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Sample records for ablation plume expansion

  1. Synchronized videography of plasma plume expansion during femtosecond laser ablation

    Paolasini, Steven; Kietzig, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Femtosecond lasers are gaining industrial interest for surface patterning and structuring because of the reduced heat effects to the surrounding material, resulting in a good quality product with a high aspect ratio. Analysis of the plasma plume generated during ablation can provide useful information about the laser-material interactions and thereby the quality of the resulting surface patterns. As a low-cost alternative to rather complicated ICCD camera setups, presented here is an approach based on filming the laser machining process with a high speed camera and tuning the frame rate of the camera to slightly lower than the laser pulse frequency. The delay in frequency between the laser and camera results in frames taken from sequential pulses. Each frame represents a later phase of plume expansion although taken from different pulses. Assuming equal plume evolution processes from pulse to pulse, the sequence of images obtained completes a plume expansion video. To test the assumption of homogeneity between sequential plumes, the camera can be tuned to the frequency of the laser, as to capture consecutive plumes at the same phase in their evolution. This approach enables a relatively low-cost, high resolution visualization of plasma plume evolution suitable for industrial micromachining applications with femtosecond lasers. Using this approach we illustrate differences in plume expansion at the example of machining homogeneous surface patterns in different liquid and gaseous processing environments.

  2. Resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion in vacuum and argon gas backgrounds

    Lindley, R.A. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This thesis discusses the following on resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion: Introduction to laser ablation; applications of laser ablation; The study of plume expansion; holographic interferometry; resonant holographic interferometry; accounting for finite laser bandwidth; The solution for doppler broadening and finite bandwidth; the main optical table; the lumonics laser spot shape; developing and reconstructing the holograms; plume expansion in RF/Plasma Environments; Determining {lambda}{sub o}; resonant refraction effects; fringe shift interpretation; shot-to-shot consistency; laser ablation in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; theoretically modeling plume expansion in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; and laser ablation in higher pressure, inert, background gas.

  3. Laser ablation plume expansion into an ambient gas

    Amoruso, S.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The use of an ambient gas is a well-established method employed in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with nanosecond pulses and has been extensively studied in this context. Most of the existing treatments of the plume expansion are tackled by using complex numerical modeling involving specific target...... and energetics can be helpful for a quantitative description of the plume propagation into the surrounding, low-pressure atmosphere typically employed in PLD, thus allowing identifying the different stages of expansion for any target/background mass system....

  4. Dynamics of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in femtosecond laser-ablated aluminum plumes in argon gas at atmospheric pressures

    Plasma expansion with shockwave formation during laser ablation of materials in a background gasses is a complex process. The spatial and temporal evolution of pressure, temperature, density, and velocity fields is needed for its complete understanding. We have studied the expansion of femtosecond (fs) laser-ablated aluminum (Al) plumes in Argon (Ar) gas at 0.5 and 1 atmosphere (atm). The expansion of the plume is investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy and fast-gated imaging. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is also carried out. The position of the shock front measured by shadowgraphy and fast-gated imaging is then compared to that obtained from the CFD modeling. The results from the three methods are found to be in good agreement, especially during the initial stage of plasma expansion. The computed time- and space-resolved fields of gas-dynamic parameters have provided valuable insights into the dynamics of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in fs-pulse ablated Al plumes in Ar gas at 0.5 and 1 atm. These results are compared to our previous data on nanosecond (ns) laser ablation of Al [S. S. Harilal et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 083504 (2012)]. It is observed that both fs and ns plumes acquire a nearly spherical shape at the end of expansion in Ar gas at 1 atm. However, due to significantly lower pulse energy of the fs laser (5 mJ) compared to pulse energy of the ns laser (100 mJ) used in our studies, the values of pressure, temperature, mass density, and velocity are found to be smaller in the fs laser plume, and their time evolution occurs much faster on the same time scale. The oscillatory shock waves clearly visible in the ns plume are not observed in the internal region of the fs plume. These experimental and computational results provide a quantitative understanding of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in fs-pulse and ns-pulse laser ablated Al plumes in an ambient gas at atmospheric pressures

  5. Dynamics of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in femtosecond laser-ablated aluminum plumes in argon gas at atmospheric pressures

    Miloshevsky, Alexander; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Miloshevsky, Gennady; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Plasma expansion with shockwave formation during laser ablation of materials in a background gasses is a complex process. The spatial and temporal evolution of pressure, temperature, density, and velocity fields is needed for its complete understanding. We have studied the expansion of femtosecond (fs) laser-ablated aluminum (Al) plumes in Argon (Ar) gas at 0.5 and 1 atmosphere (atm). The expansion of the plume is investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy and fast-gated imaging. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is also carried out. The position of the shock front measured by shadowgraphy and fast-gated imaging is then compared to that obtained from the CFD modeling. The results from the three methods are found to be in good agreement, especially during the initial stage of plasma expansion. The computed time- and space-resolved fields of gas-dynamic parameters have provided valuable insights into the dynamics of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in fs-pulse ablated Al plumes in Ar gas at 0.5 and 1 atm. These results are compared to our previous data on nanosecond (ns) laser ablation of Al [S. S. Harilal et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 083504 (2012)]. It is observed that both fs and ns plumes acquire a nearly spherical shape at the end of expansion in Ar gas at 1 atm. However, due to significantly lower pulse energy of the fs laser (5 mJ) compared to pulse energy of the ns laser (100 mJ) used in our studies, the values of pressure, temperature, mass density, and velocity are found to be smaller in the fs laser plume, and their time evolution occurs much faster on the same time scale. The oscillatory shock waves clearly visible in the ns plume are not observed in the internal region of the fs plume. These experimental and computational results provide a quantitative understanding of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in fs-pulse and ns-pulse laser ablated Al plumes in an ambient gas at atmospheric pressures.

  6. Effects of collision between two plumes on plume expansion dynamics during pulsed laser ablation in background gas

    Umezu, Ikurou; Sakamoto, Naomichi; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Nobuzawa, Koichiro; Sugimura, Akira

    2013-03-01

    Si and Ge targets were simultaneously irradiated by individual two pulsed lasers, and two plumes from the targets were collided head-on with expectation to prepare hybrid nanoparticles. We investigate effects of He background gas pressure on plume collision dynamics. Three characteristic behaviors of plume expansion dynamics are observed at low, middle, and high background gas pressure regions. Interaction between the two atomic species during plume expansion was small and the effect of collision was hardly observed at a low background gas pressure, 130 Pa, while spatial evolution of the plume was suppressed at middle pressure, 270 Pa, due to collision of the two plumes. At high pressure, 2700 Pa, plume expansion is suppressed by background gas and the effect of a direct collision of two plumes was small. These results indicate that plume collision dynamics, which governs nanoparticle formation, and the mixture of Si and Ge species can be varied by background gas pressure. The deposit near the center of two targets was nanoparticles that were composed of Si and Ge.

  7. Diagnostics of laser ablated plasma plumes

    Amoruso, S.; Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen;

    2004-01-01

    The effect of an ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of laser ablated plasmas has been studied for two systems by exploiting different diagnostic techniques. First, the dynamics of a MgB2 laser produced plasma plume in an Ar atmosphere has been investigated by space-and time-resolved optical...... laser ablated plasma plume propagation in a background gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved....

  8. Diagnostics and expansion dynamics of the plume produced by laser ablation of a LiYF{sub 4} crystal in vacuum

    Bogi, A.; Barsanti, S.; Anwar-Ul-Haq, M.; Bicchi, P. [University of Siena, Department of Physics, Siena (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The expansion in vacuum of the plume generated by the UV ablation of a LiYF{sub 4} crystal was analysed as a function of several parameters: distance from the target along the plume axis, laser fluency and angular dislocation with respect to the plume axis. The study was carried out by the optical time of flight technique. Time-resolved signals of the optical emission of the neutral as well as ionised species in the plume were recorded and analysed for different experimental situations. The most probable velocity for each species was calculated and confirmed by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution fits of the relative emission temporal profiles. An angular distribution of the ablated species could also be provided. (orig.)

  9. On Predtechensky and Mayorov model for the plume expansion dynamics study into an ambient gas during thin film deposition by laser ablation

    Lafane, S.; Kerdja, T.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Malek, S.; Kechouane, M.

    2013-01-01

    The plume expansion dynamics for the Sm1- x Nd x NiO3 thin films deposition by a KrF excimer laser into oxygen atmosphere has been investigated using fast imaging. The study was carried out at 0.2 and 0.3 mbar of oxygen pressure and for different laser fluences. The plasma plume dynamics was analysed in the framework of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM) model. It was found that PM model gives a general description of the plume expansion by using parameters (laser fluence and oxygen pressure) that ensure a hemispherical expansion of the plume. The latter was discussed in the framework of the shock-wave model and the plume dimensions.

  10. Ablation plume dynamics in a background gas

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon...

  11. Plume collimation for laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A.

    2016-06-07

    In various embodiments, a device may generally comprise a capillary having a first end and a second end; a laser to emit energy at a sample in the capillary to ablate the sample and generate an ablation plume in the capillary; an electrospray apparatus to generate an electrospray plume to intercept the ablation plume to produce ions; and a mass spectrometer having an ion transfer inlet to capture the ions. The ablation plume may comprise a collimated ablation plume. The device may comprise a flow cytometer. Methods of making and using the same are also described.

  12. Plume collimation for laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A.

    2014-09-09

    In various embodiments, a device may generally comprise a capillary having a first end and a second end; a laser to emit energy at a sample in the capillary to ablate the sample and generate an ablation plume in the capillary; an electrospray apparatus to generate an electrospray plume to intercept the ablation plume to produce ions; and a mass spectrometer having an ion transfer inlet to capture the ions. The ablation plume may comprise a collimated ablation plume. The device may comprise a flow cytometer. Methods of making and using the same are also described.

  13. Ablation plume dynamics in a background gas

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during the...

  14. Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kato, M.; Wakaida, I.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5-6 J/cm2) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis.

  15. Ablation Plume Induced by Laser Euv Radiation

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Rocca, J.; Menoni, C.; Marconi, M.), s. 397-403. (Springer Proceedings in Physics. 169). ISBN 978-3-319-19521-6. [International Conference on X-Ray Laser s/14./. Fort Collins, Colorado (US), 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : EUV laser * laser ablation * plume * Au * Al * Si * Cu * energy measurements Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-19521-6_52

  16. Thermalization of a UV laser ablation plume in a background gas: From a directed to a diffusionlike flow

    Amoruso, S.; Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Combined diagnostic measurements of deposition rates and ion time-of-flight signals have been employed to study the expansion of a laser ablation plume into a background gas. With increasing gas pressure the angular distribution of the collected ablated atoms becomes broader, while the total coll...... high-pressure regime the expansion can be described by a simple model based on diffusion from a confined plume....

  17. Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5–6 J/cm2) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis. - Highlights: • Ablated ground-state species accumulated in a thin hemispherical boundary layer • Inside the layer, a cavity containing a small density of ablated species was formed. • The hemispherical layers of atoms and ions appeared at a nearly identical location. • The measured intensity peak variation was in good agreement with a model prediction. • We ascribed the dominant process for forming the layer to a three-body recombination

  18. Experimental and computational study of complex shockwave dynamics in laser ablation plumes in argon atmosphere

    We investigated spatio-temporal evolution of ns laser ablation plumes at atmospheric pressure, a favored condition for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. The 1064 nm, 6 ns pulses from a Nd:YAG laser were focused on to an Al target and the generated plasma was allowed to expand in 1 atm Ar. The hydrodynamic expansion features were studied using focused shadowgraphy and gated 2 ns self-emission visible imaging. Shadowgram images showed material ejection and generation of shock fronts. A secondary shock is observed behind the primary shock during the time window of 100−500 ns with instabilities near the laser cone angle. By comparing the self-emission images obtained using fast photography, it is concluded that the secondary shocks observed in the shadowgraphy were generated by fast moving target material. The plume front estimates using fast photography exhibited reasonable agreement with data obtained from shadowgraphy at early times ≤400 ns. However, at later times, fast photography images showed plume confinement while the shadowgraphic images showed propagation of the plume front even at greater times. The structure and dynamics of the plume obtained from optical diagnostic tools were compared to numerical simulations. We have shown that the main features of plume expansion in ambient Ar observed in the experiments can be reproduced using a continuum hydrodynamics model which provided valuable insight into the expansion dynamics and shock structure of the plasma plume.

  19. Gas-dynamic acceleration of laser-ablation plumes: Hyperthermal particle energies under thermal vaporization

    Morozov, A. A.; Evtushenko, A. B.; Bulgakov, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of a plume produced by low-fluence laser ablation of graphite in vacuum is investigated experimentally and by direct Monte Carlo simulations in an attempt to explain hyperthermal particle energies for thermally vaporized materials. We demonstrate that the translation energy of neutral particles, ˜2 times higher than classical expectations, is due to two effects, hydrodynamic plume acceleration into the forward direction and kinetic selection of fast particles in the on-axis region. Both effects depend on the collision number within the plume and on the particles internal degrees of freedom. The simulations allow ablation properties to be evaluated, such as ablation rate and surface temperature, based on time-of-flight measurements. Available experimental data on kinetic energies of various laser-produced particles are well described by the presented model.

  20. Subpicosecond laser ablation of copper and fused silica: Initiation threshold and plasma expansion

    We investigated the subpicosecond laser ablation of copper and fused silica under 100 fs laser irradiation at 800 nm in vacuum by means of fast plume imaging and time- and space-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. We found that, to the difference of copper ablation, the laser-generated plasma from a fused silica target exhibited one 'main' component only. The 'slow' plasma component, observed during copper ablation and usually assigned to optical emission from nanoparticles was not detected by either plasma fast imaging or optical emission spectroscopy even when fused silica targets were submitted to the highest incident fluences used in our experiments. The characteristic expansion velocity of this unique component was about three times larger than the velocity of the fast plume component observed during copper ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on both plasma expansion and ablation rate was investigated and discussed in terms of ablation efficiency and initiation mechanisms.

  1. Broadening and attenuation of UV laser ablation plumes in background gases

    Amoruso, S.; Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    The expansion of a laser-induced silver plume in a background gas has been studied in a variety of gases ranging from helium, oxygen and argon to xenon. We have measured the angular distribution of the total deposit of silver on an array of quartz crystal microbalances as well as the time-of-flight...... distribution with a Langmuir probe. The angular distribution broadens for all gases except for a minor pressure range for the helium background gas, in which a distinct plume narrowing occurs. The behavior of the collected, ablated silver atoms integrated over the full hemisphere is similar for all gases. This...... integral decreases strongly above a characteristic pressure, which depends on the specific gas. The ion time-of-flight signal shows a clear plume splitting into a fast and a slow component except for the ablation plume in a helium gas. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. RECENT ADVANCES IN PULSED LASER ABLATED PLASMA PLUMES: A REVIEW

    ASHUTOSH DWIVEDI

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation is a process in which an intense laser pulse interacts with the matter producing plasma. The present work describes the theoretical work being conducted in the past for the pulsed laser ablation phenomenon. It incorporates the theoretical models being proposed by various researchers around the globe for pulsed laser ablation. The main processes involved in the laser–matter interaction leading to plasma plume formation are the absorption and the reflection of the incident...

  3. Shock wave mediated plume chemistry for molecular formation in laser ablation plasmas

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-02-16

    Laser ablation is used in a variety of applications albeit formation mechanisms of molecules and nanoclusters are not well understood. We investigated the formation mechanisms of AlO molecules during complex interactions between an Al laser plume expanding into ambient air at atmospheric pressure levels. To produce the plasma a high-purity Al target was ablated using 1064 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Our results show that the plasma chemistry leading to the formation of AlO is mediated by shock waves. During the early times of plasma expansion, the generated shock waves at the plume edges act as a barrier for the combustion process and the molecular formation is prevalent after the shockwave collapse. The temporally and spatially resolved contour mapping of Al and AlO highlight the formation routes and persistence of species in the plasma and its relation to plume hydrodynamics.

  4. Influence of the atomic mass of the background gas on laser ablation plume propagation

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of time-of-flight ion probe measurements and gas dynamical modeling has been used to investigate the propagation of a laser ablation plume in gases of different atomic/molecular weight. The pressure variation of the ion time-of-flight was found to be well described by the gas...... dynamical model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (Appl. Supercond. 1:2011, 1993). In particular, the model describes how the pressure required to stop the plume in a given distance depends on the atomic/molecular weight of the gas, which is a feature that cannot be explained by standard point......-blast-wave descriptions of laser ablation plume expansion in gas....

  5. The absorption and radiation of a tungsten plasma plume during nanosecond laser ablation

    In this paper, the effect of absorption of the laser beam and subsequent radiation on the dynamics of a tungsten plasma plume during pulsed laser ablation is analyzed. Different laser wavelengths are taken into consideration. The absorption and emission coefficients of tungsten plasma in a pressure range of 0.1–100 MPa and temperature up to 70 000 K are presented. The shielding effects due to the absorption and radiation of plasma may have an impact on the course of ablation. The numerical model that describes the tungsten target heating and the formation of the plasma and its expansion were made for 355 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths of a Nd:YAG laser. The laser beam with a Gaussian profile was focused to a spot size of 0.055 mm2 with a power density of 1 × 109 W/cm2 (10 ns full width half maximum pulse duration). The plasma expands into air at ambient pressure of 1 mPa. The use of the shorter wavelength causes faster heating of the target, thus the higher ablation rate. The consequences of a higher ablation rate are slower expansion and smaller dimensions of the plasma plume. The higher plasma temperature in the case of 1064 nm is due to the lower density and lower plasma radiation. In the initial phase of propagation of the plasma plume, when both the temperature and pressure are very high, the dominant radiation is emission due to photo-recombination. However, for a 1064 nm laser wavelength after 100 ns of plasma expansion, the radiation of the spectral lines is up to 46.5% of the total plasma radiation and should not be neglected

  6. The absorption and radiation of a tungsten plasma plume during nanosecond laser ablation

    Moscicki, T., E-mail: tmosc@ippt.pan.pl; Hoffman, J.; Chrzanowska, J. [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAS, Pawinskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the effect of absorption of the laser beam and subsequent radiation on the dynamics of a tungsten plasma plume during pulsed laser ablation is analyzed. Different laser wavelengths are taken into consideration. The absorption and emission coefficients of tungsten plasma in a pressure range of 0.1–100 MPa and temperature up to 70 000 K are presented. The shielding effects due to the absorption and radiation of plasma may have an impact on the course of ablation. The numerical model that describes the tungsten target heating and the formation of the plasma and its expansion were made for 355 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths of a Nd:YAG laser. The laser beam with a Gaussian profile was focused to a spot size of 0.055 mm{sup 2} with a power density of 1 × 10{sup 9 }W/cm{sup 2} (10 ns full width half maximum pulse duration). The plasma expands into air at ambient pressure of 1 mPa. The use of the shorter wavelength causes faster heating of the target, thus the higher ablation rate. The consequences of a higher ablation rate are slower expansion and smaller dimensions of the plasma plume. The higher plasma temperature in the case of 1064 nm is due to the lower density and lower plasma radiation. In the initial phase of propagation of the plasma plume, when both the temperature and pressure are very high, the dominant radiation is emission due to photo-recombination. However, for a 1064 nm laser wavelength after 100 ns of plasma expansion, the radiation of the spectral lines is up to 46.5% of the total plasma radiation and should not be neglected.

  7. Mapping neutral, ion, and electron number densities within laser-ablated plasma plumes

    Weaver, I.; Doyle, Liam A.; Martin, G. W.; Riley, Dave; Lamb, M. J.; Graham, William G.; Morrow, Tom; Lewis, Ciaran L. S.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially and temporally varying neutral, ion and electron number densities have been mapped out within laser ablated plasma plumes expanding into vacuum. Ablation of a magnesium target was performed using a KrF laser, 30 ns pulse duration and 248 nm wavelength. During the initial stage of plasma expansion (t Two distinct regions within the plume were identified. One is a fast component (approximately 106 cm-1) consisting of ions and neutrals with maximum number densities observed to be approximately 30 and 4 X 1012 cm-3 respectively, and the second consists of slow moving neutral material at a number density of up to 1015 cm-3. Additionally a Langmuir probe has been used to obtain ion and electron number densities at very late times in the plasma expansion (1 microsecond(s) Two regions within the plume with different velocities were observed. Within a fast component (approximately 3 X 106 cms-1) electron and ion number densities of the order 5 X 1012 cm-3 were observed and within the second slower component (approximately 106 cms-1) electron and ion number densities of the order 1 - 2 X 1013 cm-3 were determined.

  8. Characterization of ablated species in laser-induced plasma plume

    Plasma electron density and atomic population densities in the plasma plume produced by a laser ablation of aluminum metal were determined in various ambient gases at relatively high pressures. The method is based on the fit of a spectral line profile of Al(I) 2P(convolutionsign)-2S emission to the theoretical spectrum obtained by one-dimensional radiative transfer calculation. The electron density was higher for a higher ambient gas pressure, suggesting the confinement of the plume by an ambient gas. The electron density also depends on the type of ambient gases, i.e., it increased in the order He424, while the atomic population density is almost independent of the type of ambient species and pressure. The population densities of the upper and lower levels of the transition were compared, and the ratio between their spatial distribution widths was calculated. These results provide valuable information regarding the confinement of the plume by the ambient gas and give insight into the time evolution of the plume

  9. Effect of ionization on laser-induced plume self-similar expansion

    The dynamics of a laser ablation plume during the first stage of its expansion, just after the termination of the laser pulse is modelled. The one-dimensional expansion of the evaporated material, considered as an ideal fluid, is governed by one-fluid Euler equations. For high energetic ions, the charge separation can be neglected and the hydrodynamics equations solved using self-similar formulation. Numerical solution is obtained, first when the laser fluence range is low enough to deal with a neutral vapor, and in a second stage, when ionization effects on the expansion are taken into account, for different material targets. As a main result, we found that the presence of ions in the evaporated gas enhances the self-similar expansion.

  10. Plasma plume induced during ArF laser ablation of hydroxyapatite

    Plasma plume induced by ArF excimer laser ablation of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) target was studied during expansion into a vacuum or water vapour. The ArF laser operated at a wavelength of 193 nm with a pulse energy of 300-350 mJ and a 20 ns pulse duration. The emission spectra of the plasma plume were registered with the use of a spectrograph and an ICCD camera. The expansion of the plasma plume was studied using the time of flight method. The time-dependent radiation of the Ca I and Ca II lines was registered with the use of a monochromator and photomultiplier at various distances from the target. The dynamics of the plasma plume was also imaged by means of fast photography. It was found that during expansion into a vacuum, the plasma front moved with a constant velocity of 1.75 x 104 m s-1, while in the case of ambient water vapour at a pressure of 20 Pa, velocities of 1.75 x 104-1.5 x 103 m s-1 were found depending on the distance from the target. Electron densities of 1.2 x 1024-4.5 x 1021 m-3 were determined from the Stark broadening of the Ca II and Ca I lines at distances of 1-25 mm from the target. Temperatures of 11,500-4500 K were determined from the relative intensities of carbon lines and continuum radiation at distances of 4-29 mm from the target. The results allowed the estimation of thermal and kinetic energies of ablated particles. During expansion into a vacuum, the kinetic energies of Ca, P and O atoms were 64, 49 and 25 eV, respectively. During expansion into water vapour, kinetic energies dropped to 0.47, 0.36 and 0.19 eV, respectively at a distance of 25 mm from the target and were comparable to the energies of thermal motion.

