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Sample records for ablative hydrodynamic instabilities

  1. Modeling hydrodynamic instabilities of double ablation fronts in inertial confinement fusion

    Yanez C.; Sanz J; Olazabal-Loumé M.; Ibanez L.F.

    2013-01-01

    A linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability theory of double ablation (DA) fronts is developed for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Two approaches are discussed: an analytical discontinuity model for the radiation dominated regime of very steep DA front structure, and a numerical self-consistent model that covers more general hydrodynamic profiles behaviours. Dispersion relation results are compared to 2D simulations.

  2. Modeling hydrodynamic instabilities of double ablation fronts in inertial confinement fusion

    A linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability theory of double ablation (DA) fronts is developed for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Two approaches are discussed: an analytical discontinuity model for the radiation dominated regime of very steep DA front structure, and a numerical self-consistent model that covers more general hydrodynamic profiles behaviours. Dispersion relation results are compared to 2D simulations. (authors)

  3. Progress in indirect and direct-drive planar experiments on hydrodynamic instabilities at the ablation front

    Casner, A.; Masse, L.; Delorme, B.; Martinez, D.; Huser, G.; Galmiche, D.; Liberatore, S.; Igumenshchev, I.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Breil, J.; Michel, D. T.; Froula, D.; Seka, W.; Riazuelo, G.; Fujioka, S.; Sunahara, A.; Grech, M.; Chicanne, C.; Theobald, M.; Borisenko, N.; Orekhov, A.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Remington, B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and the fuel mix are the key elements for achieving ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Cryogenic indirect-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility have evidenced that the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is a driver of the hot spot mix. This motivates the switch to a more flexible higher adiabat implosion design [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056313 (2014)]. The shell instability is also the main candidate for performance degradation in low-adiabat direct drive cryogenic implosions [Goncharov et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014)]. This paper reviews recent results acquired in planar experiments performed on the OMEGA laser facility and devoted to the modeling and mitigation of hydrodynamic instabilities at the ablation front. In application to the indirect-drive scheme, we describe results obtained with a specific ablator composition such as the laminated ablator or a graded-dopant emulator. In application to the direct drive scheme, we discuss experiments devoted to the study of laser imprinted perturbations with special phase plates. The simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov phase reversal during the shock transit phase are challenging, and of crucial interest because this phase sets the seed of the RTI growth. Recent works were dedicated to increasing the accuracy of measurements of the phase inversion. We conclude by presenting a novel imprint mitigation mechanism based on the use of underdense foams. The foams induce laser smoothing by parametric instabilities thus reducing the laser imprint on the CH foil.

  4. Modeling hydrodynamic instabilities of double ablation fronts in inertial confinement fusion

    Yanez C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability theory of double ablation (DA fronts is developed for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Two approaches are discussed: an analytical discontinuity model for the radiation dominated regime of very steep DA front structure, and a numerical self-consistent model that covers more general hydrodynamic profiles behaviours. Dispersion relation results are compared to 2D simulations.

  5. Three-dimensional simulations of ablative hydrodynamic instabilities in indirectly driven targets

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Remington, B.A. [and others

    1996-06-01

    To model ignition in a National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule implosion, the authors must understand the behavior of instabilities that can cause breakup of the pellet shell. During a capsule implosion, shocks that transit the shell cause growth of perturbations at the surface or at an interface because of a Richtmyer-Meshkov type of instability. Following shock breakout, or earlier for a shaped pulse, the low-density ablated plasma accelerates the pusher, and the ablation front is Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable. Ablation and finite density gradients have the effect of stabilizing the short wavelength modes. Unstable modes present on the outer surface grow and feed through to the inner surface. Once the shell encounters the rebounding shock from the capsule center, it decelerates and the inner surface becomes RT unstable. If perturbations grow large enough, pusher material mixes into the core, degrading implosion performance. Capsule designs for the NIF depend on ablative stabilization and saturation to prevent perturbations initially present on the capsule surface from growing large enough to quench ignition. Here, the authors examine the first simulations and experiments to study the effect of 3-D perturbation shape on instability growth and saturation in indirectly driven targets. The first section discusses HYDRA, the radiation hydrodynamics code developed for these simulations. The subsequent section examines 3-D shape effects in single-mode perturbations in planar foil simulations and experiments. A discussion of the evolution of multimode perturbations on planar foils is followed by a discussion of 3-D simulations of instability growth in Nova capsule implosions.

  6. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

    An extensive series of experiments has been conducted on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime. Two-mode foils allow a first direct observation of mode coupling. Surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes

  7. Simulation studies on hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion

    Hydrodynamic simulation code that is based on the cubic interpolated pseudo-particle (CIP) scheme and the model of the equation of state is developed to analyze the experimental results and the effects of the instabilities in the inertial confinement fusion. Shock structure and target acceleration by laser ablation is simulated to good accuracy with the code. (author)

  8. Hydrodynamic modeling of ns-laser ablation

    David Autrique; Vasilios Alexiades; Harihar Khanal

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation is a versatile and widespread technique, applied in an increasing number of medical, industrial and analytical applications. A hydrodynamic multiphase model describing nanosecond-laser ablation (ns-LA) is outlined. The model accounts for target heating and mass removal mechanisms as well as plume expansion and plasma formation. A copper target is placed in an ambient environment consisting of helium and irradiated by a nanosecond-laser pulse. The effect of variable laser ...

  9. Hydrodynamic instabilities and neutron scattering

    The flow pattern in a liquid layer heated from below changes character as the vertical temperature gradient is increased. A review is given for the sequence of instabilities connected with the different flow regimes, with emphasis on their phase-transition aspects. Utilizing the coupling that exists between the molecular orientation and flow in a liquid crystal, we have used neutron scattering to explore these phenomena. The special features of liquid crystals in this respect are pointed out. Experiments near the lowest lying instability, the Rayleigh-Benard transition, verify the mean-field predictions for the change of the threshold gradient with the applied magnetic field, the behaviour of the order parameter (the fluid velocity) versus epsilon (the reduced gradient scale), the time-dependent growth and the critical slowing down of the growth rate of the order parameter. A pre-transitional tail of intensity is analysed within the same formalism and it is suggested that it arises from hydrodynamic fluctuations driven by the microscopic fluctuations of the liquid. Experiments at higher gradients reveal a time-periodic flow regime with frequencies down to cycles per hour. These observations lend support to modern theories for the transition to turbulence. (author)

  10. Numerical analysis of anisotropic diffusion effect on ICF hydrodynamic instabilities

    Olazabal-Loumé M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anisotropic diffusion on hydrodynamic instabilities in the context of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF flows is numerically assessed. This anisotropy occurs in indirect-drive when laminated ablators are used to modify the lateral transport [1,2]. In direct-drive, non-local transport mechanisms and magnetic fields may modify the lateral conduction [3]. In this work, numerical simulations obtained with the code PERLE [4], dedicated to linear stability analysis, are compared with previous theoretical results [5]. In these approaches, the diffusion anisotropy can be controlled by a characteristic coefficient which enables a comprehensive study. This work provides new results on the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM and Darrieus-Landau (DL instabilities.

  11. A hydrodynamic approach to QGP instabilities

    Calzetta, E

    2013-01-01

    We show that the usual linear analysis of QGP Weibel instabilities based on the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation may be reproduced in a purely hydrodynamic model. The latter is derived by the Entropy Production Variational Method from a transport equation including collisions, and can describe highly nonequilibrium flow. We find that, as expected, collisions slow down the growth of Weibel instabilities. Finally, we discuss the strong momentum anisotropy limit.

  12. Hydrodynamic instability in warped astrophysical discs

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2013-01-01

    Warped astrophysical discs are usually treated as laminar viscous flows, which have anomalous properties when the disc is nearly Keplerian and the viscosity is small: fast horizontal shearing motions and large torques are generated, which cause the warp to evolve rapidly, in some cases at a rate that is inversely proportional to the viscosity. However, these flows are often subject to a linear hydrodynamic instability, which may produce small-scale turbulence and modify the large-scale dynamics of the disc. We use a warped shearing sheet to compute the oscillatory laminar flows in a warped disc and to analyse their linear stability by the Floquet method. We find widespread hydrodynamic instability deriving from the parametric resonance of inertial waves. Even very small, unobservable warps in nearly Keplerian discs of low viscosity can be expected to generate hydrodynamic turbulence, or at least wave activity, by this mechanism.

  13. Hydrodynamic instability experiments and simulations

    Dimonte, G.; Schneider, M.; Frerking, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    Richtmyer-Meshkov experiments are conducted on the Nova laser with strong radiatively driven shocks (Mach > 20) in planar, two-fluid targets with Atwood number A < 0. Single mode interfacial perturbations are used to test linear theory and 3D random perturbations are used to study turbulent mix. Rayleigh-Taylor experiments are conducted on a new facility called the Linear Electric Motor (LEM) in which macroscopic fluids are accelerated electromagnetically with arbitrary acceleration profiles. The initial experiments are described. Hydrodynamic simulations in 2D are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, but these studies show that simulations in 3D with good radiation transport and equation of state are needed.

  14. Hydrodynamic instability in eccentric astrophysical discs

    Barker, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric Keplerian discs are believed to be unstable to three-dimensional hydrodynamical instabilities driven by the time-dependence of fluid properties around an orbit. These instabilities could lead to small-scale turbulence, and ultimately modify the global disc properties. We use a local model of an eccentric disc, derived in a companion paper, to compute the nonlinear vertical ("breathing mode") oscillations of the disc. We then analyse their linear stability to locally axisymmetric disturbances for any disc eccentricity and eccentricity gradient using a numerical Floquet method. In the limit of small departures from a circular reference orbit, the instability of an isothermal disc is explained analytically. We also study analytically the small-scale instability of an eccentric neutrally stratified polytropic disc with any polytropic index using a WKB approximation. We find that eccentric discs are generically unstable to the parametric excitation of small-scale inertial waves. The nonlinear evolution o...

  15. A strategy for reducing stagnation phase hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Encouraging progress is being made in demonstrating control of ablation front hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. Even once ablation front stabilities are controlled, however, instability during the stagnation phase of the implosion can still quench ignition. A scheme is proposed to reduce the growth of stagnation phase instabilities through the reverse of the “adiabat shaping” mechanism proposed to control ablation front growth. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations confirm that improved stagnation phase stability should be possible without compromising fuel compression

  16. A strategy for reducing stagnation phase hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Clark, D. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Encouraging progress is being made in demonstrating control of ablation front hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. Even once ablation front stabilities are controlled, however, instability during the stagnation phase of the implosion can still quench ignition. A scheme is proposed to reduce the growth of stagnation phase instabilities through the reverse of the “adiabat shaping” mechanism proposed to control ablation front growth. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations confirm that improved stagnation phase stability should be possible without compromising fuel compression.

  17. Laser ablation at the hydrodynamic regime

    Gojani Ardian B.

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation of several metals and PVC polymer by high energy nanosecond laser pulses is investigated experimentaly. Visualization by shadowgraphy revealed the dynamics of the discontinuities in ambient air and ablation plume above the target surface, while surface profiling allowed for determination of the ablated mass.

  18. Contribution to modelization and simulation of the ablative-like Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities for ICF

    This thesis deals with the dynamics of accelerated ablative front spreading in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments. ICF is designed for the implosion of a deuterium-tritium spherical target. The outer shell, the ablator, is irradiated providing a high level pressure inside the target. During this first stage, the ablation front propagating inwards is perturbed by hydrodynamics instabilities, which can prevent the fusion reaction in the decelerated stage. We propose here a study on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during ablation process, in the two dimensional case. In order to obtain a numerical solution, we perform an asymptotic analysis in the limit of a high temperature ratio, between the remaining cold ablator and the hot ablated plasma. This study is divided in two steps. First, the thermo-diffusive part of the set of equations is approximated by a Hele-Shaw model, which is then perturbed by the hydrodynamics part. Using a vortex method, we have to solve the advection of a vortical sheet moving with the ablation front. We compute the numerical solution on an Eulerian mesh coupled with a marker method. The thermal part is computed by implementing the Fat Boundary Method, recently developed. The hydrodynamic part is obtained from a Finite Volume scheme. (author)

  19. Hydrodynamic Instabilities at an Oblique Interface

    Kuranz, Carolyn; di Stefano, Carlos; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities are an important phenomenon that have consequences in many high-energy-density systems, including astrophysical systems and inertial confinement fusion experiments. Using the Omega EP laser we have created a sustained shock platform to drive a steady shock wave using a ~ 30 ns laser pulse. Coupled with a Spherical Crystal Imager we have created high-resolution x-ray radiographs to diagnose the evolution of complex hydrodynamic structures. This experiment involves a hydrodynamically unstable interface at an oblique angle so that the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz processes are present. A dual-mode perturbation is machined onto the interface and we seek to observe the merging of vertical structures. Preliminary data from recent experiments and simulations results will be shown. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, and the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0002032 and through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001944.

  20. Magnetothermal instability in laser plasmas including hydrodynamic effects.

    Bissell, J. J.; Kingham, R. J.; Ridgers, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of both density gradients and hydrodynamics on the evolution of the field compressing magnetothermal instability is considered [J. J. Bissell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 175001 (2010)]. Hydrodynamic motion is found to have a limited effect on overall growth-rates; however, density gradients are shown to introduce an additional source term corresponding to a generalised description of the field generating thermal instability [D. Tidman and R. Shanny, Phys. Fluids 17, ...

  1. Wavelength scaling of implosion symmetry, ablation pressure, and hydrodynamic efficiency in laser fusion

    We examine the scaling of implosion symmetry, ablation pressure, and hydrodynamic efficiency with the wavelength of the laser, using a recent theoretical analysis of ablative laser driven implosions as a tool. Symmetrization by a hot atmosphere is most effective for long wavelength lasers, whereas ablation pressure and hydrodynamic efficiency are best for shorter laser wavelengths

  2. Hydrodynamic instability of compressible fluid in porous medium

    The hydrodynamic Rayleigh -Taylor instability of two superposed compressible fluids in porous medium has been studied. The dispersion relation is derived for such a medium by using normal mode analysis. The RT instability is discussed for various simplified configuration. The effect of porosity and dynamic viscosity has been analyzed and it is observed that porosity and dynamic viscosity have stabilizing effect on the Rayleigh- Taylor instability of compressible fluids.

  3. Hydrodynamic instability growth and mix experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Hydrodynamic instability growth and its effects on implosion performance were studied at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)]. Implosion performance and mix have been measured at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and containing embedded localized carbon-deuterium diagnostic layers in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the tritium-tritium fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits for yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role. In addition, spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure instability growth in the acceleration phase of the implosions. The capsules were imploded using ignition-relevant laser pulses, and ablation-front modulation growth was measured using x-ray radiography for a shell convergence ratio of ∼2. The measured growth was in good agreement with that predicted, thus validating simulations for the fastest growing modulations with mode numbers up to 90 in the acceleration phase. Future experiments will be focused on measurements at higher convergence, higher-mode number modulations, and growth occurring during the deceleration phase

  4. Suppression of instability by double ablation in tungsten doped polyvinyl alcohol foils

    In Inertial fusion Energy (IFE) research stable acceleration of fusion targets is a significant problem due to hydrodynamic instabilities. This paper presents the results of the experiments done to investigate the effects of doping 20% of Tungsten (W) (by weight) in Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) polymer foils for suppression of instability during laser ablative acceleration. A 20J, 1.060μm, 900ps, Nd: Glass laser system with a focusable intensity of 3 to 9.6×1013W/cm2 was used in the experiment. It is observed that the doped PVA targets yielded stable and enhanced foil acceleration as compared to the undoped PVA foils.

  5. On hydrodynamic instability of the ozone layer

    We show that instability may be arisen when the large-scale waves propagate in the ozone layer of Earth's atmosphere. The instability criterion suitable both for the acoustic waves and for the Rossby waves is found. Moreover, the possibility of the spatially located dissipative Rossby vortical structures formation in this layer is established

  6. CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model

    If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces

  7. CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model

    Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces.

  8. An hydrodynamic shear instability in stratified disks

    Dubrulle, B; Normand, C; Richard, D; Hersant, F; Zahn, J P; Normand, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that astrophysical accretion disks are dynamically unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances with characteristic scales much smaller than the vertical scale height. The instability is studied using three methods: one based on the energy integral, which allows the determination of a sufficient condition of stability, one using a WKB approach, which allows the determination of the necessary and sufficient condition for instability and a last one by numerical solution. This linear instability occurs in any inviscid stably stratified differential rotating fluid for rigid, stress-free or periodic boundary conditions, provided the angular velocity $\\Omega$ decreases outwards with radius $r$. At not too small stratification, its growth rate is a fraction of $\\Omega$. The influence of viscous dissipation and thermal diffusivity on the instability is studied numerically, with emphasis on the case when $d \\ln \\Omega / d \\ln r =-3/2$ (Keplerian case). Strong stratification and large diffusivit...

  9. A generalized biharmonic equation and its applications to hydrodynamic instability

    Mihir B Banerjee; J R Gupta; R G Shandil

    2002-06-01

    Problems concerning characterization of eigenvalues of some linear and homogenous differential systems by the Pellew and Southwell method of conjugate eigenfunctions in the domain of hydrodynamic instability are discussed and a general mathematical framework described. In this general survey we look back on and rewrite this work almost in exactly the way it evolved out of a few naive looking calculations in hydrodynamic instability. We show in the process the close relationship that exists between mathematical analysis and its applications with due credit to intuition as the main source of mathematical activity.

  10. First Measurements of Fuel-Ablator Interface Instability Growth in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Weber, C. R.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Bunn, T. L.; Carlson, L. C.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Sater, J. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Direct measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth at the fuel-ablator interface in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions are reported for the first time. These experiments investigate one of the degradation mechanisms behind the lower-than-expected performance of early ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Face-on x-ray radiography is used to measure instability growth occurring between the deuterium-tritium fuel and the plastic ablator from well-characterized perturbations. This growth starts in two ways through separate experiments—either from a preimposed interface modulation or from ablation front feedthrough. These experiments are consistent with analytic modeling and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which say that a moderately unstable Atwood number and convergence effects are causing in-flight perturbation growth at the interface. The analysis suggests that feedthrough from outersurface perturbations dominates the interface perturbation growth at mode 60.

  11. Hydrodynamic instability experiments on the HIPER laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University

    We present recent results on the hydrodynamic instability experiments on the HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) laser facility at ILE, Osaka University. We measured the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate on the HIPER laser. Also measured were all parameters that determine the RT growth rate. We focused on the measurements of the ablation density of laser-irradiated targets, which had not been experimentally measured. The experimental results were compared with calculations with one dimensional simulation coupled with Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport. (author)

  12. Hydrodynamic instabilities in shear flows of dry cohesive granular particles

    Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Takada, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    We extend the dynamic van der Waals model introduced by A. Onuki [Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005, 94, 054501] to the description of cohesive granular flows under a plane shear to study their hydrodynamic instabilities. By numerically solving the dynamic van der Waals model, we observed various heterogeneous

  13. Neutrino signature of supernova hydrodynamical instabilities in three dimensions.

    Tamborra, Irene; Hanke, Florian; Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Raffelt, Georg

    2013-09-20

    The first full-scale three-dimensional core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations with sophisticated neutrino transport show pronounced effects of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) for two high-mass progenitors (20 and 27 M([Symbol: see text])). In a low-mass progenitor (11.2 M([Symbol: see text])), large-scale convection is the dominant nonradial hydrodynamic instability in the postshock accretion layer. The SASI-associated modulation of the neutrino signal (80 Hz in our two examples) will be clearly detectable in IceCube or the future Hyper-Kamiokande detector, depending on progenitor properties, distance, and observer location relative to the main SASI sloshing direction. The neutrino signal from the next galactic SN can, therefore, diagnose the nature of the hydrodynamic instability. PMID:24093243

  14. Dependence of Ablative Rayleigh—Taylor Instability on High-Z Dopant Concentration

    Shiroto, Takashi; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Sunahara, Atsushi; Fujioka, Shinsuke

    2016-03-01

    We conducted two-dimensional simulations of inertial confinement fusion targets to evaluate effects of high-Z doping on implosion hydrodynamics. It was found that an ablation structure drastically changes with concentration of dopant material. We also confirmed that even a lightly-doped target can suppress Rayleigh-Taylor instability on short wavelength, while a long-wavelength perturbation is difficult to be suppressed with any dopant concentration. The high-Z doping is thus only effective for a spherical implosion with high-mode perturbations.

