; Xing, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Clavicle fractures may occur in all age groups, and 70%-80% of clavicle fractures occur in the midshaft. Many methods for treating midshaft clavicular fractures have been reported and remain controversial. To provide some guidance for clinical treatment, 30 artificial polymethyl methacrylate models of the clavicle were sewn obliquely at the midshaft to simulate the most common type of clavicular fractures, and the fracture models were divided into five groups randomly and were fixed as follows: the reconstruction plates were placed at the superior position of the fracture model (R-S group), the reconstruction plates were placed at the anteroinferior position of the fracture model (R-AI group), the locking plates were placed at the superior position (L-S group), the locking plates were placed at the anteroinferior position (L-AI group); and the control models were unfixed (control group). The strain gauges were attached to the bone surface near the fracture fragments, and then, the biomechanical properties of the specimens were measured using the compression test, torsion test and three-point bending test. The results showed that plate fixation can provide a stable construct to help with fracture healing and is the preferred method in the treatment of clavicle fractures. The locking plate provides the best biomechanical stability when placed at the anteroinferior position, and this surgical method can reduce the operation time and postoperative complications; thus, it would be a better choice in clinical practice. PMID:26586526

  17. Computational biomechanics of bone's responses to dental prostheses - osseointegration, remodeling and resorption

    Li, Wei; Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Field, Clarice; Lin, Daniel; Zhang, Leo; Li, Qing; Swain, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Clinical and experimental studies showed that human bone has the ability to remodel itself to better adapt to its biomechanical environment by changing both its material properties and geometry. As a consequence of the rapid development and extensive applications of major dental restorations such as implantation and fixed partial denture (FPD), the effect of bone remodeling on the success of a dental restorative surgery is becoming critical for prosthetic design and pre-surgical assessment. This paper aims to provide a computational biomechanics framework to address dental bone's responses as a result of dental restoration. It explored three important issues of resorption, apposition and osseointegration in terms of remodeling simulation. The published remodeling data in long bones were regulated to drive the computational remodeling prediction for the dental bones by correlating the results to clinical data. It is anticipated that the study will provide a more predictive model of dental bone response and help develop a new design methodology for patient-specific dental prosthetic restoration.

  18. Amelioration of biomechanical property of cortical bone in osteoporotic model rats with the kidney tonifying compound of traditional Chinese medicine%补肾中药复方改善骨质疏松模型大鼠皮质骨生物力学性能的实验

    朱太咏; 杜天信; 张国梁; 周亚; 杜志谦; 李根林; 刘又文

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The biomechanical property(BP) of the bone is decided by its geometric structure and component material. Merely pursuing increase of the bone mineral density(BMD) might lead to deterioration of bone BP.However at present, some researohes on therapeutic action on osteoporosis emphasize excessively medical influence to BMD, and the change in the holistic BP of the bone in osteoporotic zone and its mechanism still need to investigate deeply.OBJECTIVE: To probe into the action and its mechanism of "the kidney tonifying compound of the Traditional Chinese Medical (TCM) "on BP of cortical bone in ovariectomized osteoporotic model rats.DESIGN: Completely randomized controlled experiment based on experimental animals.SETTING: Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Luoyang Hospital and Institute of Traditional Chinese Orthopedics and Traumatology in Henan Province.MATERIALS: The experiment was completed from November 2000 to July 2001 at Research Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering,Luoyang Institute of Traditional Chinese Orthopedics and Traumatology of Henan Province. The healthy Wistar female rats aged 10 months,weighing(350±20) g.METHODS: Fifty Whistar female rats aged 10 months were randomly divided into 5 groups: the normal, model, premarin-treated, xianling gubao-treated and migu capsule-treated with 10 in each group. The normal group was only given sham operation and the other four groups were ovariectomized. The rats after operation were fed normally for ninety days.Since the 91st day after operation,the rats had been given the medicines for 90 days and then killed. The thighbones were taken out,then BMD,femoral geometry sizes and BP were determined.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The primary sequel was the comparison of the parameters of femoral BP. ② The secondary sequel was the changes in parameters of femoral geometric structure, area of cortical bone and BMD of every midsectional fomur.RESULTS: Femoral BP worsened significantly,its mechanical

  19. The Abnormal Choroidal Vessels in Aged Patients

    Shizhou Huang; Feng Wen; Dezheng Wu; Guangwei Luo; Caijiao Liu

    2002-01-01

    Background: To show the abnormal choroidal vessels in aged patients with indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA).Methods: ICGA was performed in 350 patients with TOPCON TRC-50IA fundus camera.The images were recorded and retrospectively reviewed.Results: Five aged patients out of 350 cases were found to have abnormal choroidalvessels. The incidence was 1.43%. The abnormal choroidal vessels showed round- shapet,focal enlargement, abnormal shape and entrance, satellite appearance, and vascularloops. These might be due to congenital abnormality of choroid.Conclusion: ICGA could be used to observe the abnormal choroidal vessels.

  20. Non-invasive MRI Assessments of Tissue Microstructures and Macromolecules in the Eye upon Biomechanical or Biochemical Modulation

    Ho, Leon C.; Sigal, Ian A.; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Yang, Xiaoling; van der Merwe, Yolandi; Yu, Yu; Chau, Ying; Leung, Christopher K.; Conner, Ian P.; Jin, Tao; Wu, Ed X.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.; Chan, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural organization and composition of the corneoscleral shell (CSS) determine the biomechanical behavior of the eye, and are important in diseases such as glaucoma and myopia. However, limited techniques can assess these properties globally, non-invasively and quantitatively. In this study, we hypothesized that multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the effects of biomechanical or biochemical modulation on CSS. Upon intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, CSS appeared hyperintense in both freshly prepared ovine eyes and living rat eyes using T2-weighted MRI. Quantitatively, transverse relaxation time (T2) of CSS increased non-linearly with IOP at 0–40 mmHg and remained longer than unloaded tissues after being unpressurized. IOP loading also increased fractional anisotropy of CSS in diffusion tensor MRI without apparent change in magnetization transfer MRI, suggestive of straightening of microstructural fibers without modification of macromolecular contents. Lastly, treatments with increasing glyceraldehyde (mimicking crosslinking conditions) and chondroitinase-ABC concentrations (mimicking glycosaminoglycan depletion) decreased diffusivities and increased magnetization transfer in cornea, whereas glyceraldehyde also increased magnetization transfer in sclera. In summary, we demonstrated the changing profiles of MRI contrast mechanisms resulting from biomechanical or biochemical modulation of the eye non-invasively. Multi-modal MRI may help evaluate the pathophysiological mechanisms in CSS and the efficacy of corneoscleral treatments. PMID:27561353

  1. Non-invasive MRI Assessments of Tissue Microstructures and Macromolecules in the Eye upon Biomechanical or Biochemical Modulation.

    Ho, Leon C; Sigal, Ian A; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Yang, Xiaoling; van der Merwe, Yolandi; Yu, Yu; Chau, Ying; Leung, Christopher K; Conner, Ian P; Jin, Tao; Wu, Ed X; Kim, Seong-Gi; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Chan, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural organization and composition of the corneoscleral shell (CSS) determine the biomechanical behavior of the eye, and are important in diseases such as glaucoma and myopia. However, limited techniques can assess these properties globally, non-invasively and quantitatively. In this study, we hypothesized that multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the effects of biomechanical or biochemical modulation on CSS. Upon intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, CSS appeared hyperintense in both freshly prepared ovine eyes and living rat eyes using T2-weighted MRI. Quantitatively, transverse relaxation time (T2) of CSS increased non-linearly with IOP at 0-40 mmHg and remained longer than unloaded tissues after being unpressurized. IOP loading also increased fractional anisotropy of CSS in diffusion tensor MRI without apparent change in magnetization transfer MRI, suggestive of straightening of microstructural fibers without modification of macromolecular contents. Lastly, treatments with increasing glyceraldehyde (mimicking crosslinking conditions) and chondroitinase-ABC concentrations (mimicking glycosaminoglycan depletion) decreased diffusivities and increased magnetization transfer in cornea, whereas glyceraldehyde also increased magnetization transfer in sclera. In summary, we demonstrated the changing profiles of MRI contrast mechanisms resulting from biomechanical or biochemical modulation of the eye non-invasively. Multi-modal MRI may help evaluate the pathophysiological mechanisms in CSS and the efficacy of corneoscleral treatments. PMID:27561353

  2. Biomechanical effect of vertebroplasty on the adjacent intervertebral levels using a three-dimensional finite element analysis

    LU Sheng; XU Yong-qing; ZHANG Mei-chao; TANG Xun; WANG Yue-li; ZHONG Shi-zheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biomechanical effect of different volume,distribution and leakage to adjacent disc of bone cement on the adjacent vertebral body by three-dimensional osteoporosis finite element model of lumbar.Methods: L4-L5 motion segment data of the cadaver of an old man who had no abnormal findings on roentgenograms were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans. Three-dimensional model of L4-L5 was established with Mimics software, and finite element model of L4-L5 functional spinal unit (FSU) was established by Ansys 7.0 software. The effect of different loading conditions and distribution of bone cement after vertebroplasty on the adjacent vertebral body was investigated.Results: This study presented a validated finite element model of L4-L5 FSU with a simulated vertebroplasty augmentation to predict stresses and strains of adjacent untreated vertebral bodies. The findings from this FSU study suggested the endplate and disc stress of the adjacent vertebral body was not influenced by filling volume of bone cement but unipedicle injection and leakage to the disc of bone cement could concentrate the stress of adjacent endplate.Conclusions: Asymmetric distributions and leakage of cement into intervertebral disc can improve the stress of endplate in adjacent vertebral body. These results suggest that optimal biomechanical configuration should have symmetric placement and avoid leakage of cement in operation.

  3. Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome.

    Barak, Boaz; Feng, Guoping

    2016-04-26

    Social behavior is a basic behavior mediated by multiple brain regions and neural circuits, and is crucial for the survival and development of animals and humans. Two neuropsychiatric disorders that have prominent social behavior abnormalities are autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is characterized mainly by hyposociability, and Williams syndrome (WS), whose subjects exhibit hypersociability. Here we review the unique properties of social behavior in ASD and WS, and discuss the major theories in social behavior in the context of these disorders. We conclude with a discussion of the research questions needing further exploration to enhance our understanding of social behavior abnormalities. PMID:27116389

  4. Fatigue behavior of Ilizarov frame versus tibial interlocking nail in a comminuted tibial fracture model: a biomechanical study

    Stahel Philip F

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment options for comminuted tibial shaft fractures include plating, intramedullary nailing, and external fixation. No biomechanical comparison between an interlocking tibia nail with external fixation by an Ilizarov frame has been reported to date. In the present study, we compared the fatigue behaviour of Ilizarov frames to interlocking intramedullary nails in a comminuted tibial fracture model under a combined loading of axial compression, bending and torsion. Our goal was to determine the biomechanical characteristics, stability and durability for each device over a clinically relevant three month testing period. The study hypothesis was that differences in the mechanical properties may account for differing clinical results and provide information applicable to clinical decision making for comminuted tibia shaft fractures. Methods In this biomechanical study, 12 composite tibial bone models with a comminuted fracture and a 25 mm diaphyseal gap were investigated. Of these, six models were stabilized with a 180-mm four-ring Ilizarov frame, and six models were minimally reamed and stabilized with a 10 mm statically locked Russell-Taylor Delta™ tibial nail. After measuring the pre-fatigue axial compression bending and torsion stiffness, each model was loaded under a sinusoidal cyclic combined loading of axial compression (2.8/28 lbf; 12.46/124.6 N and torque (1.7/17 lbf-in; 0.19/1.92 Nm at a frequency of 3 Hz. The test was performed until failure (implant breakage or ≥ 5° angulations and/or 2 cm shortening occurred or until 252,000 cycles were completed, which corresponds to approximately three months testing period. Results In all 12 models, both the Ilizarov frame and the interlocking tibia nail were able to maintain fracture stability of the tibial defect and to complete the full 252,000 cycles during the entire study period of three months. A significantly higher stiffness to axial compression and torsion was

  5. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  6. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  7. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SPERM DISORDERS

    L. Y. Pylyp; L. A. Spinenko; V. D. Zukin; N. M. Bilko

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intrac...

