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Sample records for abl-related gene arg

  1. [Investigation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) in Landfill].

    Li, Lei; Xu, Jing; Zhao, You-cai; Song, Li-yan

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs), an emerging contaminant, have been detected worldwide in various environments such as sediments and river. However, little is known about ARGs distribution in landfill. In this study, we investigated five ARGs [sulfonamides resistant genes (sulI and sulII), chloramphenicols resistant gene (cat), β-lactams resistant gene (bla-SHV), and tetracyclines resistant gene (tetW)] in refuse samples collected from jiangeungou landfill (Xi'an, China) by real-time PCR. We then correlated the ARGs and physiochemical properties of refuse to examine the link between them. Results showed that all tested ARGs have been detected in all samples, suggesting that landfill served as ARGs reservoir. The highest copies numbers of sulII, sulI, tetW, bla-SHV, and cat were (3.70 ± 0.06) x 10(8) copies · g(-1) ( dry refuse), (9.33 · 0.06) x 10(6) copies · g(-1) (dry refuse), (2.27 0.08) x 10(5) copies · g(-1) (dry refuse), (3.68 ± 0.09) x 10(4) copies · g(-1) (dry refuse), and (1.39 ± 0.10) x 10(4) copies · g(-1) (dry refuse), respectively. Further, sulI, sulII, and cat positively correlated to moisture and sulI and cat negatively correlated to pH. PMID:26314129

  2. [Effects of Thermophilic Composting on Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) of Swine Manure Source].

    Zheng, Ning-guo; Huang, Nan; Wang, Wei-wei; Yu, Man; Chen, Xiao-yang; Yao, Yan-lai; Wang, Wei-ping; Hong, Chun-lai

    2016-05-15

    To investigate the effects of thermophilic composting process on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of swine manure source at a field scale, the abundance of four erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and ermF), three β-lactam resistance genes (blaTEM, blaCTX and blaSHV) and two quinolone resistance genes (qnrA and qnrS) were quantified by quantitative PCR ( qPCR) during the composting process. The results suggested that the erm genes' copy numbers were significantly higher than those of the bla and qnr genes in the early stage of composting (P < 0.01). The maximum abundance of erm genes was ermB (9.88 x 10⁸ copies · g⁻¹), following by ermF (9.4 x 10⁸ copies · g⁻¹). At the end of the composting process, bla and qnr genes were at low levels, while erm genes were still at high levels. Even through ermF was proliferated comparing with the initial copies. These results indicated that thermophilic composting process could not effectively remove all ARGs. For some ARGs, compost may be a good bioreactor resulting in their proliferation. Application of composting products on farmland may cause transference of ARGs. PMID:27506057

  3. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state. PMID:25172854

  4. An association between TRP64ARG polymorphism of the B3 adrenoreceptor gene and some metabolic disturbances

    Abilova Samai S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds B3 adrenoreceptors (ADRB3 are abundant in adipose tissue and play the role in its metabolism and lipolysis. Some variants of the ADRB3 gene may predispose subjects for the development obesity and metabolic abnormalities in the setting of modern sedentary lifestyle. ADRB3 gene polymorphism association with metabolic disturbances has never been studied before in the ethnic Kyrgyz population. Aim To study an association between Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 and metabolic syndrome (MS components in an ethnic Kyrgyz group. Materials and methods 213 Ethnic Kyrgyz volunteers over the age of 30 were enrolled in the study. The assessment plan for each individual comprised of general physical and anthropometric exams as well as laboratory tests (glucose, lipid panel, insulin and genotyping by Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3. MS diagnosis was consistent with modified ATP III criteria (2005. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the potential independent association between Arg64 allele with obesity, abdominal obesity (AO and arterial hypertension (AH. Results Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 was assessed in 213 individuals (145 men, 68 women aged 30-73 (mean age 50.7 ± 7.6. Arg64 allele frequency was 0.239; ADRB3 genotype distribution among participants was: Trp64 homozygotes 54.5%, Trp64Arg 43.2% and Arg64 homozygotes 2.3%. There was an association between Trp64Arg и Arg64Arg genotypes and higher BMI, WC and obesity frequency (p Conclusion Arg64 allele of the ADRB3 gene in the studied group has an association with MS components such as obesity, AO and decreased HDL-C level.

  5. Sequence analysis and complementation studies of the argJ gene encoding ornithine acetyltransferase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Martin, P R; Mulks, M H

    1992-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently are deficient in arginine biosynthesis. These auxotrophs often have defects in the fifth step of the arginine biosynthetic pathway, the conversion of acetylornithine to ornithine. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme ornithine acetyltransferase, which is a product of the argJ gene. We have cloned and sequenced the gonococcal argJ gene and found that it contains an open reading frame of 1,218 nucleotides and encodes a peptide with a ded...

  6. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARG7 gene encoding ornithine acetyltransferase, an enzyme also endowed with acetylglutamate synthase activity.

    Crabeel, M; Abadjieva, A; Hilven, P; Desimpelaere, J; Soetens, O

    1997-12-01

    We have cloned by functional complementation and characterized the yeast ARG7 gene encoding mitochondrial ornithine acetyltransferase, the enzyme catalyzing the fifth step in arginine biosynthesis. While forming ornithine, this enzyme regenerates acetylglutamate, also produced in the first step by the ARG2-encoded acetylglutamate synthase. Interestingly, total deletion of the genomic ARG7 ORF resulted in an arginine-leaky phenotype, indicating that yeast cells possess an alternative route for generating ornithine from acetylornithine. Yeast ornithine acetyltransferase has been purified and characterized previously as a heterodimer of two subunits proposed to derive from a single precursor protein [Liu, Y-S., Van Heeswijck R., Hoj, P. & Hoogenraad, N. (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 228, 291-296]; those authors further suggested that the internal processing of Arg7p, which is a mitochondrial enzyme, might occur in the matrix, while the leader peptide would be of the non-cleavable-type. The characterization of the gene (a) establishes that Arg7p is indeed encoded by a single gene, (b) demonstrates the existence of a cleaved mitochondrial prepeptide of eight residues, and (c) shows that the predicted internal processing site is unlike the mitochondrial proteolytic peptidase target sequence. Yeast Arg7p shares between 32-43% identity in pairwise comparisons with the ten analogous bacterial ArgJ enzymes characterized. Among these evolutionarily related enzymes, some but not all appear bifunctional, being able to produce acetylglutamate not only from acetylornithine but also from acetyl-CoA, thus catalyzing the same reaction as the apparently unrelated acetylglutamate synthase. We have addressed the question of the bifunctionality of the eucaryotic enzyme, showing that overexpressed ARG7 can complement yeast arg2 and Escherichia coli argA mutations (affecting acetylglutamate synthase). Furthermore, Arg7p-linked acetylglutamate synthase activity was measurable in an assay. The

  7. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in anaerobic digestion and land application of swine wastewater.

    Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Wang, Rui; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-06-01

    Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. However, few studies have investigated the on-site occurrence of ARGs distributed in the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by land application of swine wastewater. Two typical swine farms, in southern and northern China respectively, with AD along with land application were explored on ARG distributions. ARGs were highly abundant in raw swine wastewater, AD effectively reduced the copy number of all detected ARGs (0.21-1.34 logs removal), but the relative abundance with different resistance mechanisms showed distinctive variation trends. The reduction efficiency of ARGs was improved by stable operational temperature and longer solid retention time (SRT) of AD. ARGs in soil characterized the contamination from the irrigation of the digested liquor. The total ARGs quantity in soil fell down by 1.66 logs in idle period of winter compared to application period of summer in the northern region, whereas the total amount was steady with whole-year application in south. Some persistent (sul1 and sul2) and elevated ARGs (tetG and ereA) in AD and land application need more attention. PMID:27038206

  8. TRP64ARG polymorphism of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene and obesity risk: effect modification by a sedentary lifestyle.

    Marti, A; Corbalan, M. (M.S.); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Angel); Martinez, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We performed a case–control study to assess the association between obesity risk and the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the β3-adrenergic receptor gene. Methods: Obese subjects [n = 159; body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2] and controls (n = 154; BMI < 25 kg/m2) were compared using multivariable logistic regression to control for potential confounders. Results: A higher obesity risk (adjusted OR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.00–8.56; p = 0.05) was associated with the Trp64Arg polymorphism among sedentar...

  9. The Polymorphism of DNA Repair Gene ERCC2/XPD Arg156Arg and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population

    Yin, J. Y.; Liang, D. H.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte;

    2009-01-01

    association between ERCC2/XPD Arg156Arg and susceptibility to breast cancer in a Chinese population, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 129 patients with breast cancer and 205 controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. PCR-RFLP was used for genotyping. No associations were...... (mean age 45 years) than cases with the wild CC genotype (mean age 50 years) (P = 0.05). There were no differences in risk estimates in relation to menopause and occurrence of breast cancer. Our findings do not suggest that ERCC2/XPD Arg156Arg contributes to breast cancer susceptibility in a Chinese...

  10. [Regional features of obesity-associated gene polymorphism (rs9939609 FTO gene and gene Trp64Arg ADRB3) in Russian population].

    Baturin, A K; Sorokina, E Iu; Pogozheva, A V; Peskova, E V; Makurina, O N; Tutel'ian, V A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown a significant association with obesity polymorphisms: rs9939609 gene due to fat mass and obesity FTO in European and some Asian and African American populations Trp64Arg ADRB3 gene in several European populations. Association of variants rs9939609 and Trp64Arg obesity was studied in 1244 the inhabitants of Moscow and Sverdlovsk regions. Genotyping was performed using allele-specific amplification, detection results in real time using TaqMan-probes complementary DNA polymorphic sites. The frequency of the mutant allele of the FTO gene in the population of Moscow and Sverdlovsk region was 45.1%, with the TT genotype was detected in 30.2% of cases, AT--49.5%, AA--20.3%. Women had the presence of the mutant allele more likely than men (48.4 vs. 42.5%). People with obesity were more genotypes AA (26.3%) and AT (52.8%) compared to the surveyed with a BMI of less than 30 kg/m2 (respectively 18.1 and 50.7%). A significantly higher incidence of risk allele A was found in individuals with obesity (52.6 and 43.4%). The presence of the mutant allele of the gene ADRB3 among the population of Moscow and Sverdlovsk regions was noted in 7.4% of cases. While 15.5% of patients had a heterozygous genotype Trp64Arg ADRB3, that is consistent with international research. The frequency of the risk allele and genotype Arg64 Trp64Arg in women (9.3 and 18.5%) was significantly higher than men (6.2 and 12.2%). The presence of the mutant allele and genotype Trp64Arg ADRB3 (respectively, 9.1 and 18.1%) were significantly more marked in the examined obese compared with those with a body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 (7.4 and 14.9%), but these differences were not statistically significant. The results of these studies suggest that genetic variants of the FTO gene rs9939609 genotype and Trp64Arg ADRB3 contribute to the development of obesity among residents of Moscow and Sverdlovsk Region of Russia. The risk of obesity increases in the case of combined polymorphisms in

  11. An association between TRP64ARG polymorphism of the B3 adrenoreceptor gene and some metabolic disturbances

    Abilova Samai S; Zalesskaya Yulia V; Moldokeeva Cholpon B; Lunegova Olga S; Kerimkulova Alina S; Mirrakhimov Aibek E; Sovhozova Nurmira A; Aldashev Almaz A; Mirrakhimov Erkin M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Backgrounds B3 adrenoreceptors (ADRB3) are abundant in adipose tissue and play the role in its metabolism and lipolysis. Some variants of the ADRB3 gene may predispose subjects for the development obesity and metabolic abnormalities in the setting of modern sedentary lifestyle. ADRB3 gene polymorphism association with metabolic disturbances has never been studied before in the ethnic Kyrgyz population. Aim To study an association between Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 and metabol...

  12. Trp64Arg polymorphism in ADRB3 gene is associated with elite endurance performance

    Santiago Dorrego, Catalina; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Buxens, Amaya; Artieda, Marta; Arteta, David; González-Freire, Marta; Rodríguez Romo, Gabriel; Altmäe, Signe; Lao, José I.; Gómez Gallego, Félix; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In this study, allele and genotype frequencies of the ADRB1 Arg389Gly (rs1801253), ADRB2 Gly16Arg (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714), and ADRB3 Trp64Arg (rs4994) variations were compared in the following three groups of Spanish (Caucasian) men: (1) world-class endurance athletes (E; runners and cyclists, n=100), (2) elite power athletes (P; sprinters, jumpers and throwers, n=53) and (3) non-athletic controls (C; n=100). No significant differences were observed in genotype and allele distrib...

  13. [The Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta3-adrenoreceptor gene study in persons with overweight and obesity].

    Baturin, A K; Pogozheva, A V; Sorokina, E Iu; Makurina, O N; Tutel'ian, V A

    2012-01-01

    The development of obesity is determined by lifestyle and genetic mechanisms. In particular, the polymorphisms in the adrenergic receptor genes (ADRB) have been extensively studied for association with obesity-related phenotypes. ADRB3 is an obvious candidate gene given its involvement in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis. ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism, a missense mutation in the first transmembrane domain of the R3-adrenergic receptor is associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in the Pima Indian, French, and Finnish populations. The recent meta-analysis that combined data of 6582 individuals from Japanese populations showed significant association the Arg64 allele with increased BMI. There are tested the polymorphisms in the beta3-Adrenoreceptor (ADRB3) gene in associated with body mass index (BMI), fat mass and biochemical parameters.We have been examined 91 persons from Moscow region with BMI >25 kg/m2. The Trp64Arg polymorphism of ADRB3 genes were genotyped with the use of an allelic discrimination assay. The TaqMan-based real-time PCR method was applied. There have been estimated of anthropometric and biochemicalparameters. The frequencies of the Trp64Trp and Trp64Arggenotypes of ADRB3 gene were 82% and 12%, respectively, the frequencies of mutant allele was 6%. Trp64Arg genotypes of ADRB3 compared to Trp64Trp genotypes had significantly higher body fat percentage (respectively 48,6 +/- 0,96% and 43,8 +/- 1,72%, pADRB3 gene polymorphisms can be used for the personalization of diet in persons with obesity. PMID:22774474

  14. Expression of arg genes of Escherichia coli during arginine limitation dependent upon stringent control of translation.

    Williams, M.G.; Rogers, P

    1987-01-01

    The transcription and translation of operons for arginine biosynthetic enzymes after arginine removal (arginine down shift) were studied in relA and relA+ strains of Escherichia coli. After arginine down shift, derepression of synthesis of the arginine biosynthetic enzymes ornithine carbamoyltransferase (argF) and argininosuccinate lyase (argH) began at about 15 min in relA+ cells but was delayed in relA cells for more than 2 h. However, both relA+ and relA cells accumulated high levels of ar...

  15. Association of beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) Trp64Arg gene polymorphism with obesity and metabolic syndrome in the Balinese: a pilot study

    Trimarsanto Hidayat; Oktavianthi Sukma; Suastika Ketut; Saraswati Made R; Malik Safarina G; Sudoyo Herawati

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism was proposed to be associated with obesity, although inconsistent findings and differences of the Arg64 allele frequency among various ethnics were reported. Westernization was reported to increase the prevalence of obesity in developing world. In this study we determined the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among urban and rural Balinese, and studied the association of ADR...

  16. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria with two mutations of the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (Cys73Arg, Thr228Met

    Zoran Gucev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism that results from the markedly deficient activity of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS. We describe a 14-year-old girl with red urine since infancy, progressive blistering and scarring of the skin, and moderate hemolytic anemia. After years of skin damage, her face is mutilated; she has a bald patch on the scalp, hypertrichosis of the neck, areas of skin darkening, and limited joint movements of the hands. Total urine excretion and fecal total porphyrin were both markedly raised above normal levels. Sequencing of the UROS gene identified two mutations causing CEP (Cys73Arg, Thr228Met. The patient lesions are progressing. Bone marrow transplantation and/or gene therapy are proposed as the next steps in her treatment. In brief, we describe a CEP with confirmed two pathogenic mutations, severe phenotype and discuss the various treatment options available.

  17. Gene encoding γ-carbonic anhydrase is cotranscribed with argC and induced in response to stationary phase and high CO2 in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

    Mishra Mukti N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA is a ubiquitous enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate, a reaction underlying diverse biochemical and physiological processes. Gamma class carbonic anhydrases (γ-CAs are widespread in prokaryotes but their physiological roles remain elusive. At present, only γ-CA of Methanosarcina thermophila (Cam has been shown to have CA activity. Genome analysis of a rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, revealed occurrence of ORFs encoding one β-CA and two γ-CAs. Results One of the putative γ-CA encoding genes of A. brasilense was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli. Electrometric assays for CA activity of the whole cell extracts overexpressing recombinant GCA1 did not show CO2 hydration activity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that gca1 in A. brasilense is co-transcribed with its upstream gene annotated as argC, which encodes a putative N-acetyl-γ-glutamate-phosphate reductase. 5'-RACE also demonstrated that there was no transcription start site between argC and gca1, and the transcription start site located upstream of argC transcribed both the genes (argC-gca1. Using transcriptional fusions of argC-gca1 upstream region with promoterless lacZ, we further demonstrated that gca1 upstream region did not have any promoter and its transcription occurred from a promoter located in the argC upstream region. The transcription of argC-gca1 operon was upregulated in stationary phase and at elevated CO2 atmosphere. Conclusions This study shows lack of CO2 hydration activity in a recombinant protein expressed from a gene predicted to encode a γ-carbonic anhydrase in A. brasilense although it cross reacts with anti-Cam antibody raised against a well characterized γ-CA. The organization and regulation of this gene along with the putative argC gene suggests its involvement in arginine biosynthetic pathway instead of the predicted CO2 hydration.

  18. Energy expenditure, body composition and insulin response to glucose in male twins discordant for the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene

    Højlund, K; Christiansen, C; Bjørnsbo, K S;

    2006-01-01

    secretion could play a role. METHODS: In 10 male twin pairs discordant for the Trp64Arg polymorphism, we examined insulin response to glucose by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT), body composition by the bioimpedance method, dual-energy X......AIM: The tryptophan to arginine change in position 64 (Trp64Arg) polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) gene has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In this, decreased rates of energy expenditure and impaired insulin......-ray absorptiometry scanning and energy expenditure by indirect and direct calorimetry. RESULTS: Twins heterozygous for the Trp64Arg polymorphism showed significantly lower fat mass independent of the method used, and significantly lower fasting insulin and glucose concentrations compared with their homozygous wild...

  19. Antithrombin gene Arg197Stop mutation-associated venous sinus thrombosis in a Chinese family

    Ang Li; Dexin Wang; Qiming Xue; Baoen Wang; Tianhui Liu; Zhandong Liu; Jimei Li; Chunling Zhang; Jun Chen; Jinmei Sun; YanfeiHan; Lili Wang

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to elucidate the genetic correlation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis caused by a hereditary antithrombin deficiency in a Chinese family, at the genetic and protein levels. A nonsense mutation from C to T on locus 6431 in exon 3B of the antithrombin gene was observed,leading to an arginine (CGA) to stop codon (TGA) change in the protein. This is the first report of this mutation in China. Ineffective heparin therapy in the propositus patient is associated with a lack of heparin binding sites after antithrombin gene mutation. Characteristic low intracranial pressure in the acute phase might be specific to this patient with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

  20. The ARG1-LIKE2 gene of Arabidopsis functions in a gravity signal transduction pathway that is genetically distinct from the PGM pathway

    Guan, Changhui; Rosen, Elizabeth S.; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Poff, Kenneth L.; Masson, Patrick H.

    2003-01-01

    The arl2 mutants of Arabidopsis display altered root and hypocotyl gravitropism, whereas their inflorescence stems are fully gravitropic. Interestingly, mutant roots respond like the wild type to phytohormones and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. Also, their cap columella cells accumulate starch similarly to wild-type cells, and mutant hypocotyls display strong phototropic responses to lateral light stimulation. The ARL2 gene encodes a DnaJ-like protein similar to ARG1, another protein previously implicated in gravity signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings. ARL2 is expressed at low levels in all organs of seedlings and plants. arl2-1 arg1-2 double mutant roots display kinetics of gravitropism similar to those of single mutants. However, double mutants carrying both arl2-1 and pgm-1 (a mutation in the starch-biosynthetic gene PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE) at the homozygous state display a more pronounced root gravitropic defect than the single mutants. On the other hand, seedlings with a null mutation in ARL1, a paralog of ARG1 and ARL2, behave similarly to the wild type in gravitropism and other related assays. Taken together, the results suggest that ARG1 and ARL2 function in the same gravity signal transduction pathway in the hypocotyl and root of Arabidopsis seedlings, distinct from the pathway involving PGM.

  1. 钝齿棒杆菌argR基因克隆、表达及其重组菌发酵产精氨酸的探讨%Study on Gene cloning and expression of argR and its recombinant strain producing arg through fermentation in Corynebacterium crenatum

    石磊

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨N-乙酰鸟氨酸的转氨酶于钝齿棒杆菌当中,其精氨酸合成环节所起到的作用,并验证其酶学性质,从而为优化提高培养基的成分,以及发酵过程的工艺条件,和精氨酸的产量提供理论及实验依据.方法 于精氨酸的高产菌株中,使其钝齿棒杆菌的染色体(SYPA5-5)扩增,从而获取ACOAT的编码基因-argD,其全长为1176bp,编码氨基酸为390个,均于C.crenatum SYPA与Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)上成功表达.选择Ni柱进行亲和层析并纯化后,能够得到重组的蛋白比酶活可达到108.2U/g,并研究其酶学性质.再构建重组的钝齿棒杆菌,以加强其精氨酸的合成途径中ACOAT的蛋白表达量,同时对重组的菌产精氨酸予以发酵分析.结果 重组的钝齿棒杆菌同出发菌株进行对比,其胞内的ACOAT的酶活得到增强;并且重组菌中CCD1其精氨酸的平均产量达到了39.7g/L,其产酸最终提高了14.7%.结论 通过研究,不仅对高产精氨酸其重组基因菌工程的构建提供以理论依据,而且还具有非常重要的指导意义.%Objective N - acety - L - omithine transaminase which reacted at the step of arg biosynthesis was not only discussed, but also its enzyme properties were proved. It even could provide theoretical and experimental basis for improving the culture, optimizing technological conditions and increasing output of Arg. Methods Through amplifying chromosome SYPA5 -5 of Corynebacterium crenatum in high - producing Arg strain,the ArgD - code gene of ACOAT was achived. The gene was 1176 bp in full length,encoding 390 amino acid residues. At last,all of them were expressed in C. Crenatum SYPA and Escherichia coli BL21( DE3). By selecting NI column to do the research, we had got recombinant protein whose enzyme activity was as high as 108. 2U/g after affinity purification. And then we had study its enzymatic properties. At last, recombinant Corynebacterium crenatum had been construct in order to

  2. Trp64Arg Polymorphism in Beta3-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Is Associated with Decreased Fat Oxidation Both in Resting and Aerobic Exercise in the Japanese Male

    Emiko Morita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate whether the Trp64Arg polymorphism in β3-AR gene and the −3826A/G polymorphism in the UCP1 gene were associated with the reduction in energy expenditure and fat oxidation both in resting and aerobic exercise in Japanese. Eighty-six nonobese young healthy Japanese were recruited. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. The subjects performed an aerobic exercise program at 60% of their maximal heart rate for 30 minutes. The level of fat oxidation at rest and aerobic exercise of the male subjects with Trp/Arg of the β3-AR gene was significantly lower than that of the Trp/Trp genotype. No difference in FO0-30 was observed in the female subjects. There was no association between UCP-1 polymorphism and energy expenditure during aerobic exercise. It was revealed that the Trp64Arg polymorphism in β3-AR gene is associated with reduction of fat oxidation both in resting and aerobic exercise in healthy, young Japanese males.

  3. Genome-wide identification of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) aquaporin genes and their response to ethephon stimulation in the laticifer, a rubber-producing tissue

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; An, Feng; Xie, Guishui; Wang, Jikun; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu

    2015-01-01

    Background Natural rubber, an important industrial raw material, is specifically synthesized in laticifers located inside the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) trunk. Due to the absence of plasmodesmata, the laticifer water balance is mediated by aquaporins (AQPs). However, to date, the characterization of H. brasiliensis AQPs (HbAQPs) is still in its infancy. Results In this study, 51 full-length AQP genes were identified from the rubber tree genome. The phylogenetic analysis assi...

  4. 钝齿棒杆菌argR基因缺失株构建及其缺失对精氨酸生物合成途径相关基因转录水平的影响%Construction of Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542△argR and analysis of transcriptional levels of the related genes of arginine biosynthetic pathway

    陈雪岚; 汤立; 焦海涛; 徐峰; 熊勇华

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] ArgR, coded by the argR gene from Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1. 542, acts as a negative regulator in arginine biosynthetic pathway. However, the effect of argR on transcriptional levels of the related biosynthetic genes has not been reported. Here, we constructed a deletion mutant of argR gene; C. Crenatum AS 1.542 △argR using marker-less knockout technology, and compared the changes of transcriptional levels of the arginine biosynthetic genes between the mutant strain and the wild-type strain. [Methods] We used marker-less knockout technology to construct C. Crenatum AS 1. 542△argR and analyzed the changes of the relate genes at the transcriptional level using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. [Results] C. Crenatum AS 1. 542△argR was successfully obtained and the transcriptional level of arginine biosynthetic genes in this mutant increased significantly with an average of about 162. 1 folds. [Conclusion] The arginine biosynthetic genes in C. Crenatum are clearly controlled by the negative regulator ArgR. However, the deletion of this regulator does not result in a clear change in arginine production in the bacteria.%[目的]钝齿棒杆菌AS 1.542中argR基因编码的蛋白ArgR在精氨酸生物合成途径中扮演负调控的角色,但其对相关基因在转录水平的影响还未见报道.因此,本课题组构建了钝齿棒杆菌argR基因缺失株,并在转录水平上比较野生株与缺失株精氨酸生物合成途径相关基因的变化.[方法]采用无痕敲除的方法构建了钝齿棒杆菌argR基因缺失株,并采用荧光定量PCR方法分析缺失株和野生株精氨酸生物合成途径相关基因在转录水平的变化.[结果]利用pK18mobsacB质粒中蔗糖致死基因sacB反向筛选标记及PCR方法成功筛选到钝齿棒杆菌argR基因缺失株;荧光定量PCR结果表明,argR基因缺失株精氨酸生物合成途径中相关基因在转录水平获得大量提高,平均约上调162.13倍.[结论]

  5. Trp64Arg Polymorphism in Beta3-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Is Associated with Decreased Fat Oxidation Both in Resting and Aerobic Exercise in the Japanese Male

    Emiko Morita; Hiroshi Taniguchi; Motoyoshi Sakaue

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether the Trp64Arg polymorphism in β3-AR gene and the −3826A/G polymorphism in the UCP1 gene were associated with the reduction in energy expenditure and fat oxidation both in resting and aerobic exercise in Japanese. Eighty-six nonobese young healthy Japanese were recruited. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. The subjects performed an aerobic exercise program at 60% of their maximal heart rate for 30 min...

  6. Effects of Arc/Arg3.1 gene deletion on rhythmic synchronization of hippocampal CA1 neurons during locomotor activity and sleep.

    Malkki, Hemi A I; Mertens, Paul E C; Lankelma, Jan V; Vinck, Martin; van Schalkwijk, Frank J; van Mourik-Donga, Laura B; Battaglia, Francesco P; Mahlke, Claudia; Kuhl, Dietmar; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2016-05-01

    The activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein/activity regulated gene (Arc/Arg3.1) is crucial for long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, the neurophysiological substrates of memory deficits occurring in the absence of Arc/Arg3.1 are unknown. We compared hippocampal CA1 single-unit and local field potential (LFP) activity in Arc/Arg3.1 knockout and wild-type mice during track running and flanking sleep periods. Locomotor activity, basic firing and spatial coding properties of CA1 cells in knockout mice were not different from wild-type mice. During active behavior, however, knockout animals showed a significantly shifted balance in LFP power, with a relative loss in high-frequency (beta-2 and gamma) bands compared to low-frequency bands. Moreover, during track-running, knockout mice showed a decrease in phase locking of spiking activity to LFP oscillations in theta, beta and gamma bands. Sleep architecture in knockout mice was not grossly abnormal. Sharp-wave ripples, which have been associated with memory consolidation and replay, showed only minor differences in dynamics and amplitude. Altogether, these findings suggest that Arc/Arg3.1 effects on memory formation are not only manifested at the level of molecular pathways regulating synaptic plasticity, but also at the systems level. The disrupted power balance in theta, beta and gamma rhythmicity and concomitant loss of spike-field phase locking may affect memory encoding during initial storage and memory consolidation stages. PMID:27038743

  7. Association of beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism with obesity and metabolic syndrome in the Balinese: a pilot study

    Trimarsanto Hidayat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. ADRB3 Trp64Arg gene polymorphism was proposed to be associated with obesity, although inconsistent findings and differences of the Arg64 allele frequency among various ethnics were reported. Westernization was reported to increase the prevalence of obesity in developing world. In this study we determined the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among urban and rural Balinese, and studied the association of ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism with obesity and MetS. Findings A total of 528 Balinese (urban 282, rural 246 were recruited. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were determined; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triglyceride (TG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG were measured using standard procedures. BMI and WC classifications were based on WHO classifications for Asian. Metabolic syndrome (MetS was defined as described in the Joint Interim Statement. Chi-square test was employed to test the association between the ADRB3 Trp64Arg genotype and disease traits. Urban have higher BMI (p = 2.8 × 10-13, WC ( p -16, TG (p = 0.0028, DBP (p = 1.8 × 10-5, and lower HDL-C (p = 0.0376 when compared to rural. Abdominal obesity and MetS prevalence were significantly higher in urban as compared to rural (both p p = 0.041 for BMI and p = 0.012 for WC, and consequently higher abdominal obesity prevalence (p = 0.007. Comparison between male and female, as well as urban and rural, showed different prevalence of MetS co-morbidities. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were consistently appeared in all groups, suggesting to play a role as determinant of MetS in both urban and rural. Conclusions Prevalence of obesity and MetS in urban were two times higher when compared to rural. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia appears to be the key determinant of MetS in both urban and rural Balinese

  8. Beta2-adrenoceptor gene variant Arg16Gly is associated with idiopathic ventricular outflow-tract tachycardia

    RAN Yu-qin; LI Ning; YANG Ying; CHEN Jing-zhou; FENG Li; ZHANG Shu; PU Jie-lin

    2010-01-01

    Background Imbalance of the sympathetic nervous system was involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic ventricular outflow-tract tachycardia (IVOT). We aimed to investigate whether the major genetic variants in β1-and β2-adrenoceptors and GNB3 C825T were associated with IVOT and verapamil sensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT).Methods Patients with IVOT and ILVT from December 2005 to December 2007 were consecutively enrolled into this study. Controls were randomly selected from the community-based inhabitants. Five genetic variants, Ser49Gly and Gly389Arg in the β1-adrenoceptor, Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu in the β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.Results A total of 227 patients with IVOT and 110 patients with ILVT were included. Genotyping revealed that the 16Gly allele of Arg16Gly variant of β2-adrenoceptor was associated with a higher risk of IVOT (OR:1.40, 95% CI: 1.12-1.75,P=0.003 in the addictive model and OR:. 1.62, 95% CI: 1.14-2.31, P=0.007 in the dominant model). Patients with Gly16Gln27 haplotype also had a higher risk of IVOT (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.11-1.73, P=0.012). Other four variants,including Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly in β1-adrenoceptor, GIn27Glu in β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T, did not differ between patients with IVOT and controls. In patients with ILVT, no significant difference was found in these five variants compared with controls.Conclusions Arg16Gly in β2-adrenoceptor is significantly associated with IVOT in Chinese Han population. Major genetic variants in β1- and β2-adrenoceptor and GNB3 C825T may not be associated with ILVT. These data suggest a different arrhythmogenic mechanism in IVOT and ILVT.

  9. Association of Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly polymorphisms in Beta2-adrenergic receptor gene with obesity susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Hongxiu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2 gene polymorphism has been implicated in susceptibility to obesity, but study results are still controversial. OBJECTIVE: The present meta-analysis is performed to determine whether there are any associations between the Gln27Glu (rs1042714 or the Arg16Gly (rs1042713 polymorphisms in ADRB2 and obesity susceptibility. METHODS: The PubMed (1950-2014, Embase (1974-2014, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, 1994-2014 databases were searched using the search terms ("Beta2-adrenergic receptor", "β2-adrenergic receptor" or "ADRB2", "polymorphism," and "obesity". Fixed- or random-effects pooled measures were determined on the bias of heterogeneity tests across studies. Publication bias was examined by Egger's test and the modified Begg's test. RESULTS: Eighteen published articles were selected for meta-analysis. Overall analyses showed that rs1042714 (Gln27Glu was associated with significantly increased obesity risk in the heterozygote model (Gln/Glu vs. Gln/Gln: OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04-1.30, I2 = 49%, P = 0.009 and the dominant model (Gln/Glu + Glu/Glu vs. Gln/Gln: OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.00-1.44, I2 = 55%, P = 0.04, whereas no significant association was found in the other models for rs1042714. Also, no significant association was found between the rs1042713 (Arg16Gly gene polymorphism and the risk of obesity in all genetic models. In addition, neither rs1042713 (Arg16Gly nor rs1042714 (Gln27Glu showed any significant association with obesity susceptibility when the population were stratified based on gender. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis revealed that the rs1042714 (Gln27Glu polymorphism is associated with obesity susceptibility. However, our results do not support an association between rs1042713 (Arg16Gly polymorphisms and obesity in the populations investigated. This conclusion warrants confirmation by more case-control and cohort studies.

