WorldWideScience

Sample records for abiotic stress tolerance

  1. Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance

    Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to

  2. Phenotyping for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Maize

    Benhilda Masuka; Jose Luis Araus; Biswanath Das; Kai Sonder; Jill E. Cairns

    2012-01-01

    The ability to quickly develop germplasm having tolerance to several complex polygenic inherited abiotic and biotic stresses combined is critical to the resilience of cropping systems in the face of climate change.Molecular breeding offers the tools to accelerate cereal breeding; however,suitable phenotyping protocols are essential to ensure that the much-anticipated benefits of molecular breeding can be realized.To facilitate the full potential of molecular tools,greater emphasis needs to be given to reducing the within-experimental site variability,application of stress and characterization of the environment and appropriate phenotyping tools.Yield is a function of many processes throughout the plant cycle,and thus integrative traits that encompass crop performance over time or organization level (i.e.canopy level) will provide a better alternative to instantaneous measurements which provide only a snapshot of a given plant process.Many new phenotyping tools based on remote sensing are now available including non-destructive measurements of growth-related parameters based on spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry to estimate plant water status.Here we describe key field phenotyping protocols for maize with emphasis on tolerance to drought and low nitrogen.

  3. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

    Sah, Saroj K.; Reddy, Kambham R.; Li, Jiaxu

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress is a primary threat to fulfill the demand of agricultural production to feed the world in coming decades. Plants reduce growth and development process during stress conditions, which ultimately affect the yield. In stress conditions, plants develop various stress mechanism to face the magnitude of stress challenges, although that is not enough to protect them. Therefore, many strategies have been used to produce abiotic stress tolerance crop plants, among them, abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone engineering could be one of the methods of choice. ABA is an isoprenoid phytohormone, which regulates various physiological processes ranging from stomatal opening to protein storage and provides adaptation to many stresses like drought, salt, and cold stresses. ABA is also called an important messenger that acts as the signaling mediator for regulating the adaptive response of plants to different environmental stress conditions. In this review, we will discuss the role of ABA in response to abiotic stress at the molecular level and ABA signaling. The review also deals with the effect of ABA in respect to gene expression. PMID:27200044

  4. Polyamines in response to abiotic stress tolerance through transgenic approaches.

    Pathak, Malabika Roy; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Wani, Shabir H

    2014-01-01

    The distribution, growth, development and productivity of crop plants are greatly affected by various abiotic stresses. Worldwide, sustainable crop productivity is facing major challenges caused by abiotic stresses by reducing the potential yield in crop plants by as much as 70%. Plants can generally adapt to one or more environmental stresses to some extent. Physiological and molecular studies at transcriptional, translational, and transgenic plant levels have shown the pronounced involvement of naturally occurring plant polyamines (PAs), in controlling, conferring, and modulating abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PAs are small, low molecular weight, non-protein polycations at physiological pH, that are present in all living organisms, and that have strong binding capacity to negatively charged DNA, RNA, and different protein molecules. They play an important role in plant growth and development by controlling the cell cycle, acting as cell signaling molecules in modulating plant tolerance to a variety of abiotic stresses. The commonly known PAs, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine tend to accumulate together accompanied by an increase in the activities of their biosynthetic enzymes under a range of environmental stresses. PAs help plants to combat stresses either directly or by mediating a signal transduction pathway, as shown by molecular cloning and expression studies of PA biosynthesis-related genes, knowledge of the functions of PAs, as demonstrated by developmental studies, and through the analysis of transgenic plants carrying PA genes. This review highlights how PAs in higher plants act during environmental stress and how transgenic strategies have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at play. PMID:24710064

  5. Review of recent transgenic studies on abiotic stress tolerance and future molecular breeding in potato

    Kikuchi, Akira; Huynh, Huu Duc; Endo, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Global warming has become a major issue within the last decade. Traditional breeding programs for potato have focused on increasing productivity and quality and disease resistance, thus, modern cultivars have limited tolerance of abiotic stresses. The introgression of abiotic stress tolerance into modern cultivars is essential work for the future. Recently, many studies have investigated abiotic stress using transgenic techniques. This manuscript focuses on the study of abiotic stress, in par...

  6. Genetic improvement of rice for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance

    ANSARI, MAHMOOD UR RAHMAN; Shaheen, Tayyaba; BUKHARI, SHAZAI; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most important food crops that provide a staple food for nearly half of the world's population. Rice crops are prone to various types of stresses, both biotic and abiotic. Biotic stresses include insect pests, fungus, bacteria, viruses, and herbicide toxicity. Among abiotic stresses, drought, cold, and salinity are also well studied in rice. Various genes have been identified, cloned, and characterized to combat these stresses and protect rice crops. T...

  7. Understanding Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms: Recent Studies on Stress Response in Rice

    Ji-Ping Gao; Dai-Yin Chao; Hong-Xuan Lin

    2007-01-01

    Abiotic stress is the main factor negatively affecting crop growth and productivity worldwide. The advances in physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to stresses. Rice plants are sensitive to various abiotic stresses. In this short review, we present recent progresses in adaptation of rice to salinity, water deficit and submergence. Many studies show that salt tolerance is tightly associated with the ability to maintain ion homeostasis under salinity. Na+ transporter SKC1 unloads NaMrom xylem, plasma membrane NaVHTantiporter SOS1 excludes sodium out of cytosol and tonoplast Na+/H+antiporter NHX1 sequesters Na+ into the vacuole. Silicon deposition in exodermis and endodermis of rice root reduces sodium transport through the apoplastic pathway. A number of transcription factors regulate stress-inducible gene expression that leads to initiating stress responses and establishing plant stress tolerance. Overexpression of some transcription factors, including DREB/CBF and MAC, enhances salt, drought, and cold tolerance in rice. A variant of one of ERF family genes, Sub1A-1, confers immersion tolerance to lowland rice. These findings and their exploitation will hold promise for engineering breeding to protect crop plants from certain abiotic stresses.

  8. Phytohormones and their metabolic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants

    Shabir H. Wani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, heat, cold, flooding, and ultraviolet radiation causes crop losses worldwide. In recent times, preventing these crop losses and producing more food and feed to meet the demands of ever-increasing human populations have gained unprecedented importance. However, the proportion of agricultural lands facing multiple abiotic stresses is expected only to rise under a changing global climate fueled by anthropogenic activities. Identifying the mechanisms developed and deployed by plants to counteract abiotic stresses and maintain their growth and survival under harsh conditions thus holds great significance. Recent investigations have shown that phytohormones, including the classical auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and gibberellins, and newer members including brassinosteroids, jasmonates, and strigolactones may prove to be important metabolic engineering targets for producing abiotic stress-tolerant crop plants. In this review, we summarize and critically assess the roles that phytohormones play in plant growth and development and abiotic stress tolerance, besides their engineering for conferring abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic crops. We also describe recent successes in identifying the roles of phytohormones under stressful conditions. We conclude by describing the recent progress and future prospects including limitations and challenges of phytohormone engineering for inducing abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

  9. Phytohormones and their metabolic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants

    Shabir H. Wani; Vinay Kumar; Varsha Shriram; Saroj Kumar Sah

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, heat, cold, flooding, and ultraviolet radiation causes crop losses worldwide. In recent times, preventing these crop losses and producing more food and feed to meet the demands of ever-increasing human populations have gained unprecedented importance. However, the proportion of agricultural lands facing multiple abiotic stresses is expected only to rise under a changing global climate fueled by anthropogenic activities. Identifying the mechanisms developed and deployed by plants to counteract abiotic stresses and maintain their growth and survival under harsh conditions thus holds great significance. Recent investigations have shown that phytohormones, including the classical auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and gibberellins, and newer members including brassinosteroids, jasmonates, and strigolactones may prove to be important metabolic engineering targets for producing abiotic stress-tolerant crop plants. In this review, we summarize and critically assess the roles that phytohormones play in plant growth and development and abiotic stress tolerance, besides their engineering for conferring abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic crops. We also describe recent successes in identifying the roles of phytohormones under stressful conditions. We conclude by describing the recent progress and future prospects including limitations and challenges of phytohormone engineering for inducing abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

  10. The effects of bacterial volatile emissions on plant abiotic stress tolerance

    Xiao-min LIU; Zhang, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial plant symbionts that have been successfully used in agriculture to increase seedling emergence, plant weight, crop yield, and disease resistance. Some PGPR strains release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can directly and/or indirectly mediate increases in plant biomass, disease resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance. This mini-review focuses on the enhancement of plant abiotic stress tolerance by bacterial VOCs. The review co...

  11. Regulatory roles of serotonin and melatonin in abiotic stress tolerance in plants

    Kaur, Harmeet; Mukherjee, Soumya; Baluska, Frantisek; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the physiological and biochemical basis of abiotic stress tolerance in plants has always been one of the major aspects of research aiming to enhance plant productivity in arid and semi-arid cultivated lands all over the world. Growth of stress-tolerant transgenic crops and associated agricultural benefits through increased productivity, and related ethical issues, are also the major concerns of current research in various laboratories. Interesting data on the regulation of abiot...

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERISATION OF ABIOTIC STRESS TOLERANT AZOSPIRILLUM

    Anitha Thomas* and Ramya Poshala

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stress is one of the most important environmental constraints that limit survival and productivity of staple crops like wheat and maize particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Plant growth promoting bacteria (Azospirillum) are beneficial bacteria present in soil and forming associations with roots of plants. This investigation deals with the isolation and characterization of Azospirillum from maize roots.  Azospirillum strain was identified by physiological, morphological and bioc...

  13. The effects of bacterial volatile emissions on plant abiotic stress tolerance

    Xiao-Min eLiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are beneficial plant symbionts that have been successfully used in agriculture to increase seedling emergence, plant weight, crop yield, and disease resistance. Some PGPR strains release volatile organic compounds (VOCs that can directly and/or indirectly mediate increases in plant biomass, disease resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance. This mini-review focuses on the enhancement of plant abiotic stress tolerance by bacterial VOCs. The review considers how PGPR VOCs induce tolerance to salinity and drought stress and also how they improve sulfur and iron nutrition in plants. The potential complexities in evaluating the effects of PGPR VOCs are also discussed.

  14. Molecular breeding for abiotic stress tolerance. drought perspective

    Drought is the major cause of historic and modern day agricultural productivity losses throughout the world. Drought stress is a complex phenomenon and so is drought tolerance. In addition to genetic conditioning of the traits, environmental effects are difficult to account for precisely. Attempts to generate plant varieties with improved drought tolerance, using selection based breeding strategies, have proved largely unsuccessful. Therefore, progress in breeding for drought tolerance has consequently been limited. Molecular biology, however, provides some means that promise better understanding of the mechanisms of drought stress and drought tolerance. New techniques for evaluating, dissecting and mapping components of drought tolerance as well as the transfer of this information among species are accelerating the understanding of this phenomenon. Ultimately, this could lead to marker-assisted breeding for drought tolerance in some crops, improved drought tolerance is associated with many potential benefits for maintenance of rural livelihoods in developing countries, income generation and enhanced environmental health. As with many other applications of biotechnology to agriculture, the development of drought tolerant crop cultivars is at the research stage. (author)

  15. Overexpression of wheat ubiquitin gene, Ta-Ub2, improves abiotic stress tolerance of Brachypodium distachyon.

    Kang, Hanhan; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shumei; Guo, Qifang; Chen, Fengjuan; Wu, Jiajie; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Ubiquitination plays an important role in regulating plant's development and adaptability to abiotic stress. To investigate the possible functions of a wheat monoubiquitin gene Ta-Ub2 in abiotic stress in monocot and compare it with that in dicot, we generated transgenic Brachypodium plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 under the control of CaMV35s and stress-inducible RD29A promoters. The constitutive expression of Ta-Ub2 displayed slight growth inhibition in the growth of transgenic Brachypodium distachyon under the control conditions. However, this inhibition was minimized by expression of Ta-Ub2 under the control of stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants preserved more water and showed higher enzymatic antioxidants under drought stress, which might be related to the change in the expression of some antioxidant genes. The expression of C-repeat binding factors transcription factor genes in the transgenic B. distachyon lines were upregulated under water stress. Salt and cold tolerances of transgenic B. distachyon were also improved. Although the phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants were different, overexpression of Ta-Ub2 improved the abiotic stress tolerance in both dicot and monocot plants. The improvement in Ta-Ub2 transgenic plants in abiotic stress tolerance might be, at least partly, through regulating the gene expression and increasing the enzymatic antioxidants. PMID:27181952

  16. QTLs for Tolerance of Drought and Breeding for Tolerance of Abiotic and Biotic Stress: An Integrated Approach

    Shalabh Dixit; B Emma Huang; Ma Teresa Sta Cruz; Maturan, Paul T; Jhon Christian E Ontoy; Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The coupling of biotic and abiotic stresses leads to high yield losses in rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing areas. While several studies target these stresses independently, breeding strategies to combat multiple stresses seldom exist. This study reports an integrated strategy that combines QTL mapping and phenotypic selection to develop rice lines with high grain yield (GY) under drought stress and non-stress conditions, and tolerance of rice blast. METHODOLOGY: A blast-tole...

  17. Genetically engineered Rice with transcription factor DREB genes for abiotic stress tolerance(abstract)

    Water stress (drought and Salinity) is the most severe limitation to rice productivity. Several breeding approaches (MAS, QTL) applied to suitable genotypes are in place at IRRI and elsewhere. Phenotyping of water stress tolerance is in progress with potential predictability. Dr. Shinozaki's group has cloned a number of transcription factor genes, which have been shown to work in Arabidopsis to achieve drought, cold, and salinity tolerant plants. None of these genes have as yet displayed their potential functioning in rice. Genetic engineering aims at cross talk between different stress signaling pathways leading to stress tolerance. Osmotic Adjustment (OA) is an effective component of abiotic stress (drought and salinity) tolerance in many plants including rice. When plant experiences water stress, OA contributes to turgor maintenance of both shoots and roots. Conventional breeding could not achieve the OA in rice excepting a few rice cultivars, which are partially adapted to water-stress conditions. Several stress-related genes have now been cloned and transferred in to enhance the osmolytes and some transgenic lines showed increased tolerance to osmotic stress. A few strategies could be effectively deployed for a better understanding of water-stress tolerance in rice and to develop transgenic rice, which can survive for a critical period of water-stress conditions: 1) Switching on of transcription factor regulating the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress, 2) Use of a suitable stress inducible promoter driving the target gene for an efficient and directed expression in plants, 3) Understanding of phenotyping and GxE in a given environment, 4) Selection of a few adaptive rice cultivars suitable in drought/salinity prone areas, 5) Microarray, proteomics, QTL and MAS may expedite the cloning and characterizing the stress induced genes, and 6) Finally, the efficient transformation system for generating a large number of transgenic rice of different

  18. Space technique induced elite abiotic stress tolerant yellow tall fescue

    The cool season turfgrass Yellow Tall Fescue was treated by space technique. The results showed that space technique had slight physiological damage in SP1 generation, and no chlorophyll-deficient mutation was detected at the SP2 generation, however richer variations in plant morphology, leaf shape, the growth duration and hot temperature tolerance were observed in the study. The semidwarf, creeping plant type, slender leaf, late maturing, and hot-temperature tolerant mutants were isolated from the Yellow Tall Fescue

  19. The Miscanthus NAC transcription factor MlNAC9 enhances abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Pei, Shengqiang; He, Guo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Qi; Jia, Chunlin; Lu, Ying; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors are known to play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses in plants. Currently, little information regarding the functional roles of NAC genes in stress tolerance is available in Miscanthus lutarioriparius, a promising bioenergy plant for cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we carried out the functional characterization of MlNAC9 in abiotic stresses. MlNAC9 was shown to act as a nuclear localized transcription activator with the activation domain in its C-terminus. The overexpression of MlNAC9 in Arabidopsis conferred hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) at seed germination and root elongation stages. In addition, the overexpression of MlNAC9 led to increased seed germination rate and root growth under salt (NaCl) treatment. Meanwhile, the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing MlNAC9 showed enhanced tolerance to drought and cold stresses. The expression of stress-responsive marker genes was significantly increased in MlNAC9 overexpression lines compared to that of WT under ABA, drought, salt, and cold stresses. Correspondingly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower accumulated in MlNAC9 overexpression lines under drought and salt treatments. These results indicated that the overexpression of MlNAC9 improved the tolerance to abiotic stresses via an ABA-dependent pathway, and the enhanced tolerance of transgenic plants was mainly attributed to the increased expression of stress-responsive genes and the enhanced scavenging capability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:27085481

  20. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level. PMID:26867623

  1. Metabolomics as a Tool to Investigate Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites reflect the integration of gene expression, protein interaction and other different regulatory processes and are therefore closer to the phenotype than mRNA transcripts or proteins alone. Amongst all –omics technologies, metabolomics is the most transversal and can be applied to different organisms with little or no modifications. It has been successfully applied to the study of molecular phenotypes of plants in response to abiotic stress in order to find particular patterns associated to stress tolerance. These studies have highlighted the essential involvement of primary metabolites: sugars, amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates as direct markers of photosynthetic dysfunction as well as effectors of osmotic readjustment. On the contrary, secondary metabolites are more specific of genera and species and respond to particular stress conditions as antioxidants, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS scavengers, coenzymes, UV and excess radiation screen and also as regulatory molecules. In addition, the induction of secondary metabolites by several abiotic stress conditions could also be an effective mechanism of cross-protection against biotic threats, providing a link between abiotic and biotic stress responses. Moreover, the presence/absence and relative accumulation of certain metabolites along with gene expression data provides accurate markers (mQTL or MWAS for tolerant crop selection in breeding programs.

  2. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Amarjeet Singh

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108, which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions.

  3. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25886365

  4. Biological Networks Underlying Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Crops—A Proteomic Perspective

    Klára Kosová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress factors, especially low temperatures, drought, and salinity, represent the major constraints limiting agricultural production in temperate climate. Under the conditions of global climate change, the risk of damaging effects of abiotic stresses on crop production increases. Plant stress response represents an active process aimed at an establishment of novel homeostasis under altered environmental conditions. Proteins play a crucial role in plant stress response since they are directly involved in shaping the final phenotype. In the review, results of proteomic studies focused on stress response of major crops grown in temperate climate including cereals: common wheat (Triticum aestivum, durum wheat (Triticum durum, barley (Hordeum vulgare, maize (Zea mays; leguminous plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa, soybean (Glycine max, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, pea (Pisum sativum; oilseed rape (Brassica napus; potato (Solanum tuberosum; tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum; and others, to a wide range of abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salinity, heat, imbalances in mineral nutrition and heavy metals are summarized. The dynamics of changes in various protein functional groups including signaling and regulatory proteins, transcription factors, proteins involved in protein metabolism, amino acid metabolism, metabolism of several stress-related compounds, proteins with chaperone and protective functions as well as structural proteins (cell wall components, cytoskeleton are briefly overviewed. Attention is paid to the differences found between differentially tolerant genotypes. In addition, proteomic studies aimed at proteomic investigation of multiple stress factors are discussed. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding the complexity of crop response to abiotic stresses as well as possibilities to identify and utilize protein markers in crop breeding processes are discussed.

  5. DREB1/CBF transcription factors: their structure, function and role in abiotic stress tolerance in plants

    M. Akhtar; A. Jaiswal; G. Taj; J. P. Jaiswal; M. I. Qureshi; N. K. Singh

    2012-12-01

    Drought, high salinity and low temperature are major abiotic stresses that influence survival, productivity and geographical distribution of many important crops across the globe. Plants respond to these environmental challenges via physiological, cellular and molecular processes, which results in adjusted metabolic and structural alterations. The dehydration-responsive-element-binding (DREB) protein / C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) belong to APETALA2 (AP2) family transcription factors that bind to DRE/CRT cis-element and regulate the expression of stress-responsive genes. DREB1/CBF genes, therefore, play an important role in increasing stress tolerance in plants and their deployment using transgenic technology seems to be a potential alternative in management of abiotic stresses in crop plants. This review is mainly focussed on the structural characteristics as well as transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to various abiotic stresses, with particular emphasis on the role of DREB1/CBF regulon in stress-responsive gene expression. The recent progress related to genetic engineering of DREB1/CBF transcription factors in various crops and model plants is also summarized.

  6. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 is critically involved in abiotic stress tolerance

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; van der Graaff, Eric; Albacete, Alfonso;

    2014-01-01

    and belong to the PLAT-plant-stress protein family are ubiquitously present in monocot and dicots. However, the function of PLAT-plant-stress proteins is still poorly understood. Therefore, we have assessed the function of the uncharacterised Arabidopsis PLAT-plant-stress family members through a...... combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches. PLAT1 overexpression conferred increased abiotic stress tolerance, including cold, drought and salt stress, while loss-of-function resulted in opposite effects on abiotic stress tolerance. Strikingly, PLAT1 promoted growth under non-stressed...... in this promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This suggests that PLAT1 represents a novel downstream target of the abscisic acid signalling pathway. Thus, we showed that PLAT1 critically functions as positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance, but also is involved in regulating plant...

  7. QTLs for tolerance of drought and breeding for tolerance of abiotic and biotic stress: an integrated approach.

    Shalabh Dixit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The coupling of biotic and abiotic stresses leads to high yield losses in rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L. growing areas. While several studies target these stresses independently, breeding strategies to combat multiple stresses seldom exist. This study reports an integrated strategy that combines QTL mapping and phenotypic selection to develop rice lines with high grain yield (GY under drought stress and non-stress conditions, and tolerance of rice blast. METHODOLOGY: A blast-tolerant BC2F3-derived population was developed from the cross of tropical japonica cultivar Moroberekan (blast- and drought-tolerant and high-yielding indica variety Swarna (blast- and drought-susceptible through phenotypic selection for blast tolerance at the BC2F2 generation. The population was studied for segregation distortion patterns and QTLs for GY under drought were identified along with study of epistatic interactions for the trait. RESULTS: Segregation distortion, in favour of Moroberekan, was observed at 50 of the 59 loci. Majority of these marker loci co-localized with known QTLs for blast tolerance or NBS-LRR disease resistance genes. Despite the presence of segregation distortion, high variation for DTF, PH and GY was observed and several QTLs were identified under drought stress and non-stress conditions for the three traits. Epistatic interactions were also detected for GY which explained a large proportion of phenotypic variance observed in the population. CONCLUSIONS: This strategy allowed us to identify QTLs for GY along with rapid development of high-yielding purelines tolerant to blast and drought with considerably reduced efforts. Apart from this, it also allowed us to study the effects of the selection cycle for blast tolerance. The developed lines were screened at IRRI and in the target environment, and drought and blast tolerant lines with high yield were identified. With tolerance to two major stresses and high yield potential, these

  8. Novel NAC transcription factor TaNAC67 confers enhanced multi-abiotic stress tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    Xinguo Mao

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na(+ efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.