  8. Inverse problems biomechanical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Oberai, Assad A.

    2016-03-01

    It is now well recognized that a host of imaging modalities (a list that includes Ultrasound, MRI, Optical Coherence Tomography, and optical microscopy) can be used to "watch" tissue as it deforms in response to an internal or external excitation. The result is a detailed map of the deformation field in the interior of the tissue. This deformation field can be used in conjunction with a material mechanical response to determine the spatial distribution of material properties of the tissue by solving an inverse problem. Images of material properties thus obtained can be used to quantify the health of the tissue. Recently, they have been used to detect, diagnose and monitor cancerous lesions, detect vulnerable plaque in arteries, diagnose liver cirrhosis, and possibly detect the onset of Alzheimer's disease. In this talk I will describe the mathematical and computational aspects of solving this class of inverse problems, and their applications in biology and medicine. In particular, I will discuss the well-posedness of these problems and quantify the amount of displacement data necessary to obtain a unique property distribution. I will describe an efficient algorithm for solving the resulting inverse problem. I will also describe some recent developments based on Bayesian inference in estimating the variance in the estimates of material properties. I will conclude with the applications of these techniques in diagnosing breast cancer and in characterizing the mechanical properties of cells with sub-cellular resolution.

  9. The use of fiber Bragg grating sensors in biomechanics and rehabilitation applications: the state-of-the-art and ongoing research topics.

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are becoming increasingly attractive for sensing applications in biomechanics and rehabilitation engineering due to their advantageous properties like small size, light weight, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, multiplexing capability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). They also offer a high-performance alternative to conventional technologies, either for measuring a variety of physical parameters or for performing high-sensitivity biochemical analysis. FBG-based sensors demonstrated their feasibility for specific sensing applications in aeronautic, automotive, civil engineering structure monitoring and undersea oil exploration; however, their use in the field of biomechanics and rehabilitation applications is very recent and its practicality for full-scale implementation has not yet been fully established. They could be used for detecting strain in bones, pressure mapping in orthopaedic joints, stresses in intervertebral discs, chest wall deformation, pressure distribution in Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs), forces induced by tendons and ligaments, angles between body segments during gait, and many others in dental biomechanics. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of all the possible applications of FBG sensing technology in biomechanics and rehabilitation and the status of ongoing researches up-to-date all over the world, demonstrating the FBG advances over other existing technologies. PMID:23201977

  10. The Use of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Biomechanics and Rehabilitation Applications: The State-of-the-Art and Ongoing Research Topics

    Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs are becoming increasingly attractive for sensing applications in biomechanics and rehabilitation engineering due to their advantageous properties like small size, light weight, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, multiplexing capability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI. They also offer a high-performance alternative to conventional technologies, either for measuring a variety of physical parameters or for performing high-sensitivity biochemical analysis. FBG-based sensors demonstrated their feasibility for specific sensing applications in aeronautic, automotive, civil engineering structure monitoring and undersea oil exploration; however, their use in the field of biomechanics and rehabilitation applications is very recent and its practicality for full-scale implementation has not yet been fully established. They could be used for detecting strain in bones, pressure mapping in orthopaedic joints, stresses in intervertebral discs, chest wall deformation, pressure distribution in Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs, forces induced by tendons and ligaments, angles between body segments during gait, and many others in dental biomechanics. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of all the possible applications of FBG sensing technology in biomechanics and rehabilitation and the status of ongoing researches up-to-date all over the world, demonstrating the FBG advances over other existing technologies.

  11. Ventilation abnormalities in pulmonary embolus

    The ventilation scans of 11 patients with angiographically-proven PE were reviewed. All patients had one or more lung perfusion defects. The chest roentgenograph was abnormal in 11 of the patients. The ventilation studies were performed in the posterior positron prior to the perfusion lung scan using Xe-133. The ventilation study consists of washin, equilibrium, and washout images. In four patients with normal washin there was retention of the Xe-133 (delayed washout) at the site of the perfusion defect. All had roentgenographic abnormalities. Another pattern was observed at the sites of some perfusion defects in six patients. In these, there was decreased washin at the perfusion defect location. Two patients had both decreased washin and delayed washout. In only one case was the typical ventilation pattern of normal washin and normal washout. The method of retention is unclear, but may be due to decreased clearance of Xe-133 secondary to decreased blood flow in the area or deposition of some fat soluble component left at the site of embolization. The etiology of the reduced washin is unclear, but may be due to reduced surfactant production. This study suggests that more attention must be paid to the ventilation study, where there may be additional clues to the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

  12. Biomechanical investigation of colorectal cancer cells

    Palmieri, Valentina; Lucchetti, Donatella; Maiorana, Alessandro; Papi, Massimiliano; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Ciasca, Gabriele; Svelto, Maria; De Spirito, Marco; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    The nanomechanical properties of SW480 colon cancer cells were investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy. SW480 cells are composed of two sub-populations with different shape and invasiveness. These two cells populations showed similar adhesion properties while appeared significantly different in term of cells stiffness. Since cell stiffness is related to invasiveness and growth, we suggest elasticity as a useful parameter to distinguish invasive cells inside the colorectal tumor bulk and the high-resolution mechanical mapping as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of malignant cells.

  13. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality...... measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature is...

  14. Functional microimaging: an integrated approach for advanced bone biomechanics and failure analysis

    Voide, Romain; van Lenthe, G. H.; Schneider, Philipp; Thurner, Philipp J.; Wyss, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs; Stampanoni, Marco; Stauber, Martin; Snedeker, Jess G.; Müller, Ralph

    2006-03-01

    Biomechanical testing is the gold standard to determine bone competence, and has been used extensively. Direct mechanical testing provides detailed information on overall bone mechanical and material properties, but fails in revealing local properties such as local deformations and strains or quantification of fracture progression. Therefore, we incorporated several imaging methods in our mechanical setups in order to get a better insight into bone deformation and failure characteristics. Our aim was to develop an integrative approach for hierarchical investigation of bone, working at different scales of resolution ranging from the whole bone to its ultrastructure. At a macroscopic level, we used high-resolution and high-speed cameras which drastically increased the amount of information obtained from a biomechanical bone test. The new image data proved especially important when dealing with very small bones such as the murine femur. Here the feedback of the camera in the process of aligning and positioning the samples is indispensable for reproducibility. In addition, global failure behavior and fracture initiation can now be visualized with high temporal resolution. At a microscopic level, bone microstructure, i.e. trabecular architecture and cortical porosity, are known to influence bone strength and failure mechanisms significantly. For this reason, we developed an image-guided failure assessment technique, also referred to as functional microimaging, allowing direct time-lapsed 3D visualization and computation of local displacements and strains for better quantification of fracture initiation and progression at the microscopic level. While the resolution of typical desktop micro-computed tomography is around a few micrometers, highly brilliant X-rays from synchrotron radiation permit to explore the nanometer world. This allowed, for the first time, to uncover fully nondestructively the 3D ultrastructure of bone including vascular and cellular structures and to

  15. 3D printed guides for controlled alignment in biomechanics tests.

    Verstraete, Matthias A; Willemot, Laurent; Van Onsem, Stefaan; Stevens, Cyriëlle; Arnout, Nele; Victor, Jan

    2016-02-01

    The bone-machine interface is a vital first step for biomechanical testing. It remains challenging to restore the original alignment of the specimen with respect to the test setup. To overcome this issue, we developed a methodology based on virtual planning and 3D printing. In this paper, the methodology is outlined and a proof of concept is presented based on a series of cadaveric tests performed on our knee simulator. The tests described in this paper reached an accuracy within 3-4° and 3-4mm with respect to the virtual planning. It is however the authors' belief that the method has the potential to achieve an accuracy within one degree and one millimeter. Therefore, this approach can aid in reducing the imprecisions in biomechanical tests (e.g. knee simulator tests for evaluating knee kinematics) and improve the consistency of the bone-machine interface. PMID:26810696

  16. Valgus torque in youth baseball pitchers: A biomechanical study.

    Sabick, Michelle B; Torry, Michael R; Lawton, Richard L; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical and anthropometric factors contributing to elbow valgus torque during pitching. Video data of 14 youth pitchers throwing fastballs were used to calculate shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics. Peak elbow valgus torque averaged 18 Nm and occurred just before maximal shoulder external rotation. The magnitude of valgus torque was most closely correlated with the thrower's weight. When subject weight and height were controlled for, maximum shoulder abduction torque and maximum shoulder internal rotation torque were most strongly associated with elbow valgus torque, accounting for 85% of its variance (P <.001). When only kinematic variables were considered, maximum shoulder external rotation accounted for 33% of the variance in valgus torque. Given that the biomechanical variables correlated with peak valgus torque are not easily modifiable, limiting the number of innings pitched is likely the best way to reduce elbow injury in youth pitchers. PMID:15111908

  17. Biomechanical Evaluation of 6.5-mm Cannulated Screws.

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Litsky, Alan S; Pugh, Kevin J; Fowler, T Ty

    2016-01-01

    Although biomechanical and clinical evidence exists regarding smaller compression screws, biomechanical data regarding the larger headless screws are not currently available. Headed and headless 6.5-mm cannulated compression screws were examined, with analysis of interfragmentary compression, insertion torque, and resistance of the construct to a shear force. No significant differences were seen between the maximum insertion torque of the headless or headed screws. Maximum and steady-state compression forces were also not significantly different between groups. Countersinking the headless model 2 mm led to a 77.01% decrease in steady-state compression levels. Shear testing did not reveal any significant differences in peak load at ultimate failure, specimen stiffness, or final block displacement, although a trend to increased peak load and stiffness was seen with the headless specimens. PMID:27082882

  18. Smart Materials in Structural Health Monitoring, Control and Biomechanics

    Soh, Chee-Kiong; Bhalla, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    "Smart Materials in Structural Health Monitoring, Control and Biomechanics" presents the latest developments in structural health monitoring, vibration control and biomechanics using smart materials. The book mainly focuses on piezoelectric, fibre optic and ionic polymer metal composite materials. It introduces concepts from the very basics and leads to advanced modelling (analytical/ numerical), practical aspects (including software/ hardware issues) and case studies spanning civil, mechanical and aerospace structures, including bridges, rocks and underground structures. This book is intended for practicing engineers, researchers from academic and R&D institutions and postgraduate students in the fields of smart materials and structures, structural health monitoring, vibration control and biomedical engineering. Professor Chee-Kiong Soh and Associate Professor Yaowen Yang both work at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Dr. Suresh Bhalla is an A...

  19. Biomechanical bases of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy

    Davlet'yarova, K. V.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kapilevich, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis and the study results of children's with cerebral palsy (CP) muscles bioelectrical activity while walking on a flat surface are represented. Increased flexion in the hip and shoulder joints and extension in the elbow joint in children with cerebral palsy were observed, with the movement of the lower limbs had less smooth character in comparison with the control group. Herewith, the oscillation amplitude was significantly increased, and the frequency in the m. gastrocnemius and m. lateralis was decreased. It was shown, that the dynamic stereotype of walking in children with cerebral palsy was characterized by excessive involvement of m. gastrocnemius and m.latissimus dorsi in locomotion. Thus, resulting biomechanical and bioelectrical parameters of walking should be considered in the rehabilitation programs development.

  20. [Advances on biomechanics and kinematics of sprain of ankle joint].

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Ankle sprains are orthopedic clinical common disease, accounting for joint ligament sprain of the first place. If treatment is not timely or appropriate, the joint pain and instability maybe develop, and even bone arthritis maybe develop. The mechanism of injury of ankle joint, anatomical basis has been fully study at present, and the diagnostic problem is very clear. Along with the development of science and technology, biological modeling and three-dimensional finite element, three-dimensional motion capture system,digital technology study, electromyographic signal study were used for the basic research of sprain of ankle. Biomechanical and kinematic study of ankle sprain has received adequate attention, combined with the mechanism research of ankle sprain,and to explore the the biomechanics and kinematics research progress of the sprain of ankle joint. PMID:26072625

  1. Hand Posture Prediction using Neural Networks within a Biomechanical Model

    Marta C. Mora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the framework of a biomechanical hand model for grasping. ANNs enhance the model capabilities as they substitute estimated data for the experimental inputs required by the grasping algorithm used. These inputs are the tentative grasping posture and the most open posture during grasping. As a consequence, more realistic grasping postures are predicted by the grasping algorithm, along with the contact information required by\tthe dynamic biomechanical model (contact points and normals. Several neural network architectures are tested and compared in terms of prediction errors, leading to encouraging results. The performance of the overall proposal is also shown through simulation, where a grasping experiment is replicated and compared to the real grasping data collected by a data glove device.