  10. Association between essential hypertension and polymorphisms of beta 1 adrenergic receptor gene G1165C (Gly389Arg) in Chinese Mongolian population

    Rile Hu; Shigang Zhao; Guangming Niu; Chunyu Zhang; Zhiguang Wang; Mingfang Jiang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalences of hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, etc. are higher in Mongolian population because of the influence of various factors including genetics, geography, diet, etc. Therefore, it is helpful to develop researches on the genetics of various diseases including hypertension in Mongolian population.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the polymorphism of beta1 adrenergic receptor (β1-AR)gene G1165C (Arg389Gly), an important candidate gene for various diseases of cardiovascular system, and essential hypertension in Mongolian population.DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.SETTINGS: Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College; Wulate Houqi Red Cross Society.PARTICIPANTS: The survey was carried out from February 2003 to March 2005. Totally 239 Mongolian residents, whose blood relations of 3 generations were all Mongolians, were selected from Wulate Houqi, Inner Mongolia, and they were all informed with the survey and detected items. Based on the diagnostic standard of hypertension set by WHO in 1999, the subjects were divided into two groups according to the level blood pressure: ① Normal blood pressure group (n=117): systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mm Hg, and those having histories of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, diseases of liver, kidney and tiroides, and diabetes mellitus were excluded. ② Essential hypertension group (n=122): including 51 patients with simple high SBP. All the enrolled subjects had no blood relationship with each other, and had no history of miscegenation.METHODS: The body height, body mass, waist circumference and blood lipids were measured routinely, and their habits of smoking and drinking were also investigated. Peripheral venous blood (5 mL) was drawn, the genome DNA was extracted, and the polymorphisms of the β1-AR G1165C (Gly389Arg) genotype were detected with the Sequenom system

  11. A non-synonymous coding change in the CYP19A1 gene Arg264Cys (rs700519 does not affect circulating estradiol, bone structure or fracture

    Wang Jenny Z

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens is catalyzed by aromatase P450 enzyme, coded by the CYP19A1 gene on chromosome 15q21.2. Genetic variation within the CYP19A1 gene sequence has been shown to alter the function of the enzyme. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a non-synonymous Arg264Cys (rs700519 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP is associated with altered levels of circulating estradiol, areal bone mineral density or fracture. Methods This population- based study of 1,022 elderly Caucasian women (mean age 74.95 ± 2.60 years was genotyped for the rs700519 SNP were analyzed to detect any association with endocrine and bone phenotypes. Results The genotype frequencies were 997 wildtype (97.6%, 24 heterozygous (2.3% and 1 homozygous (0.1%. When individuals were grouped by genotype, there was no association between the polymorphism and serum estradiol (wildtype 27.5 ± 16.0; variants 31.2 ± 18.4, P = 0.27. There was also no association seen on hip bone mineral density (wildtype 0.81 ± 0.12; 0.84 ± 0.14 for variants, P = 0.48 or femoral neck bone mineral density (0.69 ± 0.10 for wildtype; 0.70 ± 0.12 for variants, P = 0.54 before or after correction of the data with age, height, weight and calcium therapy. There were also no associations with quantitative ultrasound measures of bone structure (broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound and average stiffness. Conclusions In a cohort of 1,022 elderly Western Australian women, the presence of Arg264Cys (rs700519 polymorphism was not found to be associated with serum estradiol, bone structure or phenotypes.

  12. Polymorphism Trp64Arg of beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene: allelic frequencies and influence on insulin resistance in a multicenter study of Castilla-León Polimorfismo TRP64ARG del gen receptor beta 3: frecuencia alélica e influencia en la resistencia a la insulina en un estudio multicéntrico de Castilla y León

    D. A. de Luis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The genetic variant (Trp64Arg is a missense mutation located within the beta3 adrenoreceptor (Beta3AR. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Trp64Arg polymorphism in the Beta3AR gene on insulin resistance in obese patients and the allelic distribution of this polymorphismin a geographic area of Spain. Design: A population of 264 obese patients was analyzed. A bioimpedance, blood pressure, an assessment of nutritional intake, and biochemical parameters were measured. The beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene polymorphism(Trp64Arg was genotyped. Results: Two hundred and twenty six patients (77 males/149 females (85.6% had the genotype Trp64/Trp64 (wild type group with and average age of 41.12 ± 13.1 years and 38 patients (16 males/22 females Trp64/Arg64 (14.4% (mutant type group with an average age of 40.5 ± 12.7 years. High frequencies of Arg64 allele were observed in Salamanca and Valladolid. In the mutant type group, HOMA (3.75 ± 2.77 vs 5.27 ± 5.4; p Introducción y objetivos: La variante genética (Trp64Arg es una mutación localizada en el adrenoreceptor Beta 3 (Beta3AR. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es evaluar la influencia de el polimorfismo Trp64Arg del gen de Beta3AR sobre la resistencia a la insulina en pacientes obesos, así como la distribución alélica de este polimorfismo en un área geográfica de España. Diseño: Una muestra de 264 pacientes obesos fue analizada. Se realizó una bioimpedancia, evaluación nutricional y análisis bioquímico. Se genotiparon a los pacientes en función delpolimorfismos Tr64Arg del gen adrenoreceptor-beta 3. Resultados: Un total de 227 pacientes (77 varones/149 mujeres (85,6% presentaron el genotipo Trp64/Trp64 (grupo genotipo salvaje, con una media de edad de 41,12 ± 13,1 años y un total de 38 pacientes (16 varones/22 mujeres Trp64/Arg64 (14,4% (grupo genotipo mutante con una edad media de 40,5 ± 12,7 años. Se detectó una alta frecuencia alélica (Arg64

  13. X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 1 Arg399GIn polymorphism and glioma risk among Asians A meta-analysis based on 2326 cases and 3610 controls

    Liang Zhang; Zhiqun Qiu; Jiaohua Luo; Weiqun Shu

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Previous reports have demonstrated that X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) Arg399GIn polymorphism is a possible risk factor for several cancers.Published data on the association of XRCC1Arg399GIn polymorphism with glioma susceptibility have generated conflicting results.This study is designed to precisely estimate the relationship.DATA RETRIEVAL:A computer-based online retrieval of Medline,EMBASE,OVID,Sciencedirect,and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to search papers regarding association of XRCC1 Arg399GIn polymorphisms with glioma published up to April 2012.SELECTION CRITERIA:Two investigators selected data independently.Meta analysis was then performed for the selected studies using STATA 11.0 software after strict selection.Heterogeneity test,sensitivity analysis and publication bias assessments were then conducted.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Association of XRCC1 Arg399GIn polymorphism with glioma risk.RESULTS:A total of nine case-controlled studies comprising 2 326 cases and 3 610 controls were selected for final analysis.The overall data failed to indicate a significant association of XRCC1 Arg399GIn polymorphism with glioma risk (GIn/GIn vs.Arg/Arg:odds ratio (OR) =1.11; 95% confidence interval (Cl) =0.94-1.31; dominant model:OR =1.06; 95%Cl=0.95-1.18; recessive model:OR =1.04; 95%Cl=0.81-1.34).However,subgroup analysis regarding ethnicity showed an increased risk among Asians (GIn/GIn vs.Arg/Arg:OR =1.70; 95%Cl=1.17-2.46; dominant model:OR =1.40; 95%Cl=1.10-1.78; recessive model:OR =1.46; 95%Cl =1.04-2.05) but not Caucasians or mixed ethnicities.CONCLUSION:XRCC1 Arg399GIn polymorphism might modify the susceptibility to glioma among Asians but not Caucasians.Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  14. Identification of a differentially expressed thymidine kinase gene related to tapping panel dryness syndrome in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. by random amplified polymorphic DNA screening

    Arjunan Thulaseedharan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapping panel dryness (TPD syndrome is one of the latex yield affecting factors in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg.. Therefore, identification of a DNA marker will be highly useful for screening progenies in breeding programs. The major goal of this study was to detect genetic variations and/or identification of gene fragments among 37 Hevea clones by the random amplified polymorphic DNA “fingerprinting” technique. Different levels of DNA polymorphism were detected with various primers and a distinct polymorphic band (2.0 kb was obtained with OPA-17 primer. It was cloned into a plasmid vector for further sequence characterization and the nucleotide sequence shows homology with a novel putative plant thymidine kinase (TK gene, designated as HbTK (Hevea brasiliensis thymidine kinase; GenBank accession number AY130829. The protein HbTK has 67%, 65%, 64%, and 63% similarity to TK genes of Medicago, Oryza, Arabidopsis, and Lyco- persicon, respectively, and it was highly conserved in all species analyzed. The predicted amino acid sequence contained conserved domains of TK proteins in the C-terminal half. Southern blot analysis indicated that HbTK is one of the members of a small gene family. Northern blot results revealed that the expression of the HbTK gene was up-regulated in mature bark tissues of the healthy tree while it was down-regulated in the TPD-affected one. These results suggest that this gene may play important roles in maintaining active nucleotide metabolism during cell division at the tapped site of bark tissues in the healthy tree under stress (tapping conditions for normal latex biosynthesis.

  15. Studies of associations between the Arg389Gly polymorphism of the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB1) and hypertension and obesity in 7677 Danish white subjects

    Gjesing, A P; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, A; Glümer, C; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jørgensen, T; Hansen, T; Pedersen, O

    2007-01-01

    Activation of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) causes increased lipolysis in adipose tissue and enhances cardiac output. Analysis of the association of the functional ADRB1 Arg389Gly variant with obesity and hypertension has given ambiguous results. To clarify the potential impact of this...... variant on obesity and hypertension in the general population, we examined the Arg389Gly variant in a relatively large-scale population-based study....

  16. Transcriptional Cross-Regulation between Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria, Demonstrated Using ArgP-argO of Escherichia coli and LysG-lysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Marbaniang, Carmelita N.; J.Gowrishankar

    2012-01-01

    The protein-gene pairs ArgP-argO of Escherichia coli and LysG-lysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum are orthologous, with the first member of each pair being a LysR-type transcriptional regulator and the second its target gene encoding a basic amino acid exporter. Whereas LysE is an exporter of arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) whose expression is induced by Arg, Lys, or histidine (His), ArgO exports Arg alone, and its expression is activated by Arg but not Lys or His. We have now reconstituted in...

  17. An Investigation and Clinical Analysis on Trp64Arg Mutation Frequency of ADR β3 Gene%β3肾上腺素能受体基因Trp64Arg突变率调查分析

    徐文玲; 王明琴; 崔立芳; 曲云东

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of Trp64Arg mutation of β3-adrenergic receptor on obesity, plasma lipid, blood pressure and heart rate.Methods Genotype of Trp64Arg mutation of ADR β3 gene and several clinical variables including body mass index BMI, plasma glucose, plasma lipid, blood pressure, heart rate and so on were determined in 198 Chinese who took their physical examinations.Results The frequency of Trp64Arg mutation of ADR β3 gene in above 198 Chinese was 20.20%. The mutation of ADR β3 gene was found to have some associations with the increase of BMI. Individuals with Trp64Arg mutation of ADR β3 gene were also found to have lower plasma lipid levels.Conclusion The mutation of ADR β3 seems to be related with over-weight. It also seems to have association with plasma lipid regulation. But it has no relation with blood pressure or heart rate.%目的研究中国人β3肾上腺素能受体(ADR β3)基因Trp64Arg突变对肥胖、血脂、血压、心率等的影响。方法对受检者198人进行ADR β3基因Trp64Arg突变基因型的检测,并测体重指数(BMI)、血糖、血脂、血压,心率等。结果本调查组β3肾上腺素能受体基因Trp64Arg突变率为20.20%,BMI增高与其基因突变有关。基因突变者血脂偏低。结论 ADR β3基因突变参与中国人体重的增加和血脂水平的调节,与血压、心率无明显相关性。

  18. The Trp64Arg mutation of the beta3 adrenergic receptor gene has no effect on obesity phenotypes in the Québec Family Study and Swedish Obese Subjects cohorts.

    Gagnon, J; Mauriège, P; S Roy; Sjöström, D; Chagnon, Y. C.; Dionne, F.T.; Oppert, J.M.; Pérusse, L.; Sjöström, L.; Bouchard, C

    1996-01-01

    The beta adrenergic system plays a key role in regulating energy balance through the stimulation of both thermogenesis and lipid mobilization in brown and white adipose tissues in human and various animal models. Recent studies have suggested that a missense Trp64Arg mutation in the beta3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) gene was involved in obesity and insulin resistance. We have investigated the effect of this mutation on obesity-related phenotypes in two cohorts: the Québec Family Study (QFS) a...

  19. Interaction between Arg16Gly Polymorphism of ADRA2B Gene and Shift Work on Essential Hypertension among Coal Workers%煤矿工人ADRA2B基因Arg16Gly多态性和倒班的交互作用与原发性高血压的关系

    姚向晖; 范红敏; 王东; 宋士勋; 秦天榜; 郭素娟; 袁聚祥

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨β2肾上腺素能受体(β2-AR)ADRA2B基因Arg16Gly多态性及与倒班的交互作用对原发性高血压发病的影响. [方法]以某煤矿进行职业病健康检查的井下作业工人为研究对象,采用成组病例对照研究方法.选择病例组511例,对照组456例,调查内容包括工人年龄、工龄、倒班、吸烟、饮酒情况等危险因素.采集血液标本,分离淋巴细胞,提取DNA,采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术检测ADRA2B基因Arg16Gly多态性.采用多因素logistic回归模型分析基因与倒班的交互作用对原发性高血压发病的影响. [结果]病例组和对照组的ADRA2B基因Arg16Gly位点AA、AG、GG基因型频率分别为27.59%(141/511)、48.73%(249/511)、23.68%(121/511);30.01%(137/456)、53.95%(246/456)、16.04%(73/456).病例组中携带A和G等位基因的频率分别为51.96%、48.04%;对照组为57.02%、42.98%.病例组、对照组基因型和等位基因分布差别皆有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组倒班情况分布差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).在调整年龄、工龄、高血压家族史、食盐、食用水果、食用蔬菜、体质指数、体育锻炼等影响因素后,携带GG基因型工人患原发性高血压OR是AA型的1.702倍(95%CI:1.130~2.565);携带G等位基因型患原发性高血压OR是A等位基因的1.307倍(95%CI:1.104~1.972);而倒班者患原发性高血压OR是不倒班者的1.388倍(95%CI:1.049~1.835).两者同时存在时对原发性高血压影响的交互作用无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论] ADRA2B基因Arg16Gly多态性可能是煤矿工人原发性高血压发生的易感因素,但尚未发现倒班和ADRA2B基因Arg16Gly多态性的交互作用与原发性高血压发生有关.%To explore the role of the interaction between Arg16Gly polymorphism of beta 2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) gene (ADRA2B) and shift work on essential hypertension (EH) occurrence

  20. Enhanced Expression of (His) 6-Arg-Arg-human Proinsulin in Escherichia coli%(His)6-Arg-Arg-人胰岛素原在大肠杆菌中的高效表达

    李晓红; 余蓉; 曾蓉; 彭先凤; 杨继虞

    2003-01-01

    为了提高胰岛素原的表达量,用pQE-40质粒构建了(His)6-Arg-Arg-人胰岛素原[(His)6-Arg-Arg-human Proinsulin,RRhPI]的大肠杆菌表达系统.通过培养条件的优化,在摇瓶培养的条件下,目标产物RRhPI以包涵体形式获得了高效表达,每升培养基收获湿菌体约27g,包涵体6g(干重1.8g),RRhPI约540mg.该水平已超过现有文献报道的摇瓶培养的最高水平.%To enhance the expression level of human proinsulin, Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) M15 harbouring a plasmid(His)6-Arg -Arg -human proinsulin (RRhPI)/pQE-40 for human proinsulin production was cultured using flask. As a result,high expression level of the gene product, which accumulated as inclusion bodies, was obtained. 27g wet E. coli cells wereharvested from 1L culture medium, and 6g inclusion body also. The harvest of our designed gene product RRhPI was about540mg/L culture medium.

  1. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  2. Asymmetric allosteric activation of the symmetric ArgR hexamer.

    Jin, Lihua; Xue, Wei-Feng; Fukayama, June Wong; Yetter, Jaclyn; Pickering, Michael; Carey, Jannette

    2005-02-11

    Hexameric arginine repressor, ArgR, bound to L-arginine serves both as the master transcriptional repressor/activator at diverse regulons in a wide range of bacteria and as a required cofactor for resolution of ColE1 plasmid multimers. Multifunctional ArgR is thus unusual in possessing features of specific gene regulators, global regulators, and non-specific gene organizers; its closest functional analog is probably CAP, the cyclic AMP receptor/activator protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, and proteolysis indicate that binding of a single L-argine [corrected] per ArgR hexamer triggers a global conformation [corrected] change and resets the affinities of the remaining five sites, making them 100-fold weaker. The analysis suggests a novel thermodynamic signature for this mechanism of activation. PMID:15663926

  3. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality; Avaliacao da frequencia de polimorfismos nos genes XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) e XPD (Lys751Gln) relacionados a manutencao da estabilidade do genoma em individuos da populacao residente no municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Duarte, Isabelle Magliano

    2010-07-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  4. Expression and Characterization of ArgR, An Arginine Regulatory Protein in Corynebacterium crenatum

    CHEN Xue Lan; ZHANG Bin; TANG Li; JIAO Hai Tao; XU Heng Yi; XU Feng; XU Hong; WEI Hua; XIONG Yong Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objective Corynebacterium crenatum MT, a mutant from C. crenatum AS 1.542 with a lethal argR gene, exhibits high arginine production. To confirm the effect of ArgR on arginine biosynthesis in C. crenatum, an intact argR gene from wild-type AS 1.542 was introduced into C. crenatum MT, resulting in C. crenatum MT. sp, and the changes of transcriptional levels of the arginine biosynthetic genes and arginine production were compared between the mutant strain and the recombinant strain. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to analyze the changes of the related genes at the transcriptional level, electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to determine ArgR binding with the argCJBDF, argGH, and carAB promoter regions, and arginine production was determined with an automated amino acid analyzer. Results Arginine production assays showed a 69.9%reduction in arginine from 9.01±0.22 mg/mL in C. crenatum MT to 2.71±0.13 mg/mL (P Conclusion The arginine biosynthetic genes in C. crenatum are clearly controlled by the negative regulator ArgR, and intact ArgR in C. crenatum MT results in a significant descrease in arginine production.

  5. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs: Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China.

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the amount of dumped waste and temperature exerted the most significant effects on bimonthly fluctuations of ARG levels in landfill sites. As a middle-sized cosmopolitan city in China, millions of college students and workers migrate during holidays, contributing to the dramatic increases in waste production and fluctuation in ARG abundances. In line with this, mass migration explained most of the variation in waste dumping. The waste dumping also affected the bioaccessibility of mixed-compound pollutants that further positively impacted the level of ARGs. The influence of various bioaccessible compounds on ARG abundance followed the order: antibiotics>nutrients>metals>organic pollutants. Concentrations of bioaccessible compounds were more strongly correlated with ARG levels compared to total compound concentrations. Improved waste classification and management strategies could thus help to decrease the amount of bioaccessible pollutants leading to more effective control for urban ARG dissemination. PMID:27179703

  6. A Trp33Arg Mutation at Exon 1 of the MYH9 Gene in a Korean Patient with May-Hegglin Anomaly

    JANG, MOON JU; Park, Hyun-Jeong; Chong, So Young; Huh, Ji Young; Kim, In-Ho; Jang, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Oh, Doyeun

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a Korean patient with May-Hegglin anomaly from a mutation of the MYH9 gene. The proband was a 21-year-old man with thrombocytopenia. He did not have a bleeding tendency. His neutrophil count was normal at 7490/mm3; however, the neutrophils contained abnormal basophilic inclusions in their cytoplasm. The platelet count was decreased at 15000/mm3 with giant platelets. Coagulation test results were not remarkable. Direct sequencing of MYH9 revealed that he was heteroz...

  7. Molecular characterization of the argJ mutation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with requirements for arginine, hypoxanthine, and uracil.

    Martin, P R; Mulks, M H

    1992-01-01

    Arginine auxotrophs are commonly encountered among clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Arginine auxotrophs which also require hypoxanthine and uracil (AHU strains) compose a unique set of strains that are highly homogeneous and are believed to be clonally derived. The Arg- phenotype of these strains is due to a lesion in the argJ gene encoding ornithine acetyltransferase. We have cloned the mutant argJ gene from an AHU strain and compared the sequence of this gene to the wild-type arg...

  8. XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    Chiang, Chien-I [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Jen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    The association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. However, few studies have examined the correlation between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and arsenic or its metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln, with urinary arsenic profiles and UC. To this end, we conducted a hospital-based case–control study with 324 UC patients and 647 age- and gender-matched non-cancer controls. Genomic DNA was used to examine the genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Urinary arsenic profiles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) linked with hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes were significantly related to UC, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.03–2.75) and 0.66 (0.48–0.90), respectively. Participants with higher total urinary arsenic levels, a higher percentage of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and a lower percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) had a higher OR of UC. Participants carrying XRCC1 risk diplotypes G-C/G-C, A-C/A-C, and A-T/G-T, and who had higher total arsenic levels, higher InAs%, or lower DMA% compared to those with other XRCC1 diplotypes had a higher OR of UC. Our results suggest that the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Arg DNA repair genes play an important role in poor arsenic methylation capacity, thereby increasing the risk of UC in non-obvious arsenic exposure areas. - Highlights: • The XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotype was significantly associated with increased OR of UC. • The XRCC1 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotype had a significantly decreased OR of UC. • Combined effect of the XRCC1 genotypes and poor arsenic methylation capacity on

  9. XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    The association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. However, few studies have examined the correlation between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and arsenic or its metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln, with urinary arsenic profiles and UC. To this end, we conducted a hospital-based case–control study with 324 UC patients and 647 age- and gender-matched non-cancer controls. Genomic DNA was used to examine the genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Urinary arsenic profiles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) linked with hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes were significantly related to UC, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.03–2.75) and 0.66 (0.48–0.90), respectively. Participants with higher total urinary arsenic levels, a higher percentage of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and a lower percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) had a higher OR of UC. Participants carrying XRCC1 risk diplotypes G-C/G-C, A-C/A-C, and A-T/G-T, and who had higher total arsenic levels, higher InAs%, or lower DMA% compared to those with other XRCC1 diplotypes had a higher OR of UC. Our results suggest that the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Arg DNA repair genes play an important role in poor arsenic methylation capacity, thereby increasing the risk of UC in non-obvious arsenic exposure areas. - Highlights: • The XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotype was significantly associated with increased OR of UC. • The XRCC1 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotype had a significantly decreased OR of UC. • Combined effect of the XRCC1 genotypes and poor arsenic methylation capacity on

  10. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H2O2, Cu2+ and Zn2+, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H2O2. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli

  11. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min, E-mail: wmtian9110@126.com

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli.

  12. Transcriptional cross-regulation between Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, demonstrated using ArgP-argO of Escherichia coli and LysG-lysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Marbaniang, Carmelita N; Gowrishankar, J

    2012-10-01

    The protein-gene pairs ArgP-argO of Escherichia coli and LysG-lysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum are orthologous, with the first member of each pair being a LysR-type transcriptional regulator and the second its target gene encoding a basic amino acid exporter. Whereas LysE is an exporter of arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) whose expression is induced by Arg, Lys, or histidine (His), ArgO exports Arg alone, and its expression is activated by Arg but not Lys or His. We have now reconstituted in E. coli the activation of lysE by LysG in the presence of its coeffectors and have shown that neither ArgP nor LysG can regulate expression of the noncognate orthologous target. Of several ArgP-dominant (ArgP(d)) variants that confer elevated Arg-independent argO expression, some (ArgP(d)-P274S, -S94L, and, to a lesser extent, -P108S) activated lysE expression in E. coli. However, the individual activating effects of LysG and ArgP(d) on lysE were mutually extinguished when both proteins were coexpressed in Arg- or His-supplemented cultures. In comparison with native ArgP, the active ArgP(d) variants exhibited higher affinity of binding to the lysE regulatory region and less DNA bending at both argO and lysE. We conclude that the transcription factor LysG from a Gram-positive bacterium, C. glutamicum, is able to engage appropriately with the RNA polymerase from a Gram-negative bacterium, E. coli, for activation of its cognate target lysE in vivo and that single-amino-acid-substitution variants of ArgP can also activate the distantly orthologous target lysE, but by a subtly different mechanism that renders them noninterchangeable with LysG. PMID:22904281

  13. Evidence for an Arginine Exporter Encoded by yggA (argO) That Is Regulated by the LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator ArgP in Escherichia coli

    Nandineni, Madhusudan R.; J.Gowrishankar

    2004-01-01

    The anonymous open reading frame yggA of Escherichia coli was identified in this study as a gene that is under the transcriptional control of argP (previously called iciA), which encodes a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. Strains with null mutations in either yggA or argP were supersensitive to the arginine analog canavanine, and yggA-lac expression in vivo exhibited argP+-dependent induction by arginine. Lysine supplementation phenocopied the argP null mutation in that it virtual...

  14. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of the Gene Expression in Laticifers on the Basis of Latex Flow in Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)

    Chao, Jinquan; Yang, Shuguang; Chen, Yueyi; Tian, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Latex exploitation-caused latex flow is effective in enhancing latex regeneration in laticifer cells of rubber tree. It should be suitable for screening appropriate reference gene for analysis of the expression of latex regeneration-related genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In the present study, the expression stability of 23 candidate reference genes was evaluated on the basis of latex flow by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Ubiquitin-protein ligase 2a (UBC2a) and ubiquitin-protein ligase 2b (UBC2b) were the two most stable genes among the selected candidate references in rubber tree clones with differential duration of latex flow. The two genes were also high-ranked in previous reference gene screening across different tissues and experimental conditions. By contrast, the transcripts of latex regeneration-related genes fluctuated significantly during latex flow. The results suggest that screening reference gene during latex flow should be an efficient and effective clue for selection of reference genes in qRT-PCR. PMID:27524995

  15. Cloning and organization of seven arginine biosynthesis genes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Picard, F J; Dillon, J R

    1989-01-01

    A genomic library for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, constructed in the lambda cloning vector EMBL4, was screened for clones carrying arginine biosynthesis genes by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants. Clones complementing defects in argA, argB, argE, argG, argIF, carA, and carB were isolated. An E. coli defective in the acetylornithine deacetylase gene (argE) was complemented by the ornithine acetyltransferase gene (argJ) from N. gonorrhoeae. This heterologous complementation is reported for...

  16. The Effect of the Arg389Gly Beta-1 Adrenoceptor Polymorphism on Plasma Renin Activity and Heart Rate and the Genotype-Dependent Response to Metoprolol Treatment

    Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Jon T; Jimenez-Solem, Espen;

    2012-01-01

    A gene-drug interaction has been indicated between beta-1 selective beta-blockers and the Arg389Gly polymorphism (rs1801253) in the adrenergic beta-1 receptor gene (ADRB1). We studied the effect of the ADRB1 Arg389Gly polymorphism on plasma renin activity (PRA) and heart rate (HR) and the genotype...

  17. Expression of the benign HEXA mutations, Arg247Trp and Arg249Trp, associated with beta-hexosaminidase A pseudodeficiency

    Cao, Z.; Petroulakis, E.; Salo, T. [Univ. of Manitoba (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    {beta}-Hexosaminidase (Hex A) is a heterodimer of {alpha} and {beta} subunits encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively. Mutations in the HEXA gene typically cause Tay-Sachs disease or less severe forms of G{sub M2} gangliosidosis. However, two benign mutations (Arg247Trp and Arg249Trp) in the {alpha}-subunit of Hex A account for Hex A deficiency in {approximately}36% of non-Jewish enzyme-defined Tay-Sachs disease carriers. These mutations do not result in any apparent clinical phenotype in individuals who are genetic compounds with a second disease-causing mutation. We expressed the {alpha}-subunit harboring each of the benign mutations separately to study activity toward the synthetic substrate, 4-MUGS, for comparison to activity from enzymes containing mutations associated with other forms of G{sub M2} gangliosidosis. The C739T (Arg247Trp;benign), C745T (Arg 249Trp; benign), G805A (Gly269Ser; adult-onset), G749A (Gly250Asp; juvenile), and C508T (Arg170Trp; infantile) mutations were introduced into the {alpha}-subunit cDNA. These were transfected alone, or with the {beta}-subunit cDNA, to generate Hex S ({alpha}{alpha}) or Hex A ({alpha}{beta}), respectively. The activities were monitored using 4-MUGS, and the levels of {alpha}-subunit protein were assessed by Western blotting. Repeated experiments show that the benign mutations produce approximately 35% of normal Hex S and 40% of normal Hex A activity. This level is much higher than that of Hex A harbouring the Gly169Ser adult-onset mutation (12%). A sequential decrease in expressed Hex A activity is observed as mutations associated with more severe phenotypes are expressed. The benign mutations also result in lower levels of mature {alpha}-subunit protein compared to normal, and slightly reduced levels of {alpha}-subunit precursor protein. The Hex A deficiency resulting from benign mutations is not as great as that associated with disease-causing mutations.

  18. Homozygosity for Pro of p53 Arg72Pro as a potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese population

    Zhong-Zheng Zhu; Wen-Ming Cong; Shu-Fang Liu; Hui Dong; Guan-Shan Zhu; Meng-Chao Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Codon 72 exon 4 polymorphism (Arg72Pro) of the p53 gene has been implicated in cancer risk. Our objective was to investigate the possible association between p53Arg72Pro polymorphism and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Chinese population.METHODS: The p53 Arg72Pro genotypes were determined by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in 507 HCC cases and 541 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for HCC and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)from unconditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate relative risks. Potential risk factors were included in the logistic regression models as covariates in the multivariate analyses on genotype and HCC.RESULTS: The frequencies for Pro and Arg alleles were 44.5%, 55.5% in HCC cases, and 40.3% and 59.7% in controls, respectively. The Pro allele was significantly associated with the presence of HCC (P = 0.05) and had a higher risk for HCC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.41) as compared with the Arg allele. After adjusted for potential risk factors, Arg/Pro heterozygotes had an 1.21-fold increased risk (95% CI 0.82-1.78, P = 0.34) of HCC compared with Arg homozygotes, whereas the risk for Pro homozygotes was 1.79 (95% CI 1.06-3.01, P = 0.03) times higher than that for Arg homozygotes. Pro-allele carriers had a higher relative risk of HCC than the Arg-only carriers (adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.92-1.92, P = 0.13), although the difference was not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: Homozygosity for Pro of p53 Arg72Pro is potentially one of the genetic risk factors for HCC in Chinese population. The p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism may be used as a stratification marker in screening individuals at a high risk of HCC.

  19. ARG portable neutron radiography. Final report

    In this report all available neutron radiographic data, including results of tests run at LANL, McClellan AFB, and University of Virginia, will be combined to outline specific transportable neutron radiography systems that could achieve the desired results as a complement to x-radiography capabilities for the Accident Response Group (ARG)

  20. Effects of lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance related to beta-3 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism Trp64Arg(C/T): Results from the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Sakane, Naoki; Sato, Juichi; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tsujii, Satoru; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawazu, Shoji; Sato, Yuzo; Usui, Takeshi; Kamae, Isao; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sato, Shigeaki; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Kuzuya, Hideshi

    2016-05-01

    The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), primarily expressed in adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. The present study hypothesized that ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) polymorphisms modulate the effects of lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Data were analyzed from 112 patients with impaired glucose tolerance in the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention trial, randomized to either an intensive lifestyle intervention group or usual care group. Changes in weight and metabolic parameters were measured after the 6-month intervention. The ADRB3 polymorphisms were determined using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Non-carriers showed a greater weight reduction compared with the carriers in both the lifestyle intervention group and usual care group, and a greater increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the carriers only in the lifestyle intervention group. ADRB3 polymorphisms could influence the effects of lifestyle interventions on weight and lipid parameters in impaired glucose tolerance patients. PMID:27330719

  1. Promoter polymorphism -119C/G in MYG1 (C12orf10) gene is related to vitiligo susceptibility and Arg4Gln affects mitochondrial entrance of Myg1

    Philips, Mari-Anne; Kingo, Külli; Karelson, Maire;

    2010-01-01

    MYG1 (Melanocyte proliferating gene 1, also C12orf10 in human) is a ubiquitous nucleo-mitochondrial protein, involved in early developmental processes and in adult stress/illness conditions. We recently showed that MYG1 mRNA expression is elevated in the skin of vitiligo patients. Our aim was to...... examine nine known polymorphisms in the MYG1 gene, to investigate their functionality, and to study their association with vitiligo susceptibility....