  9. Cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants: a focus on resistance to aphid infestation.

    Foyer, Christine H; Rasool, Brwa; Davey, Jack W; Hancock, Robert D

    2016-03-01

    Plants co-evolved with an enormous variety of microbial pathogens and insect herbivores under daily and seasonal variations in abiotic environmental conditions. Hence, plant cells display a high capacity to respond to diverse stresses through a flexible and finely balanced response network that involves components such as reduction-oxidation (redox) signalling pathways, stress hormones and growth regulators, as well as calcium and protein kinase cascades. Biotic and abiotic stress responses use common signals, pathways and triggers leading to cross-tolerance phenomena, whereby exposure to one type of stress can activate plant responses that facilitate tolerance to several different types of stress. While the acclimation mechanisms and adaptive responses that facilitate responses to single biotic and abiotic stresses have been extensively characterized, relatively little information is available on the dynamic aspects of combined biotic/abiotic stress response. In this review, we consider how the abiotic environment influences plant responses to attack by phloem-feeding aphids. Unravelling the signalling cascades that underpin cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses will allow the identification of new targets for increasing environmental resilience in crops. PMID:26936830

  10. Transgenic poplar expressing codA exhibits enhanced growth and abiotic stress tolerance.

    Ke, Qingbo; Wang, Zhi; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2016-03-01

    Glycine betaine (GB), a compatible solute, effectively stabilizes the structure and function of macromolecules and enhances abiotic stress tolerance in plants. We generated transgenic poplar plants (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) expressing a bacterial choline oxidase (codA) gene under the control of the oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SC plants). Among the 13 SC plants generated, three lines (SC4, SC14 and SC21) were established based on codA transcript levels, tolerance to methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress and Southern blot analysis. Growth was better in SC plants than in non-transgenic (NT) plants, which was related to elevated transcript levels of auxin-response genes. SC plants accumulated higher levels of GB under oxidative stress compared to the NT plants. In addition, SC plants exhibited increased tolerance to drought and salt stress, which was associated with increased efficiency of photosystem II activity. Finally, SC plants maintained lower levels of ion leakage and reactive oxygen species under cold stress compared to the NT plants. These observations suggest that SC plants might be useful for reforestation on global marginal lands, including desertification and reclaimed areas. PMID:26795732

  11. In Vitro Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Potent Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promoting Strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    G. Praveen Kumar; Mir Hassan Ahmed, S. K.; Suseelendra Desai; Leo Daniel Amalraj, E.; Abdul Rasul

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been identified as a group of microbes that are used for plant growth enhancement and biocontrol for management of plant diseases. The inconsistency in performance of these bacteria from laboratory to field conditions is compounded due to the prevailing abiotic stresses in the field. Therefore, selection of bacterial strains with tolerance to abiotic stresses would benefit the end-user by successful establishment of the strain for showing desire...

  12. HyPRP1 Gene Suppressed by Multiple Stresses Plays a Negative Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato.

    Li, Jinhua; Ouyang, Bo; Wang, Taotao; Luo, Zhidan; Yang, Changxian; Li, Hanxia; Sima, Wei; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Many hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, but little is known about their roles other than as putative cell-wall structural proteins. A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous microarray experiments on drought-tolerant tomato. In this study, the expression of the HyPRP1 gene in tomato was suppressed under various abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, cold, heat, and oxidative stress. Transgenic functional analysis showed no obvious changes in phenotypes, but enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses (e.g., oxidative stress, dehydration, and salinity) was observed in RNAi transgenic plants. Interestingly, several SO2 detoxification-related enzymes, including sulfite oxidase, ferredoxins (Fds), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (Msr A), were revealed in HyPRP1-interacting proteins identified by Yeast Two-Hybrid screening. More sulfates and transcripts of Msr A and Fds were accumulated in HyPRP1 knockdown lines when wild-type plants were exposed to SO2 gas. Our findings illustrate that the tomato HyPRP1 is a negative regulator of salt and oxidative stresses and is probably involved in sulfite metabolism. PMID:27446190

  13. AtMYB12 regulates flavonoids accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Wang, Feibing; Kong, Weili; Wong, Gary; Fu, Lifeng; Peng, Rihe; Li, Zhenjun; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-08-01

    In plants, transcriptional regulation is the most important tool for modulating flavonoid biosynthesis. The AtMYB12 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to regulate the expression of key enzyme genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, leading to the increased accumulation of flavonoids. In this study, the codon-optimized AtMYB12 gene was chemically synthesized. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that AtMYB12 was localized to the nucleus. Its overexpression significantly increased accumulation of flavonoids and enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that overexpression of AtMYB12 resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis, stress responses and ROS scavenging under salt and drought stresses. Further analyses under salt and drought stresses showed significant increases of ABA, proline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, as well as significant reduction of H2O2 and malonaldehyde (MDA) content. The results demonstrate the explicit role of AtMYB12 in conferring salt and drought tolerance by increasing the levels of flavonoids and ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. The AtMYB12 gene has the potential to be used to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:27033553

  14. Overexpression of VOZ2 confers biotic stress tolerance but decreases abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis

    Nakai, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Sumire; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H.

    2013-01-01

    VOZ (vascular plant one zinc-finger protein) is a plant specific one-zinc finger type transcriptional activator, which is highly conserved through land plant evolution. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations in VOZ1 and VOZ2 showed increased cold and drought stress tolerances whereas decreased biotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic plants overexpressing VOZ2 impairs freezing and drought stress tolerances but increases resistance to a fu...

  15. Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Charophyte Green Algae: New Challenges for Omics Techniques

    Holzinger, Andreas; Pichrtová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae, and Charo- phyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae) are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta). Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important events in plant evolution and the Earth’s history. In Zygnematophyceae, but also in Coleochaetophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, and Klebsormidiophyceae terrestrial members are found which are frequently exposed to naturally occurring abiotic stress scenarios like desiccation, freezing and high photosynthetic active (PAR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Here, we summarize current knowledge about various stress tolerance mechanisms including insight provided by pioneer transcriptomic and proteomic studies. While formation of dormant spores is a typical strategy of freshwater classes, true terrestrial groups are stress tolerant in vegetative state. Aggregation of cells, flexible cell walls, mucilage production and accumulation of osmotically active compounds are the most common desiccation tolerance strategies. In addition, high photophysiological plasticity and accumulation of UV-screening compounds are important protective mechanisms in conditions with high irradiation. Now a shift from classical chemical analysis to next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, genome-scale molecular analysis using omics technologies followed by computer-assisted analysis will give new insights in a systems biology approach. For example, changes in transcriptome and role of phytohormone signaling in Klebsormidium during desiccation were recently described. Application of these modern approaches will deeply enhance our understanding of stress reactions in an

  16. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Weijuan Fan

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait

  17. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance.

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:24936202

  18. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance

    Tringe, Susannah; Coleman-Derr, Devin

    2014-05-22

    The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions

  19. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance

    DevinColeman-Derr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions.

  20. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance

    Coleman-Derr, Devin [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, Susannah G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2014-06-06

    The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here in this paper, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions

  1. Biological Networks Underlying Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Crops—A Proteomic Perspective

    Klára Kosová; Pavel Vítámvás; Milan Oldřich Urban; Miroslav Klíma; Amitava Roy; Ilja Tom Prášil

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress factors, especially low temperatures, drought, and salinity, represent the major constraints limiting agricultural production in temperate climate. Under the conditions of global climate change, the risk of damaging effects of abiotic stresses on crop production increases. Plant stress response represents an active process aimed at an establishment of novel homeostasis under altered environmental conditions. Proteins play a crucial role in plant stress response since they are d...

  2. Expression of a finger millet transcription factor, EcNAC1, in tobacco confers abiotic stress-tolerance.

    Venkategowda Ramegowda

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM, ATAF1-2, and CUC2 proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors and have been shown to be involved in diverse plant processes including plant growth, development, and stress-tolerance. In this study, a stress-responsive NAC gene, EcNAC1, was isolated from the subtracted stress cDNA library generated from a drought adapted crop, finger millet, and characterized for its role in stress-tolerance. The expression analysis showed that EcNAC1 was highly induced during water-deficit and salt stress. EcNAC1 shares high amino acid similarity with rice genes that have been phylogenetically classified into stress-related NAC genes. Our results demonstrated that tobacco transgenic plants expressing EcNAC1 exhibit tolerance to various abiotic stresses like simulated osmotic stress, by polyethylene glycol (PEG and mannitol, and salinity stress. The transgenic plants also showed enhanced tolerance to methyl-viologen (MV induced oxidative stress. Reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and ROS-induced damage were noticed in pot grown transgenic lines under water-deficit and natural high light conditions. Root growth under stress and recovery growth after stress alleviation was more in transgenic plants. Many stress-responsive genes were found to be up-regulated in transgenic lines expressing EcNAC1. Our results suggest that EcNAC1 overexpression confers tolerance against abiotic stress in susceptible species, tobacco.

  3. A Wheat WRKY Transcription Factor TaWRKY10 Confers Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Tobacco

    Wang, Chen; Deng, Pengyi; Chen, Liulin; Wang, Xiatian; Ma, Hui; Hu, Wei; Yao, Ningcong; Feng, Ying; Chai, Ruihong; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polye...

  4. Revised scheme for the mechanism of photoinhibition and its application to enhance the abiotic stress tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery.

    Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Murata, Norio

    2014-11-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are exposed to abiotic stress, their photosynthetic activity is significantly depressed. In particular, photosystem II (PSII) in the photosynthetic machinery is readily inactivated under strong light and this phenomenon is referred to as photoinhibition of PSII. Other types of abiotic stress act synergistically with light stress to accelerate photoinhibition. Recent studies of photoinhibition have revealed that light stress damages PSII directly, whereas other abiotic stresses act exclusively to inhibit the repair of PSII after light-induced damage (photodamage). Such inhibition of repair is associated with suppression, by reactive oxygen species (ROS), of the synthesis of proteins de novo and, in particular, of the D1 protein, and also with the reduced efficiency of repair under stress conditions. Gene-technological improvements in the tolerance of photosynthetic organisms to various abiotic stresses have been achieved via protection of the repair system from ROS and, also, by enhancing the efficiency of repair via facilitation of the turnover of the D1 protein in PSII. In this review, we summarize the current status of research on photoinhibition as it relates to the effects of abiotic stress and we discuss successful strategies that enhance the activity of the repair machinery. In addition, we propose several potential methods for activating the repair system by gene-technological methods. PMID:25139449

  5. Phytohormones and their metabolic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants

    Wani, Shabir H; Vinay Kumar; Varsha Shriram; Saroj Kumar Sah

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, heat, cold, flooding, and ultraviolet radiation causes crop losses worldwide. In recent times, preventing these crop losses and producing more food and feed to meet the demands of ever-increasing human populations have gained unprecedented importance. However, the proportion of agricultural lands facing multiple abiotic stresses is expected only to rise under a changing global climate fueled by anthropogenic activities. Identifying the mechanisms ...

  6. Metabolite profiling reveals abiotic stress tolerance in Tn5 mutant of Pseudomonas putida.

    Vasvi Chaudhry

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas is an efficient plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; however, intolerance to drought and high temperature limit its application in agriculture as a bioinoculant. Transposon 5 (Tn5 mutagenesis was used to generate a stress tolerant mutant from a PGPR Pseudomonas putida NBRI1108 isolated from chickpea rhizosphere. A mutant NBRI1108T, selected after screening of nearly 10,000 transconjugants, exhibited significant tolerance towards high temperature and drought. Southern hybridization analysis of EcoRI and XhoI restricted genomic DNA of NBRI1108T confirmed that it had a single Tn5 insertion. The metabolic changes in the polar and non-polar extracts of NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T were examined using 1H, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Thirty six chemically diverse metabolites consisting of amino acids, fatty acids and phospholipids were identified and quantified. Insertion of Tn5 influenced amino acid and phospholipid metabolism and resulted in significantly higher concentration of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycinebetaine, glycerophosphatidylcholine (GPC and putrescine in NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. The concentration of glutamic acid, glycinebetaine and GPC increased by 34%, 95% and 100%, respectively in the NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. High concentration of glycerophosphatidylethanolamine (GPE and undetected GPC in NBRI1108 indicates that biosynthesis of GPE may have taken place via the methylation pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis. However, high GPC and low GPE concentration in NBRI1108T suggest that methylation pathway and phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis are being followed in the NBRI1108T. Application of multivariate principal component analysis (PCA on the quantified metabolites revealed clear variations in NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T in polar and non-polar metabolites. Identification of abiotic

  7. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:26555900

  8. Genetics and regulation of combined abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in tomato

    Kissoudis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Projections on the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity foresee prolonged and/or increased stress intensities and enlargement of a significant number of pathogens habitats. This significantly raises the occurrence probability of (new) abiotic and biotic stress combinations. With str

  9. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 promotes abiotic stress tolerance and growth in tobacco

    Hyun, T.K.; Albacete, A.; van der Graaff, E.; Eom, S. H.; Großkinsky, D.K.; Böhm, H.; Janschek, U.; Rim, Y.; Ali, W.; Kim, S.Y.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 651-663. ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Abiotic stress * Biotic stress * Plant growth * AtPLAT1 gene * Tobacco Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2014

  10. Novel DREB A-5 subgroup transcription factors from desert moss (Syntrichia caninervis) confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance to yeast.

    Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Daoyuan; Li, Xiaoshuang; Guan, Kaiyun; Yang, Honglan

    2016-05-01

    Syntrichia caninervis Mitt. is a typical desiccation tolerant moss from a temperate desert which has been a good resource for stress tolerant gene isolation. Dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) was proven to play an important role in responding to abiotic stress, which has been identified in many plants, and were rarely reported in moss. In this study, we cloned ten DREB genes from S. caninervis, and investigated their abiotic stress response and stress tolerance. The results showed that ten ScDREB proteins belonged to the A-5 sub-group of the DREB sub-family. Six genes, ScDREB1, ScDREB2, ScDREB4, ScDREB6, ScDREB7, and ScDREB8 were involved in the ABA-dependent signal pathway and the desiccation, salt, and cold stress response. ScDREB3 also responded to desiccation, salt, and cold stresses, but was insensitive to ABA treatment. Another gene, ScDREB5, was involved in an ABA-independent cold stress-responsive signal pathway. Two genes, ScDREB9 and ScDREB10, responded slightly or had no response to neither stress factor or ABA treatment. We transformed four typical genes into yeast cells and the stress tolerance ability of transgenic yeast was evaluated. The results showed that ScDREB3 and ScDREB5 enhanced the yeast's cold and salt tolerance. ScDREB8 and ScDREB10 conferred the osmotic, salt, cold, and high temperature stresses tolerance, especially for osmotic and salt stresses. Our results indicated that A-5 sub-group DREB genes in S. caninervis played important roles in abiotic stresses response and enhanced stress tolerance to transgenic yeast. To our knowledge, this is the first report on DREB genes characterization from desiccation tolerant moss, and this study will not only provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of S. caninervis adaptation to environmental stresses, but also provides valuable gene candidates for plant molecular breeding. PMID:27016184

  11. High yielding semidwarf Pokkali rice mutants tolerant to abiotic stresses of coastal saline ecosystem

    The most popular rice varieties in the pokkali tract of Kerala State, India are Pokkali, Cheruvirippu, VTL-3 and VTL- 4. These varieties are tall, lodging genotypes having tolerance to complex abiotic stresses (salinity, acidity and submergence). About 50% yield is lost due to lodging. In the present study, an effort was made to induce semi dwarfism coupled with high yield in these genotypes retaining the complex tolerance. Dry seeds of these varieties were subjected to both physical mutagen (gamma rays 200, 300, 400 and 500Gy) and chemical mutagen treatment (0.5%, 1% and 2% of Ethyl Methane Sulphonate at varying exposure periods of 8h, 16h and 24h). Reduced germination percentage was noticed in all the treatments. Only 25% plants of VTL-3 irradiated with 400 Gy dose of gamma rays produced fertile seeds and 28% in VTL-4. Even in the fertile plants the seed fertility varied greatly (0.5 to 82.4%). The induction of 100% sterility in more than 75% plants of 400 Gy irradiated treatments compared to the maximum of 7% sterility in the untreated control indicated the high mutagenic potency of gamma irradiation in pokkali rice. Fifty eight semi dwarf mutants with significant reduction in plant height could be selected from the M2 generation of 400 Gy irradiated doze of VTL-3. The height of the selected plants varied from 82 cm to 120cm chemical mutagen treatment was not effective in inducing semidwarfism. More than 70% of the selected mutants showed stability for reduced plant height. The segregation data suggested that most of the mutant lines had single recessive mutations with the exception of few lines. The yield of the stable mutants were evaluated in an Initial Evaluation Trial and observed that some of the mutants had the potential to produce about double the yield (10 tons/ha) of its parent VTL-3 (5 tons/ha). (author)

  12. A wheat salinity-induced WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY93 confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Qin, Yuxiang; Tian, Yanchen; Liu, Xiuzhi

    2015-08-21

    Wheat is an important crop in the world. But most of the cultivars are salt sensitive, and often adversely affected by salt stress. WRKY transcription factors play a major role in plant responses to salt stress, but the effective salinity regulatory WRKYs identified in bread wheat are limited and the mechanism of salt stress tolerance is also not well explored. Here, we identified a salt (NaCl) induced class II WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY93. Its transcript level was strongly induced by salt (NaCl) and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expression of TaWRKY93 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced salt (NaCl), drought, low temperature and osmotic (mannitol) stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by transgenic plants forming longer primary roots or more lateral roots on MS plates supplemented with NaCl and mannitol individually, higher survival rate under drought and low temperature stress. Further, transgenic plants maintained a more proline content, higher relative water content and less electrolyte leakage than the wild type plants. The transcript abundance of a series of abiotic stress-related genes was up-regulated in the TaWRKY93 transgenic plants. In summary, TaWRKY93 is a new positive regulator of abiotic stress, it may increase salinity, drought and low temperature stress tolerance through enhancing osmotic adjustment, maintaining membrane stability and increasing transcription of stress related genes, and contribute to the superior agricultural traits of SR3 through promoting root development. It can be used as a candidate gene for wheat transgenic engineering breeding against abiotic stress. PMID:26106823

  13. Learning from Evolution: Thellungiella Generates New Knowledge on Essential and Critical Components of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Anna Amtmann

    2009-01-01

    Thellungiella salsuginea (halophila) is a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana but, unlike A. thaliana, it grows well in extreme conditions of cold, salt, and drought as well as nitrogen limitation. Over the last decade, many laboratories have started to use Thellungiella to investigate the physiological, metabolic, and molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants, and new knowledge has been gained in particular with respect to ion transport and gene expression.The advantage of Thellungiella over other extremophile model plants is that it can be directly compared with Arabidopsis,and therefore generate information on both essential and critical components of stress tolerance. Thellungiella research is supported by a growing body of technical resources comprising physiological and molecular protocols, ecotype collections,expressed sequence tags, cDNA-libraries, microarrays, and a pending genome sequence. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on Thellungiella and re-evaluates its usefulness as a model for research into plant stress tolerance.

  14. Nutrient seed priming improves abiotic stress tolerance in Zea mays L. and Glycine max L.

    Imran, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Seed reserves are the primary source of mineral nutrients for early seedling development. ?Nutrient seed priming? is a technique in which seeds are soaked in nutrient solution and subsequently dried back to initial moisture content for storage. It is an efficient approach to increase seed nutrient contents along with priming effects to improve seed quality, germination speed and seedling establishment. Various abiotic stresses, such as sub-optimal temperature, drought, submergence and soil pH...

  15. Overexpression of MuHSP70 gene from Macrotyloma uniflorum confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    A 70-KD heat shock protein (HSP70) is one of the most conserved chaperones. It is involved in de novo protein folding and prevents the aggregation of unfolded proteins under lethal environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to characterise a MuHSP70 from horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) and elucidating its role in stress tolerance of plants. A MuHSP70 was cloned and characterised from a natural drought stress tolerant HPK4 variety of horsegram (M. uniflorum). For functional characterization, MuHSP70 was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. Overexpression of MuHSP70 was found to provide tolerance to the transgenic Arabidopsis against various stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity and oxidative stress. MuHSP70 transgenics were observed to maintain the shoot biomass, root length, relative water content, and chlorophyll content during exposure to multi-stresses relative to non-transgenic control. Transgenic lines have further shown the reduced levels of MDA, H2O2, and proteolytic activity. Together, these findings suggest that overexpression of MuHSP70 plays an important role in improving abiotic stress tolerance and could be a crucial candidate gene for exploration in crop improvement program. PMID:26694324

  16. A thaumatin-like protein of Ocimum basilicum confers tolerance to fungal pathogen and abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sandeep; Kamthan, Mohan; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Plant often responds to fungal pathogens by expressing a group of proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The expression of PR is mediated through pathogen-induced signal-transduction pathways that are fine-tuned by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we report functional characterization of an Ocimum basilicum PR5 family member (ObTLP1) that was identified from a MeJA-responsive expression sequence tag collection. ObTLP1 encodes a 226 amino acid polypeptide that showed sequence and structural similarities with a sweet-tasting protein thaumatin of Thaumatococcus danielli and also with a stress-responsive protein osmotin of Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of ObTLP1 in O. basilicum was found to be organ-preferential under unstressed condition, and responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses, and multiple phytohormone elicitations. Bacterially-expressed recombinant ObTLP1 inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi, Scleretonia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea; thereby, suggesting its antifungal activity. Ectopic expression of ObTLP1 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections, and also to dehydration and salt stress. Moreover, induced expression of the defense marker genes suggested up-regulation of the defense-response pathways in ObTLP1-expressing Arabidopsis upon fungal challenge. Thus, ObTLP1 might be useful for providing tolerance to the fungal pathogens and abiotic stresses in crops. PMID:27150014

  17. Barley Genes as Tools to Confer Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crops.

    Gürel, Filiz; Öztürk, Zahide N; Uçarlı, Cüneyt; Rosellini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the oldest cultivated crops in the world with a high adaptive capacity. The natural tolerance of barley to stress has led to increasing interest in identification of stress responsive genes through small/large-scale omics studies, comparative genomics, and overexpression of some of these genes by genetic transformation. Two major categories of proteins involved in stress tolerance are transcription factors (TFs) responsible from the re-programming of the metabolism in stress environment, and genes encoding Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, antioxidant enzymes, osmolytes, and transporters. Constitutive overexpression of several barley TFs, such as C-repeat binding factors (HvCBF4), dehydration-responsive element-binding factors (HvDREB1), and WRKYs (HvWRKY38), in transgenic plants resulted in higher tolerance to drought and salinity, possibly by effectively altering the expression levels of stress tolerance genes due to their higher DNA binding affinity. Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, channel proteins, and lipid transporters can also be the strong candidates for engineering plants for tolerance to salinity and low temperatures. PMID:27536305

  18. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding. PMID:25344442

  19. A wheat WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY10 confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco.

    Chen Wang

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes.

  20. A wheat WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY10 confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco.

    Wang, Chen; Deng, Pengyi; Chen, Liulin; Wang, Xiatian; Ma, Hui; Hu, Wei; Yao, Ningcong; Feng, Ying; Chai, Ruihong; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes. PMID:23762295

  1. The SsDREB Transcription Factor from the Succulent Halophyte Suaeda salsa Enhances Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Xu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB transcription factor (TF plays a key role for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In this study, a novel cDNA encoding DREB transcription factor, designated SsDREB, was isolated from succulent halophyte Suaeda salsa. This protein was classified in the A-6 group of DREB subfamily based on multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic characterization. Yeast one-hybrid assays showed that SsDREB protein specifically binds to the DRE sequence and could activate the expression of reporter genes in yeast, suggesting that the SsDREB protein was a CBF/DREB transcription factor. Real-time RT-PCR showed that SsDREB was significantly induced under salinity and drought stress. Overexpression of SsDREB cDNA in transgenic tobacco plants exhibited an improved salt and drought stress tolerance in comparison to the nontransformed controls. The transgenic plants revealed better growth, higher chlorophyll content, and net photosynthesis rate, as well as higher level of proline and soluble sugars. The semiquantitative PCR of transgenics showed higher expression of stress-responsive genes. These data suggest that the SsDREB transcription factor is involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance in tobacco by the activation of different downstream gene expression.

  2. Overexpression of calmodulin-like (ShCML44) stress-responsive gene from Solanum habrochaites enhances tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses.

    Munir, Shoaib; Liu, Hui; Xing, Yali; Hussain, Saddam; Ouyang, Bo; Zhang, Yuyang; Li, Hanxia; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are important Ca(2+) sensors, which play significant role in mediating plant stress tolerance. In the present study, cold responsive calmodulin-like (ShCML44) gene was isolated from cold tolerant wild tomato (Solanum habrochaites), and functionally characterized. The ShCML44 was differentially expressed in all plant tissues including root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit, and was strongly up-regulated under cold, drought and salinity stresses along with plant growth hormones. Under cold stress, progressive increase in the expression of ShCML44 was observed particularly in cold-tolerant S. habrochaites. The ShCML44-overexpressed plants showed greater tolerance to cold, drought, and salinity stresses, and recorded higher germination and better seedling growth. Transgenic tomato plants demonstrated higher antioxidant enzymes activity, gas exchange and water retention capacity with lower malondialdehyde accumulation and membrane damage under cold and drought stresses compared to wild-type. Moreover, transgenic plants exhibited reduced reactive oxygen species and higher relative water contents under cold and drought stress, respectively. Greater stress tolerance of transgenic plants was further reflected by the up-/down-regulation of stress-related genes including SOD, GST, CAT, POD, LOX, PR and ERD. In crux, these results strengthen the molecular understanding of ShCML44 gene to improve the abiotic stress tolerance in tomato. PMID:27546315

  3. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna mungo is altered by overexpression of ALDRXV4 gene via reactive carbonyl detoxification.

    Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Deepak; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2016-06-01

    Vigna mungo (blackgram) is an important leguminous pulse crop, which is grown for its protein rich edible seeds. Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect the growth and productivity of crop plants including blackgram. The ALDRXV4 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of carbonyl metabolites in the cells and plays an important role in the osmoprotection and detoxification of the reactive carbonyl species. In the present study, we developed transgenic plants of V. mungo using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis whereas the expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme activity. The T1 generation transgenic plants displayed improved tolerance to various environmental stresses, including drought, salt, methyl viologen and H2O2 induced oxidative stress. The increased aldose reductase activity, higher sorbitol content and less accumulation of the toxic metabolite, methylglyoxal in the transgenic lines under non-stress and stress (drought and salinity) conditions resulted in increased protection through maintenance of better photosynthetic efficiency, higher relative water content and less photooxidative damage. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type plants. This study of engineering multiple stress tolerance in blackgram, is the first report to date and this strategy for trait improvement is proposed to provide a novel germplasm for blackgram production on marginal lands. PMID:26956699

  4. A seed preferential heat shock transcription factor from wheat provides abiotic stress tolerance and yield enhancement in transgenic Arabidopsis under heat stress environment.

    Harsh Chauhan

    Full Text Available Reduction in crop yield and quality due to various abiotic stresses is a worldwide phenomenon. In the present investigation, a heat shock factor (HSF gene expressing preferentially in developing seed tissues of wheat grown under high temperatures was cloned. This newly identified heat shock factor possesses the characteristic domains of class A type plant HSFs and shows high similarity to rice OsHsfA2d, hence named as TaHsfA2d. The transcription factor activity of TaHsfA2d was confirmed through transactivation assay in yeast. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaHsfA2d not only possess higher tolerance towards high temperature but also showed considerable tolerance to salinity and drought stresses, they also showed higher yield and biomass accumulation under constant heat stress conditions. Analysis of putative target genes of AtHSFA2 through quantitative RT-PCR showed higher and constitutive expression of several abiotic stress responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing TaHsfA2d. Under stress conditions, TaHsfA2d can also functionally complement the T-DNA insertion mutants of AtHsfA2, although partially. These observations suggest that TaHsfA2d may be useful in molecular breeding of crop plants, especially wheat, to improve yield under abiotic stress conditions.

  5. A wheat lipid transfer protein (TdLTP4) promotes tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Safi, Hela; Saibi, Walid; Alaoui, Meryem Mrani; Hmyene, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Khaled; Hanin, Moez; Brini, Faïçal

    2015-04-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are members of the family of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-14) that are believed to be involved in plant defense responses. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel gene TdLTP4 encoding an LTP protein from durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum Desf.]. Molecular Phylogeny analyses of wheat TdLTP4 gene showed a high identity to other plant LTPs. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of six helices and nine loop turns. Expression analysis in two local durum wheat varieties with marked differences in salt and drought tolerance, revealed a higher transcript accumulation of TdLTP4 under different stress conditions in the tolerant variety, compared to the sensitive one. The overexpression of TdLTP4 in Arabidopsis resulted in a promoted plant growth under various stress conditions including NaCl, ABA, JA and H2O2 treatments. Moreover, the LTP-overexpressing lines exhibit less sensitivity to jasmonate than wild-type plants. Furthermore, detached leaves from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing TdLTP4 gene showed enhanced fungal resistance against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea. Together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of TdLTP4 gene in the tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:25703105

  6. Proteome Analysis for Understanding Abiotic Stress (Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the proteome of date palm under salinity and drought stress conditions to possibly identify proteins involved in stress tolerance. For this purpose, three-month-old seedlings of date palm cultivar “Sagie” were subjected to drought (27.5 g/L polyethylene glycol 6000 and salinity stress conditions (16 g/L NaCl for one month. DIGE analysis of protein extracts identified 47 differentially expressed proteins in leaves of salt- and drought-treated palm seedlings. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 12 proteins; three out of them were significantly changed under both salt and drought stress, while the other nine were significantly changed only in salt-stressed plants. The levels of ATP synthase alpha and beta subunits, an unknown protein and some of RubisCO fragments were significantly changed under both salt and drought stress conditions. Changes in abundance of superoxide dismutase, chlorophyll A-B binding protein, light-harvesting complex1 protein Lhca1, RubisCO activase, phosphoglycerate kinase, chloroplast light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, phosphoribulokinase, transketolase, RubisCO, and some of RubisCO fragments were significant only for salt stress.

  7. Evaluation and Characterization of Mutant Cowpea Plants for Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    The objective of the project is to use the radiation-induced mutations in cowpea to improve cowpea varieties grown by resource-poor farmers in South Africa. The first aim of the project was to select mutant cowpea plants with improved levels of drought tolerance without alteration to the color of the testa or the growth form. It was demonstrated that it was possible to examine mutant lines at seedling stage in wooden boxes. Mature plants were screened in rain out shelters and physiological traits for drought stress were identified among the lines tested. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variations observed could be correlated with drought tolerance. The data demonstrated that physiological methods can be used to screen mutants. The yield performance of some mutant lines proved to be outstanding under well-watered, as well as under drought stress conditions. The second aim was to further characterize the most promising mutant lines using molecular and physiological techniques. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed differential gene expression at different time points of drought stress. The sequenced transcript derived fragments (TDF) showed high homology to expressed sequence tags of soybean, with a possible function in cell defense/resistance and most importantly, signal transduction. Reverse transcription PCR using a number of primers from published sequences, as well as from the TDF sequences, validated the differential gene expression obtained from the cDNA-AFLP display. The third aim was to evaluate selected mutants on station and at different communities. On station field trials were conducted at the ARC-VOPI's research farm under dry land as well as irrigation conditions for the last two seasons. The long term plan is to introgress the drought tolerance trait from the best mutant line into drought susceptible South African cultivars grown by resource-poor farmers. (author)

  8. Evaluation and characterisation of mutant cowpea plants for enhanced abiotic stress tolerance

    The objective of the project is to use the radiation induced mutations in cowpea to improve cowpea varieties grown by resource-poor farmers in South Africa. The first aim project was to select cowpea plants with improved levels of drought tolerance without alteration to the colour of the testa or the growth form. It was demonstrated that it was possible to examine mutant lines at seedling stage in wooden boxes. Mature plants were screened in rain out shelters and physiological traits for drought stress were identified among the lines tested. Roots of mature plants were also assessed and variation observed could be correlated with drought tolerance. The data demonstrated that physiological methods can be used to screen mutants. The yield performance of some mutant lines proved to be outstanding under well watered, as well as under drought stress conditions. The second aim was to further characterise the most promising mutant lines using molecular and physiologically techniques. cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed differential gene expression at different time points of drought stress.The sequenced transcript derived fragments (TDF) showed high homology to expressed sequence tags of soybean, with a possible function in cell defence/resistance and most importantly, signal transduction. Reverse transcription PCR using a number of primers from published sequences, as well as from the TDF sequences, validated the differential gene expression obtained from the cDNA-AFLP display. The third aim was to evaluate selected mutants on station and at different communities. On station field trials were conducted at the ARC-VOPI's research farm under dryland as well as irrigation conditions for the last two seasons. The long term plan is to introgress the drought tolerance trait from the best mutant line into drought susceptible South African cultivars grown by resource-poor farmers. (author)

  9. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Amit Kumar Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13 showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  10. An ATL78-Like RING-H2 Finger Protein Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance through Interacting with RAV2 and CSN5B in Tomato.

    Song, Jianwen; Xing, Yali; Munir, Shoaib; Yu, Chuying; Song, Lulu; Li, Hanxia; Wang, Taotao; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    RING finger proteins play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. In the present study, a wild tomato (Solanum habrochaites) cold-induced RING-H2 finger gene, ShATL78L, was isolated, which has been identified as an abiotic stress responsive gene in tomato. The results showed that ShATL78L was constitutively expressed in various tissues such as root, leaf, petiole, stem, flower, and fruit. Cold stress up-regulated ShATL78L in the cold-tolerant S. habrochaites compared to the susceptible cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum). Furthermore, ShATL78L expression was also regulated under different stresses such as drought, salt, heat, wound, osmotic stress, and exogenous hormones. Functional characterization showed that cultivated tomato overexpressing ShATL78L had improved tolerance to cold, drought and oxidative stresses compared to the wild-type and the knockdown lines. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism of ShATL78L regulating abiotic stress responses, we performed yeast one-hybrid and two-hybrid assays and found that RAV2 could bind to the promoter of ShATL78L and activates/alters its transcription, and CSN5B could interact with ShATL78L to regulate abiotic stress responses. Taken together, these results show that ShATL78L plays an important role in regulating plant adaptation to abiotic stresses through bound by RAV2 and interacting with CSN5B. Highlight: RAV2 binds to the promoter of ShATL78L to activates/alters its transcription to adapt the environmental conditions; furthermore, ShATL78L interacts with CSN5B to regulate the stress tolerance. PMID:27621744

  11. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using TPS1 gene for enhancing tolerance to abiotic stresses

    Varalaxmi Yellisetty; L. A. Reddy; Maheswari Mandapaka

    2015-09-01

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the transgene is integrated into the cells of already differentiated tissues, the T0 plants were chimeric and stable integration was observed in T1 generation. -Glucuronidase (GUS) expression in the seedlings and spikelets of emerging cob was the first indication of transformability in T0 generation which was further confirmed by PCR analysis using hpt and TPS1 gene-specific primers. Screening on 25 mg/L hygromycin combined with PCR analysis was used for selection of transformants in the T1 generation. Transformation efficiencies ranged between 34–38% and 26–34% using pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1, respectively. Molecular characterization of the T2 transgenics using PCR, RT-PCR and Southern blot analyses further revealed the integration, expression and inheritance of the transgene. These results indicate the feasibility of the method to generate transgenics with pCAM-BIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1. The abiotic stress tolerance of TPS1 transgenics developed in the present study was evident by the ability of the transformants to tolerate 200 mM NaCl as well as higher root growth and biomass.

  12. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using TPS1 gene for enhancing tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Yellisetty, Varalaxmi; Reddy, L A; Mandapaka, Maheswari

    2015-09-01

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the transgene is integrated into the cells of already differentiated tissues, the T 0 plants were chimeric and stable integration was observed in T1 generation. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression in the seedlings and spikelets of emerging cob was the first indication of transformability in T0 generation which was further confirmed by PCR analysis using hpt and TPS1 gene-specific primers. Screening on 25 mg/L hygromycin combined with PCR analysis was used for selection of transformants in the T1 generation. Transformation efficiencies ranged between 34-38% and 26-34% using pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1, respectively. Molecular characterization of the T2 transgenics using PCR, RT-PCR and Southern blot analyses further revealed the integration, expression and inheritance of the transgene. These results indicate the feasibility of the method to generate transgenics with pCAM-BIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1. The abiotic stress tolerance of TPS1 transgenics developed in the present study was evident by the ability of the transformants to tolerate 200 mM NaCl as well as higher root growth and biomass. PMID:26440081

  13. Grapevine NAC1 transcription factor as a convergent node in developmental processes, abiotic stresses, and necrotrophic/biotrophic pathogen tolerance.

    Le Hénanff, Gaëlle; Profizi, Camille; Courteaux, Barbara; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Gérard, Clémentine; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Cordelier, Sylvain; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine

    2013-11-01

    Transcription factors of the NAC family are known to be involved in various developmental processes and in response to environmental stresses. Whereas NAC genes have been widely studied in response to abiotic stresses, little is known about their role in response to biotic stresses, especially in crops. Here, the first characterization of a Vitis vinifera L. NAC member, named VvNAC1, and involved in organ development and defence towards pathogens is reported. Expression profile analysis of VvNAC1 showed that its expression is closely associated with later stages of leaf, flower, and berry development, suggesting a role in plant senescence. Moreover, VvNAC1 expression is stimulated in Botrytis cinerea- or microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-infected berries or leaves. Furthermore, cold, wounding, and defence-related hormones such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethylene, and abscisic acid are all able to induce VvNAC1 expression in grapevine leaves. VvNAC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to osmotic, salt, and cold stresses and to B. cinerea and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis pathogens. These plants present a modified pattern of defence gene markers (AtPR-1, AtPDF1.2, and AtVSP1) after stress application, suggesting that VvNAC1 is an important regulatory component of the plant signalling defence cascade. Collectively, these results provide evidence that VvNAC1 could represent a node of convergence regulating grapevine development and stress responses, including defence against necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens. PMID:24043850

  14. Expression of a rice Lambda class of glutathione S-transferase, OsGSTL2, in Arabidopsis provides tolerance to heavy metal and other abiotic stresses.

    Kumar, Smita; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-03-15

    Global industrial growth has contaminated the soil and water with many hazardous compounds, including heavy metals. These heavy metals are not only toxic to plants but also cause severe human health hazards when leach out into food chain. One of the approaches employed for the decontamination of environment includes identification and overexpression of genes involved in the detoxification mechanism of plants. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of enzymes, principally known for their role in detoxification reactions. Different classes of GSTs have been used to develop plants with improved detoxification mechanism, but not much information is available for Lambda class of GSTs. Here, we studied expression of OsGSTLs in different rice genotypes under arsenic stress. The study suggests differential expression of these genes in arsenic sensitive and tolerant genotypes. Further, the role of one member of Lambda class OsGSTL2 was studied by expressing in heterologous system, Arabidopsis. Transgenic lines developed were analysed for their response to different abiotic stresses including heavy metals. Analysis suggests that OsGSTL2 provides tolerance for heavy metals and other abiotic stresses like cold, osmotic stress and salt. We conclude that OsGSTLs can be utilized for developing plant varieties tolerant to different abiotic stresses including heavy metals. PMID:23380449

  15. Enhanced Tolerance of Transgenic Potato Plants Over-Expressing Non-specific Lipid Transfer Protein-1 (StnsLTP1) against Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

    Gangadhar, Baniekal H; Sajeesh, Kappachery; Venkatesh, Jelli; Baskar, Venkidasamy; Abhinandan, Kumar; Yu, Jae W; Prasad, Ram; Mishra, Raghvendra K

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, and salinity are major environmental constraints that limit potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production worldwide. Previously, we found a potential thermo-tolerance gene, named StnsLTP1 from potato using yeast functional screening. Here, we report the functional characterization of StnsLTP1 and its role in multiple abiotic stresses in potato plants. Computational analysis of StnsLTP1 with other plant LTPs showed eight conserved cysteine residues, and four α-helices stabilized by four disulfide bridges. Expression analysis of StnsLTP1 gene showed differential expression under heat, water-deficit and salt stresses. Transgenic potato lines over-expressing StnsLTP1 gene displayed enhanced cell membrane integrity under stress conditions, as indicated by reduced membrane lipid per-oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide content relative to untransformed (UT) control plants. In addition, transgenic lines over-expressing StLTP1 also exhibited increased antioxidant enzyme activity with enhanced accumulation of ascorbates, and up-regulation of stress-related genes including StAPX, StCAT, StSOD, StHsfA3, StHSP70, and StsHSP20 compared with the UT plants. These results suggests that StnsLTP1 transgenic plants acquired improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses through enhanced activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic scavenging of reactive oxygen species and regulated expression of stress-related genes. PMID:27597854

  16. Enhanced Tolerance of Transgenic Potato Plants Over-Expressing Non-specific Lipid Transfer Protein-1 (StnsLTP1) against Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    Gangadhar, Baniekal H.; Sajeesh, Kappachery; Venkatesh, Jelli; Baskar, Venkidasamy; Abhinandan, Kumar; Yu, Jae W.; Prasad, Ram; Mishra, Raghvendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, and salinity are major environmental constraints that limit potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production worldwide. Previously, we found a potential thermo-tolerance gene, named StnsLTP1 from potato using yeast functional screening. Here, we report the functional characterization of StnsLTP1 and its role in multiple abiotic stresses in potato plants. Computational analysis of StnsLTP1 with other plant LTPs showed eight conserved cysteine residues, and four α-helices stabilized by four disulfide bridges. Expression analysis of StnsLTP1 gene showed differential expression under heat, water-deficit and salt stresses. Transgenic potato lines over-expressing StnsLTP1 gene displayed enhanced cell membrane integrity under stress conditions, as indicated by reduced membrane lipid per-oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide content relative to untransformed (UT) control plants. In addition, transgenic lines over-expressing StLTP1 also exhibited increased antioxidant enzyme activity with enhanced accumulation of ascorbates, and up-regulation of stress-related genes including StAPX, StCAT, StSOD, StHsfA3, StHSP70, and StsHSP20 compared with the UT plants. These results suggests that StnsLTP1 transgenic plants acquired improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses through enhanced activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic scavenging of reactive oxygen species and regulated expression of stress-related genes. PMID:27597854

  17. Role of Nitric oxide in regulation of H2O2 mediating tolerance of plants to abiotic stress: A synergistic signaling approach

    Taqi Ahmed Khan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between abiotic stress, nitric oxide (NO and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a challenging one. It is now clear that H2O2 and NO function as signaling molecules in plants. A wide range of abiotic stresses results in H2O2 generation, from a variety of sources and it has many essential roles in plant metabolism but at the same time, accumulation related to virtually any environmental stress is potentially damaging. NO is gaining increasing attention as a regulator of diverse pathophysiological processes in plant science, mainly due to its properties (free radicals, small size, no charge, short-lived, and highly diffusible across biological membranes and multifunctional roles in plant growth, development and regulation of remarkably broad myriad of plant cellular mechanisms. Various abiotic stresses can induce NO synthesis, but its origin and mode of action in plants have not yet been completely resolved. Recent studies on NO production have tended to high light the questions that still remain unanswered rather than telling us more about NO metabolism. But regarding NO-H2O2 signaling and functions, new findings have given an impression of the intricacy of NO-H2O2 related signaling networks against abiotic stresses. Cellular responses to NO-H2O2 are complex, with considerable cross-talk between responses to several abiotic stresses. In last few years, the role of NO in H2O2 mediating tolerance in plants to abiotic stress has established much consideration.

  18. Short leaf mutation and modified plant architecture as potential traits for improving biomass and abiotic stress tolerance in sorghum

    The significant contributions of plant architecture to yield and biomass production have been the focus of attention in a number of crop plants. Recently, the relationship between plant architecture, biomass characteristics and responses to abiotic stresses has also been a subject of considerable in...

  19. ABA Inducible Rice Protein Phosphatase 2C Confers ABA Insensitivity and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K.; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and t...

  20. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    Savvides, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  1. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-04-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management. PMID:26704665

  2. Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

    Nasar Virk

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are critical signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli into intracellular response. A relatively large number of MAPKKKs have been identified in a variety of plant genomes but only a few of them have been studied for their biological function. In the present study, we identified an Arabidopsis Raf-like MAPKKK gene Raf43 and studied its function in biotic and abiotic stress response using a T-DNA insertion mutant raf43-1 and two Raf43-overexpressing lines Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13. Expression of Raf43 was induced by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses including treatments with drought, mannitol and oxidative stress or defense signaling molecule salicylic acid and infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Seed germination and seedling root growth of raf43-1 were significantly inhibited on MS medium containing mannitol, NaCl, H2O2 or methyl viologen (MV while seed germination and seedling root growth of the Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13 lines was similar to wild type Col-0 under the above stress conditions. Soil-grown raf43-1 plants exhibited reduced tolerance to MV, drought and salt stress. Abscisic acid inhibited significantly seed germination and seedling root growth of the raf43-1 line but had no effect on the two Raf43-overexpressing lines. Expression of stress-responsive RD17 and DREB2A genes was significantly down-regulated in raf43-1 plants. However, the raf43-1 and Raf43-overexpressing plants showed similar disease phenotype to the wild type plants after infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

  3. A novel gene SbSI-2 encoding nuclear protein from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance in E. coli and tobacco.

    Narendra Singh Yadav

    Full Text Available Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte that grows luxuriantly in coastal marshes. Previously, we have reported isolation and characterization of ESTs from Salicornia with large number of novel/unknown salt-responsive gene sequences. In this study, we have selected a novel salt-inducible gene SbSI-2 (Salicornia brachiata salt-inducible-2 for functional characterization. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that SbSI-2 protein has predicted nuclear localization signals and a strong protein-protein interaction domain. Transient expression of the RFP:SbSI2 fusion protein confirmed that SbSI-2 is a nuclear-localized protein. Genomic organization study showed that SbSI-2 is intronless and has a single copy in Salicornia genome. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed higher SbSI-2 expression under salt stress and desiccation conditions. The SbSI-2 gene was transformed in E. coli and tobacco for functional characterization. pET28a-SbSI-2 recombinant E. coli cells showed higher tolerance to desiccation and salinity compared to vector alone. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing SbSI-2 have improved salt- and osmotic tolerance, accompanied by better growth parameters, higher relative water content, elevated accumulation of compatible osmolytes, lower Na+ and ROS accumulation and lesser electrolyte leakage than the wild-type. Overexpression of the SbSI-2 also enhanced transcript levels of ROS-scavenging genes and some stress-related transcription factors under salt and osmotic stresses. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SbSI-2 might play an important positive modulation role in abiotic stress tolerance. This identifies SbSI-2 as a novel determinant of salt/osmotic tolerance and suggests that it could be a potential bioresource for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

  4. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco.

    Akanksha Sharma

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants.

  5. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco.

    Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dilip; Kumar, Sumit; Rampuria, Sakshi; Reddy, Attipalli R; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF) corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants. PMID:26938884

  6. OsLEA3-2, an abiotic stress induced gene of rice plays a key role in salt and drought tolerance.

    Jianli Duan

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are involved in tolerance to drought, cold and high salinity in many different organisms. In this report, a LEA protein producing full-length gene OsLEA3-2 was identified in rice (Oryza sativa using the Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE method. OsLEA3-2 was found to be only expressed in the embryo and can be induced by abiotic stresses. The coding protein localizes to the nucleus and overexpression of OsLEA3-2 in yeast improved growth performance compared with control under salt- and osmotic-stress conditions. OsLEA3-2 was also inserted into pHB vector and overexpressed in Arabidopsis and rice. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed better growth on MS media supplemented with 150 mM mannitol or 100 mM NaCl as compared with wild type plants. The transgenic rice also showed significantly stronger growth performance than control under salinity or osmotic stress conditions and were able to recover after 20 days of drought stress. In vitro analysis showed that OsLEA3-2 was able to protect LDH from aggregation on freezing and inactivation on desiccation. These results indicated that OsLEA3-2 plays an important role in tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  7. Expression of the tetrahydrofolate-dependent nitric oxide synthase from the green alga Ostreococcus tauri increases tolerance to abiotic stresses and influences stomatal development in Arabidopsis.

    Foresi, Noelia; Mayta, Martín L; Lodeyro, Anabella F; Scuffi, Denise; Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; García-Mata, Carlos; Casalongué, Claudia; Carrillo, Néstor; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule with diverse biological functions in plants. NO plays a crucial role in growth and development, from germination to senescence, and is also involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In animals, NO is synthesized by well-described nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. NOS activity has also been detected in higher plants, but no gene encoding an NOS protein, or the enzymes required for synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor of mammalian NOS activity, have been identified so far. Recently, an NOS gene from the unicellular marine alga Ostreococcus tauri (OtNOS) has been discovered and characterized. Arabidopsis thaliana plants were transformed with OtNOS under the control of the inducible short promoter fragment (SPF) of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Hahb-4 gene, which responds to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid. Transgenic plants expressing OtNOS accumulated higher NO concentrations compared with siblings transformed with the empty vector, and displayed enhanced salt, drought and oxidative stress tolerance. Moreover, transgenic OtNOS lines exhibited increased stomatal development compared with plants transformed with the empty vector. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that OtNOS, unlike mammalian NOS, efficiently uses tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor in Arabidopsis plants. The modulation of NO production to alleviate abiotic stress disturbances in higher plants highlights the potential of genetic manipulation to influence NO metabolism as a tool to improve plant fitness under adverse growth conditions. PMID:25880454

  8. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume. PMID:25837010

  9. Abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis overexpressing the multiprotein bridging factor 1a (MBF1a) transcriptional coactivator gene.