  11. Appearance property and mechanism of plume produced by pulsed ultraviolet laser ablating copper

    Time-resolved measurements of plume emission spectra by pulsed ultraviolet laser ablating copper in neon were analyzed, and the photographs of plume from laser ablating copper were taken. The experimental results show that plume has different colours in different ranges. At low pressure the centre layer and middle layer colours of plume are mixed colour, and the outer layer colours of plume are yellow and green. At middle pressure the centre layer and middle layer colours of plume are white, and the outer layer colour of plume is pea green. At high pressure the centre layer and middle layer colours of plume are white, and the outer layer colour of plume is faintness green. The plume range is pressed with the rising of ambient gas pressure, and the range colour gets thin with the rising of ambient gas pressure. The plume excitation radiation mechanism in pulsed ultraviolet laser ablating copper was discussed. The primary excitation radiation mechanism in plume is electron collision energy transfer and atom collision energy transfer at low pressure and middle pressure, and it is electrons Bremsstrahlung and recombination excitation radiation of electron and ion at high pressure. The model can be used to explain the experimental result qualitatively. (authors)

  12. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of the Laser Ablation Plume Controled by RF Plasma

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuma; Mizuno, Manabu; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Sakai, Yosuke

    1999-10-01

    Recently, film deposition has been investigated using laser ablation methods which have a lot of advantages. For the purpose of control of the laser ablation plume, we introduced a radio frequency (RF) plasma. In this report we present position resolved optical emission spectra of the plume observed by an OMA (optical multichannel analyzer). The plume current is also measured. The RF plasma is generated in a helical coil installed between the substrate and the target. An ArF excimer laser (wavelength 193 nm, pulse duration time 20 ns) is used as a light source, and the target material is sintered carbon graphite. The laser fluence on the target surface is changed in a range from 1.2 to 6.4 J/cm^2. Ar gas is introduced to sustain the RF plasma. When the plume goes through the RF plasma, interaction of the plume with the plasma is expected. The possibility of control of the plume behavior is discussed.

  13. Langmuir probe study of plasma expansion in pulsed laser ablation

    Hansen, T.N.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Langmuir probes were used to monitor the asymptotic expansion of the plasma produced by the laser ablation of a silver target in a vacuum. The measured angular and temporal distributions of the ion flux and electron temperature were found to be in good agreement with the self-similar isentropic and...

  14. Ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of silicon: Ablation efficiency and laser-induced plasma expansion

    Zeng, Xianzhong; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2004-03-23

    Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon in air was studied and compared with nanosecond laser ablation at ultraviolet wavelength (266 nm). Laser ablation efficiency was studied by measuring crater depth as a function of pulse number. For the same number of laser pulses, the fs-ablated crater was about two times deeper than the ns-crater. The temperature and electron number density of the pulsed laser-induced plasma were determined from spectroscopic measurements. The electron number density and temperature of fs-pulse plasmas decreased faster than ns-pulse plasmas due to different energy deposition mechanisms. Images of the laser-induced plasma were obtained with femtosecond time-resolved laser shadowgraph imaging. Plasma expansion in both the perpendicular and the lateral directions to the laser beam were compared for femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation.

  15. On the plume splitting of pulsed laser ablated Fe and Al plasmas

    A time resolved imaging study of pulsed laser ablated Fe and Al plasma plumes with specific interest in the splitting of plumes into the slow and fast moving components as they expand through the background argon gas at different pressures is reported. The material ablation was achieved using a Q-switched Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser operating at 532 nm with a pulse duration of ∼8 ns full width at half maximum and a fluence of 30 Jcm-2 at the target surface. Typical time resolved images with low magnification show that the splitting occurs at moderate background gas pressures (0.5 and 1.0 mbar for Fe, and 0.2 mbar for Al plasma plumes). The plume splitting did not occur for higher background gas pressures.

  16. On the plume splitting of pulsed laser ablated Fe and Al plasmas

    Mahmood, S.; Rawat, R. S.; Darby, M. S. B.; Zakaullah, M.; Springham, S. V.; Tan, T. L.; Lee, P.

    2010-10-01

    A time resolved imaging study of pulsed laser ablated Fe and Al plasma plumes with specific interest in the splitting of plumes into the slow and fast moving components as they expand through the background argon gas at different pressures is reported. The material ablation was achieved using a Q-switched Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser operating at 532 nm with a pulse duration of ˜8 ns full width at half maximum and a fluence of 30 Jcm-2 at the target surface. Typical time resolved images with low magnification show that the splitting occurs at moderate background gas pressures (0.5 and 1.0 mbar for Fe, and 0.2 mbar for Al plasma plumes). The plume splitting did not occur for higher background gas pressures.

  17. Adiabatic, Non-Isothermal Plume Expansion into Vacuum in Terms of Knudsen Layer

    F.M. Jasim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical analysis of laser plume formation in terms of Knudsen layer when a femtosecond laser pulse was irradiated on a thin gold foil in terms of gas dynamics equations. The laser spot was assumed to be noncircular laser spot radius, giving an ellipsoidal form of expansion. The profile of the plume will be discussed depending on the laser fluence and beam waist. Analytical solution of this expansion will be presented for the density of vapor plume.

  18. Ion dynamics in laser ablation plumes from selected metals at 355 nm

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen;

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of ions in a laser ablation plume from a number of metals irradiated by a ns-second pulse at 355 nm has been studied. The time-of-flight signals peak at flight times corresponding to velocities between 30 and 10 km/s with decreasing values for increasing atomic masses. The angular...

  19. Angular distribution of electron temperature and density in a laser-ablation plume

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.N.; Lunney, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The angular distribution of electron temperature and density in a laser-ablation plume has been studied for the first time. The electron temperature ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 eV and is only weakly dependent on the angle in the low-intensity range studied here. In contrast, the typical ion energy is...

  20. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the expanding laser ablation plume of silver

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.N.; Lunney, J.G.

    The angular and radial variation of the ion density and electron temperature in the plasma plume produced by laser ablation of silver at fluences of 0.8-1.3 J cm(-2) at 355 nm have been studied using a time-resolving Langmuir probe. The angular dependence of the electron temperature and the...

  1. Energy balance of a laser ablation plume expanding in a background gas

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The energy balance of a laser ablation plume in an ambient gas for nanosecond pulses has been investigated on the basis of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM), which provides a relatively simple and clear description of the essential hydrodynamics. This approach also leads to an insightful...

  2. Effects of oxygen background pressure on the stoichiometry of a LaGaO3 laser ablation plume investigated by time and spectrally resolved two-dimensional imaging

    Sambri, A.; Aruta, C.; Di Gennaro, E.; Wang, X.; Scotti di Uccio, U.; Miletto Granozio, F.; Amoruso, S.

    2016-03-01

    The plume expansion dynamics strongly affects the growth and the chemistry of pulsed laser deposited thin films. The interaction with the background gas determines the kinetic energy of the species impinging on the substrate, their angular broadening, the plasma chemistry, and eventually the cations stoichiometric ratio in oxide films. Here, we exploit two-dimensional, spectrally resolved plume imaging to characterize the diverse effects of the oxygen background pressure on the expansion dynamics of La, Ga, and LaO species during pulsed laser deposition of LaGaO3. The propagation of the ablated species towards the substrate is studied for background oxygen pressures ranging from high vacuum up to ≈10-1 mbar. Our experimental results show specie-dependent effects of the background gas on the angular distribution of the precursors within the plume. These findings suggest that even in the presence of a stoichiometric ablation and of a globally stoichiometric plume, cations off-stoichiometry can take place in the forefront portion of the plume impinging on the substrate. We show that such effect can be compensated by a proper choice of process parameters.

  3. Investigation of plumes produced by material ablation with two time-delayed femtosecond laser pulses

    We experimentally investigated and herewith reported the results of laser ablation of copper and gold with two time-delayed femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm in vacuum. The ablation plume dynamic was monitored by fast plume imaging and time- and space-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. Optical microscopy was used to follow the ablation depth as a function of the delay between the two laser pulses. Nanoparticles deposition on mica substrates was analysed by atomic force microscopy. We estimate roughly the plume's atomization degree - that is the mass fraction of atomized material over the total ablated mass - from the relative intensities of radiation emitted from atoms and nanoparticles. It is shown that the atomization degree depends critically on the time delay between both laser pulses and on the characteristic time of electron-lattice relaxation. The increase of the atomization degree is accompanied by the decrease of the ablation depth. Atomic force microscopy measurements confirm the partial atomization of nanoparticles, as the analyses of particle deposition on mica substrates show a large decrease of the number of nanoparticles for large delay between the two pulses.

  4. Emission spectroscopy of laser ablation plume: Composition analysis of a target in water

    Emission spectra of the laser ablation plume formed by the irradiation of Cu65/Zn35 binary alloy in water at the room temperature with 150-ns pulsed laser were measured. The spectra were analyzed by comparing with the theoretical calculation based on the assumption that self-absorption effect is negligible and that the same temperature can be applied to Cu atoms and Zn atoms in the plume. The calculation reproduced the spectra very well and gave reasonable temperature as a best-fit parameter. However, the best-fit value of the Cu atomic density relative to Zn is significantly low compared with the target composition. Care should be taken to perform in situ LIBS in liquid due to the complicated plume formation mechanism and dynamics of material intake into the plume.

  5. Spectroscopic modeling and characterization of a collisionally confined laser-ablated plasma plume

    Plasma plumes produced by laser ablation are an established method for manufacturing the high quality stoichiometrically complex thin films used for a variety of optical, photoelectric, and superconducting applications. The state and reproducibility of the plasma close to the surface of the irradiated target plays a critical role in producing high quality thin films. Unfortunately, this dense plasma has historically eluded quantifiable characterization. The difficulty in modeling the plume formation arises in the accounting for the small amount of energy deposited into the target when physical properties of these exotic target materials are not known. In this work we obtain the high density state of the plasma plume through the use of an experimental spectroscopic technique and a custom spectroscopic model. In addition to obtaining detailed temperature and density profiles, issues regarding line broadening and opacity for spectroscopic characterization will be addressed for this unique environment

  6. Dynamics of Laser-Ablation Plume and Ambient Gas Visualized by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging Spectroscopy

    Sasaki, Koichi; Watarai, Hiroshi

    2006-04-01

    The dynamics of both a laser-ablation plume and ambient gas were studied by visualizing their density distributions by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A deep dip was formed in the density distribution of the ambient gas. The depth of the dip was almost 100% immediately after irradiation of the ablation laser pulse. The size of the dip expanded with time. At a long delay time after the irradiation of the ablation laser pulse, the ambient gas returned to the dip and slowly filled it. The location of the dip corresponded to that of the plume ejected from the target. This means that the high pressure of the plume removed the ambient gas, and the plume and the ambient gas located exclusively. In addition, we observed the formation and propagation of a compressed layer around the dip.

  7. Experimental studies of laser-ablated zirconium carbide plasma plumes: Fuel corrosion diagnostic development

    Understanding the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuel materials, such as refractory carbides, in a high temperature hydrogen environment is critical for several proposed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) concepts. Monitoring the fuel corrosion products is important not only for understanding corrosion characteristics, but to assess the performance of an actual, operating nuclear propulsion system as well. In this paper, we describe an experimental study initiated to develop, test, and subsequently utilize non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostics to characterize the gaseous product species which are expected to evolve during the exposure of representative fuel samples to hydrogen. Laser ablation is used to produce high temperature, vapor plumes from solid solution, uranium-free, zirconium carbide (ZrC) forms for probing by other laser diagnostic methods; predominantly laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). We discuss the laser ablation technique, results of plume emission measurements, as well as the use of planar LIF to image both the ZrC plumes and actual NTP fuel corrosion constituents

  8. Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion

    Harilal, S. S.; O'Shay, Beau; Tao, Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S.

    2006-04-01

    Controlling the debris from a laser-generated tin plume is one of the prime issues in the development of an extreme ultraviolet lithographic light source. An ambient gas that is transparent to 13.5 nm radiation can be used for controlling highly energetic particles from the tin plume. We employed a partial ambient argon pressure for decelerating various species in the tin plume. The kinetic energy distributions of tin species were analyzed at short and large distances using time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and a Faraday cup, respectively. A fast-gated intensified charged coupled device was used for understanding the hydrodynamics of the plume's expansion into argon ambient. Our results indicate that the tin ions can be effectively mitigated with a partial argon pressure ~65 mTorr. Apart from thermalization and deceleration of plume species, the addition of ambient gas leads to other events such as double peak formation in the temporal distributions and ambient plasma formation.

  9. Angular distribution of electron temperature and density in a laser-ablation plume

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.N.; Lunney, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The angular distribution of electron temperature and density in a laser-ablation plume has been studied for the first time. The electron temperature ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 eV and is only weakly dependent on the angle in the low-intensity range studied here. In contrast, the typical ion energy is ...... about 2 orders of magnitude larger, and its angular distribution is mon peaked about the target normal. The derived Values of the electron density are in agreement with the measured values of ion density....

  10. Comparative investigation of laser ablation plumes in air and argon by analysis of spectral line shapes: Insights on calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    We investigate the characteristic features of plume expansion in air and argon resulting from ultraviolet laser ablation of solid matter in conditions typically applied in material analysis via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Barite crown glass is chosen as a target material for the characteristic emission spectrum suitable for plasma diagnostics. The space-integrated plasma emission spectrum recorded with an echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector is compared to the computed spectral radiance of a nonuniform plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, resonance lines of neutral sodium atoms and barium ions are observed to probe gradients of temperature and density within the plume. It is shown that laser ablation in argon leads to an almost uniform plasma whereas gradients of temperature and density are evidenced in ambient air. The discrepancy is attributed to the different physical properties of both gases leading to a stronger vapor–gas energy exchange in the case of air. However, strong gradients occur only in a thin peripheral zone, close to the vapor–gas contact front. The larger plasma core appears almost uniform. The peripheral zone of low temperature mostly contributes to the plasma emission spectrum by absorption and material analysis via calibration-free LIBS in air may ignore the nonuniform character of the plasma if only transitions of small optical thickness are considered. - Highlights: • Investigation of laser ablation plumes by analysis of spectral line shapes • Simulation of emission spectra from nonuniform laser-produced plasma • Plasma is more uniform for ablation in argon. • Plasma nonuniformity mostly affects optically thick lines. • Calibration-free LIBS may ignore gradients if optically thin lines are chosen

  11. Laser ablated plasma plume diagnostics of cerium oxide: effect of oxygen partial pressure

    This paper describes the spatial and temporal investigation of laser ablated plasma plume of cerium oxide target using Langmuir probe to measure the plasma parameters. Cerium oxide target was ablated using a KrF (λ ∼ 248 nm) gas laser at an energy of 300 mJ per pulse. Experimental studies confirmed that oxygen partial pressure of 2 x 10-2 mbar is sufficient enough to get good quality films of cerium oxide. At this pressure, plume was diagnosed for their spatial and temporal behaviour. The tungsten probe tip was inserted along the length of the plasma to collect the ions and electrons effectively. A thin probe tip (about 0.4 mm diameter) was used to avoid plasma perturbation during measurements. A variable voltage was applied to the tip and corresponding current due to electrons and ions was collected. Spatial distribution was investigated at a regular interval of 15 mm from the target up maximum distance 45 mm and the temporal behaviour was recorded in the range of 0 to 50 μS with an interval of 0.5 μS. The ion and average electron density are found to be maximum at 30 mm from the target position and the plasma current of ceria is found to be maximum at 22 μS. (author)

  12. Plume expansion of a laser-induced plasma studied with the particle-in-cell method

    Ellegaard, Ole; Nedela, T; Urbassek, H; Schou, J

    2002-01-01

     The initial stage of laser-induced plasma plume expansion from a solid in vacuum and the effect of the Coulomb field have been studied. We have performed a one-dimensional numerical calculation by mapping the charge on a computational grid according to the particle-in-cell (PIC) method of Birdsall...

  13. Plume expansion of a laser-induced plasma studied with the particle-in-cell method

    Ellegaard, O.; Nedelea, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Urbassek, H.M.

    The initial stage of laser-induced plasma plume expansion from a solid in vacuum and the effect of the Coulomb field have been studied. We have performed a one-dimensional numerical calculation by mapping the charge on a computational grid according to the particle-in-cell (PIC) method of Birdsall...

  14. Classification of plastic materials by imaging laser-induced ablation plumes

    Negre, Erwan; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Pelascini, Frederic; Yu, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A method of rapid classification and identification of plastic materials has been studied in this work. Such method is based on fast spectroscopic imagery of laser-induced ablation plume on plastics to be analyzed. More specifically, a classification schema has been developed first according to the nature of the CC bonds which characterize the polymer matrix. Our results show that the spatial distribution and the evolution of the molecular species in the ablation plume, such as C2 and CN, exhibit clear different behaviors for polymers without any native CC bond, with CC single bonds or with CC double bonds respectively. Therefore the morphological parameters of the populations of the molecular species extracted from the time-resolved spectroscopic images of the plumes provide efficient indicators to classify the polymers characterized by the above mentioned different kinds of CC bonds. When dealing with different polymers with the same kind of CC bond, CC single bond for instance, other indicators should be introduced to provide the further discrimination. Such indicators can be for example a specific native molecular bond other than CC bonds, CN for example, the total emission intensity of which may exhibit specific time evolution. The robustness of the developed classification schema has been then studied with respect to two of the most frequently used additives in plastics fabrication, graphite and titanium. Our results show a negligible influence of these additives in the morphology of the populations of the molecular species when such additives are mixed into the polymer matrix with the percentages usually used in plastics productions, which demonstrates the validity of the developed classification schema for plastics.

  15. Numerical Simulation on Expansion Process of Ablation Plasma Induced by Intense Pulsed Ion Beam

    TAN Chang; LIU Yue; WANG Xiao-Gang; MA Teng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional time-dependent numerical model for the expansion process of ablation plasmainduced by intense pulsed ion beam(IPIB).The evolutions of density,velocity,temperature,and pressure of theablation plasma of the aluminium target are obtained.The numerical results are well in agreement with therelative experimental data.It is shown that the expansion process of ablation plasma induced by IPIB includesstrongly nonlinear effects and that shock waves appear during the propagation of the ablation plasma.

  16. Two-dimensional imaging of atomic and nanoparticle components in copper plasma plume produced by ultrafast laser ablation

    Anoop, K. K.; Ni, Xiaochang; Bianco, M.; Paparo, D.; Wang, X.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the spatial and temporal evolution of the plume generated during ultrafast laser ablation of a pure copper target with 800 nm, ≈50 fs, Ti: Sapphire laser pulses. Time-gated imaging was used to record 2-dimensional images of plume populations. The temporal evolution of neutral (Cu*), and ionic (Cu+) components of the plume are separately imaged by exploiting bandpass interference filters, while nanoparticles are investigated by collecting their characteristic broadband emission. The ionic component of the plume moves two to three times faster than the neutral component, with a velocity which is almost independent of laser fluence. Plume emission intensity variations at different fluences and delay times are studied for both atomic and nanoparticle components.

  17. Time-of-flight spectroscopy characterization of the plasma plume from a laser-ablated potassium titanyl phosphate crystal

    Optical emission spectra of the plasma produced by 1.06-µm Nd:YAG laser irradiation of a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal were recorded and analyzed in a time- and spatially resolved manner. The composition and evolution of the plasma plume were studied in low vacuum conditions. Emission lines associated with Ti(I), Ti(II) and K(I) were identified in the plasma. The delay times of emission peaks for the ablated species were investigated as a function of the observation distance from the target surface, and the velocities of these species were derived accordingly. Two emission peaks corresponding to a fast and a slow component of ablated Ti(I) were observed by optical time-of-flight spectroscopy. The origins of the two peaks and a possible mechanism for the laser ablation are discussed. - Highlights: • The optical emission spectra of the plasma plume produced by laser ablation of a KTP crystal were studied in a time- and spatially resolved manner. • Two emission peaks, corresponding to a fast and a slow component of ablated Ti(I), were observed. • The velocities of different species in the plasma plume were derived. • The origins of the two-peak emission of Ti(I) are discussed

  18. Calcium detection of human hair and nail by the nanosecond time-gated spectroscopy of laser-ablation plume

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ohmi, Masato; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Morimoto, Shigeto

    2000-04-01

    We demonstrate the nanosecond time-gated spectroscopy of plume in laser ablation of biological tissue, which allows us to detect calcium (Ca) with high sensitivity by the use of either a UV or a near-IR laser pulse. Clear and sharp peaks of Ca+ appear in the luminescence spectrum of laser-ablation plume although the Ca content is only 0.1 percent in human hair and nail. Luminescence peaks of sodium atom (Na) and ionized carbon are also detectable. This specific spectroscopy is low invasive because a single low-energy laser pulse illuminates the tissue sample, and it does not require any poisonous sensititizers like fluorescence dye. This method, therefore, is a promising candidate for optical biopsy in the near future. In particular, Ca detection of human hair may lead to new diagnosis, including monitor of daily intake of Ca and a screening diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  19. Understanding plume splitting of laser ablated plasma: A view from ion distribution dynamics

    Plume splitting in low-pressure ambient air was understood in view of ion distribution dynamics from the laser ablated Al plasma (1064 nm 0.57 J/mm2) by combining fast photography and spatially resolved spectroscopy. In the beginning, the spectral lines were mainly from the Al III ion. Then, the Bragg peak in stopping power of the ambient gas to Al III could be the dominant reason for the enhanced emission from the fast moving part, and the recombination of Al III to Al I-II ions near the target surface was response to the radiations from the slow moving/stationary part. As the ambient gas pressure increased, stopping distances of the Al III decreased, and radiation from the air ions became pronounced. The laser shadowgraph image at 1100 Pa indicated that the shock wave front located between the fast moving and slow moving parts. Electron densities of the fast moving plasma, which peaked at the plasma front, were on the order of 1016 cm−3, and the electron temperatures were 2–3 eV

  20. Nanosecond and femtosecond ablation of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3: a comparison between plume dynamics and composition of the films

    Canulescu, Stela; Papadopoulou, E.; Anglos, D.;

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 were grown by pulsed laser ablation with nanosecond and femtosecond pulses. The films deposited with femtosecond pulses (248 nm, 500 fs pulse duration) exhibit a higher surface roughness and deficiency in the cobalt content compared to the films deposited with...... nanosecond pulses (248 nm, 20 ns pulse duration). The origin of these pronounced differences between the films grown by ns and fs ablation has been studied in detail by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy and imaging. The plumes generated by nanosecond and femtosecond ablation were analyzed in vacuum...... similar velocities of the plume species are observed for fs and ns laser ablation. The different film compositions are therefore not related to different kinetic energies and different distributions of various species in the plasma plume which has been identified as the origin of the deficiency of species...

  1. Laser-solid interaction and dynamics of laser-ablated materials

    An annealing model is extended to treat the vaporization process, and a hydrodynamic model describes the ablated material. We find that dynamic source and ionization effects accelerate the expansion front of the ablated plume with thermal vaporization temperature. The vaporization process and plume propagation in high background gas pressure are studied

  2. Groundwater contamination downstream of a contaminant penetration site. I. Extension-expansion of the contaminant plume

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns the possible use of boundary layer (BL) approach for the analysis and evaluation of contaminant transport in groundwater due to contaminant penetration into the groundwater aquifer through a site of limited size. The contaminant penetration may occur through either the upper (surface) or lower (bedrock) boundary of the aquifer. Two general cases of contaminant penetration mechanisms are considered: (1) the contaminant is transferred through an interface between a contaminating and freshwater fluid phases, and (2) the contaminant arrives at groundwater by leakage and percolation. For the purpose of BL evaluation the contaminant plume is divided into three different sections: (1) the penetration section, (2) the extension-expansion section, and (3) the spearhead section. In each section a different BL method approach yields simple analytical expressions for the description of the contaminant plume migration and contaminant transport. Previous studies of the BL method can be directly applied to the evaluation of contaminant transport at the contaminant penetration section. The present study extends those studies and concerns the contaminant transport in the two other sections, which are located downstream of the penetration section. This study shows that the contaminant concentration profiles in sections 2 and 3 incorporate two BLs: (1) an inner BL adjacent to the aquifer bottom or surface boundary, and (2) an outer BL, which develops above or below the inner one. The method developed in the present study has been applied to practical issues concerning salinity penetration into groundwater in south central Kansas.

  3. Laser ablation in liquid media of noble metals. The physics of plasma plume and the optical properties of the produced colloids

    In experiments of pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL), performed on noble metal targets, many physical aspects regarding the characteristics of the plasma plume generated in the confining liquid, and the optical properties of the produced nano colloids deserve a clear definition and discussion. In this paper we present the relevant theories and the results of experiments performed in our laboratory on this argument.

  4. Ablation with a single micropatterned KrF laser pulse: quantitative evidence of transient liquid microflow driven by the plume pressure gradient at the surface of polyesters

    Weisbuch, F.; Tokarev, V. N.; Lazare, S.; Débarre, D.