  2. Abnormal dentin structure in two novel gene mutations [COL1A1, Arg134Cys] and [ADAMTS2, Trp795-to-ter] causing rare type I collagen disorders.

    De Coster, P J; Cornelissen, M; De Paepe, A; Martens, L C; Vral, A

    2007-02-01

    Histological and ultrastructural observations of dentin of two patients affected with rare types of type I collagen disorders are presented. In the first case, a homozygous nonsense mutation in ADAMTS2 (substitution of a codon for tryptophan by a stopcodon) causes type VIIC Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with multiple tooth agenesis and focal dysplastic dentin defects. In the second case, a missense mutation in COL1A1 (substitution of arginine by cysteine) results in a type I EDS phenotype with clinically normal-appearing dentition. Tooth samples are investigated by using light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunostaining for types I and III collagen, and tenascin. These are compared with samples from patients with types III and IV osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in association with dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), showing a consistently abnormal appearance of the dentin in all specimens, with variations being primarily those of degree of change. Similarities in histological changes include the alternating presence of normal and severe pathological areas in primary and secondary dentin, the latter being characterized by large canal-like structures in atubular areas. Ultrastructural evidence of pathological dentinogenesis include abnormal distribution, size and organization of collagen fibers, which may also be found in clinically unaffected teeth. The histological and ultrastructural changes seen can be explained on the basis of odontoblast dysfunction which may be secondary to the collagen defect, interfering with different levels of odontoblast cell function and intercellular communication. These observations on (ultra)structural dentin defects associated with the two novel gene mutations are the first ever reported. PMID:17118335

  3. Variant Toll-Like Receptor4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile Alleles) and Toll-Like Receptor2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp Alleles) in Colorectal Cancer

    Homa Davoodi; Fong Seow

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system recognizes the presence of bacterial products through the expression of a family of membrane receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Polymorphisms in TLRs have been shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease.The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between polymorphisms of TLR4 (Asp299Gly; Thr399Ile) and TLR2 (Arg677Trp; Arg753Gln) genes and risk of colorectal cancer. DNA fro...

  4. Variant Toll-Like Receptor4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile Alleles) and Toll-Like Receptor2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp Alleles) in Colorectal Cancer

    Fong Seow; Homa Davoodi

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system recognizes the presence of bacterial products through the expression of a family of membrane receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Polymorphisms in TLRs have been shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between polymorphisms of TLR4 (Asp299Gly; Thr399Ile) and TLR2 (Arg677Trp; Arg753Gln) genes and risk of colorectal cancer. DNA fr...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. Strain ARG-1 Isolated from the White-Rot Fungus Armillaria gallica

    Collins, Caitlin; Kowalski, Caitlin; Zebrowski, Jessica; Tulchinskaya, Yevgeniya; Tai, Albert K.; James-Pederson, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium sp. strain ARG-1 was isolated from a cell culture of hyphal tips of the white-rot fungus Armillaria gallica. We describe here the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of its genome, confirming the presence of genes involved in methylotrophy. This is the first genome announcement of a strain of Methylobacterium associated with A. gallica. PMID:27257212

  6. Co-Expression of Wild-Type P2X7R with Gln460Arg Variant Alters Receptor Function

    Aprile-Garcia, Fernando; Metzger, Michael W.; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Stadler, Herbert; Acuña, Matías; Liberman, Ana C.; Senin, Sergio A.; Gerez, Juan; Hoijman, Esteban; Refojo, Damian; Mitkovski, Mišo; Panhuysen, Markus; Stühmer, Walter; Holsboer, Florian; Deussing, Jan M.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor is a member of the P2X family of ligand-gated ion channels. A single-nucleotide polymorphism leading to a glutamine (Gln) by arginine (Arg) substitution at codon 460 of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been associated with mood disorders. No change in function (loss or gain) has been described for this SNP so far. Here we show that although the P2X7R-Gln460Arg variant per se is not compromised in its function, co-expression of wild-type P2X7R with P2X7R-Gln460Arg impairs receptor function with respect to calcium influx, channel currents and intracellular signaling in vitro. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and FRET studies show that the P2X7R-Gln460Arg variant physically interacts with P2X7R-WT. Specific silencing of either the normal or polymorphic variant rescues the heterozygous loss of function phenotype and restores normal function. The described loss of function due to co-expression, unique for mutations in the P2RX7 gene so far, explains the mechanism by which the P2X7R-Gln460Arg variant affects the normal function of the channel and may represent a mechanism of action for other mutations. PMID:26986975

  7. One isoform of Arg/Abl2 tyrosine kinase is nuclear and the other seven cytosolic isoforms differently modulate cell morphology, motility and the cytoskeleton

    Bianchi, Cristina; Torsello, Barbara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A.; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A., E-mail: roberto.perego@unimib.it

    2013-08-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson related gene (Arg/Abl2) regulates cell migration and morphogenesis by modulating the cytoskeleton. Arg promotes actin-based cell protrusions and spreading, and inhibits cell migration by attenuating stress fiber formation and contractility via activation of the RhoA inhibitor, p190RhoGAP, and by regulating focal adhesion dynamics also via CrkII phosphorylation. Eight full-length Arg isoforms with different N- and C-termini are endogenously expressed in human cells. In this paper, the eight Arg isoforms, subcloned in the pFLAG-CMV2 vector, were transfected in COS-7 cells in order to study their subcellular distribution and role in cell morphology, migration and cytoskeletal modulation. The transfected 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution and phosphorylates CrkII in the nucleus, whilst the other isoforms are detected in the cytoplasm. The 1BLCTL, 1BSCTL, 1ASCTS isoforms were able to significantly decrease stress fibers, induce cell shrinkage and filopodia-like protrusions with a significant increase in p190RhoGAP phosphorylation. In contrast, 1ALCTL, 1ALCTS, 1ASCTL and 1BLCTS isoforms do not significantly decrease stress fibers and induce the formation of retraction tail-like protrusions. The 1BLCTL and 1ALCTL isoforms have different effects on cell migration and focal adhesions. All these data may open new perspectives to study the mechanisms of cell invasiveness. -Highlights: • Each of the eight Arg isoforms was transfected in COS-7 cells. • Only the 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution in transfected cells. • The cytoplasmic isoforms and F-actin colocalize cortically and in cell protrusions. • Arg isoforms differently phosphorylate p190RhoGAP and CrkII. • Arg isoforms differently modulate stress fibers, cell protrusions and motility.

  8. Leptin receptor polymorphism Gln223Arg (rs1137101) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant oral lesions.

    Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Pereira, Camila Santos; das Graças Pena, Geórgia; Reis, Tatiana Carvalho; Silva, Rosângela Ramos Veloso; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; de Souza, Marcela Gonçalves; Soares, Mariana Batista; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Menezes, Elytania Veiga; Nobre, Sérgio Avelino Mota; Rodrigues Neto, João Felício; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Velásquez-Meléndez, Jorge Gustavo; Sena Guimarães, André Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the LEPR gene Gln223Arg polymorphism (rs1137101) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and in potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOL) in comparison to normal oral mucosa in a Brazilian population. Smokers (n = 89) were selected from a representative sample of 471 individuals from the general population of Montes Claros, Brazil. Participants were age and gender matched to patients with OSCC (n = 25) and oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 25). We investigated the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism (A>G; rs1137101) in these groups. Genotype variants were assessed by RFLP-PCR, using MspI (HPAII) restriction endonuclease. The institutional review board of the Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros approved the study (process number 2667/2011). Written informed consent for this study was obtained from all participants. The GG genotype (Arg223Arg) appears to be the more relevant polymorphic variant in OSCC. It occurred, approximately, twice as frequently in OSCC patients than in the general population. In contrast, the A allele in its homozygosis form (Gln223Gln) is significantly associated with the development of PMOL; 80% of the samples from the PMOL group exhibit AA genotype. Our findings suggest new insights regarding LEPR gene variations in the development of OSCC and PMOL. PMID:26034683

  9. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Yue, Han; Zhu, Xinyan; Chen, Di; Liu, Lingjia

    2016-06-01

    Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG) is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  10. Molecular basis for modulated regulation of gene expression in the arginine regulon of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Cunin, R; T. Eckhardt; Piette, J.; Boyen, A; Piérard, A; Glansdorff, N

    1983-01-01

    We compare the nucleotide sequences of the regulatory regions of five genes or groups of genes of the arginine regulon of Escherichia coli K-12: argF, argI, argR, the bipolar argECBH operon and the carAB operon. All these regions harbour one or two copies of a conserved 18 bp sequence which appears to constitute the basic arginine operator sequence (ARG box). We discuss the influence of ARG box copy number, degree of dyad symmetry, base composition, and position relative to the cognate promot...

  11. Leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphism and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women: A case control study

    Leptin, a 16 kDa polypeptide hormone, implicated in various physiological processes, exerts its action through the leptin receptor, a member of the class I cytokine receptor family. Both leptin and leptin receptor have recently been implicated in processes leading to breast cancer initiation and progression in animal models and humans. An A to G transition mutation in codon 223 in exon 6 of the leptin receptor gene, resulting in glutamine to arginine substitution (Gln223Arg), lies within the first of two putative leptin-binding regions and may be associated with impaired signaling capacity of the leptin receptor. This study was designed to assess the role of this polymorphism in breast cancer susceptibility in Nigerian women. We utilized a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to evaluate the association between the Gln223Arg polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene and breast risk in Nigeria in a case control study involving 209 women with breast cancer and 209 controls without the disease. Study participants were recruited from surgical outpatient clinics and surgical wards of four University Teaching Hospitals located in Midwestern and southeastern Nigeria between September 2002 and April 2004. Premenopausal women carrying at least one LEPR 223Arg allele were at a modestly increased risk of breast cancer after adjusting for confounders (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–3.2, p = 0.07). There was no association with postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.4–1.8, p = 0.68). Our results suggest that the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism in the extracellular domain of the LEPR receptor gene is associated with a modestly increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer in Nigerian women

  12. Association of p53 codon72 Arg>Pro polymorphism with susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma: evidence from a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Sahu, S K; Chakrabarti, S; Roy, S D; Baishya, N; Reddy, R R; Suklabaidya, S; Kumar, A; Mohanty, S; Maji, S; Suryanwanshi, A; Rajasubramaniam, S; Asthana, M; Panda, A K; Singh, S P; Ganguly, S; Shaw, O P; Bichhwalia, A K; Sahoo, P K; Chattopadhyay, N R; Chatterjee, K; Kundu, C N; Das, A K; Kannan, R; Zorenpuii; Zomawia, E; Sema, S A; Singh, Y I; Ghosh, S K; Sharma, K; Das, B S; Choudhuri, T

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is a critical player in the fight against cancer as it controls the cell cycle check point, apoptotic pathways and genomic stability. It is known to be the most frequently mutated gene in a wide variety of human cancers. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of p53 at codon72 leading to substitution of proline (Pro) in place of arginine (Arg) has been identified as a risk factor for development of many cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the association of this polymorphism with NPC across the published literature has shown conflicting results. We aimed to conduct a case-control study for a possible relation of p53 codon72 Arg>Pro polymorphism with NPC risk in underdeveloped states of India, combine the result with previously available records from different databases and perform a meta-analysis to draw a more definitive conclusion. A total of 70 NPC patients and 70 healthy controls were enrolled from different hospitals of north-eastern India. The p53 codon72 Arg>Pro polymorphism was typed by polymerase chain reaction, which showed an association with NPC risk. In the meta-analysis consisting of 1842 cases and 2330 controls, it was found that individuals carrying the Pro allele and the ProPro genotype were at a significantly higher risk for NPC as compared with those with the Arg allele and the ArgArg genotype, respectively. Individuals with a ProPro genotype and a combined Pro genotype (ProPro+ArgPro) also showed a significantly higher risk for NPC over a wild homozygote ArgArg genotype. Additionally, the strength of each study was tested by power analysis and genotype distribution by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The outcome of the study indicated that both allele frequency and genotype distribution of p53 codon72 Arg>Pro polymorphism were significantly associated with NPC risk. Stratified analyses based on ethnicity and source of samples supported the above result. PMID:27159678

  13. Variant Toll-Like Receptor4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile Alleles and Toll-Like Receptor2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp Alleles in Colorectal Cancer

    Homa Davoodi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system recognizes the presence of bacterial products through the expression of a family of membrane receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Polymorphisms in TLRs have been shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease.The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between polymorphisms of TLR4 (Asp299Gly; Thr399Ile and TLR2 (Arg677Trp; Arg753Gln genes and risk of colorectal cancer. DNA from 60 colorectal carcinoma patients from 3 major races in Malaysia  (22  Malays,  20  Chinese  and  18  Indians  and  blood  from  50  apparently  healthy individuals were evaluated. Control group were matched to study group by race and age. The polymorphisms were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP.Genotyping results showed two out of sixty tumor specimens (3.3% harbored both variant TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles. In contrast, DNA isolated from blood cells of 50 apparently healthy individuals harbored wild type TLR4. In the case of TLR2 Arg753Gln genotyping, all of the fifty normal and 60 tumors were of the wild type genotype. TLR2 Arg677Trp genotyping showed a heterozygous pattern in all samples. However, this may not be a true polymorphism of the TLR2 gene as it is likely due to a variation of a duplicated (pseudogene region. There was only a low incidence (2/60; 3.3% of TLR4 polymorphism at the Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles in colorectal cancer patients. All normal and tumor samples harbored the wild type TLR2 Arg753 allele.Our study suggests that variant TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles as well as TLR2 (Arg753Gln allele are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer.

  14. Occurrence of sulfonamide-, tetracycline-, plasmid-mediated quinolone- and macrolide-resistance genes in livestock feedlots in Northern China.

    Mu, Quanhua; Li, Jin; Sun, Yingxue; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Qing; Luo, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock feedlots deserve attention because they are prone to transfer to human pathogens and thus pose threats to human health. In this study, the occurrence of 21 ARGs, including tetracycline (tet)-, sulfonamide (sul)-, plasmid-mediated quinolone (PMQR)- and macrolide-resistance (erm) genes were investigated in feces and adjacent soils from chicken, swine, and cattle feedlots in Northern China. PMQR and sul ARGs were the most prevalent and account for over 90.0 % of the total ARGs in fecal samples. Specifically, PMQR genes were the most prevalent, accounting for 59.6 % of the total ARGs, followed by sul ARGs (34.2 %). The percentage of tet ARGs was 3.4 %, and erm ARGs accounted for only 1.9 %. Prevalence of PMQR and sul ARGs was also found in swine and cattle feces. The overall trend of ARG concentrations in feces of different feeding animals was chicken > swine > beef cattle in the studied area. In soils, sul ARGs had the highest concentration and account for 71.1 to 80.2 % of the total ARGs, which is possibly due to the widely distributed molecular carriers (i.e., class one integrons), facilitating sul ARG propagation. Overall, this study provides integrated profiles of various types of ARGs in livestock feedlots and thus provides a reference for the management of antibiotic use in livestock farming. PMID:25475616

  15. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China.

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-11-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. PMID:26256145

  16. Quantitative assessment of the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp polymorphisms and risk of cutaneous melanoma.

    Jiang, Huayong; Xu, Weidong; Zhang, Fuli; Wei, Li; Wang, Yajie; Wang, Yadi; Liu, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp polymorphisms might be related to cutaneous melanoma susceptibility. However, epidemiologic findings have been inconsistent. We have assessed reported studies by meta-analysis to perform a more precise estimation of the association between the XRCC1 two polymorphisms (Arg399Gln, Arg194Trp) and risk of cutaneous melanoma. A total of seven eligible articles were selected for this meta-analysis, including 3454 cases and 3811 controls for the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and 1256 cases and 1575 controls for the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism. Overall, no significant associations were found in all genetic models when the studies were pooled into the meta-analysis for the Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp polymorphisms. When stratified by source of control, significant associations were found for the Arg399Gln polymorphism in the population-based subgroup under AA versus GG [odds ratio (OR)=1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-1.88]; the dominant model AA/GA versus GG (OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.04-1.51); and the recessive model AA versus GA/GG (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.01-1.68). No significant associations were found for the Arg194Trp polymorphism in the subgroup analysis. This meta-analysis suggested that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism was a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma in population-based subgroup. PMID:26967970

  17. Characterization of broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment reactors through metagenomic approaches

    Yang, Ying; 楊穎

    2014-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have attracted great concerns worldwide. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are reservoirs of ARGs while wastewater/sludge treatment processes are considered as important means to control these emerging biological pollutants. However, the full profiles of ARGs in WWTPs or the removal efficiency of ARGs by wastewater/sludge treatment process was not well characterized yet. Thus, the major tasks in this st...

  18. Replacement of Lys Linker with Arg Linker Resulting in Improved Melanoma Uptake and Reduced Renal Uptake of Tc-99m-Labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-Conjugated Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Hybrid Peptide

    Yang, Jianquan; Guo, Haixun; Padilla, R. Steve; Berwick, Marianne; Miao, Yubin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the non-specific renal uptake of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptide through structural modification or L-lysine co-injection. The RGD motif {cyclic(Arg-Gly-Asp-dTyr-Asp)} was coupled to [Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]α-MSH3-13 {(Arg11)CCMSH} through the Arg linker (substituting the Lys linker) to generate a novel RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH hybrid peptide. The melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of...

  19. Morfoanatomia foliar de Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg., Apocynaceae

    Baratto, Leopoldo; Duarte, Márcia do Rocio; de Moraes Santos, Cid Aimbiré

    2010-01-01

    Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), uma árvore nativa brasileira rica em alcaloides indólicos, é conhecida como "pau-pra-tudo" e utilizada popularmente como hipocolesterolêmica, hipoglicêmica e anti-hipertensiva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha desta planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e autenticidade desta espécie. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. Como caracte...

  20. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) Modified Biomimetic Polymeric Materials

    Xufeng NIU; Yuanliang WANG; Yanfeng LUO; Juan XIN; Yonggang LI

    2005-01-01

    The new generation of biomaterials focuses on the design of biomimetic polymeric materials that are capable of eliciting specific cellular responses and directing new tissue formation. Since Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequences have been found to promote cell adhesion in 1984, numerous polymers have been functionalized with RGD peptides for tissue engineering applications. This review gave the advance in RGD modified biomimetic polymeric materials,focusing on the mechanism of RGD, the surface and bulk modification of polymer with RGD peptides and the evaluation in vitro and in vivo of the modified biomimetic materials.

  1. ARG1 and ARL2 contribute to gravity signal transduction in the statocytes of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and hypocotyls

    Masson, Patrick; Harrison, Benjamin; Stanga, John; Otegui, Marisa; Sedbrook, John

    Gravity is an important cue that plant organs use to guide their growth. Each organ is characterized by a defined gravity set point angle that dictates its optimal orientation within the gravity field. Specialized cells, named statocytes, enable this directional growth response by perceiving gravity via the sedimentation of, and/or tension/pressure exerted by, starch-filled plastids within their cytoplasm. Located in the columella region of the cap in roots and in the endodermis of hypocotyls and stems, these cells modulate the lateral transport of auxin across the corresponding organ in a gravistimulus-dependent manner. Upon plant reorientation within the gravity field, a gravity signal transduction pathway is activated within those cells, which in roots leads to a relocalization of the PIN3 auxin efflux carrier toward the lower membrane and an alkalinization of the cytoplasm. In turn, these events appear to promote a lateral transport of auxin toward the bottom side of the stimulated organ, which promotes a curvature. We previously uncovered ARG1 and ARL2 as essential contributors to these cellular processes. Mutations in these genes result in altered root and hypocotyl gravitropism. In roots, this abnormal growth behavior is associated with a lack of PIN3 relocalization within the statocytes and an absence of preferential downward auxin transport upon gravistimulation. These two genes encode paralogous J-domain proteins that are associated with the plasma membrane and other membranes of the vesicular trafficking pathway, and appear to modulate protein trafficking within the statocytes. An analysis of the root gravitropic phenotypes associated with different double mutant configurations affecting ARG1, ARL2 and PIN3 suggest that all three proteins function in a common gravity-signaling pathway. Surprisingly, when a mutation that affects starch biosynthesis (pgm) is introgressed into an arg1-2 mutant, the gravitropic defects are dramatically enhanced relative to

  2. Leptin receptor polymorphism Gln223Arg (rs1137101) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant oral lesions

    Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Pereira, Camila Santos; das Graças Pena, Geórgia; Reis, Tatiana Carvalho; Silva, Rosângela Ramos Veloso; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; de Souza, Marcela Gonçalves; Soares, Mariana Batista; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Menezes, Elytania Veiga; Nobre, Sérgio Avelino Mota; Rodrigues Neto, João Felício; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Velásquez-Meléndez, Jorge Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the LEPR gene Gln223Arg polymorphism (rs1137101) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and in potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOL) in comparison to normal oral mucosa in a Brazilian population. Smokers (n = 89) were selected from a representative sample of 471 individuals from the general population of Montes Claros, Brazil. Participants were age and gender matched to patients with OSCC (n = 25) and oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 25). We investiga...

  3. IL-4 regulates specific Arg-1(+) macrophage sFlt-1-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis.

    Wu, Wei-Kang; Georgiadis, Anastasios; Copland, David A; Liyanage, Sidath; Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Robbie, Scott J; Liu, Jian; Wu, Jiahui; Bainbridge, James W; Bates, David O; Ali, Robin R; Nicholson, Lindsay B; Dick, Andrew D

    2015-08-01

    One of the main drivers for neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration is activation of innate immunity in the presence of macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that T helper cell type 2 cytokines and, in particular, IL-4 condition human and murine monocyte phenotype toward Arg-1(+), and their subsequent behavior limits angiogenesis by increasing soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) gene expression. We document that T helper cell type 2 cytokine-conditioned murine macrophages neutralize vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated endothelial cell proliferation (human umbilical vein endothelial cell and choroidal vasculature) in a sFlt-1-dependent manner. We demonstrate that in vivo intravitreal administration of IL-4 attenuates laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (L-CNV) due to specific IL-4 conditioning of macrophages. IL-4 induces the expression of sFlt-1 by resident CD11b(+) retinal microglia and infiltrating myeloid cells but not from retinal pigment epithelium. IL-4-induced suppression of L-CNV is not prevented when sFlt-1 expression is attenuated in retinal pigment epithelium. IL-4-mediated suppression of L-CNV was abrogated in IL-4R-deficient mice and in bone marrow chimeras reconstituted with myeloid cells that had undergone lentiviral-mediated shRNA silencing of sFlt-1, demonstrating the critical role of this cell population. Together, these data establish how lL-4 directly drives macrophage sFlt-1 production expressing an Arg-1(+) phenotype and support the therapeutic potential of targeted IL-4 conditioning within the tissue to regulate disease conditions such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26079814

  4. ARGE DFC - A European approach to MCFC commercialization

    Kraus, P.; Huppmann, G. [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Heiming, A. [Ruhgras AG, Dorsten (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The largest European program for the commercialization of the molten carbonate fuel cell technology is carried out by the European Direct Fuel Cell Consortium (ARGE DFC). The consortium consists of the following companies: (1) MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany), within the DaimlerBenz Group responsible for off-road propulsion and decentralized energy systems. (2) Haldor Topsoe A/S (Denmark), a plant engineering company and specialist for catalytic processes (3) Elkraft A.m.b.A. (Denmark), one of the countries two utility companies (4) Ruhrgas AG (Germany), the largest German gas company (5) RWE AG (Germany), the largest German electrical utility company MTU acts as a consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Energy Research Corporation of Danbury, Connecticut.

  5. Arginine induces GH gene expression by activating NOS/NO signaling in rat isolated hemi-pituitaries

    S.C.F. Olinto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid arginine (Arg is a recognized secretagogue of growth hormone (GH, and has been shown to induce GH gene expression. Arg is the natural precursor of nitric oxide (NO, which is known to mediate many of the effects of Arg, such as GH secretion. Arg was also shown to increase calcium influx in pituitary cells, which might contribute to its effects on GH secretion. Although the mechanisms involved in the effects of Arg on GH secretion are well established, little is known about them regarding the control of GH gene expression. We investigated whether the NO pathway and/or calcium are involved in the effects of Arg on GH gene expression in rat isolated pituitaries. To this end, pituitaries from approximately 170 male Wistar rats (~250 g were removed, divided into two halves, pooled (three hemi-pituitaries and incubated or not with Arg, as well as with different pharmacological agents. Arg (71 mM, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 and 0.1 mM and a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP analogue (8-Br-cGMP, 1 mM increased GH mRNA expression 60 min later. The NO acceptor hemoglobin (0.3 µM blunted the effect of SNP, and the combined treatment with Arg and L-NAME (a NO synthase (NOS inhibitor, 55 mM abolished the stimulatory effect of Arg on GH gene expression. The calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine (3 µM also abolished Arg-induced GH gene expression. The present study shows that Arg directly induces GH gene expression in hemi-pituitaries isolated from rats, excluding interference from somatostatinergic neurons, which are supposed to be inhibited by Arg. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the NOS/NO signaling pathway and calcium mediate the Arg effects on GH gene expression.

  6. Arginine induces GH gene expression by activating NOS/NO signaling in rat isolated hemi-pituitaries

    The amino acid arginine (Arg) is a recognized secretagogue of growth hormone (GH), and has been shown to induce GH gene expression. Arg is the natural precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is known to mediate many of the effects of Arg, such as GH secretion. Arg was also shown to increase calcium influx in pituitary cells, which might contribute to its effects on GH secretion. Although the mechanisms involved in the effects of Arg on GH secretion are well established, little is known about them regarding the control of GH gene expression. We investigated whether the NO pathway and/or calcium are involved in the effects of Arg on GH gene expression in rat isolated pituitaries. To this end, pituitaries from approximately 170 male Wistar rats (∼250 g) were removed, divided into two halves, pooled (three hemi-pituitaries) and incubated or not with Arg, as well as with different pharmacological agents. Arg (71 mM), the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 and 0.1 mM) and a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) analogue (8-Br-cGMP, 1 mM) increased GH mRNA expression 60 min later. The NO acceptor hemoglobin (0.3 µM) blunted the effect of SNP, and the combined treatment with Arg and L-NAME (an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 55 mM) abolished the stimulatory effect of Arg on GH gene expression. The calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine (3 µM) also abolished Arg-induced GH gene expression. The present study shows that Arg directly induces GH gene expression in hemi-pituitaries isolated from rats, excluding interference from somatostatinergic neurons, which are supposed to be inhibited by Arg. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the NOS/NO signaling pathway and calcium mediate the Arg effects on GH gene expression

  7. Arginine induces GH gene expression by activating NOS/NO signaling in rat isolated hemi-pituitaries

    Olinto, S.C.F. [Faculdade de Ciências Integradas do Pontal, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil); Adrião, M.G. [Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Castro-Barbosa, T.; Goulart-Silva, F.; Nunes, M.T. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The amino acid arginine (Arg) is a recognized secretagogue of growth hormone (GH), and has been shown to induce GH gene expression. Arg is the natural precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is known to mediate many of the effects of Arg, such as GH secretion. Arg was also shown to increase calcium influx in pituitary cells, which might contribute to its effects on GH secretion. Although the mechanisms involved in the effects of Arg on GH secretion are well established, little is known about them regarding the control of GH gene expression. We investigated whether the NO pathway and/or calcium are involved in the effects of Arg on GH gene expression in rat isolated pituitaries. To this end, pituitaries from approximately 170 male Wistar rats (∼250 g) were removed, divided into two halves, pooled (three hemi-pituitaries) and incubated or not with Arg, as well as with different pharmacological agents. Arg (71 mM), the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 and 0.1 mM) and a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) analogue (8-Br-cGMP, 1 mM) increased GH mRNA expression 60 min later. The NO acceptor hemoglobin (0.3 µM) blunted the effect of SNP, and the combined treatment with Arg and L-NAME (an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 55 mM) abolished the stimulatory effect of Arg on GH gene expression. The calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine (3 µM) also abolished Arg-induced GH gene expression. The present study shows that Arg directly induces GH gene expression in hemi-pituitaries isolated from rats, excluding interference from somatostatinergic neurons, which are supposed to be inhibited by Arg. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the NOS/NO signaling pathway and calcium mediate the Arg effects on GH gene expression.

  8. Aminopeptidase activity in rat brain synaptosomes - 2-mercaptoethanol stimulation and Arg-vasopressin degradation

    Simmons, W.H.; Orawski, A.T.

    1986-03-05

    Rat brain synaptic plasma membranes contain an amastatin-inhibited aminopeptidase activity which degrades Arg-vaso-pressin (AVP). The pH optimum for AVP cleavage was found to be 6.8, similar to that reported for oxytocin. The ability of other peptides and arylamides such as oxytocin, Tyr-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH/sub 2/ and Arg-Arg-..beta..NA to inhibit cleavage of (/sup 3/H-Tyr/sup 2/)-AVP suggests that the enzyme may not be specific for AVP. The AVP-cleaving activity has been solubilized and partially characterized. Synaptosomes were lysed with hypotonic buffer, washed, and extracted with 1% Nonidet P-40 detergent. The solubilized protein was chromatographed by gel filtration HPLC on Superose 6. A single peak of activity was found with a M.W. = 117,000 which could hydrolyze 1mM Ala-..beta..NA, Arg-..beta..NA, Arg-Arg-..beta..NA, Phe-Met and Phe-Arg as well as slowly cleave AVP with the ultimate release of /sup 3/H-Tyr. 2-Mercaptoethanol (3.9mM) (ME) stimulated activity 3.6 to 6.6-fold for arylamide and dipeptide substrates, but 35-fold for labelled AVP, possibly owing to reduction of the AVP disulfide bond. All activities in the presence of ME were completely inhibited by 0.2mM amastatin.

  9. Aminopeptidase activity in rat brain synaptosomes - 2-mercaptoethanol stimulation and Arg-vasopressin degradation

    Rat brain synaptic plasma membranes contain an amastatin-inhibited aminopeptidase activity which degrades Arg-vaso-pressin (AVP). The pH optimum for AVP cleavage was found to be 6.8, similar to that reported for oxytocin. The ability of other peptides and arylamides such as oxytocin, Tyr-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 and Arg-Arg-βNA to inhibit cleavage of [3H-Tyr2]-AVP suggests that the enzyme may not be specific for AVP. The AVP-cleaving activity has been solubilized and partially characterized. Synaptosomes were lysed with hypotonic buffer, washed, and extracted with 1% Nonidet P-40 detergent. The solubilized protein was chromatographed by gel filtration HPLC on Superose 6. A single peak of activity was found with a M.W. = 117,000 which could hydrolyze 1mM Ala-βNA, Arg-βNA, Arg-Arg-βNA, Phe-Met and Phe-Arg as well as slowly cleave AVP with the ultimate release of 3H-Tyr. 2-Mercaptoethanol (3.9mM) (ME) stimulated activity 3.6 to 6.6-fold for arylamide and dipeptide substrates, but 35-fold for labelled AVP, possibly owing to reduction of the AVP disulfide bond. All activities in the presence of ME were completely inhibited by 0.2mM amastatin

  10. An ARGS-aggrecan assay for analysis in blood and synovial fluid

    Larsson, S; Lohmander, Stefan; Struglics, A

    2014-01-01

    the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform for detection of ARGS-aggrecan was validated, using a standard made from recombinant human aggrecan. Matched samples of SF, serum, plasma, and urine were obtained from 36 subjects at different time points after knee injury, and analysed for ARGS-aggrecan content...

  11. Relationships between plasma leptin levels, leptin G2548A, leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese population

    Mei Yang; Songxu Peng; Wei Li; Zhihua Wan; Linlin Fan; Yukai Du

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine concentrations of leptin and biochemical parameters in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals, and also to explore the links of leptin (LEP) G2548A and leptin receptor (LEPR) Gln223Arg polymorphisms with leptin levels and GDM risk among Chinese. Our study included 357 GDM and 355 NGT individuals who were at 24~30 gestational weeks. Plasma leptin and insulin levels were analyzed by ELISA. Gene polym...

  12. [Fate of ARB and ARGs During Wastewater Treatment Process of Spiramycin Production].