    Kim, Min-Jung; Lim, Gah-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Seon; Ko, Chang-Beom; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Jeong, Jin-An; Lee, Myung-Chul; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a genetic yeast screen to identify salt tolerance (SAT) genes in a maize kernel cDNA library. During the screening, we identified a maize clone (SAT41) that seemed to confer elevated salt tolerance in comparison to control cells. SAT41 cDNA encodes a 16-kDa protein which is 82.4% identical to the Arabidopsis Multiprotein bridging factor 1a (MBF1a) transcriptional coactivator gene. To further examine salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis, we functionally characterized the MBF1a gene and found that dehydration as well as heightened glucose (Glc) induced MBF1a expression. Constitutive expression of MBF1a in Arabidopsis led to elevated salt tolerance in transgenic lines. Interestingly, plants overexpressing MBF1a exhibited insensitivity to Glc and resistance to fungal disease. Our results suggest that MBF1a is involved in stress tolerance as well as in ethylene and Glc signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:17234157

  10. Comprehensive analysis of SET domain gene family in foxtail millet identifies the putative role of SiSET14 in abiotic stress tolerance

    Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Dangi, Anand; Shweta, Shweta; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    SET domain-containing genes catalyse histone lysine methylation, which alters chromatin structure and regulates the transcription of genes that are involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The present study identified 53 SET domain-containing genes in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and the genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic and structural analyses classified SiSET proteins into five classes (I–V). RNA-seq derived expression profiling showed that SiSET genes were differentially expressed in four tissues namely, leaf, root, stem and spica. Expression analyses using qRT-PCR was performed for 21 SiSET genes under different abiotic stress and hormonal treatments, which showed differential expression of these genes during late phase of stress and hormonal treatments. Significant upregulation of SiSET gene was observed during cold stress, which has been confirmed by over-expressing a candidate gene, SiSET14 in yeast. Interestingly, hypermethylation was observed in gene body of highly differentially expressed genes, whereas methylation event was completely absent in their transcription start sites. This suggested the occurrence of demethylation events during various abiotic stresses, which enhance the gene expression. Altogether, the present study would serve as a base for further functional characterization of SiSET genes towards understanding their molecular roles in conferring stress tolerance. PMID:27585852

  11. Expression of Rice CYP450-Like Gene (Os08g01480 in Arabidopsis Modulates Regulatory Network Leading to Heavy Metal and Other Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

    Arti Rai

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (HM toxicity has become a grave problem in the world since it leads to hazardous effects on living organisms. Transcriptomic/proteomic studies in plants have identified a large number of metal-responsive gene families. Of these, cytochrome-P450 (CYPs family members are composed of enzymes carrying out detoxification of exogenous molecules. Here, we report a CYP-like protein encoded by Os08g01480 locus in rice that helps the plant to combat HM and other abiotic stresses. To functionally characterize CYP-like gene, cDNA and promoter were isolated from rice to develop Arabidopsis transgenic lines. Heterologous expression of Os08g01480 in Arabidopsis provided significant tolerance towards abiotic stresses. In silico analysis reveals that Os08g01480 might help plants to combat environmental stress via modulating auxin metabolism. Transgenic lines expressing reporter gene under control of Os08g01480 promoter demonstrated differential promoter activity in different tissues during environmental stresses. These studies indicated that differential expression of Os08g01480 might be modulating response of plants towards environmental stresses as well as in different developmental stages.

  12. Specific roles of tocopherols and tocotrienols in seed longevity and germination tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic rice.

    Chen, Defu; Li, Yanlan; Fang, Tao; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiwen

    2016-03-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols are lipophilic antioxidants that are abundant in plant seeds. Although their roles have been extensively studied, our understanding of their functions in rice seeds is still limited. In this study, on the basis of available RNAi rice plants constitutively silenced for homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) and tocopherol cyclase (TC), we developed transgenic plants that silenced homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT). All the RNAi plants showed significantly reduced germination percentages and a higher proportion of abnormal seedlings than the control plants, with HGGT transgenics showing the most severe phenotype. The accelerated aging phenotype corresponded well with the amount of H2O2 accumulated in the embryo, glucose level, and ion leakage, but not with the amount of O(2-) accumulated in the embryo and lipid hydroperoxides levels in these genotypes. Under abiotic stress conditions, HPT and TC transgenics showed lower germination percentage and seedling growth than HGGT transgenics, while HGGT transgenics showed almost the same status as the wild type. Therefore, we proposed that tocopherols in the germ may protect the embryo from reactive oxygen species under both accelerated aging and stress conditions, whereas tocotrienols in the pericarp may exclusively help in reducing the metabolic activity of the seed during accelerated aging. PMID:26810451

  13. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  14. Mechanisms of nitric oxide crosstalk with reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes during abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

    Arora, Dhara; Jain, Prachi; Singh, Neha; Kaur, Harmeet; Bhatla, Satish C

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) acts in a concentration and redox-dependent manner to counteract oxidative stress either by directly acting as an antioxidant through scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anions (O(2)(-)*), to form peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) or by acting as a signaling molecule, thereby altering gene expression. NO can interact with different metal centres in proteins, such as heme-iron, zinc-sulfur clusters, iron-sulfur clusters, and copper, resulting in the formation of a stable metal-nitrosyl complex or production of varied biochemical signals, which ultimately leads to modification of protein structure/function. The thiols (ferrous iron-thiol complex and nitrosothiols) are also involved in the metabolism and mobilization of NO. Thiols bind to NO and transport it to the site of action whereas nitrosothiols release NO after intercellular diffusion and uptake into the target cells. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) also has the ability to transnitrosylate proteins. It is an NO˙ reservoir and a long-distance signaling molecule. Tyrosine nitration of proteins has been suggested as a biomarker of nitrosative stress as it can lead to either activation or inhibition of target proteins. The exact molecular mechanism(s) by which exogenous and endogenously generated NO (or reactive nitrogen species) modulate the induction of various genes affecting redox homeostasis, are being extensively investigated currently by various research groups. Present review provides an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms by which NO interacts with and modulates the activity of various ROS scavenging enzymes, particularly accompanying ROS generation in plants in response to varied abiotic stress. PMID:26554526

  15. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...... complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning....

  16. A novel alkyl hydroperoxidase (AhpD) of Anabaena PCC7120 confers abiotic stress tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shilpi; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Pandey, Sarita; Rai, L C

    2015-01-01

    In silico analysis together with cloning, molecular characterization and heterologous expression reports that the hypothetical protein All5371 of Anabaena sp. PCC7120 is a novel hydroperoxide scavenging protein similar to AhpD of bacteria. The presence of E(X)11CX HC(X)3H motif in All5371 confers peroxidase activity and closeness to bacterial AhpD which is also reflected by its highest 3D structure homology with Rhodospirillum rubrum AhpD. Heterologous expression of all5371 complimented for ahpC and conferred resistance in MJF178 strain (ahpCF::Km) of Escherichia coli. All5371 reduced the organic peroxide more efficiently than inorganic peroxide and the recombinant E. coli strain following exposure to H2O2, CdCl2, CuCl2, heat, UV-B and carbofuron registered increased growth over wild-type and mutant E. coli transformed with empty vector. Appreciable expression of all5371 in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 as measured by qRT-PCR under selected stresses and their tolerance against H2O2, tBOOH, CuOOH and menadione attested its role in stress tolerance. In view of the above, All5371 of Anabaena PCC7120 emerged as a new hydroperoxide detoxifying protein. PMID:25391500

  17. Mitigating abiotic stress in crop plants by microorganisms

    Milošević Nada A.; Marinković Jelena B.; Tintor Branislava B.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms could play an important role in adaptation strategies and increase of tolerance to abiotic stresses in agricultural plants. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mitigate most effectively the impact of abiotic stresses (drought, low temperature, salinity, metal toxicity, and high temperatures) on plants through the production of exopolysaccharates and biofilm formation. PGPR mitigate the impact of drought on plants through a process so-called induced systemic tolera...

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana Contains Both Ni2+ and Zn2+ Dependent Glyoxalase I Enzymes and Ectopic Expression of the Latter Contributes More towards Abiotic Stress Tolerance in E. coli.

    Muskan Jain

    Full Text Available The glyoxalase pathway is ubiquitously found in all the organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It acts as a major pathway for detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG, which deleteriously affects the biological system in stress conditions. The first important enzyme of this system is Glyoxalase I (GLYI. It is a metalloenzyme which requires divalent metal ions for its activity. This divalent metal ion can be either Zn2+ as found in most of eukaryotes or Ni2+ as seen in prokaryotes. In the present study, we have found three active GLYI enzymes (AtGLYI2, AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6 belonging to different metal activation classes coexisting in Arabidopsis thaliana. These enzymes have been found to efficiently complement the GLYI yeast mutants. These three enzymes have been characterized in terms of their activity, metal dependency, kinetic parameters and their role in conferring tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in E. coli and yeast. AtGLYI2 was found to be Zn2+ dependent whereas AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6 were Ni2+ dependent. Enzyme activity of Zn2+ dependent enzyme, AtGLYI2, was observed to be exceptionally high (~250-670 fold as compared to Ni2+ dependent enzymes, AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6. The activity of these GLYI enzymes correlated well to their role in stress tolerance. Heterologous expression of these enzymes in E. coli led to better tolerance against various stress conditions. This is the first report of a higher eukaryotic species having multiple active GLYI enzymes belonging to different metal activation classes.

  19. Expression of TaWRKY44, a wheat WRKY gene, in transgenic tobacco confers multiple abiotic stress tolerances.

    Wang, Xiatian; Zeng, Jian; Li, Ying; Rong, Xiaoli; Sun, Jiutong; Sun, Tao; Li, Miao; Wang, Lianzhe; Feng, Ying; Chai, Ruihong; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2015-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to be involved in various plant physiological and biochemical processes. In this study, we successfully assembled 10 unigenes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of wheat and designated them as TaWRKY44-TaWRKY53, respectively. Among these genes, a subgroup I gene, TaWRKY44, was found to be upregulated by treatments with PEG6000, NaCl, 4°C, abscisic acid (ABA), H2O2 and gibberellin (GA). The TaWRKY44-GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus of onion epidermal cells, and TaWRKY44 was able to bind to the core DNA sequences of TTGACC and TTAACC in yeast. The N-terminal of TaWRKY44 showed transcriptional activation activity. Expression of TaWRKY44 in tobacco plants conferred drought and salt tolerance and transgenic tobacco exhibited a higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC), soluble sugar, proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD) content, as well as higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), but less ion leakage (IL), lower contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), and H2O2. In addition, expression of TaWRKY44 also increased the seed germination rate in the transgenic lines under osmotic stress conditions while exhibiting a lower H2O2 content and higher SOD, CAT, and POD activities. Expression of TaWRKY44 upregulated the expression of some reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes and stress-responsive genes in tobacco under osmotic stresses. These data demonstrate that TaWRKY44 may act as a positive regulator in drought/salt/osmotic stress responses by either efficient ROS elimination through direct or indirect activation of the cellular antioxidant systems or activation of stress-associated gene expression. PMID:26322057

  20. Expression of TaWRKY44, a wheat WRKY gene, in transgenic tobacco confers multiple abiotic stress tolerances

    Xiatian eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to be involved in various plant physiological and biochemical processes. In this study, we successfully assembled ten unigenes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs of wheat and designated them as TaWRKY44–TaWRKY53, respectively. Among these genes, a subgroup I gene, TaWRKY44, was found to be upregulated by treatments with PEG6000, NaCl, 4°C, abscisic acid (ABA, H2O2 and gibberellin (GA. The TaWRKY44-GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus of onion epidermal cells, and TaWRKY44 was able to bind to the core DNA sequences of TTGACC and TTAACC in yeast. The N-terminal of TaWRKY44 showed transcriptional activation activity. Expression of TaWRKY44 in tobacco plants conferred drought and salt tolerance and transgenic tobacco exhibited a higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC, soluble sugar, proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD content, as well as higher activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD, but less ion leakage (IL, lower contents of malondialdehyde (MDA, and H2O2. In addition, expression of TaWRKY44 also increased the seed germination rate in the transgenic lines under osmotic stress conditions while exhibiting a lower H2O2 content and higher SOD, CAT and POD activities. Expression of TaWRKY44 upregulated the expression of some reactive oxygen species (ROS-related genes and stress-responsive genes in tobacco under osmotic stresses. These data demonstrate that TaWRKY44 may act as a positive regulator in drought/salt/osmotic stress responses by either efficient ROS elimination through direct or indirect activation of the cellular antioxidant systems or activation of stress-associated gene expression.

  1. The effect of irrigation water including Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn on the physiological and biochemical parameters in eggplant genotypes tolerant or susceptible to some abiotic stress factors

    Sevinç KIRAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The eggplant genotypes (Burdur Merkez, Burdur Bucak, Kemer ve Giresun of which salt and drought tolerances were determined before by examining changes in some of the morphological and physiological characteristics were used as materials. In the studies carried out in controlled greenhouse conditions, eggplant plants were subjected to different levels heavy metal irrigation at 20 days after sowing (Control: 0 ppm; I. mixture: 0.2 ppm Cu+0.01 ppm Cd+5 ppm Pb+2 ppm Zn; II. mixture: 0.4 ppm Cu+0.02 ppm Cd+10 ppm Pb+4 ppm Zn. Young plants were harvested after forty days at heavy metal treatment and the fresh and dry shoot weight, fresh and dry root weight, shoot and root length, leaf areas, chlorophyll, malondi-aldehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR were determined. The eggplant plants were adversely affected by heavy metal applications. In parallel to increase the dose, heavy metal mixtures led to a reduction in values of fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, stem and root length, leaf area. MDA and antioxidative enzyme activities increased in plants irrigated with water containing a mixture of heavy metal. As a result of this study, tolerant Burdur Merkez and Burdur Bucak genotypes showed a better performance compared with the salt sensitive genotypes Giresun and Kemer. The plants are thought to use similar mechanisms for resistance to abiotic stresses such as drought and heavy metal stress.

  2. Application of Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry to Field Grown Crop Plants To Allow Dissection of the Molecular Mechanisms of Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

    Richard P. Jacoby

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One major constraint upon the application of molecular crop breeding approaches is the small number of genes linked to agronomically desirable traits through defined biochemical mechanisms. Proteomic investigations of crop plants under abiotic stress treatments have identified many proteins that differ in control versus stress comparisons, however this broad profiling of cell physiology is poorly suited to ranking the effects and identifying the specific proteins that are causative in agronomically relevant traits. Here we will reason that insights into a protein’s function, its biochemical process and links to stress tolerance are more likely to arise through approaches that evaluate these differential abundances of proteins and include varietal comparisons, precise discrimination of protein isoforms, enrichment of functionally related proteins and integration of proteomic datasets with physiological measurements of both lab and field grown plants. We will briefly explain how applying the emerging proteomic technology of multiplexed selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry with its accuracy and throughput can facilitate and enhance these approaches and provide a clear means to rank the growing cohort of stress responsive proteins. We will also highlight the benefit of integrating proteomic analyses with cultivar-specific genetic databases and physiological assessments of cultivar performance in relevant field environments for revealing deeper insights into molecular crop improvement.

  3. Plant Responses to Simultaneous Biotic and Abiotic Stress: Molecular Mechanisms

    Ines Ben Rejeb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly confronted to both abiotic and biotic stresses that seriously reduce their productivity. Plant responses to these stresses are complex and involve numerous physiological, molecular, and cellular adaptations. Recent evidence shows that a combination of abiotic and biotic stress can have a positive effect on plant performance by reducing the susceptibility to biotic stress. Such an interaction between both types of stress points to a crosstalk between their respective signaling pathways. This crosstalk may be synergistic and/or antagonistic and include among others the involvement of phytohormones, transcription factors, kinase cascades, and reactive oxygen species (ROS. In certain cases, such crosstalk can lead to a cross-tolerance and enhancement of a plant’s resistance against pathogens. This review aims at giving an insight into cross-tolerance between abiotic and biotic stress, focusing on the molecular level and regulatory pathways.

  4. ROLE OF NITRIC OXIDE IN REGULATION OF H2O2 MEDIATING TOLERANCE OF PLANTS TO ABIOTIC STRESS: A SYNERGISTIC SIGNALING APPROACH

    Taqi Ahmed Khan; Mohd Mazid; Firoz Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between abiotic stress, nitric oxide (NO) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a challenging one. It is now clear that H2O2 and NO function as signaling molecules in plants. A wide range of abiotic stresses results in H2O2 generation, from a variety of sources and it has many essential roles in plant metabolism but at the same time, accumulation related to virtually any environmental stress is potentially damaging. NO is gaining increasing attention as a regulator of diverse patho...

  5. Mitigating abiotic stress in crop plants by microorganisms

    Milošević Nada A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms could play an important role in adaptation strategies and increase of tolerance to abiotic stresses in agricultural plants. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR mitigate most effectively the impact of abiotic stresses (drought, low temperature, salinity, metal toxicity, and high temperatures on plants through the production of exopolysaccharates and biofilm formation. PGPR mitigate the impact of drought on plants through a process so-called induced systemic tolerance (IST, which includes: a bacterial production of cytokinins, b production of antioxidants and c degradation of the ethylene precursor ACC by bacterial ACC deaminase. Symbiotic fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dual symbiotic systems (endophytic rhizospheric bacteria and symbiotic fungi also tend to mitigate the abiotic stress in plants.

  6. Simultaneous expression of abiotic stress responsive transcription factors, AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3 improves salinity and drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L..

    Vittal Pruthvi

    Full Text Available Drought, salinity and extreme temperatures are the most common abiotic stresses, adversely affecting plant growth and productivity. Exposure of plants to stress activates stress signalling pathways that induce biochemical and physiological changes essential for stress acclimation. Stress tolerance is governed by multiple traits, and importance of a few traits in imparting tolerance has been demonstrated. Under drought, traits linked to water mining and water conservation, water use efficiency and cellular tolerance (CT to desiccation are considered to be relevant. In this study, an attempt has been made to improve CT in drought hardy crop, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., cv. TMV2 by co-expressing stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs, AtDREB2A, AtHB7 and AtABF3, associated with downstream gene expression. Transgenic plants simultaneously expressing these TFs showed increased tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stresses compared to wild type, with an increase in total plant biomass. The transgenic plants exhibited improved membrane and chlorophyll stability due to enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by proline synthesis under stress. The improvement in stress tolerance in transgenic lines were associated with induced expression of various CT related genes like AhGlutaredoxin, AhAldehyde reductase, AhSerine threonine kinase like protein, AhRbx1, AhProline amino peptidase, AhHSP70, AhDIP and AhLea4. Taken together the results indicate that co-expression of stress responsive TFs can activate multiple CT pathways, and this strategy can be employed to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

  7. Application of selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to field-grown crop plants to allow dissection of the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance

    Jacoby, Richard P.; Millar, A. Harvey; Taylor, Nicolas L.

    2013-01-01

    One major constraint upon the application of molecular crop breeding approaches is the small number of genes linked to agronomically desirable traits through defined biochemical mechanisms. Proteomic investigations of crop plants under abiotic stress treatments have identified many proteins that differ in control versus stress comparisons, however, this broad profiling of cell physiology is poorly suited to ranking the effects and identifying the specific proteins that are causative in agrono...

  8. TaABC1, a member of the activity of bc 1 complex protein kinase family from common wheat, confers enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis

    Wang, Caixiang; Jing, Ruilian; Mao, Xinguo; Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Ang

    2010-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and low temperature have drastic effects on plant growth and development. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating biochemical and physiological changes in response to stresses are not well understood. Protein kinases are major signal transduction factors among the reported molecular mechanisms mediating acclimation to environmental changes. Protein kinase ABC1 (activity of bc 1 complex) is involved in regulating coenzyme Q biosynthesis in mitoc...

  9. Sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses

    Škorić D.

    2009-01-01

    Due to a specific structure of its main organs (root, stem, leaves, head), sunflower can be successfully grown on marginal soils and in semi-arid conditions and it is more resistant to abiotic stresses than other field crops. In sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses, the greatest progress has been made in selection for drought resistance. Breeders use over 30 different parameters in sunflower screening for drought resistance, with physiological ones being the predominant type....

  10. Heterologous Expression of MeLEA3: A 10 kDa Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein of Cassava, Confers Tolerance to Abiotic Stress in Escherichia coli with Recombinant Protein Showing In Vitro Chaperone Activity.

    Barros, Nicolle L F; da Silva, Diehgo T; Marques, Deyvid N; de Brito, Fabiano M; dos Reis, Savio P; de Souza, Claudia R B

    2015-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are small molecular weight proteins involved in acquisition of tolerance to drought, salinity, high temperature, cold, and freezing stress in many plants. Previous studies revealed a cDNA sequence coding for a 10 kDa atypical LEA protein, named MeLEA3, predicted to be located into mitochondria with potential role in salt stress response of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Here we aimed to produce the recombinant MeLEA3 protein by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and evaluate the tolerance of bacteria expressing this protein under abiotic stress. Our result revealed that the recombinant MeLEA3 protein conferred a protective function against heat and salt stress in bacterial cells. Also, the recombinant MeLEA3 protein showed in vitro chaperone activity by protection of NdeI restriction enzyme activity under heat stress. PMID:25990084

  11. The application of the haploid cell culture system to obtain the variants with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants

    The different genotypes of rape haploid cells /tissue tolerated to the oxalic acid were correlated with the tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the plant level through the researches. And this phenomenon also occurred in the tolerance to NaCl between the different genotypes of rape haploid cells and the diploid cells, but the diploid cells were generally more tolerant to the haploid ones. In addition, there were similar situations in barely on NaCl tolerance, aluminum tolerance and resistance to scab. So the above results indicated that the haploid cells/tissue tolerant to the stresses could reflect the situations in the plant level in the certain degree. The technology of inducing and screening the variants of the tolerance to rape Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by in vitro culture of haploid tissue was established. This technical system includes the in vitro microspore culture, the regeneration from the haploid cells to plants and the expanding propagation of the haploids populations. A set of oxalic acid tolerance variants was screened through the treatments of pingyangmycin and oxalic acid in stem apexes culture of haploid plants. After the field identification, 3 individuals with the improved tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was obtained. The technology of inducing and screening the variants with heat tolerance by in vitro culture of haploid tissue was established in broccoli. A set of variants with the improved heat tolerance was obtained through the treatment of pingyangmycin and the 45 deg C heat treatment and 9 variants with higher stability of cell membrane to heat stress than the original varieties was selected. In addition, the technical systems for inducing and screening barley variants tolerant to aluminum and scab stresses according to the above rules were established. And the relevant resistance variants were obtained. Then 1 aluminum tolerance material and 3 scab resistance materials under the field experiments in the plant level were selected

  12. Importance of abiotic stress as a range-limit determinant for European plants: insights from species responses to climatic gradients

    Normand, Signe; Treier, Urs; Randin, Christophe; Vittoz, Pascal; Guisan, Antoine; Svenning, J.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Aim We examined whether species occurrences are primarily limited by physiological tolerance in the abiotically more stressful end of climatic gradients (the asymmetric abiotic stress limitation (AASL) hypothesis) and the geographical predictions of this hypothesis: abiotic stress mainly determin...... upper-latitudinal and upper-altitudinal species range limits, and the importance of abiotic stress for these range limits increases the further northwards and upwards a species occurs...

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal responses to abiotic stresses: A review.