    A microscopic flow of a transient liquid film produced by KrF laser ablation is evidenced on targets of PET and PEN. Experiments were done by using single pulses of the excimer laser beam micropatterned with the aid of submicron projection optics and grating masks. The samples of various crystalline states, ablated with a grating-forming beam (period Λ=3.7 μm), were precisely measured by atomic force microscopy, in order to evidence any deviation from the ablation behavior predicted by the current theory (combination of ablation curve and beam profile). This was confirmed by comparing various behaviors dependent on the polymer nature (PC, PET and PEN). PC is a normally ablating polymer in the sense that the ablated profile can be predicted with previous theory neglecting liquid-flow effects. This case is called `dry' ablation and PC is used as a reference material. But, for some particular samples like crystalline PET, it is revealed that during ablation a film of transient liquid, composed of various components, which are discussed, can flow under the transient action of the gradient of the pressure of the ablation plume and resolidify at the border of the spot after the end of the pulse. This mechanism is further supported by a hydrodynamics theoretical model in which a laser-induced viscosity drop and the gradient of the plume pressure play an important role. The volume of displaced liquid increases with fluence (0.5 to 2 J/cm2) and satisfactory quantitative agreement is obtained with the present model. The same experiment done on the same PET polymer but prepared in the amorphous state does not show microflow, and such an amorphous sample behaves like the reference PC (`dry' ablation). The reasons for this surprising result are discussed.

  5. Laser ablation in CdZnTe crystal due to thermal self-focusing: Secondary phase hydrodynamic expansion

    Medvid', A.; Mychko, A.; Dauksta, E.; Kosyak, V.; Grase, L.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper deals with the laser ablation in CdZnTe crystal irradiated by pulsed infrared laser. Two values of threshold intensities of the laser ablation were determined, namely of about 8.5 and 6.2 MW/cm2 for the incident and the rear surfaces, correspondingly. Lower intensity of the laser ablation for the rear surface is explained by thermal self-focusing of the laser beam in the CdZnTe crystal due to heating of Te inclusions with a following hydrodynamic expansion.

  6. Atomic Processes in Emission Characteristics of a Lithium Plasma Plume Formed by Double-Pulse Laser Ablation

    High resolution spectral analysis of lithium plasma formed by single and double laser ablation has been undertaken to understand the plume-laser interaction, especially at the early stages of the plasma plume. In order to identify different atomic processes in evolving plasma, time resolved spectral emission studies at different inter-pulse delays have been performed for ionic and neutral lithium lines emitting from different levels. Along with the enhancement in emission intensity, a large line broadening and spectral shift, especially in the case of excited state transition Li I 610.3 nm have been observed in the presence of the second pulse. This broadening and shift gradually decrease with increasing time delay. Another interesting feature is the appearance of a multi-component structure in the ionic line at 548.4 nm and these components change conversely into a single structure at the later stages of the plasma. The multi-component structures are correlated with the presence of different velocity (temperature) distributions in non-LTE conditions. Atomic analyses by computing photon emissivity coefficients with an ADAS code have been used to identify the above processes.

  7. Atomic Processes in Emission Characteristics of a Lithium Plasma Plume Formed by Double-Pulse Laser Ablation

    Sivakumaran, V.; Ajai, Kumar; K. Singh, R.; Prahlad, V.; C. Joshi, H.

    2013-03-01

    High resolution spectral analysis of lithium plasma formed by single and double laser ablation has been undertaken to understand the plume-laser interaction, especially at the early stages of the plasma plume. In order to identify different atomic processes in evolving plasma, time resolved spectral emission studies at different inter-pulse delays have been performed for ionic and neutral lithium lines emitting from different levels. Along with the enhancement in emission intensity, a large line broadening and spectral shift, especially in the case of excited state transition Li I 610.3 nm have been observed in the presence of the second pulse. This broadening and shift gradually decrease with increasing time delay. Another interesting feature is the appearance of a multi-component structure in the ionic line at 548.4 nm and these components change conversely into a single structure at the later stages of the plasma. The multi-component structures are correlated with the presence of different velocity (temperature) distributions in non-LTE conditions. Atomic analyses by computing photon emissivity coefficients with an ADAS code have been used to identify the above processes.

  8. Analysis of plume following ultraviolet laser ablation of doped polymers: Dependence on polymer molecular weight

    This work investigates the effect of polymer molecular weight MW on the plume characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) films doped with iodonaphthalene (NapI) and iodophenanthrene (PhenI) following irradiation in vacuum at 248 nm. Laser-induced fluorescence probing of the plume reveals the presence of ArH products (NapH and PhenH from, respectively, NapI- and PhenI-doped films). While a bimodal translational distribution of these products is observed in all cases, on average, a slower translational distribution is observed in the low MW system. The extent of the observed dependence is reduced as the optical absorption coefficient of the film increases, i.e., in the sequence NapI/PMMA, PhenI/PMMA, and PS-doped films. Further confirmation of the bimodal translational distributions is provided by monitoring in situ the temporally resolved attenuation by the plume as it expands in vacuum of a continuous wave helium-neon laser propagating parallel to the substrate. Results are discussed in the framework of the bulk photothermal model, according to which ejection requires that a critical number of bonds are broken

  9. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a plume induced by laser ablation of pyrolytic boron nitride

    Chae, H B; Lee, I H; Park, S M

    1998-01-01

    The laser ablation of a pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) target was investigated by time-of- flight quadrupole mass spectroscopy. According to the laser-correlated ion mass spectra, B sup + and B sub 2 sup + ions were produced, but neither N sup + , N sub 2 sup + , or BN sup + ions were observed at laser fluences below 1 J/cm sup 2. Instead, neutral N sub 2 molecules were found to be formed. The mean velocities and kinetic energies of the B sup + ions were obtained by time-of-flight analysis. Also, reactive laser ablation under a N sub 2 atmosphere was attempted by using a pulsed valve synchronized with the laser pulse.

  10. Expansion dynamics of the plasma produced by laser ablation of BaTiO3 in a gas environment

    Gonzalo de los Reyes, José; Afonso, Carmen N.; Madariaga, I.

    1997-01-01

    The expansion dynamics of the plasma produced by excimer laser ablation of BaTiO3 has been studied by spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy over a broad gas pressure range (10–7–40 mbar), the gas being either reactive (oxygen) or inert (argon). The results obtained in both environments are qualitatively similar and they show that there is a distance-related pressure threshold above which the expansion dynamics differ from that of the free-expansion regime observed in vacuum. Analys...

  11. Diagnostics of Carbon Nanotube Formation in a Laser Produced Plume: An Investigation of the Metal Catalyst by Laser Ablation Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    deBoer, Gary; Scott, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, elongated molecular tubes with diameters of nanometers and lengths in microns, hold great promise for material science. Hopes for super strong light-weight material to be used in spacecraft design is the driving force behind nanotube work at JSC. The molecular nature of these materials requires the appropriate tools for investigation of their structure, properties, and formation. The mechanism of nanotube formation is of particular interest because it may hold keys to controlling the formation of different types of nanotubes and allow them to be produced in much greater quantities at less cost than is currently available. This summer's work involved the interpretation of data taken last summer and analyzed over the academic year. The work involved diagnostic studies of carbon nanotube formation processes occurring in a laser-produced plume. Laser ablation of metal doped graphite to produce a plasma plume in which carbon nanotubes self assemble is one method of making carbon nanotube. The laser ablation method is amenable to applying the techniques of laser spectroscopy, a powerful tool for probing the energies and dynamics of atomic and molecular species. The experimental work performed last summer involved probing one of the metal catalysts, nickel, by laser induced fluorescence. The nickel atom was studied as a function of oven temperature, probe laser wavelength, time after ablation, and position in the laser produced plume. This data along with previously obtained data on carbon was analyzed over the academic year. Interpretations of the data were developed this summer along with discussions of future work. The temperature of the oven in which the target is ablated greatly influences the amount of material ablated and the propagation of the plume. The ablation conditions and the time scale of atomic and molecular lifetimes suggest that initial ablation of the metal doped carbon target results in atomic and small molecular species. The metal

  12. Energy distributions of plume ions from silver at different angles ablated in vacuum

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela

    A typical pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is carried out for a fluence between 0.5 and 2.5 J/cm2. The ablated particles are largely neutrals at the lowest fluence, but the fraction of ions increases strongly with fluence and accounts for more 0.5 of the particles at 2.5 J/cm2 [1,2]. Since it may be...... comparatively difficult to measure the energy and angular distribution of neutrals, measurements of the ionic fraction will be valuable for any modeling of PLD. We have irradiated silver in a vacuum chamber (~ 10-7 mbar) with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm and made detailed measurements of the time...

  13. Hydrodynamic modeling of ns-laser ablation

    David Autrique; Vasilios Alexiades; Harihar Khanal

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation is a versatile and widespread technique, applied in an increasing number of medical, industrial and analytical applications. A hydrodynamic multiphase model describing nanosecond-laser ablation (ns-LA) is outlined. The model accounts for target heating and mass removal mechanisms as well as plume expansion and plasma formation. A copper target is placed in an ambient environment consisting of helium and irradiated by a nanosecond-laser pulse. The effect of variable laser ...

  14. Time-resolved study of the plasma-plume emission during the nanosecond ablation of lithium fluoride

    Camacho, J.J., E-mail: j.j.camacho@uam.es [Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Diaz, L. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cid, J.P.; Poyato, J.M.L. [Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    The properties of the plasma-plume accompanying the pulsed laser ablation of lithium fluoride (LiF) at medium-vacuum conditions (4 Pa) were studied by a combination of spatially and temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The laser-induced plasma at CO{sub 2} laser intensities ranging from 0.18 to 4.7 GW × cm{sup −2} was found strongly ionized in F{sup +}, Li{sup +}, F{sup 2{sup +}}, and F{sup 3{sup +}} species and rich in neutral lithium and fluorine atoms. The temporal behavior of excited Li atoms and ionized excited species F{sup +}, Li{sup +}, F{sup 2{sup +}}, and F{sup 3{sup +}} is reported. The results show a faster decay of the continuum emission and Li{sup +}, F{sup 3{sup +}}, and F{sup 2{sup +}} ionic species than in the case of F{sup +} and neutral Li atoms. The velocity distributions of atomic and ionic species are obtained from time-of-flight measurements. Electron density and excitation temperature in the laser-induced plasma were estimated from the analysis of spectral data at various delay times from the CO{sub 2} laser pulse incidence. From the intensity decay of Li{sup +}, F{sup +}, F{sup 2{sup +}} and F{sup 3{sup +}} with the delay time, we have estimated the three-body electron–ion recombination rate constants for these species. - Highlights: • The plasma-plume of lithium fluoride has been characterized by high-resolution LIBS. • Temporal evolution of excited Li, F{sup +}, Li{sup +}, F{sup 2{sup +}} and F{sup 3{sup +}} species is reported. • Plasma temperatures and electron densities are measured at different delay times. • High electron densities (2.5–6.6) × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} are measured. • Three-body electron–ion recombination constants of Li{sup +}, F{sup 2+} and F{sup 3{sup +}} are estimated.

  15. Influence of the plasma expansion dynamics on the structural properties of pulsed laser ablation deposited tin oxide thin films

    Tin oxide thin films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation at different oxygen partial pressures and substrate temperatures. Information on the structural and morphological properties of the deposited thin films has been obtained by means of X-ray photoelectron, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. The expansion of the laser generated plasma has been studied by means of time resolved fast photography. Different expansion regimes were observed: in vacuum the plasma follows a free expansion one while the raise of the background oxygen pressure leads to the development of a shock wave. It was found that only at 13.3 Pa of oxygen gas, in the presence of a shock wave, the deposition of stoichiometric films, at relatively low substrates temperature, is attainable. The correlation between the observed dynamics of the plasma expansion and the structural properties of the deposited films is presented and discussed.

  16. Dynamics of a laser-produced silver plume in an oxygen background gas

    Schou, Jorgen; Toftmann, Bo; Amoruso, Salvatore

    2004-09-01

    The expansion of a plasma plume in a background gas is a key problem for film deposition and laser ablation studies. Combined diagnostic measurements of deposition rates and ion time-of-flight (TOF) signals have been used to study the dynamics of a laser ablation plume in an oxygen gas. This study is similar to our previous work on an argon background gas and shows essentially the same trend. At an enhanced gas pressure, the angular distribution of collected ablated atoms becomes comparatively broad, while the total collected yield decreases strongly. The total collected yield exhibits three separate regimes with increasing pressure, a vacuum-like regime, a transition regime with increasing plume broadening and splitting of the ion signal, and at the highest pressures a diffusion-like regime with a broad angular distribution. In the high pressure regime, the expansion can be described by a simple model based on diffusion from a confined plume.

  17. Calculation of Nozzle Ablation During Arcing Period in an SF6 Auto-Expansion Circuit Breaker

    Zhang, Junmin; Lu, Chunrong; Guan, Yonggang; Liu, Weidong

    2016-05-01

    The nozzle ablation process is described as two phases of heat and ablation in the interruption for an SF6 circuit breaker in this paper. Their mathematical models are established with the Fourier heat conduction differential equation respectively. The masses of nozzle ablation with different arc durations and arc currents are calculated through the model of the nozzle ablation combined with an MHD (magneto-hydrodynamic) arc model. The time of the temperature rise on the inner surface of the nozzle under a given energy flux and of reaching the pyrolysis temperature under different energy fluxes is respectively analyzed. The relations between the mass of nozzle ablation and breaking current and arc duration are obtained. The result shows that the absorbing energy process before the nozzle ablation can be neglected under the condition of the energy flux entering into nozzle q > 109 W/m2. The ablation is the severest during the high-current phase and the ablation mass increases rapidly with the breaking current and with arc duration respectively. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51177005 and 51477004)

  18. Calculation of Nozzle Ablation During Arcing Period in an SF6 Auto-Expansion Circuit Breaker

    ZHANG Junmin; LU Chunrong; GUAN Yonggang; LIU Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The nozzle ablation process is described as two phases of heat and ablation in the interruption for an SF6 circuit breaker in this paper.Their mathematical models are established with the Fourier heat conduction differential equation respectively.The masses of nozzle ablation with different arc durations and arc currents are calculated through the model of the nozzle ablation combined with an MHD (magneto-hydrodynamic) arc model.The time of the temperature rise on the inner surface of the nozzle under a given energy flux and of reaching the pyrolysis temperature under different energy fluxes is respectively analyzed.The relations between the mass of nozzle ablation and breaking current and arc duration are obtained.The result shows that the absorbing energy process before the nozzle ablation can be neglected under the condition of the energy flux entering into nozzle q > 109 W/m2.The ablation is the severest during the high-current phase and the ablation mass increases rapidly with the breaking current and with arc duration respectively.

  19. Femtosecond laser ablation of dielectric materials in the optical breakdown regime: Expansion of a transparent shell

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Siegel, J., E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Solis, J. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Phase transition pathways of matter upon ablation with ultrashort laser pulses have been considered to be understood long-since for metals and semiconductors. We provide evidence that also certain dielectrics follow the same pathway, even at high pulse energies triggering optical breakdown. Employing femtosecond microscopy, we observe a characteristic ring pattern within the ablating region that dynamically changes for increasing time delays between pump and probe pulse. These transient Newton rings are related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front surface of the ablating layer with the reflection at the interface of the non-ablating substrate. Analysis of the ring structure shows that the ablation mechanism is initiated by a rarefaction wave leading within a few tens of picoseconds to the formation of a transparent thin shell of reduced density and refractive index, featuring optically sharp interfaces. The shell expands and eventually detaches from the solid material at delays of the order of 100 ps.

  20. Fundamental studies of pulsed laser ablation

    Claeyssens, F

    2001-01-01

    dopant) have resulted in a coherent view of the resulting plume, which exhibits a multi-component structure correlated with different regimes of ablation, which are attributed to ejection from ZnO and ablation from a Zn melt. OES measurements show that the emitting Zn component within the plume accelerates during expansion in vacuum - an observation attributable to the presence of hot, fast electrons in the plume. The same acceleration behaviour is observed in the case of Al atomic emissions resulting from ablation of an Al target in vacuum. Deposition conditions, substrate temperature and background gas pressure were all varied in a quest for optimally aligned, high quality ZnO thin films. Initial ab initio calculations were performed also, to aid in understanding the stability of these c-axis aligned films. The pulsed ultraviolet (lambda = 193, 248 nm) laser ablation of graphite, polycrystalline diamond and ZnO targets has been investigated. Characteristics of the resulting plumes of ablated material have b...

  1. Analyses of femtosecond laser ablation of Ti, Zr, Hf

    Grojo, D.; Hermann, J.; Bruneau, S; Itina, T

    2004-01-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation of Ti, Zr and Hf has been investigated by means of in-situ plasma diagnostics. Fast plasma imaging with the aid of an intensified charged coupled device (ICCD) camera was used to characterise the plasma plume expansion on a nanosecond time scale. Time- and spaceresolved optical emission spectroscopy was employed to perform time-of-flight measurements of ions and neutral atoms. It is shown that two plasma components with different expansion velocities are generated b...

  2. Endometrial ablation

    Hysteroscopy-endometrial ablation; Laser thermal ablation; Endometrial ablation-radiofrequency; Endometrial ablation-thermal balloon ablation; Rollerball ablation; Hydrothermal ablation; Novasure ablation

  3. Effect of ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of plasma plume formed by laser blow off of thin film

    George, Sony; Kumar, Ajai; Singh, R. K.; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2010-03-01

    A study has been carried out to understand the influence of ambient gases on the dynamics of laser-blow-off plumes of multi-layered LiF-C thin film. Plume images at various time intervals ranging from 100 to 3000 ns have been recorded using an intensified CCD camera. Enhancement in the plume intensity and change in size and shape occurs on introducing ambient gases and these changes are highly dependent on the nature and composition of the ambient gas used. Velocity of the plume was found to be higher in helium ambient whereas intensity enhancement is greater in argon environment. The plume shapes have maximum size at 10-2 and 10-1 Torr of Ar and He pressures, respectively. As the background pressure increases further (>10-2 Torr: depending on the nature of gas), the plume gets compressed/focused in the lateral direction. Internal structure formation and turbulences are observed at higher pressures (>10-1 Torr) in both ambient gases.

  4. Pulsed laser ablation of solids basics, theory and applications

    Stafe, Mihai; Puscas, Niculae N

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces ‘the state of the art' of pulsed laser ablation and its applications. It is based on recent theoretical and experimental studies. The book reaches from the basics to advanced topics of pulsed laser ablation. Theoretical and experimental fundamental phenomena involved in pulsed laser ablation are discussed with respect to material properties, laser wavelength, fluence and intensity regime of the light absorbed linearly or non-linearly in the target material. The energy absorbed by the electrons leads to atom/molecule excitation, ionization and/or direct chemical bond breaking and is also transferred to the lattice leading to material heating and phase transitions. Experimental  non-invasive optical methods for analyzing these phenomena in real time are described. Theoretical models for pulsed laser ablation and phase transitions induced by laser beams and laser-vapour/plasma interaction during the plume expansion above the target are also presented. Calculations of the ablation speed and...

  5. Influence of laser energy density on the plasma expansion dynamics and film stoichiometry during laser ablation of BiSrCaCuO

    Gonzalo de los Reyes, José; Afonso, Carmen N.; Perriére, J.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma expansion dynamics and the composition of films deposited during laser ablation of BiSrCaCuO at laser energy densities in a broad interval (1-6 J/cm2) have been studied by means of spatially resolved real time optical emission spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering and nuclear reactive analysis, respectively. In vacuum, the velocity of the ejected species is found to increase as the energy density increases whereas the compositional and angular distribution of the deposited fil...

  6. Numerical study of the thermal ablation of wet solids by ultrashort laser pulses

    The ablation by ultrashort laser pulses at relatively low fluences (i.e., in the thermal regime) of solids wetted by a thin liquid film is studied using a generic numerical model. In comparison with dry targets, the liquid is found to significantly affect ablation by confining the solid and slowing down the expansion of the laser-heated material. These factors affect the relative efficiency of the various ablation mechanisms, leading, in particular, to the complete inhibition of phase explosion at lower fluences, a reduced ablation yield, and significant changes in the composition of the plume. As a consequence, at fluences above the ablation threshold, the size of the ejected nanoclusters is lower in presence of the liquid. Our results provide a qualitative understanding of the effect of wetting layers on the ablation process

  7. Desorption/ablation of lithium fluoride induced by extreme ultraviolet laser radiation

    Blejchař Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of reliable modeling tools and input data required for the prediction of surface removal rate from the lithium fluoride targets irradiated by the intense photon beams is essential for many practical aspects. This study is motivated by the practical implementation of soft X-ray (SXR or extreme ultraviolet (XUV lasers for the pulsed ablation and thin film deposition. Specifically, it is focused on quantitative description of XUV laser-induced desorption/ablation from lithium fluoride, which is a reference large band-gap dielectric material with ionic crystalline structure. Computational framework was proposed and employed here for the reconstruction of plume expansion dynamics induced by the irradiation of lithium fluoride targets. The morphology of experimentally observed desorption/ablation craters were reproduced using idealized representation (two-zone approximation of the laser fluence profile. The calculation of desorption/ablation rate was performed using one-dimensional thermomechanic model (XUV-ABLATOR code taking into account laser heating and surface evaporation of the lithium fluoride target occurring on a nanosecond timescale. This step was followed by the application of two-dimensional hydrodynamic solver for description of laser-produced plasma plume expansion dynamics. The calculated plume lengths determined by numerical simulations were compared with a simple adiabatic expansion (blast-wave model.

  8. The effect of magnetic fields on the products of laser ablation

    Musaev, O. R.; Sutter, E. A.; Wrobel, J. M.; Kruger, M. B.

    2016-02-01

    Structures of gold nanoparticles were formed by laser ablation of bulk gold immersed in water. An excimer laser with a wavelength of 351 nm and a pulse energy of 7 mJ was used. Ablation was performed in two configurations: without and with an external 0.2 T magnetic field parallel to the ablation plume. Both configurations result in structures that include chains of aggregated nanoparticles, but to different degrees. Ablation in a magnetic field results in a higher fraction of spherical nanoparticles and shorter nanowires, compared to the nanowire networks formed in the absence of the field. This can be explained by magnetic confinement of the plasma during plume expansion. A model explaining nanowire formation and dependence on fluence and magnetic field is proposed.

  9. Subcellular analysis by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A; Shrestha, Bindesh

    2014-12-02

    In various embodiments, a method of laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) may generally comprise micro-dissecting a cell comprising at least one of a cell wall and a cell membrane to expose at least one subcellular component therein, ablating the at least one subcellular component by an infrared laser pulse to form an ablation plume, intercepting the ablation plume by an electrospray plume to form ions, and detecting the ions by mass spectrometry.

  10. Laser Plasmas : Plasma dynamics from laser ablated solid lithium

    Debarati Bhattacharya

    2000-11-01

    Emission plasma plume generated by pulsed laser ablation of a lithium solid target by a ruby laser (694 nm, 20 ns, 3 J) was subjected to optical emission spectroscopy: time and space resolved optical emission was characterised as a function of distance from the target surface. Propagation of the plume was studied through ambient background of argon gas. Spectroscopic observations can, in general, be used to analyse plume structure with respect to an appropriate theoretical plasma model. The plume expansion dynamics in this case could be explained through a shock wave propagation model wherein, the experimental observations made were seen to fit well with the theoretical predictions. Spectral information derived from measurement of peak intensity and line width determined the parameters, electron temperature (e) and electron number density e, typically used to characterise laser produced plasma plume emission. These measurements were also used to validate the assumptions underlying the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model, invoked for the high density laser plasma under study. Some interesting results pertaining to the analysis of plume structure and spatio-temporal behaviour of e and e along the plume length will be presented and discussed.

  11. Plasma effects during ablation and drilling using pulsed solid-state lasers

    Breitling, Detlef; Ruf, Andreas; Berger, Peter W.; Dausinger, Friedrich H.; Klimentov, Sergei M.; Pivovarov, Paval A.; Kononenko, Taras V.; Konov, Vitali I.