    Qin, Cai-xia; Tong, Juan; Shen, Pei-hong; Wei, Yuan-song

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance gene(ARG) pose great risk to both environment and human health. This study aimed to investigate the fate of macrolide resistant bacteria, six macrolide resistance genes ermB, ermF, ermX, mefA, ereA, mphB and three transfer elements ISCR1, intIl and Tn916/1545 during wastewater biological treatment processes of spiramycin production. Samples were collected from an antibiotic wastewater treatment station in different seasons. Results showed that the total heterotrophs and Enterococci were mostly removed during wastewater biological treatment, with the reduction of 1. 6-2. 1 logs for total heterotrophs and of 3. 7 logs for Enterococci, respectively. For 94 antibiotic resistant Enterococci individually isolated from four different treatment units including adjusting tank, anaerobic tank, anoxic tank, and aerobic tank, all of these strains showed resistance to spiramycin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin; moreover, the antibiotic resistance rates was not reduced in the effluent. Results of PCR and quantitative PCR showed that 80% of antibiotic resistant Enterococci were positive for PCR amplification of erAB, but negative for PCR amplification of other genes. Concentrations of ermB and ermF were peaked in the spring and autumn samples. Resistance genes of ermB, ermF, mefA, ereA, mphB and transfer element of Tn916/1545 were reduced to some degree during antibiotic production wastewater treatment, but concentrations of ermX, intIl, ISCRl in the effluent were higher than those in the influent. The abundance of mefA, ereA and Tn916/1545 were reduced during wastewater treatment process, and the better removal performance for mefA, ereA, Tn916/1545 occurred in spring than in autumn; however, the abundance of ermX, intI1 and ISCR1 were increased. PMID:26717693

  13. Identification of Genes Important for Growth of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli in Urine

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; de Evgrafov, Mari Cristina Rodriguez; Phan, Minh Duy;

    2012-01-01

    clinical ABU E. coli strain VR89. Six genes involved in the biosynthesis of various amino acids and nucleobases were identified (carB, argE, argC, purA, metE, and ilvC), and site-specific mutants were subsequently constructed in E. coli 83972 and E. coli VR89 for each of these genes. In all cases, these...

  14. Cleavage at both Arg306 and Arg506 is required and sufficient for timely and efficient inactivation of factor Va by activated protein C*

    Barhoover, Melissa A.; Kalafatis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Activated protein C (APC) inactivates membrane-bound factor Va following cleavages of the heavy chain at Arg306, Arg506, and Arg679. Objectives To examine which cleavage is most important for inactivation, recombinant factor V molecules were constructed as follows: factor V306Q (R306→Q), factor V506Q (R506→Q), and factor V306Q/506Q (R306→Q and R506→Q). Methods The recombinant molecules were expressed in mammalian cells, purified, and assayed prior and after incubation with APC and lipids for 30 min (factor Vai) in clotting assays and in an assay using purified reagents and saturating concentrations of factor Va. Results Clotting assays demonstrated that factor VaiWT, factor Vai306Q and factor Vai506Q were devoid of activity, while factor Vai306Q/506Q maintained ~70% activity following a 30 minute incubation with APC. Prothrombinase assembled with all mutant cofactor molecules before and after treatment with APC had Km values similar to values found with prothrombinase assembled with factor VaWT. Prothrombinase assembled with factor VaiWT demonstrated 20-fold reduction in kcat, while prothrombinase assembled with factor Vai506Q had a 2-fold reduction in kcat as compared to prothrombinase assembled with factor VaWT. In contrast, factor Vai306Q and factor Vai306Q/506Q didn’t show any loss in kcat under similar experimental conditions. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that: 1) the activity of an APC-treated factor Va molecule bearing a single mutation at Arg306 or Arg506 depends on the assay used; and 2) regardless of the assay employed, in the absence of the APC-cleavage sites at Arg306 and Arg506, the active cofactor is unable to be significantly inactivated by APC in the presence of a membrane surface. PMID:21467919

  15. Seasonal variations in antibiotic resistance gene transport in the Almendares River, Havana, Cuba

    Charles W Knapp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water-column and sediment samples during the dry-and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba. Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated greater ARG transport downstream during the wet season. Water-column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas, the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments.

  16. Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae: Ethnopharmacology and Phytochemistry Review

    Mayank Gangwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae are widely distributed perennial shrub or small tree in tropical and subtropical region in outer Himalayas regions with an altitude below 1,000 m and are reported to have wide range of pharmacological activities. Mallotus philippinensis species are known to contain different natural compounds, mainly phenols, diterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, cardenolides, triterpenoids, coumarins, isocoumarins, and many more especially phenols; that is, bergenin, mallotophilippinens, rottlerin, and isorottlerin have been isolated, identified, and reported interesting biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory activity protein inhibition against cancer cell. We have selected all the pharmacological aspects and toxicological and all its biological related studies. The present review reveals that Mallotus philippinensis is a valuable source of medicinally important natural molecules and provides convincing support for its future use in modern medicine. However, the existing knowledge is very limited about Mallotus philippinensis and its different parts like steam, leaf, and fruit. Further, more detailed safety data pertaining to the acute and subacute toxicity and cardio- and immunotoxicity also needs to be generated for crude extracts or its pure isolated compounds. This review underlines the interest to continue the study of this genus of the Euphorbiaceae.

  17. Hemocytes of the Rose Sawfly Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae).

    Khosravi, R; Sendi, J J; Brayner, F A; Alves, L C; Feitosa, A P S

    2016-02-01

    We characterized individual morphological types of the rose sawfly, Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae), hemocytes for the first time by means of light and differential interference contrast microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of hemocytes were identified in the hemolymph of larvae and pupae of A. ochropus: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, and oenocytoids. Prohemocytes are the smallest type of hemocytes, rounded to ovoid cells with large nuclei. Plasmatocytes are polymorphic and variable in size. Granulocytes are oval and spherical cells variable in size, with variable number of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and microtubules in the cytoplasm. Oenocytoids contain eccentric nucleus and cytoplasm with small mitochondria and few rough endoplasmic reticula. Differential hemocyte counts indicated that plasmatocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type during early instars while granulocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type in the last instar. The pattern of total hemocyte count changed during rose sawfly development and reached its peak in prepupae and then declined slowly in the pupal stage. PMID:26429582

  18. Influence of Glu/Arg, Asp/Arg, and Glu/Lys Salt Bridges on α-Helical Stability and Folding Kinetics.

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Vreede, Jocelyne; Woutersen, Sander

    2016-06-01

    Using a combination of ultraviolet circular dichroism, temperature-jump transient-infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effect of salt bridges between different types of charged amino-acid residue pairs on α-helix folding. We determine the stability and the folding and unfolding rates of 12 alanine-based α-helical peptides, each of which has a nearly identical composition containing three pairs of positively and negatively charged residues (either Glu(-)/Arg(+), Asp(-)/Arg(+), or Glu(-)/Lys(+)). Within each set of peptides, the distance and order of the oppositely charged residues in the peptide sequence differ, such that they have different capabilities of forming salt bridges. Our results indicate that stabilizing salt bridges (in which the interacting residues are spaced and ordered such that they favor helix formation) speed up α-helix formation by up to 50% and slow down the unfolding of the α-helix, whereas salt bridges with an unfavorable geometry have the opposite effect. Comparing the peptides with different types of charge pairs, we observe that salt bridges between side chains of Glu(-) and Arg(+) are most favorable for the speed of folding, probably because of the larger conformational space of the salt-bridging Glu(-)/Arg(+) rotamer pairs compared to Asp(-)/Arg(+) and Glu(-)/Lys(+). We speculate that the observed impact of salt bridges on the folding kinetics might explain why some proteins contain salt bridges that do not stabilize the final, folded conformation. PMID:27276251

  19. Role of Arg-72 of pharaonis Phoborhodopsin (Sensory Rhodopsin II) on its Photochemistry

    Ikeura, Yukako; Shimono, Kazumi; Iwamoto, Masayuki; Sudo, Yuki; Kamo, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    Pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR, or pharaonis sensory rhodopsin II, NpsRII) is a sensor for the negative phototaxis of Natronomonas (Natronobacterium) pharaonis. Arginine 72 of ppR corresponds to Arg-82 of bacteriorhodopsin, which is a highly conserved residue among microbial rhodopsins. Using various Arg-72 ppR mutants, we obtained the following results: 1), Arg-72ppR together possibly with Asp-193 influenced the pKa of the counterion of the protonated Schiff base. 2), The M-rise became approx...

  20. Polimorfisme Gly972Arg Gen IRS-1 dan Cys981Tyr Gen PTPN1 sebagai Faktor Risiko pada Sindrom Metabolik dengan Riwayat Berat Bayi Lahir Rendah

    Hikmat Permana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing prevalence of obesity occurs worldwide and can affect all ages levels. Risk factors of increasing metabolic syndrome were associated with changes in lifestyle, obesity and low birth weight (LBW. This study was aimed to analyze the genotype IRS-1, genotype PTPN1 and LBW in metabolic syndrome risk factors. In 2009, this restrospective cohort study was comprised of 97 LBW and 100 normal birth weight (NBW, aged 20–21 years old, from the previous cohort study in District Tanjung Sari since 1989. The role of IRS-1 gene, PTPN1 gene and LBW in the metabolic syndrome factors were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. The result showed there were no significant relationship between IRS-1 and PTPN1 genotype with metabolic syndrome factors but only IRS-1 genotype was significantly associated with trygliceride (p=0.006. Gly972Arg IRS-1 gene polymorphism in LBW has predictive value of increasing diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and trygliceride. Cys981 Tyr PTPN1 gene polymorphism showed a risk factor for systolic blood pressure and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. Gly972Arg IRS-1 gene polymorphism was a dominant factor to increase diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and trygliceride. In conclusions, Cys981 Tyr PTPN1 gene polymorphism is a risk factor of increased systolic blood pressure and HDL cholesterol, and LBW is the risk factor increasing fasting glucose level.

  1. WOOD ANATOMY OF Phyllanthus sellowianus Müll. Arg. (PHYLLANTHACEAE

    Luciano Denardi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989294The present study aimed to describe the wood anatomy of Phyllanthus sellowianus Müll. Arg.(Phyllanthaceae, as well as the research of anatomical characters associated with the flexibility of their stems, desirable characteristic for bioengineering works. Belonging to the group of  reophyllous and with up to three  meters in height, the species occurs naturally in the south of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. The exsicat and wood sample from a P. sellowianus, located in the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazi, were deposited in the University Federal de Santa Maria under the numbers HDCF 5587 e 5588. Standard technique was used to set the histological lamina of wood. For macerations used the method of Jeffrey. The Wood anatomy description followed the IAWA Committee (1989. The microscopic analysis revealed the presence vassels of small diameter (< 60µm, radial multiples of 2 to 4 units, and simple perforation plates, obliquely, axial parenchyma absent, heterogeneous rays, with 1-3 cells large, and gelatinous fibers. The absence of axial parenchyma and laticifer tubes is compatible to the Phyllanthaceae group. The presence of perforated ray cells is, probably, the main anatomic component for differentiation of P. sellowianus from the other species of the genera. The abundant presence of gelatinous fibers certainly is one of the main anatomical characteristics related to the high flexibility of its stem.

  2. Arg deficiency does not influence the course of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Jacobsen, Freja Aksel; Hulst, Camilla; Bäckström, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inhibition of Abl kinases has an ameliorating effect on the rodent model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and arrests lymphocyte activation. The family of Abl kinases consists of the Abl1/Abl and Abl2/Arg tyrosine kinases. While the Abl kinase has bee...... encephalomyelitis is not dependent on Arg, but Arg plays a role for the number of B cells in immunized mice. This might suggest a novel role for the Arg kinase in B-cell trafficking or regulation. Furthermore, the results suggest that Arg is important for normal embryonic development....

  3. N- and C-terminal isoforms of Arg quantified by real-time PCR are specifically expressed in human normal and neoplastic cells, in neoplastic cell lines, and in HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Perego, Roberto A; Corizzato, Matteo; Bianchi, Cristina; Eroini, Barbara; Bosari, Silvano

    2005-04-01

    The human ABL2 (or ARG) gene codes for a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase is involved in translocation with the ETV6 gene in human leukemia and has an altered expression in several human carcinomas. Two isoforms of Arg with different N-termini (1A and 1B) have been described. The C-terminal domain of Arg contains two F-actin-binding sequences that perform a number of actions related to cell morphology and motility by interacting with actin filaments. We have identified different-sized specific cDNAs in hematopoietic, epithelial, nervous, and fibroblastic cells by means of the reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of human Arg mRNA. Some of these cDNAs showed an adjunctive alternative splice event involving the 63 bp sequence of exon II, thus leading to four cDNA types with different N-termini: 1A long and short, and 1B long and short. Other cDNAs lacked a 309 bp sequence in the last exon involving one of the C-terminal F-actin binding domains, thus giving rise to two cDNA types: C-termini long and short. Quantified by real-time PCR-quantitative RT-PCR-these Arg transcript isoforms have specific expression patterns not only in different normal and tumor cell types, but also during cell differentiation and growth arrest. These isoforms maintained the open reading frames, and eight putative proteins were predicted. The different C-termini isoforms seem to retain the same quantitative reciprocal ratio of their respective transcripts. The Arg protein isoforms with different C-terminal actin-binding domains and different N-termini might have specific cellular localizations/concentrations, and differently regulated catalytic activity with different implications in normal and neoplastic cells. PMID:15765532

  4. Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa, p.Gly56Arg Mutation in NR2E3: Phenotype in a Large Cohort of 24 Cases

    Lopez Martinez, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Molina, Maria Isabel; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Fernandez-San Jose, Patricia; Avila-Fernandez, Almudena; Corton, Marta; Millan, Jose M.; García Sandoval, Blanca; Ayuso, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Importance This research is the single largest NR2E3 genotype-phenotype correlation study performed to date in autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa. Objective The aim of this study is to analyse the frequency of the p.Gly56Arg mutation in NR2E3 for the largest cohort of autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa patients to date and its associated phenotype. Patients and Methods A cohort of 201 unrelated Spanish families affected by autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa. The p.Gly56Arg mutation in the NR2E3 (NM_014249.2) gene was analysed in 201 families. In the 24 cases where the mutation had been detected, a haplotype analysis linked to the p.Gly56Arg families was performed, using four extragenic polymorphic markers D15S967, D15S1050, D15S204 and D15S188. Phenotype study included presence and age of onset of night blindness, visual field loss and cataracts; and an ophthalmoscopic examination after pupillary dilation and electroretinogram for the 24 cases. Results Seven of the 201 analyzed families were positive for the p.Gly56Arg, leading to a prevalence of 3.5%. Clinical data were available for 24 subjects. Night blindness was the first noticeable symptom (mean 15.9 years). Visual field loss onset was variable (23.3 ± 11.9 years). Loss of visual acuity appeared late in the disease´s evolution. Most of the patients with cataracts (50%) presented it from the third decade of life. Fundus changes showed inter and intrafamiliar variability, but most of the patients showed typical RP changes and it was common to find macular affectation (47.4%). Electroretinogram was impaired from the beginning of the disease. Two families shared a common haplotype. Additionally, all patients shared a 104Kb region between D15S1050 and the NR2E3 gene. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of p.Gly56Arg in the NR2E3 gene as a common mutation associated with adRP, and provides new clues to its phenotype, which can allow for a better clinical management and genetic

  5. Apert Syndrome: Molecularly Confirmed C.758C>G (P.Pro253Arg) in FGFR2

    Cha Gon, Lee, E-mail: leechagon@eulji.ac.kr [Department of Pediatrics, Eulji General Hospital, College of Medicine, Eulji University, 68 Hangeulbiseok-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-21

    A 5-day-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of congenital malformations. She was identified with a pathogenic mutation c.758C>G (p.Pro253Arg) in FGFR2 gene using targeted exome sequencing. The de novo mutation was confirmed with Sanger sequencing in the patient and her parents. She showed occipital plagiocephaly with frontal bossing (Figure A and B). Skull frontal and lateral radiography revealed fusion of most of the sutures except coronal suture, with convolutional markings (Figure D and E). She had complete cleft palate (Figure C). Her fused bilateral hands showed type II syndactyly with complete syndactyly between the ring and the little fingers (Figure F1-F3). Both toes were simple syndactyly with side-to-side fusion of skin (Figure G1-)

  6. Apert Syndrome: Molecularly Confirmed C.758C>G (P.Pro253Arg) in FGFR2

    A 5-day-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of congenital malformations. She was identified with a pathogenic mutation c.758C>G (p.Pro253Arg) in FGFR2 gene using targeted exome sequencing. The de novo mutation was confirmed with Sanger sequencing in the patient and her parents. She showed occipital plagiocephaly with frontal bossing (Figure A and B). Skull frontal and lateral radiography revealed fusion of most of the sutures except coronal suture, with convolutional markings (Figure D and E). She had complete cleft palate (Figure C). Her fused bilateral hands showed type II syndactyly with complete syndactyly between the ring and the little fingers (Figure F1-F3). Both toes were simple syndactyly with side-to-side fusion of skin (Figure G1-)

  7. Real-Time Imaging Reveals Properties of Glutamate-Induced Arc/Arg 3.1 Translation in Neuronal Dendrites.

    Na, Youn; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Changhee; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Park, Joo Min; Sockanathan, Shanthini; Huganir, Richard L; Worley, Paul F

    2016-08-01

    The immediate early gene Arc (also Arg3.1) produces rapid changes in synaptic properties that are linked to de novo translation. Here we develop a novel translation reporter that exploits the rapid maturation and "flash" kinetics of Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) to visualize Arc translation. Following glutamate stimulation, discrete Arc-Gluc bioluminescent flashes representing sites of de novo translation are detected within 15 s at distributed sites in dendrites, but not spines. Flashes are episodic, lasting ∼20 s, and may be unitary or repeated at ∼minute intervals at the same sites. Analysis of flash amplitudes suggests they represent the quantal product of one or more polyribosomes, while inter-flash intervals appear random, suggesting they arise from a stochastic process. Surprisingly, glutamate-induced translation is dependent on Arc open reading frame. Combined observations support a model in which stalled ribosomes are reactivated to rapidly generate Arc protein. PMID:27397520

  8. Functional analysis of the p.(Leu15Pro) and p.(Gly20Arg) sequence changes in the signal sequence of LDL receptor.

    Pavloušková, Jana; Réblová, Kamila; Tichý, Lukáš; Freiberger, Tomáš; Fajkusová, Lenka

    2016-07-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a transmembrane protein that plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism. It contains 860 amino acids including a 21 amino acid long signal sequence, which directs the protein into the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in the LDLR gene lead to cholesterol accumulation in the plasma and results in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Knowledge of the impact of a mutation on the LDLR protein structure and function is very important for the diagnosis and management of FH. Unfortunately, for a large proportion of mutations this information is still missing. In this study, we focused on the LDLR signal sequence and carried out functional and in silico analyses of two sequence changes, p.(Gly20Arg) and p.(Leu15Pro), localized in this part of the LDLR. Our results revealed that the p.(Gly20Arg) change, previously described as disease causing, has no detrimental effect on protein expression or LDL particle binding. In silico analysis supports this observation, showing that both the wt and p.(Gly20Arg) signal sequences adopt an expected α-helix structure. In contrast, the mutation p.(Leu15Pro) is not associated with functional protein expression and exhibits a structure with disrupted a α-helical arrangement in the signal sequence, which most likely affects protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27175606

  9. Meta analysis of association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln and nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility%XRCC1 Arg399Gln 基因多态性与鼻咽癌易感性的 Meta 分析

    吴晓红; 于祥远; 王程强

    2015-01-01

    was I2 = 32% ,PHet = 0 .18 .Under the recessive and co‐dominant models ,combined OR and 95% CI were 1 .30(1 .04 - 1 .63) and 1 .37(1 .09 - 1 .72) respectively ,and with no significant heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 0 ,PHet = 1 .00) and (I2 = 0 ,PHet = 0 .96) .Conclusion XRCC1 gene Arg399Gln polymorphism is closely related to the genetic susceptibility of NPC ,399Gln allele may be a risk of genetic factors in NPC incidence in asians .

  10. Site-directed mutagenesis from Arg195 to His of a microalgal chloroplastidial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase causes an increase in phospholipid levels in yeast

    Long-Ling eOuyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the contribution of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT to the first acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P, the present study focused on a functional analysis of the GPAT gene from Lobosphaera incisa (designated as LiGPAT and the subcellular localization of the encoded protein LiGPAT. A full-length cDNA of LiGPAT consisting of a 1,305-bp ORF, a 1,652-bp 5′-UTR, and a 354-bp 3′-UTR, was cloned. The ORF encoded a 434-amino acid peptide, of which 63 residues at the N-terminus defined a chloroplast transit peptide. LiGPAT was exclusively localized to chloroplasts, which was shown by co-expression of LiGPAT with eGFP in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and by immunogold labeling in L. incisa. Considering the conservation of His among the G-3-P binding sites from chloroplastidial GPATs and the substitution of His by Arg at position 195 in the LiGPAT mature protein (designated mLiGPAT, we established the heterologous expression of either mLiGPAT or its mutant (Arg195His (sdmLiGPAT in the GPAT-deficient yeast mutant gat1Δ. Lipid profile analyses of these transgenic yeasts not only validated the acylation function of LiGPAT but also indicated that the site-directed mutagenesis from Arg195 to His led to an increase in the phospholipid level in yeast. Semi-quantitative analysis of mLiGPAT and sdmLiGPAT, together with the structural superimposition of their G-3-P binding sites, indicated that the increased enzymatic activity was caused by the enlarged accessible surface of the phosphate group binding pocket when Arg195 was mutated to His. Thus, the potential of genetic manipulation of GPAT to increase the glycerolipid level in L. incisa and other microalgae would be of great interest.

  11. Housefly Larva Vermicomposting Efficiently Attenuates Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swine Manure, with Concomitant Bacterial Population Changes

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Gilbert, Jack A.; Li, Haibo; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Meng; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Qiansheng; Yuan, Junxiang; Zhang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9 ARGs and the composition and structure of the bacterial communities in manure samples across 6 days o...

  12. Genotype-phenotype correlations of TGFBI p.Leu509Pro, p.Leu509Arg, p.Val613Gly, and the allelic association of p.Met502Val-p.Arg555Gln mutations

    Niel-Butschi, Florence; Kantelip, Bernadette; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Zoete, Vincent; Boimard, Mathieu; Delpech, Marc; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Renard, Gilles; D’Hermies, François; Pisella, Pierre-Jean; Hamel, Christian; Delbosc, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Investigate the genotype-phenotype correlations for five TGFBI (transforming growth factor, beta-induced) mutations including one novel pathogenic variant and one complex allele affecting the fourth FAS1 domain of keratoepithelin, and their potential effects on the protein’s structure. Methods Three unrelated families were clinically diagnosed with lattice corneal dystrophy (CD) and one with an unclassified CD of Bowman’s layer. Mutations in the TGFBI gene were detected by direct sequencing, and the functional impact of each variant was predicted using in silico algorithms. Corneal phenotypes, including histological examinations, were compared with the literature data. Furthermore, molecular modeling studies of these mutations were performed. Results Two distinct missense mutations affecting the same residue at position 509 of keratoepithelin: p.Leu509Pro (c.1526T>C) and p.Leu509Arg (c.1526T>G) were found to be associated with a lattice-type CD. The novel p.Val613Gly (c.1828T>G) TGFBI mutation was found in a sporadic case of an Algerian individual affected by lattice CD. Finally, the Bowman’s layer CD was linked to the association in cis of the p.Met502Val and p.Arg555Gln variants, leading to the reclassification of this CD as atypical Thiel-Behnke CD. Structural modeling of these TGFBI mutations argues in favor of these mutations being responsible for instability and/or incorrect folding of keratoepithelin, predictions that are compatible with the clinical diagnoses. Conclusions Description of a novel TGFBI mutation and a complex TGFBI allele further extends the mutational spectrum of TGFBI. Moreover, we show convincing evidence that TGFBI mutations affecting Leu509 are linked to the lattice phenotype in two unrelated French families, contrasting with findings previously reported. The p.Leu509Pro was reported to be associated with both amyloid and non-amyloid aggregates, whereas p.Leu509Arg has been described as being responsible for Epithelial

  13. Arg-Phe-amide-related peptides influence gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons

    Haluk Kelestimur; Emine Kacar; Aysegul Uzun; Mete Ozcan; Selim Kutlu

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic Arg-Phe-amide-related peptides, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and orthologous mammalian peptides of Arg-Phe-amide, may be important regulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis. These peptides may modulate the effects of kisspeptins because they are presently recognized as the most potent activators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, their effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons have not been investigated. In the current study, the GT1–7 cell line-expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone was used as a model to explore the effects of Arg-Phe- amide-related peptides on kisspeptin activation. Intracellular calcium concentration was quantified using the calcium-sensitive dye, fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone released into the medium was detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that 100 nmol/L kisspeptin-10 significantly increased gonadotropin-releasing hormone levels (at 120 minutes of exposure) and intracellular calcium concentrations. Co-treatment of kisspeptin with 1 μmol/L gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone or 1 μmol/L Arg-Phe-amide-related peptide-1 significantly attenuated levels of kisspeptin-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone but did not affect kisspeptin-induced elevations of intracellular calcium concentration. Overall, the results suggest that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and Arg-Phe-amide-related peptide-1 may have inhibitory effects on kisspeptin-activated gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons independent of the calcium signaling pathway.

  14. Cloning and Bioinformatical Analysis of Phospholipase Dα1 Gene and Its Promoter in the Latex of Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.)%橡胶树胶乳HbPLDα1基因及其启动子的克隆与生物信息学分析

    夏可灿; 康桂娟; 黎瑜; 聂智毅; 代龙军; 段翠芳; 曾日中

    2012-01-01

    植物磷脂酶PLDα1与伤害信号转导密切相关,是伤害诱导内源茉莉酸(Jasmonic acid,JA)生物合成的关键酶之一.橡胶树胶乳PLDα1基因(HbPLDα1)表达的研究将有助于揭示橡胶树乳管细胞JA信号转导及其调控橡胶生物合成的机制.在EST序列的基础上,通过RACE和Genome Walking方法分别克隆了橡胶树胶乳的HbPLDα1基因及其启动子序列.HbPLDα1基因的cDNA全长为2 870 bp,包含长度为2427 bp的完整开放阅读框(ORF),具有典型的植物PLDα蛋白保守功能域,与同属大戟科的蓖麻和麻风树的PLDα1基因亲缘关系最近.HbPLDα1基因启动子区域长为1 559 bp,除含有TATA box和CAAT box等基本顺式作用元件外,还存在JA和脱落酸等激素响应元件以及干旱胁迫等环境信号响应元件,这表明HbPLDα1基因的表达可能受激素和环境信号的调控,在橡胶树乳管细胞对激素和环境信号的响应过程中发挥重要作用.%Phospholipase D alpha 1(PLDαl) is involved in wound signal transduction in plant cells, and is a key component for wound -induced jasmonic acid (JA) production. The investigation of PLDαl expression would facilitate unraveling the signaling pathway of JA and its regulation of the rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasilienais (rubber tree). The PLDal gene from the Hevea latex, HbPLDal, and its promoter were cloned based on the EST sequences using RACE and Genome Walking. The full-length cDNA of HbPLDal gene was 2 870 bp with a complete ORF of 2 427 bp. HbPLDal had the similar typical conserved domains of plant PLD with those of other plants, and showed the highest identity with those of PLDal from Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas. The promoter of HbPLDal was 1 559 bp long, including not only the ordinary cis-acting elements of TATA and CAAT box, but also such cis-acting elements responsive to phytohormones (JA, ABA, GB) and environmental stresses. The data demonstrated that the expressed of HbPLDal gene could be

  15. Retinoic acid promotes the development of Arg1-expressing dendritic cells for the regulation of T-cell differentiation

    Chang, Jinsam; Thangamani, Shankar; Kim, Myung H.; Ulrich, Benjamin; Morris, Sidney M.; Chang H Kim

    2013-01-01

    Arginase I (Arg1), an enzyme expressed by many cell types including myeloid cells, can regulate immune responses. Expression of Arg1 in myeloid cells is regulated by a number of cytokines and tissue factors that influence cell development and activation. Retinoic acid, produced from vitamin A, regulates the homing and differentiation of lymphocytes and plays important roles in the regulation of immunity and immune tolerance. We report here that optimal expression of Arg1 in dendritic cells re...

  16. CD and UV Resonance Raman Indicate Little arg-glu Side Chain α-helix Peptide Stabilization

    Hong, Zhenmin; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Asher, Sanford A.

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions between side chains can control the conformation and folding of peptides and proteins. We used CD and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRR) to examine the impact of side chain charge on the conformations of two 21 residue mainly polyala peptides with a few arg and glu residues. We expected that attractions between arg-10 and glu-14 side chains would stabilize the α-helix conformation compared to a peptide with an arg-14. Surprisingly, CD suggests that the peptide w...

  17. Biosynthesis of homoarginine (hArg) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) from acutely and chronically administered free L-arginine in humans.

    Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Langen, Jennifer; Weigt-Usinger, Katharina; Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine; Mariotti, François; Schneider, Jessica Y; Rothmann, Sabine; Frölich, Jürgen C; Atzler, Dorothee; Choe, Chi-Un; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Huneau, Jean François; Lücke, Thomas; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas L-arginine (Arg) and L-homoarginine (hArg) serve as substrates for NO synthesis. ADMA and other methylated arginines are generally believed to exclusively derive from guanidine (N (G))-methylated arginine residues in proteins by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) that use S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. L-Lysine is known for decades as a precursor for hArg, but only recent studies indicate that arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) is responsible for the synthesis of hArg. AGAT catalyzes the formation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) that is methylated to creatine by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) which also uses SAM. The aim of the present study was to learn more about the mechanisms of ADMA and hArg formation in humans. Especially, we hypothesized that ADMA is produced by N (G)-methylation of free Arg in addition to the known PRMTs-involving mechanism. In knockout mouse models of AGAT- and GAMT-deficiency, we investigated the contribution of these enzymes to hArg synthesis. Arg infusion (0.5 g/kg, 30 min) in children (n = 11) and ingestion of high-fat protein meals by overweight men (n = 10) were used to study acute effects on ADMA and hArg synthesis. Daily Arg ingestion (10 g) or placebo for 3 or 6 months by patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD, n = 20) or coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 30) was used to study chronic effects of Arg on ADMA synthesis. Mass spectrometric methods were used to measure all biochemical parameters in plasma and urine samples. In mice, AGAT but not GAMT was found to contribute to plasma hArg, while ADMA synthesis was independent of AGAT and GAMT. Arg infusion acutely increased plasma Arg, hArg and ADMA concentrations, but decreased the plasma hArg/ADMA ratio. High-fat protein meals acutely increased plasma Arg, hArg, ADMA concentrations, as well as the plasma hArg

  18. Polymorphisms in α- and β-Adrenergic Receptor Genes, Hypertension, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Skaraborg Sleep Study

    Kristina Bengtsson Boström

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system and the adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulation of blood pressure. This study explored the associations between functional polymorphisms of the α2B-, β1-, and β2-adrenergic receptor genes and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in hypertensive patients and hypertension in patients with OSA in a populationbased sample of 157 hypertensive patients and 181 healthy control subjects. Only the Arg389Gly polymorphism of the β1-adrenergic receptor gene was associated with increased risk for mild OSA in hypertensive patients (Arg/Arg versus Gly/Arg/Gly/Gly, 2.1, 95% CI, 1.02–4.7. Hypertensive men carrying the Arg389Arg genotype had higher crude and age-adjusted AHI than carriers of the Arg389Gly/Gly389Gly genotypes. When adjusted also for BMI this difference became borderline significant. This difference was not observed in women. The risk of hypertension in mild OSA was associated with increasing number of Arg-alleles (Arg/Arg OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.4–21.2.

  19. Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (IRS-1 Gly927Arg: Correlation with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Women

    Khalid Khalaf Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM share a common pathophysiology associated with similar risk factors. Genetic variants used to determine the risk of developing T2DM might also be associated with the prevalence of GDM. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the relationship between the G972R polymorphism of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 gene with GDM in the Saudi female population. This is a case-control study that monitored 500 Saudi women. Subjects with GDM (n=200 were compared with non-GDM (n=300 controls. We opted to evaluate rs1801278 polymorphism in the IRS1 gene, which plays a critical role in the insulin-signaling pathway. Genotyping was performed with the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of the rs1801278 polymorphism was significantly higher in women with GDM than in women with non-GDM (for TT + CT versus CC: P=0.02. Additionally, there was a significant increase in the frequency of the Arg-encoding mutant allele from GDM to non-GDM (for T versus C: P=0.01. Our results suggest that the rs1801278 polymorphism in the IRS-1 gene is involved in the occurrence of GDM in the Saudi population.

  20. Contribution of Arg288 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu to translational functionality

    Rattenborg, Thomas; Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Clark, Brian F. C.;

    1997-01-01

    network is disrupted upon formation of the ternary complex. Arg288 was replaced by alanine, isoleucine, lysine or glutamic acid, and the resulting mutants have been subjected to an in vitro characterisation with the aim of clarifying the function of Arg288. Unexpectedly, the mutants behaved like the wild......-type factor with regard to the association and dissociation of guanine nucleotides, and the intrinsic GTPase activities are unchanged. Furthermore, the mutants were as efficient as the wild-type factor in carrying out protein synthesis in vitro in the presence of an excess of aminoacyl-tRNA. However, the...