  15. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic instability experiments and flow mixing

    2009-01-01

    Based on the numerical methods of volume of fluid (VOF) and piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and parallel circumstance of Message Passing Interface (MPI),a parallel multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and performed to study the hydrodynamic instability and flow mixing. Firstly,the MVPPM code is verified and validated by simulating three instability cases:The first one is a Riemann problem of viscous flow on the shock tube; the second one is the hydrodynamic instability and mixing of gaseous flows under re-shocks; the third one is a half height experiment of interfacial instability,which is conducted on the AWE’s shock tube. By comparing the numerical results with experimental data,good agreement is achieved. Then the MVPPM code is applied to simulate the two cases of the interfacial instabilities of jelly models acceler-ated by explosion products of a gaseous explosive mixture (GEM),which are adopted in our experi-ments. The first is implosive dynamic interfacial instability of cylindrical symmetry and mixing. The evolving process of inner and outer interfaces,and the late distribution of mixing mass caused by Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the center of different radius are given. The second is jelly layer ex-periment which is initialized with one periodic perturbation with different amplitude and wave length. It reveals the complex processes of evolution of interface,and presents the displacement of front face of jelly layer,bubble head and top of spike relative to initial equilibrium position vs. time. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with that experimental images,and show that the amplitude of initial perturbations affects the evolvement of fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth rate extremely,especially at late times.

  16. A comparison of three-dimensional multimode hydrodynamic instability growth on various National Ignition Facility capsule designs with HYDRA simulations

    Marinak, M.M.; Haan, S.W.; Dittrich, T.R.; Tipton, R.E.; Zimmerman, G.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Three similar cryogenic ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 3933 (1995)] are analyzed to determine surface roughness specifications required to mitigate the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. These capsule utilize brominated plastic, polyimid and copper-doped beryllium ablator materials respectively. Direct three-dimensional numerical simulations with the HYDRA radiation hydrodynamic code [M. M. Marinak {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 2070 (1996)] examine the growth of multimode perturbations seeded by roughness on the outer ablator and inner ice surfaces. The simulations, which showed weakly nonlinear behavior for optimized surfaces, were carried through ignition and burn. A three-dimensional multimode perturbation achieves somewhat larger amplitudes in the nonlinear regime than a corresponding two-dimensional simulation of the same rms amplitude. The beryllium and polyimid capsules exhibit enhanced tolerance of roughness on both the ice and ablator surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. A comparison of three-dimensional multimode hydrodynamic instability growth on various National Ignition Facility capsule designs with HYDRA simulations

    Three similar cryogenic ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] are analyzed to determine surface roughness specifications required to mitigate the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. These capsule utilize brominated plastic, polyimid and copper-doped beryllium ablator materials respectively. Direct three-dimensional numerical simulations with the HYDRA radiation hydrodynamic code [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2070 (1996)] examine the growth of multimode perturbations seeded by roughness on the outer ablator and inner ice surfaces. The simulations, which showed weakly nonlinear behavior for optimized surfaces, were carried through ignition and burn. A three-dimensional multimode perturbation achieves somewhat larger amplitudes in the nonlinear regime than a corresponding two-dimensional simulation of the same rms amplitude. The beryllium and polyimid capsules exhibit enhanced tolerance of roughness on both the ice and ablator surfaces. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  18. Ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    As shown elsewhere an ablatively imploded shell is hydrodynamically unstable, the dominant instability being the well known Rayleigh-Taylor instability with growth rate γ = √Akg where k = 2π/λ is the wave number, g is the acceleration and A the Attwood number (ρhi - ρlo)/(ρhi + ρlo) where ρhi is the density of the heavier fluid and ρlo is the density of the lighter fluid. A theoretical understanding of ablative stabilization has gradually evolved, confirmed over the last five years by experiments. The linear growth is very well understood with excellent agreement between experiment and simulation for planar geometry with wavelengths in the region of 30--100μm. There is an accurate, albeit phenomenological dispersion relation. The non-linear growth has been measured and agrees with calculations. In this lecture, the authors go into the fundamentals of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the experimental measurements that show it is stabilized sufficiently by ablation in regimes relevant to ICF

  19. Hydrodynamic Scaling of the Deceleration-Phase Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Bose, A.; Nora, R.; Woo, K.; Betti, R.

    2013-10-01

    A 2-D study of the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth is carried out to assess how the yield-over-clean (YOC) varies in hydro-equivalent implosions. Hydro-equivalent implosions exhibit equal implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity. The YOC indicates the effects of hydrodynamic instabilities on inertial fusion capsule implosions. While the classical RT instability follows the laws of hydrodynamic similarity (the same growth factor for hydro-equivalent implosions), the effects of ablation and thermal transport in the hot spot cause a deviation from similarity. We present analytic and numerical calculations of the RT growth factors in hydro-equivalent implosions with target sizes varying from typical OMEGA to NIF-scale targets. Theoretical scaling suggests that the deceleration-phase Atwood number and ablation velocity is different for OMEGA and the NIF, yielding growth factors that are dependent on the target size. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and DE-FC02-04ER54789 (Fusion Science Center).

  20. Study of hydrodynamic instabilities with a multiphase lattice Boltzmann model

    Velasco, Ali Mauricio; Muñoz, José Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz hydrodynamic instabilities are frequent in many natural and industrial processes, but their numerical simulation is not an easy challenge. This work simulates both instabilities by using a lattice Boltzmann model on multiphase fluids at a liquid-vapour interface, instead of multicomponent systems like the oil-water one. The model, proposed by He, Chen and Zhang (1999) [1] was modified to increase the precision by computing the pressure gradients with a higher order, as proposed by McCracken and Abraham (2005) [2]. The resulting model correctly simulates both instabilities by using almost the same parameter set. It also reproduces the relation γ ∝√{ A} between the growing rate γ of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the relative density difference between the fluids (known as the Atwood number A), but including also deviations observed in experiments at low density differences. The results show that the implemented model is a useful tool for the study of hydrodynamic instabilities, drawing a sharp interface and exhibiting numerical stability for moderately high Reynolds numbers.

  1. Neutrino signature of supernova hydrodynamical instabilities in three dimensions

    Tamborra, Irene; Hanke, Florian; Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Raffelt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The first full-scale three-dimensional (3D) core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations with sophisticated neutrino transport show pronounced effects of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) for two high-mass progenitors (20 and 27 M_sun). In a low-mass progenitor (11.2 M_sun), large-scale convection is the dominant nonradial hydrodynamic instability in the postshock accretion layer. The SASI-associated modulation of the neutrino signal (80 Hz in our two examples) will be clearly detec...

  2. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    Igochine, Valentin (ed.) [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Written and edited by leading plasma physics researchers. Provides a toolkit for scientists and engineers aiming to optimize plasma performance. Comprehensive treatment of different plasma instabilities. During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity. However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for ''old hands'' and newcomers alike.

  3. Conformations, hydrodynamic interactions, and instabilities of sedimenting semiflexible filaments

    Saggiorato, G; Winkler, R G; Gompper, G

    2015-01-01

    The conformations and dynamics of semiflexible filaments subject to a homogeneous external (gravitational) field, e.g., in a centrifuge, are studied numerically and analytically. The competition between hydrodynamic drag and bending elasticity generates new shapes and dynamical features. We show that the shape of a semiflexible filament undergoes instabilities as the external field increases. We identify two transitions that correspond to the excitation of higher bending modes. In particular, for strong fields the filament stabilizes in a non-planar shape, resulting in a sideways drift or in helical trajectories. For two interacting filaments, we find the same transitions, with the important consequence that the new non-planar shapes have an effective hydrodynamic repulsion, in contrast to the planar shapes which attract themselves even when their osculating planes are rotated with respect to each other. For the case of planar filaments, we show analytically and numerically that the relative velocity is not n...

  4. Swimmers in thin films: from swarming to hydrodynamic instabilities

    Leoni, M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the collective dynamics of a suspension of low Reynolds number swimmers that are confined in two dimensions by a thin fluid film. Our model swimmer is characterized by internal degrees of freedom which locally exert active stresses (force dipoles or quadrupoles) on the fluid. We find that hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the film can give rise to spontaneous continuous symmetry breaking (swarming), to states with either polar or nematic homogeneous order. For dipolar swimmers, the stroke averaged dynamics are enough to determine the leading contributions to the collective behaviour. In contrast, for quadrupolar swimmers, our analysis shows that detailed features of the internal dynamics play an important role in determining the bulk behaviour. In the broken symmetry phases, we investigate fluctuations of hydrodynamic variables of the system and find that these destabilize order. Interestingly, this instability is not generic and depends on length-scale.

  5. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified

  6. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity.  However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for "old hands" and newcomers alike.

  7. Hydrodynamic stability theory of double ablation front structures in inertial confinement fusion

    For moderate-Z materials, the hydrodynamic structure of the ablation region formed by the irradiation of high intensity laser beams differs from that of low-Z materials (hydrogenic ablators). In particular, the role played by the radiative energy flux becomes non-negligible for increasing atomic number material and ended up forming a second ablation front. This structure of two separated ablation fronts, called double ablation (DA) front, was confirmed in the simulations carried out by Fujioka et al. In this work a linear stability theory of DA fronts is developed for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Two models are proposed. First, a sharp boundary model where the thin front approximation is assumed for both ablation fronts. The information about the corona region that permits to close the sharp boundary model is obtained from a prior self-consistent analysis of the electronic-radiative ablation (ERA) front. Numerical results are presented as well as an analytical approach for the radiation dominated regime of very steep double ablation front structure. Second, a self-consistent numerical method where the finite length of the ablation fronts is considered. Accurate hydrodynamic profiles are taken into account in the theoretical model by means of a fitting parameters method using one-dimensional simulation results. Numerical dispersion relation is compared to the analytical sharp boundary model showing an excellent agreement for the radiation dominated regime, and the stabilization due to smooth profiles. 2D simulations are presented to validate the linear stability theory

  8. Preparing for an Explosion: Hydrodynamic Instabilities and Turbulence in Presupernovae

    Smith, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Both observations and direct numerical simulations are discordant with predictions of conventional stellar evolution codes for the latest stages of a massive star's life prior to core collapse. We suggest that the problem lies in the treatment of turbulent convection in these codes, which ignores finite amplitude fluctuations in velocity and temperature, and their nonlinear interaction with nuclear burning. The hydrodynamic instabilities that may arise prompt us to discuss a number of far-reaching implications for the fates of massive stars. In particular, we explore connections to enhanced presupernova mass loss, unsteady nuclear burning and consequent eruptions, swelling of the stellar radius that may trigger violent interactions with a companion star, and potential modifications to the core structure that could dramatically impact calculations of the core-collapse mechanism itself. These modifications may be of fundamental importance to the interpretation of measured isotopic anomalies in meteorites, chang...

  9. A hydrodynamic approach to the study of Weibel instability

    Calzetta, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    We show that the usual linear analysis of Weibel instability based on the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation may be reproduced in a purely hydrodynamic model. The latter is derived from a transport equation including collisions in the framework of Divergence Type Theories (DTT), complemented with the Entropy Production Variational Method (EPVM), a procedure that naturally involves the collision integral. We consider a distribution function that is the product of an equilibrium component times a non-equilibrium part determined by the EPVM. We consider a plasma of massless particles, i.e. a highly relativistic system. The dynamical equations that describe its evolution are written as conservation laws for the energy-momentum tensor, the electric current and a third order tensor. For an anisotropic but axially symmetric background with $p_x=p_y\

  10. Nova experiments to investigate hydrodynamic instabilities in the solid state

    Experiments were done to shock compress and accelerate copper foils at peak presssures of ∼3 Mbar above and below the melt temperature to study the effects of material strength on hydrodynamic instabilities. An x-ray drive generated in a hohlraum target was used to generate the shock wave profiles. The growth of a preimposed perturbation at an embedded interface is diagnosed by x-ray radiography. Results obtained using a high contrastshaped laser pulse show that the growth of the modulation is delayed compared to fluid simulations,which could be due to material strength stabilization. In contrast, when a copper foil is placed above the melt temperature at >3 Mbar with a single shock, it melts upon compression and the modulation growth is consistent with fluid modeling. Experimental results from copper shocked to 3 Mbar both below and above the melt temperature are presented and compared with simulation

  11. Radiation Hydrodynamical Instabilities in Cosmological and Galactic Ionization Fronts

    Whalen, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Ionization fronts, the sharp radiation fronts behind which H/He ionizing photons from massive stars and galaxies propagate through space, were ubiquitous in the universe from its earliest times. The cosmic dark ages ended with the formation of the first primeval stars and galaxies a few hundred Myr after the Big Bang. Numerical simulations suggest that stars in this era were very massive, 25 - 500 solar masses, with H II regions of up to 30,000 light-years in diameter. We present three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical calculations that reveal that the I-fronts of the first stars and galaxies were prone to violent instabilities, enhancing the escape of UV photons into the early intergalactic medium (IGM) and forming clumpy media in which supernovae later exploded. The enrichment of such clumps with metals by the first supernovae may have led to the prompt formation of a second generation of low-mass stars, profoundly transforming the nature of the first protogalaxies. Cosmological radiation hydrodynamics i...

  12. Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Valcke, S.; de Rijcke, S.; Röediger, E.

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated whether Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), equipped with artificial conductivity, is able to capture the physics of density/energy discontinuities in the case of the so-called shearing layers test, a test for examining Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. We can trace back each failure of SPH to show KH rolls to two causes: i) shock waves travelling in the simulation box and ii) particle clumping, or more generally, particle noise. The probable cause of shock waves is the Local Mixing Instability (LMI), previously identified in the literature. Particle noise on the other hand is a problem because it introduces a large error in the SPH momentum equation. We show that setting up initial conditions with a suitably smoothed density gradient dramatically improves results. Particle clumping is easy to overcome, the most straightforward method being the use of a suitable smoothing kernel with non-zero first central derivative. We present results to that effect using a new smoothing kernel: the LInear Quartic (LIQ) kernel. Furthermore, we present new Artificial Conductivity signal velocities that lead to less diffusion. The effects of the shock waves and of particle disorder become less important as the time-scale of the physical problem (for the shearing layers problem: lower density contrast and higher Mach numbers) decreases. At the resolution of current galaxy formation simulations mixing is probably not important. However, mixing could become crucial for next-generation simulations.

  13. Preparing for an explosion: Hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulence in presupernovae

    Both observations and numerical simulations are discordant with predictions of conventional stellar evolution codes for the latest stages of a massive star's life before core collapse. The most dramatic example of this disconnect is in the eruptive mass loss occurring in the decade preceding Type IIn supernovae. We outline the key empirical evidence that indicates severe pre-supernova instability in massive stars, and we suggest that the chief reason that these outbursts are absent in stellar evolution models may lie in the treatment of turbulent convection in these codes. The mixing length theory that is used ignores (1) finite amplitude fluctuations in velocity and temperature and (2) their nonlinear interaction with nuclear burning. Including these fluctuations is likely to give rise to hydrodynamic instabilities in the latest burning sequences, which prompts us to discuss a number of far-reaching implications for the fates of massive stars. In particular, we explore connections to enhanced pre-supernova mass loss, unsteady nuclear burning and consequent eruptions, swelling of the stellar radius that may trigger violent interactions with a companion star, and potential modifications to the core structure that could dramatically alter calculations of the core-collapse explosion mechanism itself. These modifications may also impact detailed nucleosynthesis and measured isotopic anomalies in meteorites, as well as the interpretation of young core-collapse supernova remnants. Understanding these critical instabilities in the final stages of evolution may make possible the development of an early warning system for impending core collapse, if we can identify their asteroseismological or eruptive signatures.

  14. Preparing for an Explosion: Hydrodynamic Instabilities and Turbulence in Presupernovae

    Smith, Nathan; Arnett, W. David

    2014-04-01

    Both observations and numerical simulations are discordant with predictions of conventional stellar evolution codes for the latest stages of a massive star's life before core collapse. The most dramatic example of this disconnect is in the eruptive mass loss occurring in the decade preceding Type IIn supernovae. We outline the key empirical evidence that indicates severe pre-supernova instability in massive stars, and we suggest that the chief reason that these outbursts are absent in stellar evolution models may lie in the treatment of turbulent convection in these codes. The mixing length theory that is used ignores (1) finite amplitude fluctuations in velocity and temperature and (2) their nonlinear interaction with nuclear burning. Including these fluctuations is likely to give rise to hydrodynamic instabilities in the latest burning sequences, which prompts us to discuss a number of far-reaching implications for the fates of massive stars. In particular, we explore connections to enhanced pre-supernova mass loss, unsteady nuclear burning and consequent eruptions, swelling of the stellar radius that may trigger violent interactions with a companion star, and potential modifications to the core structure that could dramatically alter calculations of the core-collapse explosion mechanism itself. These modifications may also impact detailed nucleosynthesis and measured isotopic anomalies in meteorites, as well as the interpretation of young core-collapse supernova remnants. Understanding these critical instabilities in the final stages of evolution may make possible the development of an early warning system for impending core collapse, if we can identify their asteroseismological or eruptive signatures.

  15. Growth rate and the cutoff wavelength of the Darrieus-Landau instability in laser ablation

    Modestov, Mikhail; Bychkov, Vitaly; Valiev, Damir; Marklund, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristics of the linear Darrieus-Landau instability in the laser ablation flow are investigated. The dispersion relation of the instability is found numerically as a solution to an eigenvalue stability problem, taking into account the continuous structure of the flow. The results are compared to the classical Darrieus-Landau instability of a usual slow flame. The difference between the two cases is due to the specific features of laser ablation: high plasma compression and stro...

  16. Numerical study of the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of laser-irradiated deuterium and deuterium-tritium targets

    Marocchino, Alberto; Atzeni, Stefano; Schiavi, Angelo

    2010-11-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) at the ablation front of laser-irradiated planar targets is investigated by two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamics simulations. The linear evolution of perturbations seeded either by surface roughness or target inhomogeneity is studied for perturbation wavelengths in the range 10≤λ≤400 μm and laser intensity 4×1012≤I≤4×1014 W/cm2 (with laser wavelength λlaser=0.35 μm). Thin and thick cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium (DT) planar targets are considered. For targets irradiated at constant intensity, it is found that perturbations with wavelength below a given threshold perform damped oscillations, while perturbations above such a threshold are unstable and oscillate with growing amplitude. This is qualitatively in agreement with theoretical predictions by Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)], according to which ablation related processes stabilize perturbations with kDc≫1, where Dc is the distance between the ablation front and critical density for laser propagation. For kDcdamped after an initial growth. In a thin target, initial perturbations, either damped or amplified by RMI and LDI, seed the subsequent Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Finally, it is shown that RMI growth of fusion targets can be reduced by using laser pulses including an initial adiabat-shaping picket (originally proposed to reduce the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability).

  17. Numerical Study of a Hydrodynamic Instability Driven by Evaporation

    Hernandez-Zapata, Sergio; Romo-Cruz, Julio Cesar Ruben; Lopez-Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    The study of hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid layers produced by evaporation has several applications on industry and technology. In this work we study numerically the conditions under which a liquid layer becomes unstable when evaporation in the vapor-liquid interphase is present. The evaporation process follows the Hertz-Knudsen law (the evaporation rate is proportional to the difference between the saturated vapor pressure at the liquid layer temperature and the vapor partial pressure in the environment). Additionally to the usual boundary conditions on solid walls (for example, the non-slip condition for the velocity), we analyze the boundary conditions in the vapor-liquid interphase where the momentum and energy balances have to be taken into account and where the evaporation plays a crucial role. To solve this problem the linear theory of stability is used; that is, a small perturbation around the basic solution is applied (flow at rest and a temperature stationary field). The equations are solved using the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method. The results are compared with the more usual Rayleigh-Bénard and Marangoni mechanisms as well as with some experiments carried out by our team. Authors acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN116312, ``Vorticidad y Ondas no lineales en fluidos.''

  18. Interaction of the magnetorotational instability with hydrodynamic turbulence in accretion disks

    Workman, Jared C

    2008-01-01

    Accretion disks in which angular momentum transport is dominated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can also possess additional, purely hydrodynamic, drivers of turbulence. Even when the hydrodynamic processes, on their own, generate negligible levels of transport, they may still affect the evolution of the disk via their influence on the MRI. Here, we study the interaction between the MRI and hydrodynamic turbulence using local MRI simulations that include hydrodynamic forcing. As expected, we find that hydrodynamic forcing is generally negligible if it yields a saturated kinetic energy density that is small compared to the value generated by the MRI. For stronger hydrodynamic forcing levels, we find that hydrodynamic turbulence modifies transport, with the effect varying depending upon the spatial scale of hydrodynamic driving. Large scale forcing boosts transport by an amount that is approximately linear in the forcing strength, and leaves the character of the MRI (for example the ratio between Max...