  2. Musculoskeletal demands on flamenco dancers: a clinical and biomechanical study.

    Bejjani, F J; Halpern, N; Pio, A; Dominguez, R; Voloshin, A; Frankel, V H

    1988-04-01

    The flamenco dancer acts on the floor like a drummer. The percussive footwork and vibration patterns created during dancing impose unusual demands on the musculoskeletal system. This study investigated the clinical and biomechanical aspects of this task. Using the electrodynogram and skin-mounted accelerometers, foot pressures as well as hip and knee vibrations were recorded in 10 female dancers after a thorough clinical evaluation. A health questionnaire was also distributed to 29 dancers. Foot pressures and acceleration data reveal the percussive nature of the dance. Some clinical findings, like calluses, are related to pressure distribution. Urogenital disorders, as well as back and neck pain, may be related to the vibrations generated by the flamenco dance form. The hip joint seems to absorb most of the impacts. "Vibration-pressure" diagrams are suggested as a useful tool for evaluating a dancer's biomechanical behavior, as well as the effect of floors and footwear on this behavior. PMID:3366430

  3. The biomechanics of kicking in soccer: a review.

    Lees, A; Asai, T; Andersen, T B; Nunome, H; Sterzing, T

    2010-06-01

    Kicking is the defining action of soccer, so it is appropriate to review the scientific work that provides a basis of our understanding of this skill. The focus of this review is biomechanical in nature and builds on and extends previous reviews and overviews. While much is known about the biomechanics of the kicking leg, there are several other aspects of the kick that have been the subject of recent exploration. Researchers have widened their interest to consider the kick beginning from the way a player approaches the ball to the end of ball flight, the point that determines the success of the kick. This interest has encapsulated characteristics of overall technique and the influences of the upper body, support leg and pelvis on the kicking action, foot-ball impact and the influences of footwear and soccer balls, ball launch characteristics and corresponding flight of the ball. This review evaluates these and attempts to provide direction for future research. PMID:20509089

  4. Meshless methods in biomechanics bone tissue remodelling analysis

    Belinha, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the complete formulation of a new advanced discretization meshless technique: the Natural Neighbour Radial Point Interpolation Method (NNRPIM). In addition, two of the most popular meshless methods, the EFGM and the RPIM, are fully presented. Being a truly meshless method, the major advantages of the NNRPIM over the FEM, and other meshless methods, are the remeshing flexibility and the higher accuracy of the obtained variable field. Using the natural neighbour concept, the NNRPIM permits to determine organically the influence-domain, resembling the cellulae natural behaviour. This innovation permits the analysis of convex boundaries and extremely irregular meshes, which is an advantage in the biomechanical analysis, with no extra computational effort associated.   This volume shows how to extend the NNRPIM to the bone tissue remodelling analysis, expecting to contribute with new numerical tools and strategies in order to permit a more efficient numerical biomechanical analysis.

  5. Characterization of Human Rib Biomechanical Responses due to Three-Point Bending.

    Kalra, Anil; Saif, Tal; Shen, Ming; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Feng; Begeman, Paul; Yang, King H; Millis, Scott

    2015-11-01

    In the elderly population, rib fracture is one of the most common injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes. The current study was conducted to predict the biomechanical fracture responses of ribs with respect to age, gender, height, weight and percentage of ash content. Three-point bending experiments were conducted on 278 isolated rib samples extracted from 82 cadaver specimens (53 males and 29 females between the ages of 21 and 87 years) for 6th and 7th levels of ribs. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify differences based on age and gender. It was found that, in comparison to males, females had significantly lower values for maximum bending moments, slopes of bending moment-angle curves, and average cortical-bone thickness (pcrash conditions. Hence, rib-material properties, which are dependent on strain rate, and are needed for wholebody finite element models representing different populations, still require more research. PMID:26660742

  6. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  7. A 3D dynamical biomechanical tongue model to study speech motor control

    Gérard, J M; Perrier, P; Payan, Y; Gerard, Jean-Michel; Wilhelms-Tricarico, Reiner; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2003-01-01

    A 3D biomechanical dynamical model of human tongue is presented, that is elaborated in the aim to test hypotheses about speech motor control. Tissue elastic properties are accounted for in Finite Element Modeling (FEM). The FEM mesh was designed in order to facilitate the implementation of muscle arrangement within the tongue. Therefore, its structure was determined on the basis of accurate anatomical data about the tongue. Mechanically, the hypothesis of hyperelasticity was adopted with the Mooney-Rivlin formulation of the strain energy function. Muscles are modeled as general force generators that act on anatomically specified sets of nodes of the FEM structure. The 8 muscles that are known to be largely involved in the production of basic speech movements are modeled. The model and the solving of the Lagrangian equations of movement are implemented using the ANSYSTM software. Simulations of the influence of muscle activations onto the tongue shape are presented and analyzed.

  8. Peripheral nerve: from the microscopic functional unit of the axon to the biomechanically loaded macroscopic structure.

    Topp, Kimberly S; Boyd, Benjamin S

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerves are composed of motor and sensory axons, associated ensheathing Schwann cells, and organized layers of connective tissues that are in continuity with the tissues of the central nervous system. Nerve fiber anatomy facilitates conduction of electrical impulses to convey information over a distance, and the length of these polarized cells necessitates regulated axonal transport of organelles and structural proteins for normal cell function. Nerve connective tissues serve a protective function as the limb is subjected to the stresses of myriad limb positions and postures. Thus, the tissues are uniquely arranged to control the local nerve fiber environment and modulate physical stresses. In this brief review, we describe the microscopic anatomy and physiology of peripheral nerve and the biomechanical properties that enable nerve to withstand the physical stresses of everyday life. PMID:22133662

  9. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  10. Biomechanical properties of a novel pourable cement pedicle screw and its application to osteoporotic lumbar degeneration%新型可灌注骨水泥椎弓根螺钉的生物力学性能及在骨质疏松性腰椎退变中的应用

    刘扬; 刘丹; 肖运祥; 陈海丹; 赵红卫

    2016-01-01

    背景:老年性骨质疏松患者由于机体骨质的脆弱,容易造成椎弓根螺钉固定能力得到进一步削弱。因此骨质疏松性腰椎退变患者采用椎弓根螺钉修复时骨水泥渗漏以及螺钉取出量等问题难以解决。目的:探讨新型可灌注骨水泥椎弓根螺钉的生物力学性能及在骨质疏松性腰椎退变患者中的应用效果。方法:选取完整浸润腰椎标本(T11-L5)6具,平均年龄(72.9±4.2)岁,共42个椎体,平均骨密度为0.696 g/cm2。所有椎体任意选取一侧椎弓根置入可灌注骨水泥椎弓根螺钉,采用水泥推杆和灌注筒在X射线透视下灌注2 mL骨水泥;在椎体标本对侧置入相同数目常规螺钉。对2种螺钉进行三点弯曲实验,对选取椎体进行最大轴向拔出力实验及最大旋出力矩实验,观察椎体的破坏情况及螺钉置入效果。结果与结论:①新型可灌注骨水泥椎弓根螺钉极限强度、屈服载荷均显著大于常规螺钉(P<0.05);极限位移和屈服位移均显著小于常规螺钉(P<0.05);②新型可灌注骨水泥椎弓根螺钉的轴向拔出力及最大旋出力矩均显著高于常规螺钉(P<0.05);③综上所述,新型可灌注骨水泥椎弓根螺钉操作简单,能够有效的控制骨水泥渗透,提高螺钉在骨质疏松椎体内的稳定性,且治疗后螺钉取出相对方便,不会对椎体和钉道产生明显的破坏,促进机体早期恢复。%BACKGROUND:Fragile bone in senile osteoporosis patients easily weakened pedicle screw fixation capacity. Therefore, bone cement leakage and screw removal cannot be solved during pedicle screw repair in osteoporotic patients with degenerative lumbar spine. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the biomechanical properties of novel pourable pedicle screws and bone cement application effect in osteoporotic patients with degenerative lumbar spine. METHODS:Six lumbar specimens (T11-L5) at the mean age of (72.9±4.2) years

  11. Derivation, simulation and validation of poroelastic models in dental biomechanics

    Favino, Marco; Krause, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Poroelasticity and mechanics of growth are playing an increasingly relevant role in biomechanics. This work is a self- contained and holistic presentation of the modeling and simulation of non-linear poroelasticity with and without growth inhomogeneities. Balance laws of poroelasticity are derived in Cartesian coordinates. These allow to write the governing equations in a form that is general but also readily implementable. Closure relations are formally derived from the study of dissipati...

  12. Biomechanical simulation of thorax deformation using finite element approach

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Chen, Xian; Ohgi, Junji; Miura, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Akira; Matsumura, Chikanori; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background The biomechanical simulation of the human respiratory system is expected to be a useful tool for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases. Because the deformation of the thorax significantly influences airflow in the lungs, we focused on simulating the thorax deformation by introducing contraction of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, which are the main muscles responsible for the thorax deformation during breathing. Methods We constructed a finite element model of t...

  13. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Dean K. Stolworthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (LBP is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the camelid (specifically, alpaca and llama cervical spine as a model of the human lumbar spine. Cervical spines were obtained from four alpacas and four llamas and individual segments were used for segmental flexibility/biomechanics and/or morphology/anatomy studies. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared for the alpaca and llama cervical spines, and human lumbar specimens in addition to other published large animal data. Results indicate that a camelid cervical intervertebral disc (IVD closely approximates the human lumbar disc with regard to size, spinal posture, and biomechanical flexibility. Specifically, compared with the human lumbar disc, the alpaca and llama cervical disc size are approximately 62%, 83%, and 75% with regard to area, depth, and width, respectively, and the disc flexibility is approximately 133%, 173%, and 254%, with regard to range of motion (ROM in axial-rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral-bending, respectively. These results, combined with the clinical report of disc degeneration in the llama lower cervical spine, suggest that the camelid cervical spine is potentially well suited for use as an animal model in biomechanical studies of the human lumbar spine.

  14. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Dean K. Stolworthy; R. Amy Fullwood; Tyler M. Merrell; Bridgewater, Laura C.; Anton E. Bowden

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose o...

  15. Application of optimal control to a biomechanics model

    Krasovskii, A.

    2015-01-01

    A model of sport biomechanics describing short-distance running (sprinting) is developed by applying methods of optimal control. In the considered model, the motion of a sportsman is described by a second-order ordinary differential equation. Two interconnected optimal control problems are formulated and solved: the minimum energy and time-optimal control problems. Based on the comparison with real data, it is shown that the proposed approach to sprint modeling provides realistic results.

  16. Biomechanical considerations on tooth-implant supported fixed partial dentures

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X.; Calvani, Pasquale; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the connection of teeth to implants, in order to restore partial edentulism. The main problem arising from this connection is tooth intrusion, which can occur in up to 7.3% of the cases. The justification of this complication is being attempted through the perspective of biomechanics of the involved anatomical structures, that is, the periodontal ligament and the bone, as well as that of the teeth- and implant-supported fixed partial dentures.

  17. Multiscale computer modeling in biomechanics and biomedical engineering

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews the state-of-the-art in multiscale computer modeling, in terms of both accomplishments and challenges. The information in the book is particularly useful for biomedical engineers, medical physicists and researchers in systems biology, mathematical biology, micro-biomechanics and biomaterials who are interested in how to bridge between traditional biomedical engineering work at the organ and tissue scales, and the newer arenas of cellular and molecular bioengineering.

  18. Corneal Structure and Biomechanics in Collagen Vascular Diseases

    Colaço, Maria Luisa; Franco, Mónica; Pinto, Rita; Maia Sêco, José

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate corneal biomechanics and structure in asymptomatic individuals with Collagen Vascular Diseases (CVD), and compare with an age- -matched control group. Methods: In this prospective study 23 patients with the diagnosis of CVD (46 eyes) and 17 healthy age and gender-matched controls (34 eyes) underwent Ocular Response Analyzer and Specular Microscopy measurements. CH and CRF were recorded for each eye using the ORA, pachymetry and endothelial ce...