  1. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), slow (exon 3, 113His) and fast (exon 4, 139Arg) alleles confer susceptibility to squamous cell esophageal cancer

    Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes may alter risk of various cancers. Present case-control study evaluated the influence of EPHX1 genetic variations on squamous cell esophageal cancer (ESCC) susceptibility in 107 patients and 320 controls. EPHX1 polymorphic alleles were genotyped by direct sequencing (exon 3, Tyr113His) or PCR-RFLP (exon 4, His139Arg). Patients with exon 3 genotypes (Tyr113His, His113His) and 113His allele were at risk of ESCC (ORTyr113His 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4, p = 0.007; ORHis113His 2.3 95% CI = 1.0-5.2, p = 0.03 and ORHis 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.1, p = 0.01). In contrast, individuals with exon 4, 139Arg allele were at low risk of cancer (OR 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.56, p = 0.001). However, none of haplotype combinations of exon 3 (Tyr113His) and exon 4 (His139Arg) polymorphisms showed modulation of risk for ESCC. Sub-grouping of patients based on anatomical location of tumor predicted that patients with exon 3, His113His and Tyr113His genotypes were at higher risk for developing ESCC tumor at upper and middle third locations (OR 4.4, 95% CI = 1.0-18.5, p = 0.04; OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-5.0, p = 0.005 respectively). The frequency of exon 4, His139Arg genotype was significantly lower in ESCC patients with lower third tumor location as compared to controls (14.8% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.02). In case-only study, gene-environment interaction of EPHX1 genotypes with tobacco, alcohol and occupational exposures did not appear to modulate the cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, exon 3, Tyr113His genotype was associated with higher risk of ESCC particularly at upper and middle-third anatomical locations of tumor. However, His139Arg genotype of exon 4, exhibited low risk for ESCC as well as its clinical characteristics

  2. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the coastal area of the Bohai Bay, China.

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Ying

    2016-06-15

    Considering the abuse of antibiotics worldwide, we investigated the abundance of three classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the concentrations of corresponding antibiotics in water and sediments of Bohai Bay. The results showed that sulI and sulII were detected in all samples, and their abundance range was 10(-5)-10(-2)/16S gene copies. The abundance of tetM and ermB were relatively higher than the other genes of tet-ARGs and erm-ARGs. Sulfonamides were the most prevalent antibiotics, and the concentrations of antibiotic in sediments were higher than those in water. The correlation analysis revealed that antibiotics had pertinence with corresponding ARGs, indicating that antibiotics play an important role in the creation and transfer of ARGs. The results of regression analysis indicated that the propagation and maintenance of sulI and sulII were facilitated by class I integrons. PMID:27107623

  3. GABAB R活性水平对致痫大鼠认知功能及Arc/Arg3.1表达的影响%Effects of GABAB receptor expression level on cognitive impairment and Arc/Arg3.1 expression in induced epileptic rats model

    兰彦平; 孙涛; 张春; 袁聪聪; 杨征; 王峰

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨GABABR活性变化对癫痫大鼠认知功能及Arc/Arg3.1的影响.方法 建立氯化锂-匹罗卡品致痫模型,随机分成正常组、巴氯酚组、CGP组、单纯点燃组.避暗、水迷宫实验观察大鼠认知情况,免疫组化、荧光定量PCR、免疫印迹检测海马组织内GABABR(GB1、GB2)、Arc/Arg3.1蛋白及mRNA表达情况.结果 避暗实验:4组大鼠穿梭次数为:6.8±0.6、1.2土0.2、5.4±0.5及3.6±0.3,潜伏期为:26.1 ±3.9、152.2±12.9、65.8 ±7.0、91.2±9.1,与水迷宫行为学变化趋势一致,显示致痫大鼠认知功能减退,巴氯酚进一步抑制致痫大鼠学习和记忆获取能力,CGP35348可改善致痫大鼠认知功能.Arc/Arg3.1及GB1、GB2相对表达量检测显:致痫大鼠较正常大鼠Arc/Arg3.1及GB1、GB2表达量明显增高,致痫组大鼠相对比,巴氯酚组Arc/Arg3.1表达量下降,GB1、GB2增高;而CGP35348组Arc/Arg3.1表达量增高,GB1、GB2降低.结论 GABABR活性水平可以调控Arc/Arg3.1表达,并影响致痫大鼠认知功能.%Objective To investigate the effects of GABAB receptor on cognitive impairment by using pilocarpine induced kindled rats model and also to check early gene (Arc/Arg3.1) expression.Methods Pilocarpine induced kindled rats were divided into four groups (Group normal,Baclofen,CGP and Kindled) randomly,and every group included 20 rats.We checked their cognitive impairment by using passive avoidance test and water maze test.The expression of GABAB receptor (GB1,GB2) and Arc/Arg3.1 was tested by immunohistochemical staining,RT-PCR and Western blot.Results Passive avoidance test showed four Group rats shuttle times were 6.8 ± 0.6,1.2 ± 0.2,5.4 ± 0.5,3.6 ± 0.3,incubation period were 26.1 ±3.9,152.2 ± 12.9,65.8 ±7.0,91.2 ±9.1,and water maze test had the same trend,with values in epilepsy groups significantly lower than the normal group of rats,which meant cognitive dysfunction.The above results also showed Baclofen further inhibited the learning

  4. Fate and removal of various antibiotic resistance genes in typical pharmaceutical wastewater treatment systems.

    Zhai, Wenchao; Yang, Fengxia; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-06-01

    The high levels of antibiotic residues in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) make these plants the hotspots for the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study investigated the fate and removal of 11 ARG subtypes for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam, and macrolide resistance in each processing stage of two full-scale PWWTPs in northern China. The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.56 ± 0.13) × 10(1) to (2.36 ± 0.11) × 10(7) copies/ml. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.03-78.1 % of influents of the two PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (2.65 ± 0.43) × 10(5) to (4.27 ± 0.03) × 10(10) copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge plus effluent was 1.01-14.09-fold higher than that in the raw influents, suggesting the proliferation of ARGs occurred in the wastewater treatment. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in biological treatment process, such as aeration tank, anoxic tank, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and bio-contact oxidation, facilitates the proliferation of various ARGs, implying significant replication of certain ARG subtypes may be attributable to microbial growth. Chemical oxidation seems promising to remove ARGs, with removal efficiency ranged from 29.3 to 85.7 %, while the partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between antibiotic concentration and ARG removal. Thus, the high antibiotic residues within the PWWTPs may have an influence on the proliferation, fate, and removal of the associated ARG subtypes. PMID:26961534

  5. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 Gly388Arg polymorphism in Chinese gastric cancer patients

    Yan-Ying Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the contribution of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism as a genetic risk factor for gastric cancer (GC and to investigate any associations between this polymorphism and clinicopathological parameters and survival. METHODS: Tumors and matched adjacent non-cancer tissues were collected from 304 GC patients, and 5 mL of venous blood was collected from 62 GC patients and 392 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without cancer history from the same ethnic population. DNA was extracted, and direct sequencing analyses were performed to genotype the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism in all the samples. Differences in the genotype frequencies of the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism between GC patients and healthy controls were estimated using the χ2 test. Binary logistic regression was used for all analysis variables to estimate risk as the ORs with 95%CIs. The relationships between the FGFR4 genotype and clinicopathological parameters were tested with the χ2 test. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, the log-rank test, and the Cox regression model were applied to evaluate the effect of the FGFR4 genotype on the overall survival of patients with GC. RESULTS: In the present GC cohort, 118 patients (38.8% were homozygous for the Gly388 allele, 124 patients (40.8% were heterozygous, and 62 patients (20.4% were homozygous for the Arg388 allele. The frequencies of the Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, and Arg/Arg genotypes in the healthy controls were 33.6%, 48.0%, and 18.4%, respectively. The distributions of genotypes (χ2 = 3.589, P = 0.166 and alleles (χ2 = 0.342, P = 0.559 of the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism were not different between the GC patients and the healthy controls. Although we observed no correlation between the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism and clinicopathological parameters or survival in the total cohort of GC patients, the presence of the Arg388 allele was associated with shorter survival time in patients

  6. High-throughput profiling of antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water treatment plants and distribution systems.

    Xu, Like; Ouyang, Weiying; Qian, Yanyun; Su, Chao; Su, Jianqiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in surface water and often cannot be completely eliminated by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Improper elimination of the ARG-harboring microorganisms contaminates the water supply and would lead to animal and human disease. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to determine the most effective ways by which DWTPs can eliminate ARGs. Here, we tested water samples from two DWTPs and distribution systems and detected the presence of 285 ARGs, 8 transposases, and intI-1 by utilizing high-throughput qPCR. The prevalence of ARGs differed in the two DWTPs, one of which employed conventional water treatments while the other had advanced treatment processes. The relative abundance of ARGs increased significantly after the treatment with biological activated carbon (BAC), raising the number of detected ARGs from 76 to 150. Furthermore, the final chlorination step enhanced the relative abundance of ARGs in the finished water generated from both DWTPs. The total enrichment of ARGs varied from 6.4-to 109.2-fold in tap water compared to finished water, among which beta-lactam resistance genes displayed the highest enrichment. Six transposase genes were detected in tap water samples, with the transposase gene TnpA-04 showing the greatest enrichment (up to 124.9-fold). We observed significant positive correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the distribution systems, indicating that transposases and intI-1 may contribute to antibiotic resistance in drinking water. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the diversity and abundance of ARGs in drinking water treatment systems utilizing high-throughput qPCR techniques in China. PMID:26890482

  7. Effect of temperature on removal of antibiotic resistance genes by anaerobic digestion of activated sludge revealed by metagenomic approach.

    Zhang, Tong; Yang, Ying; Pruden, Amy

    2015-09-01

    As antibiotic resistance continues to spread globally, there is growing interest in the potential to limit the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from wastewater sources. In particular, operational conditions during sludge digestion may serve to discourage selection of resistant bacteria, reduce horizontal transfer of ARGs, and aid in hydrolysis of DNA. This study applied metagenomic analysis to examine the removal efficiency of ARGs through thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion using bench-scale reactors. Although the relative abundance of various ARGs shifted from influent to effluent sludge, there was no measureable change in the abundance of total ARGs or their diversity in either the thermophilic or mesophilic treatment. Among the 35 major ARG subtypes detected in feed sludge, substantial reductions (removal efficiency >90%) of 8 and 13 ARGs were achieved by thermophilic and mesophilic digestion, respectively. However, resistance genes of aadA, macB, and sul1 were enriched during the thermophilic anaerobic digestion, while resistance genes of erythromycin esterase type I, sul1, and tetM were enriched during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Efflux pump remained to be the major antibiotic resistance mechanism in sludge samples, but the portion of ARGs encoding resistance via target modification increased in the anaerobically digested sludge relative to the feed. Metagenomic analysis provided insight into the potential for anaerobic digestion to mitigate a broad array of ARGs. PMID:25994259

  8. Protease-catalyzed Synthesis of Bz-Arg-Gly-Asp-OMe in Full Aqueous Medium

    HOU Rui-zhen; LI Hong-mei; LIU Yun-jia; ZHANG Long; XU Li; ZHANG Xue-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of N-benzoyl-argininylglycylasparagine methyl ester(Bz-Arg-Gly-Asp-OMe), a precursor tripeptide of Arg-Gly-Asp) was catalyzed by papain under kinetic control, at alkaline pH, in a full aqueous medium. The substrates were N-benzoyl-argininylglycine ethyl ester and asparagine dimethyl ester. An aqueous solution of 0. 1 mol/L KCl/NaOH containing 8 mmol/L EDTA and 2 mmol/L DTT was selected as the reaction medium. The synthesized hydrophilic tripeptide was soluble in the reaction medium during the reaction process, however, the secondary hydrolysis of the tripeptide product was not considerable. The effects of different factors, including water content, temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of the substrates, on the yield of Bz-Arg-Gly-Asp-OMe were examined. The optimal reaction conditions were 0.05 mol/L Bz-Arg-Gly-OEt and 0.15 mol/L Asp(-OMe)2 · HCl in 0.1 mol/L KCl/NaOH solution(pH 8.5), at 40 ℃, and a reaction time of 60 min, with a maximum conversion yield of 62.4%.

  9. Molecular Interactions Between the Active Sites of RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp with its Receptor (Integrine

    E. Jauregui

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of the molecular interactions between the active sites of RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp with it Receptor using simultaions is reported. Our calculations indicate that the guanidine-carboxylate complex is energetically favourd with respect to the guanidine-methyl tetrazole complex.

  10. Increased risk of cutaneous melanoma associated with p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism.

    Peiliang Geng

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism may contribute to an increased risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM.By searching the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, a total of 8 eligible case-control studies with 1,957 CM cases and 2,887 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Stata software was used to analyze all the statistical data.The pooled data by a fixed-effects model suggested an increased risk of CM associated with p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism under the genetic model of Arg/Pro vs. Pro/Pro without heterogeneity (ORArg/Pro vs. Pro/Pro = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.55-1.99, Pheterogeneity = 0.075. A similar trend was seen in subgroups of hospital-based studies and population-based studies.Our meta-analysis based on all studies shows that the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism may increase individual susceptibility to CM, particularly in Caucasians and could serve as a biomarker to predict the population at high risk of CM.

  11. Selective proteolysis of apolipoprotein B-100 by Arg-gingipain mediates atherosclerosis progression accelerated by bacterial exposure.

    Hashimoto, Munetaka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Tsukuba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest the association of periodontal infections with atherosclerosis, however, the mechanism underlying this association remains poorly understood. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the primary etiologic agent of adult periodontitis and produces a unique class of cysteine proteinases consisting of Arg-gingipain (Rgp) and Lys-gingipain (Kgp). To elucidate key mechanisms for progression of atherosclerosis by P. gingivalis infection, we tested the effects of the disruption of genes encoding Rgp and/or Kgp and inhibitors specific for the respective enzymes on atherosclerosis progression in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Repeated intravenous injection of wild-type P. gingivalis resulted in an increase in atherosclerotic lesions as well as an increase in the serum LDL cholesterol and a decrease of HDL cholesterol in these animals. LDL particles in P. gingivalis-injected animals were modified as a result of selective proteolysis of apoB-100 in LDL particles. This modification of LDL by P. gingivalis resulted in an increase in LDL uptake by macrophages and consequent foam cell formation in vitro. The atherosclerotic changes induced by P. gingivalis infection were attenuated by disruption of Rgp-encoding genes or by an Rgp-specific inhibitor. Our results indicate that degradation of apoB-100 by Rgp plays a crucial role in the promotion of atherosclerosis by P. gingivalis infection. PMID:17030507

  12. ARG1 Is a Novel Bronchodilator Response Gene: Screening and Replication in Four Asthma Cohorts

    Litonjua, Augusto A.; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Schneiter, Kady; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Lazarus, Ross; Klanderman, Barbara; Lima, John J.; Irvin, Charles G.; Peters, Stephen P; Hanrahan, John P.; Liggett, Stephen B.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Lange, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Inhaled β-agonists are one of the most widely used classes of drugs for the treatment of asthma. However, a substantial proportion of patients with asthma do not have a favorable response to these drugs, and identifying genetic determinants of drug response may aid in tailoring treatment for individual patients.

  13. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112

  14. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes of wastewater and surface water in livestock farms of Jiangsu Province, China.

    Chen, Biao; Hao, Lijun; Guo, Xinyan; Wang, Na; Ye, Boping

    2015-09-01

    The overuse of antibiotics in livestock farms is general, leading to a wide distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environment adjacent to livestock farms. However, researches of the distribution and types of ARGs in aquatic environment of China are still in the initial stage. In this study, wastewater and surface water samples were collected from 12 livestock farms (four pig farms, four cattle farms, and four chicken farms) in Jiangsu Province of China. The prevalence, abundance, and distribution of 22 ARGs were investigated, which were categorized into six groups, including nine tetracyclin resistance genes, three sulfonamides resistance genes, three quinolone resistance genes, two macrolide resistance genes, three aminoglycoside resistance genes, and two multidrug resistance genes, employing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results suggested that all of the 22 ARGs were detected in samples. Sul1, sul2, and tetM were the most abundant with the average concentration of 3.84 × 10(1) copies/16S recombinant RNA (rRNA) gene copies, 1.62 × 10(1) copies/16S rRNA gene copies, 2.33 × 10(1) copies/16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Principle component analysis revealed that the comprehensive pollution of ARGs in northern Jiangsu was more serious. ARGs in wastewater were more abundant when compared to that in surface water. A preliminary study regarding the fate of ARGs after an aerobiotic process showed that tetA, tetC, sul1, sul2, oqxB, and qnrS were significantly increased. And, among the tetracycline resistance genes, the efflux pump genes were enriched while the ribosomal protection protein encoding genes were decreased in the aerobiotic process. The prevalance of ARGs in water environment is of concern; more surveillance is required to determine the pollution level and pattern of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25948386

  15. Point mutation Gln121-Arg increased temperature optima of Bacillus lipase (1.4 subfamily) by fifteen degrees.

    Goomber, Shelly; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Ranvir; Mishra, Neelima; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2016-07-01

    Small molecular weight Bacillus lipases are industrially attractive because of its alkaline optimum pH, broad substrate specificity and production in high yield by overexpression both in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Its major limitation of being mesophilic in nature is constantly targeted by laboratory evolution studies. Herein metagenomically isolated Bacillus LipJ was randomly evolved by error prone PCR and library of variants were screened for enhanced thermostability. Point mutant Gln121Arg was extensively characterized and it showed dramatic shift of Temp. opt to 50°C compared to 37°C for parent enzyme. Thermostability studies at 45°C and 50°C determined six fold increase in half life for point variant Gln121Arg compared to LipJ. Circular dichroism (CD) and tryptophan fluorescence study established enhanced thermostability of Gln121Arg. Specific activity of point variant Gln121Arg was comparable to wild type with increased substrate affinity (Km reduced). Reduced kcat for variant Gln121Arg infer that kinetic and catalytic efficiency of mutant was compromised. Structural implications by homolog modelling predicted Gln121 to be placed within longest loop of the structure at surface. Localization of loop due to additional polar interactions by Arg121 to protein core defines molecular basis of enhanced thermostability of random point variant Gln121Arg. PMID:27083848

  16. ARG1 (altered response to gravity) encodes a DnaJ-like protein that potentially interacts with the cytoskeleton

    Sedbrook, J. C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    Gravitropism allows plant organs to direct their growth at a specific angle from the gravity vector, promoting upward growth for shoots and downward growth for roots. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying gravitropic signal transduction. We found that mutations in the ARG1 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana alter root and hypocotyl gravitropism without affecting phototropism, root growth responses to phytohormones or inhibitors of auxin transport, or starch accumulation. The positional cloning of ARG1 revealed a DnaJ-like protein containing a coiled-coil region homologous to coiled coils found in cytoskeleton-interacting proteins. These data suggest that ARG1 participates in a gravity-signaling process involving the cytoskeleton. A combination of Northern blot studies and analysis of ARG1-GUS fusion-reporter expression in transgenic plants demonstrated that ARG1 is expressed in all organs. Ubiquitous ARG1 expression in Arabidopsis and the identification of an ortholog in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that ARG1 is involved in other essential processes.

  17. Three new species of the genus Arge (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Argidae from South Korea with key to species of the subfamily Arginae

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new species, Arge koreana Wei & Lee sp. nov. from South Korea, Arge pseudorejecta Wei & Lee sp. nov., and Arge shengi Wei & Lee sp. nov. from South Korea and China are described. Keys to known genera of Argidae and known species of Arginae from South Korea are provided.

  18. Persistence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria and bacteriophage fractions of wastewater.

    Calero-Cáceres, William; Muniesa, Maite

    2016-05-15

    The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is a serious global health concern. ARGs from bacteria can be mobilized by mobile genetic elements, and recent studies indicate that phages and phage-derived particles, among others, could play a role in the spread of ARGs through the environment. ARGs are abundant in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of water bodies and for successful transfer of the ARGs, their persistence in these environments is crucial. In this study, three ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M and sul1) that naturally occur in the bacterial and phage fractions of raw wastewater were used to evaluate the persistence of ARGs at different temperatures (4 °C, 22 °C and 37 °C) and pH values (3, 7 and 9), as well as after various disinfection treatments (thermal treatment, chlorination and UV) and natural inactivation in a mesocosm. Gene copies (GC) were quantified by qPCR; then the logarithmic reduction and significance of the differences between their numbers were evaluated. The ARGs persisted for a long time with minimal reductions after all the treatments. In general, they showed greater persistence in the bacteriophage fraction than in the bacterial fraction. Comparisons showed that the ARGs persisted under conditions that reduced culturable Escherichia coli and infectious coliphages below the limit of detection. The prevalence of ARGs, particularly in the bacteriophage fraction, poses the threat of the spread of ARGs and their incorporation into a new bacterial background that could lead to the emergence of new resistant clones. PMID:26978717

  19. Binding of ArgTX-636 in the NMDA receptor ion channel

    Poulsen, Mette H; Andersen, Jacob; Christensen, Rune;

    2015-01-01

    N1 and GluN2A where mutation influences ArgTX-636 potency suggests differential contribution of the M2-loops of GluN1 and GluN2A to binding of ArgTX-636. The results of the mutational analysis are highly relevant for the future structure-based development of argiotoxin-derived NMDAR channel blockers.......The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) constitute an important class of ligand-gated cation channels that are involved in the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the human brain. Compounds that bind in the NMDAR ion channel and act as blockers are use- and voltage-dependent inhibitors...... of NMDAR activity and have therapeutic potential for treatment of a variety of brain diseases or as pharmacological tools for studies of the neurobiological role of NMDARs. We have performed a kinetic analysis of the blocking mechanism of the prototypical polyamine toxin NMDAR ion channel blocker...

  20. Gene

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  1. A cell surface receptor complex for collagen type I recognizes the Arg- Gly-Asp sequence

    1987-01-01

    To isolate collagen-binding cell surface proteins, detergent extracts of surface-iodinated MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells were chromatographed on affinity matrices of either type I collagen- Sepharose or Sepharose carrying a collagen-like triple-helical peptide. The peptide was designed to be triple helical and to contain the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp, which has been implicated as the cell attachment site of fibronectin, vitronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor, and is also present in ty...

  2. Atypical distyly in Psychotria goyazensis Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae), an intramorph self-compatible species

    Ebenezer Barbosa Rodrigues; Hélder Consolaro

    2013-01-01

    Distyly is a genetically controlled floral dimorphism, characterized by the reciprocal positioning of pin and thrum morphs, a heteromorphic incompatibility system and a balanced morph ratio (isoplethy). This study aimed to investigate the phenology, features of distyly, reproductive biology, and floral visitors of Psychotria goyazensis Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae), an intramorph self-compatible species, in a tropical semideciduous forest in the municipality of Catalão, located in the state of Goiás...

  3. Tracking and Monitoring with Dosimeter-Enabled ARG-US RFID System - 12009

    Anderson, J.; Lee, H.; De Lurgio, P.; Kearney, C.M.; Craig, B.; Soos, I.H.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Shuler, J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Automated monitoring and tracking of materials with radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can significantly improve both the operating efficiency of radiological facilities and the application of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in them. One such system, called ARG-US, has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Packaging and Certification Program to use in managing sensitive nuclear and radioactive materials. Several ARG-US systems are in various stages of deployment and advanced testing across DOE sites. ARG-US utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users. In conjunction with global positioning system (GPS) tracking provided by TRANSCOM, the system can also monitor and track packages during transport. A compact dosimeter has been incorporated in the ARG-US tags via an onboard universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter interface. The detector has a wide measurement range for gamma radiation - from 0.1 mSv/h to 8 Sv/h. The detector is able to generate alarms for both high and low radiation and for a high cumulative dose. In a large installation, strategically located dosimeter-enabled tags can yield an accurate, real-time, 2D or 3D dose field map that can be used to enhance facility safety, security, and safeguards. This implementation can also lead to a reduced need for manned surveillance and reduced exposure of personnel to radiation, consistent with the ALARA principle at workplaces. (authors)

  4. A sustainable urban development and crises management: Empirical investigation on redesigning Tehran Arg square

    Mohammad Rahim Rahnama; Hana Yazdanfar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation on redesigning Tehran Arge square based on principles of sustainable urban development and crises management. The proposed study performs the study based on three perspectives including quality improvement, sustainability and crisis management. In terms of city quality improvement, the study detects six factors including social interaction, cleanliness, attractiveness, comfort, vitality and security. In terms of sustainability, the study discusse...

  5. Tracking and Monitoring with Dosimeter-Enabled ARG-US RFID System - 12009

    Automated monitoring and tracking of materials with radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can significantly improve both the operating efficiency of radiological facilities and the application of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in them. One such system, called ARG-US, has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Packaging and Certification Program to use in managing sensitive nuclear and radioactive materials. Several ARG-US systems are in various stages of deployment and advanced testing across DOE sites. ARG-US utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users. In conjunction with global positioning system (GPS) tracking provided by TRANSCOM, the system can also monitor and track packages during transport. A compact dosimeter has been incorporated in the ARG-US tags via an onboard universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter interface. The detector has a wide measurement range for gamma radiation - from 0.1 mSv/h to 8 Sv/h. The detector is able to generate alarms for both high and low radiation and for a high cumulative dose. In a large installation, strategically located dosimeter-enabled tags can yield an accurate, real-time, 2D or 3D dose field map that can be used to enhance facility safety, security, and safeguards. This implementation can also lead to a reduced need for manned surveillance and reduced exposure of personnel to radiation, consistent with the ALARA principle at workplaces. (authors)

  6. The common germline Arg72Pro polymorphism of p53 and increased longevity in humans

    Bojesen, S.E.; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    Arg72Pro substitution in the p53 protein has important influence on cell death via increased apoptosis. Thus, the increased longevity may be due to a generally increased robustness after a diagnosis of any life-threatening disease. In contrast to widespread skepticism on the importance of SNPs in...... humans, this gain-of-function p53 SNP of importance for cell repair mechanisms has a profound influence on longevity Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/15...

  7. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF FRUITS OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPENENSIS (LAM). MUELL- ARG (EUPHORBIACEAE)

    Kadam Prasad Vijay; Bhingare Chandrashekhar Laxman; Soni Surajkumar Bansilal; Rathi Sandesh Ashok; Patil Manohar Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    Correct identification of starting material is necessary to ensure the quality of herbal medicines. Pharmacognostic evaluation is first step towards establishing identity and purity of crude drug. With this aim the present paper deals with study of pharmacognostic and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of Mallotus philippinensis (lam) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). The powder of Mallotus philippinensis was used for detection of various chemical constituents. The transverse section and th...

  8. The Possibility of Energy Recovery from Waste Material in Arges County, Romania

    Nordström, Emma; Enochsson, Evelina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Waste disposal is a global problem contributing to the ongoing climate change by large emissions of greenhouse gases. By using waste material as a resource instead of landfilling, the greenhouse gas emissions from landfills are reduced. Waste material can be used for waste incineration with energy recovery, thus decreasing the greenhouse gas emission from energy utilization by changing from fossil fuels to a partly renewable fuel. Arges County in Romania has severe problems with its ...

  9. Who Possesses Drug Resistance Genes in the Aquatic Environment? : Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) Resistance Genes among the Bacterial Community in Water Environment of Metro-Manila, Philippines

    Satoru eSuzuki; Mitsuko eOgo; Miller, Todd W.; Akiko eShimizu; Hideshige eTakada; Maria Auxilia eSiringan

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are ubiquitous in natural environments, including sites considered pristine. To understand the origin of ARGs and their dynamics, we must first define their actual presence in the natural bacterial assemblage. Here we found varying distribution profiles of sul genes in “colony forming bacterial assemblages” and “natural bacterial assemblages.” Our monitoring for antibiotic contamination r...

  10. Hippocampal Arc (Arg3.1) expression is induced by memory recall and required for memory reconsolidation in trace fear conditioning.

    Chia, Chester; Otto, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that long-lasting, protein synthesis-dependent changes in synaptic strength accompany both the initial acquisition and subsequent recall of specific memories. Within brain areas thought to be important for learning and memory, including the hippocampus, learning-related plasticity is likely mediated in part by NMDA receptor activation and experience-dependent changes in gene expression. In the present study, we examined the role of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) expression in the acquisition, recall, and reconsolidation of memory in a trace fear conditioning paradigm. First, we show that the expression of Arc protein in ventral hippocampus (VH) is dramatically enhanced by memory recall 24h after the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, and that both memory recall and the associated recall-induced enhancement of Arc expression are blocked by pre-training administration of 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). Next, we show that while infusion of Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) into VH prior to testing had little effect on memory recall, it significantly reduced both Arc protein expression and freezing behavior during subsequent testing sessions. Collectively, these results suggest that Arc/Arg3.1 protein plays an important functional role in both the initial acquisition of hippocampal-dependent memory and the reconsolidation of these memories after recall. PMID:23872190

  11. Multifactorial likelihood assessment of BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants confirms that BRCA1:c.122A>G(p.His41Arg is a pathogenic mutation.

    Phillip J Whiley

    Full Text Available Rare exonic, non-truncating variants in known cancer susceptibility genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 are problematic for genetic counseling and clinical management of relevant families. This study used multifactorial likelihood analysis and/or bioinformatically-directed mRNA assays to assess pathogenicity of 19 BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants identified following patient referral to clinical genetic services. Two variants were considered to be pathogenic (Class 5. BRCA1:c.4484G> C(p.Arg1495Thr was shown to result in aberrant mRNA transcripts predicted to encode truncated proteins. The BRCA1:c.122A>G(p.His41Arg RING-domain variant was found from multifactorial likelihood analysis to have a posterior probability of pathogenicity of 0.995, a result consistent with existing protein functional assay data indicating lost BARD1 binding and ubiquitin ligase activity. Of the remaining variants, seven were determined to be not clinically significant (Class 1, nine were likely not pathogenic (Class 2, and one was uncertain (Class 3.These results have implications for genetic counseling and medical management of families carrying these specific variants. They also provide additional multifactorial likelihood variant classifications as reference to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of bioinformatic prediction tools and/or functional assay data in future studies.

  12. Molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial metabolic effects of [Arg4]tigerinin-1R in mice with diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Ojo, Opeolu O; Srinivasan, Dinesh K; Owolabi, Bosede O; McGahon, Mary K; Moffett, R Charlotte; Curtis, Tim M; Conlon, J Michael; Flatt, Peter R; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A

    2016-08-01

    The frog skin host-defense peptide tigerinin-1R stimulates insulin release in vitro and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in animal models of type 2 diabetes. This study extends these observations by investigating the molecular mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial metabolic effects of the analogue [Arg4]tigerinin-1R in mice with diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The study also investigates the electrophysiological effects of the peptide on KATP and L-type Ca2+ channels in BRIN-BD11 clonal β cells. Non-fasting plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations were significantly (pinsulin increased by twice daily treatment with [Arg4]tigerinin-1R (75 nmol/kg body weight) for 28 days. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were significantly (pinsulin. The peptide blocked KATP channels and, consistent with this, improved beta cell responses of isolated islets to a range of secretagogues. Peptide administration resulted in up-regulation of key functional genes in islets involved insulin secretion (Abcc8, Kcnj11, Cacna1c and Slc2a2) and in skeletal muscle involved with insulin action (Insr, Irs1, Pdk1, Pik3ca, and Slc2a4). These observations encourage further development of tigerinin-1R analogues for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26966929

  13. Constitutive presence of antibiotic resistance genes within the bacterial community of a large subalpine lake.

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Eckert, Ester M; Teruggi, Alessia; Fontaneto, Diego; Bertoni, Roberto; Callieri, Cristiana; Corno, Gianluca

    2015-08-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental microbial communities is of primary concern as prodromal of a potential transfer to pathogenic bacteria. Although of diverse origin, the persistence of ARGs in aquatic environments is highly influenced by anthropic activities, allowing potential control actions in well-studied environments. However, knowledge of abundance and space-time distribution of ARGs in ecosystems is still scarce. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we investigated the presence and the abundance of twelve ARGs (against tetracyclines, β-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones and sulphonamides) at different sampling sites, depths and seasons, in Lake Maggiore, a large subalpine lake, and in the area of its watershed. We then evaluated the correlation between each ARG and a number of ecological parameters in the water column in the deepest part of the lake. Our results suggest the constitutive presence of at least four ARGs within the bacterial community with a high proportion of bacteria potentially resistant to tetracyclines and sulphonamides. The presence of these ARGs was independent of the total bacterial density and temperature. The dynamics of tet(A) and sulII genes were, however, positively correlated with dissolved oxygen and negatively to chlorophyll a, suggesting that the resistant microbes inhabit specific niches. These observations indicate that the lake is a reservoir of antibiotic resistances, highlighting the need of a deeper understanding of the sources of ARGs and the factors allowing their persistence in waters. PMID:26118321

  14. Klasik Dönem İslam felsefesinde kozmolojik argüman ve modern fizikteki gelişmeler

    EVLİ, Mehmet Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Kozmolojik argüman, âlem hakkındaki bazı gerçekliklerden yola çıkarak Tanrı'ya ulaşmaya çalışan a posteriori bir argümandır. Felsefe tarihinde belli bazı tenkitlere maruz kalan argüman, dayandığı ana doktrinlere bağlı olarak değişen çeşitli formlarda inşa edilmiştir. Bu formlar, İlk Muharrik Delili, İlk Neden Delili, İmkan Delili, Yeter Sebep Delili, Hudûs Delili şeklinde sınıflandırılabilir. Bu çalışmanın birinci bölümü, kozmolojik argüman hakkında genel bilgiler vermeni...