  19. Plasmas in particle accelerators: a hydrodynamic model of three-dimensional electrostatic instabilities

    A hydrodynamic model is used to help isolate possible three dimensional space charge instabilities in beam plasmas of concern in designing heavy ion accelerators for inertial confinement fusion energy applications. The model provides an economic means for searching the large parameter space relevant to problems in which coupling of longitudinal and transverse motions is allowed. It is shown that the equilibrium axial hydrodynamic pressure of the beam plasma has a significant effect on the stability boundaries of a two-rotating-stream instability. When considering the resistive wall effect, this model shows a kink instability. The growth rate of some modes could be enhanced by increasing the equilibrium axial pressure

  20. Contribution to modelization and simulation of the ablative-like Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities for ICF; Contribution a la modelisation et a la simulation des instabilites de type Rayleigh-Taylor ablatif pour la FCI

    Egly, H

    2007-10-15

    This thesis deals with the dynamics of accelerated ablative front spreading in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments. ICF is designed for the implosion of a deuterium-tritium spherical target. The outer shell, the ablator, is irradiated providing a high level pressure inside the target. During this first stage, the ablation front propagating inwards is perturbed by hydrodynamics instabilities, which can prevent the fusion reaction in the decelerated stage. We propose here a study on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during ablation process, in the two dimensional case. In order to obtain a numerical solution, we perform an asymptotic analysis in the limit of a high temperature ratio, between the remaining cold ablator and the hot ablated plasma. This study is divided in two steps. First, the thermo-diffusive part of the set of equations is approximated by a Hele-Shaw model, which is then perturbed by the hydrodynamics part. Using a vortex method, we have to solve the advection of a vortical sheet moving with the ablation front. We compute the numerical solution on an Eulerian mesh coupled with a marker method. The thermal part is computed by implementing the Fat Boundary Method, recently developed. The hydrodynamic part is obtained from a Finite Volume scheme. (author)

  1. Material Strength Effects on Feedthru of the Ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

    Loomis, Eric; Peralta, Pedro; Fortin, Elizabeth; Lynch, Jenna

    2015-11-01

    Mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is of prime importance for producing self-heating and reaching ignition. One possible mitigation strategy involves the use of metal ablators (e.g., Be) that remain solid following passage of the first shock. Finite material strength in these capsules would alter the feedthru characteristics (oscillation frequency and decay rate) of perturbations initially on the outer surface. To study the physics associated with material strength effects on rippled shock oscillations and feedthru, experiments were performed at the Los Alamos Trident laser. These experiments directly measured the surface height amplitude imprinted by the shock ripple at the opposite free surface with 20 nm precision over a timespan of 25 ns using an in-situ diagnostic called Transient Imaging Displacement Interferometry (TIDI). Simulations from the Lawrence Livermore National Lab code HYDRA predicted that the free surface ripple grows about 3 times more without the use of a strength model in Cu for an initial 5 micron amplitude, 50 micron wavelength sinusoid driven to a free surface velocity of 600 m/s. By increasing the perturbation wavelength we slowed the shock oscillation frequency and decay rate to increase the free surface ripple amplitude to roughly half the perturbations initial amplitude. The time dependent imprinted amplitude was considerably less in high strength Fe versus the softer Cu. This research made possible by a grant from the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences - High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas.

  2. Laser-Induced Hydrodynamic Instability of Fluid Interfaces

    Casner, Alexis; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-01

    We report on a new class of electromagnetically driven fluid interface instability. Using the optical radiation pressure of a cw laser to bend a very soft near-critical liquid-liquid interface, we show that it becomes unstable for sufficiently large beam power P, leading to the formation of a stationary beam-centered liquid microjet. We explore the behavior of the instability onset by tuning the interface softness with temperature and varying the size of the exciting beam. The instability mechanism is experimentally demonstrated. It simply relies on total reflection of light at the deformed interface whose condition provides the universal scaling relation for the onset PS of the instability.

  3. Probing the deep nonlinear stage of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in indirect drive experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    Casner, A.; Masse, L.; Liberatore, S.; Loiseau, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Jacquet, L.; Martinez, D.; Moore, A. S.; Seugling, R.; Felker, S.; Haan, S. W.; Remington, B. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Farrell, M.; Giraldez, E.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-05-01

    Academic tests in physical regimes not encountered in Inertial Confinement Fusion will help to build a better understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities and constitute the scientifically grounded validation complementary to fully integrated experiments. Under the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program, recent indirect drive experiments have been carried out to study the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) in transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regime [A. Casner et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 082708 (2012)]. In these experiments, a modulated package is accelerated by a 175 eV radiative temperature plateau created by a room temperature gas-filled platform irradiated by 60 NIF laser beams. The unique capabilities of the NIF are harnessed to accelerate this planar sample over much larger distances ( ≃1.4 mm) and longer time periods ( ≃12 ns) than previously achieved. This extended acceleration could eventually allow entering into a turbulent-like regime not precluded by the theory for the RTI at the ablation front. Simultaneous measurements of the foil trajectory and the subsequent RTI growth are performed and compared with radiative hydrodynamics simulations. We present RTI growth measurements for two-dimensional single-mode and broadband multimode modulations. The dependence of RTI growth on initial conditions and ablative stabilization is emphasized, and we demonstrate for the first time in indirect-drive a bubble-competition, bubble-merger regime for the RTI at ablation front.

  4. Numerical study of the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of laser-irradiated deuterium and deuterium-tritium targets

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) at the ablation front of laser-irradiated planar targets is investigated by two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamics simulations. The linear evolution of perturbations seeded either by surface roughness or target inhomogeneity is studied for perturbation wavelengths in the range 10≤λ≤400 μm and laser intensity 4x1012≤I≤4x1014 W/cm2 (with laser wavelength λlaser=0.35 μm). Thin and thick cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium (DT) planar targets are considered. For targets irradiated at constant intensity, it is found that perturbations with wavelength below a given threshold perform damped oscillations, while perturbations above such a threshold are unstable and oscillate with growing amplitude. This is qualitatively in agreement with theoretical predictions by Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)], according to which ablation related processes stabilize perturbations with kDc>>1, where Dc is the distance between the ablation front and critical density for laser propagation. For kDcc on laser intensity I (roughly Dc∝I, according to the present simulations). Direct-drive laser fusion targets are irradiated by time-shaped pulses, with a low intensity initial foot. In this case, perturbations with wavelengths below some threshold (about 10 μm, for typical ignition-class all-DT targets) are damped after an initial growth. In a thin target, initial perturbations, either damped or amplified by RMI and LDI, seed the subsequent Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Finally, it is shown that RMI growth of fusion targets can be reduced by using laser pulses including an initial adiabat-shaping picket (originally proposed to reduce the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability).

  5. Laser-induced hydrodynamic instability of fluid interfaces

    CASNER, ALEXIS; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    We report on a new class of electromagnetically-driven fluid interface instability. Using the optical radiation pressure of a cw laser to bend a very soft near-critical liquid-liquid interface, we show that it becomes unstable for sufficiently large beam power P, leading to the formation of a stationary beam-centered liquid micro-jet. We explore the behavior of the instability onset by tuning the interface softness with temperature and varying the size of the exciting beam. The instability me...

  6. Application of high-speed photography to hydrodynamic instability research

    High-speed photography is used to study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of air-water interface driven by high- pressure exploding gas. Clear images illustrating the instability are obtained, along with the air bubble peak speed and turbulent mixing speed. The RM (Richtmyer-Meshkov) instability of air/SF6 interface driven by shock wave is also researched by using high-speed Schlieren technique on the horizontal shock tube and primary experimental results are obtained, which show the change of the turbulent mixing region clearly. (authors)

  7. Rayleigh-Taylor finger instability mixing in hydrodynamic shell convection models

    Mocak, Miroslav; Mueller, Ewald

    2010-01-01

    Mixing processes in stars driven by composition gradients as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are not anticipated. They are supported only by hydrodynamic studies of stellar convection. We find that such mixing occurs below the bottom edge of convection zones in our multidimensional hydrodynamic shell convection models. It operates at interfaces created by off-center nuclear burning, where less dense gas with higher mean molecular weight is located above denser gas with a lower mea...

  8. Experimental Observation of Nonlinear Mode Coupling In the Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability on the NIF

    Martinez, David

    2015-11-01

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the transition from linear to highly nonlinear regimes. This work is part of the Discovery Science Program on NIF and of particular importance to indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) where careful attention to the form of the rise to final peak drive is calculated to prevent the RT instability from shredding the ablator in-flight and leading to ablator mixing into the cold fuel. The growth of the ablative RT instability was investigated using a planar plastic foil with pre-imposed two-dimensional broadband modulations and diagnosed using x-ray radiography. The foil was accelerated for 12ns by the x-ray drive created in a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. The dependence on initial conditions was investigated by systematically changing the modulation amplitude, ablator material and the modulation pattern. For each of these cases bubble mergers were observed and the nonlinear evolution of the RT instability showed insensitivity to the initial conditions. This experiment provides critical data needed to validate current theories on the ablative RT instability for indirect drive that relies on the ablative stabilization of short-scale modulations for ICF ignition. This paper will compare the experimental data to the current nonlinear theories. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.

  9. Numerical simulations of planar hydrodynamic instability and mixing driven by laser

    The 2D multi-mode laser ablative RTI is simulated from the linear stage to the turbulent mixing using the LARED-S code with fine grid resolution. The mixing width of 250 microns is yielded in the case of the main pulse with the duration of 15 ns. The ratio of the mix width and the cutoff wavelength, defined as N, is 67. Some of evolution laws of nonlinear RTI have been understood. The ratio N determines the evolution level of ablative RT mixing. Ablation has strong stabilization effect on RTI mixing, so the mix width of ablative RTI is less than half of that of classical RTI. Laser simulates the 2D planar RT instability and mixing driven by laser is simulated at the stagnation stage using the LARED-S code with fine grid resolution. Inner surface undergoes two quick RM growths and a continuous RT growth. Stagnation instability and mixing are also strongly stabilized by thermal conduction ablation. Small structure existing at the inner surface is quickly smoothed after first shock passed. Ablation stabilization is stronger after second shock passed and the cutoff wavelength increases to 35 microns. The large size structure is remained during the later time of expansion. (author)

  10. Analysis of the Evolution of Hydrodynamic Instability at the Interface of Active and Passive Media

    Kuratov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of an instability at the interface of active and passive media is considered. An asymptotic form of a collision integral is found and the limitations of hydrodynamic approach are determined. A growth increment of small perturbations of the interface is found using the potential flows theory. The obtained results were applied to estimation of the instability contribution to the development of some known physical processes.

  11. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities with Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Cha, Seung-Hoon; Inutsuka, Shu-Ichiro; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2010-04-01

    Numerical simulations for the non-linear development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in two different density layers have been performed with the particle-based method (Godunov SPH) developed by Inutsuka. The Godunov SPH can describe the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability even with a high-density contrast, while the standard SPH shows the absence of the instability across a density gradient. The interaction of a dense blob with a hot ambient medium has been performed also. The Godunov SPH describes the formation and evolution of the fingers due to the combinations of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The blob test result coincides well with the results of the grid-based codes. An inaccurate handling of a density gradient in the standard SPH has been pointed out as the direct reason of the absence of the instabilities. An unphysical force happens at the density gradient even in a pressure equilibrium, and repulses particles from the initial density discontinuity. Therefore, the initial perturbation damps, and a gap form at the discontinuity. The unphysical force has been studied in terms of the consistency of a numerical scheme. Contrary to the standard SPH, the momentum equation of the Godunov SPH does not use the particle approximation, and has been derived from the kernel convolution or a new Lagrangian function. The new Lagrangian function used in the Godunov SPH is more analogous to the real Lagrangian function for continuum. The momentum equation of the Godunov SPH has much better linear consistency, so the unphysical force is greatly reduced compared to the standard SPH in a high density contrast.

  12. Hydrodynamics of giant planet formation. II - Model equations and critical mass. III - Jupiter's nucleated instability

    A spherically symmetric protoplanetary model with a growing rigid core and a gaseous envelope of solar composition is used to investigate the character and evolution of the nucleated instability; the model equations formulated are used to follow the static evolution of a protogiant planet in the 'Kyoto' solar nebula, lying at Jupiter's solar distance, to its critical core mass. Convective energy transfer has been formulated for inclusion in implicit radiation hydrodynamical computations. It is established that collapse need not occur at the critical mass, which in agreement with earlier investigations is found to be of the order of 13.1 earth masses. This model is then used as an initial condition for a radiation hydrodynamical calculation of the nucleated instability. It is found that nonlinear hydrodynamic waves are excited by a kappa mechanism, and that an outflow is driven. 56 refs

  13. A pure hydrodynamic instability in shear flows and its application to astrophysical accretion disks

    Nath, Sujit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We provide the possible resolution for the century old problem of hydrodynamic shear flows, which are apparently stable in linear analysis but shown to be turbulent in astrophysically observed data and experiments. This mismatch is noticed in a variety of systems, from laboratory to astrophysical flows. There are so many uncountable attempts made so far to resolve this mismatch, beginning with the early work of Kelvin, Rayleigh, and Reynolds towards the end of the nineteenth century. Here we show that the presence of stochastic noise, whose inevitable presence should not be neglected in the stability analysis of shear flows, leads to pure hydrodynamic linear instability therein. This explains the origin of turbulence, which has been observed/interpreted in astrophysical accretion disks, laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first solution to the long standing problem of hydrodynamic instability of Rayleigh stable flows.

  14. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis

  15. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D. [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-03-27

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.

  16. Hydrodynamic fingering instability of driven wetting films: hindrance by diffusion

    Carles, P.; Troian, S. M.; Cazabat, A. M.; Heslot, F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical efforts have revealed the existence of a fingering instability at the moving front of thin liquid films forced to spread under gravitational, rotational or surface shear stresses, as for example by using the Marangoni effect. The authors describe how the presence of a precursor film in front of the spreading macroscopic film, whether it is by prewetting the substrate or by surface diffusion or multilayer absorption, can prevent the development of the instab...

  17. Laser ablation in CdZnTe crystal due to thermal self-focusing: Secondary phase hydrodynamic expansion

    Medvid', A.; Mychko, A.; Dauksta, E.; Kosyak, V.; Grase, L.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper deals with the laser ablation in CdZnTe crystal irradiated by pulsed infrared laser. Two values of threshold intensities of the laser ablation were determined, namely of about 8.5 and 6.2 MW/cm2 for the incident and the rear surfaces, correspondingly. Lower intensity of the laser ablation for the rear surface is explained by thermal self-focusing of the laser beam in the CdZnTe crystal due to heating of Te inclusions with a following hydrodynamic expansion.

  18. The numerical study of shock-induced hydrodynamic instability and mixing

    Wang Tao; Bai Jing-Song; Li Ping; Zhong Min

    2009-01-01

    Based on multi-fluid volume fraction and piecewise parabolic method (PPM), a multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and applied to the problems of shock-induced hydrodynamic interfacial instability and mixing. Simulations of gas/liquid interface instability show that the influences of initial perturbations on the fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth are significant, especially at the late stages, while grids have only a slight effect on the FMZ width, when the interface is impulsively accelerated by a shock wave passing through it. A numerical study of the hydrodynamic interfacial instability and mixing of gaseous flows impacted by re-shocks is presented. It reveals that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results and the mixing growth rate strongly depends on initial conditions. Ultimately, the jelly layer experiment relevant to the instability impacted by exploding is simulated. The shape of jelly interface, position of front face of jelly layer, crest and trough of perturbation versus time are given; their simulated results are in good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Effects of magnetic field, sheared flow and ablative velocity on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    It is found that magnetic field has a stabilization effect whereas the sheared flow has a destabilization effect on the RT instability in the presence of sharp interface. RT instability only occurs in the long wave region and can be completely suppressed if the stabilizing effect of magnetic field dominates. The RT instability increases with wave number and flow shear, and acts much like a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability when destabilizing effect of sheared flow dominates. It is shown that both of ablation velocity and magnetic filed have stabilization effect on RT instability in the presence of continued interface. The stabilization effect of magnetic field takes place for whole waveband and becomes more significant for the short wavelength. The RT instability can be completely suppressed by the cooperated effect of magnetic field and ablation velocity so that the ICF target shell may be unnecessary to be accelerated to very high speed. The growth rate decreases as the density scale length increases. The stabilization effect of magnetic field is more significant for the short density scale length. (author)

  20. How Do Hydrodynamic Instabilities Affect 3D Transport in Geophysical Vortices?

    Wang, P.; Ozgokmen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding three-dimensional (3D) transport in ocean eddies is important for processes at a variety of scales, ranging from plankton production to climate variability. It is well known that geophysical vortices are subject to various hydrodynamic instabilities. Yet the influence of these instabilities on 3D material transport in vortex systems is not well investigated. Focusing on barotropic, inertial and 3D instabilities, we analyze these instabilities with normal-mode method, and reproduce their characteristics via highly-resolved numerical simulations using a spectral element Navier-Stokes solver. By comparing the simulation results of stable and unstable vortices, we investigate the joint impacts of instabilities on 3D transport through three major aspects: (i) energy transfer, (ii) overturning transport of the secondary circulation, and (iii) rates of vertical exchange and mixing. It is found that instabilities can enhance local nonlinear interactions and cause the kinetic energy wavenumber spectrum to have slopes between the conventional -5/3 and -3 at inertial ranges. The cascade of a new quantity is proposed to explain these non-conventional slopes. One of our main results is the discovery of material exchange between the central vortex and satellite vortices through 3D pathways, called funnels. These funnels modify the concept of elliptic regions that can trap material when confined to 2D dynamics. Thus, we show that a family of vortices, created by the hydrodynamic instabilities of the initially unstable vortex, can still continue to operate in unity in order to complete the 3D transport in these systems. We also show that flow instabilities can double the magnitude of vertical velocity, increase the rate of vertical exchange by an order of magnitude and enhance mixing rate more than 100%.

  1. Hydrodynamic instabilities and transverse waves in propagation mechanism of gaseous detonations

    Mahmoudi, Y.; Mazaheri, K.; Parvar, S.

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the role of transverse waves and hydrodynamic instabilities mainly, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in detonation structure using two-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of Euler equations. To compare the numerical results with those of experiments, Navier-Stokes simulations are also performed by utilizing the effect of diffusion in highly irregular detonations. Results for both moderate and low activation energy mixtures reveal that upon collision of two triple points a pair of forward and backward facing jets is formed. As the jets spread, they undergo Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The drastic growth of the forward jet found to have profound role in re-acceleration of the detonation wave at the end of a detonation cell cycle. For irregular detonations, the transverse waves found to have substantial role in propagation mechanism of such detonations. In regular detonations, the lead shock ignites all the gases passing through it, hence, the transverse waves and hydrodynamic instabilities do not play crucial role in propagation mechanism of such regular detonations. In comparison with previous numerical simulations present simulation using single-step kinetics shows a distinct keystone-shaped region at the end of the detonation cell.

  2. Reshocks, rarefactions, and the generalized Layzer model for hydrodynamic instabilities

    Mikaelian, K O

    2008-06-10

    We report numerical simulations and analytic modeling of shock tube experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We examine single interfaces of the type A/B where the incident shock is initiated in A and the transmitted shock proceeds into B. Examples are He/air and air/He. In addition, we study finite-thickness or double-interface A/B/A configurations like air/SF{sub 6}/air gas-curtain experiments. We first consider conventional shock tubes that have a 'fixed' boundary: A solid endwall which reflects the transmitted shock and reshocks the interface(s). Then we focus on new experiments with a 'free' boundary--a membrane disrupted mechanically or by the transmitted shock, sending back a rarefaction towards the interface(s). Complex acceleration histories are achieved, relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. We compare our simulation results with a generalized Layzer model for two fluids with time-dependent densities, and derive a new freeze-out condition whereby accelerating and compressive forces cancel each other out. Except for the recently reported failures of the Layzer model, the generalized Layzer model and hydrocode simulations for reshocks and rarefactions agree well with each other, and remain to be verified experimentally.

  3. Hydrodynamic instabilities in gaseous detonations: comparison of Euler, Navier–Stokes, and large-eddy simulation

    Mahmoudi, Y.; Karimi, N.; Deiterding, R.; Emami, S.

    2014-01-01

    A large-eddy simulation is conducted to investigate the transient structure of an unstable detonation wave in two dimensions and the evolution of intrinsic hydrodynamic instabilities. The dependency of the detonation structure on the grid resolution is investigated, and the structures obtained by large-eddy simulation are compared with the predictions from solving the Euler and Navier–Stokes equations directly. The results indicate that to predict irregular detonation structures in agreement ...