    2003-09-01

    Plasma and vapor plumes generated by ultrashort laser pulses have been studied by various optical methods for both single pulse ablation as well as high-repetition rate drilling. Time-resolved shadow and resonance absorption photographs enable to determine the plume and vapor expansion behavior and, by means of an analytical shock wave model, allow to estimate an energy balance that can be refined by plasma transmission measurements. The results furthermore suggest that several types of laser-induced plasmas can be distinguished according to their origin: the material vapor plasma originating at the ablated surface even at moderate intensities, a breakdown plasma at increased power densities occurring in cold vapor or dust particles left from previous ablations during repetitively-pulsed processing and, finally, the optical breakdown in the pure atmosphere at high intensities. The latter also gives rise to nonlinear scattering phenomena resulting in a strong redistribution of the energy density in the beam profile.

  12. C9orf72 ablation causes immune dysregulation characterized by leukocyte expansion, autoantibody production, and glomerulonephropathy in mice.

    Atanasio, Amanda; Decman, Vilma; White, Derek; Ramos, Meg; Ikiz, Burcin; Lee, Hoi-Ching; Siao, Chia-Jen; Brydges, Susannah; LaRosa, Elizabeth; Bai, Yu; Fury, Wen; Burfeind, Patricia; Zamfirova, Ralica; Warshaw, Gregg; Orengo, Jamie; Oyejide, Adelekan; Fralish, Michael; Auerbach, Wojtek; Poueymirou, William; Freudenberg, Jan; Gong, Guochun; Zambrowicz, Brian; Valenzuela, David; Yancopoulos, George; Murphy, Andrew; Thurston, Gavin; Lai, Ka-Man Venus

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of a hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat in C9ORF72 is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Both the function of C9ORF72 and the mechanism by which the repeat expansion drives neuropathology are unknown. To examine whether C9ORF72 haploinsufficiency induces neurological disease, we created a C9orf72-deficient mouse line. Null mice developed a robust immune phenotype characterized by myeloid expansion, T cell activation, and increased plasma cells. Mice also presented with elevated autoantibodies and evidence of immune-mediated glomerulonephropathy. Collectively, our data suggest that C9orf72 regulates immune homeostasis and an autoimmune response reminiscent of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurs in its absence. We further imply that haploinsufficiency is unlikely to be the causative factor in C9ALS/FTD pathology. PMID:26979938

  13. Plasma plume induced during pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite

    Pulsed laser deposition is well-established method of deposition of thin films on different substrates. The particles ablated from a target owing to laser radiation-target interaction form a plasma plume and subsequently are deposited on a substrate. The mechanism of plasma formation and expansion consists of three stages. During the interaction of the laser beam with a material the target is heated to the temperatures exceeding the boiling temperatures and sometimes also the critical temperatures. The characteristic time of the target temperature rise is from 1 nanosecond in the case of dielectrics to some hundreds nanoseconds in the case of metals case of metals. In the same time the process of ablation begins. In the second stage the ablated particles are heated by the laser beam to the temperatures of 10-20 kK and form a plasma plume. The characteristic time of plasma heating is 10-100 nanoseconds. This process depends on the intensity of the laser beam and energy of quanta. Next the laser radiation decays (laser pulse duration FWHM ∼ 20-50 ns) and plasma plume expands adiabatically. In this work plasma plume induced by ArF excimer laser ablation of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) target during deposition process has been studied in different ambient conditions., i.e in air or water vapour with the addition of oxygen. Hydroxyapatite is a biocompatible ceramic. It may be deposited onto orthopedic implants in order to increase the bone-implant contact or over a porous titanium coating where it is used to promote bone ingrowth. The process of deposition significantly depends on mechanisms of plasma plume formation and its expansion. ArF laser operated at the wavelength of 193 nm with the pulse energy of 300 mJ and 20 ns pulse duration. The emission spectra of the plasma plume were registered with the use of a spectrograph and a fast gate, micro-channel plate (MCP) image intensifier optically coupled to an Andor CCD camera. The emission spectra consist mainly

  14. Laser ablation at the hydrodynamic regime

    Gojani Ardian B.

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation of several metals and PVC polymer by high energy nanosecond laser pulses is investigated experimentaly. Visualization by shadowgraphy revealed the dynamics of the discontinuities in ambient air and ablation plume above the target surface, while surface profiling allowed for determination of the ablated mass.

  15. Gated ICCD photography of the KrF-laser ablation of graphite into background gases

    Geohegan, D.B.; Puretzky, A.A.; Hettich, R.L.; Zheng, X.Y.; Haufler, R.E.; Compton, R.N.

    1993-07-01

    The interaction of a laser-generated ablation plume with a background gas is of current interest for several materials-fabrication applications. During pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films by laser ablation, for example, an ambient back ground gas (pressure usually {<=} 300 mTorr) is often employed. The dynamics of the KrF-laser ablation ({Phi} = 20 J cm{sup {minus}}) of graphite into 300 Torr of He, Ne, Ar, and Xe has been studied by fast imaging of the visible plasma emission using a gated intensified CCD array (ICCD) camera system. In each case, the soot which was redeposited on the graphite rod following ablation was highly fullerene deficient compared to the material collected on a sample disk 1.5 cm from the rod, as determined by laser desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FTMS). The ICCD photographic investigations of the plasma plume propagation in the different gases reveal three common phases to the expansions: (1) forward motion, deceleration and stopping of the leading edge of the plume, (2) an apparent reflected shock within the plume which propagates backward and partially reflects from the rod surface, leaving ``redeposited`` material, (3) a secondary forward propagation and coalescence of the material reflected from the rod surface, resulting in continued expansion and dissipation of the plasma and the appearance of glowing ultrafine particles. Detailed sequencing of the plasma expansion into argon is presented here which shows at least two sets of reflected shocks. The possible explanation of the observed difference in fullerene content is discussed on the basis of different plasma phases resulting in soot deposition on the rod and disk.

  16. Spectral profile of atomic emission lines and effects of pulse duration on laser ablation in liquid

    The emission spectra of laser-ablated Cu atoms in water were examined, focusing on the irradiation-pulse duration effects. Spectral line profile was observed for the pulse duration of 19, 90, and 150 ns at various delay times. The line width as narrow as instrumental width was obtained by 150-ns pulse at the delay time of 800 ns. Also, long pulses result in high intensity of the emission. The spectral feature obtained by long pulses looks similar to that obtained in a gas phase. The absorption of the later part of the long pulse directly by the plume having been formed by the earlier part of the pulse may be the cause of this gas-phase-like emission. Whether the pulse heats directly the surface or the plume was investigated by the measurements of the removal volume of the ablation pit obtained by laser confocal scanning microscopy and the maximum bubble expansion size observed by shadowgraphy.

  17. High excitation of the species in nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of Al target

    A reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of an Al target is characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N2 species are determined by spectral simulation. The generated plasma strongly emits radiation from a variety of excited species including ambient nitrogen and ablated aluminum and exhibits unique features in optical emission and temperature evolution compared with the plasmas generated by a pure ECR discharge or by the expansion of the ablation plume. The working N2 gas is first excited by ECR discharge and the excitation of nitrogen is further enhanced due to the fast expansion of the aluminum plume induced by target ablation, while the excitation of the ablated aluminum is prolonged during the plume expansion in the ECR nitrogen plasma, resulting in the formation of strongly reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma which contains highly excited species with high vibrational and rotational temperatures. The enhanced intensities and the prolonged duration of the optical emissions of the combined plasma would provide an improved analytical capability for spectrochemical analysis. - Highlights: • ECR discharge and pulsed laser ablation generate highly excited ECR–PLA plasma. • The expansion of PLA plasma results in excitation enhancement of ECR plasma species. • The ECR plasma leads to excitation prolongation of PLA plasma species. • The ECR–PLA plasma emits strong emissions from a variety of excited species. • The ECR–PLA plasma maintains high vibrational–rotational temperatures for a long time

  18. Laser-solid interaction and dynamics of the laser-ablated materials

    Rapid transformations through the liquid and vapor phases induced by laser-solid interactions are described by the authors' thermal model with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine the vaporization temperature under different surface pressure condition. Hydrodynamic behavior of the vapor during and after ablation is described by gas dynamic equations. These two models are coupled. Modeling results show that lower background pressure results lower laser energy density threshold for vaporization. The ablation rate and the amount of materials removed are proportional to the laser energy density above its threshold. The authors also demonstrate a dynamic source effect that accelerates the unsteady expansion of laser-ablated material in the direction perpendicular to the solid. A dynamic partial ionization effect is studied as well. A self-similar theory shows that the maximum expansion velocity is proportional to csα, where 1 - α is the slope of the velocity profile. Numerical hydrodynamic modeling is in good agreement with the theory. With these effects, α is reduced. Therefore, the expansion front velocity is significantly higher than that from conventional models. The results are consistent with experiments. They further study how the plume propagates in high background gas condition. Under appropriate conditions, the plume is slowed down, separates with the background, is backward moving, and hits the solid surface. Then, it splits into two parts when it rebounds from the surface. The results from the modeling will be compared with experimental observations where possible

  19. Plume radiation

    Dirscherl, R.

    1993-06-01

    The electromagnetic radiation originating from the exhaust plume of tactical missile motors is of outstanding importance for military system designers. Both missile- and countermeasure engineer rely on the knowledge of plume radiation properties, be it for guidance/interference control or for passive detection of adversary missiles. To allow access to plume radiation properties, they are characterized with respect to the radiation producing mechanisms like afterburning, its chemical constituents, and reactions as well as particle radiation. A classification of plume spectral emissivity regions is given due to the constraints imposed by available sensor technology and atmospheric propagation windows. Additionally assessment methods are presented that allow a common and general grouping of rocket motor properties into various categories. These methods describe state of the art experimental evaluation techniques as well as calculation codes that are most commonly used by developers of NATO countries. Dominant aspects influencing plume radiation are discussed and a standardized test technique is proposed for the assessment of plume radiation properties that include prediction procedures. These recommendations on terminology and assessment methods should be common to all employers of plume radiation. Special emphasis is put on the omnipresent need for self-protection by the passive detection of plume radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectral band.

  20. [INVITED] Control of femtosecond pulsed laser ablation and deposition by temporal pulse shaping

    Garrelie, Florence; Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne--Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Colombier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the effects of temporal laser pulse shaping on femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The potential of laser pulses temporally tailored on ultrafast time scales is used to control the expansion and the excitation degree of ablation products including atomic species and nanoparticles. The ablation plume generated by temporally shaped femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of aluminum and graphite targets is studied by in situ optical diagnostic methods. Taking advantage of automated pulse shaping techniques, an adaptive procedure based on spectroscopic feedback regulates the irradiance for the enhancement of typical plasma features. Thin films elaborated by unshaped femtosecond laser pulses and by optimized sequence indicate that the nanoparticles generation efficiency is strongly influenced by the temporal shaping of the laser irradiation. The ablation processes leading either to the generation of the nanoparticles either to the formation of plasma can be favored by using a temporal shaping of the laser pulse. Insights are given on the possibility to control the quantity of the nanoparticles. The temporal laser pulse shaping is shown also to strongly modify the laser-induced plasma contents and kinetics for graphite ablation. Temporal pulse shaping proves its capability to reduce the number of slow radicals while increasing the proportion of monomers, with the addition of ionized species in front of the plume. This modification of the composition and kinetics of plumes in graphite ablation using temporal laser pulse shaping is discussed in terms of modification of the structural properties of deposited Diamond-Like Carbon films (DLC). This gives rise to a better understanding of the growth processes involved in femtosecond-PLD and picosecond-PLD of DLC suggesting the importance of neutral C atoms, which are responsible for the subplantation process.

  1. Transient Ablation of Teflon Hemispheres

    Arai, Norio; Karashima, Kei-ichi; Sato, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    For high-speed entry of space vehicles into atmospheric environments, ablation is a practical method for alleviating severe aerodynamic heating. Several studies have been undertaken on steady or quasi-steady ablation. However, ablation is a very complicated phenomenon in which a nonequilibrium chemical process is associated with an aerodynamic process that involves changes in body shape with time. Therefore, it seems realistic to consider that ablation is an unsteady phenomenon. In the design of an ablative heat-shield system, since the ultimate purpose of the heat shield is to keep the internal temperature of the space vehicle at a safe level during entry, the transient heat conduction characteristics of the ablator may be critical in the selection of the material and its thickness. This note presents an experimental study of transient ablation of Teflon, with particular emphasis on the change in body shape, the instantaneous internal temperature distribution, and the effect of thermal expansion on ablation rate.

  2. Investigating the Response and Expansion of Plasma Plumes in a Mesosonic Plasma Using the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.; Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the International Space Station (ISS) and the ISS space vehicle, we are exploring a specialized suite of plasma sensors, manipulated by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) to probe the near-ISS mesosonic plasma ionosphere moving past the ISS. It is proposed that SASSI consists of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Thermal Ion Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TICHS), Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS), Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), the Collimated PhotoElectron Gun (CPEG), and the University of Michigan Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). There are multiple expected applications for SASSI. Here, we will discuss the study of fundamental plasma physics questions associated with how an emitted plasma plume (such as from the ISS Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU)) responds and expands in a mesosonic magnetoplasma as well as emit and collect current. The ISS PCU Xe plasma plume drifts through the ionosphere and across the Earth's magnetic field, resulting in complex dynamics. This is of practical and theoretical interest pertaining to contamination concerns (e.g. energetic ion scattering) and the ability to collect and emit current between the spacecraft and the ambient plasma ionosphere. This impacts, for example, predictions of electrodynamic tether current performance using plasma contactors as well as decisions about placing high-energy electric propulsion thrusters on ISS. We will discuss the required measurements and connection to proposed instruments for this study.

  3. Role of ambient gas and laser fluence in governing the dynamics of the plasma plumes produced by laser blow off of LiF-C thin film

    Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai; Patel, B. G.; Subramanian, K. P.

    2007-05-01

    The time- and space-resolved emission profiles of Li mathsize="8pt">I and Li mathsize="8pt">II emission lines from the laser-blow-off plumes of a multilayered LiF-C thin film have been studied using spectroscopic technique. The evolution features were analyzed in different ambient environments ranging from high vacuum to 3mbars of argon pressures and at various fluences of the ablating laser. During the evolution of the plume, a transition region was found to exist between 4 and 6mm. Here, the plume dynamics changed from free expansion to collisional regime, where the plume experienced viscous force of the medium. The enhancement observed in neutral lines, in comparison with ionic lines, is explained in terms of the yield difference in electron impact excitation and ionization processes. Substantial difference in the arrival time distribution of the plume species was observed for Li mathsize="8pt">I and Li mathsize="8pt">II lines at high ambient pressures. Three expansion models are invoked to explain the evolution of the plume in different ambient conditions. The laser fluence was found to control the ratio of ions and neutrals.

  4. Doping He droplets by laser ablation with a pulsed supersonic jet source

    Katzy, R.; Singer, M.; Izadnia, S.; LaForge, A. C., E-mail: aaron.laforge@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Stienkemeier, F. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Laser ablation offers the possibility to study a rich number of atoms, molecules, and clusters in the gas phase. By attaching laser ablated materials to helium nanodroplets, one can gain highly resolved spectra of isolated species in a cold, weakly perturbed system. Here, we present a new setup for doping pulsed helium nanodroplet beams by means of laser ablation. In comparison to more well-established techniques using a continuous nozzle, pulsed nozzles show significant differences in the doping efficiency depending on certain experimental parameters (e.g., position of the ablation plume with respect to the droplet formation, nozzle design, and expansion conditions). In particular, we demonstrate that when the ablation region overlaps with the droplet formation region, one also creates a supersonic beam of helium atoms seeded with the sample material. The processes are characterized using a surface ionization detector. The overall doping signal is compared to that of conventional oven cell doping showing very similar dependence on helium stagnation conditions, indicating a comparable doping process. Finally, the ablated material was spectroscopically studied via laser induced fluorescence.

  5. Doping He droplets by laser ablation with a pulsed supersonic jet source

    Laser ablation offers the possibility to study a rich number of atoms, molecules, and clusters in the gas phase. By attaching laser ablated materials to helium nanodroplets, one can gain highly resolved spectra of isolated species in a cold, weakly perturbed system. Here, we present a new setup for doping pulsed helium nanodroplet beams by means of laser ablation. In comparison to more well-established techniques using a continuous nozzle, pulsed nozzles show significant differences in the doping efficiency depending on certain experimental parameters (e.g., position of the ablation plume with respect to the droplet formation, nozzle design, and expansion conditions). In particular, we demonstrate that when the ablation region overlaps with the droplet formation region, one also creates a supersonic beam of helium atoms seeded with the sample material. The processes are characterized using a surface ionization detector. The overall doping signal is compared to that of conventional oven cell doping showing very similar dependence on helium stagnation conditions, indicating a comparable doping process. Finally, the ablated material was spectroscopically studied via laser induced fluorescence

  6. Optical emission spectroscopic studies on laser ablated TiO2 plasma

    Optical emission spectroscopic investigations of the plasma produced during Nd:YAG laser ablation of sintered TiO2 targets, in oxygen and argon gas environments are reported. The spatial variations of electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (Ne) are studied. The effect of oxygen/argon pressure on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (Ne) is presented. The kinematics of the emitted particles and expansion of plume edge are discussed. Spatio-temporal variations of various species in TiO2 plasma were recorded and corresponding velocities were calculated. The effect of oxygen pressure on intensity of neutral/ion species and their corresponding velocities is also reported.

  7. Femtosecond ultraviolet laser ablation of silver and comparison with nanosecond ablation

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Doggett, B.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.;

    2013-01-01

    The ablation plume dynamics arising from ablation of silver with a 500 fs, 248 nm laser at ~2 J cm-2 has been studied using angle-resolved Langmuir ion probe and thin film deposition techniques. For the same laser fluence, the time-of-flight ion signals from femtosecond and nanosecond laser...

  8. Hybrid simulation of shock formation for super-Alfvénic expansion of laser ablated debris through an ambient, magnetized plasma

    Two-dimensional hybrid simulations of perpendicular collisionless shocks are modeled after potential laboratory conditions that are attainable in the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, Los Angeles Basic Plasma Science Facility. The kJ class 1053 nm Nd:Glass Raptor laser will be used to ablate carbon targets in the LAPD with on-target energies of 100-500 J. The ablated debris ions will expand into ambient, partially ionized hydrogen or helium. A parameter study is performed via hybrid simulation to determine possible conditions that could lead to shock formation in future LAPD experiments. Simulation results are presented along with a comparison to an analytical coupling parameter

  9. Influence of surrounding gas, composition and pressure on plasma plume dynamics of nanosecond pulsed laser-induced aluminum plasmas

    Dawood, Mahmoud S.; Hamdan, Ahmad; Margot, Joëlle

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we present a comprehensive study of the plume dynamics of plasmas generated by laser ablation of an aluminum target. The effect of both ambient gas composition (helium, nitrogen or argon) and pressure (from ˜5 × 10-7 Torr up to atmosphere) is studied. The time- and space- resolved observation of the plasma plume are performed from spectrally integrated images using an intensified Charge Coupled Device (iCCD) camera. The iCCD images show that the ambient gas does not significantly influence the plume as long as the gas pressure is lower than 20 Torr and the time delay below 300 ns. However, for pressures higher than 20 Torr, the effect of the ambient gas becomes important, the shortest plasma plume length being observed when the gas mass species is highest. On the other hand, space- and time- resolved emission spectroscopy of aluminum ions at λ = 281.6 nm are used to determine the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) profiles. The effect of the ambient gas on the TOF profiles and therefore on the propagation velocity of Al ions is discussed. A correlation between the plasma plume expansion velocity deduced from the iCCD images and that estimated from the TOF profiles is presented. The observed differences are attributed mainly to the different physical mechanisms governing the two diagnostic techniques.

  10. Femtosecond ultraviolet laser ablation of silver and comparison with nanosecond ablation

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Doggett, B.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The ablation plume dynamics arising from ablation of silver with a 500 fs, 248 nm laser at ~2 J cm-2 has been studied using angle-resolved Langmuir ion probe and thin film deposition techniques. For the same laser fluence, the time-of-flight ion signals from femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation are similar; both show a singly peaked time-of-flight distribution. The angular distribution of ion emission and the deposition are well described by the adiabatic and isentropic model of plume ex...

  11. Spatial investigations of ion and electron time of flight in laser ablated ZnO plasma

    Joshy, N. V.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    The time of flight (TOF) spectra of ions and electrons of laser ablated ZnO:Ga plasma plume were recorded. The laser fluence was varied from 2.55 Jcm-2 to 17.85 Jcm-2 and the ablation was carried out in vacuum and N2O ambient pressure ranging from 0.0001 mbar to 0.1 mbar. The TOF spectra were recorded at positions 10 mm to 50 mm from the target surface along the direction normal to the surface. Ion acceleration and corresponding electron deceleration were detected in the plasma due to the formation of electric double layer during plasma expansion. Twin peaks were recorded in the ion TOF spectra-corresponding to accelerated and thermal ions, while two categories of thermal electrons were detected in electron TOF spectra. The behaviour of these ions and electrons is studied as a function of laser fluence, ambient gas pressure and distance from the target surface.

  12. Spatial investigations of ion and electron time of flight in laser ablated ZnO plasma

    The time of flight (TOF) spectra of ions and electrons of laser ablated ZnO:Ga plasma plume were recorded. The laser fluence was varied from 2.55 Jcm-2 to 17.85 Jcm-2 and the ablation was carried out in vacuum and N2O ambient pressure ranging from 0.0001 mbar to 0.1 mbar. The TOF spectra were recorded at positions 10 mm to 50 mm from the target surface along the direction normal to the surface. Ion acceleration and corresponding electron deceleration were detected in the plasma due to the formation of electric double layer during plasma expansion. Twin peaks were recorded in the ion TOF spectra-corresponding to accelerated and thermal ions, while two categories of thermal electrons were detected in electron TOF spectra. The behaviour of these ions and electrons is studied as a function of laser fluence, ambient gas pressure and distance from the target surface.

  13. Optical Effects on Laser Ablated Polymer Surfaces

    Prabhu, R. D.; Govinthasamy, R.; Murthy, N. S.

    2006-03-01

    Laser ablation of poly (ethylene terephthalate) and polyimide films were investigated using Excimer-UV laser. SEM analyses indicate the presence of rings for a wide range of ablation parameters (fluence, frequency and number of pulses). It is proposed that the particles present in the plasma plume could cause the incident laser light to diffract, similar to the optical effects observed in the femtosecond laser ablation of solids. The polymer surface provides a perfect medium to register the optical signatures as seen in the SEM images. The fringe-spacings observed in the images are compared with the theoretical diffraction patterns and the height of the plasma particles above the surface is estimated using an optimization scheme. The results of the analysis are consistent with experimentally observed dynamics of the plasma plume. It is proposed that such optical effects could be a routine feature in the laser ablation of polymers. The significance of such artifacts for lithography is discussed.

  14. Identification of discontinuities in plasma plume evolution

    Gojani, Ardian B; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The ejection of material during laser ablation gives rise to the development of discontinuities in the ambient gas. Several of these discontinuities are observed and characterized, including externally and internally propagating shock waves, contact surface, and the ionization front. Qualitative experimental observations and analysis of these discontinuities is presented. Results from shadowgraphy enabled determination of an irradiance threshold between two different ablation mechanisms, and determination of several stages of plasma plume evolution. Consideration of the refractive index as a dynamic sum of the contributions from gas and electrons led to separate identification of ionization front from the contact surface. Furthermore, ionization front was observed to lead the shock wave at the earlier stage of the ablation.