  19. Biomechanical models to simulate consequences of maxillofacial surgery

    Payan, Yohan; Chabanas, Matthieu; Pelorson, Xavier; Vilain, Coriandre; Levy, Patrick; Luboz, Vincent; Perrier, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the biomechanical finite element models that have been developed in the framework of the computer-assisted maxillofacial surgery. After a brief overview of the continuous elastic modelling method, two models are introduced and their use for computer-assisted applications discussed. The first model deals with orthognathic surgery and aims at predicting the facial consequences of maxillary and mandibular osteotomies. For this, a generic three-dimensional model of the face is...

  20. On seed physiology, biomechanics and plant phenology in Eragrostis tef

    Delden, van, J.

    2011-01-01

    • Key words: Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter), germination, temperature, model, leaf appearance, phyllochron, development rate, lodging, biomechanics, safety factor, flowering, heading, day length, photoperiod. • Background Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter) is a C4 annual grass species (Poaceae) originating from Ethiopia. Teff cultivation in the Netherlands is thought to be economically feasible because teff grains and flour do not contain gluten and are rich in iron....

  1. Absorbable scaphoid screw development: a comparative study on biomechanics

    Xu, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    Yi Wang, Muguo Song, Yongqing Xu, Xiaoqing He, YueLiang Zhu Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kunming General Hospital, Chengdu Military Command, People’s Liberation Army, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Background: The scaphoid is critical for maintaining the stability and movement of the wrist joints. This study aimed to develop a new internal fixator absorbable scaphoid screw (ASS) for fixation of the scaphoid waist after fracture and to test the biomechan...

  2. Absorbable scaphoid screw development: a comparative study on biomechanics

    Wang Y; Song MG; Xu YQ; He XQ; Zhu YL

    2016-01-01

    Yi Wang, Muguo Song, Yongqing Xu, Xiaoqing He, YueLiang Zhu Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kunming General Hospital, Chengdu Military Command, People’s Liberation Army, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Background: The scaphoid is critical for maintaining the stability and movement of the wrist joints. This study aimed to develop a new internal fixator absorbable scaphoid screw (ASS) for fixation of the scaphoid waist after fracture and to test the biomechanical cha...

  3. Absorbable scaphoid screw development: a comparative study on biomechanics

    Wang, Yi; Song, Muguo; Xu, Yongqing; He, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Yueliang

    2016-01-01

    Background The scaphoid is critical for maintaining the stability and movement of the wrist joints. This study aimed to develop a new internal fixator absorbable scaphoid screw (ASS) for fixation of the scaphoid waist after fracture and to test the biomechanical characteristics of ASS. Materials and methods An ASS was prepared using polylactic acids and designed based on scaphoid measurements and anatomic features. Twenty fractured scaphoid waist specimens were randomly divided into experimen...

  4. Biomechanical Evaluation of Capsulotomy and Capsular Repair in the Hip

    Wuerz, Thomas H.; Song, Sang Hoon; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S.; Greenberg, Mitchell; Espinoza, Alejandro; Nho, Shane Jay

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The use of hip arthroscopy has increased over recent years to treat various forms of hip pathologies including femoroacetabular impingement. While a capsulotomy facilitates adequate visualization and access for diagnostic and interventional purposes, the current literature remains divided over the use of routine capsular closure to address the iatrogenic instability that may be induced by an excessive or unclosed capsulotomy. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to determin...

  5. Biomechanical evaluation of fixation degree of fragments by periosteal osteosynthesis

    Barabash Yu.A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of indications for surgery and plate osteosynthesis of long bones points to increased number of complications caused by instability of fragments, that can be associated in their turn with constructive features or iatrogenic factors. Insufficient rigidity of fragment fixation is due to incorrect technical treatment and wrong choice of fixator. Biomechanical parameters of periosteal fixation rigidity have been experimentally proved, depending on fixator lever

  6. Biomechanics of DNA structures visualized by 4D electron microscopy

    Lorenz, Ulrich J.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for in situ visualization of the biomechanics of DNA structural networks using 4D electron microscopy. Vibrational oscillations of the DNA structure are excited mechanically through a short burst of substrate vibrations triggered by a laser pulse. Subsequently, the motion is probed with electron pulses to observe the impulse response of the specimen in space and time. From the frequency and amplitude of the observed oscillations, we determine the normal modes and eig...

  7. Verification, Validation and Sensitivity Studies in Computational Biomechanics

    Anderson, Andrew E.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Computational techniques and software for the analysis of problems in mechanics have naturally moved from their origins in the traditional engineering disciplines to the study of cell, tissue and organ biomechanics. Increasingly complex models have been developed to describe and predict the mechanical behavior of such biological systems. While the availability of advanced computational tools has led to exciting research advances in the field, the utility of these models is often the subject o...

  8. Biomechanics and clinical implications of complete edentulous state

    Lalit Kumar, MDS

    2014-01-01

    The edentulous state represents a compromise in the integrity of the masticatory system. It is frequently accompanied by adverse functional and esthetic sequelae, which are varyingly perceived by the affected patient. Perceptions of the edentulous state may range from feelings of inconvenience to feelings of severe handicap because many regard total loss of teeth as equivalent to the loss of a body part. Consequently, the required treatment addresses a range of biomechanical problems that inv...

  9. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

    Wu M; Kalyanasundaram A; Zhu J

    2013-01-01

    Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as...

  10. Biomechanics and evolution of flight in stick insects

    Zeng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Many unresolved questions in animal flight evolution relate to the transition between flightless and volant forms. Functional analysis of transitional modes using anatomical intermediates may help to assess the biomechanical underpinnings to such transitional processes. The group of stick insects exhibits tremendous diversity in wing sizes, which is potentially correlated with selection gradient for wing size. This dissertation work uses stick insects as a model system to address the ecologic...

  11. Biomechanics of spontaneous overground walk-to-run transition

    Segers, Veerle; Smet, de, M.D.; Caekenberghe, van, I.; Aerts, Peter; Clercq, de, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to describe the biomechanics of spontaneous walk-to-run transitions (WRTs) in humans. After minimal instructions, 17 physically active subjects performed WRTs on an instrumented runway, enabling measurement of speed, acceleration, spatiotemporal variables, ground reaction forces and 3D kinematics. The present study describes (1) the mechanical energy fluctuations of the body centre-of-mass (BCOM) as a reflection of the whole-body dynamics and (2)...

  12. Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Analysis of the Bovine Humerus

    Bouza-Rodríguez, José Benito; Miramontes-Sequeiros, Luz Calia

    2014-01-01

    There are few reports on the biomechanical analysis of the animal humerus. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the bovine humerus was created, and loaded with the physiological forces acting when the cow is falling or jumping (weight and impact forces). Subsequently the corresponding stress and strain distribution in the humerus for different inclined positions of bone was determined.The highest stress concentration occurred in the distal humeral diaphysis, both when on...

  13. Evidence for biomechanics and motor learning research improving golf performance.

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this review was to determine how the findings of biomechanics and motor control/learning research may be used to improve golf performance. To be eligible, the biomechanics and motor learning studies had to use direct (ball displacement and shot accuracy) or indirect (clubhead velocity and clubface angle) golf performance outcome measures. Biomechanical studies suggested that reducing the radius path of the hands during the downswing, increasing wrist torque and/or range of motion, delaying wrist motion to late in the downswing, increasing downswing amplitude, improving sequential acceleration of body parts, improving weight transfer, and utilising X-factor stretch and physical conditioning programmes can improve clubhead velocity. Motor learning studies suggested that golf performance improved more when golfers focused on swing outcome or clubhead movement rather than specific body movements. A distributed practice approach involving multiple sessions per week of blocked, errorless practice may be best for improving putting accuracy of novice golfers, although variable practice may be better for skilled golfers. Video, verbal, or a combination of video and verbal feedback can increase mid-short iron distance in novice to mid-handicap (hcp) golfers. Coaches should not only continue to critique swing technique but also consider how the focus, structure, and types of feedback for practice may alter learning for different groups of golfers. PMID:22900408

  14. BIOMECHANIC EVALUATION OF CARPENTRY WORKERS IN THE DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRAZIL

    Nilton Cesar Fiedler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the biomechanical assessment of carpentry woodworkers, located in Brasília, DF. It was filmed the profile of each worker during the performance of his activities in the carpentry and the forces involved in the work were assessed. The image of each woodworker was congealed to accomplish the measurement of articulation angles. The data were submitted to the software of posture analysis “Winowas” (OWAS Method and to the biomechanic model of posture prognosis and static forces, developed by Michigan University. The OWAS method showed that, for all machines and carpentries assessed, the worst posture occurred when the worker lifted and placed the pieces of wood on the floor and during the feeding in the smoother. The tridimensional biomechanic model registered the worst posture in different phases of the work cycle. In the first one, there were problems in all articulations, except the hips, when placing the pieces on the floor from the smoother. In the second one, there were problems in all articulations, except the elbows and the L5-S1 column disc, by feeding the surface planer. The third one, the ankles were the most injured when feeding the smoother, the surface planer, the circular saw and the band saw. According to the results, the woodworkers should try to eliminate the constant work standing upright, use auxiliary machinery to handle pieces of wood, reduce the load during feeding the machines and improve postures.

  15. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  16. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  17. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  18. The Use of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Biomechanics and Rehabilitation Applications: The State-of-the-Art and Ongoing Research Topics

    Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan; Ebrahim Al-Fakih; Noor Azuan Abu Osman

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are becoming increasingly attractive for sensing applications in biomechanics and rehabilitation engineering due to their advantageous properties like small size, light weight, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, multiplexing capability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). They also offer a high-performance alternative to conventional technologies, either for measuring a variety of physical parameters or for performing high-sensiti...

  19. Lithium treatment and thyroid abnormalities

    Bocchetta Alberto

    2006-09-01

    autoimmunity do not much differ from those observed in the general population; h hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer are observed rarely during lithium treatment. Recommendations Thyroid function tests (TSH, free thyroid hormones, specific antibodies, and ultrasonic scanning should be performed prior to starting lithium prophylaxis. A similar panel should be repeated at one year. Thereafter, annual measurements of TSH may be sufficient to prevent overt hypothyroidism. In the presence of raised TSH or thyroid autoimmunity, shorter intervals between assessments are advisable (4–6 months. Measurement of antibodies and ultrasonic scanning may be repeated at 2-to-3-year intervals. The patient must be referred to the endocrinologist if TSH concentrations are repeatedly abnormal, and/or goitre or nodules are detected. Thyroid function abnormalities should not constitute an outright contraindication to lithium treatment, and lithium should not be stopped if a patient develops thyroid abnormalities. Decisions should be made taking into account the evidence that lithium treatment is perhaps the only efficient means of reducing the excessive mortality which is otherwise associated with affective disorders.

  20. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Daniela Mierla; Viorica Radoi; Veronica Stoian

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, ka...

  1. ABNORMAL CARDIOVASCULAR REFLEXES IN PATIENTS WITH ACHALASIA

    戈峰; 李泽坚; 柯美云

    1994-01-01

    Using 3 non-invasive tests,abnormalities of cardiovascular reflex function were found in 7 of 15 patients with achalasia.Abnormalities of heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver,deep breathing ,and standing were moted in patients with autonomic neuropathy defect.The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an abnormality of vagal function may contribute to the pathogenesis of achalasia.

  2. Do Stock Dividends Generate Abnormal Returns?

    Torgal, Kishan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I have studied and understood the concepts of stock dividends, stock splits and the announcement effects and the effective day effects by using the standard event studies methodology which measures the significance of the abnormal returns. The previous studies have significant positive abnormal returns. In my results its shown that the as there is some significant abnormal returns which are connected with the announcement and effective day of the stock splits but it changes...

  3. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  4. Sensorial abnormalities: Smell and taste

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taste and smell abnormalities have proven to be an extremely more complex subject than previously regarded. Wide-ranging nosologic entities arise along with smell and taste alterations, and they can be congenital or acquired. Objective: Analyze the main features of smell and taste dysfunctions. Method: Automated databases were used to collect data, by searching keywords like 'alteration', 'smell', and 'taste'. A non-systematic search was also made in scientific printings and medical books. Literature Review: Smell and taste dysfunctions have a vast etiology, the most significant of which are obstructive nasal and sinusal disease, infections of the upper respiratory tract, cranioencephalic trauma, aging, exposure to toxics and some drugs, nasal or intracranial neoplasias, psychiatric and neurological pathologies, iatrogenic disease, idiopathic and congenital causes. A detailed anamnesis, a careful physical examination and supplementary evaluations are important for the diagnosis of these alterations. Conclusion: As a rule, smell and taste dysfunctions occur in a combined way. The early discovery of such dysfunctions can lead to a more efficient treatment, making the progress of diseases causing them retard and the symptoms less severe. In many cases, treating these alterations is not easy and there needs to be a multidisciplinary cooperation among the otorhinolaryngologist, endocrinologist, neurologist, psychiatrist, among others.