  4. Numerical study and modeling of hydrodynamic instabilities in the context of inertial confinement fusion in the presence of self-generated magnetic fields

    In the context of inertial confinement fusion we investigate effects of magnetic fields on the development in the linear regime of two hydrodynamic instabilities: Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using ideal magnetohydrodynamics and ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in both acceleration and deceleration stages. Direct numerical simulations with a linear perturbation code enable us to confirm the stabilizing effect of the component of the magnetic field along the perturbations wave vector. The amplitude doesn't grow linearly in time but experiences oscillations instead. The compressibility taken into account in the code does not affect predictions given by an already existing impulsive and incompressible model. As far as Rayleigh-Taylor instability is concerned we study the effects of self-generated magnetic fields that arise from the development of the instability itself. In the acceleration stage we perform two dimensional simulations in planar geometry. We show that magnetic fields of about 1 T can be generated and that the instability growth transits more rapidly into nonlinear growth with the enhancement of the development of the third harmonic. We also propose an adaptation of an existing model that aims at studying thermal conductivity anisotropy effects, to take into account the effects of the self-generated magnetic fields on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate. Finally, in the deceleration stage, we perform two dimensional simulations in cylindrical geometry that take into account self-generation of magnetic fields due to the instability development. It reveals magnetic fields of about several thousands of Teslas that are not strong enough though to affect the instability behavior. (author)

  5. Hydrodynamic instabilities of thin Au/Pd alloy film induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr, E-mail: ku4mijak@dvo.ru [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, 5 Radio str., Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Gurbatov, Stanislav; Nepomniaschiy, Aleksandr; Mayor, Aleksandr [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, 5 Radio str., Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Kulchin, Yuri; Vitrik, Oleg [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, 5 Radio str., Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Sukhanova Str., Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Makarov, Sergey [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Kudryashov, Sergey [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ionin, Andrey [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Each type of laser-induced hydrodynamic instabilities results in the formation of corresponding frozen surface relief nanostructure: nanojets, nanocrowns or hybrid structures (a nanojet surrounded by a nanocrown). • The thickness of the metal film as well as the pulse energy were found to be the key parameters determining the type of the resulted surface structure. • Pd addition in the Au film results in the formation of the nanojets and the spherical droplets with a porous internal structure. - Abstract: We report on detailed experimental study of various nanoscale surface hydrodynamic instabilities on thin Au/Pd alloy films induced by tightly focused single femtosecond pulses. Each type of laser-induced hydrodynamic instabilities results in the formation of corresponding resolidified surface relief nanostructure: nanojet, nanocrown or hybrid structure (a nanojet surrounded by a nanocrown), where the hybrid structure is reported for the first time. Thickness of metal films, as well as the laser pulse energy, were found to be the key parameters determining the type of the resulting surface structures. Single nanojets were revealed to appear only on films with sub-100-nm thickness, while irradiation of thicker films (120–240 nm) leads to the formation of nanocrowns at near-threshold energies or hybrid structures at higher energies. The underlying formation mechanisms giving rise to all of these laser-induced nanostructures are also discussed.

  6. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Yan, R.; Aluie, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Betti, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Sanz, J. [E.T.S.I. Aeronáuticos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Liu, B.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.

  7. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Yan, R. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Betti, R. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Sanz, J. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Aluie, H. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Liu, B. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Frank, A. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. As a result, the vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.

  8. Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability of ablation fronts in inertial confinement fusion

    Di Lucchio, Laura

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in inertial confinement fusion is how to find a way to mitigate the onset of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which arises in the ablation front during the compression. In this thesis it is studied in detail the possibility of using for such a purpose the well-known mechanism of dynamic stabilization, already applied to other dynamical systems such as the inverted pendulum. In this context, a periodic acceleration superposed to the background gravity generat...

  9. Filamentation due to the Weibel Instability in two counterstreaming laser ablated plasmas

    Dong, Quan-Li; Yuan, Dawei; Gao, Lan; Liu, Xun; Chen, Yangao; Jia, Qing; Hua, Neng; Qiao, Zhanfeng; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Baoqiang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhao, Gang; Ji, Hantao; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Weibel-type filamentation instability was observed in the interaction of two counter streaming laser ablated plasma flows, which were supersonic, collisionless, and closely relevant to astrophysical conditions. The plasma flows were created by irradiating a pair of oppositely standing plastic (CH) foils with 1ns-pulsed laser beams of total energy of 1.7 kJ in two laser spots. With characteristics diagnosed in experiments, the calculated features of Weibel-type filaments are in good agreement with measurements.

  10. Observation of hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated plasma in a small hole

    In the hohlraum used in laser indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments, hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated high-Z plasma have a great effect on laser injection efficiency, radiation uniformity, and diagnosis of hohlraum radiation field from diagnostic windows (DW). To study plasma filling in the DWs, a laser-irradiated Ti disk was used to generate 2–5 keV narrow energy band X-ray as the intense backlighter source, and laser-produced X-ray in a hohlraum with low-Z foam tamper was used to heat a small hole surrounded by gold wall with 150 μm in diameter and 100 μm deep. The hydrodynamic movement of the gold plasma in the small hole was measured by an X-ray framing camera and the results are analyzed. Quantitative measurement of the plasma areal density distribution and evolution in the small hole can be used to assess the effect of plasma filling on the diagnosis from the DWs

  11. Observation of hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated plasma in a small hole

    Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: jiangshn@vip.sina.com; Ding, Yongkun, E-mail: ding-yk@vip.sina.com [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Song, Tianming; Yang, Jiamin, E-mail: yjm70018@sina.cn; Zhu, Tuo; Lin, Zhiwei; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Haiying; Yu, Ruizhen; Liu, Shenye [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Hu, Guangyue; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-07-15

    In the hohlraum used in laser indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments, hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated high-Z plasma have a great effect on laser injection efficiency, radiation uniformity, and diagnosis of hohlraum radiation field from diagnostic windows (DW). To study plasma filling in the DWs, a laser-irradiated Ti disk was used to generate 2–5 keV narrow energy band X-ray as the intense backlighter source, and laser-produced X-ray in a hohlraum with low-Z foam tamper was used to heat a small hole surrounded by gold wall with 150 μm in diameter and 100 μm deep. The hydrodynamic movement of the gold plasma in the small hole was measured by an X-ray framing camera and the results are analyzed. Quantitative measurement of the plasma areal density distribution and evolution in the small hole can be used to assess the effect of plasma filling on the diagnosis from the DWs.

  12. Power Disturbances Close to Hydrodynamic Instability in Natural Circulation Two-Phase Flow

    In certain boiling reactor designs high positive void coefficients could exist and under certain circumstances cause instability. Control systems may therefore be desired. In such a controlled reactor there could remain superimposed low frequency power oscillations of some magnitude. The object of the current experiments in SKALVAN was to examine whether or not such slow oscillations could influence the hydrodynamic stability limit of the individual boiling channels. While operating the loop close to the threshold of hydrodynamic instability, the power was pulsed in the boiling channel. The pulse widths had a lower limit of 0.65 sec due to the contactor time constant. The square wave power oscillation amplitude ΔQ/Q was 12.2 %, and the interval T between the pulses was varied in the range 0 0/T 0 was the mass flow oscillation period. The corresponding mass flow oscillations remained damped for all disturbance periods which were examined. With minimum test section inlet restrictions the power level at instability was much lower than that at burnout conditions. At higher restrictions these phenomena occurred at approximately equivalent power levels. The experiments with minimum inlet restrictions were also performed beyond the instability threshold. In this case it was possible to exceed the nominal burnout point temporarily by 5 per cent or more for periods of the order of magnitude 1 second. Even now the boiling channel conditions were not so severely affected that the burnout detectors tripped, and the power disturbances caused low frequency modulated wave trains

  13. Computational and experimental studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulent mixing (Review of NVIIEF efforts)

    This report describes an extensive program of investigations conducted at Arzamas-16 in Russia over the past several decades. The focus of the work is on material interface instability and the mixing of two materials. Part 1 of the report discusses analytical and computational studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulent mixing. The EGAK codes are described and results are illustrated for several types of unstable flow. Semiempirical turbulence transport equations are derived for the mixing of two materials, and their capabilities are illustrated for several examples. Part 2 discusses the experimental studies that have been performed to investigate instabilities and turbulent mixing. Shock-tube and jelly techniques are described in considerable detail. Results are presented for many circumstances and configurations

  14. Computational and experimental studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulent mixing (Review of NVIIEF efforts)

    Andronov, V.A.; Zhidov, I.G.; Meskov, E.E.; Nevmerzhitskii, N.V.; Nikiforov, V.V.; Razin, A.N.; Rogatchev, V.G.; Tolshmyakov, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

    1995-02-01

    This report describes an extensive program of investigations conducted at Arzamas-16 in Russia over the past several decades. The focus of the work is on material interface instability and the mixing of two materials. Part 1 of the report discusses analytical and computational studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulent mixing. The EGAK codes are described and results are illustrated for several types of unstable flow. Semiempirical turbulence transport equations are derived for the mixing of two materials, and their capabilities are illustrated for several examples. Part 2 discusses the experimental studies that have been performed to investigate instabilities and turbulent mixing. Shock-tube and jelly techniques are described in considerable detail. Results are presented for many circumstances and configurations.

  15. Linear Simulations of the Cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Hydrodynamics and MHD

    Gao, Song

    2013-05-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when density-stratified interfaces are impulsively accelerated, typically by a shock wave. We present a numerical method to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cylindrical geometry. The ideal MHD equations are linearized about a time-dependent base state to yield linear partial differential equations governing the perturbed quantities. Convergence tests demonstrate that second order accuracy is achieved for smooth flows, and the order of accuracy is between first and second order for flows with discontinuities. Numerical results are presented for cases of interfaces with positive Atwood number and purely azimuthal perturbations. In hydrodynamics, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth of perturbations is followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor growth phase. In MHD, numerical results indicate that the perturbations can be suppressed for sufficiently large perturbation wavenumbers and magnetic fields.

  16. The Nature of the Radiative Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Radiatively Supported Thomson Atmospheres

    Shaviv, N J

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheres having a significant radiative support are shown to be intrinsically unstable at luminosities above a critical fraction Gamma_crit ~ 0.5-0.85 of the Eddington limit, with the exact value depending on the boundary conditions. Two different types of absolute radiation-hydrodynamic instabilities of acoustic waves are found to take place even in the electron scattering dominated limit. Both instabilities grow over dynamical time scales and both operate on non radial modes. One is stationary and arises only after the effects of the boundary conditions are taken into account, while the second is a propagating wave and is insensitive to the boundary conditions. Although a significant wind can be generated by these instabilities even below the classical Eddington luminosity limit, quasi-stable configurations can exist beyond the Eddington limit due to the generally reduced effective opacity. The study is done using a rigorous numerical linear analysis of a gray plane parallel atmosphere under the Eddingto...

  17. Three-Dimensional Single-Mode Nonlinear Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Yan, R.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (ART) instability is studied in three dimensions for conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion targets. The simulations are performed using our newly developed code ART3D and an astrophysical code AstroBEAR. The laser ablation can suppress the growth of the short-wavelength modes in the linear phase but may enhance their growth in the nonlinear phase because of the vortex-acceleration mechanism. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the bubble velocity grows faster than predicted in the classical 3-D theory. When compared to 2-D results, 3-D short-wavelength bubbles grow faster and do not reach saturation. The unbounded 3-D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes into the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume. A density plateau is observed inside a nonlinear ART bubble and the plateau density is higher for shorter-wavelength modes. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  18. On the Existence of Hydrodynamic Instability in Single Diffusive Bottom Heavy Systems with Permeable Boundaries

    A K Gupta; R G Shandil

    2011-11-01

    We utilize the reformulated equations of the classical theory, as derived by Banerjee et al.(J. Math. Anal. Appl. 175 (1993) 458), to establish mathematically, the existence of hydrodynamic instability in single diffusive bottom heavy systems, when considered in the more general framework of the boundary conditions of the type specified by Beavers and Joseph (J. Fluid Mech. 30 (1967) 197), in the parameter regime $T_0_2>1$, where $T_0$ and 2 being some properly chosen mean temperature and coefficient of specific heat (at constant volume) variation due to temperature variation respectively.

  19. Simulating Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability using PPM hydrodynamics @scale on Roadrunner (u)

    Woodward, Paul R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockefeller, Gabriel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kares, R. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-05

    The effect of initial conditions on the self-similar growth of the RT instability is investigated using a hydrodynamics code based on the piecewise-parabolic-method (PPM). The PPM code was converted to the hybrid architecture of Roadrunner in order to perform the simulations at extremely high speed and spatial resolution. This paper describes the code conversion to the Cell processor, the scaling studies to 12 CU's on Roadrunner and results on the dependence of the RT growth rate on initial conditions. The relevance of the Roadrunner implementation of this PPM code to other existing and anticipated computer architectures is also discussed.

  20. Self-consistent numerical dispersion relation of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability of double ablation fronts in inertial confinement fusion

    Yáñez Vico, Carlos; Sanz Recio, Javier; Olazabal-Loumé, M.

    2012-01-01

    The linear stability analysis of accelerated double ablation fronts is carried out numerically with a self-consistent approach. Accurate hydrodynamic profiles are taken into account in the theoretical model by means of a fitting parameters method using 1D simulation results. Numerical dispersión relation is compared to an analytical sharp boundary model [Yan˜ez et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 052701 (2011)] showing an excellent agreement for the radiation dominated regime of very steep ablati...

  1. Hydrodynamical instabilities induced by atomic diffusion in A stars and their consequences

    Deal, M; Vauclair, S

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Atomic diffusion, including the effect of radiative accelerations on individual elements, leads to important variations of the chemical composition inside the stars. The accumulation in specific layers of the elements, which are the main contributors of the local opacity, leads to hydrodynamical instabilities that modify the internal stellar structure and surface abundances. Our aim is to study these effects and compare the resulting surface abundances with spectroscopic observations Methods. We computed the detailed structure of A-type stars including these effects. We used the Toulouse-Geneva Evolution Code (TGEC), where radiative accelerations are computed using the Single Valued Parameter (SVP) method, and we added double-diffusive convection with mixing coefficients deduced from three-dimensional (3D) simulations. Results. We show that the modification of the initial chemical composition has important effects on the internal stellar mixing and leads to different surface abundances of the elements. ...

  2. Steady-state hydrodynamic instabilities of active liquid crystals: Hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations

    Marenduzzo, D.; Orlandini, E.; Cates, M. E.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2007-09-01

    We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently “extensile” rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently “contractile” ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of “convection rolls.” These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.

  3. Steady-state hydrodynamic instabilities of active liquid crystals: hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations.

    Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M

    2007-09-01

    We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics. PMID:17930285

  4. Effect of throttling on burnout heat flux and hydrodynamic instability in natural circulation

    Twenty-four experiments were carried out to study the effect of restriction of the flow before inlet of the test section on burnout heat flux and instability of the flow boiling. These experiments were carried out on a 10, 12, 14, 16 mm out diameter stainless steel heated elements, 50 and 75 cms long centered inside a 26 mm inner diameter stainless steel channel forming an annulus through which water followed upwards to give diameter ratios 2.6, 2.17, 1.86 and 1.63 respectively. The parameters are chosen to cover the lack of the literatures for burnout conditions at low pressures, 1.5, 3, 6, 10 atma). These are of great benefit to the designers of high heat flux devices such as boilers and nuclear reactors ...etc. A detail description of the experimental loop is given. Test section, steam separator, condenser, precooler, preheater, throttle valve, flow measurements and safety devices are designed and constructed for an operating pressure up to 10 atma and temperature up to 2200C. The results show that 1. The burnout heat flux first increases and then decreases as the restriction of the flow increases; 2. The hydrodynamic instability increases as the restriction of the flow before the test section increases. (author)

  5. Fractal flame structure due to the hydrodynamic Darrieus-Landau instability.

    Yu, Rixin; Bai, Xue-Song; Bychkov, Vitaly

    2015-12-01

    By using large scale numerical simulations, we obtain fractal structure, which develops at originally planar flame fronts due to the hydrodynamic Darrieus-Landau (DL) instability bending the fronts. We clarify some important issues regarding the DL fractal flames, which have been debated for a long time. We demonstrate an increase of the flame propagation speed with the hypothetic channel width, which controls the length scale of the instability development. We show that this increase may be fitted by a power law indicating the mean fractal properties of the flame front structure. The power exponent in this law is found to be not a universal constant, rather it depends on the flame properties-on the density drop at the front. Using box counting on the simulated flame front shapes we show the fractal flame dimension at the intermediate scale is smaller than the one given by the power law, but it has a similar dependency on the density drop. We also obtain a formation of pockets at the DL fractal flame fronts, which previously has been associated only with turbulent burning. PMID:26764824

  6. Self-consistent cutoff wave number of the ablative Rayleigh--Taylor instability

    The cutoff wave number of the ablative Rayleigh--Taylor instability is calculated self-consistently by including the effects of finite thermal conduction. The derived cutoff wave number is quite different from the one obtained with the incompressible fluid (∇·v=0) or sharp boundary models, and it is strongly dependent on thermal conductivity (K∼Tν) and the Froude number (Fr). The derivation is carried out for values of ν>1, Fr>1, and it is valid for some regimes of interest to direct and indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The analytic formula for the cutoff wave number is in excellent agreement with the numerical results of Kull [Phys. Fluids B 1, 170 (1989)]. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Hydrodynamic instability experiments with three-dimensional modulations at the National Ignition Facility

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hoover, D. E.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-06-08

    The first hydrodynamic instability growth measurements with three-dimensional (3D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on CH shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng.43, 2841 (2004)]. The initial capsule outer-surface amplitudes were increased approximately four times, compared with the standard specifications, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, helping to qualify a technique for measuring small 3D modulations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray through-foil radiography based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 15 similar images significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3D simulations. At a convergence ratio of${\\sim}2.4$, the measured modulation levels were${\\sim}3$times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. Several hypotheses are discussed, including increased instability growth due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. Future experiments will be focused on measurements with standard 3D ‘native-roughness’ capsules as well as with deliberately imposed oxygen modulations.

  8. Computational and experimental studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulent mixing: Review of VNIIEF efforts. Summary report

    Andronov, V.A.; Zhidov, I.G.; Meskov, E.E.; Nevmerzhitskii, N.V.; Nikiforov, V.V.; Razin, A.N.; Rogatchev, V.G.; Tolshmyakov, A.I.; Yanilkin, Y.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The report presents the basic results of some calculations, theoretical and experimental efforts in the study of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities and the turbulent mixing which is caused by their evolution. Since the late forties the VNIIEF has been conducting these investigations. This report is based on the data which were published in different times in Russian and foreign journals. The first part of the report deals with calculations an theoretical techniques for the description of hydrodynamic instabilities applied currently, as well as with the results of several individual problems and their comparison with the experiment. These methods can be divided into two types: direct numerical simulation methods and phenomenological methods. The first type includes the regular 2D and 3D gasdynamical techniques as well as the techniques based on small perturbation approximation and on incompressible liquid approximation. The second type comprises the techniques based on various phenomenological turbulence models. The second part of the report describes the experimental methods and cites the experimental results of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meskov instability studies as well as of turbulent mixing. The applied methods were based on thin-film gaseous models, on jelly models and liquid layer models. The research was done for plane and cylindrical geometries. As drivers, the shock tubes of different designs were used as well as gaseous explosive mixtures, compressed air and electric wire explosions. The experimental results were applied in calculational-theoretical technique calibrations. The authors did not aim at covering all VNIIEF research done in this field of science. To a great extent the choice of the material depended on the personal contribution of the author in these studies.

  9. X-Ray Laser in an Ablative Capillary Discharge Driven by an m=0 Instability

    The development of EUV and soft-X ray lasers made great progress during the last decade. In most cases powerful primary lasers in the UV-, visible and near-infrared spectral regions are employed to produce the dense hot plasmas needed as active media for the lasers. Widely spread applications require small table-top systems and here capillary discharges offer an alternative approach and are being studied by several groups. By selecting properly the transient discharge conditions, collisional excitation or three-body recombination are the effective mechanisms to achieve population inversion. At the Ruhr-University a different approach is pursued where charge exchange between different ions in colliding plasmas is utilized. The plasmas are produced in a small ablative capillary discharge made of polyacetal. In the second half cycle an m=O instability develops and results in hot plasmas in the neck regions which stream into the cold plasma outside and create overpopulation of the n=3 level of hydrogenic carbon leading to lasing on the Balmer-alpha line at 18.22 nm. A waved structure of the inner capillary wall induces reliably the instability and pinhole pictures give the clue why not all materials are useful. Double pass experiments using a multilayer mirror give an effective gain-length product of GL=4.3 for a 3 cm long capillary and a life-time of the inversion layers of 400 ps

  10. Hydrodynamic stability theory of double ablation front structures in inertial confinement fusion.

    Yáñez Vico, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of inertial confinement fusion is the production of energy by the fusion of thermonuclear fuel (deuterium-tritium) enclosed in a spherical target due to its implosion. In the direct-drive approach, the energy needed to spark fusion reactions is delivered by the irradiation of laser beams that leads to the ablation of the outer shell of the target (the so-called ablator). As a reaction to this ablation process, the target is accelerated inwards, and, provided that this implosion is suf...

  11. Simulations of Nonaxisymmetric Instability in a Rotating Star: A Comparison between Eulerian and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    Smith, Scott C.; Houser, Janet L.; Centrella, Joan M.