  15. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino; Mário Rabelo de Souza; Marcos Antonio Eduardo Santana; Maria Eliete de Sousa; Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira): IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água) por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O) como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totaliza...

  16. Association of β1 and β3 adrenergic receptors gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance and high lipid profiles related to type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

    Ana I. Burguete-García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the diverse genes associated to type 2 diabetes (T2D, the β-adrenergic receptors are an excellent candidate to study in Mexican population. The objective of this work was to analyze the association of polymorphisms in ADRB1 (rs1801253 (Arg389Gly and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg genes with T2D and metabolic syndrome (MS. Methods: We studied 445 MS patients, 502 with T2D and 552 healthy controls. Anthropometric features and complete biochemical profile were evaluated, and Arg389Gly and Trp64Arg SNPs were determined by TaqMan assays. Data analysis was adjusted by African, Caucasian and Amerindian ancestral percentage. Results: The variant Arg389Gly of ADRB1 was statistically associated with an increase of LDL levels (P < 0.008, and the variant ADRB3 Trp64Arg was associated to larger HOMA-IR (P < 0.018 and with an increase of insulin levels (P < 0.001. A multiple logistic regression analysis was made in three grouping models: For ADRB3 in the codominant model Trp/Arg genotype, there was an OR of 1.53 (1.09-2.13, P < 0.003 which was increased up to OR 2.99 (1.44-6.22, P < 0.003 for the Arg/Arg genotype. Similar risk association was found under the dominant model Trp/Arg-Arg/Arg genotype with OR 1.67 (1.21-2.30; P < 0.002. In the recessive model (Arg/Arg genotype, there was also a high association OR 2.56 (1.24-5.26, P < 0.01. Conclusions: The ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant is a susceptibility gene polymorphism for T2D and the ADRB1 Gly389Arg for lipid metabolism disruption. These results show that these variants are potential biomarkers for predicting metabolic alterations and evolution in diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients.

  17. Fatal accident due to anti-personnel ARGES EM01 rifle grenade explosion

    Pavlos Pavlidis; Valeria Karakasi; Theodossios A.Birbilis

    2016-01-01

    During the process of unsealing an old ammunition box in order to destroy it,a 42-year-old ammunition technician was fatally injured due to an anti-personnel ARGES EM01-type rifle grenade detonation.The explosion took place in the victim's hands,in point-blank range.This report aimed to show the anatomical position,the severity and the dispersion extent of the multiple injuries in the human body due to the detonation,and draw firm conclusions regarding the position of the human body and the circumstances prevailing at the moment of the explosion.

  18. Opening the Arg-Glu salt bridge in myosin: computational study.

    Kaliman, Ilya; Grigorenko, Bella; Shadrina, Maria; Nemukhin, Alexander

    2009-06-28

    Opening the Arg-Glu salt bridge in myosin, which presumably succeeds the myosin-catalyzed hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate, was modeled computationally on the basis of the structures corresponding to the enzyme-substrate and enzyme-product complexes found in the quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics simulations. According to the calculations of the potential of mean force, opening the bridge is considerably facilitated upon termination of the chemical reaction, but does not promote egress of inorganic phosphate by the back-door mechanism. PMID:19506754

  19. Estructura territorial y estado en la cultura argárica

    Legarra Herrero, B.

    2014-01-01

    La cultura de El Argar es habitualmente presentada como una formación estatal en la que varias comunidades ejercieron un control social, económico y político sobre amplios territorios. Sin embargo esta configuración geo-política de las sociedades argáricas ha comenzado a ser reconocida como problemática y nuevas investigaciones han revelado discrepancias entre la evidencia y este modelo territorial clásico. Este artículo explora la organización territorial de El Argar a través de ...

  20. Rational design and characterization of D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-derived direct thrombin inhibitors.

    Figueiredo, Ana C; Clement, Cristina C; Zakia, Sheuli; Gingold, Julian; Philipp, Manfred; Pereira, Pedro J B

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous social and economic impact of thrombotic disorders, together with the considerable risks associated to the currently available therapies, prompt for the development of more efficient and safer anticoagulants. Novel peptide-based thrombin inhibitors were identified using in silico structure-based design and further validated in vitro. The best candidate compounds contained both L- and D-amino acids, with the general sequence D-Phe(P3)-Pro(P2)-D-Arg(P1)-P1'-CONH₂. The P1' position was scanned with L- and D-isomers of natural or unnatural amino acids, covering the major chemical classes. The most potent non-covalent and proteolysis-resistant inhibitors contain small hydrophobic or polar amino acids (Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr) at the P1' position. The lead tetrapeptide, D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-D-Thr-CONH₂, competitively inhibits α-thrombin's cleavage of the S2238 chromogenic substrate with a K(i) of 0.92 µM. In order to understand the molecular details of their inhibitory action, the three-dimensional structure of three peptides (with P1' L-isoleucine (fPrI), L-cysteine (fPrC) or D-threonine (fPrt)) in complex with human α-thrombin were determined by X-ray crystallography. All the inhibitors bind in a substrate-like orientation to the active site of the enzyme. The contacts established between the D-Arg residue in position P1 and thrombin are similar to those observed for the L-isomer in other substrates and inhibitors. However, fPrC and fPrt disrupt the active site His57-Ser195 hydrogen bond, while the combination of a P1 D-Arg and a bulkier P1' residue in fPrI induce an unfavorable geometry for the nucleophilic attack of the scissile bond by the catalytic serine. The experimental models explain the observed relative potency of the inhibitors, as well as their stability to proteolysis. Moreover, the newly identified direct thrombin inhibitors provide a novel pharmacophore platform for developing antithrombotic agents by exploring the conformational

  1. Rational design and characterization of D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-derived direct thrombin inhibitors.

    Ana C Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The tremendous social and economic impact of thrombotic disorders, together with the considerable risks associated to the currently available therapies, prompt for the development of more efficient and safer anticoagulants. Novel peptide-based thrombin inhibitors were identified using in silico structure-based design and further validated in vitro. The best candidate compounds contained both L- and D-amino acids, with the general sequence D-Phe(P3-Pro(P2-D-Arg(P1-P1'-CONH₂. The P1' position was scanned with L- and D-isomers of natural or unnatural amino acids, covering the major chemical classes. The most potent non-covalent and proteolysis-resistant inhibitors contain small hydrophobic or polar amino acids (Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr at the P1' position. The lead tetrapeptide, D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-D-Thr-CONH₂, competitively inhibits α-thrombin's cleavage of the S2238 chromogenic substrate with a K(i of 0.92 µM. In order to understand the molecular details of their inhibitory action, the three-dimensional structure of three peptides (with P1' L-isoleucine (fPrI, L-cysteine (fPrC or D-threonine (fPrt in complex with human α-thrombin were determined by X-ray crystallography. All the inhibitors bind in a substrate-like orientation to the active site of the enzyme. The contacts established between the D-Arg residue in position P1 and thrombin are similar to those observed for the L-isomer in other substrates and inhibitors. However, fPrC and fPrt disrupt the active site His57-Ser195 hydrogen bond, while the combination of a P1 D-Arg and a bulkier P1' residue in fPrI induce an unfavorable geometry for the nucleophilic attack of the scissile bond by the catalytic serine. The experimental models explain the observed relative potency of the inhibitors, as well as their stability to proteolysis. Moreover, the newly identified direct thrombin inhibitors provide a novel pharmacophore platform for developing antithrombotic agents by exploring the

  2. THE INCIDENCE OF HIV INFECTIONS IN ARGES POPULATION IN 2012 - 2013

    Ionica Deliu; Nicoleta Buică; Maria Ruxandra Gaisteanu

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from Retroviridae family was isolated in early 80´s but his presence in Africa is much older than we previously thought, before the pandemic spread because of the social changes of 70´s (Cernescu, 1998). The incidence of HIV infections is a constant concern for public health specialists, with inferences for whole population. In this paper we presented the incidence of HIV infections in 2012/2013 period in Arges County, Romania. Studies were made in Lab...

  3. Fear extinction requires Arc/Arg3.1 expression in the basolateral amygdala

    Onoue, Kousuke; Nakayama, Daisuke; Ikegaya, Yuji; Matsuki, Norio; Nomura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged re-exposure to a fear-eliciting cue in the absence of an aversive event extinguishes the fear response to the cue, and has been clinically used as an exposure therapy. Arc (also known as Arg3.1) is implicated in synaptic and experience-dependent plasticity. Arc is regulated by the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein, which is upregulated with and necessary for fear extinction. Because Arc expression is also activated with fear extinction, we hypothe...

  4. Ecological effects of Arges River hydroelectric systems. The minimum flow problem

    The paper presents general observations of the ecological status of riverside areas, on Arges River between Capataneni and Bascov villages. These are affected by the presence of an important hydroelectric power system. The main problem generating negative impact on the environment is non-observance of Waters' Law no.107/1996 with reference to minimum flow. The minimum flow is defined as the flow through the cross section of a watercourse which ensures the living conditions for the existent aquatic ecosystems. It should be taken into account in order to protect the aquatic ecosystems. A methodology regarding the determination of minimum flow is proposed. (author)

  5. Melanoma imaging using 111In-, 86Y- and 68Ga-labeled CHX-A''-Re(Arg11)CCMSH

    Introduction: A novel alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide analog CHX-A''-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which targeted the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) overexpressed on melanoma cells, was investigated for its biodistribution and tumor imaging properties. Methods: The metal bifunctional chelator CHX-A'' was conjugated to the melanoma targeting peptide (Arg11)CCMSH and cyclized by Re incorporation to yield CHX-A''-Re(Arg11)CCMSH. CHX-A''-Re(Arg11)CCMSH was labeled with 111In, 86Y and 68Ga, and the radiolabeled peptides were examined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing mice for their pharmacokinetic as well as their tumor targeting properties using small animal SPECT and PET. Results: The radiolabeling efficiencies of the 111In-, 86Y- and 68Ga-labeled CHX-A''-Re(Arg11)CCMSH peptides were >95%, resulting in specific activities of 4.44, 3.7 and 1.85 MBq/μg, respectively. Tumor uptake of the 111In-, 86Y- and 68Ga-labeled peptides was rapid with 4.17±0.94, 4.68±1.02 and 2.68±0.69 %ID/g present in the tumors 2 h postinjection, respectively. Disappearance of radioactivity from the normal organs and tissues was rapid with the exception of the kidneys. Melanoma tumors were imaged with all three radiolabeled peptides 2 h postinjection. MC1-R-specific uptake was confirmed by competitive receptor blocking studies. Conclusions: Melanoma tumor uptake and imaging was exhibited by the 111In-, 86Y- and 68Ga-labeled Re(Arg11)CCMSH peptides, although the tumor uptake was moderated by low specific activity. The facile radiolabeling properties of CHX-A''-Re(Arg11)CCMSH allow it to be employed as a melanoma imaging agent with little or no purification after 111In, 86Y and 68Ga labeling.

  6. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  7. Biologia reprodutiva de Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae em mata de galeria Reproductive biology of Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae in gallery forest

    Christiano Peres Coelho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae é o gênero com mais espécies heterostílicas dentre as Angiospermas. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a biologia floral, fenologia, o sistema reprodutivo e os polinizadores de Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. As inflorescências são capitadas terminais, com brácteas vermelhas e flores amarelas apresentando dois morfos distintos: brevistiladas e longistiladas, caracterizadas por flores hermafroditas com diferentes comprimentos de estiletes e posicionamento oposto das anteras (hercogamia recíproca. Encontrou-se diferenças no tamanho das anteras, dos grãos de pólen e da superfície estigmática entre os morfotipos. Polinizações controladas mostraram que os morfotipos apresentam auto-incompatibilidade e intramorfo-incompatibilidade ao nível do estigma e do estilete. Os visitantes são pequenas vespas, abelhas, borboletas e beija-flores, que visitam as flores com maior freqüência no início da manhã. De acordo com a freqüência e eficiência no comportamento de transportar os grãos de pólen entre os morfos florais, o principal polinizador foi o beija-flor Thalurania furcata. O néctar é produzido em pequena quantidade (máximo de 8µl e durante a abertura das flores, que ocorre entre 5 e 7h. A espécie forma agrupamentos devido à existência de reprodução vegetativa.Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae is the genus with the most heterostylous species in the angiosperms. The objective of this study is to describe floral biology, phenology, reproductive system, and pollinators of Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. The terminal inflorescences are capitate with red bracts and yellow flowers, and presented two different morphs: pin and thrum, characterized by hermaphroditic flowers with different lengths of styles and opposed position of the anthers (reciprocal herkogamy. Dimorphism was also observed in the size of anthers, pollen grains and stigmatic surfaces. Controlled pollination revealed self

  8. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totalizando oito tratamentos, sendo em cada um destes, com quatro repetições, avaliadas as propriedades mecânicas e físicas das chapas, segundo a norma ASTM D 1037 - 96a. De forma geral, os melhores resultados de propriedades físicas e mecânicas foram obtidos nas chapas com partículas do clone AVROS 1301. No teste de hidratação do cimento, a madeira de seringueira in natura foi classificada como de "inibição extrema", porém com a adição de CaCl2 o foi como de "baixa inibição". Essa madeira se mostrou tecnicamente viável à produção de chapas de cimento-madeira, independentemente do clone.Cement-bonded particleboards of rubberwood were manufactured with four clones of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (rubberwood: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 and AVROS 1301. Boards of 450 x 450 x 13 mm were manufactured in a ratio of 1:4:1 (wood/cement/water, weight basis, with 1.4 g/cm³ density and 4% calcium chloride dihydrated - CaCl2.2H2O as accelerator. The particles of four clones were tested in treated and untreated conditions, totaling eight treatments. In each treatment with four replicates, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to ASTM D 1037 - 96a standard. Overall, the best mechanical and physical results were obtained with the cement-bonded particleboard made with particles from clone AVROS 1301. Rubberwood has shown to be "highly inhibitory" in the hydration test, however when CaCl2 was added the inhibition index decreased and

  9. Fortuitous description of haemoglobin A2' [δ16 (A13) Gly→Arg (GGC→CGC)] in a Tunisian family: study of the molecular defect and its origin.

    Sahli, Chaima Abdelhafidh; Gritli, Sami; Dabboubi, Rym; Omar, Souheil; Siala, Hajer; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bibi, Amina; Messaoud, Taieb

    2015-01-01

    The most common inherited haemoglobin disorders encountered in Tunisia are β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease, which result from mutations in the β-globin gene. Few studies focused on δ-globin gene variations responsible for δ-thalassemia or HbA2 variants. HbA2' [δ16 (A13) Gly→Arg (GGC→CGC)] is a δ-chain variant that has been identified in several populations of African origin. We report herein for the first time the description of HbA2' in the Tunisian population. Identification of HbA2' in the studied family was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by sequencing analyses of the whole δ-globin gene. Haplotypes of the β-globin gene cluster were constructed by mapping the restriction sites using polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion. Compound heterozygosity of HbA2' with HbO-Arab was identified in the proband. The mother and two other siblings showed heterozygous HbA2' whereas the father showed heterozygous HbO-Arab. The sum of HbA2 and HbA2' in all cases was less than 4%, thus excluding β-thalassemia. β-cluster haplotype analysis revealed that this mutation was associated with the F haplotype (-+--+++). The unique origin of this mutation in Africa is likely since the linked β-cluster haplotype is one of the major haplotypes found in African populations. PMID:25858298

  10. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Parker, David B. [USDA Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE (United States); Snow, Daniel D. [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Li, Xu, E-mail: xuli@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10{sup −1} copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent.

  11. RESEARCH ON ARGES RIVER FISH FAUNA IN BUDEASA-GOLESTI AREA

    Alina-Mihaela Truţă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arges River was subject to periodic ichthyologic, hydrobiological and hydrological research. By its content and approach the present paper shows a series of research on fish fauna in Budeasa-Golesti area of Arges River, Pitesti. By research presented in the study we sought to evaluate the state and evolution of fish fauna in the city reservoirs, Pitesti area, over the last 30 years, trying to highlight the causes that led to the current situation and to propose measures for the conservation of natural fish fauna in the future. Fish fauna in Pitesti area currently consists of 14 species belonging to four families: Cyprinidae (9 species, Cobitidae (1 species, Esocidae (1 species and Percidae (3 species. Most species live naturally in lakes studied except for one species Pseudorasbora parva which was introduced accidentally. The research undertaken to reflect changes in the fish fauna in the last 30 years, indicates an increase in the number of species, either through deliberate stocking for sport fishing purposes or due to changes in biotope favouring the development of certain species which were accidental in the past.

  12. Characterization of Aspartate Kinase from Corynebacterium pekinense and the Critical Site of Arg169

    Weihong Min

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate kinase (AK is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of aspartate-derived amino acids. Recombinant AK was efficiently purified and systematically characterized through analysis under optimal conditions combined with steady-state kinetics study. Homogeneous AK was predicted as a decamer with a molecular weight of ~48 kDa and a half-life of 4.5 h. The enzymatic activity was enhanced by ethanol and Ni2+. Moreover, steady-state kinetic study confirmed that AK is an allosteric enzyme, and its activity was inhibited by allosteric inhibitors, such as Lys, Met, and Thr. Theoretical results indicated the binding mode of AK and showed that Arg169 is an important residue in substrate binding, catalytic domain, and inhibitor binding. The values of the kinetic parameter Vmax of R169 mutants, namely, R169Y, R169P, R169D, and R169H AK, with l-aspartate as the substrate, were 4.71-, 2.25-, 2.57-, and 2.13-fold higher, respectively, than that of the wild-type AK. Furthermore, experimental and theoretical data showed that Arg169 formed a hydrogen bond with Glu92, which functions as the entrance gate. This study provides a basis to develop new enzymes and elucidate the corresponding amino acid production.

  13. THE INCIDENCE OF HIV INFECTIONS IN ARGES POPULATION IN 2012 - 2013

    Ionica Deliu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV from Retroviridae family was isolated in early 80´s but his presence in Africa is much older than we previously thought, before the pandemic spread because of the social changes of 70´s (Cernescu, 1998. The incidence of HIV infections is a constant concern for public health specialists, with inferences for whole population. In this paper we presented the incidence of HIV infections in 2012/2013 period in Arges County, Romania. Studies were made in Laboratories of Public Health Department Arges. Immunoenzymatic methods were used for anti-HIV antibodies detection (Genscreen ULTRA HIV Ag-Ab kit from BIO RAD. The results of the immunoenzymatic tests were presented in order to age and gender of the tested people. New cases of HIV infection were 1.73% in 2012 and 1.10% in 2013 from all investigated samples. The positive samples were frequent in male population, and for 25 -34 years and 35-44 years age groups. Prophylaxis is the best weapon in fight against HIV/AIDS. But the properly way to stop the spread of HIV infections may be the development of vaccine or drugs to stop progression to AIDS (Al-Jabri, 2007.

  14. Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E Arg145Cys dyslipidemia at-risk polymorphism in African-derived populations.

    Abou Ziki, Maen D; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Mezey, Jason G; Salit, Jacqueline; Radisch, Sharon; Hollmann, Charleen; Chouchane, Lotfi; Malek, Joel; Zirie, Mahmoud A; Jayyuosi, Amin; Gotto, Antonio M; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-01-15

    Apolipoprotein E, a protein component of blood lipid particles, plays an important role in lipid transport. Different mutations in the apolipoprotein E gene have been associated with various clinical phenotypes. In an initiated study of Qataris, we observed that 17% of the African-derived genetic subgroup were heterozygotes for a rare Arg145Cys (R145C) variant that functions as a dominant trait with incomplete penetrance associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. On the basis of this observation, we hypothesized that the R145C polymorphism might be common in African-derived populations. The prevalence of the R145C variant was assessed worldwide in the "1000 Genomes Project" and in 1,012 whites and 1,226 African-Americans in New York, New York. The 1000 Genomes Project data demonstrated that the R145C polymorphism is rare in non-African-derived populations but present in 5% to 12% of Sub-Saharan African-derived populations. The R145C polymorphism was also rare in New York whites (1 of 1,012, 0.1%); however, strikingly, 53 of the 1,226 New York African-Americans (4.3%) were R145C heterozygotes. The lipid profiles of the Qatari and New York R145C heterozygotes were compared with those of controls. The Qatari R145C subjects had higher triglyceride levels than the Qatari controls (p worldwide derived from Sub-Saharan Africans are apolipoprotein E R145C. In conclusion, although larger epidemiologic studies are necessary to determine the long-term consequences of this polymorphism, the available evidence suggests it is a common cause of a mild triglyceride dyslipidemia. PMID:24239320

  15. Comparative MD Simulations Indicate a Dual Role for Arg1323.50 in Dopamine-Dependent D2R Activation.

    Ralf C Kling

    Full Text Available Residue Arg3.50 belongs to the highly conserved DRY-motif of class A GPCRs, which is located at the bottom of TM3. On the one hand, Arg3.50 has been reported to help stabilize the inactive state of GPCRs, but on the other hand has also been shown to be crucial for stabilizing active receptor conformations and mediating receptor-G protein coupling. The combined results of these studies suggest that the exact function of Arg3.50 is likely to be receptor-dependent and must be characterized independently for every GPCR. Consequently, we now present comparative molecular-dynamics simulations that use our recently described inactive-state and Gα-bound active-state homology models of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R, which are either bound to dopamine or ligand-free, performed to identify the function of Arg1323.50 in D2R. Our results are consistent with a dynamic model of D2R activation in which Arg1323.50 adopts a dual role, both by stabilizing the inactive-state receptor conformation and enhancing dopamine-dependent D2R-G protein coupling.

  16. Can chlorination co-select antibiotic-resistance genes?

    Lin, Wenfang; Zhang, Menglu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Selective pressures, such as chemical or heavy metal pollution, may co-select for bacterial antibiotic resistance in the environment. However, whether chlorination in water treatment can co-select antibiotic-resistant bacteria is controversial. In this study, high capacity quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was applied to target almost all known antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) (282 types) and 13 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in bacteria detected in secondary effluents from a municipal wastewater treatment plant after chlorination. The results revealed that 125 unique ARGs were detected in non-chlorinated samples, and the number decreased (79-91 types) as the chlorine concentration was increased. Moreover, 7.49 × 10(4)-3.92 × 10(7) copies/100 ml water reduction of ARGs occurred with 4 mg Cl2/l. Considering the relative abundance of ARGs (i.e., ARG copies normalized to 16S rRNA gene copies), 119 ARGs decreased in response to chlorination, whereas only six ARGs, such as dfrA1, tetPB-03, tetPA, ampC-04, tetA-02, and erm(36), were potentially enriched by 10.90-, 10.06-, 8.63-, 6.86-, 3.77-, and 1.09-fold, respectively. Furthermore, the relative abundance of 12 detected MGEs was lower after chlorination. Therefore, chlorination was effective in reducing ARGs and MGEs rather than co-selecting them. PMID:27192478

  17. Evidence of an association between the Arg72 allele of the peptide YY and increased risk of type 2 diabetes

    Torekov, Signe S; Larsen, Lesli H; Glümer, Charlotte; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben; Holst, Jens J; Madsen, Ole D; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2005-01-01

    1.05-1.35]). The same polymorphism associated with overweight (25 Arg allele was associated with an increased plasma glucose level 2 h after an oral glucose...... tolerance test (OGTT) (P = 0.03), an increased area under the curve for the post-OGTT plasma glucose level (P = 0.03), and a lower insulinogenic index (P = 0.01). In conclusion, the common Arg allele of the PYY Arg72Thr variant modestly associates with type 2 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes...

  18. Tet and sul antibiotic resistance genes in livestock lagoons of various operation type, configuration, and antibiotic occurrence

    McKinney, C.W.; Loftin, K.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Davis, J.G.; Pruden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria, few studies have examined the potential of livestock waste lagoons to reduce antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and examine the behavior of tetracycline [tet(O) and tet(W)] and sulfonamide [sul(I) and su/(II)] ARGsin a broad cross-section of livestock lagoons within the same semiarid western watershed. ARGs were monitored for one year in the water and the settled solids of eight lagoon systems by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, antibiotic residues and various bulk water quality constituents were analyzed. It was found that the lagoons of the chicken layer operation had the lowest concentrations of both tet and sul ARGs and low total antibiotic concentrations, whereas su ARGs were highest in the swine lagoons, which generally corresponded to the highest total antibiotic concentrations. A marginal benefit of organic and small dairy operations also was observed compared to conventional and large dairies, respectively. In all lagoons, su ARGs were observed to be generally more recalcitrant than tet ARGs. Also, positive correlations of various bulk water quality constituents were identified with tet ARGs but not sul ARGs. Significant positive correlations were identified between several metals and tet ARGs, but Pearson's correlation coefficients were mostly lower than those determined between antibiotic residues and ARGs. This study represents a quantitative characterization of ARGs in lagoons across a variety of livestock operations and provides insight into potential options for managing antibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Fate of antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes during enhanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by microwave pretreatment.

    Tong, Juan; Liu, Jibao; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Junya; Ni, Xiaotang; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during the sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave-acid (MW-H), microwave (MW) and microwave-H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2) pretreatments. Results showed that combined MW pretreatment especially for the MW-H pretreatment could efficiently reduce the ARB concentration, and most ARG concentrations tended to attenuate during the pretreatment. The subsequent AD showed evident removal of the ARB, but most ARGs were enriched after AD. Only the concentration of tetX kept continuous declination during the whole sludge treatment. The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA during the pretreatment and AD. Compared with unpretreated sludge, the AD of MW and MW-H2O2 pretreated sludge presented slightly better ARB and ARGs reduction efficiency. PMID:26970692

  20. Aquaculture changes the profile of antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic element associated genes in Baltic Sea sediments.

    Muziasari, Windi I; Pärnänen, Katariina; Johnson, Timothy A; Lyra, Christina; Karkman, Antti; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tamminen, Manu; Tiedje, James M; Virta, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture and they can change the environmental resistome by increasing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Sediment samples were collected from two fish farms located in the Northern Baltic Sea, Finland, and from a site outside the farms (control). The sediment resistome was assessed by using a highly parallel qPCR array containing 295 primer sets to detect ARGs, mobile genetic elements and the 16S rRNA gene. The fish farm resistomes were enriched in transposon and integron associated genes and in ARGs encoding resistance to antibiotics which had been used to treat fish at the farms. Aminoglycoside resistance genes were also enriched in the farm sediments despite the farms not having used aminoglycosides. In contrast, the total relative abundance values of ARGs were higher in the control sediment resistome and they were mainly genes encoding efflux pumps followed by beta-lactam resistance genes, which are found intrinsically in many bacteria. This suggests that there is a natural Baltic sediment resistome. The resistome associated with fish farms can be from native ARGs enriched by antibiotic use at the farms and/or from ARGs and mobile elements that have been introduced by fish farming. PMID:26976842

  1. Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.

    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied

  2. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China.

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3-2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2-1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. PMID:26840514

  3. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF FRUITS OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPENENSIS (LAM. MUELL- ARG (EUPHORBIACEAE

    Kadam Prasad Vijay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Correct identification of starting material is necessary to ensure the quality of herbal medicines. Pharmacognostic evaluation is first step towards establishing identity and purity of crude drug. With this aim the present paper deals with study of pharmacognostic and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of Mallotus philippinensis (lam Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae. The powder of Mallotus philippinensis was used for detection of various chemical constituents. The transverse section and the powder of fruit were studied for macroscopy, microscopy and physicochemical parameters. Fruit is globose, 3-lobed capsule with abundant orange or reddish glandular granules. The Microscopy showed the presence of epicarp, mesocarp endocarp. The cells also showed the presence of starch. From the pharmacognostical evaluation it was found that the fruit contains alkaloids, saponins, flavanoids etc. Physicochemical parameters were also within the limit. It can be concluded that Pharmacognostic evaluation can serve as tool for developing standards for identification, quality and purity of M. philippinensis.

  4. AVATAR: AdVanced Aerodynamic Tools for lArge Rotors

    Schepers, J.C.; Ceyhan, O.; Savenije, F.J.; Stettner, M.; Kooijman, H.J.; Chaviarapoulos, P.; Sieros, G.; Ferreira, C.S.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Wächter, M.; Stoevesandt, B.; Lutz, T.; Gonzalez, A.; Barakos, G.; Voutsinas, A.; Croce, A.; Madsen, J.

    An EERA (European Energy Research Alliance) consortium started an ambitious EU FP7 project AVATAR (AdVanced Aerodynamic Tools of lArge Rotors) in November 2013. The project lasts 4 years and is carried out in a consortium with 11 research institutes and two industry partners. The motivation for the...... AVATAR project lies in the fact that future 10 to 20 MW turbine design model analysis will importantly violate known validity limits of today’s aerodynamic and aero-elastic models in aspects like compressibility and Reynolds number effects, laminar/turbulent transition and separation effects, all in...... modelling improvements will be demonstrated on a new 10MW reference turbine design model description. The first results from the AVATAR project are presented in this paper....

  5. ARG (juegos de realidad alternativa. Contribuciones, limitaciones y potencialidades para la docencia universitaria

    Teresa Piñeiro Otero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La ludificación de la educación ha representado una oportunidad para fomentar la interacción, la motivación y la participación del alumnado. Los ARG (las siglas inglesas de juegos de realidad alternativa ofrecen una nueva herramienta altamente inmersiva que puede implementarse en el logro de los objetivos docentes. Uno de sus puntos fuertes consiste en la suma de esfuerzos y recursos (la llamada inteligencia colectiva aplicada a la resolución de problemas. A esto se añade su combinación de plataformas en los entornos online y offline, lo que favorece el «realismo» de la experiencia. En este sentido, el presente trabajo pretende condensar las potencialidades, limitaciones y retos de los ARG al servicio de la educación universitaria. Basándose, a nivel metodológico, en la elaboración de un corpus teórico relevante y adecuado, analiza el potencial educativo de esta herramienta que, en ámbitos como el marketing o la comunicación corporativa ya ha despegado con éxito, pero que en el área educativa todavía no había sido abordada en profundidad. Recopila, además, ejemplos satisfactorios que se han desarrollado en diversas disciplinas académicas en otros países y que no resultan fácilmente localizables. Se concluye que, dados los antecedentes, potencialidades y análisis expuesto, debe valorarse la posibilidad de incorporar los juegos de realidad alternativa a la práctica de la docencia universitaria en el marco de una estrategia educativa que determine sus objetivos y sistema de evaluación más adecuado.

  6. Arg188 in rice sucrose transporter OsSUT1 is crucial for substrate transport

    Sun Ye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs are H+/sucrose symporters related to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. SUTs are essential for plant growth but little is known about their transport mechanism. Recent work identified several conserved, charged amino acids within transmembrane spans (TMS in SUTs that are essential for transport activity. Here we further evaluated the role of one of these positions, R188 in the fourth TMS of OsSUT1, a type II SUT. Results The OsSUT1(R188K mutant, studied by expression in plants, yeast, and Xenopus oocytes, did not transport sucrose but showed a H+ leak that was blocked by sucrose. The H+ leak was also blocked by β-phenyl glucoside which is not translocated by OsSUT1. Replacing the corresponding Arg in type I and type III SUTs, AtSUC1(R163K and LjSUT4(R169K, respectively, also resulted in loss of sucrose transport activity. Fluorination at the glucosyl 3 and 4 positions of α-phenyl glucoside greatly decreased transport by wild type OsSUT1 but did not affect the ability to block H+ leak in the R188K mutant. Conclusion OsSUT1 R188 appears to be essential for sucrose translocation but not for substrate interaction that blocks H+ leak. Therefore, we propose that an additional binding site functions in the initial recognition of substrates. The corresponding Arg in type I and III SUTs are equally important. We propose that R188 interacts with glucosyl 3-OH and 4-OH during translocation.

  7. Association of ADHIB and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms with alcohol dependence: A pilot study from India

    Vaswani Meera; Prasad Pushplata; Kapur Suman

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Functional polymorphism in the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 are considered most important among several genetic determinants of alcohol dependence, a complex disorder. There is no report on the widely studied Arg47His and Glu487Lys polymorphisms from Indian alcoholdependent populations. In this paper, we report, for the first time, allelic and genotypic frequencies of Arg47His and Glu487Lys single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in...

  8. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    Thames, Callie H; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and fema...

  9. Antibiotic resistance gene abundance in feces of calves fed pirlimycin-dosed whole milk

    Littier, Heather Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to antibiotics has the potential to increase the incidence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the gut and fecal microbiome. Non-saleable, antibiotic-containing milk from cows treated with antibiotics (waste milk) is commonly fed to dairy calves but the effects of ingestion of antibiotics at an early age on the gut microbiome and the development of ARG in the naive gut are not well understood. Pirlimycin, a lincosamide antibiotic acting against Gram positive bac...