  5. Holoprosencephaly due to numeric chromosome abnormalities.

    Solomon, Benjamin D; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N; Meck, Jeanne M; Muenke, Maximilian

    2010-02-15

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been reported. Such chromosome number abnormalities are almost universally fatal early in gestation or in infancy. Clinical features of specific chromosome number abnormalities may be recognized by phenotypic manifestations in addition to the HPE. PMID:20104610

  6. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities

  7. Abnormal Seedlings in Madhuca latifolia-An important biodiesel tree

    sangram bhanudas chavan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahua is one of the most important tree species for tribals in parts of central India for their livelihood security. It is promising oil yielding tree species for biodiesel production having properties that replaces diesel fuel. During the germination study of Madhuca latifolia conducted at NRCAF nursery, abnormalities in the form of twin and triplet seedlings were recorded. Reporting of this type of occurrence will be helpful for management of seedlings in nursery as well as for future breeding program.

  8. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes. Abstract The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence hist...

  9. A material sensitivity study on the accuracy of deformable organ registration using linear biomechanical models

    Model-based deformable organ registration techniques using the finite element method (FEM) have recently been investigated intensively and applied to image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART). These techniques assume that human organs are linearly elastic material, and their mechanical properties are predetermined. Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of the tissue material properties is challenging and the properties usually vary between patients. A common issue is therefore the achievable accuracy of the calculation due to the limited access to tissue elastic material constants. In this study, we performed a systematic investigation on this subject based on tissue biomechanics and computer simulations to establish the relationships between achievable registration accuracy and tissue mechanical and organ geometrical properties. Primarily we focused on image registration for three organs: rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate. The tissue anisotropy due to orientation preference in tissue fiber alignment is captured by using an orthotropic or a transversely isotropic elastic model. First we developed biomechanical models for the rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate using simplified geometries and investigated the effect of varying material parameters on the resulting organ deformation. Then computer models based on patient image data were constructed, and image registrations were performed. The sensitivity of registration errors was studied by perturbating the tissue material properties from their mean values while fixing the boundary conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that registration error for a subvolume increases as its distance from the boundary increases. Also, a variable associated with material stability was found to be a dominant factor in registration accuracy in the context of material uncertainty. For hollow thin organs such as rectal walls and bladder walls, the registration errors are limited. Given 30% in material uncertainty

  10. Corneal biomechanical changes and intraocular pressure in patients with thyroid orbitopathy

    Pniakowska, Zofia; Klysik, Anna; Gos, Roman; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the relevance of the objective parameters addressing the altered biomechanical properties of cornea for glaucoma monitoring in patients with mild or moderate thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO), and in healthy individuals. METHODS Twenty-five patients with TAO (group 1) and 25 healthy adults (group 2) were included to the study. Both groups were of a similar age and the ratio women:man. For each patient, the following parameters of both eyes were measured with ocular response analyzer (ORA): corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc). In both groups participating in our study, all measurements were performed within minutes to reduce the diurnal effects. RESULTS The mean age in group 1 was 56±11y and 76% were women, 24% were men. The mean age in group 2 was 64±11y and 68% were women, 32% were men. CH correlated negatively with IOPg in group 1 (r2=0.10, P0.05) and also no significant correlation in group 2 (r2=0.04, P>0.05). CRF mean value in group 2 (11.51±1.72 mm Hg) was higher than in group 1 (10.85±1.45 mm Hg) (P<0.05). IOPg strongly correlated with IOPcc in both groups (group 1: r2=0.79, P<0.0001; group 2: r2=0.85, P<0.0001). There was also strong correlation between CRF and CH in both populations: group 1: (r2=0.58, P<0.0001), group 2: (r2=0.41, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION Biomechanical parameters of cornea, as quantified by CH and CRF, and measured together with IOPcc, precisely reveal glaucoma staging in TAO and thus are reliable for diagnosing and follow-up in clinical practice.

  11. The Effect of Contact Lens Usage on Corneal Biomechanical Parameters in Keratoconus Patients

    Ali Bülent Çankaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To determine and compare the corneal biomechanical properties in keratoconus patients using rigid gas permeable contact lenses and keratoconus patients who do not use contact lenses. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The study consisted of 70 healthy controls (Group A, 27 ketatoconus subjects who do not use contact lens (Group B and 36 rigid gas permeable contact lens using keratoconic patients (Group C. Corneal viscoelastic parameters were measured with an Ocular response analyzer (ORA. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasonic pachymeter. The differences in ORA parameters between the groups were compared. Re sults: The mean corneal hysteresis (CH in Groups A, B, and C were 10.3±1.5 mm Hg, 7.8±1.4 mm Hg, and 7.4±1.2 mm Hg, respectively. The differences in mean CH between Group A and the other two groups were statistically significant (p<0.01 for both comparisons, but no statistically significant difference was found between groups B and C in terms of mean CH (p=0.61. The mean corneal resistance factor (CRF was 10.7±1.9 in Group A compared with 6.6±1.6 in Group B and 6.1±1.5 in Group C. The differences in mean CRF between Group A and the other two groups were statistically significant (p<0.01 for both comparisons. There was no significant difference in CRF between the keratoconus eyes with or without rigid gas permeable contact lens usage (p=0.57. Dis cus si on: Our results suggest that ORA-generated parameters may be different in subjects with keratoconus. Corneal biomechanical parameters did not demonstrate a clear trend of change with rigid gas permeable contact lens usage. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 197-201

  12. Biomechanical corneal changes induced by different flap thickness created by femtosecond laser

    Fabricio W. Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the creation of corneal flaps at different thicknesses on the biomechanical properties of swine corneas. METHOD: Twelve swine eyes were obtained to form two groups: 100 μm flap thickness and 300 μm flap thickness. Each eye was submitted to the following examinations: raster topography to investigate corneal curvature alterations, ocular response analyzer to investigate corneal hysteresis change, optical coherence tomography to measure central corneal and flap thickness and sonic wave propagation velocity as a measure of stiffness, before and immediately after flap creation. After flap amputation, surface wave velocity measurements were repeated. RESULTS: Measured flap thicknesses were statistically different for thin and thick flap groups, with an average of 108.5 + 6.9 and 307.8 + 11.5 μm respectively. Hysteresis and corneal resistance factor did not change significantly after flap creation in the thin flap group. With thicker flaps, both parameters decreased significantly from 8.0 +1.0 to 5.1 +1.5 mmHg and from 8.2 + 1.6 to 4.1 +2.5 mmHg respectively. Simulated keratometry values increased in the thick flap group (from 39.5 + 1 D to 45.9+1.2 D after flap creation but not in the thin flap group (from 40.6 + 0.6 D to 41.4+ 1.0 D. Regarding surface wave velocity analysis, the surgical procedures induced statistically lower results in some positions. CONCLUSION: In the experimental conditions established by this model, thicker flaps presented a greater biomechanical impact on the cornea.

  13. Biomechanics and the thermotolerance of development.

    Michelangelo von Dassow

    Full Text Available Successful completion of development requires coordination of patterning events with morphogenetic movements. Environmental variability challenges this coordination. For example, developing organisms encounter varying environmental temperatures that can strongly influence developmental rates. We hypothesized that the mechanics of morphogenesis would have to be finely adjusted to allow for normal morphogenesis across a wide range of developmental rates. We formulated our hypothesis as a simple model incorporating time-dependent application of force to a viscoelastic tissue. This model suggested that the capacity to maintain normal morphogenesis across a range of temperatures would depend on how both tissue viscoelasticity and the forces that drive deformation vary with temperature. To test this model we investigated how the mechanical behavior of embryonic tissue (Xenopus laevis changed with temperature; we used a combination of micropipette aspiration to measure viscoelasticity, electrically induced contractions to measure cellular force generation, and confocal microscopy to measure endogenous contractility. Contrary to expectations, the viscoelasticity of the tissues and peak contractile tension proved invariant with temperature even as rates of force generation and gastrulation movements varied three-fold. Furthermore, the relative rates of different gastrulation movements varied with temperature: the speed of blastopore closure increased more slowly with temperature than the speed of the dorsal-to-ventral progression of involution. The changes in the relative rates of different tissue movements can be explained by the viscoelastic deformation model given observed viscoelastic properties, but only if morphogenetic forces increase slowly rather than all at once.

  14. The biomechanics of burrowing and boring.

    Dorgan, Kelly M

    2015-01-15

    Burrowers and borers are ecosystem engineers that alter their physical environments through bioturbation, bioirrigation and bioerosion. The mechanisms of moving through solid substrata by burrowing or boring depend on the mechanical properties of the medium and the size and morphology of the organism. For burrowing animals, mud differs mechanically from sand; in mud, sediment grains are suspended in an organic matrix that fails by fracture. Macrofauna extend burrows through this elastic mud by fracture. Sand is granular and non-cohesive, enabling grains to more easily move relative to each other, and macrofaunal burrowers use fluidization or plastic rearrangement of grains. In both sand and mud, peristaltic movements apply normal forces and reduce shear. Excavation and localized grain compaction are mechanisms that plastically deform sediments and are effective in both mud and sand, with bulk excavation being used by larger organisms and localized compaction by smaller organisms. Mechanical boring of hard substrata is an extreme form of excavation in which no compaction of burrow walls occurs and grains are abraded with rigid, hard structures. Chemical boring involves secretion to dissolve or soften generally carbonate substrata. Despite substantial differences in the mechanics of the media, similar burrowing behaviors are effective in mud and sand. PMID:25609781

  15. Weightbath hydrotraction treatment: application, biomechanics, and clinical effects

    Márta Kurutz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Márta Kurutz1, Tamás Bender21Department of Structural Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary; 2Department of Physical Medicine, Polyclinic and Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers of St. John of God, Budapest, Medical University of Szeged, HungaryBackground and purpose: Weightbath hydrotraction treatment (WHT is a simple noninvasive effective method of hydro- or balneotherapy to stretch the spine or lower limbs, applied successfully in hospitals and health resort sanitaria in Hungary for more than fifty years. This study aims to introduce WHT with its biomechanical and clinical effects. History, development, equipment, modes of application, biomechanics, spinal traction forces and elongations, indications and contraindications of WHT are precented.Subjects and methods: The calculation of traction forces acting along the spinal column during the treatment is described together with the mode of suspension and the position of extra weight loads applied. The biomechanics of the treatment are completed by in vivo measured elongations of lumbar segments using a special underwater ultrasound measuring method. The clinical effects, indications, and contraindications of the treatment are also presented.Results: In the underwater cervical suspension of a human body, approximately 25 N stretching load occurs in the cervical spine, and about 11 N occurs in the lumbar spine. By applying extra weights, the above tensile forces along the spinal column can be increased. Thus, the traction effect can be controlled by applying such loads during the treatment. Elongations of segments L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5–S1 were measured during the usual WHT of patients suspended cervically in water for 20 minutes, loaded by 20–20 N lead weights on the ankles. The mean initial elastic elongations of spinal segments were about 0.8 mm for patients aged under 40 years, 0.5 mm between 40–60 years, and 0.2 mm for patients over 60 years. The mean

  16. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics

    Palma L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lídia Palma,1 Liliana Tavares Marques,1 Julia Bujan,2,3 Luís Monteiro Rodrigues1,4 1CBIOS – Research Center for Health Science and Technologies, Universidade Lusófona, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal; 2Department of Medicine and Medical Specialities, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3CIBER-BBN, Madrid, España, Spain; 4Department of Pharmacological Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set – Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38, and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11. Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0, 15 (T1, and 30 (T2 in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg. This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions. Keywords: dietary water, water consume, skin hydration, TEWL, skin biomechanics

  17. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    Izzo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guarnieri, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigiguarnieri@hotmail.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.gugliemi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability.