  15. Ablative and fractional ablative lasers.

    Brightman, Lori A; Brauer, Jeremy A; Anolik, Robert; Weiss, Elliot; Karen, Julie; Chapas, Anne; Hale, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Leonard; Geronemus, Roy G

    2009-10-01

    The field of nonsurgical laser resurfacing for aesthetic enhancement continues to improve with new research and technological advances. Since its beginnings in the 1980s, the laser-resurfacing industry has produced a multitude of devices employing ablative, nonablative, and fractional ablative technologies. The three approaches largely differ in their method of thermal damage, weighing degrees of efficacy, downtime, and side effect profiles against each other. Nonablative technologies generate some interest, although only for those patient populations seeking mild improvements. Fractional technologies, however, have gained dramatic ground on fully ablative resurfacing. Fractional laser resurfacing, while exhibiting results that fall just short of the ideal outcomes of fully ablative treatments, is an increasingly attractive alternative because of its far more favorable side effect profile, reduced recovery time, and significant clinical outcome. PMID:19850197

  16. High-order harmonic generation in carbon-nanotube-containing plasma plumes

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in carbon-nanotube (CNT)-containing plasma plumes has been demonstrated. Various targets were ablated to produce the plasma plumes containing nanotubes for the HHG in these media. Harmonics up to the 29th order were generated. Odd and even harmonics were generated using a two-color pump. The integrity of CNTs within the plasma plume, indicating nanotubes as the source of high-order harmonics, was confirmed by structural studies of plasma debris.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of cluster distribution from femtosecond laser ablation in aluminum

    Sonntag, S.; Trichet Paredes, C.; Roth, J.; Trebin, H.-R.

    2011-08-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation and plume evolution of aluminum is investigated for various inhomogeneous laser pulses. For the simulations of the atoms the molecular dynamics code IMD is used. The ablated gas-phase is scanned by a cluster algorithm (DBSCAN), from which we gain a cluster size distribution of the ablated material. Per single pulse, only a small portion of the total volume evaporates into the gas phase. Therefore—to have reasonable statistics—we have to deal with huge samples (6×107 atoms). The ablation threshold is determined by comparing the depth of the holes to the applied fluence. Angular and velocity distributions of the plume are compared to experiments.

  18. Effect of ambient air pressure on debris redeposition during laser ablation of glass

    The effect of ambient air pressure on the redeposition of debris, ablated from the zinc borosilicate glass target using 6 ns, 266 nm laser pulses, has been studied for incident fluences of 3-18 J/cm2. Measurements were carried out in air at pressures ranging from 10-750 Torr. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscope observations of the target surface were made to analyze the morphology of the redeposited debris. It was found that for higher values of the laser fluence and ambient pressure, the target surface is extremely rough, with large pieces of molten glass and debris fragments deposited near and around the ablation site. The profile of the redeposited debris also shows signs of a strong shock-wave-cleaning effect and possibly a Rayleigh-Taylor instability at higher pressures. Contrary to this, under low-pressure environment the surface of the redeposited debris is cleaner and smoother, with minimal damage around the ablated crater. The measured radius of the debris field was found to be proportional to the inverse cube root of the ambient pressure, consistent with the stagnation distance of the expansion plume when energy balance with the displaced air is considered. In addition to this, the mass of the redeposited debris was estimated from the measured optical thickness of the film and compared to the ablated mass. In the range below 100 Torr, both the mass of the redeposited debris and the percentage of the ablated mass which was redeposited were found to increase with the increasing fluence and the ambient air pressure

  19. Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry

    Russo, Richard E., E-mail: rerusso@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Applied Spectra, Inc., 46661 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Bol' shakov, Alexander A. [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46661 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Mao Xianglei [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McKay, Christopher P. [NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Perry, Dale L.; Sorkhabi, Osman [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A new method of performing optical isotopic analysis of condensed samples in ambient air and at ambient pressure has been developed: Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS). The technique uses radiative transitions from molecular species either directly vaporized from a sample or formed by associative mechanisms of atoms or ions in a laser ablation plume. This method is an advanced modification of a known atomic emission technique called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The new method - LAMIS - can determine not only chemical composition but also isotopic ratios of elements in the sample. Isotopic measurements are enabled by significantly larger isotopic shifts found in molecular spectra relative to atomic spectra. Analysis can be performed from a distance and in real time. No sample preparation or pre-treatment is required. Detection of the isotopes of hydrogen, boron, carbon, and oxygen are discussed to illustrate the technique.

  20. Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry

    Russo, Richard E.; Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Mao, Xianglei; McKay, Christopher P.; Perry, Dale L.; Sorkhabi, Osman

    2011-02-01

    A new method of performing optical isotopic analysis of condensed samples in ambient air and at ambient pressure has been developed: Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS). The technique uses radiative transitions from molecular species either directly vaporized from a sample or formed by associative mechanisms of atoms or ions in a laser ablation plume. This method is an advanced modification of a known atomic emission technique called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The new method — LAMIS — can determine not only chemical composition but also isotopic ratios of elements in the sample. Isotopic measurements are enabled by significantly larger isotopic shifts found in molecular spectra relative to atomic spectra. Analysis can be performed from a distance and in real time. No sample preparation or pre-treatment is required. Detection of the isotopes of hydrogen, boron, carbon, and oxygen are discussed to illustrate the technique.

  1. Analysis of iodinated contrast delivered during thermal ablation: is material trapped in the ablation zone?

    Wu, Po-hung; Brace, Chris L.

    2016-08-01

    Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) has been proposed to evaluate treatment efficacy of thermal ablation. We hypothesized that contrast material delivered concurrently with thermal ablation may become trapped in the ablation zone, and set out to determine whether such an effect would impact ablation visualization. CECT images were acquired during microwave ablation in normal porcine liver with: (A) normal blood perfusion and no iodinated contrast, (B) normal perfusion and iodinated contrast infusion or (C) no blood perfusion and residual iodinated contrast. Changes in CT attenuation were analyzed from before, during and after ablation to evaluate whether contrast was trapped inside of the ablation zone. Visualization was compared between groups using post-ablation contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Attenuation gradients were calculated at the ablation boundary and background to quantitate ablation conspicuity. In Group A, attenuation decreased during ablation due to thermal expansion of tissue water and water vaporization. The ablation zone was difficult to visualize (CNR  =  1.57  ±  0.73, boundary gradient  =  0.7  ±  0.4 HU mm‑1), leading to ablation diameter underestimation compared to gross pathology. Group B ablations saw attenuation increase, suggesting that iodine was trapped inside the ablation zone. However, because the normally perfused liver increased even more, Group B ablations were more visible than Group A (CNR  =  2.04  ±  0.84, boundary gradient  =  6.3  ±  1.1 HU mm‑1) and allowed accurate estimation of the ablation zone dimensions compared to gross pathology. Substantial water vaporization led to substantial attenuation changes in Group C, though the ablation zone boundary was not highly visible (boundary gradient  =  3.9  ±  1.1 HU mm‑1). Our results demonstrate that despite iodinated contrast being trapped in the ablation zone, ablation visibility

  2. Energy distribution of ions produced by laser ablation of silver in vacuum

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    The ion energy in a silver ablation plume for fluence in the range of 0.6–2.4Jcm−2, typical for a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) experiment has been investigated. In this fluence range the ion fraction of the ablated particles becomes gradually dominant and can be utilized to characterize the...

  3. Ablation of lung tumours

    Gillams, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Radiofrequency, laser, microwave and cryotherapy have all been used for the ablation of lung tumours. However, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation are the most widely used technologies. RFA has been successfully applied to tumour measuring from

  4. Coronal Plumes in the Fast Solar Wind

    Velli, Marco; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of a coronal hole filled with a discrete number of higher density coronal plumes is simulated using a time-dependent two-dimensional code. A solar wind model including an exponential coronal heating function and a flux of Alfven waves propagating both inside and outside the structures is taken as a basic state. Different plasma plume profiles are obtained by using different scale heights for the heating rates. Remote sensing and solar wind in situ observations are used to constrain the parameter range of the study. Time dependence due to plume ignition and disappearance is also discussed. Velocity differences of the order of approximately 50 km/s, such as those found in microstreams in the high-speed solar wind, may be easily explained by slightly different heat deposition profiles in different plumes. Statistical pressure balance in the fast wind data may be masked by the large variety of body and surface waves which the higher density filaments may carry, so the absence of pressure balance in the microstreams should not rule out their interpretation as the extension of coronal plumes into interplanetary space. Mixing of plume-interplume material via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability seems to be possible within the parameter ranges of the models defined here, only at large di stances from the Sun, beyond 0.2-0.3 AU. Plasma and composition measurements in the inner heliosphere, such as those which will become available with Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus, should therefore definitely be able to identify plume remnants in the solar wind.

  5. Sulfur chemistry in a copper smelter plume

    Eatough, D.J.; Christensen, J.J.; Hill, M.W.; Major, T.D.; Mangelson, N.F.; Post, M.E.; Ryder, J.F.; Hansen, L.D.

    Sulfur transformation chemistry was studied in the plume of the Utah smelter of Kennecott Copper Corporation from April to October 1977. Samples were taken at up to four locations from 4 to 60 km from the stacks. Data collected at each station included: SO/sub 2/ concentration, low-volume collected total particulate matter, high-volume collected size fractionated particulate matter, wind velocity and direction, temperature, and relative humidity.The SO/sub 2/(g)-sulfate conversion process in the plume is described by a mechanism which is first order in SO/sub 2/(g). Equations are derived describing sulfur chemistry when both S(IV) and sulfate formation occur in a plume. The formation of sulfate results primarily in the formation of <0.5 ..mu..m particulates. The formation process is not correlated with plume expansion, particulate acidity, metal content, or S(IV) species. Due to meteorological restrictions on sampling, data were collected only during periods of maximum insolation. The formation of sulfate from SO/sub 2/(g) in the plume during periods of high insolation is temperature dependent with an apparent activation energy of 16.6 +/- 1.4 kcal mol/sup -1/ and k/sub 1/ value of 0.039 h/sup -1/ at 25/sup 0/C.

  6. Plasma plume length characterization

    Sarron, Vanessa; Robert, Éric; Fontane, Jérôme; Darny, Thibault; Riès, Delphine; Dozias, Sébastien; Joly, Laurent; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, neon and helium plume length, generated by a plasma gun (PG) are studied. The combination of ICCD imaging, Schlieren visualization and Pitot glass probe allow to characterize the strong influence of the plasma on rare gas flow. Beyond the shifting of the transition from laminar to turbulent, a plasma induced channeling of turbulent flow is achieved. Finally, the benefit of using a capillary for plasma propagation before in-air expansion is evidenced through the generation of lo...

  7. Plume splitting in pico-second laser-material interaction under the influence of shock wave

    In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the physics of plume splitting in pico-second laser material interaction in background gas. The velocity distribution shows a clear split into two distinctive components. Detailed atom trajectory track reveals the behavior of atoms within the peaks and uncovers the mechanisms of peak formation. The observed plume velocity splitting emerges from two distinguished parts of the plume. The front peak of the plume is from the faster moving atoms and smaller particles during laser-material ablation. This region experiences strong constraint from the ambient gas and has substantial velocity attenuation. The second (rear) peak of the plume velocity originates from the larger and slower clusters in laser-material ablation. These larger clusters/particles experience very little constraint from the background, but are affected by the relaxation dynamics of plume and appear almost as a standing wave during the evolution. Density splitting only appears at the beginning of laser-material ablation and quickly disappears due to spread-out of the slower moving clusters. It is found that higher ambient pressure and stronger laser fluence favor earlier plume splitting.

  8. Solar Coronal Plumes

    Giannina Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar plumes are thin long ray-like structures that project beyond the limb of the Sun polar regions, maintaining their identity over distances of several solar radii. Plumes have been first observed in white-light (WL images of the Sun, but, with the advent of the space era, they have been identified also in X-ray and UV wavelengths (XUV and, possibly, even in in situ data. This review traces the history of plumes, from the time they have been first imaged, to the complex means by which nowadays we attempt to reconstruct their 3-D structure. Spectroscopic techniques allowed us also to infer the physical parameters of plumes and estimate their electron and kinetic temperatures and their densities. However, perhaps the most interesting problem we need to solve is the role they cover in the solar wind origin and acceleration: Does the solar wind emanate from plumes or from the ambient coronal hole wherein they are embedded? Do plumes have a role in solar wind acceleration and mass loading? Answers to these questions are still somewhat ambiguous and theoretical modeling does not provide definite answers either. Recent data, with an unprecedented high spatial and temporal resolution, provide new information on the fine structure of plumes, their temporal evolution and relationship with other transient phenomena that may shed further light on these elusive features.

  9. Dynamics expansion of laser produced plasma with different materials in magnetic field

    Rabia Qindeel; Noriah Bte Bidin; Yaacob Mat daud [Laser Technology Laboratory, Physics Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia)], E-mail: plasmaqindeel@yahoo.com

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics expansion of the plasma generated by laser ablation of different materials has been investigated. The dynamics and confinement of laser generated plasma plumes are expanding across variable magnetic fields. A Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser with 1064 nm, 8 ns pulse width and 0.125 J laser energy was used to generate plasma that was allowed to expand across variable magnetic within 0.1 - 0.8 T. The expansions of laser-produced plasma of different materials are characterized by using constant laser power. CCD video camera was used to visualize and record the activities in the focal region. The plasma plume length, width and area were measured by using Matrox Inpector 2.1 and video Test 0.5 software. Spectrums of plasma beam from different materials are studied via spectrometer. The results show that the plasma generated by aluminum target is the largest than Brass and copper. The optical radiation from laser generated plasma beam spectrums are obtained in the range of UV to visible light.

  10. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  11. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  12. Laser-induced back-ablation of aluminum thin films using picosecond laser pulses

    BULLOCK, A B

    1999-05-26

    Experiments were performed to understand laser-induced back-ablation of Al film targets with picosecond laser pulses. Al films deposited on the back surface of BK-7 substrates are ablated by picosecond laser pulses propagating into the Al film through the substrate. The ablated Al plume is transversely probed by a time-delayed, two-color sub-picoseond (500 fs) pulse, and this probe is then used to produce self-referencing interferograms and shadowgraphs of the Al plume in flight. Optical emission from the Al target due to LIBA is directed into a time-integrated grating spectrometer, and a time-integrating CCD camera records images of the Al plume emission. Ablated Al plumes are also redeposited on to receiving substrates. A post-experimental study of the Al target and recollected deposit characteristics was also done using optical microscopy, interferometry, and profilometry. In this high laser intensity regime, laser-induced substrate ionization and damage strongly limits transmitted laser fluence through the substrate above a threshold fluence. The threshold fluence for this ionization-based transmission limit in the substrate is dependent on the duration of the incident pulse. The substrate ionization can be used as a dynamic control of both transmitted spatial pulse profile and ablated Al plume shape. The efficiency of laser energy transfer between the laser pulse incident on the Al film and the ablated Al plume is estimated to be of order 5% and is a weak function of laser pulsewidth. The Al plume is highly directed. Low plume divergence ({theta}{sub divergence} < 5{sup o}) shows the ablated plume temperature to be very low at long time delays ( T << 0.5 eV at delays of 255 ns). Spectroscopic observations and calculations indicate that, in early time (t < 100 ps), the Al film region near the substrate/metal interface is at temperatures of order 0.5 eV. Interferograms of Al plumes produced with 0.1 {micro}m films show these plumes to be of high neutral atom

  13. Pellet ablation and ablation model development

    A broad survey of pellet ablation is given, based primarily on information presented at this meeting. The implications of various experimental observations for ablation theory are derived from qualitative arguments of the physics involved. The major elements of a more complete ablation theory are then outlined in terms of these observations. This is followed by a few suggestions on improving the connections between theory and experimental results through examination of ablation data. Although this is a rather aggressive undertaking for such a brief (and undoubtedly incomplete) assessment, some of the discussion may help us advance the understanding of pellet ablation. 17 refs

  14. Forced plume characteristics

    CRAPPER, P. F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of turbulent forced plumes generated by the steady release of mass, momentum and buoyancy from a finite source in a uniform environment. The entrainment coefficient assumption has been made; however a variable coefficient has been used so that the characteristics of the transition from jet to plume behaviour can be presented more clearly. A modified Boussinesq approximation has been made which corrects for the effect of density variations in the mass and ...

  15. Plumes - The Standard Model

    Anderson, Don L.

    1991-01-01

    1. The asthenosphere (=upper=convecting≡ depleted mantle≡ MORB source≡ DM ≡ primitive mantle - continental crust) represents the shallowest, sublithospheric mantle. 2. Enriched basalts must originate elsewhere. 3. The Continental Lithosphere (CL) is an ancient enriched reservoir where CFB originate or get contaminated by "plumes" coming from deeper. The CL is easily delaminated, replaced, displaced or depleted by plumes, extension or compression. 4. CL contaminates the So. A...

  16. Experiments and Theory of Ablation Plasma Ion Implantation

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Qi, B.; Lau, Y. Y.; Johnston, M. D.; Doll, G. L.; Lazarides, A.

    2000-10-01

    Research is underway to accelerate laser ablation plume ions for implantation into substrates. Ablation plasma ion implantation (APII) biases the deposition substrate to a large negative voltage. APII has the advantages of direct acceleration and implantation of ions from metals or any other solid targets. This process is environmentally friendly because it avoids the use of toxic gaseous precursors. Initial experiments are directed towards the implantation of iron ions into silicon substrates at negative voltages from 2-10 kV. A KrF laser ablates iron targets at pulse energies up to 600 mJ and typical repetition rates of 10 Hz. Parameters which can be varied include laser fluence, relative timing of laser and high voltage pulse, and target-to-substrate distance. Spectroscopic diagnostics yield Fe plasma plume electron temperatures up to about 10 eV. Analysis of films will compare surface morphology, hardness and adhesion between deposited Vs accelerated-implanted plumes. A simple one dimensional theory is developed [1] to calculate the implanted ion current, extracted from the ion matrix sheath, as a function of time for various substrate-plume separations. This model accurately recovers Lieberman's classic results when the plume front is initially in contact with the substrate. [1] B. Qi, Y. Y. Lau, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published). * This research is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  17. High-speed photography of laser ablation plasmas from the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    The luminous plume formed by laser ablation of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ has been investigated using high-speed framing photography. Variation of the background oxygen pressure was found to significantly influence the velocity distribution of the ablated species, leading in particular to shock wave formation and instabilities on the shock front at higher pressures. Spectral characteristics of the plume were studied using optical interference filters, and two distinct regions of emission were identified. (orig.)

  18. Emerging Local Ablation Techniques

    Stone, Michael J.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2006-01-01

    Local ablation technologies for hepatic malignancy have developed rapidly in the past decade, with advances in several percutaneous or externally delivered treatment methods including radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, laser ablation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Research has focused on increasing the size of the ablation zone and minimizing heat-sink effects. More recent developments include improvements in treatment planning and navigation with integration of several ima...

  19. Studies of ablation pressure, ablative acceleration and ablative implosions

    Time and space resolved X-ray spectroscopy have been used to measure ablation rate and ablation pressure on plane targets irradiated by the first and second harmonics of Nd glass laser light. Streaked X-ray shadowgraphy has been applied to the study of ablatively imploded spherical shell targets uniformly irradiated by six 1.05 μm laser beams. The results give a direct measurement of shell acceleration and thus of ablation pressure and show evidence of fluid instability increasing as the shell ratio is varied from 10 to 100. A direct determination of implosion core density is also obtained. (author)

  20. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Holloway, Brian C; Eklund, Peter C; Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin C; Shinn, Michelle

    2012-11-27

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  1. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Holloway, Brian C. (Inventor); Eklund, Peter C. (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Shinn, Michelle (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  2. Unsteady turbulent buoyant plumes

    Woodhouse, Mark J; Hogg, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    We model the unsteady evolution of turbulent buoyant plumes following temporal changes to the source conditions. The integral model is derived from radial integration of the governing equations expressing the conservation of mass, axial momentum and buoyancy. The non-uniform radial profiles of the axial velocity and density deficit in the plume are explicitly described by shape factors in the integral equations; the commonly-assumed top-hat profiles lead to shape factors equal to unity. The resultant model is hyperbolic when the momentum shape factor, determined from the radial profile of the mean axial velocity, differs from unity. The solutions of the model when source conditions are maintained at constant values retain the form of the well-established steady plume solutions. We demonstrate that the inclusion of a momentum shape factor that differs from unity leads to a well-posed integral model. Therefore, our model does not exhibit the mathematical pathologies that appear in previously proposed unsteady i...

  3. STEREOSCOPIC POLAR PLUME RECONSTRUCTIONS FROM STEREO/SECCHI IMAGES

    We present stereoscopic reconstructions of the location and inclination of polar plumes of two data sets based on the two simultaneously recorded images taken by the EUVI telescopes in the SECCHI instrument package onboard the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. The 10 plumes investigated show a superradial expansion in the coronal hole in three dimensions (3D) which is consistent with the two-dimensional results. Their deviations from the local meridian planes are rather small with an average of 6.047. By comparing the reconstructed plumes with a dipole field with its axis along the solar rotation axis, it is found that plumes are inclined more horizontally than the dipole field. The lower the latitude is, the larger is the deviation from the dipole field. The relationship between plumes and bright points has been investigated and they are not always associated. For the first data set, based on the 3D height of plumes and the electron density derived from SUMER/SOHO Si VIII line pair, we found that electron densities along the plumes decrease with height above the solar surface. The temperature obtained from the density scale height is 1.6-1.8 times larger than the temperature obtained from Mg IX line ratios. We attribute this discrepancy to a deviation of the electron and the ion temperatures. Finally, we have found that the outflow speeds studied in the O VI line in the plumes corrected by the angle between the line of sight and the plume orientation are quite small with a maximum of 10 km s-1. It is unlikely that plumes are a dominant contributor to the fast solar wind.

  4. Evidence for mantle plumes?

    Anderson, Don L; Natland, James H

    2007-11-22

    Geophysical hotspots have been attributed to partially molten asthenosphere, fertile blobs, small-scale convection and upwellings driven by core heat. Most are short-lived or too close together to be deeply seated, and do not have anomalous heat flow or temperature; many are related to tectonic features. Bourdon et al. investigate the dynamics of mantle plumes from uranium-series geochemistry and interpret their results as evidence for thermal plumes. Here we show why alternative mechanisms of upwelling and melting should be considered. PMID:18033248

  5. A study of particle generation during laser ablation withapplications

    Liu, Chunyi

    2005-08-12

    A study has been made of the generation of particles during laser ablation and has included size distribution measurements and observation of the formation processes. The particle size distribution with respect to different laser parameters was obtained in-line using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and a particle counter. The experimental results show that the particle size varies with laser energy, laser pulsewidth, ambient gas flow rate and sample properties. The results serve as a basis for controlling the size of nanoparticles generated by laser ablation. Laser shadowgraph imaging was used to study mass ejection processes and mechanisms. At higher laser irradiance, some particles were ejected in the liquid and even in the solid phase. Time-resolved images show the propagation of the shockwaves: external shockwaves propagate outward and decelerate, and internal shockwaves reflect back and forth between the gas contact surface and the sample surface. The internal shockwave is proposed to cause the ejection of liquid particles when the internal shockwave strikes the liquid molten layer. A simulation based on vapor plume expansion was carried out and provides satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Different material properties result in different particle ejection behavior:particle ejection for most materials including metals result in a conically shaped envelope for the ejected material while ejection for silicon resembles a liquid jet. The difference in density change when the materials melt was proposed to be an important factor in the different ejection behavior. The characteristics of particles generated by laser ablation have a strong influence on the chemical analysis of the irradiated sample. Large particles are more difficult to completely vaporize and ionize, and induced preferential vaporization causes fractionation (i.e. a detected chemical composition that differs from the sample material). Large particles also result in spikes in

  6. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  7. PLUME and research sotware

    Baudin, Veronique; Gomez-Diaz, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The PLUME open platform (https://www.projet-plume.org) has as first goal to share competences and to value the knowledge of software experts within the French higher education and research communities. The project proposes in its platform the access to more than 380 index cards describing useful and economic software for this community, with open access to everybody. The second goal of PLUME focuses on to improve the visibility of software produced by research laboratories within the higher education and research communities. The "development-ESR" index cards briefly describe the main features of the software, including references to research publications associated to it. The platform counts more than 300 cards describing research software, where 89 cards have an English version. In this talk we describe the theme classification and the taxonomy of the index cards and the evolution with new themes added to the project. We will also focus on the organisation of PLUME as an open project and its interests in the promotion of free/open source software from and for research, contributing to the creation of a community of shared knowledge.