    Lenoir, Ingrid; Fontaine, Joël; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2016-03-01

    The majority of plants live in close collaboration with a diversity of soil organisms among which arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an essential role. Mycorrhizal symbioses contribute to plant growth and plant protection against various environmental stresses. Whereas the resistance mechanisms induced in mycorrhizal plants after exposure to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and pollution, are well documented, the knowledge about the stress tolerance mechanisms implemented by the AMF themselves is limited. This review provides an overview of the impacts of various abiotic stresses (pollution, salinity, drought, extreme temperatures, CO2, calcareous, acidity) on biodiversity, abundance and development of AMF and examines the morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms implemented by AMF to survive in the presence of these stresses. PMID:26803396

  14. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    Links Matthew G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets. Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in

  15. Cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress

    Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Plants exposed to abiotic stress respond to unfavorable conditions on multiple levels. One challenge under drought stress is to reduce shoot growth while maintaining root growth, a process requiring differential cell wall synthesis and remodeling. Key players in this process are the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidases, which initially cross-link phenolic compounds and glycoproteins of the cell walls causing stiffening. The function of ROS shifts after having converted a...

  16. Crop wild relatives of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]: Distributions, ex situ conservation status, and potential genetic resources for abiotic stress tolerance

    Khoury, C.K.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Bernau, V.; Kassa, M.T.; Norton, S.L.; Maesen, L.; Upadhyaya, H.D.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Jarvis, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a versatile, stress-tolerant, and nutritious grain legume, possessing traits of value for enhancing the sustainability of dry sub-tropical and tropical agricultural systems. The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in pigeonpea breeding has been successful in pr

  17. A late embryogenesis abundant protein HVA1 regulated by an inducible promoter enhances root growth and abiotic stress tolerance in rice without yield penalty.

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Sun, Peng-Kai; Lu, Chung-An; Ho, Tuan-Hua D; Yu, Su-May

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. HVA1 was highly accumulated in root apical meristem (RAM) and lateral root primordia (LRP) after ABA/stress treatments, leading to enhanced root system expansion. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biomass also increased in transgenic rice, likely due to the maintenance of normal cell functions and metabolic activities conferred by HVA1 which is capable of stabilizing proteins, under osmotic stress. HVA1 promotes lateral root (LR) initiation, elongation and emergence and primary root (PR) elongation via an auxin-dependent process, particularly by intensifying asymmetrical accumulation of auxin in LRP founder cells and RAM, even under ABA/stress-suppressive conditions. We demonstrate a successful application of an inducible promoter in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HVA1 for improving root architecture and multiple stress tolerance without yield penalty. PMID:25200982

  18. Regulation of Translation Initiation under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    Ana B. Castro-Sanz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed versatile strategies to deal with the great variety of challenging conditions they are exposed to. Among them, the regulation of translation is a common target to finely modulate gene expression both under biotic and abiotic stress situations. Upon environmental challenges, translation is regulated to reduce the consumption of energy and to selectively synthesize proteins involved in the proper establishment of the tolerance response. In the case of viral infections, the situation is more complex, as viruses have evolved unconventional mechanisms to regulate translation in order to ensure the production of the viral encoded proteins using the plant machinery. Although the final purpose is different, in some cases, both plants and viruses share common mechanisms to modulate translation. In others, the mechanisms leading to the control of translation are viral- or stress-specific. In this paper, we review the different mechanisms involved in the regulation of translation initiation under virus infection and under environmental stress in plants. In addition, we describe the main features within the viral RNAs and the cellular mRNAs that promote their selective translation in plants undergoing biotic and abiotic stress situations.

  19. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh;

    2013-01-01

    phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based on......Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes and the...... disorder (ID), referring to their lack of fixed tertiary structures. ID is now an emerging topic in plant science. Furthermore, the importance of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation systems and modification by sumoylation is also apparent from the interactomes. Therefore; TF interaction partners...

  20. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress.

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029

  1. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    Carolina Ballén-Taborda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of microRNAs (miRNAs in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants.

  2. Multifaceted roles of aquaporins as molecular conduits in plant responses to abiotic stresses.

    Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Penna, Suprasanna; Nguyen, Dong Van; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-06-01

    Abiotic stress has become a challenge to food security due to occurrences of climate change and environmental degradation. Plants initiate molecular, cellular and physiological changes to respond and adapt to various types of abiotic stress. Understanding of plant response mechanisms will aid in strategies aimed at improving stress tolerance in crop plants. One of the most common and early symptoms associated with these stresses is the disturbance in plant-water homeostasis, which is regulated by a group of proteins called "aquaporins". Aquaporins constitute a small family of proteins which are classified further on the basis of their localization, such as plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, tonoplast intrinsic proteins, nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins (initially identified in symbiosomes of legumes but also found in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum), small basic intrinsic proteins localized in ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and X intrinsic proteins present in plasma membrane. Apart from water, aquaporins are also known to transport CO2, H2O2, urea, ammonia, silicic acid, arsenite and wide range of small uncharged solutes. Besides, aquaporins also function to modulate abiotic stress-induced signaling. Such kind of versatile functions has made aquaporins a suitable candidate for development of transgenic plants with increased tolerance toward different abiotic stress. Toward this endeavor, the present review describes the versatile functions of aquaporins in water uptake, nutrient balancing, long-distance signal transfer, nutrient/heavy metal acquisition and seed development. Various functional genomic studies showing the potential of specific aquaporin isoforms for enhancing plant abiotic stress tolerance are summarized and future research directions are given to design stress-tolerant crops. PMID:25430890

  3. Induction of Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione Reductase Activity by Abiotic Stresses in Maize and Wheat

    Gabor Kocsy; Gabriella Szalai; Gabor Galiba

    2002-01-01

    The effect of different abiotic stresses (extreme temperatures and osmotic stress) on the synthesis of glutathione and hydroxymethylglutathione, on the ratio of the reduced to oxidised forms of these thiols (GSH/GSSG, hmGSH/hmGSSG), and on the glutathione reductase (GR) activity was studied in maize and wheat genotypes having different sensitivity to low temperature stress. Cold treatment induced a greater increase in total glutathione (TG) content and in GR activity in tolerant genotypes of ...

  4. Arabidopsis Non-Coding RNA Regulation in Abiotic Stress Responses

    Akihiro Matsui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and productivity are largely affected by environmental stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved unique adaptation mechanisms to abiotic stresses through fine-tuned adjustment of gene expression and metabolism. Recent advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptome analysis, have revealed that a vast amount of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs apart from the well-known housekeeping ncRNAs such as rRNAs, tRNAs, small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs are expressed under abiotic stress conditions. These various types of ncRNAs are involved in chromatin regulation, modulation of RNA stability and translational repression during abiotic stress response. In this review, we summarize recent progress that has been made on ncRNA research in plant abiotic stress response.

  5. Expression of an apoplast-localized BURP-domain protein from soybean (GmRD22) enhances tolerance towards abiotic stress.

    Wang, Hongmei; Zhou, Liang; Fu, Yaping; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Phang, Tsui-Hung; Sun, Zongxiu; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2012-11-01

    The BURP-domain protein family comprises a diverse group of plant-specific proteins that share a conserved BURP domain at the C terminus. However, there have been only limited studies on the functions and subcellular localization of these proteins. Members of the RD22-like subfamily are postulated to associate with stress responses due to the stress-inducible nature of some RD22-like genes. In this report, we used different transgenic systems (cells and in planta) to show that the expression of a stress-inducible RD22-like protein from soybean (GmRD22) can alleviate salinity and osmotic stress. We also performed detailed microscopic studies using both fusion proteins and immuno-electron microscopic techniques to demonstrate the apoplast localization of GmRD22, for which the BURP domain is a critical determinant of the subcellular localization. The apoplastic GmRD22 interacts with a cell wall peroxidase and the ectopic expression of GmRD22 in both transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and transgenic rice resulted in increased lignin production when subjected to salinity stress. It is possible that GmRD22 regulates cell wall peroxidases and hence strengthens cell wall integrity under such stress conditions. PMID:22548236

  6. Cotton metallothionein GhMT3a, a reactive oxygen species scavenger, increased tolerance against abiotic stress in transgenic tobacco and yeast

    Xue, Tongtong; Li, Xinzheng; Zhu, Wei; Wu, Changai; Yang, Guodong; Zheng, Chengchao

    2008-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a 64-amino acid type 3 metallothionein protein, designated GhMT3a, was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by cDNA library screening. Northern blot analysis indicated that mRNA accumulation of GhMT3a was up-regulated not only by high salinity, drought, and low temperature stresses, but also by heavy metal ions, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cotton seedlings. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing GhMT3a sh...

  7. Interactions between Polyamines and Abiotic Stress Pathway Responses Unraveled by Transcriptome Analysis of Polyamine Overproducers

    Marco, Francisco; Alcázar, Rubén; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Carrasco, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Plant development and productivity are negatively regulated by adverse environmental conditions. The identification of stress-regulatory genes, networks, and signaling molecules should allow the development of novel strategies to obtain tolerant plants. Polyamines (PAs) are polycationic compounds with a recognized role in plant growth and development, as well as in abiotic and biotic stress responses. During the last years, knowledge on PA functions has been achieved using genetically modifie...

  8. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plant Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    Weihua Qiao; LiuMin Fan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in diverse physiological processes In plants. NO can provoke both beneficial and harmful effects, which depend on the concentration and location of NO in plant cells. This review is focused on NO synthesis and the functions of NO in plant responses to abiotic environmental stresses. Abiotic stresses mostly induce NO production in plants. NO alleviates the harmfulness of reactive oxygen species, and reacts with other target molecules, and regulates the expression of stress responsive genes under various stress conditions.

  9. Accumulation of Flavonols over Hydroxycinnamic Acids Favors Oxidative Damage Protection under Abiotic Stress

    Martinez, Vicente; Mestre, Teresa C.; Rubio, Francisco; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A.; Mittler, Ron; Rivero, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a key role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Although multiple pathways, enzymes, and antioxidants are present in plants, their exact roles during different stress responses remain unclear. Here, we report on the characterization of the different antioxidant mechanisms of tomato plants subjected to heat stress, salinity stress, or a combination of both stresses. All the treatments applied induced an increase of oxidative stress, with the salinity treatment being the most aggressive, resulting in plants with the lowest biomass, and the highest levels of H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. However, the results obtained from the transcript expression study and enzymatic activities related to the ascorbate-glutathione pathway did not fully explain the differences in the oxidative damage observed between salinity and the combination of salinity and heat. An exhaustive metabolomics study revealed the differential accumulation of phenolic compounds depending on the type of abiotic stress applied. An analysis at gene and enzyme levels of the phenylpropanoid metabolism concluded that under conditions where flavonols accumulated to a greater degree as compared to hydroxycinnamic acids, the oxidative damage was lower, highlighting the importance of flavonols as powerful antioxidants, and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27379130

  10. Are karrikins involved in plant abiotic stress responses?

    Li, Weiqiang; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports have shown that strigolactones play a positive role in plant responses to drought and salt stress through MAX2 (More Axillary Growth 2). Increasing evidence suggests that MAX2 is also involved in karrikin signaling, raising the question whether karrikins play any role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. PMID:26255855

  11. Stress hormones and abiotic stresses have different effects on antioxidants in maize lines with different sensitivity.

    Kellos, T; Tímár, I; Szilágyi, V; Szalai, G; Galiba, G; Kocsy, G

    2008-09-01

    The effect of stress hormones and abiotic stress treatments on reactive oxygen species and on antioxidants was compared in two maize (Zea mays L.) lines (Penjalinan and Z7) having different stress tolerance. Following treatment with abscisic acid, salicylic acid or hydrogen peroxide, the amount of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides increased, while after osmotic stress or cultivation in continuous darkness, the levels were unchanged or decreased. The higher amount of lipid peroxides in Penjalinan indicated its greater sensitivity compared to Z7. The level of the examined antioxidants was increased by nearly all treatments. Glutathione and cysteine contents were higher after salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and polyethylene glycol treatments and lower after application of abscisic acid, NaCl and growth in darkness in Z7 than in Penjalinan. The activity of glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase was higher after almost all treatments in Z7. The expression of the glutathione synthetase (EC 6.3.2.3) gene was not affected by the treatments, while the level of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (EC 6.3.2.2) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) transcripts increased after most treatments. The two stress hormones and the stress treatments resulted in different changes in antioxidant levels in the two maize lines, which indicates the specific, stress tolerance-dependent response of plants to the various growth regulators and adverse environmental effects that were examined. PMID:18761495

  12. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabid...

  13. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  14. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective

    Cramer Grant R; Urano Kaoru; Delrot Serge; Pezzotti Mario; Shinozaki Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The natural environment for plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and biotic stresses. Plant responses to these stresses are equally complex. Systems biology approaches facilitate a multi-targeted approach by allowing one to identify regulatory hubs in complex networks. Systems biology takes the molecular parts (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) of an organism and attempts to fit them into functional networks or models designed to describe and predict the dynam...

  15. Overexpression of Arabidopsis AnnAt8 Alleviates Abiotic Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco

    Yadav, Deepanker; Ahmed, Israr; Shukla, Pawan; Boyidi, Prasanna; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress results in massive loss of crop productivity throughout the world. Because of our limited knowledge of the plant defense mechanisms, it is very difficult to exploit the plant genetic resources for manipulation of traits that could benefit multiple stress tolerance in plants. To achieve this, we need a deeper understanding of the plant gene regulatory mechanisms involved in stress responses. Understanding the roles of different members of plant gene families involved in different stress responses, would be a step in this direction. Arabidopsis, which served as a model system for the plant research, is also the most suitable system for the functional characterization of plant gene families. Annexin family in Arabidopsis also is one gene family which has not been fully explored. Eight annexin genes have been reported in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression studies of different Arabidopsis annexins revealed their differential regulation under various abiotic stress conditions. AnnAt8 (At5g12380), a member of this family has been shown to exhibit ~433 and ~175 fold increase in transcript levels under NaCl and dehydration stress respectively. To characterize Annexin8 (AnnAt8) further, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants constitutively expressing AnnAt8, which were evaluated under different abiotic stress conditions. AnnAt8 overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher seed germination rates, better plant growth, and higher chlorophyll retention when compared to wild type plants under abiotic stress treatments. Under stress conditions transgenic plants showed comparatively higher levels of proline and lower levels of malondialdehyde compared to the wild-type plants. Real-Time PCR analyses revealed that the expression of several stress-regulated genes was altered in AnnAt8 over-expressing transgenic tobacco plants, and the enhanced tolerance exhibited by the transgenic plants can be correlated with altered expressions of

  16. Genes Acting on Transcriptional Control during Abiotic Stress Responses

    Glacy Jaqueline da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are the major cause of yield loss in crops around the world. Greater genetic gains are possible by combining the classical genetic improvement with advanced molecular biology techniques. The understanding of mechanisms triggered by plants to meet conditions of stress is of fundamental importance for the elucidation of these processes. Current genetically modified crops help to mitigate the effects of these stresses, increasing genetic gains in order to supply the agricultural market and the demand for better quality food throughout the world. To obtain safe genetic modified organisms for planting and consumption, a thorough grasp of the routes and genes that act in response to these stresses is necessary. This work was developed in order to collect important information about essential TF gene families for transcriptional control under abiotic stress responses.

  17. Involvement of Histone Modifications in Plant Abiotic Stress Responses

    Lianyu Yuan; Xuncheng Liu; Ming Luo; Songguang Yang; Keqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants encounter various environmental stimuli including abiotic stresses during their lifecycle. To survive under adverse conditions, plants have evolved intricate mechanisms to perceive external signals and respond accordingly. Responses to various stresses largely depend on the plant capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. A number of studies have shown that the molecular mechanisms driving the responses of plants to environmental stresses often depend on nucleosome histone post-translational modifications including histone acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. The combined effects of these modifications play an essential role in the regulation of stress responsive gene expression. In this review, we highlight our current understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms of histone modifications and their roles in plant abiotic stress response.

  18. Influence of abiotic stresses on the winter wheat sprouting plants

    Bláha, L.; Hnilička, F.; Kadlec, P.; Smrčková-Jankovská, P.; Macháčková, Ivana; Sychrová, E.; Kohout, Ladislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2008), s. 389-390. ISSN 1125-4718. [Congress of the European Society for Agronomy /10./. 15.09.2008-19.09.2008, Bologna] R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : brassinosteroids * abiotic stress * emergency Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  19. Crosstalk in Plant Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    Keceli, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect themselves against several biotic and abiotic stresses, plants are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms. Induced defenses and stress responses play a major role in plant disease resistance and are regulated by a network of interconnected signal transduction pathways with the plant hormones ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) as the crucial mediators. These specific hormone-mediated signaling cascades trigger the expression of distinct sets of ...

  20. The Fragaria vesca abiotic stress transcriptome

    We are completing a project to increase the diversity of EST sequences for Fragaria. Of the 19,000 Fragaria EST sequences currently in Genbank, over 9,000, from a cold-stressed seedling library, were submitted by our project. An additional 32,000 sequences will be submitted imminently. Our project f...

  1. EsDREB2B, a novel truncated DREB2-type transcription factor in the desert legume Eremosparton songoricum, enhances tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in yeast and transgenic tobacco

    Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuanming; Wood, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding Protein2 (DREB2) is a transcriptional factor which regulates the expression of several stress-inducible genes. DREB2-type proteins are particularly important in plant responses to drought, salt and heat. DREB2 genes have been identified and characterized in a variety of plants, and DREB2 genes are promising candidate genes for the improvement of stress tolerance in plants. However, little is known about these genes in plants adapted to water-l...

  2. Evaluation of expression stability of candidate references genes among green and yellow pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L.) subjected to abiotic and biotic stress

    Dry pea (Pisum sativum) is grown as human and animal feed throughout the world. Large yield losses in pea due to biotic and abiotic stresses compel an improved understanding of mechanisms of stress tolerance and genetic determinants conditioning these tolerances. The availability of stably expressed...

  3. Nitric oxide, stomatal closure, and abiotic stress.

    Neill, Steven; Barros, Raimundo; Bright, Jo; Desikan, Radhika; Hancock, John; Harrison, Judith; Morris, Peter; Ribeiro, Dimas; Wilson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Various data indicate that nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous signal in plants that mediates responses to several stimuli. Experimental evidence in support of such signalling roles for NO has been obtained via the application of NO, usually in the form of NO donors, via the measurement of endogenous NO, and through the manipulation of endogenous NO content by chemical and genetic means. Stomatal closure, initiated by abscisic acid (ABA), is effected through a complex symphony of intracellular signalling in which NO appears to be one component. Exogenous NO induces stomatal closure, ABA triggers NO generation, removal of NO by scavengers inhibits stomatal closure in response to ABA, and ABA-induced stomatal closure is reduced in mutants that are impaired in NO generation. The data indicate that ABA-induced guard cell NO generation requires both nitric oxide synthase-like activity and, in Arabidopsis, the NIA1 isoform of nitrate reductase (NR). NO stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and cGMP production. Both these NO-stimulated events are required for ABA-induced stomatal closure. ABA also stimulates the generation of H2O2 in guard cells, and pharmacological and genetic data demonstrate that NO accumulation in these cells is dependent on such production. Recent data have extended this model to maize mesophyll cells where the induction of antioxidant defences by water stress and ABA required the generation of H2O2 and NO and the activation of a MAPK. Published data suggest that drought and salinity induce NO generation which activates cellular processes that afford some protection against the oxidative stress associated with these conditions. Exogenous NO can also protect cells against oxidative stress. Thus, the data suggest an emerging model of stress responses in which ABA has several ameliorative functions. These include the rapid induction of stomatal closure to reduce transpirational water loss and the activation of antioxidant defences

  4. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops. PMID:27491393

  5. The influence of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on the reduction of abiotic stresses in crops

    Omid Alizadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are always subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses in the environment which haveinfluences on the growth and development of the plants. Beneficial free-living soil bacteria are usuallyreferred as Plant-Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria or PGPR. Different plant growth-promotingRhizosphere bacteria, including associative bacteria such as: Azospirillum, Bacillus, Pseudomonas andEnterobacter group have been used for their beneficial influences on plants. Typically, PGPRs areassociated with plants root and augment plant productivity and immunity; however, recent worksshowed that PGPRs not have just induced the systemic tolerance to abiotic stress such as salt anddrought, but also they have increased the nutrient uptake from soils, and as a result the hazardousaccumulation of nitrates and phosphates in the agricultural soils can be reduced by usage of them.

  6. Lipid signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress.

    Hou, Quancan; Ufer, Guido; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-05-01

    Lipids are one of the major components of biological membranes including the plasma membrane, which is the interface between the cell and the environment. It has become clear that membrane lipids also serve as substrates for the generation of numerous signalling lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, lysophospholipids, oxylipins, N-acylethanolamines, free fatty acids and others. The enzymatic production and metabolism of these signalling molecules are tightly regulated and can rapidly be activated upon abiotic stress signals. Abiotic stress like water deficit and temperature stress triggers lipid-dependent signalling cascades, which control the expression of gene clusters and activate plant adaptation processes. Signalling lipids are able to recruit protein targets transiently to the membrane and thus affect conformation and activity of intracellular proteins and metabolites. In plants, knowledge is still scarce of lipid signalling targets and their physiological consequences. This review focuses on the generation of signalling lipids and their involvement in response to abiotic stress. We describe lipid-binding proteins in the context of changing environmental conditions and compare different approaches to determine lipid-protein interactions, crucial for deciphering the signalling cascades. PMID:26510494

  7. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots.

    Wilkins, Katie A; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M; Davies, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium's other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  8. How plants handle multiple stresses: hormonal interactions underlying responses to abiotic stress and insect herbivory.

    Nguyen, Duy; Rieu, Ivo; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive plant responses to specific abiotic stresses or biotic agents are fine-tuned by a network of hormonal signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid. Moreover, hormonal cross-talk modulates plant responses to abiotic stresses and defenses against insect herbivores when they occur simultaneously. How such interactions affect plant responses under multiple stresses, however, is less understood, even though this may frequently occur in natural environments. Here, we review our current knowledge on how hormonal signaling regulates abiotic stress responses and defenses against insects, and discuss the few recent studies that attempted to dissect hormonal interactions occurring under simultaneous abiotic stress and herbivory. Based on this we hypothesize that drought stress enhances insect resistance due to synergistic interactions between JA and ABA signaling. Responses to flooding or waterlogging involve ethylene signaling, which likely reduces plant resistance to chewing herbivores due to its negative cross-talk with JA. However, the outcome of interactions between biotic and abiotic stress signaling is often plant and/or insect species-dependent and cannot simply be predicted based on general knowledge on the involvement of signaling pathways in single stress responses. More experimental data on non-model plant and insect species are needed to reveal general patterns and better understand the molecular mechanisms allowing plants to optimize their responses in complex environments. PMID:27095445

  9. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Reza; Mohammadi; Behzad; Sadeghzadeh; Hasan; Ahmadi; Nowzar; Bahrami; Ahmed; Amri

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat(Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses:yellow rust(Puccinia striiformis Westendorf f. sp. tritici) and wheat stem sawfly(WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton(Hymenoptera: Cephidae), and abiotic stresses: cold and drought. The main objectives were to(i) quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and(ii) characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed.Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized.Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4%(yellow rust) to 21.6%(cold stress) for 1000-kernel weight(TKW) and from 19.9(yellow rust) to 91.9%(cold stress) for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  10. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Reza Mohammadi; Behzad Sadeghzadeh; Hasan Ahmadi; Nowzar Bahrami; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses:yellow rust (Puccinia stri formis Westendorf f. sp. tritici) and wheat stem sawfly (WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera:Cephidae), and abiotic stresses:cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i) quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii) characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed. Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized. Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4% (yellow rust) to 21.6% (cold stress) for 1000-kernel weight (TKW) and from 19.9 (yellow rust) to 91.9%(cold stress) for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  11. Diverse expression pattern of wheat transcription factors against abiotic stresses in wheat species.

    Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Inal, Behcet; Kavas, Musa; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-15

    Abiotic stress including drought and salinity affects quality and yield of wheat varieties used for the production of both bread and pasta flour. bZIP, MBF1, WRKY, MYB and NAC transcription factor (TF) genes are the largest transcriptional regulators which are involved in growth, development, physiological processes, and biotic/abiotic stress responses in plants. Identification of expression profiling of these TFs plays a crucial role to understand the response of different wheat species against severe environmental changes. In the current study, expression analysis of TaWLIP19 (wheat version of bZIP), TaMBF1, TaWRKY10, TaMYB33 and TaNAC69 genes was examined under drought and salinity stress conditions in Triticum aestivum cv. (Yuregir-89), Triticum turgidum cv. (Kiziltan-91), and Triticum monococcum (Siyez). After drought stress application, all five selected genes in Kiziltan-91 were induced. However, TaMBF1 and TaWLIP19 were the only downregulated genes in Yuregir-89 and Siyez, respectively. Except TaMYB33 in Siyez, expression level of the remaining genes increased under salt stress condition in all Triticum species. For determination of drought response to selected TF members, publicly available RNA-seq data were also analyzed in this study. TaMBF1, TaWLIP19 and TaNAC69 transcripts were detected through in silico analysis. This comprehensive gene expression analysis provides valuable information for understanding the roles of these TFs under abiotic stresses in modern wheat cultivars and ancient einkorn wheat. In addition, selected TFs might be used for determination of drought or salinity-tolerant and susceptible cultivars for molecular breeding studies. PMID:25130909

  12. Induction of Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione Reductase Activity by Abiotic Stresses in Maize and Wheat

    Gábor Kocsy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different abiotic stresses (extreme temperatures and osmotic stress on the synthesis of glutathione and hydroxymethylglutathione, on the ratio of the reduced to oxidised forms of these thiols (GSH/GSSG, hmGSH/hmGSSG, and on the glutathione reductase (GR activity was studied in maize and wheat genotypes having different sensitivity to low temperature stress. Cold treatment induced a greater increase in total glutathione (TG content and in GR activity in tolerant genotypes of both species than in sensitive ones. The GSH/GSSG and hmGSH/hmGSSG ratios were increased by this treatment only in the frost-tolerant wheat variety. High-temperature stress increased the TG content and the GSH/GSSG ratio only in the chilling-sensitive maize genotype, but GR activity was greater after this treatment in both maize genotypes. Osmotic stress resulted in a great increase in the TG content in wheat and the GR activity in maize. The amount of total hydroxymethylglutathione increased following all stress treatments. These results indicate the involvement of these antioxidants in the stress responses of wheat and maize.

  13. Interactions between polyamines and abiotic stress pathway responses unraveled by transcriptome analysis of polyamine overproducers.

    Marco, Francisco; Alcázar, Rubén; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Carrasco, Pedro

    2011-11-01

    Plant development and productivity are negatively regulated by adverse environmental conditions. The identification of stress-regulatory genes, networks, and signaling molecules should allow the development of novel strategies to obtain tolerant plants. Polyamines (PAs) are polycationic compounds with a recognized role in plant growth and development, as well as in abiotic and biotic stress responses. During the last years, knowledge on PA functions has been achieved using genetically modified plants with altered PA levels. In this review, we combine the information obtained from global transcriptome analyses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants with altered putrescine or spermine levels. Comparison of common and specific gene networks affected by elevation of endogenous PAs, support the view that these compounds actively participate in stress signaling through intricate crosstalks with abscisic acid (ABA), Ca(2+) signaling and other hormonal pathways in plant defense and development. PMID:22011340

  14. Analysis of global gene expression in Brachypodium distachyon reveals extensive network plasticity in response to abiotic stress.

    Henry D Priest

    Full Text Available Brachypodium distachyon is a close relative of many important cereal crops. Abiotic stress tolerance has a significant impact on productivity of agriculturally important food and feedstock crops. Analysis of the transcriptome of Brachypodium after chilling, high-salinity, drought, and heat stresses revealed diverse differential expression of many transcripts. Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis revealed 22 distinct gene modules with specific profiles of expression under each stress. Promoter analysis implicated short DNA sequences directly upstream of module members in the regulation of 21 of 22 modules. Functional analysis of module members revealed enrichment in functional terms for 10 of 22 network modules. Analysis of condition-specific correlations between differentially expressed gene pairs revealed extensive plasticity in the expression relationships of gene pairs. Photosynthesis, cell cycle, and cell wall expression modules were down-regulated by all abiotic stresses. Modules which were up-regulated by each abiotic stress fell into diverse and unique gene ontology GO categories. This study provides genomics resources and improves our understanding of abiotic stress responses of Brachypodium.

  15. G-protein signalling components GCR1 and GPA1 mediate responses to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis

    Navjyoti eChakraborty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available G-protein signalling components have been implicated in some individual stress responses in Arabidopsis, but have not been comprehensively evaluated at the genetic and biochemical level. Stress emerged as the largest functional category in our whole transcriptome analyses of knock-out mutants of GCR1 and/or GPA1 in Arabidopsis (Chakraborty et al., 2015a, PloS one 10, e0117819 and Chakraborty et al., 2015b, Plant Mol. Biol., doi: 10.1007/s11103-015-0374-2. This led us to ask whether G-protein signalling components offer converging points in the plant’s response to multiple abiotic stresses. In order to test this hypothesis, we carried out detailed analysis of the stress category in the present study, which revealed 144 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, spanning a wide range of abiotic stresses, including heat, cold, salt, light stress etc. Only 10 of these DEGs are shared by all the three mutants, while the single mutants (GCR1/GPA1 shared more DEGs between themselves than with the double mutant (GCR1-GPA1. RT-qPCR validation of 28 of these genes spanning different stresses revealed identical regulation of the DEGs shared between the mutants. We also validated the effects of cold, heat and salt stresses in all the 3 mutants and WT on % germination, root and shoot length, relative water content, proline content, lipid peroxidation and activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the 3 mutants showed evidence of stress tolerance, especially to cold, followed by heat and salt, in terms of all the above parameters. This clearly shows the role of GCR1 and GPA1 in mediating the plant’s response to multiple abiotic stresses for the first time, especially cold, heat and salt stresses. This also implies a role for classical G-protein signalling pathways in stress sensitivity in the normal plants of Arabidopsis. This is also the first genetic and biochemical evidence of abiotic stress tolerance rendered by knock

  16. Mass spectrometry-based plant metabolomics: Metabolite responses to abiotic stress.

    Jorge, Tiago F; Rodrigues, João A; Caldana, Camila; Schmidt, Romy; van Dongen, Joost T; Thomas-Oates, Jane; António, Carla

    2016-09-01

    Metabolomics is one omics approach that can be used to acquire comprehensive information on the composition of a metabolite pool to provide a functional screen of the cellular state. Studies of the plant metabolome include analysis of a wide range of chemical species with diverse physical properties, from ionic inorganic compounds to biochemically derived hydrophilic carbohydrates, organic and amino acids, and a range of hydrophobic lipid-related compounds. This complexitiy brings huge challenges to the analytical technologies employed in current plant metabolomics programs, and powerful analytical tools are required for the separation and characterization of this extremely high compound diversity present in biological sample matrices. The use of mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical platforms to profile stress-responsive metabolites that allow some plants to adapt to adverse environmental conditions is fundamental in current plant biotechnology research programs for the understanding and development of stress-tolerant plants. In this review, we describe recent applications of metabolomics and emphasize its increasing application to study plant responses to environmental (stress-) factors, including drought, salt, low oxygen caused by waterlogging or flooding of the soil, temperature, light and oxidative stress (or a combination of them). Advances in understanding the global changes occurring in plant metabolism under specific abiotic stress conditions are fundamental to enhance plant fitness and increase stress tolerance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35:620-649, 2016. PMID:25589422

  17. Tolerance of canola to drought and salinity stresses in terms of root water uptake model parameters

    Yanagawa, Aki; Fujimaki, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is cultivated for oil as a biofuel crop. Few quantitative data concerning its tolerance to abiotic stresses has been presented. We evaluated the tolerances of canola to drought and salinity stresses in terms of parameter values in a macroscopic root water uptake model. We conducted an experiment using nine columns with two plants in each: three columns were under drought stresses, another three were under saline stress and others provided potential transpiration. Two s...

  18. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate metabolism under abiotic stresses in plants

    Anil K Gupta; Narinder Kaur

    2005-12-01

    Sucrose is required for plant growth and development. The sugar status of plant cells is sensed by sensor proteins. The signal generated by signal transduction cascades, which could involve mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein phosphatases, Ca2+ and calmodulins, results in appropriate gene expression. A variety of genes are either induced or repressed depending upon the status of soluble sugars. Abiotic stresses to plants result in major alterations in sugar status and hence affect the expression of various genes by down- and up-regulating their expression. Hexokinase-dependent and hexokinase-independent pathways are involved in sugar sensing. Sucrose also acts as a signal molecule as it affects the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter. The sucrose transporter acts as a sucrose sensor and is involved in phloem loading. Fructokinase may represent an additional sensor that bypasses hexokinase phosphorylation especially when sucrose synthase is dominant. Mutants isolated on the basis of response of germination and seedling growth to sugars and reporter-based screening protocols are being used to study the response of altered sugar status on gene expression. Common cis-acting elements in sugar signalling pathways have been identified. Transgenic plants with elevated levels of sugars/sugar alcohols like fructans, raffinose series oligosaccharides, trehalose and mannitol are tolerant to different stresses but have usually impaired growth. Efforts need to be made to have transgenic plants in which abiotic stress responsive genes are expressed only at the time of adverse environmental conditions instead of being constitutively synthesized.

  19. Regulation of abiotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones

    Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones (phytohormones) are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in very low concentrations. In the present chapter, the current knowledge on the regulation of biotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones is summarized with special focus on the novel insights into...... the complex hormonal crosstalk of classical growth stimulating plant hormones within the naturally occurring biotic and abiotic multistress environment of higher plants. The MAPK- and phytohormone-cascades which comprise a multitude of single molecules on different signalling levels, as well as...... interactions and cross-regulations within and between these signalling pathways allow very specific and fine-tuned modulation of plant immunity. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation system (ERAD) is a quality control system that degrades improperly folded proteins from the secretory...

  20. Abiotic stresses affect Trichoderma harzianum T39-induced resistance to downy mildew in grapevine.

    Roatti, Benedetta; Perazzolli, Michele; Gessler, Cesare; Pertot, Ilaria

    2013-12-01

    Enhancement of plant defense through the application of resistance inducers seems a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for controlling crop diseases but the efficacy can be affected by abiotic factors in the field. Plants respond to abiotic stresses with hormonal signals that may interfere with the mechanisms of induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. In this study, we exposed grapevines to heat, drought, or both to investigate the effects of abiotic stresses on grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) to downy mildew. Whereas the efficacy of T39-induced resistance was not affected by exposure to heat or drought, it was significantly reduced by combined abiotic stresses. Decrease of leaf water potential and upregulation of heat-stress markers confirmed that plants reacted to abiotic stresses. Basal expression of defense-related genes and their upregulation during T39-induced resistance were attenuated by abiotic stresses, in agreement with the reduced efficacy of T39. The evidence reported here suggests that exposure of crops to abiotic stress should be carefully considered to optimize the use of resistance inducers, especially in view of future global climate changes. Expression analysis of ISR marker genes could be helpful to identify when plants are responding to abiotic stresses, in order to optimize treatments with resistance inducers in field. PMID:23841621

  1. Mutational analysis to dissect oxidative and abiotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    A genetic approach was used to identify mutants more tolerant to oxidative and abiotic stress. Large collections of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines generated by chemical and T-DNA mutagenesis were screened for survivors under conditions that trigger oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death (PCD). The fungal AAL-toxin triggers PCD through perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism in AAL-toxin-sensitive plants. While Arabidopsis is relatively insensitive to the toxin, the loh2 mutant is sensitive to AAL-toxin due to knockout of a gene involved in sphingolipid metabolism. EMS mutagenesis of loh2 resulted in second-site mutants that are more tolerant than loh2 to the toxin. Nine of these mutants were characterized towards their response to oxidative stress-induced cell death. Either application of the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole, leading to H2O2 accumulation was used, or paraquat, leading to superoxide radicals generation. Some mutants were more tolerant to aminotriazole, paraquat, or both herbicides. One of the mutants with tolerance to both aminotriazole and paraquat, called atr1 (AAL-toxin-resistant 1), was subjected to microarray analyses under conditions that trigger cell death in loh2 and no visible damage in atr1. Majority of the genes showed similar expression pattern in both mutants. Genes encoding for nitrate and ammonium transporters, peroxidases, transcription factors and DNAJ /DNA K were upregulated, while genes related to cell wall extension and cell growth were downregulated in both mutants. Genes from the heat-shock regulon were more clearly induced in loh2. In another approach, T-DNA mutagenized wild type seeds were germinated on plant growth media supplemented with aminotriazole and one survivor was recovered. As many types of abiotic stresses are connected with oxidative stress, this T-DNA mutant together with atr1 and their respective controls were subjected to chilling stress. Both the T-DNA mutant and atr1 showed reduced chilling

  2. Overexpression of a cytosolic abiotic stress responsive universal stress protein (SbUSP mitigates salt and osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco plants

    Pushpika eUdawat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Stress Protein (USP is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologues of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive universal stress protein. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control (wild type and vector control plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1 exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content under stress treatments than control (WT and VC plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2- radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis (PCA exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant.

  3. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in avena

    Sánchez Martín, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Oat is an important grain and forage crop cultivated over than 9 million hectares globally. However, drought and biotrophic fungal diseases, such as crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) seriously threaten oat production. To combat this, agricultural scientists must develop a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms through which plants can tolerate/resist stress and translate this to crop breeding programmes. Thu...

  4. Polyamines Function in Stress Tolerance: From Synthesis to Regulation

    Ji-Hong eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are challenged by a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses, which can affect their growth and development, productivity and geographic distribution. In order to survive adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies, among which is the accumulation of metabolites that play protective roles. A well-established example of the metabolites that are involved in stress responses, or stress tolerance, is the low-molecular-weight aliphatic polyamines, including putrescine,spermidine and spermine. The critical role of polyamines in stress tolerance is suggested by several lines of evidence: firstly, the transcript levels of polyamine biosynthetic genes, as well as the activities of the corresponding enzymes, are induced by stresses; secondly, elevation of endogenous polyamine levels by exogenous supply of polyamines, or overexpression of polyamine biosynthetic genes, results in enhanced stress tolerance; and thirdly, a reduction of endogenous polyamines is accompanied by compromised stress tolerance. A number of studies have demonstrated that polyamines function in stress tolerance largely by modulating the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to their direct, or indirect, roles in regulating antioxidant systems or suppressing ROS production. The transcriptional regulation of polyamine synthesis by transcription factors is also reviewed here. Meanwhile, future perspectives on polyamine research are also suggested.

  5. Cloning of four DREB genes from Tibetan Sophora moorcroftiana and analysis of their expression during abiotic stress

    Weijie Yao; Yaru Fu; Yanfu Zhang; Hui-e Li

    2016-01-01

    Sophora moorcroftiana is an endemic, drought-resistant shrub that grows in Tibet and has some degree of resistance to salt, cold, heat, and drought. In the present study, four dehydration responsive element-binding (DREB) genes (SmDREB1, SmDREB2, SmDREB and SmDREB1) were isolated from S. moorcroftiana for the first time and their expression and proline content under abiotic stress were analyzed. Proline accumulated in seedlings under drought, salt, cold, and heat stress treat-ments. The four genes were variously expressed in response to the four abiotic stresses. SmDREB1 was induced by drought, cold, and heat stresses;SmDREB2 and SmDREB4 were both induced by salt, cold, and heat stresses, whereas SmDREB3 was induced by drought and heat stresses. Thus, these four genes may participate in conferring tolerance to these four abiotic stresses and are candidate genes for genetic engineering in the future.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of heat shock proteins in C4 model, foxtail millet identifies potential candidates for crop improvement under abiotic stress.

    Singh, Roshan Kumar; Jaishankar, Jananee; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Shweta, Shweta; Dangi, Anand; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform significant roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance to crop plants. In view of this, HSPs and their encoding genes were extensively characterized in several plant species; however, understanding their structure, organization, evolution and expression profiling in a naturally stress tolerant crop is necessary to delineate their precise roles in stress-responsive molecular machinery. In this context, the present study has been performed in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet, which resulted in identification of 20, 9, 27, 20 and 37 genes belonging to SiHSP100, SiHSP90, SiHSP70, SiHSP60 and SisHSP families, respectively. Comprehensive in silico characterization of these genes followed by their expression profiling in response to dehydration, heat, salinity and cold stresses in foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in stress tolerance revealed significant upregulation of several genes in tolerant cultivar. SisHSP-27 showed substantial higher expression in response to heat stress in tolerant cultivar, and its over-expression in yeast system conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Methylation analysis of SiHSP genes suggested that, in susceptible cultivar, higher levels of methylation might be the reason for reduced expression of these genes during stress. Altogether, the study provides novel clues on the role of HSPs in conferring stress tolerance. PMID:27586959

  7. Genome-wide analysis of heat shock proteins in C4 model, foxtail millet identifies potential candidates for crop improvement under abiotic stress

    Singh, Roshan Kumar; Jaishankar, Jananee; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Shweta, Shweta; Dangi, Anand; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform significant roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance to crop plants. In view of this, HSPs and their encoding genes were extensively characterized in several plant species; however, understanding their structure, organization, evolution and expression profiling in a naturally stress tolerant crop is necessary to delineate their precise roles in stress-responsive molecular machinery. In this context, the present study has been performed in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet, which resulted in identification of 20, 9, 27, 20 and 37 genes belonging to SiHSP100, SiHSP90, SiHSP70, SiHSP60 and SisHSP families, respectively. Comprehensive in silico characterization of these genes followed by their expression profiling in response to dehydration, heat, salinity and cold stresses in foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in stress tolerance revealed significant upregulation of several genes in tolerant cultivar. SisHSP-27 showed substantial higher expression in response to heat stress in tolerant cultivar, and its over-expression in yeast system conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Methylation analysis of SiHSP genes suggested that, in susceptible cultivar, higher levels of methylation might be the reason for reduced expression of these genes during stress. Altogether, the study provides novel clues on the role of HSPs in conferring stress tolerance. PMID:27586959

  8. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Abiotic Stress Responsive Universal Stress Protein (SbUSP) Mitigates Salt and Osmotic Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Udawat, Pushpika; Jha, Rajesh K; Sinha, Dinkar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    The universal stress protein (USP) is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologs of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive USP. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control [wild-type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1) exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability, and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content) under stress treatments than control (WT and VC) plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and [Formula: see text] radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant. PMID:27148338

  9. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK21 Functions in Abiotic Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Sandra Franz; Britta Ehlert; Anja Liese; Joachim Kurth; Anne-Claire Cazalé; Tina Romeis

    2011-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases(CDPKs)comprise a family of plant serine/threonine protein kinases in which the calcium sensing domain and the kinase effector domain are combined within one molecule.So far,a biological function in abiotic stress signaling has only been reported for few CDPK isoforms,whereas the underlying biochemical mechanism for these CDPKs is still mainly unknown.Here,we show that CPK21 from Arabidopsis thaliana is biochemically activated in vivo in response to hyperosmotic stress.Loss-of-function seedlings of cpk21 are more tolerant to hyperosmotic stress and mutant plants show increased stress responses with respect to marker gene expression and metabolite accumulation.In transgenic Arabidopsis complementation lines in the cpk21 mutant background,in which either CPK21 wildtype,or a full-length enzyme variant carrying an amino-acid substitution were stably expressed,stress responsitivity was restored by CPK21 but not with the kinase inactive variant.The biochemical characterization of in planta synthesized and purified CPK21 protein revealed that within the calcium-binding domain,N-terminal EF1- and EF2-motifs compared to C-terminal EF3- and EF4-motifs differ in their contribution to calcium-regulated kinase activity,suggesting a crucial role for the N-terminal EF-hand pair.Our data provide evidence for CPK21 contributing in abiotic stress signaling and suggest that the N-terminal EF-hand pair is a calcium-sensing determinant controlling specificity of CPK21 function.

  10. Verification of the resistance of a LEA gene from Tamarix expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to abiotic stresses

    WANG Bing-feng; WANG Yu-cheng; ZHANG Da-wei; LI Hong-yan; YANG Chuan-ping

    2008-01-01

    The role of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins in stress tolerance was examined by using a yeast expression system. LEA protein tolerance to the abotic stresses in plants involved in salt, drought and freezing stresses and additional tolerance to heat, NaHCO3 (salt-alkali) and ultraviolet radiation was also investigated. The transgenic yeast harboring the Tamarix LEA gene (DQ663481) was generated under the control of inducible GAL promoter (pYES2 vector), yeast cells transformed with pYES2 empty vector were also generated as a control. Stress tolerance tests showed that LEA yeast transformants exhibited a higher survival rates than the control transformants under high temperature, NaHCO3, ultraviolet radiation, salt (NaCl), drought and freezing, indicating that the LEA gene is tolerant to these abiotic stresses. These results suggest that the LEA gene is resistant to a wider repertoire of stresses and may play a common role in plant acclimation to the examined stress conditions.

  11. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold and heat

    Kazuo eNakashima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB and ABRE-binding factor (ABF TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these transcription factors in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a catalase gene "HuCAT3" from pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) and its expression under abiotic stress.

    Nie, Qiong; Gao, Guo-Li; Fan, Qing-jie; Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Tao; Peng, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Yong-Qiang

    2015-05-25

    Abiotic stresses usually cause H2O2 accumulation, with harmful effects, in plants. Catalase may play a key protective role in plant cells by detoxifying this excess H2O2. Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) shows broad ecological adaptation due to its high tolerance to abiotic stresses, e.g. drought, heat and poor soil. However, involvement of the pitaya catalase gene (HuCAT) in tolerance to abiotic stresses is unknown. In the present study, a full-length HuCAT3 cDNA (1870 bp) was isolated from pitaya based on our previous microarray data and RACE method. The cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence shared 73-77% and 75-80% identity with other plant catalases, respectively. HuCAT3 contains conserved catalase family domain and catalytic sites. Pairwise comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that HuCAT3 is most similar to Eriobotrya japonica CAT, followed by Dimocarpus longan CAT and Nicotiana tabacum CAT1. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that HuCAT3 is mainly expressed in green cotyledons and mature stems, and was regulated by H2O2, drought, cold and salt stress, whereas, its expression patterns and maximum expression levels varied with stress types. HuCAT activity increased as exposure to the tested stresses, and the fluctuation of HuCAT activity was consistent with HuCAT3 mRNA abundance (except for 0.5 days upon drought stress). HuCAT3 mRNA elevations and HuCAT activities changes under cold stress were also in conformity with the cold tolerances among the four genotypes. The obtained results confirmed a major role of HuCAT3 in abiotic stress response of pitaya. This may prove useful in understanding pitaya's high tolerance to abiotic stresses at molecular level. PMID:25752288

  13. Understanding molecular mechanism of higher plant plasticity under abiotic stress.

    Shao, Hong-Bo; Guo, Qing-Jie; Chu, Li-Ye; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Su, Zhong-Liang; Hu, Ya-Chen; Cheng, Jiang-Feng

    2007-01-15

    Higher plants play the most important role in keeping a stable environment on the earth, which regulate global circumstances in many ways in terms of different levels (molecular, individual, community, and so on), but the nature of the mechanism is gene expression and control temporally and spatially at the molecular level. In persistently changing environment, there are many adverse stress conditions such as cold, drought, salinity and UV-B (280-320 mm), which influence plant growth and crop production greatly. Plants differ from animals in many aspects, but the important may be that plants are more easily influenced by environment than animals. Plants have a series of fine mechanisms for responding to environmental changes, which has been established during their long-period evolution and artificial domestication. These mechanisms are involved in many aspects of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, development, evolution and molecular biology, in which the adaptive machinery related to molecular biology is the most important. The elucidation of it will extremely and purposefully promote the sustainable utilization of plant resources and make the best use of its current potential under different scales. This molecular mechanism at least include environmental signal recognition (input), signal transduction (many cascade biochemical reactions are involved in this process), signal output, signal responses and phenotype realization, which is a multi-dimensional network system and contain many levels of gene expression and regulation. We will focus on the molecular adaptive machinery of higher plant plasticity under abiotic stresses. PMID:16914294

  14. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  15. New Approaches for Crop Genetic Adaptation to the Abiotic Stresses Predicted with Climate Change

    Robert Redden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic variation is predicted with climate change this century. In many cropping regions, the crop environment will tend to be warmer with more irregular rainfall and spikes in stress levels will be more severe. The challenge is not only to raise agricultural production for an expanding population, but to achieve this under more adverse environmental conditions. It is now possible to systematically explore the genetic variation in historic local landraces by using GPS locators and world climate maps to describe the natural selection for local adaptation, and to identify candidate germplasm for tolerances to extreme stresses. The physiological and biochemical components of these expressions can be genomically investigated with candidate gene approaches and next generation sequencing. Wild relatives of crops have largely untapped genetic variation for abiotic and biotic stress tolerances, and could greatly expand the available domesticated gene pools to assist crops to survive in the predicted extremes of climate change, a survivalomics strategy. Genomic strategies can assist in the introgression of these valuable traits into the domesticated crop gene pools, where they can be better evaluated for crop improvement. The challenge is to increase agricultural productivity despite climate change. This calls for the integration of many disciplines from eco-geographical analyses of genetic resources to new advances in genomics, agronomy and farm management, underpinned by an understanding of how crop adaptation to climate is affected by genotype × environment interaction.