    1996-02-01

    We have carried out three-dimensional numerical simulations of the dynamical bar instability in a rotating star and the resulting gravitational radiation using both an Eulerian code written in cylindrical coordinates and a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The star is modeled initially as a polytrope with index n = 3/2 and Trot|W| ≍ 0.30, where Trot is the rotational kinetic energy and |W| is the gravitational potential energy. In both codes the gravitational field is purely Newtonian, and the gravitational radiation is calculated in the quadrupole approximation. We have run three simulations with the Eulerian code, varying the number of angular zones and the treatment of the boundary between the star and the vacuum. Using the SPH code we did seven runs, varying the number of particles, the artificial viscosity, and the type of initial model. We compare the growth rate and rotation speed of the bar, the mass, and angular momentum distributions, and the gravitational radiation quantities. We highlight the successes and difficulties of both methods and make suggestions for future improvements.

  12. Electro-hydrodynamical instabilities induced by corona discharges on surfaces with several curvature radii

    Corona charge injection on the free surface of a dielectric liquid can induce electro-hydrodynamical instabilities which lead to convective structure formation. In the previous papers, in a point-to-plane corona discharge electrode configuration, we analysed the dynamics of a free surface of a dielectric liquid under corona charge injection and we studied the influence of the dielectric liquid layer thickness on the corona discharge current. In the present paper, in a particular corona electrode configuration, we investigated the temporal evolution of the convective structures on surfaces with different curvature radii. We also analysed the influence of the convective movement of the dielectric liquid on the corona discharge current. In our experiments we analyzed the dimension and shape of the convective structures obtained on curved surfaces in a flow process as a function of time. Compared to other experiments concerning Benard cells, we observed these structures on spherical support and we also evidenced pentagonal structures. Visual studies of convective cell structures can provide information about the corona current density at the liquid surface. The composite electrode formed by iron sphere electrode and silicone oil determines a modification of the corona current in function of the convective movement dynamics. (authors)

  13. Numerical Simulations of Hydrodynamic Instability Growth in Polar-Direct-Drive Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Shvydky, A.; Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Craxton, R. S.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    Control of shell nonuniformities imprinted by the laser and amplified by hydrodynamic instabilities in the imploding target is critical to the success of polar-direct-drive ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To develop a platform for laser-imprint studies, hydrodynamic instability growth experiments in laser-driven implosions were performed on the NIF. The experiments used cone-in-shell targets with sinusoidal modulations of various wavelengths and amplitudes machined on the surface. Throughshell x-ray radiography was used to measure optical depth variations, from which the amplitudes of the shell areal-density modulations were extracted. Results of DRACO simulations of the growth of preimposed modulations and imprint-seeded perturbations will be presented and compared with the experimental data. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. Evidence for a Bubble-Competition Regime in Indirectly Driven Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Experiments on the NIF

    Martinez, D. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kane, J. O.; Casner, A.; Liberatore, S.; Masse, L. P.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. This extended tailored drive allows a distance traveled in excess of 1 mm for a 130 μ m thick foil. Measurements of the modulation optical density performed by x-ray radiography show that a bubble-merger regime for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at an ablation front is achieved for the first time in indirect drive. The mutimode modulation amplitudes are in the nonlinear regime, grow beyond the Haan multimode saturation level, evolve toward the longer wavelengths, and show insensitivity to the initial conditions.

  15. Simulation of laser interaction with ablative plasma and hydrodynamic behavior of laser supported plasma

    Tong Huifeng; Yuan Hong [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-101, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Tang Zhiping [CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-01-28

    When an intense laser beam irradiates on a solid target, ambient air ionizes and becomes plasma, while part of the target rises in temperature, melts, vaporizes, ionizes, and yet becomes plasma. A general Godunov finite difference scheme WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme) with fifth-order accuracy is used to simulate 2-dimensional axis symmetrical laser-supported plasma flow field in the process of laser ablation. The model of the calculation of ionization degree of plasma and the interaction between laser beam and plasma are considered in the simulation. The numerical simulations obtain the profiles of temperature, density, and velocity at different times which show the evolvement of the ablative plasma. The simulated results show that the laser energy is strongly absorbed by plasma on target surface and that the velocity of laser supported detonation (LSD) wave is half of the ideal LSD value derived from Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory.

  16. A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to Inertial Confinement Region

    It has been recognized for many year's that the most significant limitation of ICF is the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. It limits the distance an ablatively driven shell can be moved to several times its initial thickness. Fortunately material flow through the unstable region at velocity vA reduces the growth rate to √1+kL/kg -βkvA with β from 2-3. In recent years experiments using both x-ray drive and smoothed laser drive to accelerate foils have confirmed our understanding of the ablative R-T instability in planar geometry. The growth of small initial modulations on the foils is measured for growth factors up to 60 for direct drive and 80 for indirect drive. For x-ray drive large stabilization is evident. After some growth, the instability enters the non-linear phase when mode coupling and saturation are also seen and compare well with modeling. Normalized growth rates for direct drive are measured to be higher, but strategies for reduction by raising the isentrope are being investigated. For direct drive, high spatial frequencies are imprinted from the laser beam and amplified by the R-T instability. Modeling shows an understanding of this ''laser imprinting.''

  17. Effects of Thermochemical Nonequilibrium on Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Instability in the Presence of Surface Ablation or Isolated Two-Dimensional Roughness

    Mortensen, Clifton

    2015-01-01

    The current understanding of the effects of thermochemical nonequilibrium on hypersonic boundary-layer instability still contains uncertainties, and there has been little research into the effects of surface ablation, or two-dimensional roughness, on hypersonic boundary-layer instability. The objective of this work is to study the effects of thermochemical nonequilibrium on hypersonic boundary-layer instability. More specifically, two separate nonequilibrium flow configurations are studied: 1...

  18. Hourglass control for Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics removes tensile and rank-deficiency instabilities - Hourglass control for SPH

    Ganzenmüller, G. C.; Sauer, M.; May, M.; Hiermaier, S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a stabilization scheme for elastoplastic Smooth-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) which overcomes two major challenges: (i) the tensile instability inherent to the updated Lagrangian approach is suppressed and (ii) the rank-deficiency instability inherent to the nodal integration approach is cured. To achieve these goals, lessons learned from the Finite-Element Method are transferred to SPH. In particular, an analogue of hourglass control is derived for SPH, which locally linearizes the deformation field to obtain stable and accurate solutions, without the need to resort to stabilization via excessive artificial viscosity. The resulting SPH scheme combines the ability of updated Lagrangian SPH to model truly large deformations with the accuracy and stability needed to faithfully perform simulations. This claim is supported by the analysis of problematic cases and the simulation of an impact scenario.

  19. A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to ICF

    It has been recognized for many years that the most significant limitation of ICF is the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. It limits the distance an ablatively driven shell can be moved to several times its initial thickness. Fortunately material flow through the unstable region at velocity vA reduces the growth rate to √1+kL/kg -βkvA with β from 2-3. In recent years experiments using both x-ray drive and smoothed laser drive to accelerate foils have confirmed our understanding of the R-T instability. The growth of small initial modulations on the foils is measured for growth factors up to 60 for direct drive and 80 for indirect drive. For x-ray drive large stabilization is evident After some growth, the instability enters the non-linear phase when mode coupling and saturation are also seen and compare well with modeling. Normalized growth rates for direct drive are measured to be higher, but strategies for reduction by raising the isentrope are being investigated. For direct drive, high spatial frequencies are imprinted from the laser beam and amplified by the R-T instability. Modeling shows an understanding of this ''laser imprinting.''

  20. Cross-diffusion-driven hydrodynamic instabilities in a double-layer system: General classification and nonlinear simulations

    Budroni, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Cross diffusion, whereby a flux of a given species entrains the diffusive transport of another species, can trigger buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface of initially stable stratifications. Starting from a simple three-component case, we introduce a theoretical framework to classify cross-diffusion-induced hydrodynamic phenomena in two-layer stratifications under the action of the gravitational field. A cross-diffusion-convection (CDC) model is derived by coupling the fickian diffusion formalism to Stokes equations. In order to isolate the effect of cross-diffusion in the convective destabilization of a double-layer system, we impose a starting concentration jump of one species in the bottom layer while the other one is homogeneously distributed over the spatial domain. This initial configuration avoids the concurrence of classic Rayleigh-Taylor or differential-diffusion convective instabilities, and it also allows us to activate selectively the cross-diffusion feedback by which the heterogeneously distributed species influences the diffusive transport of the other species. We identify two types of hydrodynamic modes [the negative cross-diffusion-driven convection (NCC) and the positive cross-diffusion-driven convection (PCC)], corresponding to the sign of this operational cross-diffusion term. By studying the space-time density profiles along the gravitational axis we obtain analytical conditions for the onset of convection in terms of two important parameters only: the operational cross-diffusivity and the buoyancy ratio, giving the relative contribution of the two species to the global density. The general classification of the NCC and PCC scenarios in such parameter space is supported by numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear CDC problem. The resulting convective patterns compare favorably with recent experimental results found in microemulsion systems.

  1. Cross-diffusion-driven hydrodynamic instabilities in a double-layer system: General classification and nonlinear simulations.

    Budroni, M A

    2015-12-01

    Cross diffusion, whereby a flux of a given species entrains the diffusive transport of another species, can trigger buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface of initially stable stratifications. Starting from a simple three-component case, we introduce a theoretical framework to classify cross-diffusion-induced hydrodynamic phenomena in two-layer stratifications under the action of the gravitational field. A cross-diffusion-convection (CDC) model is derived by coupling the fickian diffusion formalism to Stokes equations. In order to isolate the effect of cross-diffusion in the convective destabilization of a double-layer system, we impose a starting concentration jump of one species in the bottom layer while the other one is homogeneously distributed over the spatial domain. This initial configuration avoids the concurrence of classic Rayleigh-Taylor or differential-diffusion convective instabilities, and it also allows us to activate selectively the cross-diffusion feedback by which the heterogeneously distributed species influences the diffusive transport of the other species. We identify two types of hydrodynamic modes [the negative cross-diffusion-driven convection (NCC) and the positive cross-diffusion-driven convection (PCC)], corresponding to the sign of this operational cross-diffusion term. By studying the space-time density profiles along the gravitational axis we obtain analytical conditions for the onset of convection in terms of two important parameters only: the operational cross-diffusivity and the buoyancy ratio, giving the relative contribution of the two species to the global density. The general classification of the NCC and PCC scenarios in such parameter space is supported by numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear CDC problem. The resulting convective patterns compare favorably with recent experimental results found in microemulsion systems. PMID:26764804

  2. Induced m=0 instability in fast ablative capillary discharges and possible utilisation for X-ray lasers

    High current linear discharges confined by their own magnetic field are subject to magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities which perturb a straight plasma column. An example is the m=0 mode, which is characterised by the development of necks contracting rapidly towards the axis with the ion sound speed. Discharges through capillaries were assumed to be stable hitherto, but by cutting capillaries lengthwise after a few shots hot spot traces clearly imprinted on the inner wall of the capillary are observed. They are interpreted as marks of an m=0 instability, and this interpretation is substantiated by a series of time-gated pinhole images, which show that the hot plasma region is clearly detached from the wall at the second current maximum and concentrated on the axis thus making the development of the instability possible. The instability occurs only with a specific sample of polyacetal as wall material, and its axial wavelength increases with the length of the capillary. By modulating respectively the inner wall of the capillary the wavelength can be imposed within limits. This is exploited for a soft X-ray laser scheme based on charge exchange pumping of bare carbon ions of hot plasma streaming from the necks and colliding with cold plasma outside the neck regions. Exponential growth of the Balmer-a line of CVI at 18.22 nm is realised. (author)

  3. Planar hydrodynamic instability computations and experiments with rugby-shaped hohlraums at the Omega laser

    Vandenboomgaerde, M; Liberatore, S; Galmiche, D; Casner, A; Huser, G; Jadaud, J P; Villette, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/DAM-Ile de France, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

    2008-05-15

    Implosion of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule is very sensitive to the growth of sphericity perturbations. The control of the feeding of such perturbations and their transport ('feedthrough') through the ablator is a key point to reach ignition. Since 2002, experiments have been designed and performed on the Omega laser facility in order to study these phenomena in planar geometry. A new 'rugby shaped' hohlraum was used. We present experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulations.

  4. Evaluation of hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion target in a magnetic field

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) or inertial confinement fusion with magnetized target implosion is considered. Laser-driven MIF allows to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. Model of high pulse energy laser target interaction is presented. Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability is investigated for MIF systems. We have shown that there is a possibility to suppress the R-M instability by magnetic field. Modeling the impact of magnetic field on a single plasma jet formed at the ICF laser target compression is performed. It is shown that at the compression and heating of a plasma target by using a rapidly growing external magnetic field and laser radiation the R-M instability can be suppressed.

  5. Understanding the structure of the turbulent mixing layer in hydrodynamic instabilities

    When a heavy fluid is placed above a light fluid, tiny vertical perturbations in the interface create a characteristic structure of rising bubbles and falling spikes known as Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities have received much attention over the past half-century because of their importance in understanding many natural and man-made phenomena, ranging from the rate of formation of heavy elements in supernovae to the design of capsules for Inertial Confinement Fusion. We present a new approach to analyze Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which we extract a hierarchical segmentation of the mixing envelope surface to identify bubbles and analyze analogous segmentations of fields on the original interface plane. We compute meaningful statistical information that reveals the evolution of topological features and corroborates the observations made by scientists

  6. The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds

    Liu, Xue; Howley, Maureen A.; Johri, Jayati; Glasser, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified model of an industrially relevant fluid-particle flow system is analyzed using linear stability theory. Instabilities of the uniform state of a fluidized bed are investigated in response to small flow perturbations. Students are expected to perform each step of the computational analysis, and physical insight into key mechanistic…

  7. Interfacial hydrodynamic instabilities driven by cross-diffusion in reverse microemulsions

    Budroni, M. A.; Carballido-Landeira, J.; Intiso, A.; De Wit, A.; Rossi, F.

    2015-06-01

    When two microemulsions are put in contact in the gravity field along a horizontal contact line, cross-diffusion can trigger the transport of one species in the presence of a gradient in concentration of another species. We show here theoretically that such cross-diffusion effects can induce buoyancy-driven convective instabilities at the interface between two solutions of different compositions even when initially the less dense solution lies on top of the denser one. Two different sources of convective modes are identified depending whether positive or negative cross-diffusion is involved. We evidence the two predicted cross-diffusion driven instabilities experimentally using a two-layer stratification of Aerosol-OT (AOT) water-in-oil microemulsions solutions with different water or AOT composition.

  8. On the absence of dissipative instability of negative energy waves in hydrodynamic shear flows

    Chatterjee, S; Joarder, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    Stability criterion for the surface gravity capillary waves in a flowing two-layered fluid system with viscous dissipation is investigated. It is seen that the dissipative instability of negative energy waves is absent,- contrary to what earlier authors have concluded. Their error is identified to arise from an erroneous choice of the dissipation law, in which the wave profile velocity is wrongly equated to the particle velocity. Our corrected dissipation law is also shown to restore Galilean...

  9. Numerical investigation of nonlinear ablative single-mode Rayleigh–Taylor instability in the presence of preheating

    Nonlinear ablative single-mode Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) with weak and strong preheatings has been investigated numerically. The numerical results for the linear growth rates obtained are in general agreement with a self-consistent linear stability analysis (Goncharov et al 1996 Phys. Plasmas 3 4665). The effects of preheating on the ablative RTI (ARTI) are shown to reduce its linear growth rate and mitigate the weakly nonlinear growth. It was found that the nonlinear evolution of the ARTI is strongly dependent on the preheating intensity and perturbation wavelength. There are three typical wavelength perturbations for the nonlinear evolution of the ARTI. In the ARTI with weak preheating, for a short-wavelength perturbation the spike can be ruptured in the highly nonlinear regime and for a middle/long-wavelength perturbation the Kelvin–Helmholtz mushroom-shaped patterns appear at the spike heads. In the ARTI with strong preheating for a middle-wavelength perturbation, jet-like spikes can be formed though the spikes can still be ruptured in its classical RTI (without thermal conductivity) counterpart. In summary, our numerical studies indicate that the preheating can have a pronounced influence on the nonlinear evolutions of the ARTI. Thus, it should be included in applications where preheating plays a vital role, such as inertial confinement fusion implosions and supernova explosions. (paper)

  10. Endometrial ablation

    Hysteroscopy-endometrial ablation; Laser thermal ablation; Endometrial ablation-radiofrequency; Endometrial ablation-thermal balloon ablation; Rollerball ablation; Hydrothermal ablation; Novasure ablation

  11. Oscillation of the velvet worm slime jet by passive hydrodynamic instability.

    Concha, Andrés; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2015-01-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defence from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date, neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f~30-60 Hz. Using anatomical images, high-speed videography, theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum, we show that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. Our results demonstrate how passive strategies can be cleverly harnessed by organisms, while suggesting future oscillating microfluidic devices, as well as novel ways for micro and nanofibre production using bioinspired strategies. PMID:25780995

  12. Oscillation of the velvet worm slime jet by passive hydrodynamic instability

    Concha, Andrés; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2015-03-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defence from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date, neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f~30-60 Hz. Using anatomical images, high-speed videography, theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum, we show that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. Our results demonstrate how passive strategies can be cleverly harnessed by organisms, while suggesting future oscillating microfluidic devices, as well as novel ways for micro and nanofibre production using bioinspired strategies.

  13. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author)

  14. Experimental Studies of the Electrothermal and Magneto-Rayleigh Taylor Instabilities on Thin Metal Foil Ablations

    Steiner, Adam; Yager-Elorriaga, David; Patel, Sonal; Jordan, Nicholas; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.

    2015-11-01

    The electrothermal instability (ETI) and magneto-Rayleigh Taylor instability (MRT) are important in the implosion of metallic liners, such as magnetized liner implosion fusion (MagLIF). The MAIZE linear transformer driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan generates 200 ns risetime-current pulses of 500 to 600 kA into Al foil liners to study plasma instabilities and implosion dynamics, most recently MRT growth on imploding cylindrical liners. A full circuit model of MAIZE, along with I-V measurements, yields time-resolved load inductance. This has enabled measurements of an effective current-carrying radius to determine implosion velocity and plasma-vacuum interface acceleration. Measurements are also compared to implosion data from 4-time-frame laser shadowgraphy. Improved resolution measurements on the laser shadowgraph system have been used to examine the liner interface early in the shot to examine surface perturbations resulting from ETI for various seeding conditions. Fourier analysis examines the growth rates of wavelength bands of these structures to examine the transition from ETI to MRT. This work was supported by the U.S. DoE through award DE-SC0012328. S.G. Patel is supported by Sandia National Labs. D.A. Yager is supported by NSF fellowship grant DGE 1256260.

  15. Hydrodynamic Instability and Dynamic Burnout in Natural Circulation Two-Phase Flow. An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    A theoretical model for predicting the threshold of instability for two phase flow in a natural circulation loop is presented. The model calculates the flow transient caused by a step disturbance of the heat input, and is based upon the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy in one dimensional form. Empirical correlations are used in the model for estimating the void fractions and the two-phase flow pressure drops. The equations are solved numerically in a finite difference approximation coded for a digital computer. An experimental study of the hydrodynamic instability and dynamic burnout in two-phase flow has been performed in a natural circulation loop in the pressure range from 10 to 70 atg. The test sections were round ducts of 20, 30 and 36 mm inner diameter and 4890 mm heated length. The experimental results showed that within the ranges tested, the stability of the flow increases with increasing pressure and increasing throttling before the test section, but decreases with increasing Inlet subcooling and increasing throttling after the test section. Comparing the natural circulation burnout steam qualities with corresponding forced circulation data shoved that the former data were low by a factor up to 2.5. However, by applying inlet throttling of the flow the burnout values approached and finally coincided with the forced circulation data. The present experimental results as well as data available from other sources have been compared with the stability thresholds obtained with the theoretical model. The comparisons included circular, annular and rod cluster geometries, and the agreement between the experimental and theoretical stability limits was good. Finally the application of the experimental and theoretical results on the assessment of boiling heavy water reactor design is discussed

  16. Hydrodynamic Instability Growth in Polar-Direct-Drive Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Radha, P. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Nikroo, A.; Wallace, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Polar direct drive (PDD) is an alternative, direct-drive inertial confinement fusion platform being developed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Shell stability of the target is of key importance for an optimized performance. We have begun an experimental campaign to characterize Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth and laser imprint in spherical PDD implosions on the NIF. Plastic, cone-in-shell targets with an outer diameter of ~ 2 . 2 mm were imploded, and the RT-amplified shell mass modulations were tracked via measurements of the 2-D optical depth variations using soft x-ray radiography. The RT growth of discrete modes was investigated by machining single-mode, sinusoidal corrugations onto the target surface, which acted as well-characterized seeds. We will present platform characterization and backlighter optimization data as well as experimental results of instability growth in spherical PDD experiments on the NIF. The experimental data will be compared to 2-D DRACO simulations and strategies for measuring high l-mode perturbations > 300 and for mitigating imprint in future PDD experiments will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  17. Hydrodynamic Instabilities and Turbulent Mixing: what is it, what is known, what is new, and what remains to be done?