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis on Spread and Distribution Characteristic of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Livestock Farms of Southeastern China

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Yan, Zheng; Wang, Wei; Chen, Biao; Ge, Feng; Ye, Boping

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock farms is a problem which need to be paid more attention to, due to the severe resistance dissemination and the further human health risk. In this study, all the relevant exposure matrices (manure, soil and water) of sixteen animal farms in Southeastern China were sampled to determine twenty-two ARGs conferring resistance to five major classes of antibiotics including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. The results showed that the spread property of sul genes was most extensive and strong, followed by tet and erm genes. The abundance of tet genes expressing ribosomal protection proteins (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetT and tetW) was higher than that expressing efflux pump proteins (tetA, tetC, tetE and tetG) in each type of samples. The high abundance and frequency of ermB gene in the matrices should be paid more attention, because macrolides is a major medicine for human use. For manures, it was found that the similar ARGs distribution rules were existing in poultry manure or porcine manure samples, despite of the different origins of these two types of livestock farms. Meanwhile, it was interesting that the distribution rule of tet genes in animal manure was nearly the same as all the ARGs. For soils, the result of nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the pollution of ARGs in the soils fertilized by poultry and cattle manures were more substantial in northern Jiangsu, but no significant ARGs diversity was observed among porcine manured soils of five different regions. Furthermore, most ARGs showed significant positive relationships with environmental variables such as concentration of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, Cu, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC). The pollution profile and characteristics of so many ARGs in livestock farms can provide significative foundation for the regulation and legislation of antibiotics in China. PMID:27388166

  11. A Comprehensive Analysis on Spread and Distribution Characteristic of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Livestock Farms of Southeastern China.

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Yan, Zheng; Wang, Wei; Chen, Biao; Ge, Feng; Ye, Boping

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock farms is a problem which need to be paid more attention to, due to the severe resistance dissemination and the further human health risk. In this study, all the relevant exposure matrices (manure, soil and water) of sixteen animal farms in Southeastern China were sampled to determine twenty-two ARGs conferring resistance to five major classes of antibiotics including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. The results showed that the spread property of sul genes was most extensive and strong, followed by tet and erm genes. The abundance of tet genes expressing ribosomal protection proteins (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetT and tetW) was higher than that expressing efflux pump proteins (tetA, tetC, tetE and tetG) in each type of samples. The high abundance and frequency of ermB gene in the matrices should be paid more attention, because macrolides is a major medicine for human use. For manures, it was found that the similar ARGs distribution rules were existing in poultry manure or porcine manure samples, despite of the different origins of these two types of livestock farms. Meanwhile, it was interesting that the distribution rule of tet genes in animal manure was nearly the same as all the ARGs. For soils, the result of nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the pollution of ARGs in the soils fertilized by poultry and cattle manures were more substantial in northern Jiangsu, but no significant ARGs diversity was observed among porcine manured soils of five different regions. Furthermore, most ARGs showed significant positive relationships with environmental variables such as concentration of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, Cu, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC). The pollution profile and characteristics of so many ARGs in livestock farms can provide significative foundation for the regulation and legislation of antibiotics in China. PMID:27388166

  12. Association of β1 and β3 adrenergic receptors gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance and high lipid profiles related to type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

    Burguete-García, Ana I; Gabriela A. Martínez-Nava; Adán Valladares-Salgado; V. H. Bermúdez; Bárbara Estrada-Velasco; Niels Wacher; Jesús Peralta-Romero; Jaime Garcia-Mena; Esteban Parra; Miguel Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Among the diverse genes associated to type 2 diabetes (T2D), the β-adrenergic receptors are an excellent candidate to study in Mexican population. The objective of this work was to analyze the association of polymorphisms in ADRB1 (rs1801253) (Arg389Gly) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) genes with T2D and metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: We studied 445 MS patients, 502 with T2D and 552 healthy controls. Anthropometric features and complete biochemical profile were evaluated, and Arg389Gly an...

  13. The architecture of ArgR-DNA complexes at the genome-scale in Escherichia coli

    Cho, Suhyung; Cho, Yoo-Bok; Kang, Taek Jin;

    2015-01-01

    DNA-binding motifs that are recognized by transcription factors (TFs) have been well studied; however, challenges remain in determining the in vivo architecture of TF-DNA complexes on a genome-scale. Here, we determined the in vivo architecture of Escherichia coli arginine repressor (ArgR)-DNA co...

  14. High constitutive activity of a virus-encoded seven transmembrane receptor in the absence of the conserved DRY motif (Asp-Arg-Tyr) in transmembrane helix 3

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Kledal, Thomas N; Schwartz, Thue W

    2005-01-01

    The highly conserved Arg in the so-called DRY motif (Asp-Arg-Tyr) at the intracellular end of transmembrane helix 3 is in general considered as an essential residue for G protein coupling in rhodopsin-like seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors. In the open reading frame 74 (ORF74) receptor encoded by...

  15. Initial study of some methanogen genes: expression of Methanococcus voltae genes in Escherichia coli

    This report elates studies of gene transfer experiments aimed at elucidating the genetic organization of a methanogen, Methanococcus volta. Our initial cloning study, was concerned with complementation of hisA and argG mutations in E. coli by DNA derived from M. voltae and cloned into the PstI site of the plasmid vector pBR322. This complemetation was correlated with production in maxicells of methanogen-encoded polypeptides. We found that expression of the argG-complementing DNA was dependent upon orientation with respect to the β-lactamase promoters of pBR322. 17 refs., 3 figs

  16. Regional differences in distribution volume of I-123 IMP in the human brain. Effect on CBF calculated by ARG method

    Two methods of quantitating cerebral blood flow (CBF) with iodine-123-labeled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) and a two-compartment model had been proposed; one is the table look-up (TLU) method and the other is the autoradiographic (ARG) method. The TLU method provides values of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) values and distribution volume of I-123 IMP (Vd) independently. In the ARG method, a fixed Vd is applied for the entire brain to calculate CBF. Our purpose was to evaluate regional differences in Vd in the human brain, or possible effects of regional differences in Vd on CBF calculated by the ARG method. In the present study, two SPECT scans were acquired from each of eight normal subjects (aged 44.0±16.7) at 40 min and 180 min of mid-scan-time after intravenous 1 min infusion of 111 MBq IMP. A single arterial blood sampling was performed 10 min after the IMP infusion. All images were anatomically normalized and analyzed with SPM99 and Matlab. We generated CBF and Vd images for each subject by the TLU method and evaluated differences in Vd among brain structures. We subsequently generated another set of CBF images by the ARG method and examined differences between CBF calculated by the TLU method and that by the ARG method. Significant main effects of subject and brain structure in Vd were observed (two-way ANOVA). Vd values were higher in the deep gray matter than in the cerebral cortical regions. Among the cerebral cortical regions, no significant difference in Vd was observed. In spite of the significant differences in Vd among the brain structures, the voxel-by-voxel analyses as well as the ROI analyses revealed no statistically significant difference between CBF calculated by the TLU method and that by the ARG method. Although regional differences in Vd were observed, the present results support the assumption that a fixed Vd does not cause significant error in the calculation of CBF by the ARG method. (author)

  17. Relationships between plasma leptin levels, leptin G2548A, leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese population

    Yang, Mei; Peng, Songxu; Li, Wei; Wan, Zhihua; Fan, Linlin; Du, Yukai

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine concentrations of leptin and biochemical parameters in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals, and also to explore the links of leptin (LEP) G2548A and leptin receptor (LEPR) Gln223Arg polymorphisms with leptin levels and GDM risk among Chinese. Our study included 357 GDM and 355 NGT individuals who were at 24~30 gestational weeks. Plasma leptin and insulin levels were analyzed by ELISA. Gene polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The results showed that plasma leptin levels were significantly higher in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group than NGT group (34.35 (26.54, 56.48) ng/mL vs 26.31 (17.99, 37.87) ng/mL, P  0.05). Our findings showed that high leptin level was associated with GDM. And larger and more rigorous researches were needed to further explore the association of LEP and LEPR gene polymorphisms and GDM among Chinese population. PMID:27034205

  18. Technetium-99m-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides for human melanoma imaging

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether 99mTc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptide targeting both melanocortin-1 (MC1) and αvβ3 integrin receptors was superior in melanoma targeting to 99mTc-labeled α-MSH or RGD peptide targeting only the MC1 or αvβ3 integrin receptor. Methods: RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble were designed to target both MC1 and αvβ3 integrin receptors, MC1 receptor only and αvβ3 integrin receptor only, respectively. The MC1 or αvβ3 integrin receptor binding affinities of three peptides were determined in M21 human melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting properties of 99mTc-labeled RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble were determined in M21 human melanoma-xenografted nude mice. Meanwhile, the melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH was blocked with various non-radiolabeled peptides in M21 melanoma xenografts. Results: RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH displayed 2.0 and 403 nM binding affinities to both MC1 and αvβ3 integrin receptors, whereas RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH or RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble lost their αvβ3 integrin receptor binding affinity by greater than 248-fold or MC1 receptor binding affinity by more than 100-fold, respectively. The melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH was 2.49 and 2.24 times (P 99mTc-RAD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH and 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSHscramble at 2 h post-injection, respectively. Either RGD or (Arg11)CCMSH peptide co-injection could block 42% and 57% of the tumor uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH, whereas the coinjection of RGD+(Arg11)CCMSH peptide mixture could block 66% of the tumor uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH. Conclusions: Targeting both MC1 and αvβ3 integrin receptors enhanced the melanoma uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH in M21 human melanoma xenografts. Flank M21 human melanoma tumors were clearly visualized by single

  19. Seasonality of antibiotic prescriptions for outpatients and resistance genes in sewers and wastewater treatment plant outflow.

    Caucci, Serena; Karkman, Antti; Cacace, Damiano; Rybicki, Marcus; Timpel, Patrick; Voolaid, Veiko; Gurke, Robert; Virta, Marko; Berendonk, Thomas U

    2016-05-01

    To test the hypothesis of a seasonal relationship of antibiotic prescriptions for outpatients and the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the wastewater, we investigated the distribution of prescriptions and different ARGs in the Dresden sewer system and wastewater treatment plant during a two-year sampling campaign. Based on quantitative PCR (qPCR), our results show a clear seasonal pattern for relative ARGs abundances. The higher ARGs levels in autumn and winter coincide with the higher rates of overall antibiotic prescriptions. While no significant differences of relative abundances were observed before and after the wastewater treatment for most of the relative ARGs, the treatment clearly influenced the microbial community composition and abundance. This indicates that the ARGs are probably not part of the dominant bacterial taxa, which are mainly influenced by the wastewater treatment processes, or that plasmid carrying bacteria remain constant, while plasmid free bacteria decrease. An exception was vancomycin (vanA), showing higher relative abundance in treated wastewater. It is likely that a positive selection or community changes during wastewater treatment lead to an enrichment ofvanA. Our results demonstrate that in a medium-term study the combination of qPCR and next generation sequencing corroborated by drug-related health data is a suitable approach to characterize seasonal changes of ARGs in wastewater and treated wastewater. PMID:27073234

  20. [des-Arg(1)]-Proctolin: A novel NEP-like enzyme inhibitor identified in Tityus serrulatus venom.

    Duzzi, Bruno; Cajado-Carvalho, Daniela; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre Kazuo; Kodama, Roberto Tadashi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Fioramonte, Mariana; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Portaro, Fernanda Vieira; Rioli, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    The scorpion Tityus serrulatus venom comprises a complex mixture of molecules that paralyzes and kills preys, especially insects. However, venom components also interact with molecules in humans, causing clinic envenomation. This cross-interaction may result from homologous molecular targets in mammalians and insects, such as (NEP)-like enzymes. In face of these similarities, we searched for peptides in Tityus serrulatus venom using human NEP as a screening tool. We found a NEP-inhibiting peptide with the primary sequence YLPT, which is very similar to that of the insect neuropeptide proctolin (RYLPT). Thus, we named the new peptide [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin. Comparative NEP activity assays using natural substrates demonstrated that [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin has high specificity for NEP and better inhibitory activity than proctolin. To test the initial hypothesis that molecular homologies allow Tityus serrulatus venom to act on both mammal and insect targets, we investigated the presence of a NEP-like in cockroaches, the main scorpion prey, that could be likewise inhibited by [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin. Indeed, we detected a possible NEP-like in a homogenate of cockroach heads whose activity was blocked by thiorphan and also by [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin. Western blot analysis using a human NEP monoclonal antibody suggested a NEP-like enzyme in the homogenate of cockroach heads. Our study describes for the first time a proctolin-like peptide, named [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin, isolated from Tityus serrulatus venom. The tetrapeptide inhibits human NEP activity and a NEP-like activity in a cockroach head homogenate, thus it may play a role in human envenomation as well as in the paralysis and death of scorpion preys. PMID:26056922

  1. Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Markers in a Tropical River Receiving Hospital and Urban Wastewaters.

    Naresh Devarajan

    Full Text Available The occurrence of emerging biological contaminants including antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and Faecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB is still little investigated in developing countries under tropical conditions. In this study, the total bacterial load, the abundance of FIB (E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (ENT, Pseudomonas spp. and ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaNDM and aadA were quantified using quantitative PCR in the total DNA extracted from the sediments recovered from hospital outlet pipes (HOP and the Cauvery River Basin (CRB, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. The abundance of bacterial marker genes were 120, 104 and 89 fold higher for the E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively at HOP when compared with CRB. The ARGs aadA and blaTEM were most frequently detected in higher concentration than other ARGs at all the sampling sites. The ARGs blaSHV and blaNDM were identified in CRB sediments contaminated by hospital and urban wastewaters. The ARGs abundance strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.36, p < 0.05, n = 45 with total bacterial load and E. coli in the sediments, indicating a common origin and extant source of contamination. Tropical aquatic ecosystems receiving wastewaters can act as reservoir of ARGs, which could potentially be transferred to susceptible bacterial pathogens at these sites.

  2. Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Markers in a Tropical River Receiving Hospital and Urban Wastewaters

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Mulaji, Crispin Kyela; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Ibelings, Bastiaan Willem; Poté, John

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging biological contaminants including antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and Faecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) is still little investigated in developing countries under tropical conditions. In this study, the total bacterial load, the abundance of FIB (E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (ENT)), Pseudomonas spp. and ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaNDM and aadA) were quantified using quantitative PCR in the total DNA extracted from the sediments recovered from hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and the Cauvery River Basin (CRB), Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. The abundance of bacterial marker genes were 120, 104 and 89 fold higher for the E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively at HOP when compared with CRB. The ARGs aadA and blaTEM were most frequently detected in higher concentration than other ARGs at all the sampling sites. The ARGs blaSHV and blaNDM were identified in CRB sediments contaminated by hospital and urban wastewaters. The ARGs abundance strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.36, p wastewaters can act as reservoir of ARGs, which could potentially be transferred to susceptible bacterial pathogens at these sites. PMID:26910062

  3. Hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to mutant proinsulin (Arg{sup 65}{yields}His) not associated with impaired glucose tolerance: The contribution of mutant proinsulin to insulin bioactivity

    Roder, M.E.; Vissing, H. [Health Care Discovery, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Nauck, M.A. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia is a genetic abnormality characterized by an increased proportion of proinsulin immunoreactivity in the circulation due to mutations affecting the posttranslational processing of proinsulin. In affected Japanese families, this has been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. A three-generation Caucasian family with hyperproinsulinemia was identified through unexplained hyperinsulinemia in a normal volunteer participating in a metabolic study. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fasting plasma revealed a major peak eluting close to the position of proinsulin. Direct sequencing of the proinsulin gene exon 3 showed a heterozygous point mutation (CGT{yields}CAT) resulting in the substitution of Arg{yields}His in position 65 (corresponding to the AC cleavage site) in the index case, his mother, and his maternal grandmother. All affected subjects had normal oral glucose tolerance. In the basal state and after oral glucose administration, their proinsulin responses were slightly reduced. However, when calculating insulin bioactivity by assuming 9% activity for mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin, responses in affected subjects were comparable to those in normal subjects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to heterozygous mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin. This was not associated with impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that this mutation in the heterozygous state per se does not affect glucose tolerance and that the biological activity of mutant proinsulin contributes to glucose homeostasis in this family. The association of the same mutation with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in previous studies may be the result of selection bias or associated conditions (e.g. the genetic background of the kindreds examined). 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Melanocortin-1 receptor gene variants in four Chinese ethnic populations

    2001-01-01

    There is strong relationship between melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants and human hair color and skin type.Based on a sequencing study of MC1R gene in 50 individuals from the Uygur,Tibetan,Wa and Dai ethnic populations,we discuss the occurrence of 7 mc1r variants consisting of 5 nonsynonymous sites (Val60Leu,Arg67Gln,Val92Met,Arg163Gln and Ala299Val) and 2 synonymous sites (C414T and A942G),among which C414T and Ala299Val were reported for the first time.Confirmation and analysis were also made of 122 individuals at three common point mutations (Val92Met,Arg163Gln,A942G) using PCR-SSCP.The frequency of Arg163Gln variant varies in the four ethnic populations,with percentage of 40%,85.0%,66.2% and 72.7%,respectively,while those of Val92Met and A942G are roughly similar in these four populations.The different environments,migration and admixture of various ethnic groups in China might have impact on the observed frequency of Arg163Gln.

  5. Sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and oxytetracycline and related antibiotic resistance genes in a large-scale landfill, China.

    Song, Liyan; Li, Lei; Yang, Shu; Lan, Jiwu; He, Haijie; McElmurry, Shawn P; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-05-01

    Landfills are likely to be important reservoirs of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) as they receive unused and unwanted antibiotics and ARGs in municipal solid waste (MSW). The distribution, transportation and dynamics of antibiotics and ARGs in landfills remain largely unknown. In the present study, 3 antibiotics - sulfamethoxazole (SMX), tetracycline (TC), and oxytetracycline (OTC) - and their related ARGs (sulI and tetO) were quantified in 51 refuse samples from different depths at 8 locations within a large-scale landfill in central China. The average concentration of OTC was the highest, up to 100.9±141.81μg/kg (dw, n=48), followed by TC (63.8±37.7μg/kg, n=40), and SMX (47.9±8.1μg/kg, n=30). Both sulI and tetO were detected in all samples. Of the ARGs, sul1 (-3.06±1.18, n=51, log10 ARGs/16SrDNA) was more abundant than tetO (-4.37±0.97) in all refuse samples (p<0.05). Both sulI and tetO negatively correlated to refuse age, suggesting they are attenuated during landfill stabilization. OTC and TC positively correlated to tetO (r=0.41, p<0.01) and sulI (r=0.29, p=0.04), respectively. Chemical conditions (e.g. moisture content and nitrate concentrations) within the refuse correlated to antibiotics and ARGs suggesting environmental factors impact the distribution of antibiotics and ARGs in landfill matrix. This study is the first comprehensive in situ landfill study to connect the concentrations of antibiotic residues to ARGs. PMID:26874755

  6. Discharge of swine wastes risks water quality and food safety: Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from swine sources to the receiving environments.

    He, Liang-Ying; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Swine feedlots are widely considered as a potential hotspot for promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. ARGs could enter the environment via discharge of animal wastes, thus resulting in contamination of soil, water, and food. We investigated the dissemination and diversification of 22 ARGs conferring resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicols, and macrolides as well as the occurrence of 18 corresponding antibiotics from three swine feedlots to the receiving water, soil environments and vegetables. Most ARGs and antibiotics survived the on-farm waste treatment processes in the three swine farms. Elevated diversity of ARGs was observed in the receiving environments including river water and vegetable field soils when compared with respective controls. The variation of ARGs along the vertical soil profiles of vegetable fields indicated enrichment and migration of ARGs. Detection of various ARGs and antibiotic residues in vegetables fertilized by swine wastes could be of great concern to the general public. This research demonstrated the contribution of swine wastes to the occurrence and development of antibiotic resistance determinants in the receiving environments and potential risks to food safety and human health. PMID:27107226

  7. The tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    Baek, Yi-Yong; Lee, Dong-Keon [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); So, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee [Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jeoung, Dooil [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansoo [Department of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Jongseon [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Moo-Ho [Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwon-Soo [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Guen [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Myeong, E-mail: ymkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Kringle 5, derived from plasminogen, is highly capable of inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we have designed and synthesized 10 tetrapeptides, based on the amino acid properties of the core tetrapeptide Lys-Leu-Tyr-Asp (KLYD) originating from anti-angiogenic kringle 5 of human plasminogen. Of these, Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE) effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, with an IC{sub 50} of 0.06–0.08 nM, which was about ten-fold lower than that of the control peptide KLYD (0.79 nM), as well as suppressed developmental angiogenesis in a zebrafish model. Furthermore, this peptide effectively inhibited the cellular events that precede angiogenesis, such as ERK and eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, in endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RLYE is a potent anti-angiogenic peptide that targets the VEGF signaling pathway. - Highlights: • The tetrapeptide RLYE inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro. • RLYE also suppressed neovascularization in a zebrafish model. • Its effect was correlated with inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK and eNOS activation. • RLYE may be used as a therapeutic drug for angiogenesis-related diseases.

  8. Effects of Arg26 and Lys27 mutation on the bioactivity of HNTX-Ⅳ

    XIONG Xia; XU Xia; LI Dongling; CHEN Ping; LIANG Songping

    2007-01-01

    Hainantoxin-Ⅳ (HNTX-Ⅳ)was isolated from the Chinese bird spider Ornithoctorcs hainana and identified as a novel antagonist of tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S)sodium channels.As revealed by the solution structure of HNTX-Ⅳ solved by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR),HNTX-Ⅳ adopts an inhibitor cystine knot motif.To check the role of basic residues during HNTX-Ⅳ's interaction with TTX-S sodium channels,R26A and K27A mutants of HNTX-Ⅳ were constructed by solid-phase chemical synthesis.The synthesized peptides were purified and refolded under optimized oxidation conditions.Correct synthesis and folding were confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy,respectively.Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique,Lys27 but not Arg26 was identified as a key residue for HNTX-Ⅳ's bioactivity against TTX-S sodium channels,because R26A-HNTX-Ⅳ showed slightly reduced activity and K27A-HNTX-Ⅳ showed almost no inhibition.

  9. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.

    Hamid Reza Naji,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

  10. Validation of Community Models: 2. Development of a Baseline, Using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge Model

    MacNeice, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series providing independent validation of community models of the outer corona and inner heliosphere. Here I present a comprehensive validation of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare the next generation of comparable forecasting models. The WSA model is used by a number of agencies to predict Solar wind conditions at Earth up to 4 days into the future. Given its importance to both the research and forecasting communities, it is essential that its performance be measured systematically and independently. I offer just such an independent and systematic validation. I report skill scores for the model's predictions of wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity for a large set of Carrington rotations. The model was run in all its routinely used configurations. It ingests synoptic line of sight magnetograms. For this study I generated model results for monthly magnetograms from multiple observatories, spanning the Carrington rotation range from 1650 to 2074. I compare the influence of the different magnetogram sources and performance at quiet and active times. I also consider the ability of the WSA model to forecast both sharp transitions in wind speed from slow to fast wind and reversals in the polarity of the radial component of the IMF. These results will serve as a baseline against which to compare future versions of the model as well as the current and future generation of magnetohydrodynamic models under development for forecasting use.

  11. Monitoring and evaluation of the water quality of Budeasa Reservoir-Arges River, Romania.

    Ion, Antoanela; Vladescu, Luminita; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Comanescu, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor and record the specific characteristics and properties of the Arges River water in the Budeasa Reservoir (the principal water resources of municipal tap water of the big Romanian city Pitesti and surrounding area) for a period of 5 years (2005-2009). The monitored physical and chemical parameters were turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, 5 days biochemical oxygen demand, free dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, chloride, total dissolved iron ions, sulfate, manganese, phosphate, total alkalinity, and total hardness. The results were discussed in correlation with the precipitation values during the study. Monthly and annual values of each parameter determined in the period January 2005-December 2009 were used as a basis for the classification of Budeasa Reservoir water, according to the European legislation, as well as for assessing its quality as a drinking water supply. Principal component analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients were used as statistical procedures in order to evaluate the data obtained during this study. PMID:27566323

  12. The tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    Kringle 5, derived from plasminogen, is highly capable of inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we have designed and synthesized 10 tetrapeptides, based on the amino acid properties of the core tetrapeptide Lys-Leu-Tyr-Asp (KLYD) originating from anti-angiogenic kringle 5 of human plasminogen. Of these, Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE) effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, with an IC50 of 0.06–0.08 nM, which was about ten-fold lower than that of the control peptide KLYD (0.79 nM), as well as suppressed developmental angiogenesis in a zebrafish model. Furthermore, this peptide effectively inhibited the cellular events that precede angiogenesis, such as ERK and eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, in endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RLYE is a potent anti-angiogenic peptide that targets the VEGF signaling pathway. - Highlights: • The tetrapeptide RLYE inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro. • RLYE also suppressed neovascularization in a zebrafish model. • Its effect was correlated with inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK and eNOS activation. • RLYE may be used as a therapeutic drug for angiogenesis-related diseases

  13. Primary structure of the precursor for the sea anemone neuropeptide Antho-RFamide (less than Glu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2)

    Darmer, D; Schmutzler, C; Diekhoff, D; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1991-01-01

    Neuropeptides containing the carboxylterminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 are found throughout the animal kingdom and are important substances mediating neuronal communication. Here, we have cloned the cDNA coding for the precursor protein of the sea anemone neuropeptide (Antho-RFamide) less than Glu......-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2. This precursor is 334 amino acids in length and contains 19 copies of unprocessed Antho-RFamide (Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-Gly), which are tandemly arranged in the C-terminal part of the protein. Paired basic residues (Lys-Arg) or single basic residues (Arg) occur at the C-terminal side of each Antho...... glutamic acid residues. Such processing is, to our knowledge, hitherto unknown for peptidergic neurons. The Antho-RFamide precursor also contains two copies of the putative Antho-RFamide-related peptide Phe-Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 and one copy of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Arg-Tyr-NH2. In addition, the precursor protein...

  14. Floral biology and breeding system of Psychotria tenuinervis Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae) in the Atlantic rain forest, SE Brazil Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Psychotria tenuinervis Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae) na Floresta Atlântica, SE Brasil

    Carolina Bernucci Virillo; Flavio Nunes Ramos; Cibele Cardoso de Castro; João Semir

    2007-01-01

    (Floral biology and breeding system oi Psychotria tenuinervis Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae) in the Atlantic rain forest, SE Brazil). The aim of this study was to investigate pollination biology, floral morphometry, morph ratio and breeding system oiPsychotria tenuinervis in an area of Atlantic rain forest in southeastern Brazil. Pollination biology was studied based on focal observations and the breeding system was determined using controlled crosses; data on flower production and floral morphometr...

  15. Prevalence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes in two municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Mao, Daqing; Yu, Shuai; Rysz, Michal; Luo, Yi; Yang, Fengxia; Li, Fengxiang; Hou, Jie; Mu, Quanhua; Alvarez, P J J

    2015-11-15

    The propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is an emerging health concern worldwide. Thus, it is important to understand and mitigate their occurrence in different systems. In this study, 30 ARGs that confer resistance to tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones or macrolides were detected in two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in northern China. Bacteria harboring ARGs persisted through all treatment units, and survived disinfection by chlorination in greater percentages than total Bacteria (assessed by 16S rRNA genes). Although the absolute abundances of ARGs were reduced from the raw influent to the effluent by 89.0%-99.8%, considerable ARG levels [(1.0 ± 0.2) × 10(3) to (9.5 ± 1.8) × 10(5) copies/mL)] were found in WWTP effluent samples. ARGs were concentrated in the waste sludge (through settling of bacteria and sludge dewatering) at (1.5 ± 2.3) × 10(9) to (2.2 ± 2.8) × 10(11) copies/g dry weight. Twelve ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetS, tetT, tetX, sul1, sul2, qnrB, ermC) were discharged through the dewatered sludge and plant effluent at higher rates than influent values, indicating overall proliferation of resistant bacteria. Significant antibiotic concentrations (2%-50% of raw influent concentrations) remained throughout all treatment units. This apparently contributed selective pressure for ARG replication since the relative abundance of resistant bacteria (assessed by ARG/16S rRNA gene ratios) was significantly correlated to the corresponding effluent antibiotic concentrations. Similarly, the concentrations of various heavy metals (which induce a similar bacterial resistance mechanism as antibiotics - efflux pumps) were also correlated to the enrichment of some ARGs. Thus, curtailing the release of antibiotics and heavy metals to sewage systems (or enhancing their removal in pre-treatment units) may alleviate their selective pressure and mitigate ARG proliferation in WWTPs. PMID:26372743

  16. Deletion of Genes Encoding Arginase Improves Use of "Heavy" Isotope-Labeled Arginine for Mass Spectrometry in Fission Yeast.

    Weronika E Borek

    Full Text Available The use of "heavy" isotope-labeled arginine for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC mass spectrometry in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is hindered by the fact that under normal conditions, arginine is extensively catabolized in vivo, resulting in the appearance of "heavy"-isotope label in several other amino acids, most notably proline, but also glutamate, glutamine and lysine. This "arginine conversion problem" significantly impairs quantification of mass spectra. Previously, we developed a method to prevent arginine conversion in fission yeast SILAC, based on deletion of genes involved in arginine catabolism. Here we show that although this method is indeed successful when (13C6-arginine (Arg-6 is used for labeling, it is less successful when (13C6(15N4-arginine (Arg-10, a theoretically preferable label, is used. In particular, we find that with this method, "heavy"-isotope label derived from Arg-10 is observed in amino acids other than arginine, indicating metabolic conversion of Arg-10. Arg-10 conversion, which severely complicates both MS and MS/MS analysis, is further confirmed by the presence of (13C5(15N2-arginine (Arg-7 in arginine-containing peptides from Arg-10-labeled cells. We describe how all of the problems associated with the use of Arg-10 can be overcome by a simple modification of our original method. We show that simultaneous deletion of the fission yeast arginase genes car1+ and aru1+ prevents virtually all of the arginine conversion that would otherwise result from the use of Arg-10. This solution should enable a wider use of heavy isotope-labeled amino acids in fission yeast SILAC.

  17. P53 codon 11, 72, and 248 gene polymorphisms in endometriosis

    Hsieh, Yao-Yuan; Lin, Chich-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Mutated p53 gene is related to the instability of cell growth and cell cycle progression. We aimed to evaluate the association between endometriosis and p53 codon 11, 72 and 248 gene polymorphisms. Patients and methods: Women were divided into two groups: (1) moderate/severe endometriosis (n=148), and (2) non-endometriosis groups (n=150). P53 gene polymorphisms include codon11 Glu/Gln or Lys (GAG->CAG or AAG), codon 72 Arg/Pro (CGC->CCC), and codon 248 Arg/Thr (CGG->TCG). These gen...

  18. Housefly Larva Vermicomposting Efficiently Attenuates Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swine Manure, with Concomitant Bacterial Population Changes.

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Gilbert, Jack A; Li, Haibo; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Meng; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Qiansheng; Yuan, Junxiang; Zhang, Zhijian

    2015-11-01

    Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9 ARGs and the composition and structure of the bacterial communities in manure samples across 6 days of full-scale manure vermicomposting. On day 6, the abundances of genes encoding tetracycline resistance [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)] were reduced (P vermicomposting, accompanied by a 100 times increase in the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae spp. Variations in the abundances of ARGs were correlated with the changing microbial community structure and the relative abundances of the family Ruminococcaceae, class Bacilli, or phylum Proteobacteria. Vermicomposting, as a waste management practice, can reduce the overall abundance of ARGs. More research is warranted to assess the use of this waste management practice as a measure to attenuate the dissemination of antimicrobial residues and ARGs from livestock production before vermicompost can be safely used as biofertilizer in agroecosystems. PMID:26296728

  19. Does human activity impact the natural antibiotic resistance background? Abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in 21 Swiss lakes.