  8. Improving operational plume forecasts

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    Forecasting how plumes of particles, such as radioactive particles from a nuclear disaster, will be transported and dispersed in the atmosphere is an important but computationally challenging task. During the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, operational plume forecasts were produced each day, but as the emissions continued, previous emissions were not included in the simulations used for forecasts because it became impractical to rerun the simulations each day from the beginning of the accident. Draxler and Rolph examine whether it is possible to improve plume simulation speed and flexibility as conditions and input data change. The authors use a method known as a transfer coefficient matrix approach that allows them to simulate many radionuclides using only a few generic species for the computation. Their simulations work faster by dividing the computation into separate independent segments in such a way that the most computationally time consuming pieces of the calculation need to be done only once. This makes it possible to provide real-time operational plume forecasts by continuously updating the previous simulations as new data become available. They tested their method using data from the Fukushima incident to show that it performed well. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD017205, 2012)

  9. Basic ablation phenomena during laser thrombolysis

    Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Shearin, Alan; Prahl, Scott A.

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents studies of microsecond ablation phenomena that take place during laser thrombolysis. The main goals were to optimize laser parameters for efficient ablation, and to investigate the ablation mechanism. Gelatin containing an absorbing dye was used as the clot model. A parametric study was performed to identify the optimal wavelength, spot size, pulse energies, and repetition rate for maximum material removal. The minimum radiant exposures to achieve ablation at any wavelength were measured. The results suggest that most visible wavelengths were equally efficient at removing material at radiant exposures above threshold. Ablation was initiated at surface temperatures just above 100 degrees Celsius. A vapor bubble was formed during ablation. Less than 5% of the total pulse energy is coupled into the bubble energy. A large part of the delivered energy is unaccounted for and is likely released partly as acoustic transients from the vapor expansion and partly wasted as heat. The current laser and delivery systems may not be able to completely remove large clot burden that is sometimes encountered in heart attacks. However, laser thrombolysis may emerge as a favored treatment for strokes where the occlusion is generally smaller and rapid recanalization is of paramount importance. A final hypothesis is that laser thrombolysis should be done at radiant exposures close to threshold to minimize any damaging effects of the bubble dynamics on the vessel wall.

  10. Dynamics of Molecular Emission Features from Nanosecond, Femtosecond Laser and Filament Ablation Plasmas

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Yeak, J.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-06-15

    The evolutionary paths of molecular species and nanoparticles in laser ablation plumes are not well understood due to the complexity of numerous physical processes that occur simultaneously in a transient laser-plasma system. It is well known that the emission features of ions, atoms, molecules and nanoparticles in a laser ablation plume strongly depend on the laser irradiation conditions. In this letter we report the temporal emission features of AlO molecules in plasmas generated using a nanosecond laser, a femtosecond laser and filaments generated from a femtosecond laser. Our results show that, at a fixed laser energy, the persistence of AlO is found to be highest and lowest in ns and filament laser plasmas respectively while molecular species are formed at early times for both ultrashort pulse (fs and filament) generated plasmas. Analysis of the AlO emission band features show that the vibrational temperature of AlO decays rapidly in filament assisted laser ablation plumes.

  11. Emission spectroscopy analysis during Nopal cladodes dethorning by laser ablation

    Peña-Díaz, M.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Flores, T.

    2007-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy of the pulsed laser ablation of spines and glochids from Opuntia (Nopal) cladodes was performed. Nopal cladodes were irradiated with Nd:YAG free-running laser pulses on their body, glochids and spines. Emission spectroscopy analyses in the 350-1000 nm region of the laser induced plasma were made. Plasma plume evolution characterization, theoretical calculations of plasma plume temperature and experiments varying the processing atmosphere showed that the process is dominated by a thermally activated combustion reaction which increases the dethorning process efficiency. Therefore, appropriate laser pulse energy for minimal damage of cladodes body and in the area beneath glochids and spines can be obtained.

  12. Emission spectroscopy analysis during Nopal cladodes dethorning by laser ablation

    Pena-Diaz, M; Ponce, L; Arronte, M; Flores, T [Laboratorio TecnologIa Laser, CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Ind. Altamira, 89600, TAMPS (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy of the pulsed laser ablation of spines and glochids from Opuntia (Nopal) cladodes was performed. Nopal cladodes were irradiated with Nd:YAG free-running laser pulses on their body, glochids and spines. Emission spectroscopy analyses in the 350-1000 nm region of the laser induced plasma were made. Plasma plume evolution characterization, theoretical calculations of plasma plume temperature and experiments varying the processing atmosphere showed that the process is dominated by a thermally activated combustion reaction which increases the dethorning process efficiency. Therefore, appropriate laser pulse energy for minimal damage of cladodes body and in the area beneath glochids and spines can be obtained.

  13. Emission spectroscopy analysis during Nopal cladodes dethorning by laser ablation

    Optical emission spectroscopy of the pulsed laser ablation of spines and glochids from Opuntia (Nopal) cladodes was performed. Nopal cladodes were irradiated with Nd:YAG free-running laser pulses on their body, glochids and spines. Emission spectroscopy analyses in the 350-1000 nm region of the laser induced plasma were made. Plasma plume evolution characterization, theoretical calculations of plasma plume temperature and experiments varying the processing atmosphere showed that the process is dominated by a thermally activated combustion reaction which increases the dethorning process efficiency. Therefore, appropriate laser pulse energy for minimal damage of cladodes body and in the area beneath glochids and spines can be obtained

  14. Thermal expansion

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  15. High resolution selective multilayer laser processing by nanosecond laser ablation of metal nanoparticle films

    Ablation of gold nanoparticle films on polymer was explored using a nanosecond pulsed laser, with the goal to achieve feature size reduction and functionality not amenable with inkjet printing. The ablation threshold fluence for the unsintered nanoparticle deposit was at least ten times lower than the reported threshold for the bulk film. This could be explained by the combined effects of melting temperature depression, lower conductive heat transfer loss, strong absorption of the incident laser beam, and the relatively weak bonding between nanoparticles. The ablation physics were verified by the nanoparticle sintering characterization, ablation threshold measurement, time resolved ablation plume shadowgraphs, analysis of ablation ejecta, and the measurement and calculation of optical properties. High resolution and clean feature fabrication with small energy and selective multilayer processing are demonstrated

  16. In situ Diagnostics During Carbon Nanotube Production by Laser Ablation

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    1999-01-01

    The preliminary results of spectral analysis of the reaction zone during the carbon nanotube production by laser ablation method indicate synergetic dependence on dual laser setup. The emission spectra recorded from different regions of the laser ablated plume at different delay times from the laser pulses are used to map the temperatures of C2 and C3. These are compared with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectra also obtained during production to model the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes. Experiments conducted to correlate the spectral features with nanotube yields as a function of different production parameters will be discussed.

  17. Chemical plume source localization.

    Pang, Shuo; Farrell, Jay A

    2006-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume using an autonomous vehicle as a sensor probe in a fluid flow. The fluid flow is assumed to have a high Reynolds number. Therefore, the dispersion of the chemical is dominated by turbulence, resulting in an intermittent chemical signal. The vehicle is capable of detecting above-threshold chemical concentration and sensing the fluid flow velocity at the vehicle location. This paper reviews instances of biological plume tracing and reviews previous strategies for a vehicle-based plume tracing. The main contribution is a new source-likelihood mapping approach based on Bayesian inference methods. Using this Bayesian methodology, the source-likelihood map is propagated through time and updated in response to both detection and nondetection events. Examples are included that use data from in-water testing to compare the mapping approach derived herein with the map derived using a previously existing technique. PMID:17036813

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of cluster distribution from femtosecond laser ablation in aluminum

    Sonntag, S.; Trichet Paredes, C.; Roth, J.; Trebin, H.R. [University of Stuttgart, Institute for Theoretical and Applied Physics, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Femtosecond laser ablation and plume evolution of aluminum is investigated for various inhomogeneous laser pulses. For the simulations of the atoms the molecular dynamics code IMD is used. The ablated gas-phase is scanned by a cluster algorithm (DBSCAN), from which we gain a cluster size distribution of the ablated material. Per single pulse, only a small portion of the total volume evaporates into the gas phase. Therefore - to have reasonable statistics - we have to deal with huge samples (6 x 10{sup 7} atoms). The ablation threshold is determined by comparing the depth of the holes to the applied fluence. Angular and velocity distributions of the plume are compared to experiments. (orig.)

  19. Stereoscopic Polar Plume Reconstructions from Stereo/Secchi Images

    Feng, L; Solanki, S K; Wilhelm, K; Wiegelmann, T; Podlipnik, B; Howard, R A; Plunkett, S P; Wuelser, J P; Gan, W Q; 10.1088/0004-637X/700/1/292

    2009-01-01

    We present stereoscopic reconstructions of the location and inclination of polar plumes of two data sets based on the two simultaneously recorded images taken by the EUVI telescopes in the SECCHI instrument package onboard the \\emph{STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory)} spacecraft. The ten plumes investigated show a superradial expansion in the coronal hole in 3D which is consistent with the 2D results. Their deviations from the local meridian planes are rather small with an average of $6.47^{\\circ}$. By comparing the reconstructed plumes with a dipole field with its axis along the solar rotation axis, it is found that plumes are inclined more horizontally than the dipole field. The lower the latitude is, the larger is the deviation from the dipole field. The relationship between plumes and bright points has been investigated and they are not always associated. For the first data set, based on the 3D height of plumes and the electron density derived from SUMER/\\emph{SOHO} Si {\\sc viii} line pair, ...

  20. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  1. Morphology and growth mechanism of WOx films prepared by laser ablation of W in different atmospheres

    Ossi, P. M.; Bailini, A.; Geszti, O.; Radnóczi, G.

    2008-09-01

    Nanostructured tungsten oxide, WOx films were prepared by ablating a metallic target in helium, argon and dry air as buffer gases at fixed pressure, laser fluence and target-substrate distance. The obtained samples were observed by transmission and high-resolution electron microscopy. The morphologies and structures of the films are discussed and compared to the predictions of a model that interprets cluster growth in an expanding ablation plume as a function of process parameters.

  2. Predicting cooling tower plume dispersion

    An assessment of the effects of visible cooling tower plumes on the local environment can be a necessary part of any proposal for a new large industrial process. Predictions of the dispersion of plumes from cooling towers are based on methods developed for chimney emissions. However, the kinds of criteria used to judge the acceptability of cooling tower plumes are different from those used for stack plumes. The frequency of long elevated plumes and the frequency of ground fogging are the two main issues. It is shown that events associated with significant plumes visibility are dependent both on the operating characteristics of the tower and on the occurrence of certain meteorological conditions. The dependence on atmospheric conditions is shown to be fairly complex and simple performance criteria based on the exit conditions from the tower are not sufficient for assessments. (author)

  3. Control of laser-ablation plasma potential with external electrodes

    The potential of a laser-ablation plasma was controlled stably up to +2 kV by using external ring electrodes. A stable electron sheath was formed between the plasma and the external electrodes by placing the ring electrodes away from the boundary of the drifting plasma. The plasma kept the potential for a few μs regardless of the flux change of the ablation plasma. We also found that the plasma potential changed with the expansion angle of the plasma from the target. By changing the distance between the plasma boundary and the external electrodes, we succeeded in controlling the potential of laser-ablation plasma

  4. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume...

  5. Terrestrial Plume Impingement Testbed Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Masten Space Systems proposes to create a terrestrial plume impingement testbed for generating novel datasets for extraterrestrial robotic missions. This testbed...

  6. Observations of the volume flux of a seafloor hydrothermal plume using an acoustic imaging sonar

    Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Bemis, K. G.; Rona, P. A.

    2013-07-01

    We present a 26 day time series (October 2010) of physical properties (volume flux, flow velocity, expansion rate) of a vigorous deep-sea hydrothermal plume measured using our Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS), which is connected to the Northeast Pacific Time Series Underwater Experiment Canada Cabled Observatory at the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. COVIS quantitatively monitors the initial buoyant rise of the plume from ˜5 m to ˜15 m above the vents. The time series exhibits temporal variations of the plume vertical volume flux (1.93-5.09 m3/s ), centerline vertical velocity component (0.11-0.24 m/s ) and expansion rate (0.082-0.21 m/m ); these variations have major spectral peaks at semidiurnal (˜2 cycle/day) and inertial oscillation (˜1.5 cycle/day) frequencies. The plume expansion rate (average ˜0.14 m/m ) is inversely proportional to the plume centerline vertical velocity component (coefficient of determination R2˜0.5). This inverse proportionality, as well as the semidiurnal frequency, indicates interaction between the plume and ambient ocean currents consistent with an entrainment of ambient seawater that increases with the magnitude of ambient currents. The inertial oscillations observed in the time series provide evidence for the influence of surface storms on the dynamics of hydrothermal plumes.

  7. Lung Ablation: Whats New?

    Xiong, Lillian; Dupuy, Damian E

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer had an estimated incidence of 221,200 in 2015, making up 13% of all cancer diagnoses. Tumor ablation is an important treatment option for nonsurgical lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic patients. Radiofrequency ablation has been used for over a decade with newer modalities, microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation presenting as additional and possibly improved treatment options for patients. This minimally invasive therapy is best for small primary lesions or favorably located metastatic tumors. These technologies can offer palliation and sometimes cure of thoracic malignancies. This article discusses the current available technologies and techniques available for tumor ablation. PMID:27050331

  8. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  9. Optical time of flight studies of lithium plasma in double pulse laser ablation: Evidence of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption

    The early stage of formation of lithium plasma in a collinear—double pulse laser ablation mode has been studied using optical time of flight (OTOF) spectroscopy as a function of inter-pulse delay time, the distance from the target surface and the fluence of the ablation lasers. The experimental TOF measurements were carried out for lithium neutral (670.8 nm and 610.3 nm), and ionic (548.4 nm and 478.8 nm) lines. These experimental observations have been compared with that for single pulse laser ablation mode. It is found that depending on the fluence and laser pulse shape of the first pre-ablation laser and the second main ablation laser, the plasma plume formation and its characteristic features can be described in terms of plume-plume or laser-plume interaction processes. Moreover, the enhancement in the intensity of Li neutral and ionic lines is observed when the laser-plume interaction is the dominant process. Here, we see the evidence of the role of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption process in the initial stage of formation of lithium plasma in this case

  10. Laser ablation principles and applications

    1994-01-01

    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  11. In-Situ Diagnostics of Carbon Nanotube Production by Laser Ablation

    Arepalli, Sivaram; DeBoer, Gary; Scott, Darl D.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation involves emission and laser induced fluorescence (LIP) data obtained during carbon nanotube production by double pulse laser oven method. Recent LIP data of nickel indicate longer decay (of the order of few milliseconds) of nickel atomic vapor. This contrasts with less than a millisecond decays of C2 and C3 observed in the plume. The possible role of nickel in the kinetics of carbon nanotube formation will be discussed. Evolution of the laser ablated plume is recorded as plume images which are correlated with the transient emission and LIP data

  12. Time-integrated photography of laser-induced plasma plumes

    Proyer, S.; Stangl, E. [Johannes Keppler Univ., Linz (Austria). Angewandte Phys.

    1995-06-01

    The shape of the plasma plume induced by KrF-laser irradiation of Y-Ba-Cu-O, Cu-O, and Cu targets in O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} atmosphere was investigated by time-integrated photography. The dependence on laser fluence, spot size, and pressure of the ambient gas was studied. Special emphasis was put on the ablation of YBCO in O{sub 2} atmosphere under experimental conditions that are typical for thin-film deposition. (orig.) 27 refs.

  13. Observation of the initial stage of the laser ablation

    The time and space resolved properties of laser ablated carbon particles were measured by X-ray absorption spectroscopy using Laser Plasma X-ray (LPX) as an X-ray source. The energy density of the irradiation laser on the sample was in the range of 0.5-20 J/cm2 and the time delay was varied between 0 and 120ns. The absorption spectra exhibits several peaks originated from level to level transitions and an intense broad absorption in the energy range of C-K edge. At a delay time of 120ns, the absorption peak of 1s → 2p transition of neutral carbon atom (C0), C-, C+ and C2+ ions were observed. The absorption peak from C0 is stronger as the probing position is closer to the sample surface and its intensity decreases rapidly with distance from the sample surface. The absorption peak C2+ ion was observed only at comparatively distant positions from surface. The maximum speed of highly charged ions are faster than that of neutral atoms and negative charged ions. The neutral atom and lower charged ions are emitted from the sample surface even after laser irradiation. The spatial distribution of the laser ablated particles in the localized helium gas environment were measured. In the helium gas environment, the ablation plume is depressed by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume. (author)

  14. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes.

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-04-13

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis. PMID:20368458

  15. Dilution of Buoyant Surface Plumes

    Larsen, Torben; Petersen, Ole

    The purpose of present work is to establish a quantitative description of a surface plume which is valid for the range of density differences occurring in relation to sewage outfalls.......The purpose of present work is to establish a quantitative description of a surface plume which is valid for the range of density differences occurring in relation to sewage outfalls....

  16. Autocatalytic plume pinch-off

    Rogers, Michael C; Morris, Stephen W

    2010-01-01

    A localized source of buoyancy flux in a non-reactive fluid medium creates a plume. The flux can be provided by either heat, a compositional difference between the fluid comprising the plume and its surroundings, or a combination of both. For autocatalytic plumes produced by the iodate-arsenous acid reaction, however, buoyancy is produced along the entire reacting interface between the plume and its surroundings. Buoyancy production at the moving interface drives fluid motion, which in turn generates flow that advects the reaction front. As a consequence of this interplay between fluid flow and chemical reaction, autocatalytic plumes exhibit a rich dynamics during their ascent through the reactant medium. One of the more interesting dynamical features is the production of an accelerating vortical plume head that in certain cases pinches-off and detaches from the upwelling conduit. After pinch-off, a new plume head forms in the conduit below, and this can lead to multiple generations of plume heads for a singl...

  17. Laser ablation laser induced fluorescence for sensitive detection of heavy metals in water

    Godwal, Yogesh

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy LIBS is a fast non-contact technique for the analysis of the elemental composition using spectral information of the emission from a laser-induced plasma. For the LIBS studies in this thesis the focus has been in using very low energy, microjoule pulses in order to give high spatial resolution and minimize the laser system requirements. This is a regime that we refer to as microLIBS. Under such conditions it is important to maximize the signal detected to give the lowest limit of detection LOD possible. One technique to improve the signal to noise ratios is by coupling LIBS with Laser Induced Fluorescence. This is a technique where the first pulse creates a vapor plume and the second pulse tuned to a resonant absorption line of the species of interest re-excites the plume. We term this technique as Laser ablation Laser Induced Fluorescence LA-LIF. We have been investigating the performance of LA-LIF at low pulse energies (≤ 1 mJ for both pulses) for the detection of elemental contaminants in water. This technique allows reasonable performance compared to high energy single-pulse LIBS, but at a much reduced total energy expenditure. This allows LODs in the parts per billion range ppb range which typically cannot be obtained with low energy single pulse probing of the systems. This approach or exceeds the sensitivities which can be obtained with many shots using much larger energy systems. In this thesis we investigated the performance of LIBS at low pulse energies for the detection of Pb as a contaminant in water. An LOD of 70 ppb was obtained for an accumulation of 100 shots with the ablation laser pulse energy of 250 muJ and an excitation laser pulse energy of 8 muJ. A systematic study of the detector conditions was made for the system for the detection of Pb. Scaling laws for the LOD in terms of the pump and probe energies were measured and also the effect of detector gain, the gate delay and the gate width were studied. In

  18. Plume rise from multiple sources

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh1, where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh1)/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  19. Study of the ablation of extra-low temperature aggregate target and the development of technology of formation of non-equilibrium high-quality functional thin films by the plume control; Gokuteion gyoshutai target no abureshon oyobi purumu seigyo ni yoru hiheiko kohinshitsu kinosei usumaku seisei gijutsu kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A study was made on factors of the formation of high-quality thin films in the pulse laser deposition (PLD) method, a synthesis method of high-grade functional material thin films. In the experiment, plume current measurements using Cu target were conducted for the control of electric and magnetic fields. Especially, the measuring evaluation was made of the two-dimensional distribution including not only the central part of the substrate placed opposite to the target, but the periphery of the substrate. As a result, the following was found out. The distribution of charged particles in the plume is different in positive charge and negative charge, and the negative charge is dispersed/distributed more widely. Accelerating/decelerating effects of charged particles by the electric field are saturated when the bias voltage absolute value is approximately 100V. Ionization is promoted by giving the magnetic field, and the plume distribution is expanded. Positive charged particles of the plume in the magnetic field are decelerated. In the distribution control by giving the electric field, it is effective to think improvement of the distribution not by attracting charged particles by the electric field, but by shutting out charged particles of the same polarity. 29 refs., 75 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Laser ablation in a liquid-confined environment using a nanosecond laser pulse

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Ho; Welch, Ashley J.

    2008-04-01

    Laser ablation of aluminum metal with 1ns, 800nm pulse at low radiant exposures was investigated in air (dry) and water (wet) environments. Compared to dry ablation, an approximately eight times increase in material removal rate was associated with wet ablation. Based on optical reflectance and scanning electron microscope images, bubble formation/collapse was responsible for augmented acoustic pressure and ablation performance. Numerically simulated temperature distributions during wet ablation were consistent with the occurrence of explosive water vaporization near the critical temperature of water. Strong pressure emission during liquid vaporization and jet formation can account for enhanced ablation process. Radial expansion of bubbles minimized the redeposition of debris, leading to improvements in energy coupling to the target and ablation performance.

  1. Laser ablation in a liquid-confined environment using a nanosecond laser pulse

    Laser ablation of aluminum metal with 1 ns, 800 nm pulse at low radiant exposures was investigated in air (dry) and water (wet) environments. Compared to dry ablation, an approximately eight times increase in material removal rate was associated with wet ablation. Based on optical reflectance and scanning electron microscope images, bubble formation/collapse was responsible for augmented acoustic pressure and ablation performance. Numerically simulated temperature distributions during wet ablation were consistent with the occurrence of explosive water vaporization near the critical temperature of water. Strong pressure emission during liquid vaporization and jet formation can account for enhanced ablation process. Radial expansion of bubbles minimized the redeposition of debris, leading to improvements in energy coupling to the target and ablation performance

  2. Pulsed IR laser ablation of organic polymers in air: shielding effects and plasma pipe formation

    Panchenko, A N; Shulepov, M A; Tel' minov, A E [Institute of High-Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Zakharov, L A; Bulgakova, N M [Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1 prosp. Lavrentyev, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Paletsky, A A, E-mail: nbul@itp.nsc.ru [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, 3 Institutskaya St., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-28

    We report the effect of 'plasma pipe' formation on pulsed laser ablation of organic polymers in air under normal conditions. Ablation of polymers (PMMA, polyimide) is carried out in a wide range of CO{sub 2} laser fluences with special attention to plasma formation in the ablation products. Evolution of laser ablation plumes in air under different pressures is investigated with simultaneous registration of radiation spectra of the ablation products. An analysis based on thermo-chemical modelling is performed to elucidate the effects of laser light attenuation upon ablation, including plasma and chemical processes in a near-target space. The analysis has shown that the experimental observations of plume development in air can be explained by a combination of processes including formation of a pre-ionized channel along the laser beam propagation, laser-supported detonation wave and effective combustion of the polymer ablation products. A scenario of a streamer-like polymer plasma flow within an air plasma pipe created via laser-induced breakdown is proposed.

  3. Plume rise predictions

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/-2, as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/-2.3. In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/-1.5. In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  4. Time-resolved diagnostics of excimer laser-generated ablation plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition

    Characteristics of laser plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films are examined with four in situ diagnostic techniques: Optical emission spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, ion probe studies, and gated ICCD (intensified charge-coupled-device array) fast photography. These four techniques are complementary and permit simultaneous views of the transport of ions, excited states, ground state neutrals and ions, and hot particulates following KrF laser ablation of YBCO, BN, graphite and Si in vacuum and background gases. The implementation and advantages of the four techniques are first described in order to introduce the key features of laser plasmas for pulsed laser deposition. Aspects of the interaction of the ablation plume with background gases (i.e., thermalization, attenuation, shock formation) and the collision of the plasma plume with the substrate heater are then summarized. The techniques of fast ICCD photography and gated photon counting are then applied to investigate the temperature, velocity, and spatial distribution of hot particles generated during KrF ablation of YBCO, BN, Si and graphite. Finally, key features of fast imaging of the laser ablation of graphite into high pressure rare gases are presented in order to elucidate internal reflected shocks within the plume, redeposition of material on a surface, and formation of hot nanoparticles within the plume

  5. Ion time-of-flight study of laser ablation of silver in low pressure gases

    Hansen, T.N.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of ions from a laser-ablated silver target in low pressure background atmospheres have been investigated in a simple geometry using an electrical probe. A simple scattering picture for the first transmitted peak of the observed plume splitting has been used to calculate cross section...