  16. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 1 (FLS1) -overexpression plants in response to abiotic stress.

    Nguyen, Nguyen Hoai; Kim, Jun Hyeok; Kwon, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Chan Young; Lee, Wonje; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2016-06-01

    Flavonoids are an important group of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant growth and contribute to human health. Many studies have focused on the biosynthesis pathway, biochemical characters, and biological functions of flavonoids. In this report, we showed that overexpression of FLS1 (FLS1-OX) not only altered seed coat color (resulting in a light brown color), but also affected flavonoid accumulation. Whereas fls1-3 mutants accumulated higher anthocyanin levels, FLS1-OX seedlings had lower levels than those of the wild-type. Besides, shoot tissues of FLS1-OX plants exhibited lower flavonol levels than those of the wild-type. However, growth performance and abiotic stress tolerance of FLS1-OX, fls1-3, and wild-type plants were not significantly different. Taken together, FLS1 can be manipulated (i.e., silenced or overexpressed) to redirect the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway toward anthocyanin production without negative effects on plant growth and development. PMID:26990404

  17. Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants

    Mohammad-Zaman Nouri; Ali Moumeni; Setsuko Komatsu

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants, especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as photosystem I and II, electron transport, carbon fixation, ATP generating system and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic system of plants reacts to the stress differently, accordi...

  18. A Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Glutaredoxin Gene (slr1562 Protects Escherichia coli against Abiotic Stresses

    Ahmed Gaber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Glutaredoxins (GRXs are ubiquitous small heat stable glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymes that play a crucial role in plant development and response to oxidative stress. Approach: Cyanobacterium Synechocystis strain PCC 6803 contains two genes (slr1562 and ssr2061 encoding glutaredoxins. In the present investigation the slr1562 gene (grxC was isolated and characterized. Results: The results revealed that the amino acid sequence deduced from GrxC protein share high identity with those of GRXs from other organisms and contain the consensus GRX family domain with a CPFC active site. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the expression of slr1562 gene could be induced by oxidative and salt stresses. Moreover, the protein GrxC was successfully overexpressed as a soluble fraction in Escherichia coli JM109. The over-expression of GrxC in Escherichia coli cells significantly increased resistance of cells to oxidative, drought and salt stresses. Conclusion/Recommendations: These results suggest that the slr1562 gene could play an important role in regulating abiotic tolerance against oxidative, drought and salt stresses in different organisms.

  19. Ethylene is involved in brassinosteroids induced alternative respiratory pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings response to abiotic stress

    Lijie eWei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG, cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 µM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (CSACS1, ripening-related ACC synthase2 (CSACS2, ripening-related ACC synthase3 (CSACS3, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (CSACO1, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (CSACO2 and CSAOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  20. Regulation of MIR Genes in Response to Abiotic Stress in Hevea brasiliensis

    Chaorong Tang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for natural rubber (NR calls for an increase in latex yield and also an extension of rubber plantations in marginal zones. Both harvesting and abiotic stresses lead to tapping panel dryness through the production of reactive oxygen species. Many microRNAs regulated during abiotic stress modulate growth and development. The objective of this paper was to study the regulation of microRNAs in response to different types of abiotic stress and hormone treatments in Hevea. Regulation of MIR genes differs depending on the tissue and abiotic stress applied. A negative co-regulation between HbMIR398b with its chloroplastic HbCuZnSOD target messenger is observed in response to salinity. The involvement of MIR gene regulation during latex harvesting and tapping panel dryness (TPD occurrence is further discussed.

  1. Using the Model Perennial Grass Brachypodium sylvaticum to Engineer Resistance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    Gordon, Sean; Reguera, Maria; Sade, Nir; Cartwright, Amy; Tobias, Christian; Thilmony, Roger; Blumwald, Eduardo; Vogel, John

    2015-03-20

    We are using the perennial model grass Brachypodium sylvaticum to identify combinations of transgenes that enhance tolerance to multiple, simultaneous abiotic stresses. The most successful transgene combinations will ultimately be used to create improved switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars. To further develop B. sylvaticum as a perennial model grass, and facilitate our planned transcriptional profiling, we are sequencing and annotating the genome. We have generated ~40x genome coverage using PacBio sequencing of the largest possible size selected libraries (18, 22, 25 kb). Our initial assembly using only long-read sequence contained 320 Mb of sequence with an N50 contig length of 315 kb and an N95 contig length of 40 kb. This assembly consists of 2,430 contigs, the largest of which was 1.6 Mb. The estimated genome size based on c-values is 340 Mb indicating that about 20 Mb of presumably repetitive DNA remains yet unassembled. Significantly, this assembly is far superior to an assembly created from paired-end short-read sequence, ~100x genome coverage. The short-read-only assembly contained only 226 Mb of sequence in 19k contigs. To aid the assembly of the scaffolds into chromosome-scale assemblies we produced an F2 mapping population and have genotyped 480 individuals using a genotype by sequence approach. One of the reasons for using B. sylvaticum as a model system is to determine if the transgenes adversely affect perenniality and winter hardiness. Toward this goal, we examined the freezing tolerance of wild type B. sylvaticum lines to determine the optimal conditions for testing the freezing tolerance of the transgenics. A survey of seven accessions noted significant natural variation in freezing tolerance. Seedling or adult Ain-1 plants, the line used for transformation, survived an 8 hour challenge down to -6 oC and 50% survived a challenge down to -9 oC. Thus, we will be able to easily determine if the transgenes compromise freezing tolerance. In the

  2. Characterization of abiotic stress genes from different species of eucalyptus

    The stresses causing dehydration damage to the plant cell like cold, drought, and high salinity are the most frequent environmental stresses that influence plant growth, development and restraining productivity in cultivated areas world-wide. Many drought, salinity and cold inducible genes causing tolerance to environmental stresses in many plants include Dehydrin1 (DHN1), Dehydrin2 (DHN2), Dehydrin10 (DHN10), putative phosphate transporter (Ecpt2), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and DREB/CBF1c genes. Gene specific primer pairs were designed for each gene using DNAStar software. These genes were amplified from different species of eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. gunii through PCR. Dehydrin2 gene of E. camaldulensis and dehydrin10 gene of E. globulus were cloned using the TA Cloning Kit with pCR 2.1 vector and sequenced. The Dehydrin genes sequences were submitted to GeneBank: Eucalyptus globulus dehydrin10 gene (Accession No. HG915712) and E. camaldulensis dehydrin 2 gene (Accession No. HG813113). The amino acid sequence of Dehydrin10 from E. globulus showed 97% homology to E. globulus DHN10 (JN052210) and Dehydrin2 from E. camaldulensis presented 94% homology to E. globulus DHN2 (JN052209). These genes can be employed in generating drought resistant crop plants. (author)

  3. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000

  4. Functional ecological genomics to demonstrate general and specific responses to abiotic stress

    Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Schat, H.; Straalen, van N.M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Stress is a major component of natural selection in soil ecosystems. The most prominent abiotic stress factors in the field are temperature extremes (heat, cold), dehydration (drought), high salinity and specific toxic compounds such as heavy metals. Organisms are able to deal with these stresses

  5. ABIOTIC STRESS RESISTANCE IN YOUNG APPLE TREES IS ENHANCED BY OVEREXPRESSION OF A CYTOSOLIC SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced during both biotic and abiotic stress, either as signaling molecules or as a response to stress injury. ROS are highly destructive to cell components and the injury resulting from these compounds is referred to as oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzymes, suc...

  6. Glycinebetaine synthesizing transgenic potato plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stresses

    Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes' gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization. (author)

  7. Genome-wide identification, expression analysis of auxin-responsive GH3 family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic stresses

    Shangguo Feng; Runqing Yue; Sun Tao Yanjun Yang; Lei Zhang; Mingfeng Xu; Huizhong Wang; Chenjia Shen

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is involved in different aspects of plant growth and development by regulating the expression of auxin-responsive family genes. As one of the three major auxin-responsive families, GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3) genes participate in auxin homeostasis by catalyzing auxin conjugation and bounding free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. However, how GH3 genes function in responses to abiotic stresses and various hormones in maize is largely unknown. Here, the latest updated maize (Zea mays L.) reference genome sequence was used to characterize and analyze the ZmGH3 family genes from maize. The results showed that 13 ZmGH3 genes were mapped on five maize chromosomes (total 10 chromosomes). Highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested the possibility of function diversification for these genes in response to environmental stresses and hormone stimuli. The expression patterns of ZmGH3 genes are responsive to several abiotic stresses (salt, drought and cadmium) and major stress-related hormones (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Various environmental factors suppress auxin free IAA contents in maize roots suggesting that these abiotic stresses and hormones might alter GH3-mediated auxin levels. The respon-siveness of ZmGH3 genes to a wide range of abiotic stresses and stress-related hormones suggested that ZmGH3s are involved in maize tolerance to environmental stresses.

  8. The WRKY transcription factors in the diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca: Identification and expression analysis under biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-08-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant growth and development. To date, little is known about the WRKY gene family in strawberry. In this study, we identified 62 WRKY genes (FvWRKYs) in the wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14) accession Heilongjiang-3. According to the phylogenetic analysis and structural features, these identified strawberry FvWRKY genes were classified into three main groups. In addition, eight FvWRKY-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 62 FvWRKY genes in 'Heilongjiang-3' under various conditions, including biotic stress (Podosphaera aphanis), abiotic stresses (drought, salt, cold, and heat), and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid). The expression levels of 33 FvWRKY genes were upregulated, while 12 FvWRKY genes were downregulated during powdery mildew infection. FvWRKY genes responded to drought and salt treatment to a greater extent than to temperature stress. Expression profiles derived from quantitative real-time PCR suggested that 11 FvWRKY genes responded dramatically to various stimuli at the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Interaction networks revealed that the crucial pathways controlled by WRKY proteins may be involved in the differential response to biotic stress. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for future studies of the genetic modification of WRKY genes for pathogen resistance and stress tolerance in strawberry. PMID:27105420

  9. Gene Expression Analysis: A Way to Study Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses in Crops Species Análisis de la Expresión Génica: Una Forma de Estudiar la Tolerancia a Estreses Abióticos en Cultivos

    Eduardo Pérez-Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regions traditionally destined to agriculture report an ever increasing exposure to cold and drought conditions. This is especially important in countries like Chile where crop management options are limited. The development of new cultivars with better yields under adverse conditions is fundamental if the ever increasing demand for food is to be matched; however, improving tolerance to abiotic stresses has proved to be a complex task. In this regard, development in plant physiology and genomics in the last 20 years has led to a deeper understanding of how plants respond to stress and mechanisms responsible for different ranges of tolerance observed in nature. This review discusses the techniques currently most in use in gene expression analysis, together with some important experimental design variables, such as the developmental stage of the plant, stress intensity and duration, and how different stresses may interact when performing assays. On the other hand, it is fundamental to properly select gene expression techniques according to the available information on the genome, the crop and the final objective of the research. All these points must be considered to ease transition from genomics to practical applications to crop species in order to increase their tolerance to stress. In this regard, the rapid development of new techniques in gene expression analysis with lower costs will determine a new revolution in crop research in coming decades. Therefore, Chile needs to be prepared in this area to continue its development as a major food producer worldwide.Las regiones agrícolas están cada vez más expuestas a condiciones de frío y sequía, algo especialmente importante en países con opciones limitadas de manejo de cultivos como Chile. Si la creciente demanda por alimento ha de ser cubierta, es necesaria la compleja tarea del desarrollo de nuevos cultivares con mejores rendimientos bajo condiciones de estrés. El desarrollo de la

  10. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: A review

    Although silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element both on the surface of the Earth's crust and in soils, it has not yet been listed among the essential elements for higher plants. However, the beneficial role of Si in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively mitigate various abiotic stresses such as manganese, aluminum and heavy metal toxicities, and salinity, drought, chilling and freezing stresses. However, mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses remain poorly understood. The key mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants include: (1) stimulation of antioxidant systems in plants, (2) complexation or co-precipitation of toxic metal ions with Si, (3) immobilization of toxic metal ions in growth media, (4) uptake processes, and (5) compartmentation of metal ions within plants. Future research needs for Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses are also discussed. - This review article overviews roles Si plays in alleviating abiotic stress in higher plants and discusses future research directions

  11. Putrescine accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines enhances tolerance to dehydration and freezing stress

    Alet, Analía I; Sanchez, Diego H; Cuevas, Juan C.; del Valle, Secundino; Altabella, Teresa; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Marco, Francisco; Ferrando, Alejandro; Espasandín, Fabiana D; González, María E; Carrasco, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A.

    2011-01-01

    Polyamines have been globally associated to plant responses to abiotic stress. Particularly, putrescine has been related to a better response to cold and dehydration stresses. It is known that this polyamine is involved in cold tolerance, since Arabidopsis thaliana plants mutated in the key enzyme responsible for putrescine synthesis (arginine decarboxilase, ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) are more sensitive than the wild type to this stress. Although it is speculated that the overexpression of ADC genes m...

  12. Alternative Oxidase: A Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathway to Maintain Metabolic and Signaling Homeostasis during Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants

    Greg C. Vanlerberghe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative oxidase (AOX is a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. While respiratory carbon oxidation pathways, electron transport, and ATP turnover are tightly coupled processes, AOX provides a means to relax this coupling, thus providing a degree of metabolic homeostasis to carbon and energy metabolism. Beside their role in primary metabolism, plant mitochondria also act as “signaling organelles”, able to influence processes such as nuclear gene expression. AOX activity can control the level of potential mitochondrial signaling molecules such as superoxide, nitric oxide and important redox couples. In this way, AOX also provides a degree of signaling homeostasis to the organelle. Evidence suggests that AOX function in metabolic and signaling homeostasis is particularly important during stress. These include abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and nutrient deficiency, as well as biotic stresses such as bacterial infection. This review provides an introduction to the genetic and biochemical control of AOX respiration, as well as providing generalized examples of how AOX activity can provide metabolic and signaling homeostasis. This review also examines abiotic and biotic stresses in which AOX respiration has been critically evaluated, and considers the overall role of AOX in growth and stress tolerance.

  13. Protection of in-vitro grown Arabidopsis seedlings against abiotic stresses

    Klerk, de, G.J.M.; Pumisutapon, P.

    2008-01-01

    Severe abiotic stresses may cause permanent damage leading to death. In Arabidopsis seedlings germinating in vitro, we examined whether stress-related damage could be reduced by addition of protective low-molecular-weight compounds (trehalose and putrescine), addition of a specific signal molecule (acetylsalicylic acid), culture in the dark before and/or after the stress, and hardening mild-stress pretreatments. All four tested protective procedures increased survival after exposure to drough...

  14. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  15. Ethylene response factor Sl-ERF.B.3 is responsive to abiotic stresses and mediates salt and cold stress response regulation in tomato.

    Klay, Imen; Pirrello, Julien; Riahi, Leila; Bernadac, Anne; Cherif, Ameur; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bouzid, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Sl-ERF.B.3 (Solanum lycopersicum ethylene response factor B.3) gene encodes for a tomato transcription factor of the ERF (ethylene responsive factor) family. Our results of real-time RT-PCR showed that Sl-ERF.B.3 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which is induced by cold, heat, and flooding, but downregulated by salinity and drought. To get more insight into the role of Sl-ERF.B.3 in plant response to separate salinity and cold, a comparative study between wild type and two Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic tomato lines was achieved. Compared with wild type, Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic plants exhibited a salt stress dependent growth inhibition. This inhibition was significantly enhanced in shoots but reduced in roots, leading to an increased root to shoot ratio. Furthermore, the cold stress essay clearly revealed that introducing antisense Sl-ERF.B.3 in transgenic tomato plants reduces their cell injury and enhances their tolerance against 14 d of cold stress. All these results suggest that Sl-ERF.B.3 gene is involved in plant response to abiotic stresses and may play a role in the layout of stress symptoms under cold stress and in growth regulation under salinity. PMID:25215313

  16. Ethylene Response Factor Sl-ERF.B.3 Is Responsive to Abiotic Stresses and Mediates Salt and Cold Stress Response Regulation in Tomato

    Imen Klay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sl-ERF.B.3 (Solanum lycopersicum ethylene response factor B.3 gene encodes for a tomato transcription factor of the ERF (ethylene responsive factor family. Our results of real-time RT-PCR showed that Sl-ERF.B.3 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which is induced by cold, heat, and flooding, but downregulated by salinity and drought. To get more insight into the role of Sl-ERF.B.3 in plant response to separate salinity and cold, a comparative study between wild type and two Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic tomato lines was achieved. Compared with wild type, Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic plants exhibited a salt stress dependent growth inhibition. This inhibition was significantly enhanced in shoots but reduced in roots, leading to an increased root to shoot ratio. Furthermore, the cold stress essay clearly revealed that introducing antisense Sl-ERF.B.3 in transgenic tomato plants reduces their cell injury and enhances their tolerance against 14 d of cold stress. All these results suggest that Sl-ERF.B.3 gene is involved in plant response to abiotic stresses and may play a role in the layout of stress symptoms under cold stress and in growth regulation under salinity.

  17. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:27152457

  18. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  19. Characterization of reference genes for RT-qPCR in the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in response to abiotic stress and desiccation/rehydration

    Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Bei; Yang, Honglan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wood, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant bryophyte of the biological soil crusts found in the Gurbantunggut desert. The extreme desert environment is characterized by prolonged drought, temperature extremes, high radiation and frequent cycles of hydration and dehydration. S. caninervis is an ideal organism for the identification and characterization of genes related to abiotic stress tolerance. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) expression analysis i...

  20. Unveiling the Redox Control of Plant Reproductive Development during Abiotic Stress

    Zinta, Gaurav; Khan, Asif; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Verma, Vipasha; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Plants being sessile in nature are often challenged to various abiotic stresses including temperature fluctuations, water supply, salinity, and nutrient availability. Exposure of plants to such environmental perturbations result in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. To scavenge ROS, enzymatic and molecular antioxidants are produced at a cellular level. ROS act as a signaling entity at lower concentrations maintaining normal growth and development, but if their levels increase beyond certain threshold, they produce toxic effects in plants. Some developmental stages, such as development of reproductive organs are more sensitive to abiotic stress than other stages of growth. As success of plant reproductive development is directly correlated with grain yield, stresses coinciding with reproductive phase results in the higher yield losses. In this article, we summarize the redox control of plant reproductive development, and elaborate how redox homeostasis is compromised during abiotic stress exposure. We highlight why more emphasis should be given to understand redox control of plant reproductive organ development during abiotic stress exposure96to engineer crops with better crop yield. We specifically discuss the role of ROS as a signaling molecule and its cross-talk with other signaling molecules such as hormones and sugars. PMID:27379102

  1. AhpC (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 protects Escherichia coli from multiple abiotic stresses

    Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) is known to detoxify peroxides and reactive sulfur species (RSS). However, the relationship between its expression and combating of abiotic stresses is still not clear. To investigate this relationship, the genes encoding the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahpC) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 were introduced into E. coli using pGEX-5X-2 vector and their possible functions against heat, salt, carbofuron, cadmium, copper and UV-B were analyzed. The transformed E. coli cells registered significantly increase in growth than the control cells under temperature (47 oC), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml-1), CdCl2 (4 mM), CuCl2 (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. Enhanced expression of ahpC gene as measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR under aforementioned stresses at different time points demonstrated its role in offering tolerance against multiple abiotic stresses.

  2. Isolation of Mesophyll Protoplasts from Mediterranean Woody Plants for the Study of DNA Integrity under Abiotic Stress.

    Kuzminsky, Elena; Meschini, Roberta; Terzoli, Serena; Pavani, Liliana; Silvestri, Cristian; Choury, Zineb; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells. On the other hand, these plants represent an interesting material to be studied because of the ability of these plants to tolerate abiotic stress. For instance, holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) has been selected as the model plant to identify critical levels of O3 for Southern European forests. Consequently, a quantitative method for the evaluation of cell injury of leaf tissues of this species is required. Optimal conditions for high-yield nuclei isolation were obtained by using protoplast technology and a detailed description of the method is provided and discussed. White poplar (Populus alba L.) was used as an internal control for protoplast isolation. Such a method has not been previously reported in newly fully developed leaves of holm oak. This method combined with SCGE assay represents a new tool for testing the DNA integrity of leaf tissues in higher plants under stress conditions. PMID:27574524

  3. A novel stress-induced sugarcane gene confers tolerance to drought, salt and oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Kevin Begcy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity worldwide. Sugarcane can withstand periods of water scarcity during the final stage of culm maturation, during which sucrose accumulation occurs. Meanwhile, prolonged periods of drought can cause severe plant losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study, we evaluated the transcriptome of drought-stressed plants to better understand sugarcane responses to drought. Among the up-regulated genes was Scdr1 (sugarcane drought-responsive 1. The aim of the research reported here was to characterize this gene. Scdr1 encodes a putative protein containing 248 amino acids with a large number of proline (19% and cysteine (13% residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ScDR1is in a clade with homologs from other monocotyledonous plants, separate from those of dicotyledonous plants. The expression of Scdr1 in different varieties of sugarcane plants has not shown a clear association with drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The overexpression of Scdr1 in transgenic tobacco plants increased their tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stress, as demonstrated by increased photosynthesis, water content, biomass, germination rate, chlorophyll content and reduced accumulation of ROS. Physiological parameters, such as transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and internal leaf CO(2 concentration, were less affected by abiotic stresses in transgenic Scdr1 plants compared with wild-type plants. Overall, our results indicated that Scdr1 conferred tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  4. Genetically modified plants for salinity stress tolerance (abstract)

    crop plants tolerant to abiotic stresses. However, the technology must be evaluated in crop plants under field conditions and only after proper biosafety assessment and monitoring through regulatory authorities should be commercialized in specific areas. (author)

  5. Using biotechnology and genomics to improve biotic and abiotic stress in apple

    Genomic sequencing, molecular biology, and transformation technologies are providing valuable tools to better understand the complexity of how plants develop, function, and respond to biotic and abiotic stress. These approaches should complement but not replace a solid understanding of whole plant ...

  6. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals.

    Shelden, Megan C; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice) and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive), yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript/metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance. PMID:23717314

  7. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

    Megan C Shelden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive, yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt-tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript /metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance.