    Czekalski, Nadine; Sigdel, Radhika; Birtel, Julia; Matthews, Blake; Bürgmann, Helmut

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants, known to be continuously discharged into the aquatic environment via human and animal waste. Freshwater aquatic environments represent potential reservoirs for ARG and potentially allow sewage-derived ARG to persist and spread in the environment. This may create increased opportunities for an eventual contact with, and gene transfer to, human and animal pathogens via the food chain or drinking water. However, assessment of this risk requires a better understanding of the level and variability of the natural resistance background and the extent of the human impact. We have analyzed water samples from 21 Swiss lakes, taken at sampling points that were not under the direct influence of local contamination sources and analyzed the relative abundance of ARG using quantitative real-time PCR. Copy numbers of genes mediating resistance to three different broad-spectrum antibiotic classes (sulfonamides: sul1, sul2, tetracyclines: tet(B), tet(M), tet(W) and fluoroquinolones: qnrA) were normalized to copy numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We used multiple linear regression to assess if ARG abundance is related to human activities in the catchment, microbial community composition and the eutrophication status of the lakes. Sul genes were detected in all sampled lakes, whereas only four lakes contained quantifiable numbers of tet genes, and qnrA remained below detection in all lakes. Our data indicate higher abundance of sul1 in lakes with increasing number and capacity of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the catchment. sul2 abundance was rather related to long water residence times and eutrophication status. Our study demonstrates the potential of freshwater lakes to preserve antibiotic resistance genes, and provides a reference for ARG abundance from lake systems with low human impact as a baseline for assessing ARG contamination in lake water. PMID:25913323

  20. Fate and proliferation of typical antibiotic resistance genes in five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants

    Wang, Jilu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Mao, Daqing, E-mail: mao@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Mu, Quanhua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Luo, Yi, E-mail: luoy@nankai.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 10 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance and the class 1 integrase gene (intI1). In total, these genes were monitored in 24 samples across each stage of five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) using qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.08 ± 0.16) × 10{sup 3} to (3.68 ± 0.27) × 10{sup 6} copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.6%–59.8% of influents of the five PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (9.38 ± 0.73) × 10{sup 7} to (4.30 ± 0.81) × 10{sup 10} copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge was 7–308 folds higher than that in the raw influents and 16–638 folds higher than that in the final effluents. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in the biological treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge, cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and membrane bio-reactor (MBR), implying that significant replication of certain subtypes of ARGs may be attributable to microbial growth. High concentrations of antibiotic residues (ranging from 0.14 to 92.2 mg/L) were detected in the influents of selected wastewater treatment systems and they still remain high residues in the effluents. Partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the antibiotic concentrations and the associated relative abundance of ARG subtypes in the effluent. Although correlation does not prove causation, this study demonstrates that in addition to bacterial growth, the high antibiotic residues within the pharmaceutical WWTPs may influence the proliferation and fate of the associated ARG subtypes. - Highlights: • The ARGs in final discharges were 7

  1. Fate and proliferation of typical antibiotic resistance genes in five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants

    This study investigated the characteristics of 10 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance and the class 1 integrase gene (intI1). In total, these genes were monitored in 24 samples across each stage of five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) using qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.08 ± 0.16) × 103 to (3.68 ± 0.27) × 106 copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.6%–59.8% of influents of the five PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (9.38 ± 0.73) × 107 to (4.30 ± 0.81) × 1010 copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge was 7–308 folds higher than that in the raw influents and 16–638 folds higher than that in the final effluents. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in the biological treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge, cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and membrane bio-reactor (MBR), implying that significant replication of certain subtypes of ARGs may be attributable to microbial growth. High concentrations of antibiotic residues (ranging from 0.14 to 92.2 mg/L) were detected in the influents of selected wastewater treatment systems and they still remain high residues in the effluents. Partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the antibiotic concentrations and the associated relative abundance of ARG subtypes in the effluent. Although correlation does not prove causation, this study demonstrates that in addition to bacterial growth, the high antibiotic residues within the pharmaceutical WWTPs may influence the proliferation and fate of the associated ARG subtypes. - Highlights: • The ARGs in final discharges were 7–308 times higher than that

  2. Three novel and the common Arg677Ter RP1 protein truncating mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in a Spanish population

    Antiñolo Guillermo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP, a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal degeneration disorders affecting the photoreceptor cells, is one of the leading causes of genetic blindness. Mutations in the photoreceptor-specific gene RP1 account for 3–10% of cases of autosomal dominant RP (adRP. Most of these mutations are clustered in a 500 bp region of exon 4 of RP1. Methods Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and direct genomic sequencing were used to evaluate the 5' coding region of exon 4 of the RP1 gene for mutations in 150 unrelated index adRP patients. Ophthalmic and electrophysiological examination of RP patients and relatives according to pre-existing protocols were carried out. Results Three novel disease-causing mutations in RP1 were detected: Q686X, K705fsX712 and K722fsX737, predicting truncated proteins. One novel missense mutation, Thr752Met, was detected in one family but the mutation does not co-segregate in the family, thereby excluding this amino acid variation in the protein as a cause of the disease. We found the Arg677Ter mutation, previously reported in other populations, in two independent families, confirming that this mutation is also present in a Spanish population. Conclusion Most of the mutations reported in the RP1 gene associated with adRP are expected to encode mutant truncated proteins that are approximately one third or half of the size of wild type protein. Patients with mutations in RP1 showed mild RP with variability in phenotype severity. We also observed several cases of non-penetrant mutations.

  3. BDNF-induced LTP is associated with rapid Arc/Arg3.1-dependent enhancement in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Kuipers, Sjoukje D; Trentani, Andrea; Tiron, Adrian; Mao, Xiaosong; Kuhl, Dietmar; Bramham, Clive R

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a remarkable phenomenon involved in various aspects of learning and memory as well as disease pathophysiology. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) represents a major player in the regulation of this unique form of neuroplasticity, yet the mechanisms underlying its pro-neurogenic actions remain unclear. Here, we examined the effects associated with brief (25 min), unilateral infusion of BDNF in the rat dentate gyrus. Acute BDNF infusion induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of medial perforant path-evoked synaptic transmission and, concomitantly, enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis bilaterally, reflected by increased dentate gyrus BrdU + cell numbers. Importantly, inhibition of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) translation through local, unilateral infusion of anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ArcAS) prior to BDNF infusion blocked both BDNF-LTP induction and the associated pro-neurogenic effects. Notably, basal rates of proliferation and newborn cell survival were unaltered in homozygous Arc/Arg3.1 knockout mice. Taken together these findings link the pro-neurogenic effects of acute BDNF infusion to induction of Arc/Arg3.1-dependent LTP in the adult rodent dentate gyrus. PMID:26888068

  4. Bioinformatic analysis of an unusual gene-enzyme relationship in the arginine biosynthetic pathway among marine gamma proteobacteria: implications concerning the formation of N-acetylated intermediates in prokaryotes.

    Labedan Bernard; Glansdorff Nicolas; Xu Ying

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The N-acetylation of L-glutamate is regarded as a universal metabolic strategy to commit glutamate towards arginine biosynthesis. Until recently, this reaction was thought to be catalyzed by either of two enzymes: (i) the classical N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, gene argA) first characterized in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa several decades ago and also present in vertebrates, or (ii) the bifunctional version of ornithine acetyltransferase (OAT, gene argJ)...

  5. Pharmacobotanic characterization of young stems and stem barks of Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg., Apocynaceae

    Leopoldo Clemente Baratto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, a Brazilian native tree rich in indole alkaloids, is known as "pau-pra-tudo" and popularly used as hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and antihypertensive. The aim of this work was to study the anatomy of the young stems and stem barks of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to the identification of the species as a drug. The plant material was fixed and prepared according to standard microtechniques. The young stems have remaining epidermis, but a suberified peridermis is evident. The phellogen is located in the cortical region, forming suber externally. Underneath the phellogen, lies the phelloderm and collenchymatic region. In the cortex, there are numerous laticifers and some fibers. There is an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath, consisting of several groups of fibers and stone cells. The stem has internal phloem ordered as isolated groups side by side. Numerous laticifers, calcium oxalate crystals, idioblasts and amyloplasts are found in the cortex, phloem, xylem and pith. The stem bark has many layers of suber and cortical parenchyma, a sheath composed of fibers and stone cells totally lignified, and external phloem. These anatomical characteristic, taken together, can be used as quality control parameters for this species.Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, uma árvore nativa brasileira rica em alcaloides indólicos, é conhecida como "pau-pra-tudo" e utilizada popularmente como hipocolesterolêmica, hipoglicêmica e anti-hipertensiva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar anatomicamente o caule jovem e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para a identificação e autenticidade da droga. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. O caule jovem possui epiderme remanescente, porém uma periderme suberificada é observada. O felogênio instala-se na região cortical, formando súber externamente. Subjacentes ao felog

  6. Changes of resistome, mobilome and potential hosts of antibiotic resistance genes during the transformation of anaerobic digestion from mesophilic to thermophilic.

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Min

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to reveal how antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their horizontal and vertical transfer-related items (mobilome and bacterial hosts) respond to the transformation of anaerobic digestion (AD) from mesophilic to thermophilic using one-step temperature increase. The resistomes and mobilomes of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge were investigated using metagenome sequencing, and the changes in 24 representative ARGs belonging to three categories, class 1 integron and bacterial genera during the transition period were further followed using quantitative PCR and 454-pyrosequencing. After the temperature increase, resistome abundance in the digested sludge decreased from 125.97 ppm (day 0, mesophilic) to 50.65 ppm (day 57, thermophilic) with the reduction of most ARG types except for the aminoglycoside resistance genes. Thermophilic sludge also had a smaller mobilome, including plasmids, insertion sequences and integrons, than that of mesophilic sludge, suggesting the lower horizontal transfer potential of ARGs under thermophilic conditions. On the other hand, the total abundance of 18 bacterial genera, which were suggested as the possible hosts for 13 ARGs through network analysis, decreased from 23.27% in mesophilic sludge to 11.92% in thermophilic sludge, indicating fewer hosts for the vertical expansion of ARGs after the increase in temperature. These results indicate that the better reduction of resistome abundance by thermophilic AD might be associated with the decrease of both the horizontal and vertical transferability of ARGs. PMID:27108212

  7. Affinity capture of (Arg sup 8 )vasopressin-receptor complex using immobilized antisense peptide

    Feng Xian Lu; Aiyar, N.; Chaiken, I. (SmithKline Beecham, King of Prussia, PA (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Solubilized noncovalent complexes of (Arg{sup 8})-vasopressin (AVP) with receptor proteins from rat liver membranes were isolated by selective binding to silica-immobilized antisense (AS) peptide. The affinity chromatographic support was prepared with a chemically synthesized AS peptide whose sequence is encoded by the AS DNA corresponding to the 20 amino-terminal residues of the AVP bovine neurophysin II biosynthetic precursor (pro-AVP/BNPII-(20-1)), region that includes the AVP sequence at residues 1-9. The AS peptide-AVP interaction mechanism hypothesized, contact by hydropathic complementarity at multiple sites along the peptide chains, led to the prediction that AVP bound to its receptor would still have enough free surface to interact with immobilized AS peptide. To test this prediction of a three-way interaction, ({sup 3}H)AVP-receptor was obtained as a solubilized, partially purified fraction from rat liver membrane. Covalently crosslinked ({sup 3}H)AVP complex also was bound to the AS peptide column; binding was blocked by competition with unlabeled AVP in the elution buffer. Since the AVP-linked 31- and 38-kDa proteins have the same apparent molecular mass on SDS/PAGE as found previously by photoaffinity labeling, the authors conclude that the AS peptide column has affinity-captured AVP-receptor complexes. The 15-kDa protein appears to be an active AVP-receptor fragment of one or both of the larger proteins. It is generally concluded that immobilized AS peptides may be useful to isolate peptide and protein receptor complexes in other systems as well.

  8. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  9. Polymorphisms in the Melanocortin-1 Receptor (Mc1R Gene in Vitiligo

    Eylem Acar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitiligo is a progressive skin pigmentation disorder, which may be acquired or hereditary, frequently seen, and may influence every age group. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene is a major determinant of human pigmentation. In our study, polymorphic differences of the MC1R gene at the DNA level has been investigated in patients with vitiligo.Materials and Methods: In our study, polymorphic differences of the MC1R gene at the DNA level has been investigated in vitiligo 60 patients, whose families had resided in the Thrace region of Turkey for at least three generations. The 60 volunteer healthy individuals have no other systemic and dermatological disease.Results: Totally, five types of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP were found in each case and control groups: Val60Leu (G178T, Val92Met (G274A, Arg151Cys (C451T, Arg160Trp (C478T, and Arg163Gln (G488A. Comparing both groups in terms of genotype frequencies, no statistically meaningful difference was detected (p>0.05. However, assessing in terms of allele frequencies, a meaningful difference was found in the Arg163Gln (G488A allele statistically in favor of the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: It has been found in our study population that the MC1R gene Arg163Gln (G488A allele may be a protective factor for vitiligo.

  10. Impact of GNB3-C825T, ADRB3-Trp64Arg, UCP2-3′UTR 45 bp del/ins, and PPARγ-Pro12Ala Polymorphisms on Bofutsushosan Response in Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Park, Junghyun; Bose, Shambhunath; Hong, Sun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Ki; Yoo, Jae-Wook; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Lee, Myeongjong; Kim, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is known to be influenced by a number of genes, including the β3 subunit of G protein (GNB3), β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the above genes, such as GNB3-C825T, ADRB3-Trp64Arg, UCP2-3′UTR 45 bp del/ins, and PPARγ-Pro12Ala, are associated with obesity and body mass index. The present study evaluates the impact of Bofutsushosan, a traditional Eastern...

  11. The association between changes in synovial fluid levels of ARGS-aggrecan fragments, progression of radiographic osteoarthritis and self-reported outcomes: a cohort study

    Larsson, S; Englund, M; Struglics, A; Lohmander, L S

    2012-01-01

    subjects at two time points after meniscectomy. Time point A was on average 18years after meniscectomy, time point B was on average 7.5years later; 74 subjects had SF available from both examinations. We measured SF ARGS by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, graded radiographic features of...... between examinations was increased 6- and 4-fold respectively compared to those increasing in SF ARGS (odds ratio (OR) 5.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-21.4 and 3.66; 1.01-13.2, respectively). No significant associations were seen between decreasing SF ARGS and progression of osteophytes (OR 0.......88; 0.28-2.78), or for patient-reported outcomes other than KOOS pain. CONCLUSION: Having decreasing levels of SF ARGS over time was associated with an increased risk of loss of joint space and pain worsening, but showed no association with other patient-reported outcomes or osteophyte progression....

  12. STUDY ON INVOLVEMENT OF L-ARG-NO IN THE PROTECTIVE ACTION OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON CEREBRAL ISCHEMIC INJURY IN THE RAT

    MaYang; XuNenggui; XuGuansun; ZhuShunli; SunYong; ZhangDaoqin; MaQinyun

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the involvement of L-arginine(L-Arg) NO on ihe protective action of electroacupuncture(EA) on cerebral ischemic injury was observed in acute ischemia-reperfusion(IR) rat model by taking regional cerebral blood flow(r-CBF), cerebral water content(CWC), and blood nitric oxide(NO) contents as indexes. Results showed that 1) EA could cause r-CBF and serum NO content to increase and CWC to lower, suggesting an protective action of EA on IR cerebral injury; 2) intravenous injection of L-Arg also had an protective effect on cerebral IR cerebral injury, while L-NNA had no this effect; and 3) pre-treatment with L-Arg might strengthen the effect of EA further, while pretreatment with L-NNA could weaken its effect. It indicates that L-Arg-NO may be involved in the effect of EA in protecting the brain from ischemic injury.

  13. STUDY ON INVOLVEMENT OF L-ARG-NO IN THE PROTECTIVE ACTION OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON CEREBRAL ISCHEMIC INJURY IN THE RAT

    马扬; 许能贵; 许冠荪; 朱舜丽; 孙勇; 张道芹; 马勤耘

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the involvement of L-arginine(L-Arg) NO on he protective action of electroacupuncture(EA) on cerebral ischemic injury was observed in acute ischemia-reperfusion(IR)rat model by taking regional cerebral blood flow(r-CBF), cerebral water content(CWC), and blood nitric oxide(NO) contents as indexes. Results showed that 1) EA could cause r-CBF and serum NO content to increase and CWC to lower, suggesting an protective action of EA on IR cerebral injury; 2) intravenous injection of L-Arg also had an protective effect on cerebral IR cerebral injury, while L-NNA had no this effect; and 3) pre-treatment with L-Arg might strengthen the effect of EA further, while pretreatment with L-NNA could weaken its effect. It indicates that L-Arg-NO may be involved in the effect of EA in protecting the brain from ischemic injury.

  14. Impacts of human activities on distribution of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes and antibiotic resistance genes in marine coastal sediments of Hong Kong.

    Guo, Feng; Li, Bing; Yang, Ying; Deng, Yu; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Li, Xiangdong; Leung, Kenneth My; Zhang, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRPs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in sediments could be biomarkers for evaluating the environmental impacts of human activities, although factors governing their distribution are not clear yet. By using metagenomic approach, this study investigated the distributions of SRPs and ARGs in marine sediments collected from 12 different coastal locations of Hong Kong, which exhibited different pollution levels and were classified into two groups based on sediment parameters. Our results showed that relative abundances of major SRP genera to total prokaryotes were consistently lower in the more seriously polluted sediments (P-value niche differentiation of SRPs and behavior of ARGs in marine coastal sediment. PMID:27297722

  15. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    Hui Zhou

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract (AGE is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl-L-arginine (FruArg. The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress.

  16. Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by chlorination and sequential UV/chlorination disinfection

    This study investigated disinfection methods including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and sequential UV/chlorination treatment on the inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs including sul1, tetX, tetG, intI1, and 16S rRNA genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent were examined. The results indicated a positive correlation between the removal of ARGs and chlorine dosage (p = 0.007–0.014, n = 6),as well as contact time (p = 0.0001, n = 10). Greater free chlorine (FC) dosage leads to higher removal for all the genes and the maximum removal (1.30–1.49 logs) could be achieved at FC dosage of 30 mg L−1. The transformation kinetic data for ARGs removal (log C0 / C) followed the second-order reaction kinetic model with FC dosage (R2 = 0.6829–0.9999) and contact time (R2 = 0.7353–8634), respectively. Higher ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N) concentration was found to lead to lower removal of ARGs at the same chlorine dosage. When the applied Cl2:NH3–N ratio was over 7.6:1, a significant reduction of ARGs (1.20–1.49 logs) was achieved. By using single UV irradiation, the log removal values of tetX and 16Ss rRNA genes were 0.58 and 0.60, respectively, while other genes were 0.36–0.40 at a fluence of 249.5 mJ cm−2, which was observed to be less effective than chlorination. With sequential UV/chlorination treatment, 0.006 to 0.31 log synergy values of target genes were observed under different operation parameters. - Highlights: • Chlorine is more effective than UV irradiation in removing ARGs from MWTP effluent. • The chlorination reaction followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. • Higher NH3–N contents result in lower ARGs removal in the chlorination process. • FC is more effective than CC on the inactivation of ARGs. • UV irradiation followed by chlorination shows high efficiency in removing ARGs

  17. Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by chlorination and sequential UV/chlorination disinfection

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2015-04-15

    This study investigated disinfection methods including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and sequential UV/chlorination treatment on the inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs including sul1, tetX, tetG, intI1, and 16S rRNA genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent were examined. The results indicated a positive correlation between the removal of ARGs and chlorine dosage (p = 0.007–0.014, n = 6),as well as contact time (p = 0.0001, n = 10). Greater free chlorine (FC) dosage leads to higher removal for all the genes and the maximum removal (1.30–1.49 logs) could be achieved at FC dosage of 30 mg L{sup −1}. The transformation kinetic data for ARGs removal (log C{sub 0} / C) followed the second-order reaction kinetic model with FC dosage (R{sup 2} = 0.6829–0.9999) and contact time (R{sup 2} = 0.7353–8634), respectively. Higher ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}–N) concentration was found to lead to lower removal of ARGs at the same chlorine dosage. When the applied Cl{sub 2}:NH{sub 3}–N ratio was over 7.6:1, a significant reduction of ARGs (1.20–1.49 logs) was achieved. By using single UV irradiation, the log removal values of tetX and 16Ss rRNA genes were 0.58 and 0.60, respectively, while other genes were 0.36–0.40 at a fluence of 249.5 mJ cm{sup −2}, which was observed to be less effective than chlorination. With sequential UV/chlorination treatment, 0.006 to 0.31 log synergy values of target genes were observed under different operation parameters. - Highlights: • Chlorine is more effective than UV irradiation in removing ARGs from MWTP effluent. • The chlorination reaction followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. • Higher NH{sub 3}–N contents result in lower ARGs removal in the chlorination process. • FC is more effective than CC on the inactivation of ARGs. • UV irradiation followed by chlorination shows high efficiency in removing ARGs.

  18. Dissemination of veterinary antibiotics and corresponding resistance genes from a concentrated swine feedlot along the waste treatment paths.

    Wang, Jian; Ben, Weiwei; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Qiang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Swine feedlots are an important pollution source of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment. This study investigated the dissemination of two classes of commonly-used veterinary antibiotics, namely, tetracyclines (TCs) and sulfonamides (SAs), and their corresponding ARGs along the waste treatment paths from a concentrated swine feedlot located in Beijing, China. The highest total TC and total SA concentrations detected were 166.7mgkg(-1) and 64.5μgkg(-1) in swine manure as well as 388.7 and 7.56μgL(-1) in swine wastewater, respectively. Fourteen tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPP), efflux proteins (EFP) and enzymatic inactivation proteins, three sulfonamide resistance genes (SRGs), and two integrase genes were detected along the waste treatment paths with detection frequencies of 33.3-75.0%. The relative abundances of target ARGs ranged from 2.74×10(-6) to 1.19. The antibiotics and ARGs generally declined along both waste treatment paths, but their degree of reduction was more significant along the manure treatment path. The RPP TRGs dominated in the upstream samples and then decreased continuously along both waste treatment paths, whilst the EFP TRGs and SRGs maintained relatively stable. Strong correlations between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs were observed among both manure and wastewater samples. In addition, seasonal temperature, and integrase genes, moisture content and nutrient level of tested samples could all impact the relative abundances of ARGs along the swine waste treatment paths. This study helps understand the evolution and spread of ARGs from swine feedlots to the environment as well as assess the environmental risk arising from swine waste treatment. PMID:27128716

  19. Metagenomic profiling of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns.

  20. Structural and population-based evaluations of TBC1D1 p.Arg125Trp.

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available Obesity is now a leading cause of preventable death in the industrialised world. Understanding its genetic influences can enhance insight into molecular pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. A non-synonymous polymorphism (rs35859249, p.Arg125Trp in the N-terminal TBC1D1 phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domain has shown a replicated association with familial obesity in women. We investigated these findings in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a large European birth cohort of mothers and offspring, and by generating a predicted model of the structure of this domain. Structural prediction involved the use of three separate algorithms; Robetta, HHpred/MODELLER and I-TASSER. We used the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT to investigate familial association in the ALSPAC study cohort (N = 2,292 mother-offspring pairs. Linear regression models were used to examine the association of genotype with mean measurements of adiposity (Body Mass Index (BMI, waist circumference and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA assessed fat mass, and logistic regression was used to examine the association with odds of obesity. Modelling showed that the R125W mutation occurs in a location of the TBC1D1 PTB domain that is predicted to have a function in a putative protein:protein interaction. We did not detect an association between R125W and BMI (mean per allele difference 0.27 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.00, 0.53 P = 0.05 or obesity (odds ratio 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.77, 1.31, P = 0.96 in offspring after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that there was familial association between R125W and obesity (χ(2 = 0.06, P = 0.80. Our analysis suggests that R125W in TBC1D1 plays a role in the binding of an effector protein, but we find no evidence that the R125W variant is related to mean BMI or odds of obesity in a general population sample.

  1. Dihydropteroate Synthase and Novel Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene Mutations in Strains of Pneumocystis jirovecii from South Africa

    Robberts, F. J. L.; Chalkley, L J; Weyer, K.; Goussard, P.; Liebowitz, L. D.

    2005-01-01

    Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations have raised concerns about emerging sulfonamide resistance in Pneumocystis jirovecii. DHPS and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene products were amplified in clinical specimens from South African patients. One of 53 DHPS genes sequenced contained the double mutation Thr55Ala Pro57Ser. DHFR gene mutations detected were Ala67Val and the new mutations Arg59Gly and C278T.

  2. Long-term field application of sewage sludge increases the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil.

    Chen, Qinglin; An, Xinli; Li, Hu; Su, Jianqiang; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge and manure are common soil amendments in crop production; however, their impact on the abundance and diversity of the antibiotic resistome in soil remains elusive. In this study, by using high-throughput sequencing and high-throughput quantitative PCR, the patterns of bacterial community and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a long-term field experiment were investigated to gain insights into these impacts. A total of 130 unique ARGs and 5 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected and the long-term application of sewage sludge and chicken manure significantly increased the abundance and diversity of ARGs in the soil. Genes conferring resistance to beta-lactams, tetracyclines, and multiple drugs were dominant in the samples. Sewage sludge or chicken manure applications caused significant enrichment of 108 unique ARGs and MGEs with a maximum enrichment of up to 3845 folds for mexF. The enrichment of MGEs suggested that the application of sewage sludge or manure may accelerate the dissemination of ARGs in soil through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Based on the co-occurrence pattern of ARGs subtypes revealed by network analysis, aacC, oprD and mphA-02, were proposed to be potential indicators for quantitative estimation of the co-occurring ARGs subtypes abundance by power functions. The application of sewage sludge and manure resulted in significant increase of bacterial diversity in soil, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla (>10% in each sample). Five bacterial phyla (Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and Bacteroidetes) were found to be significantly correlated with the ARGs in soil. Mantel test and variation partitioning analysis (VPA) suggested that bacterial community shifts, rather than MGEs, is the major driver shaping the antibiotic resistome. Additionally, the co-occurrence pattern between ARGs and microbial taxa revealed by network analysis indicated that four

  3. Monitoring Antibiotic Residues and Corresponding Antibiotic Resistance Genes in an Agroecosystem

    Yasser M. Awad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs have been commonly reported due to the overuse worldwide of antibiotics. Antibiotic overuse disturbs the environment and threatens public human health. The objective of this study was to measure the residual concentrations of veterinary antibiotics in the tetracycline group (TCs, including tetracycline (TC and chlortetracycline (CTC, as well as those in the sulfonamide group (SAs, including sulfamethazine (SMT, sulfamethoxazole (SMX, and sulfathiazole (STZ. We also isolated the corresponding ARGs in the agroecosystem. Four sediment samples and two rice paddy soil samples were collected from sites near a swine composting facility along the Naerincheon River in Hongcheon, Korea. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS was employed with a solid-phase extraction method to measure the concentration of each antibiotic. ARGs were identified by the qualitative polymerase chain-reaction using synthetic primers. SAs and their corresponding ARGs were highly detected in sediment samples whereas TCs were not detected except for sediments sample #1. ARGs for TCs and SAs were detected in rice paddy soils, while ARGs for TCs were only found in sediment #2 and #4. Continuous monitoring of antibiotic residue and its comprehensive impact on the environment is needed to ensure environmental health.

  4. [Hemoglobin Boumerdès alpha 2(37) (C2) Pro----Arg beta 2: a new variant of the alpha chain associated with hemoglobin S in an Algerian family].

    Dahmane-Arbane, M; Blouquit, Y; Arous, N; Bardakdjian, J; Benamani, M; Riou, J; Benabadji, M; Rosa, J; Galacteros, F

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of Hb Boumerdes, an alpha chain variant alpha 2(37) (C2) Pro----Arg beta 2, in an Algerian family. The propositus was also homozygous for the sickle cell gene. The abnormal hybrid Hb alpha 2Boum. beta 2S had an electrophoretic mobility on cellulose acetate pH 8.7 electrophoresis between those of Hb S and Hb A2. Its expression was about 16%. The alpha 2Boum. beta 2A fraction has a mobility between those of Hb F and Hb S. The effects of this mutation on Hb oxygen affinity and deoxy Hb S polymer formation were not studied. The propositus' sickle cell phenotype was benign. PMID:3438164

  5. E-Selectin Gene Polymorphisms in Iranian Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    Mehrdad Hajilooi; Amir-Houshang Mohammad Alizade; Mitra Ranjbar; Farahnaz Fallahian; Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study is to detect the substitutions Ser128Arg (A128C) and Leu554Phe (T554C) which responsible for E-selectin polymorphisms in patients with chronic hepatitis B and healthy controls. We investigated association of the Ser128Arg, Leu554Phe gene polymorphisms in the E-selectin gene as prototypical inflammatory molecules for susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B.Methods: Sixty-three patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and 150 healthy subjects we...

  6. Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Labeled Glucose-Lys-Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe as a Potential Tumor Imaging Agent

    The αvβ3 integrin is an important receptor affecting tumor growth, metastatic potential on proliferating endothelial cells as well as on tumor cells of various origin, tumor-induced angiogenesis could be blocked by antagonizing the αvβ3 integrin with RGD. Therefore, αvβ3 integrin is a target for angiogenesis imaging that might be useful in assessing tumor-induced angiogenesis and identifying tumor metastasis. To design potent radiotracer for imaging angiogenesis containing a cRGD moiety should include low hepatic uptake in vivo. Tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), naturally existed in extracellular matrix proteins, is known to be the primary binding site of the αvβ3 integrin. The imaging of αvβ3 receptor expression will give the information of the metastatic ability of the tumor which is not available by [18F]FDG. Our interest in developing new radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo visualization of angiogenesis has led us to synthesize derivatives of cRGD (cyclic arginineglycine-aspartic acid) that contains glucose moiety. Because sugar-protein interaction is a key step in metastasis and angiogenesis, it has also been proposed to play an intriguing role in imaging of tumor. We designed and synthesized two fluorine-18 labeled RGD glycopeptides . N-fluorobenzyl-diaminobutane-N'-glucose-Lys-Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe ([18F]fluorobenzyl-glucose-KRGDf, and Nfluorobenzoyl- diaminobutane-N'-glucose-Lys-Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe ([18F]fluorobenzoyl-glucose-KRGDf, from same precursor as a diagnostic tumor imaging agent for positron emission tomography (PET). Fluorine-18 labeled cRGD glycopeptides were prepared using two different simple labeling methods: one is reductive alkylation of an amine with [18F]fluorobenzaldehyde and the other is amide condensation with [18F]fluorobenzoic acid

  7. Identification of Minor Secondary Metabolites from the Latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg) and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activity

    Maria Iorizzi; Francesco Visioli; Gelsomina Fico; Sara Vitalini; Franco Zollo; Fulvio Gala; Simona De Marino

    2008-01-01

    Dragon’s blood (Sangre de drago), a viscous red sap derived from Croton lechleri Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae), is extensively used by indigenous cultures of the Amazonian basin for its wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to identify the minor secondary metabolites and test the antioxidant activity of this sustance. A bioguided fractionation of the n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and aqueous extracts led to the isolation of 15 compounds: three megastigmanes, four flavan-3-ol...

  8. ARGE Weser (Working Group for Water Pollution Abatement in the Weser River). Weser water quality report 1996

    The ARGE Weser (Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Reinhaltung der Weser), which comprises representatives of the German states of Bremen, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and Thueringen, publishes a yearly water quality report based on the measuring programmes for the Weser river and for the Werra/Ulster rivers (the latter is a joint project of the states of Hessen and Thrueringen). The Weser river today has a water quality of II-III after the successful implementation of the 1989 action programme. Chloride concentrations were reduced as well, but efforts will still be made by communal authorities, agriculture, industry and administrative bodies if the goals set for 2000 are to be reached. (orig/AJ)

  9. Direct Assessment of the Effect of the Gly380Arg Achondroplasia Mutation on FGFR3 Dimerization Using Quantitative Imaging FRET

    Placone, Jesse; Hristova, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    The Gly380Arg mutation in FGFR3 is the genetic cause for achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism. The mutation has been proposed to increase FGFR3 dimerization, but the dimerization propensities of wild-type and mutant FGFR3 have not been compared. Here we use quantitative imaging FRET to characterize the dimerization of wild-type FGFR3 and the ACH mutant in plasma membrane-derived vesicles from HEK293T cells. We demonstrate a small, but statistically significant increase...

  10. Genes, enzymes and regulation of arginine biosynthesis in plants.

    Slocum, Robert D

    2005-08-01

    Arabidopsis genes encoding enzymes for each of the eight steps in L-arginine (Arg) synthesis were identified, based upon sequence homologies with orthologs from other organisms. Except for N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS; EC 2.3.1.1), which is encoded by two genes, all remaining enzymes are encoded by single genes. Targeting predictions for these enzymes, based upon their deduced sequences, and subcellular fractionation studies, suggest that most enzymes of Arg synthesis reside within the plastid. Synthesis of the L-ornthine (Orn) intermediate in this pathway from L-glutamate occurs as a series of acetylated intermediates, as in most other organisms. An N-acetylornithine:glutamate acetyltransferase (NAOGAcT; EC 2.3.1.35) facilitates recycling of the acetyl moiety during Orn formation (cyclic pathway). A putative N-acetylornithine deacetylase (NAOD; EC 3.5.1.16), which participates in the "linear" pathway for Orn synthesis in some organisms, was also identified. Previous biochemical studies have indicated that allosteric regulation of the first and, especially, the second steps in Orn synthesis (NAGS; N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK), EC 2.7.2.8) by the Arg end-product are the major sites of metabolic control of the pathway in organisms using the cyclic pathway. Gene expression profiling for pathway enzymes further suggests that NAGS, NAGK, NAOGAcT and NAOD are coordinately regulated in response to changes in Arg demand during plant growth and development. Synthesis of Arg from Orn is further coordinated with pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, at the level of allocation of the common carbamoyl-P intermediate. PMID:16122935