  6. Radiofrequency ablation in dermatology

    Sachdeva Silonie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofreqeuency ablation is a versatile dermatosurgical procedure used for surgical management of skin lesions by using various forms of alternating current at an ultra high frequency. The major modalities in radiofrequency are electrosection, electrocoagulation, electrodessication and fulguration. The use of radiofrequency ablation in dermatosurgical practice has gained importance in recent years as it can be used to treat most of the skin lesions with ease in less time with clean surgical field due to adequate hemostasis and with minimal side effects and complications. This article focuses on the major tissue effects and factors influencing radiofrequency ablation and its application for various dermatological conditions.

  7. Liver tumor ablation

    Minimal-invasive techniques for ablation of primary and secondary hepatic tumors gain increasingly clinical importance. This is especially true since surgical resection and classic chemotherapy is successful only in a limited number of patients. Local ablative methods incorporate chemo- (percutaneous alcohol instillation, transarterial chemoembolization), thermo- (radiofrequency-, laser-, microwave-, cryoablation, high intensive focused ultrasound) and radio-ablative techniques (interstitial brachytherapy, selective internal radiotherapy). Regarding their implementation and specific effects these methods are varying widely, nevertheless all of them have a high therapeutical efficacy together with a low complication rate in common - correct application presumed. The knowledge on specific indications and contraindications is crucial to implement these methods into multimodality therapy concepts. (orig.)

  8. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred. T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article rev...

  9. Rat liver regeneration following ablation with irreversible electroporation.

    Golberg, Alexander; Bruinsma, Bote G; Jaramillo, Maria; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Basak E

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation has emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of multiple diseases including hepatic cancer. However, the mechanisms behind the tissue regeneration following IRE ablation have not been investigated. Our results indicate that IRE treatment immediately kills the cells at the treatment site preserving the extracellular architecture, in effect causing in vivo decellularization. Over the course of 4 weeks, progenitor cell differentiation, through YAP and notch pathways, together with hepatocyte expansion led to almost complete regeneration of the ablated liver leading to the formation of hepatocyte like cells at the ablated zone. We did not observe significant scarring or tumor formation at the regenerated areas 6 months post IRE. Our study suggests a new model to study the regeneration of liver when the naïve extracellular matrix is decellularized in vivo with completely preserved extracellular architecture. PMID:26819842

  10. Thermal plumes in ventilated rooms

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects. Free...... account and the temperature excess and the velocity distribution are calculated by use of an extrapolation method. In the case with a concentrated heat source (dia 50mm, 343W) and nearly uniform surroundings the model of a plume above a point heat source is verified. It represents a borderline case with...... than for a point heat source. The exact knowledge of the vertical temperature gradient is essential to predict the flow propagation due to its influence on the entrainment, e.g. in an integral method of plume calculation • Since the flow from different heated bodies is individual full...

  11. Time-resolved and integrated angular distributions of plume ions from silver at low and medium laser fluence

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Laser impact on metals in the UV regime results in a significant number of ablated plume ions even at moderate fluence (0.7–2.4 J/cm2). The ablated particles are largely neutrals at the lowest fluence, but the fraction of ions increases strongly with fluence. The ion flow in different directions...... with increasing fluence and can be well approximated by Anisimov’s model. Typically, the spectra of silver ions peak from 70 eV up to 145 eV in a direction close to the normal of the target surface with increasing fluence. With increasing observation angle, the time-of-flight spectra exhibit a peak at...... longer flight times, i.e., at a lower kinetic energy. At the highest fluence, the ionized fraction of the ablated particles in the plume increases up to 0.5....

  12. femtosecond laser ablation

    Margetic, Vanja

    2003-01-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation was investigated as a solid sampling method for elemental chemical analysis. In comparison to the sampling with longer laser pulses, two aspects could be improved by using ultrashort pulses: elimination of the elemental fractionation from the ablation crater, which is necessary for an accurate quantitative analysis, and better control of the material removal (especially for metals), which increases the spatial resolution of microanalysis. Basic aspects of ultrashort...

  13. Emissivity of rocket plume particulates.

    Whisman, Curtis D.

    1992-01-01

    The optical properties of motor aluminum oxide are required inputs to current plume signature prediction codes, such as SIRRM. Accurate predictions are possible only if variations in the particle emissivity due to changes in particle size, contamination, and changing temperature, etc. , are known . This investigation demonstrated a simplified method for determination of the emissivity of rocket motor generated alumina. Plume particulate material was collected on ...

  14. Investigation of Balcony Plume Entrainment

    Liu, F.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per;

    2009-01-01

    An investigation on the scenarios of the spill plume and its equation was presented in this paper. The study includes two aspects, i.e., the small-scale experiment and the numerical simulation. Two balcony spill plume models are assessed by comparing with the FDS (Fire Dynamic Simulation) and small...... is independent of the fire location. The Investigations in this paper are useful for the fire engineers in designing smoke control systems....

  15. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  16. EUV ablation of organic polymers at a high fluence

    Chiara; Liberatore; Klaus; Mann; Matthias; Mller; Ladislav; Pina; Libor; Juha; Jorge; J.Rocca; Akira; Endo; Tomas; Mocek

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on short-wavelength ablation mechanisms of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) and poly(1,4-phenylene ether ether-sulfone)(PPEES) by extreme ultraviolet(EUV) radiation at 13.5 nm using a table-top laserproduced plasma from a gas-puff target at LLG(Gttingen) and at 46.9 nm by a 10 Hz desktop capillary discharge laser operated at the Institute of Physics(Prague) is presented.Ablation of polymer materials is initiated by photoinduced polymer chain scissions.The ablation occurs due to the formation of volatile products by the EUV radiolysis removed as an ablation plume from the irradiated material into the vacuum.In general,cross-linking of polymer molecules can compete with the chain decomposition.Both processes may influence the efficiency and quality of micro(nano)structuring in polymer materials.Wavelength is a critical parameter to be taken into account when an EUV ablation process occurs,because different wavelengths result in different energy densities in the near-surface region of the polymer exposed to nanosecond pulses of intense EUV radiation.

  17. Towards redistribution laser cooling of molecular gases: Production of candidate molecules SrH by laser ablation

    Simon, Philipp; Moroshkin, Peter; Weller, Lars; Sass, Anne; Weitz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Laser cooling by collisional redistribution of radiation has been successfully applied in the past for cooling dense atomic gases. Here we report on progress of work aiming at the demonstration of redistribution laser cooling in a molecular gas. The candidate molecule strontium monohydride is produced by laser ablation of strontium dihydride in a pressurized noble gas atmosphere. The composition of the ablation plasma plume is analyzed by measuring its emission spectrum. The dynamics of SrH m...

  18. Mapping Densities in Analogue Laboratory Turbulent Plumes Using Dye Concentration

    Fisher, M. A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Changing tephra concentration in volcanic eruption columns is difficult to measure in the field due to fluid opacity. The bulk fluid erupted may be higher density than the surrounding atmosphere at the vent and then transition to positive buoyancy through the ingestion and heating of ambient air; thus, the concentration of the plume fluid as it rises is critical to determining whether the material rises in a sustained plume or collapses into a pyroclastic density current. We evaluate the changing concentration of an analogue plume via tracer dye intensity and relate it to plume radius expansion and vent distance. To calibrate our concentration metric, we calculated the density and dye concentration of pre-determined tracer-water mixtures. The density of the solution was directly measured using a micropipette and high precision balance. The calculated density falls within the standard error of the measured density for each step. Five photographs were taken of each concentration using a mounted Ex-FH100 digital camera with identical lighting. Using a MATLAB script, the RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color value was extracted from five pixels located at the same coordinates in each image, confirming that there was no inherent error caused by the camera and that the RGB value was the same across an entire image. We created a color map to convert from the RGB color value of a pixel in an image to its corresponding concentration. This method algorithm can then be applied to an analogue volcanic tank model, using the color variations in the plume eddies to determine the tracer concentration, and thereby density distribution, in the plume.

  19. THE STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF SOLAR PLUMES: NETWORK PLUMES

    This study is based upon plumes seen close to the solar limb within coronal holes in the emission from ions formed in the temperature region of 1 MK, in particular, the band of Fe IX 171 A from EIT on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. It is shown, using geometric arguments, that two distinct classes of structure contribute to apparently similar plume observations. Quasi-cylindrical structures are anchored in discrete regions of the solar surface (beam plumes), and faint extended structures require integration along the line of sight (LOS) in order to reproduce the observed brightness. This second category, sometimes called 'curtains', are ubiquitous within the polar holes and are usually more abundant than the beam plumes, which depend more on the enhanced magnetic structures detected at their footpoints. It is here proposed that both phenomena are based on plasma structures in which emerging magnetic loops interact with ambient monopolar fields, involving reconnection. The important difference is in terms of physical scale. It is proposed that curtains are composed of a large number of microplumes, distributed along the LOS. The supergranule network provides the required spatial structure. It is shown by modeling that the observations can be reproduced if microplumes are concentrated within some 5 Mm of the cell boundaries. For this reason, we propose to call this second population 'network plumes'. The processes involved could represent a major contribution to the heating mechanism of the solar corona.

  20. Ground state C2 density measurement in carbon plume using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of C2 molecules produced by laser ablation of a graphite target is studied using optical emission spectroscopy, dynamic imaging and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) investigations. We observe peculiar bifurcation of carbon plume into two parts; stationary component close to the target surface and a component moving away from the target surface which splits further in two parts as the plume expands. The two distinct plumes are attributed to recombination of carbon species and formation of nanoparticles. The molecular carbon C2 moves with a faster velocity and dies out at ∼ 800 ns whereas the clusters of nanoparticle move with a slower velocity due to their higher mass and can be observed even after 1600 ns. C2 molecules in the d3Πg state were probed for laser-induced fluorescence during ablation of graphite using the Swan (0,0) band at 516.5 nm. The fluorescence spectrum and images of fluorescence d3Πg - a3Πu(0,1)(λ = 563.5 nm) are recorded using a spectrograph attached to the ICCD camera. To get absolute ground state C2 density from fluorescence images, the images are calibrated using complimentary absorption experiment. This study qualitatively helps to get optimum conditions for nanoparticle formation using the laser ablation of graphite target and hence deducing optimum conditions for thin film deposition.

  1. Tomographic reconstruction of polar plumes

    Auchère, F.; Guennou, C.; Barbey, N.

    2012-06-01

    We present a tomographic reconstruction of polar plumes as observed in the Extreme Ultraviolet in January 2010. Plumes are elusive structures visible in polar coronal holes that may play an important role in the acceleration of the solar wind. However, despite numerous observations, little is irrefutably known about them. Because of line of sight effects, even their geometry is subject to debate. Are they genuine cylindrical features of the corona or are they only chance alignments along the line of sight? Tomography provides a means to reconstruct the volume of an optically thin object from a set of observations taken from different vantage points. In the case of the Sun, these are typically obtained by using a solar rotation worth of images, which limits the ability to reconstruct short lived structures. We present here a tomographic inversion of the solar corona obtained using only 6 days of data. This is achieved by using simultaneously three space telescopes (EUVI/STEREO and SWAP/PROBA2) in a very specific orbital configuration. The result is the shortest possible tomographic snapshot of polar plumes. The 3D reconstruction shows both quasi-cylindrical plumes and a network pattern that can mimic them by line of sight superimpositions. This suggests that the controversy on plume geometry is due to the coexistence of both types of structures.

  2. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    Phipps, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  3. Towards redistribution laser cooling of molecular gases: Production of candidate molecules SrH by laser ablation

    Simon, Philipp; Weller, Lars; Sass, Anne; Weitz, Martin; 10.1117/12.2002379

    2013-01-01

    Laser cooling by collisional redistribution of radiation has been successfully applied in the past for cooling dense atomic gases. Here we report on progress of work aiming at the demonstration of redistribution laser cooling in a molecular gas. The candidate molecule strontium monohydride is produced by laser ablation of strontium dihydride in a pressurized noble gas atmosphere. The composition of the ablation plasma plume is analyzed by measuring its emission spectrum. The dynamics of SrH molecular density following the ablation laser pulse is studied as a function of the buffer gas pressure and the laser intensity.

  4. Laser ablation synthesis of zinc oxide clusters: a new family of fullerenes?

    Bulgakov, A V; Bulgakov, Alexander V.; Ozerov, Igor; Proxy, Wladimir Marine; ccsd-00000864, ccsd

    2003-01-01

    Positively charged zinc oxide clusters ZnnOm (up to n = 16, m <= n) of various stoichiometry were synthesized in the gas phase by excimer ArF laser ablation of a ZnO target and investigated using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Depending on ablation conditions, either metal rich or stoichiometric clusters dominate in the mass spectrum. When the irradiated target surface is fairly fresh, the most abundant clusters are metal rich with Zn(n+1)On and Zn(n+3)On being the major series. The stoichiometric clusters are observed with an etched ablated surface. The magic numbers at n = 9, 11 and 15 in mass spectra of (ZnO)n clusters indicate that the clusters have hollow spheroid structures related to fullerenes. A local abundance minimum at n = 13 provides an additional evidence for the presence in the ablation plume of fullerene-like (ZnO)n clusters.

  5. Tracing the plasma interactions for pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Chen, Jikun; Stender, Dieter; Pichler, Markus; Pergolesi, Daniele; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lippert@psi.ch [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-28

    Pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation is an effective technique to govern the chemical activity of plasma species and background molecules during pulsed laser deposition. Instead of using a constant background pressure, a gas pulse with a reactive gas, synchronized with the laser beam, is injected into vacuum or a low background pressure near the ablated area of the target. It intercepts the initially generated plasma plume, thereby enhancing the physicochemical interactions between the gaseous environment and the plasma species. For this study, kinetic energy resolved mass-spectrometry and time-resolved plasma imaging were used to study the physicochemical processes occurring during the reactive crossed beam laser ablation of a partially {sup 18}O substituted La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} target using oxygen as gas pulse. The characteristics of the ablated plasma are compared with those observed during pulsed laser deposition in different oxygen background pressures.

  6. Tracing the plasma interactions for pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation is an effective technique to govern the chemical activity of plasma species and background molecules during pulsed laser deposition. Instead of using a constant background pressure, a gas pulse with a reactive gas, synchronized with the laser beam, is injected into vacuum or a low background pressure near the ablated area of the target. It intercepts the initially generated plasma plume, thereby enhancing the physicochemical interactions between the gaseous environment and the plasma species. For this study, kinetic energy resolved mass-spectrometry and time-resolved plasma imaging were used to study the physicochemical processes occurring during the reactive crossed beam laser ablation of a partially 18O substituted La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 target using oxygen as gas pulse. The characteristics of the ablated plasma are compared with those observed during pulsed laser deposition in different oxygen background pressures

  7. Analysis of laser ablation dynamics of CFRP in order to reduce heat affected zone

    Sato, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Nariyama, Tatsuya; Nakai, Kazuki; Matsuoka, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Kenjiro; Masuno, Shinichiro; Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Nakano, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    A carbon fiber reinforced plastic [CFRP], which has high strength, light weight and weather resistance, is attractive material applied for automobile, aircraft and so on. The laser processing of CFRP is one of suitable way to machining tool. However, thermal affected zone was formed at the exposure part, since the heat conduction property of the matrix is different from that of carbon fiber. In this paper, we demonstrated that the CFRP plates were cut with UV nanosecond laser to reduce the heat affected zone. The ablation plume and ablation mass were investigated by laser microscope and ultra-high speed camera. Furthermore, the ablation model was constructed by energy balance, and it was confirmed that the ablation rate was 0.028 μg/ pulse in good agreement with the calculation value of 0.03 μg/ pulse.

  8. Laser ablation characteristics of metallic materials: Role of Debye-Waller thermal parameter

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a solid target results in the formation of a crater and a plasma plume. The characteristics of both depend on physical properties of target material, environmental conditions, and laser parameters (e.g. wavelength, pulse duration, energy, beam diameter) etc. It has been shown for numerous metals and their alloys that plasma threshold fluence, plasma threshold energy, ablation efficiency, ablation yield, angular distribution of laser produced plasma (LPP) ions, etc. are a unique function of the Debye-Waller thermal parameter B or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibration of the target material for given experimental conditions. The FWHM of the angular distribution of LPP ions, ablation yield, and ablation efficiency increase whereas plasma threshold fluence and plasma threshold energy decrease as B-factor of the target material increases

  9. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    Kofoed, P.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The main objective of ventilation is to provide good air quality for the occupants. For this purpose the necessary ventilating air change rate must be determined. Within displacement ventilation the estimation is closely related to the air flow rate in the thermal plumes when an air quality based...... design method is used. The vertical volume flux in a plume is influenced by many factors. Placement of the flow in relation to surrounding walls is one of them. This reduces the entrainment and is the subject of this article....

  10. Optical-vortex laser ablation

    Hamazaki, Junichi; Morita, Ryuji; Chujo, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Tanda, Satoshi; Omatsu, Takashige

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation of Ta plates using nanosecond optical vortex pulses was carried out, for the first time. It was suggested that owing to orbital angular momentum of optical vortex, clearer and smoother processed surfaces were obtained with less ablation threshold fluence, in comparison with the ablation by a nonvortex annular beam modified from a spatially Gaussian beam.

  11. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  12. FINAL REPORT. IMPROVED ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID WASTE-FORMS BY FUNDAMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF LASER ABLATION TECHNOLOGY

    Laser ablation can save the DOE millions of dollars in characterization costs. Chemical characterization represents a significant need within the DOE EM program in the areas of high-level waste, tanks, sub-surface contaminant plumes, D&D activities, spent nuclear fuel, mixed wast...

  13. Spark ablation device

    Schmidt-Ott, A.; Pfeiffer, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    A spark ablation device for generating nanoparticles comprising a spark generator; the spark generator comprising first and second electrodes, wherein the spark generator further comprises at least one power source which is arranged to be operative at a first energy level for maintaining a discharge

  14. Tumor ablations in IMRI

    Roberto Blanco Sequeiros

    2002-01-01

    @@ IntroductionMagnetic resonance imaging based guidance control and monitoring of minimally invasive intervention has developed from a hypothetical concept to a practical possibility. Magnetic-resonance-guided interstitial therapy in principle is defined as a treatment technique for ablating deepseated tumors in the human body.

  15. Deposition of fibrous nanostructure by ultrafast laser ablation

    This research work demonstrated that laser-induced reverse transfer (LIRT) can be used for controllable site-specific deposition of fibrous nanostructure. The LIRT method makes it possible to generate and deposit the fibrous nanostructure of a wide variety of materials on a transparent acceptor in a single-step process at an ambient condition. The deposition of fibrous nanostructures was conducted using ultrafast laser ablation of silicon and aluminum targets placed behind a glass acceptor. Femtosecond laser pulses pass through the transparent acceptor and hit the bulk donor. Consequently a mass quantity of nanoparticles ablates from the donor and then aggregates and forms a porous fibrous nanostructure on the transparent acceptor. Our experiments demonstrated that the gap between the target and the glass acceptor was critical in the formation and accumulation of nanofibers and it determines the density of the formed nanostructure. The formation mechanism of the nanostructures can be explained by the well-established theory of vapor condensation within the plume induced by ultrafast laser ablation. Experimental results also show that the length of the nanostructure can be controlled by the gap between the target and glass acceptor. Lastly, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis shows the oxygen concentration in the nanofibrous structure which is associated with oxidation of ablated material at ambient atmosphere.

  16. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    Kofoed, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Axisymmeric circular buoyant jets are treated both theoretically and experimentally. From a literature study the author concludes that the state of experimental knowledge is less satisfactory. Further three different measuring methods have been established to investigate the thermal plumes from pure sources of heat in ventilated rooms.

  17. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    Hammer, J.H.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.

  18. Ablation of hard dental tissues with an ArF-pulsed excimer laser

    Neev, Joseph; Raney, Daniel; Whalen, William E.; Fujishige, Jack T.; Ho, Peter D.; McGrann, John V.; Berns, Michael W.

    1991-06-01

    The interaction of 15 ns pulses from an ArF excimer laser with hard dental tissue was investigated for the purpose of obtaining practical information on the ablation process. Dark field fast photography utilizing an auxiliary, 15 ns Nd:Yag laser 'probe', was used to study the ablation plume dynamics as a function of time, luminescence were studied at different fluence levels and prr. Dentin ablation was found to be about four times as efficient as ablation of enamel in the higher fluence levels tested (> 10 J/cm2) and about twice as efficient as the ablation in the lower fluence regime (approximately equals 1 J/cm2). The dentin etch depth per pulse was found to increase exponentially with fluence (at least up to the tested level of 11 J/cm2), while in enamel the etch depth per pulse appears to increase logarithmically with fluence. Dentin ablation yields a larger, more dense plume which can be ejected (depending on the fluence level) to a height of several millimeters above the surface with observed ejection velocity in access of 1200 m/s. The dentin plume consisted of a relatively uniform particle size distribution (0.1 micrometers to 10 micrometers in diameter). Enamel ablation, on the other hand, yields a smaller observed ejection velocities (about 800 m/s), and a much smaller plume of fine particles (about 0.1 micrometers in diameter) and gases, confined to within 0.5 mm of the surface. In addition, an even smaller amount of highly non-uniform debris, (from ten to several hundred micrometers in size) is observed to be ejected to higher levels, and reach roughly half the height of the corresponding dentin plume for similar fluence levels. Although both dentin and enamel yield lower ablation efficiencies at 1 Hz, no significant difference is detected between the ablation efficiency at 5 Hz and ablation 10 Hz prr. Both materials remained within 20 degree(s)C of room temperature even at fluences as high as 20 J/cm2 and prr as high as 10 Hz for enamel and 20 Hz for

  19. Effects of the absorption coefficient on resonant infrared laser ablation of poly(ethylene glycol)

    We describe experiments on resonant infrared laser ablation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at two different resonant excitation wavelengths and for different molecular weights of PEG. The two resonant wavelengths correspond to different stretching vibrations of the polymer and have absorption coefficients that differ by roughly an order of magnitude. Ablation via excitation of the O-H terminal group stretching mode at 2.94 μm, the weaker of the two absorptions, is delayed in time by several microseconds with respect to ablation at 3.47 μm, the more strongly absorbing C-H stretching mode of the polymer. Time-resolved plume shadowgraphs along with ablation rate measurements for the two modes reveal that the absorption coefficient strongly affects the physical characteristics of the ejecta and plume, as well as the time scale for material removal. Temperature-rise calculations demonstrate that phase explosion is likely the operative mechanism in ablation at the C-H mode, while normal boiling may play a role in material removal at the O-H mode

  20. Plasma plume photography and spectroscopy of Fe-Oxide materials

    Viskup, R. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser - Assisted Diagnostics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)], E-mail: Richard.Viskup@jku.at; Praher, B.; Stehrer, T.; Jasik, J. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser - Assisted Diagnostics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Wolfmeir, H.; Arenholz, E. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, A-4031 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser - Assisted Diagnostics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)], E-mail: Johannes.Pedarnig@jku.at; Heitz, J. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser - Assisted Diagnostics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2009-03-01

    Time-resolved photography was employed to study plasma dynamics and particle ejection of laser-irradiated iron oxide materials. Nano-particle powder, pressed powder pellets and sintered ceramics were ablated in air and Ar gas background by means of short laser pulses (Nd:YAG laser wavelength {lambda} = 1064 nm and pulse duration {tau}{sub L} {approx} 6 ns; KrF laser {lambda} = 248 nm and {tau}{sub L} {approx} 20 ns). Plasma plume dynamics significantly depended on sample morphology. The ejection of non-luminous particles up to several hundreds of microseconds after the laser pulse was observed for powder and pressed powder target materials. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was employed for element analysis of iron oxide powders, pressed pellets and sintered ceramics. LIBS spectra of the different targets were comparable to each other and qualitatively independent of target morphology.