    Shvarts, Dov

    2014-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities are of crucial importance in describing many phenomena, from very large scales such as stellar explosions (supernovae) to very small scales, such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. Such mixing causes overturn of massive stellar cores in supernovae, and has affected attempts at ICF ignition. The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability occurs at an accelerated interface between two fluids with the lower density accelerating the higher density fluid, and the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability occurs when a shock wave passes an interface between the two fluids. Buoyancy causes ``bubbles'' of the light fluid to penetrate the denser fluid, while ``spikes'' of the heavy fluid penetrate the lighter fluid. In the deep nonlinear regime, this interpenetration evolves into turbulent mixing which has been notoriously difficult to predict quantitatively. With realistic multi-mode initial conditions, in the deep nonlinear regime, the mixing zone width, h, and its internal structure, progress through an inverse cascade of spatial scales, reaching an asymptotic self-similar evolution: h = αRT Agt2 for RT and h = αRM tθ for RM. While this characteristic behavior has been known for about 30 years, the self-similar parameters αRT and θRM and their dependence on dimensionality and density ratio have continued to be intensively studied and a relatively wide distribution of those values have emerged. A new, physically intuitive formulation of mode-coupling and bubble-competition models can yield a unified and compact description of this turbulent mixing evolution, greatly reducing the spread in αRT and θRM. This allows building more effective engineering models for the extent of the turbulent mixing in such diverse settings as ICF capsule implosions and stellar explosions. The implications for ignition and the potential to use NIF for quantitative testing of this theoretical advance will also be discussed. The author would like to express his deep

  18. Potential SiO2/CRF bilayer perturbation aerogel target for ICF hydrodynamic instability experiment

    Highlights: ► SiO2/carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) bilayer perturbation aerogel target was designed and fabricated. ► The preparation procedures were detailed described. ► The parameters of the target were measured. ► The pore size distribution, density homogeneity and laser machining process were discussed. ► The interface between CRF aerogel sheet and SiO2 aerogel sheet was characterized. - Abstract: The SiO2/carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) bilayer perturbation aerogel target was designed and fabricated to investigate the growth of Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) at “SG-II” laser facility. The target was composed of SiO2 and CRF aerogel sheet, whose density and microstructure were controllable. To begin with, freestanding CRF aerogel sheet was prepared by sol–gel and carbonization process. Then, as the seed of the growth of RTI, sine-like perturbation patterns were introduced onto the surface of CRF aerogel sheet by picosecond laser micro-machining process. Finally, SiO2 aerogel sheet was directly formed on the patterned surface of CRF aerogel sheet by sol–gel process not only to avoid the use of adhesive but also to eliminate the gaps between the two aerogel sheets. The parameters of the target, such as perturbation period (T), perturbation amplitude (A), the thickness of CRF aerogel sheet (H1) and the thickness of SiO2 aerogel sheet (H2), were measured. The pore size distribution, density homogeneity and laser machining process were discussed. The interface between CRF aerogel sheet and SiO2 aerogel sheet was characterized.

  19. Endoscopic ablation is a cost-effective cancer preventative therapy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus who have elevated genomic instability

    Das, Ananya; Callenberg, Keith M.; Styn, Mindi A.; Jackson, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The surveillance of patients with nondysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (NDBE) has a high cost and is of limited effectiveness in preventing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Ablation for NDBE remains expensive and controversial. Biomarkers of genomic instability have shown promise in identifying patients with NDBE at high risk for progression to EAC. Here, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using such biomarkers to stratify patients with NDBE by risk for EAC and, subsequently, the ...

  20. An experimental and theoretical study of thermal-hydrodynamic instability at low mass flow rates in two-phase upflow systems

    An experimental and analytical investigation of thermal-hydrodynamic instabilities that are associated with Boiling Water Reactors is conducted. The cooling channels of a BWR core is simulated by a single stainless-steel pipe which is heated with an electric current. The flow system consists of this heater, a fluid supply section and a recovery section. These sections together form an open loop that operates under constant inlet and exit pressures. The experiments indicate that the system is subject to thermal-hydrodynamic instabilities which are confined to a certain range of mass flow rates. There exists a narrow stable region at high mass flow rates. Contrary to previous expectations, there exists another stable region at very low mass flow rates. Parallel to the experimental study, an analytical study is conducted in which a mathematical model based on the assumptions of homogeneous fluid and phase equilibrium is used to generate the flow characteristics of the system. Using numerical experimentation techniques, oscillations are simulated and the stability-instability boundaries of the oscillations are determined. It is concluded that the mathematical model also predicts a thermal-hydrodynamically stable region at low mass flow rates

  1. Hydrodynamic growth and mix experiments at National Ignition Facility

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Caggiano, J.; Casey, D.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, J.; Grim, G.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Hurricane, O.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Landen, O.; McNaney, J.; Mintz, M.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Park, H.-S.; Pino, J.; Raman, K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Rowley, D.; Tipton, R.; Weber, S.; Yeamans, C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamic growth and its effects on implosion performance and mix were studied at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth in the acceleration phase of implosions using in-flight x-ray radiography. In addition, implosion performance and mix have been studied at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and imbedding localized CD diagnostic layer in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the DT fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the TT fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits to yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role.

  2. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 2. Single-Mode Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Reshock

    Latini, M; Schilling, O

    2005-04-27

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is a fundamental fluid instability that occurs when perturbations on an interface separating gases with different properties grow following the passage of a shock. This instability is typically studied in shock tube experiments, and constitutes a fundamental example of a complex hydrodynamic flow. Numerical simulations and models for the instability growth and evolution have also been used to further elucidate the physics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the present work, the formally high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method using a third-order total-variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time-evolution scheme (as implemented in the HOPE code [68]) is applied to simulate the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock in two spatial dimensions. The initial conditions and computational domain for the simulations are modeled after the Collins and Jacobs [29] single-mode, Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF{sub 6} shock tube experiment. The following boundary conditions are used: (1) periodic in the spanwise direction corresponding to the cross section of the test section; (2) outflow at the entrance of the test section in the streamwise direction, and; (3) reflecting at the end wall of the test section in the streamwise direction. The present investigation has three principal motivations: (1) to provide additional validation of the HOPE code against available experimental data; (2) to provide numerical simulation data for detailed analysis of mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, and; (3) to systematically investigate the dependence of mixing properties on both the order of WENO reconstruction and on the spatial resolution. The present study constitutes the first comprehensive application of the high-resolution WENO method to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, as well as analysis of the resulting mixing.

  3. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional, "native-roughness" modulations in x-ray driven, spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Hoover, D. E.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with three-dimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell, R. Cauble, and B. A. Remington, AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications ("native roughness") used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The experiments included instability growth measurements of the perturbations seeded by the thin membranes (or tents) used to hold the capsules inside the hohlraums. In addition, initial modulations included two divots used as spatial fiducials to determine the convergence in the experiments and to check the accuracy of 3D simulations in calculating growth of known initial perturbations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray, through-foil radiography of one side of the imploding shell, based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 30 similar images significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3-D simulations. At a convergence ratio of ˜3, the measured tent and divot modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ˜15%-20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ˜3-4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. In addition, some of the measured 3-D features in x-ray radiographs did not resemble those characterized on the outer capsule surface before the experiments. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. As the target assembly and handling procedures involve exposure to UV light, this can increase the uptake of the oxygen into the capsule, with irregularities in the oxygen seeding hydrodynamic instabilities. These new experimental results have prompted

  4. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional, “native-roughness” modulations in x-ray driven, spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF Directorate, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with three-dimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell, R. Cauble, and B. A. Remington, AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications (“native roughness”) used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The experiments included instability growth measurements of the perturbations seeded by the thin membranes (or tents) used to hold the capsules inside the hohlraums. In addition, initial modulations included two divots used as spatial fiducials to determine the convergence in the experiments and to check the accuracy of 3D simulations in calculating growth of known initial perturbations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray, through-foil radiography of one side of the imploding shell, based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 30 similar images significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3-D simulations. At a convergence ratio of ∼3, the measured tent and divot modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ∼15%–20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ∼3–4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. In addition, some of the measured 3-D features in x-ray radiographs did not resemble those characterized on the outer capsule surface before the experiments. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. As the target assembly and handling procedures involve exposure to UV light, this can increase the uptake of the oxygen into the capsule, with irregularities in the oxygen seeding hydrodynamic instabilities. These new experimental results have

  5. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    Loomis Eric; Braun Dave; Batha Steven H.; Landen Otto L.

    2013-01-01

    Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF) due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS) models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have be...

  6. Stabilizing transverse ablative Rayleigh Taylor like instability by using elliptically polarized laser pulses in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration regime

    Wu, Dong; Zhou, C T; Yan, X Q; Yu, M Y; He, X T

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the transverse Rayleigh Taylor like instability can be well stabilized by using elliptically polarized laser in the hole boring radiation pressure acceleration regime. The $\\bm{J}\\times\\bm{B}$ effect of the laser will thermalize the local electrons and support a transverse diffusion mechanism of the ions, resulting in the stabilization of the short wavelength perturbations, which is quite similar to the ablative Rayleigh Taylor instability in the initial confinement fusion research. The proper range of polarization ratio is obtained from a theoretical model for the given laser intensity and plasma density. The stabilization mechanism is well confirmed by two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, and the ion beam driven by the elliptically polarized laser is more concentrated and intense compared with that of the circularly polarized laser.

  7. Effects of Thermochemical Nonequilibrium on Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Instability in the Presence of Surface Ablation or Isolated Two-Dimensional Roughness

    Mortensen, Clifton Holden

    The current understanding of the effects of thermochemical nonequilibrium on hypersonic boundary-layer instability still contains uncertainties, and there has been little research into the effects of surface ablation, or two-dimensional roughness, on hypersonic boundary-layer instability. The objective of this work is to study the effects of thermochemical nonequilibrium on hypersonic boundary-layer instability. More specifically, two separate nonequilibrium flow configurations are studied: 1) flows with graphite surface ablation, and 2) flows with isolated two-dimensional surface roughness. These two flow types are studied numerically and theoretically, using direct numerical simulation and linear stability theory, respectively. To study surface ablation, a new high-order shock-fitting method with thermochemical nonequilibrium and finite-rate chemistry boundary conditions for graphite ablation is developed and validated. The method is suitable for direct numerical simulation of boundary-layer transition in a hypersonic real-gas flow with graphite ablation. The new method is validated by comparison with three computational data sets and one set of experimental data. Also, a thermochemical nonequilibrium linear stability theory solver with a gas phase model that includes multiple carbon species, as well as a linearized surface graphite ablation model, is developed and validated. It is validated with previously published linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation results. A high-order method for discretizing the linear stability equations is used which can easily include high-order boundary conditions. The developed codes are then used to study hypersonic boundary-layer instability for a 7 deg half angle blunt cone at Mach 15.99 and the Reentry F experiment at 100~kft. Multiple simulations are run with the same geometry and freestream conditions to help separate real gas, blowing, and carbon species effects on hypersonic boundary-layer instability. For

  8. Implementation of a novel real-time controller for the detection and tracking of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities on the JET tokamak

    In this work we present the technical implementation of a digital VERSA Module Eurocard (VMEbus) system used to detect and track, in real-time, magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities on the JET tokamak. This VMEbus system runs on a 1 ms clock cycle and performs the unsupervised detection and real-time tracking of the individual components in a multi-harmonic spectrum of coherent electro-magnetic instabilities, actively driven by a set of in-vessel antennas. Its main real-time output signals are the frequency, amplitude, toroidal mode number and damping rate of such modes. Moreover, this controller also provides some of the protection and control tools for the antenna system, such as the reference for the voltage and current control waveforms, and a trip signal related to the shorted-turn protection of the antennas. Current applications of this novel controller focus on the measurement of the damping rate of Alfvén Eigenmodes with different toroidal mode numbers. The successful technical implementation and scientific exploitation of this innovative VMEbus system opens possibilities for the real-time detection and the ensuing control of electro-magnetic instabilities in other present and future fusion devices. (author)

  9. Studies of ablation pressure, ablative acceleration and ablative implosions

    Time and space resolved X-ray spectroscopy have been used to measure ablation rate and ablation pressure on plane targets irradiated by the first and second harmonics of Nd glass laser light. Streaked X-ray shadowgraphy has been applied to the study of ablatively imploded spherical shell targets uniformly irradiated by six 1.05 μm laser beams. The results give a direct measurement of shell acceleration and thus of ablation pressure and show evidence of fluid instability increasing as the shell ratio is varied from 10 to 100. A direct determination of implosion core density is also obtained. (author)

  10. Onset of hydrodynamic mix in high-velocity, highly compressed inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    Ma, T; Patel, P K; Izumi, N; Springer, P T; Key, M H; Atherton, L J; Benedetti, L R; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Glenn, S; Grim, G; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Hicks, D; Hsing, W W; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Meezan, N B; Moody, J D; Pak, A; Parham, T; Park, H-S; Ralph, J E; Regan, S P; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Ross, J S; Spears, B K; Smalyuk, V; Suter, L J; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Weber, S V; Lindl, J D; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Moses, E I

    2013-08-23

    Deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated yields ranging from 0.8 to 7×10(14), and record fuel areal densities of 0.7 to 1.3 g/cm2. These implosions use hohlraums irradiated with shaped laser pulses of 1.5-1.9 MJ energy. The laser peak power and duration at peak power were varied, as were the capsule ablator dopant concentrations and shell thicknesses. We quantify the level of hydrodynamic instability mix of the ablator into the hot spot from the measured elevated absolute x-ray emission of the hot spot. We observe that DT neutron yield and ion temperature decrease abruptly as the hot spot mix mass increases above several hundred ng. The comparison with radiation-hydrodynamic modeling indicates that low mode asymmetries and increased ablator surface perturbations may be responsible for the current performance. PMID:24010449

  11. Nonlinear theory of laser imprint, Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities

    Implosion process in laser fusion can be divided into three phases: start-up, acceleration and stagnation phases and various hydrodynamic instabilities appear in each phase. Analytical models are developed to study nonlinear evolutions of the hydrodynamic instabilities in these phases, and compared with multi-dimensional simulations. We mainly discuss the formation of double spiral structures caused by the singularity of vorticity in the RM spikes, the effect of the ablative stabilization in nonlinear growth of the RT instability with a finite bandwidth and the effect of the radiation cooling on the stability in the stagnation phase. Various smoothing effect, such as radiation smoothing and hydrodynamic smoothing, are also studied in the start-up phase. (author)

  12. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 2. Single-Mode Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Reshock

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2004-10-06

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is a fundamental fluid instability that occurs when perturbations on an interface separating gases with different properties grow following the passage of a shock. This instability is typically studied in shock tube experiments, and constitutes a fundamental example of a complex hydrodynamic flow. Numerical simulations and models for the instability growth and evolution have also been used to further understand the physics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the present work, the formally high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method using a third-order total-variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time-evolution scheme (as implemented in the HOPE code [57]) is applied to simulate the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock in two spatial dimensions. The initial conditions and computational domain for the simulations are modeled after the Collins and Jacobs [23] single-mode, Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF6 shock tube experiment. The following boundary conditions are used: (1) periodic in the spanwise direction corresponding to the cross-section of the test section; (2) outflow at the entrance of the test section in the streamwise direction, and; (3) reflecting at the end wall of the test section in the streamwise direction. The present investigation has three principal motivations: (1) to provide additional validation of the HOPE code against available experimental data; (2) to provide numerical simulation data for detailed analysis of mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, and; (3) to systematically investigate the dependence of mixing properties on both the order of WENO reconstruction and spatial resolution. The present study constitutes the first comprehensive application of the high-resolution WENO method to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, as well as analysis of the resulting mixing. First, analytical, semi-analytical, and

  13. Ab initio determination of the instability growth rate of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Zi; Li, DaFang [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable growth is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability growth rates. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the growth rate dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability growth rates are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability growth at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments.

  14. Ab initio determination of the instability growth rate of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface

    Wang, Cong; Li, Zi; Li, DaFang; Zhang, Ping

    2015-10-01

    Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable growth is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability growth rates. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the growth rate dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability growth rates are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability growth at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments.

  15. Ab initio determination of the instability growth rate of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface

    Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable growth is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability growth rates. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the growth rate dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability growth rates are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability growth at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

  16. Effect of nanosecond pulse laser ablation on the surface morphology of Zr-based metallic glass

    Zhu, Yunhu; Fu, Jie; Zheng, Chao; Ji, Zhong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the ripple patterns formation on the surface of Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (vit1) bulk metallic glass using a nanosecond pulse laser ablation in air with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The strong thermal ablation phenomenon could be observed on vit1 BMG surface at laser energy of 200 mJ as a result of the adhibition of confining overlay. Many periodic ripples had formed on the edge of the ablated area at laser energy of 400 mJ because of the high intensity pulsed laser beam. The underlying mechanism of the periodic ripples formation could be explained by the K-H hydrodynamic instability theory. It had been shown that laser ablation with 600 mJ and 200 pulses results in the formation of many micro-cracks on the ablated area. Further analysis showed that the spatial occupation of the laser ablated area and the spacing between two adjacent ripples increased as the laser energy and the number of incident laser pulses increasing. The surface ripples feature on the edge of ablated area became more obvious with increasing laser pulses, but it was not correlated closely with the laser energies variation.

  17. Influence of laser wavelength on the thermal conduction and ablation processes in laser-produced plasmas

    The theoretical problems relating to electron thermal conductivity in laser-produced plasmas are investigated. The classical theory of Spitzer-Haerm is discussed together with the processes able to decrease the thermal conduction: influence of the magnetic field, and plasma instabilities. The turbulence effects and the energy transfer by suprathermal electrons are also reported. The laser-produced flows and the influence of thermal conductivity or the ablation process are studied (plane flows, flows in spherical geometry, case of non-localized absorption at the critical density). The experimental method (thin sheet method) is discussed using numerical simulations. The experimental device is described (laser, preparation of polystyrene thin sheets) and some results are given: determination of the ablation mass flux in picosecond regimes for various lambda; study of the ablation pressure; consequences for the acceleration of thin targets and generation of shock waves in solids; study of hydrodynamic efficiency in the nanosecond regime

  18. 从Marangoni对流胞元到大尺度界面变形的动力学不稳定性%Orientation-dependent Hydrodynamic Instabilities from Chemo-Marangoni Cells to Large Scale Interfacial Deformations

    2007-01-01

    The interplay between chemistry and interfacial-tension-driven hydrodynamic instabilities has been studied experimentally. The system on hand consists of two immiscible liquids separated along an initially plane interface at which an interfacial reaction takes place to produce in situ a surfactant. It is identified that the dynamics of the system depends on the orientation of the Hele-Shaw cell with respect to the vector of gravity. If the Hele-Shaw cell is placed vertically, Marangoni cells with vigorous convection develop in both phases along a nearly planar interface. However, if the Hele-Shaw cell is tilted off the gravity, the instabilities in the system are characterized by thc large scale interfacial deformation with a spatio-temporal periodicity together with the chemo-Marangoni convection. The focus is on the exploration of the transition from the cellular mode to the large scale interfacial deformation.

  19. The bar instability revisited

    Chiodi, Filippo; Andreotti, Bruno; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relati...

  20. An introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics

    Shore, Steven N

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics for both astronomy and physics students. It provides a comprehensive and unified view of the general problems associated with fluids in a cosmic context, with a discussion of fluid dynamics and plasma physics. It is the only book on hydrodynamics that addresses the astrophysical context. Researchers and students will find this work to be an exceptional reference. Contents include chapters on irrotational and rotational flows, turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and instabilities.

  1. Suppression of transverse ablative Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration by using elliptically polarized laser pulses

    Wu, Dong; Qiao, B; Zhou, C T; Yan, X Q; Yu, M Y; He, X T

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the transverse Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT) instability in the hole boring radiation pressure acceleration can be suppressed by using elliptically polarized (EP) laser. A moderate ${J}\\times{B}$ heating of the EP laser will thermalize the local electrons, which leads to the transverse diffusion of ions, suppressing the short wavelength perturbations of RT instability. A proper condition of polarization ratio is obtained analytically for the given laser intensity and plasma density. The idea is confirmed by two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, showing that the ion beam driven by the EP laser is more concentrated and intense compared with that of the circularly polarized laser.