  18. Absorbable scaphoid screw development: a comparative study on biomechanics

    Wang, Yi; Song, Muguo; Xu, Yongqing; He, Xiaoqing; Zhu, YueLiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The scaphoid is critical for maintaining the stability and movement of the wrist joints. This study aimed to develop a new internal fixator absorbable scaphoid screw (ASS) for fixation of the scaphoid waist after fracture and to test the biomechanical characteristics of ASS. Materials and methods An ASS was prepared using polylactic acids and designed based on scaphoid measurements and anatomic features. Twenty fractured scaphoid waist specimens were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n=10/group). Reduction and internal fixation of the scaphoid were achieved with either Kirschner wires (K-wires) or ASS. A moving target simulator was used to test palmar flexion and dorsal extension, with the range of testing (waist movement) set from 5° of palmar flexion to 25° of dorsal extension. Flexion and extension were repeated 2,000 times for each specimen. Fracture gap displacements were measured with a computerized tomography scanning. Scaphoid tensile and bending strengths were measured by using a hydraulic pressure biomechanical system. Results Prior to biomechanical fatigue testing, fracture gap displacements were 0.16±0.02 mm and 0.22±0.02 mm in the ASS and K-wire groups, respectively. After fatigue testing, fracture gap displacements in the ASS and the K-wire groups were 0.21±0.03 mm and 1.52±0.07 mm, respectively. The tensile strengths for the ASS and K-wire groups were 0.95±0.02 MPa and 0.63±0.02 MPa, respectively. Conclusion Fixation using an ASS provided sufficient mechanical support for the scaphoid after fracture. PMID:27217756

  19. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability

  20. Blunt impacts to the back: Biomechanical response for model development.

    Forman, Jason; Perry, Brandon; Henderson, Kyvory; Gjolaj, Joseph P; Heltzel, Sara; Lessley, David; Riley, Patrick; Salzar, Robert; Walilko, Tim

    2015-09-18

    The development of advanced injury prediction models requires biomechanical and injury tolerance information for all regions of the body. While numerous studies have investigated injury mechanics of the thorax under frontal impact, there remains a dearth of information on the injury mechanics of the torso under blunt impact to the back. A series of hub-impact tests were performed to the back surface of the mid-thorax of four mid-size male cadavers. Repeated tests were performed to characterize the biomechanical and injury response of the thorax under various impact speeds (1.5m/s, 3m/s and 5.5m/s). Deformation of the chest was recorded with a 59-gage chestband. Subject kinematics were also recorded with a high-speed optoelectronic 3D motion capture system. In the highest-severity tests, peak impact forces ranged from 6.9 to 10.5 kN. The peak change in extension angle measured between the 1st thoracic vertebra and the lumbar spine ranged from 39 to 62°. The most commonly observed injuries were strains of the costovertebral/costotransverse joint complexes, rib fractures, and strains of the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments. The majority of the rib fractures occurred in the rib neck between the costovertebral and costotransverse joints. The prevalence of rib-neck fractures suggests a novel, indirect loading mechanism resulting from bending moments generated in the rib necks caused by motion of the spine. In addition to the injury information, the biomechanical responses quantified here will facilitate the future development and validation of human body models for predicting injury risk during impact to the back. PMID:26184586

  1. A review of biomechanically informed breast image registration

    Hipwell, John H.; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Han, Lianghao; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Eiben, Björn; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiology encompasses the full range of imaging modalities from routine imaging via x-ray mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (both two- and three-dimensional), to more recent technologies such as digital breast tomosynthesis, and dedicated breast imaging systems for positron emission mammography and ultrasound tomography. In addition new and experimental modalities, such as Photoacoustics, Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrical Impedance Tomography etc, are emerging. The breast is a highly deformable structure however, and this greatly complicates visual comparison of imaging modalities for the purposes of breast screening, cancer diagnosis (including image guided biopsy), tumour staging, treatment monitoring, surgical planning and simulation of the effects of surgery and wound healing etc. Due primarily to the challenges posed by these gross, non-rigid deformations, development of automated methods which enable registration, and hence fusion, of information within and across breast imaging modalities, and between the images and the physical space of the breast during interventions, remains an active research field which has yet to translate suitable methods into clinical practice. This review describes current research in the field of breast biomechanical modelling and identifies relevant publications where the resulting models have been incorporated into breast image registration and simulation algorithms. Despite these developments there remain a number of issues that limit clinical application of biomechanical modelling. These include the accuracy of constitutive modelling, implementation of representative boundary conditions, failure to meet clinically acceptable levels of computational cost, challenges associated with automating patient-specific model generation (i.e. robust image segmentation and mesh generation) and the complexity of applying biomechanical modelling methods in routine clinical practice.

  2. Challenge-Based Instruction: The VaNTH Biomechanics Learning Modules

    Barr, Ronald E.; Pandy, Marcus G.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Roselli, Robert J.; Brophy, Sean; Freeman, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of teaching an entire engineering course using challenge-based instruction. The challenges consisted of eight biomechanics multimedia learning modules developed by the authors as part of a broader NSF educational coalition. The biomechanics modules were presented in an undergraduate mechanical…

  3. Diagnostic Assessment of Preparedness of Level One Sports Science Students for Biomechanics Modules

    Dixon, Sharon J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of a diagnostic test to assess the preparedness of level one students for a sports biomechanics module. During their first week at university, a cohort of 108 students completed a diagnostic test at the end of their first lecture in sports biomechanics, with no prior notice. Upon…

  4. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

  5. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  6. Mathematical simulation of the biomechanical system bone-fixator

    Krasnoschekov, Viktor V.; Maslov, Leonid B.

    2001-02-01

    Problems of static and dynamic simulation of the biomechanical system consisting of the human tibia bone and external fixator apparatus as the simplest frame construction are considered. The finite element method implemented as the program code MechanicsFE3D_ESO on the basis of 20 nodal isoparametric elements is utilized. Both general stressed-deformed state of the construction under transversal loading and basic frequencies and forms of free oscillations of the system were defined by the numerical analysis. The results obtained can be used as the theoretical fundament to developing of static and vibration resonance methods for physiological state diagnostics of the regenerating osseous tissue in fracture zone.

  7. Radiological features and biomechanical patterns in Perthes disease

    This paper examines the relationship between radiologic features and biomechanical patterns in Perthes disease as shown in finite element models. A two-dimensional finite element model of a child's hip that allowed for movement at the joint line was loaded to simulate normal heel strike. The finite element method is a computer-based technique of mathematical modeling that permits calculation of the magnitude and direction of stresses, deformation, and dynamic behavior of continuous structures. In the normal hip model, maximum compressive stresses occur superolaterally and inferomedially in the femoral head, corresponding to the radiographic features of flattening and increased tear drop distance, attributable to cartilage thickening, seen in Perthes disease

  8. Interpretation Of Biomechanical Data To A Gymnastics Coach

    Shierman, Gail

    1982-02-01

    Several trials of many different gymnastics skills on various pieces of apparatus were filmed and the results were studied with the coach. The time to accomplish the entire skill as well as the time for each segment of the skill was important to the coach. He was also interested in angle of release or push-off and the path of the center of gravity. Lastly, graphs of velocities and accelerations of limb segments were revealing to the coach. Biomechanical analysis has helped him see why the performances were good; he is more interested in working with the investigator in all the events in gymnastics through the medium of cinematography.

  9. Absorbable scaphoid screw development: a comparative study on biomechanics

    Wang Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yi Wang, Muguo Song, Yongqing Xu, Xiaoqing He, YueLiang Zhu Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kunming General Hospital, Chengdu Military Command, People’s Liberation Army, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Background: The scaphoid is critical for maintaining the stability and movement of the wrist joints. This study aimed to develop a new internal fixator absorbable scaphoid screw (ASS for fixation of the scaphoid waist after fracture and to test the biomechanical characteristics of ASS.Materials and methods: An ASS was prepared using polylactic acids and designed based on scaphoid measurements and anatomic features. Twenty fractured scaphoid waist specimens were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n=10/group. Reduction and internal fixation of the scaphoid were achieved with either Kirschner wires (K-wires or ASS. A moving target simulator was used to test palmar flexion and dorsal extension, with the range of testing (waist movement set from 5° of palmar flexion to 25° of dorsal extension. Flexion and extension were repeated 2,000 times for each specimen. Fracture gap displacements were measured with a computerized tomography scanning. Scaphoid tensile and bending strengths were measured by using a hydraulic pressure biomechanical system.Results: Prior to biomechanical fatigue testing, fracture gap displacements were 0.16±0.02 mm and 0.22±0.02 mm in the ASS and K-wire groups, respectively. After fatigue testing, fracture gap displacements in the ASS and the K-wire groups were 0.21±0.03 mm and 1.52±0.07 mm, respectively. The tensile strengths for the ASS and K-wire groups were 0.95±0.02 MPa and 0.63±0.02 MPa, respectively.Conclusion: Fixation using an ASS provided sufficient mechanical support for the scaphoid after fracture. Keywords: absorbable scaphoid screw, biomechanics, internal fixator, Kirschner wires

  10. Implementation of reflex loops in a biomechanical finite element model.

    Salin, Dorian; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Kayvantash, Kambiz; Behr, Michel

    2016-11-01

    In the field of biomechanics, the offer of models which are more and more realistic requires to integrate a physiological response, in particular, the controlled muscle bracing and the reflexes. The following work aims to suggest a unique methodology which couples together a sensory and motor loop with a finite element model. Our method is applied to the study of the oscillation of the elbow in the case of a biceps brachial stretch reflex. The results obtained are promising in the purpose of the development of reactive human body models. PMID:27108871

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    De Witt, J. K.; Fincke, R. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion exercise is an important aspect of ISS exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that an optimized treadmill exercise protocol could offer benefits to cardiovascular and bone health. If training heart rate is high enough, treadmill exercise is expected to lead to improvements in aerobic fitness. If impact or bone loading forces are high enough, treadmill exercise may be expected to contribute to improved bone outcomes. Ground-based research suggests that joint loads increase with increased running speed. However, it is unknown if increases in locomotion speed results in similar increases in joint loads in microgravity. Although data exist regarding the biomechanics of running and walking in microgravity, a majority were collected during parabolic flight or during investigations utilizing a microgravity analog. The Second Generation Treadmill (T2) has been in use on the International Space Station (ISS) and records the ground reaction forces (GRF) produced by crewmembers during exercise. Biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in typical gait motion and allow for modeling of the human body to determine joint and muscle forces during exercise. By understanding these mechanisms, more appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of subject load and speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Further, the data will be used to characterize any differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in these two gravitational conditions. This project maps to the HRP Integrated Research Plan risks including Risk of Bone Fracture (Gap B15), Risk of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due to

  12. Biomechanical Factors and Injury Risk in High-Severity Rollovers

    Moore, Tara L. A.; Vijayakumar, Vinod; Steffey, Duane L.; Ramachandran, Karuna; Corrigan, Catherine Ford

    2005-01-01

    The number of rolls, as well as other factors, has been associated with increased injury risk in rollovers. Data from NASS-CDS from 1995–2003 were used to evaluate the biomechanical implications of vehicle kinematics during multiple rolls and to evaluate the risk of injuries to different body regions during rollovers. The data showed that the risk of injury increased with increasing number of rolls. The rate of increase in risk varied by the region of the body affected and injury severity. Th...

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of the Swim-Start: A Review

    Julien Vantorre, Didier Chollet, Ludovic Seifert

    2014-01-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water e...

  14. Complex radiation diagnosis of associated intracardiac abnormality

    It is shown that patients with congenital heart diseases having signs of cardiodismorphic complex in form of associated intercardiac abnormalities require special attention after surgical correction of the principal defect. It is connected with the fact that the associated abnormalities may become with time the basic factors influencing the progress and forecast of the disease

  15. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  16. An Abnormal Vibrational Mode of Torsion Pendulum

    赵亮; 涂英; 顾邦明; 胡忠坤; 罗俊

    2003-01-01

    In the experiment for the determination of the gravitational constant G, we found an abnormal vibrational mode of the torsion pendulum. The abnormal mode disappeared as a magnetic damper was introduced to the torsion pendulum system. Our experimental results also show that the magnetic damper can be used to suppress the high frequency vibrational noises to torsion pendulums effectively.

  17. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  18. Biochemical, histologic, and biomechanical characterization of native and decellularized flexor tendon specimens harvested from the pelvic limbs of orthopedically normal dogs.