  1. Ion time-of-flight study of laser ablation of silver in low pressure gases

    Hansen, T.N.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    The dynamics of ions from a laser-ablated silver target in low pressure background atmospheres have been investigated in a simple geometry using an electrical probe. A simple scattering picture for the first transmitted peak of the observed plume splitting has been used to calculate cross section...... of the ablated silver ions in oxygen (sigma{O(2)} = 4.8 x 10(-16) cm(2)) and in argon (sigma{Ar} = 6.7 x 10(-16) cm(2)). The dynamics of the blast wave is well described by blast wave theory. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Influence of oxygen pressure on the characteristics of the KrF-laser-induced plasma plume created above an YBaCuO superconducting target

    The laser-induced plasma plume created above an YBaCuO superconducting target by a KrF laser beam (248 nm) is investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy under an oxygen atmosphere. The influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the ejection velocities of the ablated species and on the relaxation of atomic and molecular excited species is particularly studied

  3. Nuclear radiation effects on the ablation performance of advanced composite heatshield materials

    Results are presented from experiments to define the influence of simulated nuclear radiation damage on the ablation response of carbon-phenolic materials. Tests were conducted in a 50 MW arc jet facility. Several damaging methods were used and the effects of material properties were studied. The data were used to refine theoretical models of the ablation response. Effects of nonisothermal thermocouple measurements and material expansion due to outgassing and delamination are included. Results show that the ablation response is critically dependent upon the char layer expansion characteristics and material properties are shown to have a significant influence. The effect of the simulated nuclear damage on the ablation performance of these materials is negligible

  4. Quantitative observations of a deep-sea hydrothermal plume using an acoustic imaging sonar

    Xu, Guangyu

    The Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) is used to quantitatively monitor the hydrothermal discharge from the Grotto mound, a venting sulfide structure on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Since its deployment in September 2010, COVIS has recorded a multi-year long, near-continuous acoustic backscatter dataset. Further analysis of this dataset sheds light on the backscattering mechanisms within the buoyant plumes above Grotto and yields quantitative information on the influences of oceanic, atmospheric, and geological processes on the dynamics and heat source of the plumes. An investigation of the acoustic scattering mechanisms within the buoyant plumes issuing from Grotto suggests the dominant scattering mechanism within the plumes is the temperature fluctuations caused by the turbulent mixing of the buoyant plumes with the ambient seawater. In comparison, the backscatter from plume particles is negligible at lower levels of the plume but can potentially be significant at higher levels. Furthermore, this finding demonstrates the potential of inverting the acoustic backsatter to estimate the temperature fluctuations within the plumes. Processing the backscatter dataset recorded by COVIS yields time-series measurements of the vertical flow rate, volume transport, expansion rate of the largest buoyant plume above Grotto. Further analysis of those time-series measurements suggests the rate at which the ambient seawater is entrained into the plume increases with the magnitude of the ambient ocean currents---the current-driven entrainment. Furthermore, the oscillations in the ambient ocean currents that are driven by tidal and atmospheric forcing are introduced into the flow field within the plume through the current-driven entrainment. An inverse method has been developed to estimate the source heat transport driving the largest plume above Grotto from its volume transport estimates. The result suggests the heat transport driving the plume was

  5. Detection of Metallic Compounds in Rocket Plumes

    Rogers, Chris; Dunn, Dr. Robert

    1998-04-01

    Recent experiments using metal mixed in hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) fuel grains in small hybrid rocket indicates ion detectors may be effective in detection of metallic compounds in rocket plumes. We wanted to ascertain the extent to which the presence of metallic compounds in rocket plumes could be detected using ion probes and Gaussian rings. Charges that collide with or pass near the intruding probe are detected. Gaussian rings, short insulated cylindrical Gaussian surfaces, enclose the plume without intruding into the plume. Charges in the plume are detected by currents they induce in the cylinder.

  6. Compositional differentiation of Enceladus' plume

    Khawaja, N.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) on board the Cassini spacecraft sampled Enceladus' plume ice particles emanated directly from Enceladus' fractured south polar terrain (SPT), the so-called "Tiger Stripes", during two consecutive flybys (E17 and E18) in 2012. The spacecraft passed through the dense plume with a moderate velocity of ~7.5km/s, horizontally to the SPT with a closest approach (CA) at an altitude of ~75km almost directly over the south pole. In both flybys, spectra were recorded during a time interval of ~ ±3 minutes with respect to the closest approach achieving an average sampling rate of about 0.6 sec-1. We assume that the spacecraft passed through the plume during an interval of about ±60(sec) from the CA. Particles encountered before and after this period are predominately from the E-ring background in which Enceladus is embedded. Most CDA TOF-mass spectra are identified as one of three compositional types: (i) almost pure water (ii) organic rich and (iii) salt rich [2]. A Boxcar Analysis (BCA) is performed from a count database for compositional mapping of the plume along the space-craft trajectory. In BCA, counts of each spectrum type are integrated for a certain interval of time (box size). The integral of counts represents frequencies of compositional types in absolute abundances, which are converted later into proportions. This technique has been proven to be a suitable for inferring the compositional profiles from an earlier flyby (E5) [1]. The inferred compositional profiles show similar trends on E17 and E18. The abundances of different compositional types in the plume clearly differ from the Ering background and imply a compositional differentiation inside the plume. Following up the work of Schmidt et al, 2008 and Postberg et al, 2011 we can link different compositional types to different origins. The E17/E18 results are compared with the E5 flyby in 2008, which yielded the currently best compositional profile [2] but was executed at much

  7. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy oflaser-ablated copper atoms

    Andrejeva, Anna; Harris, Joe P.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of laser-ablated copper atoms entrainedin a supersonic free jet expansion are reported. Depending on the ionization scheme employed, andthe conditions under which the copper atoms are produced, very different spectra are produced, whichare discussed. In some circumstances, high proportions of metastable atoms survive the ablation andexpansion process and are clearly seen in the spectra. The spectroscopic transitions for the observedlin...

  8. On the great plume debate

    Yaoling Niu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introductory note Geological processes are ultimately consequences of Earth's thermal evolution. Plate tectonic theory, which explains geological phenomena along plate boundaries, elegantly illustrates this concept. For example, the origin of oceanic plates at ocean ridges, the movement and growth of these plates, and their ultimate consumption back into the Earth's deep interior through subduction zones provide an efficient mechanism to cool the earth's mantle, leading to large-scale mantle convection. Mantle plumes, which explain another set of global geological phenomena such as within-plate volcanism, cool the earth's deep interior (probably the Earth's core) and represent another mode of Earth's thermal convection. Plate tectonic theory and mantle plume hypothesis thus complement each other to explain much of the whole picture of Earth processes and phenomena.

  9. Meteoroid ablation models

    Popova, Olga

    2004-12-01

    The fate of entering meteoroids in atmosphere is determined by their size, velocity and substance properties. Material from ablation of small-sized meteors (roughly R≤0.01-1 cm) is mostly deposited between 120 and 80 km altitudes. Larger bodies (up to meter sizes) penetrate deeper into the atmosphere (down to 20 km altitude). Meteoroids of cometary origin typically have higher termination altitude due to substance properties and higher entry velocity. Fast meteoroids ( V>30-40 km/s) may lose a part of their material at higher altitudes due to sputtering. Local flow regime realized around the falling body determines the heat transfer and mass loss processes. Classic approach to meteor interaction with atmosphere allows describing two limiting cases: - large meteoroid at relatively low altitude, where shock wave is formed (hydrodynamical models); - small meteoroid/or high altitudes - free molecule regime of interaction, which assumes no collisions between evaporated meteoroid particles. These evaporated particles form initial train, which then spreads into an ambient air due to diffusion. Ablation models should make it possible to describe physical conditions that occur around meteor body. Several self-consistent hydrodynamical models are developed, but similar models for transition and free molecule regimes are still under study. This paper reviews existing ablation models and discusses model boundaries.

  10. Radiation emitted from rocket plumes

    Deimling, L.; Liehmann, W.; Eisenreich, N.; Weindel, M.; Eckl, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    The signature of rocket plumes can be used for detection, identification and guidance of rockets. The objective was to investigate the signature of various types of solid rocket propellants by application of spectroscopic methods. The emission and transmission characteristics of plumes were studied experimentally, the results were analyzed based on molecular bands and continuum radiation. The model formulations include a nitramine propellant, a double-base propellant and a composite propellant. Applied were rapid-scanning filter wheel spectormeters for the wavelength region from 1.2 {mu}m to 14 {mu}m with a time resolution of 50 spectra/s and a wavelengths resolution of 1% of actual wavelength. The UV/VIS wavelengths region was recorded by an OMA system with wavelength resolution of 0.1 nm and 1 nm and time resolution of 10 spectra/s. Molecular bands of water and carbon dioxide dominate in the near infrared and infrared. Depending on composition, continuous radiation indicates particles in the rocket exhaust. A code was developed to calculate molecular bands and continuous rdiation using temperature and species distributions found by thermodynamic estimation to obtain the radiance of the plume. Comparison with experimental data delivered plume temperatures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Signatur von Raketenabgasstrahlen kann genutzt werden zur Detektion, Identifikation und Lenkung. Ziel der vorgestellten Arbeit war die Untersuchung der Signaturen unterschiedlicher Raketenfesttreibstoffe mittels spektroskopischer Verfahren. Die Emissions- und Transmissionscharakteristik wurde experimentell untersucht und die erhaltenen Daten auf der Basis kontinuierlicher und molekularer Strahlung analysiert. Die Modellformulierungen umfassten einen Nitramin - Treibstoff, eine Double-base - Formulierung und einen Composittreibstoff. Angewendet wurden Filterradspektrometer fuer den infraroten Spektralbereich und ein konventionelles Gitterspektrometer im Ultravioletten und Sichtbaren. Die

  11. Observed cooling tower plume characteristics

    In-plume measurements with an instrumented Cessna 411 aircraft were made at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station (913 MWe) near Sacramento, California; the Trojan nuclear plant (1130 MWe) on the Columbia River 50 mi. north of Portland, Oregon; and the coal-fired Centralia Steam Plant (1400 MWe) 50 mi. north of the Trojan plant. Additional surface-based operations conducted at Rancho Seco included pibal tracking to determine the wind velocity profile, time-exposure photographs of the plume for external plume definition and measurements of sulfate deposition due to the drift of entrained circulating water. Heat rejection at Rancho Seco is from two 425 ft. natural-draft towers whose exit diameters are 195 ft; at Trojan, from a single 500 ft. natural-draft tower with exit diameter of 250 ft; and at Centralia, from four mechanical-draft towers. Results of the analyses to date are summarized for three days' operation at Rancho Seco (February 17, 18, and 20 in 1975) and one day (May 13, 1976) at Trojan and Centralia. During the course of these flights, measurements of temperature, humidity, turbulence, Aitken nuclei, and cloud droplet spectra were taken

  12. Ablation plasma transport using multicusp magnetic field for laser ion source

    Takahashi, K.; Umezawa, M.; Uchino, T.; Ikegami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, N.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a plasma guiding method using multicusp magnetic field to transport the ablation plasma keeping the density for developing laser ion sources. To investigate the effect of guiding using the magnetic field on the ablation plasma, we demonstrated the transport of the laser ablation plasma in the multicusp magnetic field. The magnetic field was formed with eight permanent magnets and arranged to limit the plasma expansion in the radial direction. We investigated the variation of the plasma ion current density and charge distribution during transport in the magnetic field. The results indicate that the plasma is confined in the radial direction during the transport in the multicusp magnetic field.

  13. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Joseph M Stavas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft...

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation in pancreas

    Seicean, Andrada; Tefas, Cristian; Ungureanu, Bogdan;

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation of the pancreas represents a more effective tumor-destruction method compared to other ablation techniques. The endoscopic ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation is indicated for locally advanced, non-metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, without the need of general...

  15. Energy distribution of ions produced by laser ablation of silver in vacuum

    The ion energy in a silver ablation plume for fluence in the range of 0.6–2.4 J cm−2, typical for a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) experiment has been investigated. In this fluence range the ion fraction of the ablated particles becomes gradually dominant and can be utilized to characterize the ablation process. A silver target in vacuum was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm and detailed measurements of the time-resolved angular distribution of plume ions were made. In contrast to earlier work, the beam spot was circular such that any flip-over effect of the plume is avoided. The angular energy distribution of ions in forward direction exceeds values of 500 eV, while at large angles the ion energy tail is below 100 eV. The maximum for the time-of-flight distributions agrees consistently with the prediction of Anisimov's model in the low fluence range, in which hydrodynamic motion prevails.

  16. Axisymmetric Plume Simulations with NASA's DSMC Analysis Code

    Stewart, B. D.; Lumpkin, F. E., III

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of axisymmetric Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Analysis Code (DAC) results to analytic and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions in the near continuum regime and to 3D DAC solutions in the rarefied regime for expansion plumes into a vacuum is performed to investigate the validity of the newest DAC axisymmetric implementation. This new implementation, based on the standard DSMC axisymmetric approach where the representative molecules are allowed to move in all three dimensions but are rotated back to the plane of symmetry by the end of the move step, has been fully integrated into the 3D-based DAC code and therefore retains all of DAC s features, such as being able to compute flow over complex geometries and to model chemistry. Axisymmetric DAC results for a spherically symmetric isentropic expansion are in very good agreement with a source flow analytic solution in the continuum regime and show departure from equilibrium downstream of the estimated breakdown location. Axisymmetric density contours also compare favorably against CFD results for the R1E thruster while temperature contours depart from equilibrium very rapidly away from the estimated breakdown surface. Finally, axisymmetric and 3D DAC results are in very good agreement over the entire plume region and, as expected, this new axisymmetric implementation shows a significant reduction in computer resources required to achieve accurate simulations for this problem over the 3D simulations.

  17. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Polar Coronal Plumes

    Wilhelm, K; Dwivedi, B N

    2009-01-01

    Polar coronal plumes seen during solar eclipses can now be studied with space-borne telescopes and spectrometers. We briefly discuss such observations from space with a view to understanding their plasma characteristics. Using these observations, especially from SUMER/SOHO, but also from EUVI/STEREO, we deduce densities, temperatures, and abundance anomalies in plumes and inter-plume regions, and discuss their implications for better understanding of these structures in the Sun's atmosphere.

  18. Characterization of redox conditions in pollution plumes

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwart, Steven A.;

    2000-01-01

    Evalution of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few c...... cases have been reported. No standardised or generally accepted approach exists. This paper evaluates the different methods for redox characterization based on the experiences from the reported applications....

  19. Gas Effect On Plasma Dynamics Of Laser Ablation Zinc Oxide

    Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Lafane, S.; Malek, S.

    2008-09-01

    In order to synthesis zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures, laser ablation of ZnO target into both vacuum and oxygen atmosphere was performed. The gas effect on the plume dynamics was studied for O2 pressures varied between 10-2 to 70 mbar. Plasma plume evolution was investigated by ICCD camera fast imaging. The plasma was created by a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) at a fluence of 2 J/cm2. The light emitted by the plume was observed along the perpendicular to the ejection direction through a fast intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD). We have found that the plasma dynamics is very affected by the gas pressures. The photographs reveal the stratification of plasma into slow and fast components for 0.5 mbar O2 pressures and beyond. The photographs also show the apparition of hydrodynamic instabilities which are related to chemical reactions between the plasma and the surrounding gas for a certain range of pressures.

  20. Comparison of the laser ablation process on Zn and Ti using pulsed digital holographic interferometry

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to compare the laser ablation process of a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) on two different metals (Zn and Ti) under atmospheric air pressure. Digital holograms were recorded for different time delays using collimated laser light (532 nm) passed through the volume along the target. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and are used to calculate the attenuation of the probing laser beam by the ablated plume. The different structures of the plume, namely streaks normal to the surface for Zn in contrast to absorbing regions for Ti, indicates that different mechanisms of laser ablation could happen for different metals for the same laser settings and surrounding gas. At a laser fluence of 5 J/cm2, phase explosion appears to be the ablation mechanism in case of Zn, while for Ti normal vaporization seems to be the dominant mechanism.

  1. Diagnosis of laser ablated carbon particles measured by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    The time and space resolved properties of laser ablated carbon particles were measured by X-ray absorption spectroscopy using LPX as an X-ray source. The energy density of the irradiation laser on the sample was in the range of 0.5-20J/cm2 and the time delay was varied between 0 and 120ns. The absorption spectra exhibited several peaks originated from level to level transitions and an intense broad absorption in the energy range of C-K edge. At a delay time of 120ns, the absorption peak from 1s→2p transition of neutral carbon atom (C0), C-, C+ and C2+ ions were observed. The absorption peak from C0 was stronger as the probing position was closer to the sample surface and decreased rapidly with distance from the sample surface. The absorption peak C2+ ion was observed only at comparatively distant positions from surface. The maximum speeds of highly charged ions were faster than that of neutral atoms and negative charged ions. The neutral atom and lower charged ions were emitted from the sample even after laser irradiation. The spatial distributions of the laser ablated carbon particles in the localized helium gas environment were measured. In the helium gas environment, the ablation plume was depressed by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume. (author)

  2. Silver nanoparticles generated by pulsed laser ablation in supercritical CO2 medium

    Machmudah, Siti; Sato, Takayuki; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) has been widely employed in industrial and biological applications and in other fields. The environmental conditions in which PLA is conducted are important parameters that affect both the solid particle cloud and the deposition produced by the plume. In this work, the generation of nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed by performing PLA of silver (Ag) plates in a supercritical CO2 medium. Ag NPs were successfully generated by allowing the selective generation of clusters. Laser ablation was performed with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm under various pressures and temperatures of CO2 medium. On the basis of the experimental result, both surface of the irradiated Ag plate and structure of Ag NPs were significantly affected by the changes in supercritical CO2 pressure and temperature. With increasing irradiation pressure, plume deposited in the surrounding crater created by the ablation was clearly observed. In Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) the image of the generated Ag NPs on the silicon wafer and the morphology of Ag particles were basically a sphere-like structure. Ag particles contain NPs with large-varied diameter ranging from 5 nm to 1.2 μm. The bigger Ag NPs melted during the ablation process and then ejected smaller spherical Ag NPs, which formed nanoclusters attached on the molten Ag NPs. The smaller Ag NPs were also formed around the bigger Ag NPs. Based on the results, this new method can also be used to obtain advanced nano-structured materials.

  3. Effects of closed immersion filtered water flow velocity on the ablation threshold of bisphenol A polycarbonate during excimer laser machining

    A closed flowing thick film filtered water immersion technique ensures a controlled geometry for both the optical interfaces of the flowing liquid film and allows repeatable control of flow-rate during machining. This has the action of preventing splashing, ensures repeatable machining conditions and allows control of liquid flow velocity. To investigate the impact of this technique on ablation threshold, bisphenol A polycarbonate samples have been machined using KrF excimer laser radiation passing through a medium of filtered water flowing at a number of flow velocities, that are controllable by modifying the liquid flow-rates. An average decrease in ablation threshold of 7.5% when using turbulent flow velocity regime closed thick film filtered water immersed ablation, compared to ablation using a similar beam in ambient air; however, the use of laminar flow velocities resulted in negligible differences between closed flowing thick film filtered water immersion and ambient air. Plotting the recorded threshold fluence achieved with varying flow velocity showed that an optimum flow velocity of 3.00 m/s existed which yielded a minimum ablation threshold of 112 mJ/cm2. This is attributed to the distortion of the ablation plume effected by the flowing immersion fluid changing the ablation mechanism: at laminar flow velocities Bremsstrahlung attenuation decreases etch rate, at excessive flow velocities the plume is completely destroyed, removing the effect of plume etching. Laminar flow velocity regime ablation is limited by slow removal of debris causing a non-linear etch rate over 'n' pulses which is a result of debris produced by one pulse remaining suspended over the feature for the next pulse. The impact of closed thick film filtered water immersed ablation is dependant upon beam fluence: high fluence beams achieved greater etch efficiency at high flow velocities as the effect of Bremsstrahlung attenuation is removed by the action of the fluid on the plume; low

  4. Vertical cloud structure of Jupiter's equatorial plumes

    Stoker, C. R.; Hord, C.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple-scattering radiative transfer calculations were used to deduce the vertical cloud structure (VCS) of Jupiter's equatorial region. The VCS model of the equatorial plumes is obtained through an analysis of Voyager images of the 6190-A methane band and the 6000-A continuum, and ground-based 8900-A methane band images. The VCS of the equatorial plumes is found to be consistent with the hypothesis that the plumes are caused by upwelling at the ammonia condensation level produced by buoyancy due to latent heat release from the condensation of water clouds nearly three scale heights below the plumes.

  5. LASER ABLATION STUDIES OF CONCRETE

    Laser ablation was studied as a means of removing radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete. We present the results of ablation tests on cement and concrete samples using a 1.6 kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam delivery. The laser-s...

  6. Mechanism of Er:YAG laser-induced ablation of dental hard substances

    Hibst, Raimund; Keller, Ulrich

    1993-07-01

    Er:YAG laser ablation was investigated by fast photography in a Schlieren optic setup. The results support the idea of continuous, thermally driven microexplosion type of ablation, which is based on the inhomogeneous distribution of strong (water) and weak absorbers (hydroxyapatite). Sudden vaporization and heating of the water content leads to a very effective material removal by bursting off the solid tissue components. Material is ejected in the form of particles when the threshold energy density for ablation (about 3 J cm-2) is reached. For high radiant exposure, initial plume velocity is in the order of the speed of sound in air. After leaving the tissue surface, particles are heated by the still incoming laser radiation, causing glowing and melting. No surface plasma and only weak pressure waves caused by individual spikes were observed.

  7. Interaction of Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Radiation with Solid Surface: Ablation, Desorption, Nanostructuring

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Juha, Libor; Chalupský, Jaromír

    Vol. 9255. Bellingham: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2015 - (Tang, C.; Chen, S.; Tang, X.), 92553U-92553U. (SPIE. 9255). ISBN 978-1-62841-322-9. ISSN 0277-786X. [International Symposium on High Power Laser Systems and Applications 2014/20./. Chengdu (CN), 25.08.2014-29.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : interaction of XUV radiation with solid surface * desorption * ablation * nanostructuring * nanopatterning * ablation plume * ablation jet Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s; BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s (FZU-D) http://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Volume/9255

  8. Lidar measurements of plume statistics

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.

    1993-01-01

    measured crosswind concentration profiles, the following statistics were obtained: 1) Mean profile, 2) Root mean square profile, 3) Fluctuation intensities,and 4)Intermittency factors. Furthermore, some experimentally determined probability density functions (pdf's) of the fluctuations are presented. All...... the measured statistics are referred to a fixed and a 'moving' frame of reference, the latter being defined as a frame of reference from which the (low frequency) plume meander is removed. Finally, the measured statistics are compared with statistics on concentration fluctuations obtained with a...

  9. Plume spread and atmospheric stability

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The horizontal spread of a plume in atmospheric dispersion can be described by the standard deviation of horizontal direction. The widely used Pasquill-Gifford classes of atmospheric stability have assigned typical values of the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction and of the lapse rate. A measured lapse rate can thus be used to estimate the standard deviation of wind direction. It is examined by means of a large dataset of fast wind measurements how good these estimates are. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  10. Laser ablation loading of a radiofrequency ion trap

    Zimmermann, K; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Peik, E

    2012-01-01

    The production of ions via laser ablation for the loading of radiofrequency (RF) ion traps is investigated using a nitrogen laser with a maximum pulse energy of 0.17 mJ and a peak intensity of about 250 MW/cm^2. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used to measure the ion yield and the distribution of the charge states. Singly charged ions of elements that are presently considered for the use in optical clocks or quantum logic applications could be produced from metallic samples at a rate of the order of magnitude 10^5 ions per pulse. A linear Paul trap was loaded with Th+ ions produced by laser ablation. An overall ion production and trapping efficiency of 10^-7 to 10^-6 was attained. For ions injected individually, a dependence of the capture probability on the phase of the RF field has been predicted. In the experiment this was not observed, presumably because of collective effects within the ablation plume.