  2. Statistical hydrodynamic models for mixing instability flows in turbulent regime: theoretical 0D evaluation criteria and comparison of one and two-fluid approaches

    Theoretical criteria are defined to perform quick analytical evaluations of statistical hydro models for turbulent mixing flows induced by Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. They are based on a global energy balance analysis of the mixing zone ('0D' projection) in the limit of zero Atwood number, for incompressible fluids, and in self-similar regime. It is then shown that single-fluid descriptions must be replaced by two-fluid descriptions, particularly for the Rayleigh-Taylor case with variable acceleration. The interaction between a shock and heterogeneities is also considered. Various approaches for the development of new models are finally given. (author)

  3. Meteoroid ablation models

    Popova, Olga

    2004-12-01

    The fate of entering meteoroids in atmosphere is determined by their size, velocity and substance properties. Material from ablation of small-sized meteors (roughly R≤0.01-1 cm) is mostly deposited between 120 and 80 km altitudes. Larger bodies (up to meter sizes) penetrate deeper into the atmosphere (down to 20 km altitude). Meteoroids of cometary origin typically have higher termination altitude due to substance properties and higher entry velocity. Fast meteoroids ( V>30-40 km/s) may lose a part of their material at higher altitudes due to sputtering. Local flow regime realized around the falling body determines the heat transfer and mass loss processes. Classic approach to meteor interaction with atmosphere allows describing two limiting cases: - large meteoroid at relatively low altitude, where shock wave is formed (hydrodynamical models); - small meteoroid/or high altitudes - free molecule regime of interaction, which assumes no collisions between evaporated meteoroid particles. These evaporated particles form initial train, which then spreads into an ambient air due to diffusion. Ablation models should make it possible to describe physical conditions that occur around meteor body. Several self-consistent hydrodynamical models are developed, but similar models for transition and free molecule regimes are still under study. This paper reviews existing ablation models and discusses model boundaries.

  4. Implosion hydrodynamics

    Implosion hydrodynamics are examined, from the conditions in the imploded target to the initial target configuration and the driver performance. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: inertial configuration, thermonuclear fusion processes, ignition model, shock waves, acceleration by a constant pressure, spherical shock waves and imploding flows, drive pressure requirements, pulse shaping, pressure generation by lasers and ion beams, symmetry and hydrodynamic stability and typical target designs. (U.K.)

  5. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    Loomis Eric

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (bumps due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in plastic ablators to validate these models. Experiments used hohlraums with radiation temperatures near 70 eV driven by 15 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY, which sent a ∼1.25Mbar shock into a planar CH target placed over one laser entrance hole. Targets consisted of 2-D arrays of quasi-gaussian bumps (10 microns tall, 34 microns FWHM deposited on the surface facing into the hohlraum. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα − 2.76keV backlighter was used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements were also performed to determine target conditions. Simulations using the LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 models required the simulated laser power be turned down to 80 and 88%, respectively to match observed shock speeds. Both LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations agreed with measured bump areal densities out to 6 ns where ablative RM oscillations were observed in previous laser-driven experiments, but did not occur in the x-ray driven case. The QEOS model, conversely, over predicted shock speeds and under predicted areal density in the bump.

  6. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF) due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS) models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (bumps) due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in plastic ablators to validate these models. Experiments used hohlraums with radiation temperatures near 70 eV driven by 15 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY), which sent a ∼1.25 Mbar shock into a planar CH target placed over one laser entrance hole. Targets consisted of 2-D arrays of quasi-gaussian bumps (10 microns tall, 34 microns FWHM) deposited on the surface facing into the hohlraum. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα - 2.76 keV) back-lighter was used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements were also performed to determine target conditions. Simulations using the LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 models required the simulated laser power be turned down to 80 and 88%, respectively to match observed shock speeds. Both LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations agreed with measured bump areal densities out to 6 ns where ablative RM oscillations were observed in previous laser-driven experiments, but did not occur in the x-ray driven case. The QEOS model, conversely, over predicted shock speeds and under predicted areal density in the bump. (authors)

  7. Hydrodynamic Simulation

    Robinson, Alex P. L.

    The main aim of this lecture is to provide a broad overview of the area of hydrodynamic simulation. The provision of introductions to a couple of basic algorithms for solving the equations of gas dynamics is a secondary objective. Hydrodynamic simulation in the context of laser-plasma physics and inertial fusion is now a large and mature field, deserving of an entire book (or books…) for a proper treatment. Individual topics will not be treated in great depth, and mathematical detail is avoided where possible. It is hoped that the reader will understand the key aspects of hydrodynamic simulation and the ability to write a very simple 1D hydro-solver with a view to using this knowledge as a "springboard" for more in-depth study.

  8. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  9. Numerical simulation of copper ablation by ultrashort laser pulses

    Ding, PengJi; Hu, BiTao; Li, Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified self-consistent one-dimensional hydrodynamic lagrangian fluid code, laser ablation of solid copper by ultrashort laser pulses in vacuum was simulated to study fundamental mechanisms and to provide a guide for drilling periodic microholes or microgratings on the metal surface. The simulated laser ablation threshold is a approximate constancy in femtosecond regime and increases as the square root of pulse duration in picosecond regime. The ablation depth as a function of pulse ...

  10. Theoretical hydrodynamics

    Milne-Thomson, L M

    2011-01-01

    This classic exposition of the mathematical theory of fluid motion is applicable to both hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Based on vector methods and notation with their natural consequence in two dimensions - the complex variable - it offers more than 600 exercises and nearly 400 diagrams. Prerequisites include a knowledge of elementary calculus. 1968 edition.

  11. Hydrodynamic bearings

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  12. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  13. Ablative and fractional ablative lasers.

    Brightman, Lori A; Brauer, Jeremy A; Anolik, Robert; Weiss, Elliot; Karen, Julie; Chapas, Anne; Hale, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Leonard; Geronemus, Roy G

    2009-10-01

    The field of nonsurgical laser resurfacing for aesthetic enhancement continues to improve with new research and technological advances. Since its beginnings in the 1980s, the laser-resurfacing industry has produced a multitude of devices employing ablative, nonablative, and fractional ablative technologies. The three approaches largely differ in their method of thermal damage, weighing degrees of efficacy, downtime, and side effect profiles against each other. Nonablative technologies generate some interest, although only for those patient populations seeking mild improvements. Fractional technologies, however, have gained dramatic ground on fully ablative resurfacing. Fractional laser resurfacing, while exhibiting results that fall just short of the ideal outcomes of fully ablative treatments, is an increasingly attractive alternative because of its far more favorable side effect profile, reduced recovery time, and significant clinical outcome. PMID:19850197

  14. Modulational instability in a plasma-filled magnetized waveguide

    Theoretical investigation into effect of plasma restriction on modulational instability development in magnetized plasma waveguide with perfectly conducting walls is conducted in hydrodynamic approximation. Conditions for instability occurrence are found and the area of its development is specified. Expressions for this instability increment are obtained. It is shown that an area of wave phase rates exists for which modulational instability does not develop

  15. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Mihalas, Dimitri

    Basic Radiation Theory Specific Intensity Photon Number Density Photon Distribution Function Mean Intensity Radiation Energy Density Radiation Energy Flux Radiation Momentum Density Radiation Stress Tensor (Radiation Pressure Tensor) Thermal Radiation Thermodynamics of Thermal Radiation and a Perfect Gas The Transfer Equation Absorption, Emission, and Scattering The Equation of Transfer Moments of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Photon 4-Momentum Lorentz Transformation of the Specific Intensity, Opacity, and - Emissivity Lorentz Transformation of the Radiation Stress Energy Tensor The Radiation 4-Force Density Vector Covariant Form of the Transfer Equation Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Inertial-Frame Radiation Equations Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Comoving-Frame Equation of Transfer Special Relativistic Derivation (D. Mihalas) Consistency Between Comoving-Frame and Inertial-Frame Equations Noninertial Frame Derivation (J. I. Castor) Analysis of O (v/c) Terms Lagrangian Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Momentum Equation Gas Energy Equation First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiation Field First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiating Fluid Mechanical Energy Equation Total Energy Equation Consistency of Different Forms of the Radiating-Fluid Energy - and Momentum Equations Consistency of Inertial-Frame and Comoving-Frame Radiation Energy - and Momentum Equations Radiation Diffusion Radiation Diffusion Nonequilibrium Diffusion The Problem of Flux Limiting Shock Propagation: Numerical Methods Acoustic Waves Numerical Stability Systems of Equations Implications of Shock Development Implications of Diffusive Energy Transport Illustrative Example Numerical Radiation Hydrodynamics Radiating Fluid Energy and Momentum Equations Computational Strategy Energy Conservation Formal Solution Multigroup Equations An Astrophysical Example Adaptive-Grid Radiation

  16. Experimental and computational study of complex shockwave dynamics in laser ablation plumes in argon atmosphere

    We investigated spatio-temporal evolution of ns laser ablation plumes at atmospheric pressure, a favored condition for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. The 1064 nm, 6 ns pulses from a Nd:YAG laser were focused on to an Al target and the generated plasma was allowed to expand in 1 atm Ar. The hydrodynamic expansion features were studied using focused shadowgraphy and gated 2 ns self-emission visible imaging. Shadowgram images showed material ejection and generation of shock fronts. A secondary shock is observed behind the primary shock during the time window of 100−500 ns with instabilities near the laser cone angle. By comparing the self-emission images obtained using fast photography, it is concluded that the secondary shocks observed in the shadowgraphy were generated by fast moving target material. The plume front estimates using fast photography exhibited reasonable agreement with data obtained from shadowgraphy at early times ≤400 ns. However, at later times, fast photography images showed plume confinement while the shadowgraphic images showed propagation of the plume front even at greater times. The structure and dynamics of the plume obtained from optical diagnostic tools were compared to numerical simulations. We have shown that the main features of plume expansion in ambient Ar observed in the experiments can be reproduced using a continuum hydrodynamics model which provided valuable insight into the expansion dynamics and shock structure of the plasma plume.

  17. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  18. Relativistic hydrodynamics - causality and stability

    Ván, P.; Biró, T. S.

    2007-01-01

    Causality and stability in relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics are important conceptual issues. We argue that causality is not restricted to hyperbolic set of differential equations. E.g. heat conduction equation can be causal considering the physical validity of the theory. Furthermore we propose a new concept of relativistic internal energy that clearly separates the dissipative and non-dissipative effects. We prove that with this choice we remove all known instabilities of the linear re...

  19. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  20. Ringed accretion disks: instabilities

    Pugliese, D

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczy\\'nski mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider recently proposed model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) which can be corotating or counterrotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  1. Ringed Accretion Disks: Instabilities

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  2. Hydrodynamic Simulations with the Godunov SPH

    Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Brunino, R.; Cha, S.-H.

    2012-07-01

    We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GSPH). We carry out controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube and the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear flow test. The results of our tests demonstrate GSPH provides a much improved description of contact discontinuities, with respect to SPH, and is able to follow the development of gas-dynamical instabilities, such as the Kevin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor ones.

  3. The bar instability revisited

    Chiodi, Filippo; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relation does not present any maximum of the growth rate when the sediment transport is assumed to be locally saturated. The analysis therefore reveals the fundamental importance of the relaxation of sediment transport towards equilibrium as it it is responsible for the stabilisation of small wavelength modes. This dynamical mechanism is characterised by the saturation number, defined as the ratio of the saturation length to the water depth Lsat/H. This dimensionless number controls the transition from ripples (transverse patte...

  4. Hydrodynamic stability and stellar oscillations

    H M Antia

    2011-07-01

    Chandrasekhar’s monograph on Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, published in 1961, is a standard reference on linear stability theory. It gives a detailed account of stability of fluid flow in a variety of circumstances, including convection, stability of Couette flow, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Kelvin–Helmholtz instability as well as the Jean’s instability for star formation. In most cases he has extended these studies to include effects of rotation and magnetic field. In a later paper he has given a variational formulation for equations of non-radial stellar oscillations. This forms the basis for helioseismic inversion techniques as well as extension to include the effect of rotation, magnetic field and other large-scale flows using a perturbation treatment.

  5. Lifshitz Hydrodynamics

    Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    We construct the hydrodynamics of quantum field theories with a Lifshitz scaling symmetry. New transport coefficients are allowed by the absence of boost invariance, however, only one is compatible with a local increase of the entropy density. The formulation is applicable, in general, to fluids with an explicit breaking of boost symmetry. We use a Drude model of a strange metal to study the physical effects of the new transport coefficient. It can be measured using electric fields with non-zero gradients, or via the heat production when an external force is turned on. Scaling arguments fix the resistivity to be linear in the temperature.

  6. Impact of oxygen on the 300-K isotherm of Laser Megajoule ablator using ab initio simulation

    Colin-Lalu, P.; Recoules, V.; Salin, G.; Huser, G.

    2015-11-01

    The ablator material for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules on the Laser Mégajoule is a glow-discharge polymer (GDP) plastic. Its equation of state (EOS) is of primary importance for the design of such capsules, since it has direct consequences on shock timing and is essential to mitigate hydrodynamic instabilities. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), we have investigated the 300-K isotherm of amorphous CH1.37O0.08 plastic, whose structure is close to GDP plastic. The 300-K isotherm, which is often used as a cold curve within tabular EOS, is an important contribution of the EOS in the multimegabar pressure range. AIMD results are compared to analytic models within tabular EOS, pointing out large discrepancies. In addition, we show that the effect of oxygen decreases 300-K isotherm pressure by 10%-15%. The implication of these observations is the ability to improve ICF target performance, which is essential to achieve fusion ignition.

  7. Simple spherical ablative-implosion model

    A simple model of the ablative implosion of a high-aspect-ratio (shell radius to shell thickness ratio) spherical shell is described. The model is similar in spirit to Rosenbluth's snowplow model. The scaling of the implosion time was determined in terms of the ablation pressure and the shell parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, and shell density, and compared these to complete hydrodynamic code calculations. The energy transfer efficiency from ablation pressure to shell implosion kinetic energy was examined and found to be very efficient. It may be possible to attach a simple heat-transport calculation to our implosion model to describe the laser-driven ablation-implosion process. The model may be useful for determining other energy driven (e.g., ion beam) implosion scaling

  8. Scaling supernova hydrodynamics to the laboratory

    Kane, J.O.

    1999-06-01

    Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. Initial results were reported in J. Kane et al., Astrophys. J.478, L75 (1997) The Nova laser is used to shock two-layer targets, producing Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the interfaces between the layers, analogous to instabilities seen at the interfaces of SN 1987A. Because the hydrodynamics in the laser experiments at intermediate times (3-40 ns) and in SN 1987A at intermediate times (5 s-10{sup 4} s) are well described by the Euler equations, the hydrodynamics scale between the two regimes. The experiments are modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS, thus serving as a benchmark for PROMETHEUS. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. Analysis of the spike and bubble velocities in the experiment using potential flow theory and a modified Ott thin shell theory is presented. A numerical study of 2D vs. 3D differences in instability growth at the O-He and He-H interface of SN 1987A, and the design for analogous laser experiments are presented. We discuss further work to incorporate more features of the SN in the experiments, including spherical geometry, multiple layers and density gradients. Past and ongoing work in laboratory and laser astrophysics is reviewed, including experimental work on supernova remnants (SNRs). A numerical study of RM instability in SNRs is presented.

  9. Supernova hydrodynamics

    The explosion of a star supernova occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN or it may collapse, type I and type II SN leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor should be thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 M/sub theta/, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star 6 to 10 M/sub theta/. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to our ability to model the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe. 39 references

  10. Submarine hydrodynamics

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  11. Physical hydrodynamics

    Guyon, Etienne; Petit, Luc; Mitescu, Catalin D

    2015-01-01

    This new edition is an enriched version of the textbook of fluid dynamics published more than 10 years ago. It retains the same physically oriented pedagogical perspective. This book emphasizes, as in the first edition, experimental inductive approaches and relies on the study of the mechanisms at play and on dimensional analysis rather than more formal approaches found in many classical textbooks in the field. The need for a completely new version also originated from the increase, over the last few decades, of the cross-overs between the mechanical and physical approaches, as is visible in international meetings and joint projects. Hydrodynamics is more widely linked today to other fields of experimental sciences: materials, environment, life sciences and earth sciences, as well as engineering sciences.

  12. Ablation of lung tumours

    Gillams, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Radiofrequency, laser, microwave and cryotherapy have all been used for the ablation of lung tumours. However, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation are the most widely used technologies. RFA has been successfully applied to tumour measuring from

  13. Thermo-hydrodynamic lubrication in hydrodynamic bearings

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the thermo-hydrodynamic and the thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. The algorithms are methodically detailed and each section is thoroughly illustrated.

  14. Resolving mixing in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Read, J I; Agertz, O

    2009-01-01

    Standard formulations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) are unable to resolve mixing at fluid boundaries. We use an error and stability analysis of the generalised SPH equations of motion to prove that this is due to two distinct problems. The first is a leading order error in the momentum equation. This should decrease with increasing neighbour number, but does not because numerical instabilities cause the kernel to be irregularly sampled. We identify two important instabilities: the clumping instability and the banding instability, and we show that both are cured by a suitable choice of kernel. The second problem is the local mixing instability (LMI). This occurs as particles attempt to mix on the kernel scale, but are unable to due to entropy conservation. The result is a pressure discontinuity at boundaries that pushes fluids of different entropy apart. We cure the LMI by using a temperature weighted density estimate that both reduces errors in the continuity equation and allows individual particle...

  15. Simulations of High-Velocity Clouds. I. Hydrodynamics and High-Velocity High Ions

    Kwak, Kyujin; Henley, David B; Shelton, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) traveling through the hot, tenuous medium in the Galactic halo. A suite of models was created using the FLASH hydrodynamics code, sampling various cloud sizes, densities, and velocities. In all cases, the cloud-halo interaction ablates material from the clouds. The ablated material falls behind the clouds, where it mixes with the ambient medium to produce intermediate-temperature gas, some of which radiatively cools to less th...

  16. Axisymmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamics with self-gravity

    García Senz, Domingo; Relano, A.; Cabezón Gómez, Rubén Martín; Bravo Guil, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The axisymmetric form of the hydrodynamic equations within the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) formalism is presented and checked using idealized scenarios taken from astrophysics (free fall collapse, implosion and further pulsation of a Sun-like star), gas dynamics (wall heating problem, collision of two streams of gas) and inertial confinement fusion (ablative implosion of a small capsule). New material concerning the standard SPH formalism is given. That includes the numerical handli...

  17. Hydrodynamic Supercontinuum

    Chabchoub, A; Onorato, M; Genty, G; Dudley, J M; Akhmediev, N

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally multi-bound-soliton solutions of the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLS) in the context of surface gravity waves. In particular, the Satsuma-Yajima N-soliton solution with N=2,3,4 is investigated in detail. Such solutions, also known as breathers on zero background, lead to periodic self-focussing in the wave group dynamics, and the consequent generation of a steep localized carrier wave underneath the group envelope. Our experimental results are compared with predictions from the NLS for low steepness initial conditions where wave-breaking does not occur, with very good agreement. We also show the first detailed experimental study of irreversible massive spectral broadening of the water wave spectrum, which we refer to by analogy with optics as the first controlled observation of hydrodynamic supercontinuum a process which is shown to be associated with the fission of the initial multi-soliton bound state into individual fundamental solitons similar to what has been observe i...

  18. Simulation of laser ablation of metals for nanoparticles production

    Davydov, R. V.; Antonov, V. I.; Davydova, T. I.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a mathematical model for femtosecond laser ablation of metals is proposed, based on standard two-temperature model connected with 1D hydrodynamic equations. Wide-range equation of state has been developed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data for aluminium and copper. A good agreement for both metals with numerical results and experiment shows that this model can be employed for choosing laser parameters to better accuracy in nanoparticles production by ablation of metals.

  19. Shoulder Instability

    ... Risk Factors Is shoulder instability the same as shoulder dislocation? No. The signs of dislocation and instability might ... the same to you--weakness and pain. However, dislocation occurs when your shoulder goes completely out of place. The shoulder ligaments ...

  20. Pellet ablation and ablation model development

    A broad survey of pellet ablation is given, based primarily on information presented at this meeting. The implications of various experimental observations for ablation theory are derived from qualitative arguments of the physics involved. The major elements of a more complete ablation theory are then outlined in terms of these observations. This is followed by a few suggestions on improving the connections between theory and experimental results through examination of ablation data. Although this is a rather aggressive undertaking for such a brief (and undoubtedly incomplete) assessment, some of the discussion may help us advance the understanding of pellet ablation. 17 refs

  1. Gas Effect On Plasma Dynamics Of Laser Ablation Zinc Oxide

    Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Lafane, S.; Malek, S.

    2008-09-01

    In order to synthesis zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures, laser ablation of ZnO target into both vacuum and oxygen atmosphere was performed. The gas effect on the plume dynamics was studied for O2 pressures varied between 10-2 to 70 mbar. Plasma plume evolution was investigated by ICCD camera fast imaging. The plasma was created by a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) at a fluence of 2 J/cm2. The light emitted by the plume was observed along the perpendicular to the ejection direction through a fast intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD). We have found that the plasma dynamics is very affected by the gas pressures. The photographs reveal the stratification of plasma into slow and fast components for 0.5 mbar O2 pressures and beyond. The photographs also show the apparition of hydrodynamic instabilities which are related to chemical reactions between the plasma and the surrounding gas for a certain range of pressures.

  2. Emerging Local Ablation Techniques

    Stone, Michael J.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2006-01-01

    Local ablation technologies for hepatic malignancy have developed rapidly in the past decade, with advances in several percutaneous or externally delivered treatment methods including radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, laser ablation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Research has focused on increasing the size of the ablation zone and minimizing heat-sink effects. More recent developments include improvements in treatment planning and navigation with integration of several ima...