    Balogh, Daniel G; Biskup, Jeffery J; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Scott, Ruth M; Groschen, Donna; Evans, Richard B; Conzemius, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the biochemical and biomechanical properties of native and decellularized superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFTs) harvested from the pelvic limbs of orthopedically normal dogs. SAMPLE 22 commercially supplied tendon specimens (10 SDFT and 12 DDFT) harvested from the pelvic limbs of 13 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES DNA, glycosaminoglycan, collagen, and protein content were measured to biochemically compare native and decellularized SDFT and DDFT specimens. Mechanical testing was performed on 4 groups consisting of native tendons (5 SDFTs and 6 DDFTs) and decellularized tendons (5 SDFTs and 6 DDFTs). All tendons were preconditioned, and tension was applied to failure at 0.5 mm/s. Failure mode was video recorded for each tendon. Load-deformation and stress-strain curves were generated; calculations were performed to determine the Young modulus and stiffness. Biochemical and biomechanical data were statistically compared by use of the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS Decellularized SDFT and DDFT specimens had significantly less DNA content than did native tendons. No significant differences were identified between native and decellularized specimens with respect to glycosaminoglycan, collagen, or protein content. Biomechanical comparison yielded no significant intra- or intergroup differences. All DDFT constructs failed at the tendon-clamp interface, whereas nearly half (4/10) of the SDFT constructs failed at midsubstance. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Decellularized commercial canine SDFT and DDFT specimens had similar biomechanical properties, compared with each other and with native tendons. The decellularization process significantly decreased DNA content while minimizing loss of extracellular matrix components. Decellularized canine flexor tendons may provide suitable, biocompatible graft scaffolds for bioengineering applications such as tendon or ligament repair. PMID:27027838

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  20. Endothelial cells and cathepsins: Biochemical and biomechanical regulation.

    Platt, Manu O; Shockey, W Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Cathepsins are mechanosensitive proteases that are regulated not only by biochemical factors, but are also responsive to biomechanical forces in the cardiovascular system that regulate their expression and activity to participate in cardiovascular tissue remodeling. Their elastinolytic and collagenolytic activity have been implicated in atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, and in heart valve disease, all of which are lined by endothelial cells that are the mechanosensitive monolayer of cells that sense and respond to fluid shear stress as the blood flows across the surfaces of the arteries and valve leaflets. Inflammatory cytokine signaling is integrated with biomechanical signaling pathways by the endothelial cells to transcribe, translate, and activate either the cysteine cathepsins to remodel the tissue or to express their inhibitors to maintain healthy cardiovascular tissue structure. Other cardiovascular diseases should now be included in the study of the cysteine cathepsin activation because of the additional biochemical cues they provide that merges with the already existing hemodynamics driving cardiovascular disease. Sickle cell disease causes a chronic inflammation including elevated TNFα and increased numbers of circulating monocytes that alter the biochemical stimulation while the more viscous red blood cells due to the sickling of hemoglobin alters the hemodynamics and is associated with accelerated elastin remodeling causing pediatric strokes. HIV-mediated cardiovascular disease also occurs earlier in than the broader population and the influence of HIV-proteins and antiretrovirals on endothelial cells must be considered to understand these accelerated mechanisms in order to identify new therapeutic targets for prevention. PMID:26458976

  1. Biomechanical modelling and evaluation of construction jobs for performance improvement.

    Parida, Ratri; Ray, Pradip Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Occupational risk factors, such as awkward posture, repetition, lack of rest, insufficient illumination and heavy workload related to construction-related MMH activities may cause musculoskeletal disorders and poor performance of the workers, ergonomic design of construction worksystems was a critical need for improving their health and safety wherein a dynamic biomechanical models were required to be empirically developed and tested at a construction site of Tata Steel, the largest steel making company of India in private sector. In this study, a comprehensive framework is proposed for biomechanical evaluation of shovelling and grinding under diverse work environments. The benefit of such an analysis lies in its usefulness in setting guidelines for designing such jobs with minimization of risks of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and enhancing correct methods of carrying out the jobs leading to reduced fatigue and physical stress. Data based on direct observations and videography were collected for the shovellers and grinders over a number of workcycles. Compressive forces and moments for a number of segments and joints are computed with respect to joint flexion and extension. The results indicate that moments and compressive forces at L5/S1 link are significant for shovellers while moments at elbow and wrist are significant for grinders. PMID:22317733

  2. Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance.

    Buckeridge, E M; Bull, A M J; McGregor, A H

    2015-04-01

    In rowing, the parameters of injury, performance, and technique are all interrelated and in dynamic equilibrium. Whilst rowing requires extreme physical strength and endurance, a high level of skill and technique is essential to enable an effective transfer of power through the rowing sequence. This study aimed to determine discrete aspects of rowing technique, which strongly influence foot force production and asymmetries at the foot-stretchers, as these are biomechanical parameters often associated with performance and injury risk. Twenty elite female rowers performed an incremental rowing test on an instrumented rowing ergometer, which measured force at the handle and foot-stretchers, while three-dimensional kinematic recordings of the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic joints were made. Multiple regression analyses identified hip kinematics as a key predictor of foot force output (R(2)  = 0.48), whereas knee and lumbar-pelvic kinematics were the main determinants in optimizing the horizontal foot force component (R(2)  = .41). Bilateral asymmetries of the foot-stretchers were also seen to significantly influence lumbar-pelvic kinematics (R(2)  = 0.43) and pelvic twisting (R(2)  = 0.32) during the rowing stroke. These results provide biomechanical evidence toward aspects of technique that can be modified to optimize force output and performance, which can be of direct benefit to coaches and athletes. PMID:25039605

  3. Rotational biomechanics of the elite golf swing: benchmarks for amateurs.

    Meister, David W; Ladd, Amy L; Butler, Erin E; Zhao, Betty; Rogers, Andrew P; Ray, Conrad J; Rose, Jessica

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical factors that may influence golf swing power generation. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were examined in 10 professional and 5 amateur male golfers. Upper-torso rotation, pelvic rotation, X-factor (relative hip-shoulder rotation), O-factor (pelvic obliquity), S-factor (shoulder obliquity), and normalized free moment were assessed in relation to clubhead speed at impact (CSI). Among professional golfers, results revealed that peak free moment per kilogram, peak X-factor, and peak S-factor were highly consistent, with coefficients of variation of 6.8%, 7.4%, and 8.4%, respectively. Downswing was initiated by reversal of pelvic rotation, followed by reversal of upper-torso rotation. Peak X-factor preceded peak free moment in all swings for all golfers, and occurred during initial downswing. Peak free moment per kilogram, X-factor at impact, peak X-factor, and peak upper-torso rotation were highly correlated to CSI (median correlation coefficients of 0.943, 0.943, 0.900, and 0.900, respectively). Benchmark curves revealed kinematic and kinetic temporal and spatial differences of amateurs compared with professional golfers. For amateurs, the number of factors that fell outside 1-2 standard deviations of professional means increased with handicap. This study identified biomechanical factors highly correlated to golf swing power generation and may provide a basis for strategic training and injury prevention. PMID:21844613

  4. Fusion of intraoperative force sensoring, surface reconstruction and biomechanical modeling

    Röhl, S.; Bodenstedt, S.; Küderle, C.; Suwelack, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B. P.; Dillmann, R.; Speidel, S.

    2012-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is medically complex and can heavily benefit from computer assistance. One way to help the surgeon is to integrate preoperative planning data into the surgical workflow. This information can be represented as a customized preoperative model of the surgical site. To use it intraoperatively, it has to be updated during the intervention due to the constantly changing environment. Hence, intraoperative sensor data has to be acquired and registered with the preoperative model. Haptic information which could complement the visual sensor data is still not established. In addition, biomechanical modeling of the surgical site can help in reflecting the changes which cannot be captured by intraoperative sensors. We present a setting where a force sensor is integrated into a laparoscopic instrument. In a test scenario using a silicone liver phantom, we register the measured forces with a reconstructed surface model from stereo endoscopic images and a finite element model. The endoscope, the instrument and the liver phantom are tracked with a Polaris optical tracking system. By fusing this information, we can transfer the deformation onto the finite element model. The purpose of this setting is to demonstrate the principles needed and the methods developed for intraoperative sensor data fusion. One emphasis lies on the calibration of the force sensor with the instrument and first experiments with soft tissue. We also present our solution and first results concerning the integration of the force sensor as well as accuracy to the fusion of force measurements, surface reconstruction and biomechanical modeling.

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of Force Distribution in Human Finger Extensor Mechanisms

    Dan Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of the function and structure of human fingers have long been recognised. The in vivo forces in the human finger tendon network during different activities are critical information for clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, prosthetic finger design, and biomimetic hand development. In this study, we propose a novel method for in vivo force estimation for the finger tendon network by combining a three-dimensional motion analysis technique and a novel biomechanical tendon network model. The extensor mechanism of a human index finger is represented by an interconnected tendinous network moving around the phalanx’s dorsum. A novel analytical approach based on the “Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy” is used to calculate the forces and deformations throughout the tendon network of the extensor mechanism when subjected to an external load and with the finger posture defined by measurement data. The predicted deformations and forces in the tendon network are in broad agreement with the results obtained by previous experimental in vitro studies. The proposed methodology provides a promising tool for investigating the biomechanical function of complex interconnected tendon networks in vivo.

  6. Biomechanical changes in endothelial cells result from an inflammatory response

    Vaitkus, Janina; Stroka, Kimberly; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    During periods of infection and disease, the immune system induces the release of TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine, from a variety of cell types, such as macrophages. TNF-α, while circulating in the vasculature, binds to the apical surface of endothelial cells and causes a wide range of biological and mechanical changes to the endothelium. While the biological changes have been widely studied, the biomechanical aspects have been largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the biomechanical changes of the endothelium as a function of TNF-α treatment. First, we studied the traction forces applied by the endothelium, an effect that is much less studied than others. Through the use of traction force microscopy, we found that TNF-α causes an increase in traction forces applied by the endothelial cells as compared to non-treated cells. Then, we investigated cell morphology, cell mechanics, migration, and cytoskeletal dynamics. We found that in addition to increasing applied traction forces, TNF-α causes an increase in cell area and aspect ratio on average, as well as a shift in the organization of F-actin filaments within the cell. Combining these findings together, our results show that an inflammatory response heavily impacts the morphology, cell mechanics, migration, cytoskeletal dynamics, and applied traction forces of endothelial cells.

  7. Feeding biomechanics of the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, over ontogeny.

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Motta, Philip J; Grubbs, R Dean

    2015-09-01

    Growth affects the performance of structure, so the pattern of growth must influence the role of a structure and an organism. Because animal performance is linked to morphological specialization, ontogenetic change in size may influence an organism's biological role. High bite force generation is presumably selected for in durophagous taxa. Therefore, these animals provide an excellent study system for investigating biomechanical consequences of growth on performance. An ontogenetic series of 27 cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) were dissected in order to develop a biomechanical model of the feeding mechanism, which was then compared with bite forces measured from live rays. Mechanical advantage of the feeding apparatus was generally conserved throughout ontogeny, while an increase in the mass and cross-sectional area of the jaw adductors resulted in allometric gains in bite force generation. Of primary importance to forceful biting in this taxon is the use of a fibrocartilaginous tendon associated with the insertion of the primary jaw adductor division. This tendon may serve to redirect muscle forces anteriorly, transmitting them within the plane of biting. Measured bite forces obtained through electrostimulation of the jaw adductors in live rays were higher than predicted, possibly due to differences in specific tension of actual batoid muscle and that used in the model. Mass-specific bite forces in these rays are the highest recorded for elasmobranchs. Cownose rays exemplify a species that, through allometric growth of bite performance and morphological novelties, have expanded their ecological performance over ontogeny. PMID:26183820

  8. Biomechanical modeling and optimal control of human posture.

    Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini; Fleury, Agenor de Toledo; Weber, Hans Ingo

    2003-11-01

    The present work describes the biomechanical modeling of human postural mechanics in the saggital plane and the use of optimal control to generate open-loop raising-up movements from a squatting position. The biomechanical model comprises 10 equivalent musculotendon actuators, based on a 40 muscles model, and three links (shank, thigh and HAT-Head, Arms and Trunk). Optimal control solutions are achieved through algorithms based on the Consistent Approximations Theory (Schwartz and Polak, 1996), where the continuous non-linear dynamics is represented in a discrete space by means of a Runge-Kutta integration and the control signals in a spline-coefficient functional space. This leads to non-linear programming problems solved by a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method. Due to the highly non-linear and unstable nature of the posture dynamics, numerical convergence is difficult, and specific strategies must be implemented in order to allow convergence. Results for control (muscular excitations) and angular trajectories are shown using two final simulation times, as well as specific control strategies are discussed. PMID:14522212