  3. Laser-solid interaction and dynamics of laser-ablated materials

    An annealing model is extended to treat the vaporization process, and a hydrodynamic model describes the ablated material. We find that dynamic source and ionization effects accelerate the expansion front of the ablated plume with thermal vaporization temperature. The vaporization process and plume propagation in high background gas pressure are studied

  4. Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Murante, G.; Borgani, S.; Brunino, R.; Cha, S.-H.

    2011-10-01

    We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka, in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b) the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear-flow test and the 'blob' test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha, Inutsuka & Nayakshin: (i) GSPH provides a much improved description of contact discontinuities, with respect to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), thus avoiding the appearance of spurious pressure forces; (ii) GSPH is able to follow the development of gas-dynamical instabilities, such as the Kevin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor ones; (iii) as a result, GSPH describes the development of curl structures in the shear-flow test and the dissolution of the cold cloud in the 'blob' test. Besides comparing the results of GSPH with those from standard SPH implementations, we also discuss in detail the effect on the performances of GSPH of changing different aspects of its implementation: choice of the number of neighbours, accuracy of the interpolation procedure to locate the interface between two fluid elements (particles) for the solution of the Riemann problem, order of the reconstruction for the assignment of variables at the interface, choice of the limiter to prevent oscillations of

  5. Supernova hydrodynamics experiments using the Nova laser

    Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Estabrook, K.; Wallace, R.J.; Rubenchik, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kane, J.; Arnett, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Stewart Observatory; Drake, R.P. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); McCray, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    We are developing experiments using the Nova laser to investigate two areas of physics relevant to core-collapse supernovae (SN): (1) compressible nonlinear hydrodynamic mixing and (2) radiative shock hydrodynamics. In the former, we are examining the differences between the 2D and 3D evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an issue critical to the observables emerging from SN in the first year after exploding. In the latter, we are investigating the evolution of a colliding plasma system relevant to the ejecta-stellar wind interactions of the early stages of SN remnant formation. The experiments and astrophysical implications are discussed.

  6. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation.

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Maheut, Y; Boutoux, G; Antonelli, L; Nicolaï, Ph; Batani, D; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure. PMID:26565161

  7. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation

    Colaïtis, A.; Duchateau, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Maheut, Y.; Boutoux, G.; Antonelli, L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Batani, D.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure.

  8. Shoulder instability

    In the shoulder, the advantages of range of motion are traded for the disadvantages of vulnerability to injury and the development of instability. Shoulder instability and the lesion it produces represent one of the main causes of shoulder discomfort and pain. Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to their causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options: instabilities are classified in traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome, and in microtraumatic instabilities. Plain radiographs ('trauma series') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposition. Direct MR arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation the different injury patterns on the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast CT-arthrography with use of multidetector CT scanners may be an alternative imaging modality, however, regarding the younger patient age, MR imaging should be preferred in the diagnostic work-up of shoulder instabilities. (orig.)

  9. Late-time radiography of beryllium ignition-target ablators in long-pulse gas-filled hohlraums

    A multiple-laboratory campaign is underway to qualify beryllium as a fusion capsule ablator for the National Ignition Facility [Moses and Wuest, Fusion Sci. Technol. 43, 420 (2003)]. Although beryllium has many advantages over other ablator materials, individual crystals of beryllium have anisotropic properties, e.g., sound speed, elastic constants, and thermal expansion coefficients, which may seed hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion phase of ignition experiments. Experiments based on modeling have begun at the OMEGA laser [Boehly, McCrory, Verdon et al., Fusion Eng. Design 44, 35 (1999)] to create a test bed for measuring instability growth rates with face-on radiography of perturbed beryllium samples with the goal of establishing a specification for microstructure in beryllium used as an ablator. The specification would include the size and distribution of sizes of grains and voids and the impurity content. The experimental platform is a 4 kJ laser-heated (for ∼6 ns) hohlraum that is well modeled for radiation temperature and for shock pressure and breakout timing through the driven beryllium sample. A 1 atm methane gas fill has been used to maintain a clear line of sight through the hohlraum for radiography with acceptable plasma backscatter losses. The peak radiation temperature is 145 eV; the pressure early in the laser pulse is 1 Mbar for over 1 ns. Radiographs of sinusoidally perturbed copper-doped (0.9% by atom) beryllium samples have been obtained more than 10 ns after drive initiation. With the current laser drive, a growth factor approaching ten has been measured for initial 2.5 μm perturbations with on-axis radiography

  10. Hip instability.

    Smith, Matthew V; Sekiya, Jon K

    2010-06-01

    Hip instability is becoming a more commonly recognized source of pain and disability in patients. Traumatic causes of hip instability are often clear. Appropriate treatment includes immediate reduction, early surgery for acetabular rim fractures greater than 25% or incarcerated fragments in the joint, and close follow-up to monitor for avascular necrosis. Late surgical intervention may be necessary for residual symptomatic hip instability. Atraumatic causes of hip instability include repetitive external rotation with axial loading, generalized ligamentous laxity, and collagen disorders like Ehlers-Danlos. Symptoms caused by atraumatic hip instability often have an insidious onset. Patients may have a wide array of hip symptoms while demonstrating only subtle findings suggestive of capsular laxity. Traction views of the affected hip can be helpful in diagnosing hip instability. Open and arthroscopic techniques can be used to treat capsular laxity. We describe an arthroscopic anterior hip capsular plication using a suture technique. PMID:20473129

  11. Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov SPH

    Murante, Giuseppe; Brunino, Riccardo; Cha, Suneg-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka (2002), in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear flow test, and the "blob" test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha (2010): (i) GSPH provi...

  12. Transient and Stationary Simulations for a Quantum Hydrodynamic Model

    HU Xin; TANG Shao-Qiang

    2007-01-01

    The transient and stationary characteristics of a one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model are comparatively studied for semiconductor charge transport in a resonant tunnelling diode. When the bias is not small, our numerical results show a deviation of the asymptotic transient solutions from the stationary ones. A dynamic instability accounts for such deviation. The stationary quantum hydrodynamic model is therefore unsuitable in general for simulating quantum devices.

  13. Slab model for Rayleigh--Taylor stabilization by vortex shedding, compressibility, thermal conduction, and ablation

    Analytical models are derived for stabilization of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability of an ablatively accelerated slab. The procedure is to conserve mass, momentum, and energy flux across a perturbed interface through which plasma flows. In various regimes, the stabilization mechanism can be described as vortex shedding, compressibility, thermal conduction, and ablation. Comparisons are made with recent fluid simulations, and simple laws relevant to laser-driven ablative acceleration are derived

  14. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs

  15. UV N{sub 2} laser ablation of a Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb alloy: Microstructure and topography studied by focused ion beam

    Zupanic, Franc [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Centre for Electron Microscopy, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia)], E-mail: franc.zupanic@uni-mb.si; Boncina, Tonica [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Centre for Electron Microscopy, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Pipic, Davor; Henc-Bartolic, Visnja [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Department of Applied Physics, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-10-06

    A Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb alloy was irradiated by ultraviolet nitrogen laser pulses (N{sub 2} laser, wavelength 337 nm, pulse duration 6 ns, frequency 1 Hz, power 0.5 MW and average power density 0.67 GW/m{sup 2}). The surface topography and microstructure were mainly studied by scanning electron microscopy, and a focused ion beam. The non-homogenized spatial beam profile resulted in the activation of several ablative mechanisms, the main being phase explosion and hydrodynamic instability. They caused a crater to be formed, surrounded by a raised rim and wavelike structure in a halo. FIB cross-sectioning and imaging showed a shallow (few micrometers) molten and resolidified surface layer. Streaks were observed in the heat-affected zone beneath the molten layer, indicating partial recrystallization of initially cold-worked material.

  16. UV N2 laser ablation of a Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb alloy: Microstructure and topography studied by focused ion beam

    A Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb alloy was irradiated by ultraviolet nitrogen laser pulses (N2 laser, wavelength 337 nm, pulse duration 6 ns, frequency 1 Hz, power 0.5 MW and average power density 0.67 GW/m2). The surface topography and microstructure were mainly studied by scanning electron microscopy, and a focused ion beam. The non-homogenized spatial beam profile resulted in the activation of several ablative mechanisms, the main being phase explosion and hydrodynamic instability. They caused a crater to be formed, surrounded by a raised rim and wavelike structure in a halo. FIB cross-sectioning and imaging showed a shallow (few micrometers) molten and resolidified surface layer. Streaks were observed in the heat-affected zone beneath the molten layer, indicating partial recrystallization of initially cold-worked material

  17. Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    R. Paul Drake

    2005-12-01

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  18. An analysis of smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Swegle, J.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Mello, F.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hicks, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) is a gridless Lagrangian technique which is appealing as a possible alternative to numerical techniques currently used to analyze high deformation impulsive loading events. In the present study, the SPH algorithm has been subjected to detailed testing and analysis to determine its applicability in the field of solid dynamics. An important result of the work is a rigorous von Neumann stability analysis which provides a simple criterion for the stability or instability of the method in terms of the stress state and the second derivative of the kernel function. Instability, which typically occurs only for solids in tension, results not from the numerical time integration algorithm, but because the SPH algorithm creates an effective stress with a negative modulus. The analysis provides insight into possible methods for removing the instability. Also, SPH has been coupled into the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO, and a weighted residual derivation of the SPH equations has been obtained.

  19. Baroclinic instabilities

    Joly, Laurent; Chassaing, Patrick; Chapin, Vincent; Reinaud, Jean; Micallef, J; Suarez, Juan; Bretonnet, L

    2003-01-01

    1. Introduction - Illustrative examples from experiments and simulations 2. The baroclinic torque in high Froude number flows, its organization, scale and order of magnitude 3. Stability of the inhomogeneous mixing-layer 4. Transition of the inhomogeneous mixing-layer and the 2D secondary baroclinic instability 5. The strain field of 2D light jets 6. Transition to three-dimensionality in light jets and the question of side-jets 7. Baroclinic instability of heavy vortices and...

  20. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

    Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W

    1977-01-01

    Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio

  1. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  2. Carpal instability

    Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  4. On modulational instability of turbulent spectra

    The character of the modulational instability of a Langmuir wave packet is usually assumed to be similar to that of the instability of a monochromatic pump Langmuir wave if the width of the packet is small when compared to the rate of the instability. This assumption has been confirmed only for the case corresponding to the ''hydrodynamical'' development of the modulational instability, i.e., for the case when the phase velocity of the modulational perturbations exceeds the ion thermal velocity. Here we consider the opposite case (when the phase velocity of the modulational perturbations is less than the ion thermal velocity) which corresponds to the ''static'' development of the instability. We demonstrate that the above assumption is valid for the situation considered. (orig.)

  5. Linking dissipation-induced instabilities with nonmodal growth: the case of helical magnetorotational instability

    Mamatsashvili, George

    2016-01-01

    The helical magnetorotational instability is known to work for resistive rotational flows with comparably steep negative or extremely steep positive shear. The corresponding lower and upper Liu limits of the shear are continuously connected when some axial electrical current is allowed to flow through the rotating fluid. Using a local approximation we demonstrate that the magnetohydrodynamic behavior of this dissipation-induced instability is intimately connected with the nonmodal growth and the pseudospectrum of the underlying purely hydrodynamic problem.

  6. Shoulder instability

    Shoulder instability is a common clinical feature leading to recurrent pain and limitated range of motion within the glenohumeral joint. Instability can be due a single traumatic event, general joint laxity or repeated episodes of microtrauma. Differentiation between traumatic and atraumatic forms of shoulder instability requires careful history and a systemic clinical examination. Shoulder laxity has to be differentiated from true instability followed by the clinical assessment of direction and degree of glenohumeral translation. Conventional radiography and CT are used for the diagnosis of bony lesions. MR imaging and MR arthrography help in the detection of soft tissue affection, especially of the glenoid labrum and the capsuloligamentous complex. The most common lesion involving the labrum is the anterior labral tear, associated with capsuloperiostal stripping (Bankart lesion). A number of variants of the Bankart lesion have been described, such as ALPSA, SLAP or HAGL lesions. The purpose of this review is to highlight different forms of shoulder instability and its associated radiological findings with a focus on MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. Hydrodynamics on graphic cards

    In the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC ideal and dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. A large body of current numerical tools employs relativistic hydrodynamics in various facets. The acceleration of relativistic hydrodynamics using graphic cards (GPUs) is therefore of highest relevance to this fields. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm SHASTA, which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

  8. Hydrodynamics and Flow

    Hirano, Tetsufumi; Bilandzic, Ante

    2008-01-01

    In this lecture note, we present several topics on relativistic hydrodynamics and its application to relativistic heavy ion collisions. In the first part we give a brief introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics in the context of heavy ion collisions. In the second part we present the formalism and some fundamental aspects of relativistic ideal and viscous hydrodynamics. In the third part, we start with some basic checks of the fundamental observables followed by discussion of collective flow, in particular elliptic flow, which is one of the most exciting phenomenon in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies. Next we discuss how to formulate the hydrodynamic model to describe dynamics of heavy ion collisions. Finally, we conclude the third part of the lecture note by showing some results from ideal hydrodynamic calculations and by comparing them with the experimental data.

  9. Lung Ablation: Whats New?

    Xiong, Lillian; Dupuy, Damian E

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer had an estimated incidence of 221,200 in 2015, making up 13% of all cancer diagnoses. Tumor ablation is an important treatment option for nonsurgical lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic patients. Radiofrequency ablation has been used for over a decade with newer modalities, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation presenting as additional and possibly improved treatment options for patients. This minimally invasive therapy is best for small primary lesions or favorably located metastatic tumors. These technologies can offer palliation and sometimes cure of thoracic malignancies. This article discusses the current available technologies and techniques available for tumor ablation. PMID:27050331

  10. Beam Instabilities

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  11. Hydrodynamic behaviour of an Abelian Sandpile Model with Laplacian rules

    Sportiello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We present a sandpile model, in which the instability of a site is determined also by the variables in a neighbourhood. This is a modification of the Abelian Sandpile Model, in which abelianity is preserved: it shares several mathematical properties of the original abelian model, while producing a more realistic dynamics. We show how our model presents interesting hydrodynamic features.

  12. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  13. Laser ablation principles and applications

    1994-01-01

    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  14. An Analysis of Cosmological Perturbations in Hydrodynamical and Field Representations

    Fabris, J C; Tomimura, N A

    2000-01-01

    Density fluctuations of fluids with negative pressure exhibit decreasing time behaviour in the long wavelength limit, but are strongly unstable in the small wavelength limit when a hydrodynamical approach is used. On the other hand, the corresponding gravitational waves are well behaved. We verify that the instabilities present in density fluctuations are due essentially to the hydrodynamical representation; if we turn to a field representation that lead to the same background behaviour, the instabilities are no more present. In the long wavelength limit, both approachs give the same results. We show also that this inequivalence between background and perturbative level is a feature of negative pressure fluid. When the fluid has positive pressure, the hydrodynamical representation leads to the same behaviour as the field representation both at the background and perturbative levels.

  15. Chemical mixing in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations

    Greif, Thomas H; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple and efficient algorithm for diffusion in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and apply it to the problem of chemical mixing. Based on the concept of turbulent diffusion, we link the diffusivity of a pollutant to the local physical conditions and can thus resolve mixing in space and time. We apply our prescription to the evolution of an idealized supernova remnant and find that we can model the distribution of heavy elements without having to explicitly resolve hydrodynamic instabilities in the post-shock gas. Instead, the dispersal of the pollutant is implicitly modeled through its dependence on the local velocity dispersion. Our method can thus be used in any SPH simulation that investigates chemical mixing but lacks the necessary resolution on small scales. Potential applications include the enrichment of the interstellar medium in present-day galaxies, as well as the intergalactic medium at high redshifts.

  16. Chemical mixing in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations

    Greif, Thomas H.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2009-02-01

    We introduce a simple and efficient algorithm for diffusion in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and apply it to the problem of chemical mixing. Based on the concept of turbulent diffusion, we link the diffusivity of a pollutant to the local physical conditions and can thus resolve mixing in space and time. We apply our prescription to the evolution of an idealized supernova remnant and find that we can model the distribution of heavy elements without having to explicitly resolve hydrodynamic instabilities in the post-shock gas. Instead, the dispersal of the pollutant is implicitly modelled through its dependence on the local velocity dispersion. Our method can thus be used in any SPH simulation that investigates chemical mixing but lacks the necessary resolution on small scales. Potential applications include the enrichment of the interstellar medium in present-day galaxies, as well as the intergalactic medium at high redshifts.

  17. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.

  18. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins

    Szymczak, Piotr [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Cieplak, Marek, E-mail: piotr.szymczak@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-26

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins. (topical review)

  19. Conformal Anomalies in Hydrodynamics

    Eling, Christopher; Theisen, Stefan; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of conformal anomalies on the hydrodynamic description of conformal field theories in four spacetime dimensions. We consider equilibrium curved backgrounds characterized by a time-like Killing vector and construct a local low energy effective action that captures the conformal anomalies. Using as a special background the Rindler spacetime we derive a formula for the effect of the anomaly on the hydrodynamic pressure.

  20. Hydrodynamic approaches to reducing membrane fouling

    Davis, R.H. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Membranes are gaining increasing use in a wide variety of liquid and gas separations. A pervasive problem is membrane fouling due to material depositing on the membrane surface and within the membrane pore structure. Professor Georges Belfort has made significant contributions to reducing membrane fouling by hydrodynamic approaches for ultrafiltration and microfiltration. I will review some of his work, as well as related work by myself and others, in this area. Topics which will be discussed include particle migration during crossflow filtration, curved channels which promote centrifugal instabilities, and rapid backpulsing.

  1. Statistical theory of thermal instability

    Illarionov, A F

    1997-01-01

    A new statistical approach is presented to study the thermal instability process of optically thin unmagnetized plasma. In this approach the time evolution of mass distribution function over temperature is calculated. This function characterizes the statistical properties of the multiphase medium of arbitrary spaced three-dimensional structure of arbitrary temperature perturbations. We construct our theory under the isobarical condition (P=const over space), which is satisfied in the short wavelength limit. The developed theory is illustrated in the case of thermal instability of a slowly expanding interstellar cloud. Numerical solutions of equations of the statistical theory are constucted and compared with hydrodynamical solutions. The results of both approaches are identical in the short wavelength range when the isobarity condition is satisfied. Also the limits of applicability of the statistical theory are estimated. The possible evolution of initial spectrum of perturbations is discussed. The proposed t...

  2. Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

    José, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

  3. Radiofrequency ablation in dermatology

    Sachdeva Silonie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofreqeuency ablation is a versatile dermatosurgical procedure used for surgical management of skin lesions by using various forms of alternating current at an ultra high frequency. The major modalities in radiofrequency are electrosection, electrocoagulation, electrodessication and fulguration. The use of radiofrequency ablation in dermatosurgical practice has gained importance in recent years as it can be used to treat most of the skin lesions with ease in less time with clean surgical field due to adequate hemostasis and with minimal side effects and complications. This article focuses on the major tissue effects and factors influencing radiofrequency ablation and its application for various dermatological conditions.

  4. Liver tumor ablation

    Minimal-invasive techniques for ablation of primary and secondary hepatic tumors gain increasingly clinical importance. This is especially true since surgical resection and classic chemotherapy is successful only in a limited number of patients. Local ablative methods incorporate chemo- (percutaneous alcohol instillation, transarterial chemoembolization), thermo- (radiofrequency-, laser-, microwave-, cryoablation, high intensive focused ultrasound) and radio-ablative techniques (interstitial brachytherapy, selective internal radiotherapy). Regarding their implementation and specific effects these methods are varying widely, nevertheless all of them have a high therapeutical efficacy together with a low complication rate in common - correct application presumed. The knowledge on specific indications and contraindications is crucial to implement these methods into multimodality therapy concepts. (orig.)

  5. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.

  6. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred. T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article rev...

  7. Kinetic Simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance

    2014-09-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is in the linear regime, we compare its position and shape to the analytic prediction. Despite the broadening of the fluid interface we see a good agreement with the analytic solution. At later times we observe the development of a mushroom like shape caused by secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as seen in hydrodynamic simulations and consistent with experimental observations.

  8. femtosecond laser ablation

    Margetic, Vanja

    2003-01-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation was investigated as a solid sampling method for elemental chemical analysis. In comparison to the sampling with longer laser pulses, two aspects could be improved by using ultrashort pulses: elimination of the elemental fractionation from the ablation crater, which is necessary for an accurate quantitative analysis, and better control of the material removal (especially for metals), which increases the spatial resolution of microanalysis. Basic aspects of ultrashort...

  9. Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics

    Aniceto, Inês; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-04-01

    It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the Müller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent and that this large-order behavior is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.

  10. Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics

    Aniceto, Inês

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the M\\"uller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent, and that this large order behaviour is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed, that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of \\symm\\ plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.