  9. Biomechanics and control of vocalization in a non-songbird.

    Elemans, Coen P H; Zaccarelli, Riccardo; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2008-07-01

    The neuromuscular control of vocalization in birds requires complicated and precisely coordinated motor control of the vocal organ (i.e. the syrinx), the respiratory system and upper vocal tract. The biomechanics of the syrinx is very complex and not well understood. In this paper, we aim to unravel the contribution of different control parameters in the coo of the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria) at the syrinx level. We designed and implemented a quantitative biomechanical syrinx model that is driven by physiological control parameters and includes a muscle model. Our simple nonlinear model reproduces the coo, including the inspiratory note, with remarkable accuracy and suggests that harmonic content of song can be controlled by the geometry and rest position of the syrinx. Furthermore, by systematically switching off the control parameters, we demonstrate how they affect amplitude and frequency modulations and generate new experimentally testable hypotheses. Our model suggests that independent control of amplitude and frequency seems not to be possible with the simple syringeal morphology of the ring dove. We speculate that songbirds evolved a syrinx design that uncouples the control of different sound parameters and allows for independent control. This evolutionary key innovation provides an additional explanation for the rapid diversification and speciation of the songbirds. PMID:17999946

  10. Biomechanical parameters of gait among transtibial amputees: a review.

    Soares, Alex Sandra Oliveira de Cerqueira; Yamaguti, Edward Yuji; Mochizuki, Luis; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio Cerca

    2009-09-01

    Rehabilitation for lower-limb amputees needs to focus on restoration of daily functions and independent locomotion. As gait is reestablished, reorganization of the motor pattern takes place in order to optimize the functions of the locomotor system. Biomechanics is a field of study that enables understanding of this reorganization. From such knowledge, appropriate strategies for recovering the autonomy of the means of locomotion can be established. Thus, this paper had the aim of reviewing the current status of the biomechanics of locomotion among unilateral transtibial amputees. To achieve this aim, papers written in English or Portuguese and published up to 2005 were selected from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) and Dedalus databases. In cases of transtibial amputation, the absence of plantar flexors negatively affects locomotion. Increased absorption and energy generation by the muscles that control the hip joint of the amputated leg can be considered to be the main compensatory strategy developed by unilateral transtibial amputees during gait. Factors associated with the characteristics of the amputation, prosthesis and experimental protocol used directly influence the results. PMID:20169280

  11. Complete ACL/MCL deficiency induces variable degrees of instability in sheep with specific kinematic abnormalities correlating with degrees of early osteoarthritis.

    Frank, Cyril B; Beveridge, Jillian E; Huebner, Kyla D; Heard, Bryan J; Tapper, Janet E; O'Brien, Etienne J O; Shrive, Nigel G

    2012-03-01

    People are not equally disabled by combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)/medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries, nor do they all develop osteoarthritis (OA). Although biological/biomechanical causes are not clear, some association presumably exists between joint instability and OA development. We hypothesized that degree of OA development following standardized complete ACL/MCL injuries will vary directly with the degree of biomechanical abnormality between individuals. Three groups of sheep were used to test the hypothesis: 17 normal, 9 ACL/MCL transected, and 7 sham animals. Normal joints were assessed morphologically while sham and experimental animals had gait assessment pre- and at 4 and 20 weeks post-surgery, with cartilage and bone changes being mapped and graded at sacrifice at 20 weeks. Sham joints were morphologically normal and had only one minor kinematic change at 20 weeks. Although variable, ACL/MCL deficient animals showed significant kinematic abnormalities in 4/6 degrees of freedom (DOFs), as well as cartilage/bone damage by 20 weeks (p analysis revealed that changes in medial-lateral (ML) translation were related to the current level of joint degradation as represented by total gross OA score (p = 0.0044, R(2)  = 0.71) in the ACL/MCL transected group. Even identical ACL/MCL injuries result in inter-animal variations in instability and OA, however significant kinematic abnormalities in ML translation do relate to early OA in sheep. PMID:21919045

  12. Muscle activation patterns and gait biomechanics in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    A. Caliri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS may experience a progressive spinal kyphosis, which induces a forward and downward displacement of the centre of mass (COM of the trunk with consequent use of mechanisms to compensate for the displacement of the trunk. The analysis of patterns of movement gives an important opportunity for follow-up of patients and is an useful tool to plan a therapeutic and rehabilitative program. Objective: The aim of our study was to contribute to the description of abnormalities of gait biomechanics in patients with AS and to individualize, if existing, a typical pattern of these patients. Methods: Five patients with AS (3 men, 2 women were evaluated by gait analysis. Each patient was assessed with dynamic electromyography, with survey of phases of gait cycle and 3D video-analysis of gait related to data of platform (Digivec ® which allows to display real time the force vector of reaction foot-ground overlapping the screen image of patient. Results: The dynamometric platform located the following problems: increasing of the medium-lateral component of the reaction force on the ground in the mild and terminal stance. The anterior-posterior reaction force is diminished in both the initial and the terminal component. The timing of activation of the tibialis anterior results prolonged while the timing of activation of the gastrocnemius medialis results delayed. Conclusion: The patients with AS prefer therefore an eccentric contraction of the tibial anterior in comparison to a concentric contraction of the gastrocnemius medialis, “opting” for a gait strategy that confers greater stability but limited power.

  13. Biomechanics of the press-fit phenomenon in dental implantology: an image-based finite element analysis

    Frisardi Gianni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental pre-requisite for the clinical success in dental implant surgery is the fast and stable implant osseointegration. The press-fit phenomenon occurring at implant insertion induces biomechanical effects in the bone tissues, which ensure implant primary stability. In the field of dental surgery, the understanding of the key factors governing the osseointegration process still remains of utmost importance. A thorough analysis of the biomechanics of dental implantology requires a detailed knowledge of bone mechanical properties as well as an accurate definition of the jaw bone geometry. Methods In this work, a CT image-based approach, combined with the Finite Element Method (FEM, has been used to investigate the effect of the drill size on the biomechanics of the dental implant technique. A very accurate model of the human mandible bone segment has been created by processing high resolution micro-CT image data. The press-fit phenomenon has been simulated by FE analyses for different common drill diameters (DA = 2.8 mm, DB = 3.3 mm, and DC = 3.8 mm with depth L = 12 mm. A virtual implant model has been assumed with a cylindrical geometry having height L = 11 mm and diameter D = 4 mm. Results The maximum stresses calculated for drill diameters DA, DB and DC have been 12.31 GPa, 7.74 GPa and 4.52 GPa, respectively. High strain values have been measured in the cortical area for the models of diameters DA and DB, while a uniform distribution has been observed for the model of diameter DC . The maximum logarithmic strains, calculated in nonlinear analyses, have been ϵ = 2.46, 0.51 and 0.49 for the three models, respectively. Conclusions This study introduces a very powerful, accurate and non-destructive methodology for investigating the effect of the drill size on the biomechanics of the dental implant technique. Further studies could aim at understanding how different drill

  14. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  16. Biphasic modeling of brain tumor biomechanics and response to radiation treatment.

    Angeli, Stelios; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2016-06-14

    Biomechanical forces are central in tumor progression and response to treatment. This becomes more important in brain cancers where tumors are surrounded by tissues with different mechanical properties. Existing mathematical models ignore direct mechanical interactions of the tumor with the normal brain. Here, we developed a clinically relevant model, which predicts tumor growth accounting directly for mechanical interactions. A three-dimensional model of the gray and white matter and the cerebrospinal fluid was constructed from magnetic resonance images of a normal brain. Subsequently, a biphasic tissue growth theory for an initial tumor seed was employed, incorporating the effects of radiotherapy. Additionally, three different sets of brain tissue properties taken from the literature were used to investigate their effect on tumor growth. Results show the evolution of solid stress and interstitial fluid pressure within the tumor and the normal brain. Heterogeneous distribution of the solid stress exerted on the tumor resulted in a 35% spatial variation in cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, the model predicted that distant from the tumor, normal tissues still undergo significant deformations while it was found that intratumoral fluid pressure is elevated. Our predictions relate to clinical symptoms of brain cancers and present useful tools for therapy planning. PMID:27086116

  17. Biomechanical responses of different rat tendons to nandrolone decanoate and load exercise.

    Marqueti, R C; Prestes, J; Wang, C C; Ramos, O H P; Perez, S E A; Nakagaki, W R; Carvalho, H F; Selistre-de-Araujo, H S

    2011-12-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) have been associated with an increased incidence of tendon rupture. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the rat calcaneal tendon (CT), superficial flexor tendon (SFT), and deep flexor tendon (DFT), and to determine the effect of jump training in association with AAS. Animals were separated into four groups: sedentary, trained, AAS-treated sedentary rats (AAS), and AAS-treated and trained animals. Mechanical testing showed that the CT differed from the DFT and SFT, which showed similar mechanical properties. Jump caused the CT to exhibit an extended toe region, an increased resistance to tensional load, and a decreased elastic modulus, characteristics of an elastic tendon capable of storing energy. AAS caused the tendons to be less compliant, and the effects were reinforced by simultaneous training. The DFT was the most affected by training, AAS, and the interaction of both, likely because of its involvement in the toe-off step of jumping, which we suggest is related to the rapid transmission of force as opposed to energy storage. In conclusion, tendons are differently adapted to exercise, but responded equally to AAS, showing reduced flexibility, which is suggested to increase the risk of tendon rupture in AAS consumers. PMID:20673248

  18. Novel fiber-based pure chitosan scaffold for tendon augmentation: biomechanical and cell biological evaluation.

    Nowotny, J; Aibibu, D; Farack, J; Nimtschke, U; Hild, M; Gelinsky, M; Kasten, P; Cherif, Ch

    2016-07-01

    One possibility to improve the mechanical properties after tendon ruptures is augmentation with a scaffold. Based on wet spinning technology, chitosan fibres were processed to a novel pure high-grade multifilament yarn with reproducible quality. The fibres were braided to obtain a 3D tendon scaffold. The CS fibres and scaffolds were evaluated biomechanically and compared to human supraspinatus (SSP) tendons. For the cytobiological characterization, in vitro cell culture experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were performed. Three types of 3D circular braided scaffolds were fabricated. Significantly, higher ultimate stress values were measured for scaffold with larger filament yarn, compared to scaffold with smaller filament yarn. During cultivation over 28 days, the cells showed in dependence of isolation method and/or donor a doubling or tripling of the cell number or even a six-fold increase on the CS scaffold, which was comparable to the control (polystyrene) or in the case of cells obtained from human biceps tendon even higher proliferation rates. After 14 days, the scaffold surface was covered homogeneously with a cell layer. In summary, the present work demonstrates that braided chitosan scaffolds constitute a straightforward approach for designing tendon analogues, maintaining important flexibility in scaffold design and providing favourable mechanical properties of the resulting construct. PMID:27109607

  19. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- and Double-Leg Jump Landings in the Sagittal and Frontal Plane

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Double-leg forward or drop-jump landing activities are typically used to screen for high-risk movement strategies and to determine the success of neuromuscular injury prevention programs. However, research suggests that these tasks that occur primarily in the sagittal plane may not adequately represent the lower extremity biomechanics that occur during unilateral foot contact or non–sagittal plane movements that are characteristic of many multidirectional sports. Purpose: To examine the extent to which lower extremity biomechanics measured during a jump landing on a double leg (DL) after a sagittal plane (SAG) movement is representative of biomechanics measured during single-leg (SL) or frontal plane (FRONT) jump landing tasks. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Lower extremity biomechanics were measured in 15 recreationally active females (mean age [±SD], 19.4 ± 2.1 years; mean height, 163.3 ± 5.9 cm; mean weight, 61.1 ± 7.1 kg) while performing SAGDL, SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL jump landing tasks. Repeated-measures analyses of variance examined differences in lower extremity biomechanics between the 4 tasks, and linear regressions examined the extent to which an individual’s biomechanics during SAGDL were representative of their biomechanics during SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL. Results: Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics differed by condition, with the SAGDL task generally eliciting greater hip and knee flexion angles and lower hip and knee forces than the other tasks (P sports.

  20. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...