  8. Stress tolerance of transgenic barley accumulating the alfalfa aldose reductase in the cytoplasm and the chloroplast.

    Nagy, Bettina; Majer, Petra; Mihály, Róbert; Pauk, János; Horváth, Gábor V

    2016-09-01

    Barley represents one of the major crops grown worldwide; its genetic transformation provides an important tool for the improvement of crop quality and tolerance to environmental stress factors. Biotic and abiotic stresses produce reactive oxygen species in the plant cells that can directly oxidize the cellular components including lipid membranes; resulting in lipid peroxidation and subsequently the accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds. In order to protect barley plants from the effects of stress-produced reactive carbonyls, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out using the Medicago sativa aldose reductase (MsALR) gene. In certain transgenic lines the produced MsALR enzyme was targeted to the chloroplasts to evaluate its protective effect in these organelles. The dual fluorescent protein-based method was used for the evaluation of tolerance of young seedlings to diverse stresses; our results demonstrated that this technique could be reliably applied for the detection of cellular stress in a variety of conditions. The chlorophyll and carotenoid content measurements also supported the results of the fluorescent protein-based method and the stress-protective effect of the MsALR enzyme. Targeting of MsALR into the chloroplast has also resulted in increased stress tolerance, similarly to the observed effect of the cytosolic MsALR accumulation. The results of the DsRed/GFP fluorescent protein-based method indicated that both the cytosol and chloroplast accumulation of MsALR can increase the abiotic stress tolerance of transgenic barley lines. PMID:27469099

  9. Stable expression of mtlD gene imparts multiple stress tolerance in finger millet.

    Ramanna Hema

    Full Text Available Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD, were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet.

  10. Evolution and Adaptation of Wild Emmer Wheat Populations to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Huang, Lin; Raats, Dina; Sela, Hanan; Klymiuk, Valentina; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel; Feng, Lihua; Krugman, Tamar; Fahima, Tzion

    2016-08-01

    The genetic bottlenecks associated with plant domestication and subsequent selection in man-made agroecosystems have limited the genetic diversity of modern crops and increased their vulnerability to environmental stresses. Wild emmer wheat, the tetraploid progenitor of domesticated wheat, distributed along a wide range of ecogeographical conditions in the Fertile Crescent, has valuable "left behind" adaptive diversity to multiple diseases and environmental stresses. The biotic and abiotic stress responses are conferred by series of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex resistance pathways. The study of genetic diversity, genomic organization, expression profiles, protein structure and function of biotic and abiotic stress-resistance genes, and QTLs could shed light on the evolutionary history and adaptation mechanisms of wild emmer populations for their natural habitats. The continuous evolution and adaptation of wild emmer to the changing environment provide novel solutions that can contribute to safeguarding food for the rapidly growing human population. PMID:27296141

  11. BREEDING FOR TOLERANCE TO STRESS TRIGGERED BY SALINITY IN RICE

    M. Amaranatha Reddy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the world’s most important staple crops. Although rice is considered as a sensitive crop to salinity, it is one of the most widely grown crops in coastal areas. In the present, salinity is the second most widespread soil problem in rice growing countries next to drought and considers as a serious constraint to increased rice production worldwide. Genetic Evaluation and Utilization (GEU Program at IRRI in 1969 have been screened 138,000 rice genotypes. Of these, 17% had acceptable tolerance at electrical conductivity (EC of 10 dS/m at the seedling stage. Traditional cultivars are the most tolerant to abiotic stresses. Cultivars Pokkali, Cheriveruppu, Nona Bokra, SR26B, Damodar and Getu are tolerant of salinity but possess poor agronomic characters. There exists tremendous variation for salt tolerance within species in rice, providing opportunities to improve crop salt-stress tolerance through genetic means. Some attempts to develop salt-tolerant genotypes were based on highly tolerant traditional rice cultivars i.e. Pokkali and Nona-Bokra (Akbar et al., 1985. Mahsuri which is saline tolerant and introduced from Malaysia. Damodar (CSR 1, Dasal (CSR 2, Getu (CSR 3, Pokkali, Vytilla 1, Vytilla 2, Vytilla 3, Vytilla 4, Vytilla 5 etc were developed through pureline selection. CSR 10, CSR13, CSR23, CSR27, CSR30, CSR36, CR Dhan 402, CR Dhan 403, TRY 1, TRY 2, TRY 3, White ponni, CO 43 etc. were developed through recombinant varieties. CORH 2 is developed through three line breeding method. Somaclonal variants of Pokkali with improved agronomic traits were identified. The variant (TCCP 266-2-49-B-B-3 had desirable levels of all tested characteristics and retained salinity tolerance equal to Pokkali. The variant is semidwarf and has vigorous growth and high yield potential without lodging. TCCP 266-2-49-B-B-3 had a white pericarp and also improved cooking quality, with medium gel consistency. High-yielding salt-tolerant AC-derived lines

  12. Arabidopsis cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase 45 functions in the responses to abscisic acid and abiotic stresses

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2013-06-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates seed germination, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salt stresses. Receptor-like kinases are well known signaling components that mediate plant responses to developmental and environmental stimuli. Here, we characterized the biological function of an ABA and stress-inducible cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK45, in ABA signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The crk45 mutant was less sensitive to ABA than the wild type during seed germination and early seedling development, whereas CRK45 overexpression plants were more sensitive to ABA compared to the wild type. Furthermore, overexpression of CRK45 led to hypersensitivity to salt and glucose inhibition of seed germination, whereas the crk45 mutant showed the opposite phenotypes. In addition, CRK45 overexpression plants had enhanced tolerance to drought. Gene expression analyses revealed that the expression of representative stress-responsive genes was significantly enhanced in CRK45 overexpression plants in response to salt stress. ABA biosynthetic genes such as NCED3,. 22NCED3, 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase 3.NCED5,. 33NCED5, 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase 5.ABA2,. 44ABA2, Abscisic Acid Deficient 2. and AAO355AAO3, Abscisic Aldehyde Oxidase 3. were also constitutively elevated in the CRK45 overexpression plants. We concluded that CRK45 plays an important role in ABA signaling that regulates Arabidopsis seeds germination, early seedling development and abiotic stresses response, by positively regulating ABA responses in these processes. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Influence of abiotic stress during soybean germination followed by recovery on the phenolic compounds of radicles and their antioxidant capacity

    Sylwia Swigonska; Ryszard Amarowicz; Angelika Król; Agnieszka Mostek; Anna Badowiec; Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress factors are among the major causes of lower crop yields. It is known, that in response to cold and/or osmotic stress, crops activate various defense mechanisms, including morphological, physiological and metabolic adaptations. Secondary metabolism, especially phenolic compounds, seem to be an important factor of stress-induced metabolic re-engineering as their levels are alternated by abiotic stress in plants. Despite the fact, that the nature and function of phenolic compounds...

  14. INDIVIDUAL AND POPULATION RESPONSES TO ABIOTIC STRESSES IN ITALIAN RYEGRASS

    Expected changes in environmental factors will alter productivity of agroecosystems and influence the distribution of agricultural pests. In addition to the natural factors that cause stress, humans introduce chemical pesticides into the agricultural environment. Weeds persist in...

  15. Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Ravishankar, Gokare Aswathanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavors, and industrially important biochemicals. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Secondary metabolites play a major role in the adaptation of plants to the environment and in overcoming stress conditions. Environmental factors viz. temperature, humidity, light intensity, the supply of water, minerals, and CO2 influe...

  16. Rubisco Activase Is Also a Multiple Responder to Abiotic Stresses in Rice.

    Yue Chen

    Full Text Available Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase (RCA is a nuclear gene that encodes a chloroplast protein that plays an important role in photosynthesis. Some reports have indicated that it may play a role in acclimation to different abiotic stresses. In this paper, we analyzed the stress-responsive elements in the 2.0 kb 5'-upstream regions of the RCA gene promoter and the primary, secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. We identified some cis-elements of multiple stress-related components in the RCA promoter. Amino acid and evolution analyses showed that the RCA protein had conserved regions between different species; however, the size and type varied. The secondary structures, binding sites and tertiary structures of the RCA proteins were also different. This might reflect the differences in the transcription and translation levels of the two RCA isoforms during adaptation to different abiotic stresses. Although both the transcription and translation levels of RCA isoforms in the rice leaves increased under various stresses, the large isoform was increased more significantly in the chloroplast stroma and thylakoid. It can be concluded that RCA, especially RCAL, is also a multiple responder to abiotic stresses in rice, which provides new insights into RCA functions.

  17. Assessing the effects of abiotic stress and livestock grazing disturbance on an alpine grassland with CSR model

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Peng; Mou, Chengxiang; Yang, Hao; Mo, Li; Luo, Chuan; Kattge, Jens

    2016-04-01

    How the abiotic factors represented by cold environment and biotic factors represented by livestock grazing will affect the vegetation structure of alpine grassland is a core issue in understanding the cause of biodiversity change on Tibetan Plateau. Past studies on changes of floristic composition, growth forms did not adequately answer question. Given the fact that the response of plant to environment change depend on its life strategy, a synthetical method that based on plant life strategy may deepen our understanding of the mechanism. Using Grime's concept of CSR plant classification, we carried out a vegetation survey along a gradient (three levels) of graze intensity on the south-east of Tibet Plateau, in order to evaluate the role and mechanism of abiotic stress and grazing disturbance in driving plant diversity change, by analyzing the plant life strategy compositions in each of the community and by comparing the characteristic of the strategy compositions along the graze gradient. When the graze intensity was relative low, the dominant plant life strategy gathered in the stress tolerance corner, which conformed the theory of environmental filter, indicating that the ideal top plant community may be dominated by the species with stress tolerant strategy. We also found that the response of strategy dominance to graze intensity increase is positively correlated with the competitive capacity (R 2=0.671; Pabiotic and biotic factors on plant community assembly of alpine grassland, which may contribute to predict the impacts of climate change and human activity on alpine grassland plant diversity and ecosystem service function related.

  18. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Activity by Strawberry Tissue Protein Extracts during Plant Life Cycle and under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    Walther Faedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, enzymes that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, inhibit protein synthesis by depurinating rRNA and many other polynucleotidic substrates. Although RIPs show antiviral, antifungal, and insecticidal activities, their biological and physiological roles are not completely understood. Additionally, it has been described that RIP expression is augmented under stressful conditions. In this study, we evaluated protein synthesis inhibition activity in partially purified basic proteins (hereafter referred to as RIP activity from tissue extracts of Fragaria × ananassa (strawberry cultivars with low (Dora and high (Record tolerance to root pathogens and fructification stress. Association between the presence of RIP activity and the crop management (organic or integrated soil, growth stage (quiescence, flowering, and fructification, and exogenous stress (drought were investigated. RIP activity was found in every tissue tested (roots, rhizomes, leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits and under each tested condition. However, significant differences in RIP distribution were observed depending on the soil and growth stage, and an increase in RIP activity was found in the leaves of drought-stressed plants. These results suggest that RIP expression and activity could represent a response mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses and could be a useful tool in selecting stress-resistant strawberry genotypes.

  19. Stress-tolerant Wild Plants: a Source of Knowledge and Biotechnological Tools for the Genetic Improvement of Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

    Monica BOSCAIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the next few decades we must boost crop productivity if we are to feed a growing world population, which will reach more than 9×109 people by 2050; and we should do it in the frame of a sustainable agriculture, with an increasing scarcity of new arable land and of water for irrigation. For all important crops, average yields are only a fraction-somewhere between 20% and 50%-of record yields; these losses are mostly due to drought and high soil salinity, environmental conditions which will worsen in many regions because of global climate change. Therefore, the simplest way to increase agricultural productivity would be to improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops. Considering the limitations of traditional plant breeding, the most promising strategy to achieve this goal will rely on the generation of transgenic plants expressing genes conferring tolerance. However, advances using this approach have been slow, since it requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms of plant stress tolerance, which are still largely unknown. Paradoxically, most studies on the responses of plants to abiotic stress have been performed using stress-sensitive species-such as Arabidopsis thaliana-although there are plants (halophytes, gypsophytes, xerophytes adapted to extremely harsh environmental conditions in their natural habitats. We propose these wild stress-tolerant species as more suitable models to investigate these mechanisms, as well as a possible source of biotechnological tools (‘stress tolerance’ genes, stress-inducible promoters for the genetic engineering of stress tolerance in crop plants.

  20. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  1. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis germinated in abiotic stress conditions

    Urszula Złotek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adzuki sprouts are one of more valuable but still underappreciated dietary supplements which may be considered as functional food. Sprouting reduces anti-nutritional factors and increases the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients and also affects phytochemical levels. Exposure of plants to abiotic stresses results in change in production of phytochemical compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the content and antioxidant properties of phenolic in adzuki bean seeds germinated in selected abiotic stress conditions. Material and methods. Adzuki bean seeds were germinated in different abiotic stress conditions: thermal, osmotic and oxidative. The content of phenolics in adzuki bean seeds coat extracts and antioxidant activity Fe2+ chelating ability and neutralization of the free radicals generated from DPPH and ABTS were determined. Results. All applied stress conditions (except for thermal stress have caused decrease the content of the analysed phenolic fractions. The lowest amounts of polyphenols in extracts of sprouts obtained in oxidative stress conditions were observed. The highest ability to neutralize free radicals generated with ABTS and DPPH have extracts from sprouts germinated under thermal stress 39.94 and 13.20 μmol TEAC/g d.w., respectively. The lowest – sprouts obtained in oxidative stress conditions (18.2 and 9.72 μmol TEAC/g d.w.. The highest ability to chelate Fe2+ has been shown by the extract from adzuki bean seeds coat subjected to thermal stress (7.06 % and the lowest control extract (3.08%. Conclusions. It can be concluded that only thermal stress contributes to the improvement of antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from adzuki bean seeds coat.

  2. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Reza Mohammadi; Behzad Sadeghzadeh; Hasan Ahmadi; Nowzar Bahrami; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses: yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis Westendorf f. sp. tritici) and wheat stem sawfly (WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), and abiotic stresses: cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i) q...

  3. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis RNA-seq data from abiotic stresses

    Pablo H.C.G. de Sá; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Baraúna, Rafael A.; Luís C. Guimarães; Pinheiro, Kenny C.; Pinto, Anne C.; Soares, Siomar C.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Vasco Azevedo; Artur Silva; Ramos, Rommel T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes significant loss to goat and sheep farmers because it is the causal agent of the infectious disease caseous lymphadenitis, which may lead to outcomes ranging from skin injury to animal death (Ruiz et al., 2011) [1]. This bacterium was grown under osmotic (2 M), acid (pH) and heat (50 °C) stress and under control (Normal-BHI brain heart infusion) conditions, which simulate the conditions faced by the bacteria during the infectious process. Subsequently...

  4. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase UGT85A5 enhances salt stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Yan-Guo Sun

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses greatly influence plant growth and productivity. While glycosyltransferases are widely distributed in plant kingdom, their biological roles in response to abiotic stresses are largely unknown. In this study, a novel Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase gene UGT85A5 was identified as significantly induced by salt stress. Ectopic expression of UGT85A5 in tobacco enhanced the salt stress tolerance in the transgenic plants. There were higher seed germination rates, better plant growth and less chlorophyll loss in transgenic lines compared to wild type plants under salt stress. This enhanced tolerance of salt stress was correlated with increased accumulations of proline and soluble sugars, but with decreases in malondialdehyde accumulation and Na(+/K(+ ratio in UGT85A5-expressing tobacco. Furthermore, during salt stress, expression of several carbohydrate metabolism-related genes including those for sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, hexose transporter and a group2 LEA protein were obviously upregulated in UGT85A5-expressing transgenic plants compared with wild type controls. Thus, these findings suggest a specific protective role of this glycosyltransferase against salt stress and provide a genetic engineering strategy to improve salt tolerance of crops.

  5. The Calcium Sensor CBL-CIPK Is Involved in Plant’s Response to Abiotic Stresses

    S. M. Nuruzzaman Manik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress halts the physiological and developmental process of plant. During stress condition, CBL-CIPK complex is identified as a primary element of calcium sensor to perceive environmental signals. Recent studies established that this complex regulates downstream targets like ion channels and transporters in adverse stages conditions. Crosstalks between the CBL-CIPK complex and different abiotic stresses can extend our research area, which can improve and increase the production of genetically modified crops in response to abiotic stresses. How this complex links with environmental signals and creates adjustable circumstances under unfavorable conditions is now one of the burning issues. Diverse studies are already underway to delineate this signalling mechanism underlying different interactions. Therefore, up to date experimental results should be concisely published, thus paving the way for further research. The present review will concisely recapitulate the recent and ongoing research progress of positive ions (Mg2+, Na+, and K+, negative ions (NO3-, PO4-, and hormonal signalling, which are evolving from accumulating results of analyses of CBL and CIPK loss- or gain-of-function experiments in different species along with some progress and perspectives of our works. In a word, this review will give one step forward direction for more functional studies in this area.

  6. Protective function of nitric oxide on marine phytoplankton under abiotic stresses.

    Li, Peifeng; Liu, Chun-Ying; Liu, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Lili

    2013-09-01

    As an important signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) plays diverse physiological functions in plants, which has gained particular attention in recent years. We investigated the roles of NO in the growth of marine phytoplankton Platymonas subcordiforms and Skeletonema costatum under abiotic stresses. The growth of these two microalgae was obviously inhibited under non-metal stress (sodium selenium, Na2SeO3), heavy metal stress (lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2), pesticide stress (methomyl) and UV radiation stress. After the addition of different low concentrations of exogenous NO (10(-10)-10(-8) mol L(-1)) twice each day during cultivation, the growth of these two microalgae was obviously promoted. Results showed that NO could relieve the oxidative stresses to protect the growth of the two microalgae. For different environmental stress, there is a different optimum NO concentration for marine phytoplankton. It is speculated that the protective effect of NO is related to its antioxidant ability. PMID:23810732

  7. Chemiluminescent examination of abiotic oxidative stress of watercress.

    Beals, Christopher; Byl, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is an aquatic plant that readily bioaccumulates heavy metals that may be found in contaminated aquatic systems. Toxic effects of contaminants on the physiological processes cause changes in oxidase enzymatic activity in watercress, which can be measured with a luminometer. The luminometer uses the reaction produced when peroxidases break down hydrogen peroxide into water and an oxygen radical. The resulting oxyradical binds to and oxidizes phenolic groups, producing a measureable luminescent reaction. Nasturtium officinale plants were exposed to 3 different concentrations of heavy metals, including lead, nickel, copper, and manganese for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Aquatic exposure to the 4 heavy metals caused a significant increase in oxidative enzyme production. Fluorometric and morphometric measurements were also conducted to compare plant stress with the oxidative enzyme analyses. Fluorometric measurements performed on plants stressed by exposure to heavy metals revealed no significant decreases in photosystem II efficiency. Morphometric measurements of root length showed decreased root growth resulting from exposures to Ni, Cu, and Mn. PMID:24306856

  8. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis RNA-seq data from abiotic stresses.

    de Sá, Pablo H C G; Veras, Adonney A O; Carneiro, Adriana R; Barúna, Rafael A; Guimarães, Luís C; Pinheiro, Kenny C; Pinto, Anne C; Soares, Siomar C; Schneider, Maria P C; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2015-12-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes significant loss to goat and sheep farmers because it is the causal agent of the infectious disease caseous lymphadenitis, which may lead to outcomes ranging from skin injury to animal death (Ruiz et al., 2011) [1]. This bacterium was grown under osmotic (2 M), acid (pH) and heat (50 °C) stress and under control (Normal-BHI brain heart infusion) conditions, which simulate the conditions faced by the bacteria during the infectious process. Subsequently, cDNA of each condition was sequenced by the SOLiD3 Plus platform using the RNA-Seq technique [2], [3], [4]. The data produced was processed to evaluate the differential gene expression, which is helpful to understand the adaptation mechanisms during the infection in the host. The sequencing data of all conditions are available in the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) repository under accession number E-MTAB-2017. PMID:26702428

  9. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis RNA-seq data from abiotic stresses

    Pablo H.C.G. de Sá

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes significant loss to goat and sheep farmers because it is the causal agent of the infectious disease caseous lymphadenitis, which may lead to outcomes ranging from skin injury to animal death (Ruiz et al., 2011 [1]. This bacterium was grown under osmotic (2 M, acid (pH and heat (50 °C stress and under control (Normal-BHI brain heart infusion conditions, which simulate the conditions faced by the bacteria during the infectious process. Subsequently, cDNA of each condition was sequenced by the SOLiD3 Plus platform using the RNA-Seq technique [2–4]. The data produced was processed to evaluate the differential gene expression, which is helpful to understand the adaptation mechanisms during the infection in the host. The sequencing data of all conditions are available in the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI repository under accession number E-MTAB-2017.

  10. Silicon, the silver bullet for mitigating biotic and abiotic stress, and improving grain quality, in rice?

    Meharg, Caroline; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate silicon fertilization greatly boosts rice yield and mitigates biotic and abiotic stress, and improves grain quality through lowering the content of cadmium and inorganic arsenic. This review on silicon dynamics in rice considers recent advances in our understanding of the role of silicon in rice, and the challenges of maintaining adequate silicon fertility within rice paddy systems. Silicon is increasingly considered as an element required for optimal plant performance, particularly ...

  11. APUM5, encoding a Pumilio RNA binding protein, negatively regulates abiotic stress responsive gene expression

    Huh, Sung Un; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background A mutant screening was carried out previously to look for new genes related to the Cucumber mosaic virus infection response in Arabidopsis. A Pumilio RNA binding protein-coding gene, Arabidopsis Pumilio RNA binding protein 5 (APUM5), was obtained from this screening. Results APUM5 transcriptional profiling was carried out using a bioinformatics tool. We found that APUM5 was associated with both biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, bacterial and fungal pathogen infection su...

  12. Moderate abiotic stresses increase rhizome growth and outgrowth of axillary buds in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R. G. F.; Klerk, de, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Alstroemeria is multiplied in vitro by forced outgrowth of lateral rhizomes from rhizome explants. The multiplication rate is very low because of strong apical dominance and poor rhizome growth. We report here that moderate abiotic stresses stimulate both rhizome growth and outgrowth of lateral rhizomes, and accordingly increase multiplication. Rhizome explants were exposed to heat by a hot-water treatment (HWT) or by a hot-air treatment. Both increased rhizome growth when applied for 1 or 2 ...

  13. Reactive Nitrogen Species and the Role of NO in Abiotic Stress

    Procházková, Dagmar; Sumaira, J.; Wilhelmová, Naděžda; Pavlíková, D.; Száková, J.

    Vol. A Sustainable Approach. San Diego : Academic Press - Elsevier, 2014 - (Ahmad, P.; Rasool, S.), s. 249-266 ISBN 978-0-12-800875-1. - (Volume 2) R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1239 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : nitric oxide * abiotic stress * temperature Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128008751000119

  14. Functional characterization of an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in plant response to abiotic stress

    Guerra, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that targets protein substrates for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. It is based on the covalent attachment of the 76-amino acid eukaryotic molecule, ubiquitin, to substrate proteins. Protein ubiquitination plays a key role in a wide variety of cellular processes such as hormone signaling, DNA repair, biotic and abiotic stress response, cell cycle regulation. Ubiquitin conjugation is a multistep reaction, sequentially involvin...

  15. Silencing of TaBTF3 gene impairs tolerance to freezing and drought stresses in wheat.

    Kang, Guozhang; Ma, Hongzhen; Liu, Guoqin; Han, Qiaoxia; Li, Chengwei; Guo, Tiancai

    2013-11-01

    Basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3), the β-subunit of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex, is responsible for the transcriptional initiation of RNA polymerase II and is also involved in cell apoptosis, translation initiation regulation, growth, development, and other functions. Here, we report the impact of BTF3 on abiotic tolerance in higher plants. The transcription levels of the TaBTF3 gene, first isolated from wheat seedlings in our lab, were differentially regulated by diverse abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, including PEG-induced stress (20 % polyethylene glycol 6000), cold (4 °C), salt (100 mM NaCl), abscisic acid (100 μM), methyl jasmonate (50 μM), and salicylic acid (50 μM). Southern blot analysis indicated that, in the wheat genome, TaBTF3 is a multi-copy gene. Compared to BSMV-GFP-infected wheat plants (control), under freezing (-8 °C for 48 h) or drought stress (withholding water for 15 days) conditions, TaBTF3-silenced wheat plants showed lower survival rates, free proline content, and relative water content and higher relative electrical conductivity and water loss rate. These results suggest that silencing of the TaBTF3 gene may impair tolerance to freezing and drought stresses in wheat and that it may be involved in the response to abiotic stresses in higher plants. PMID:23942841

  16. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors. PMID:22722910

  17. A calcium-binding protein, rice annexin OsANN1, enhances heat stress tolerance by modulating the production of H2O2.

    Qiao, Bei; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Dongliang; Wang, Haiqi; Yin, Jingya; Wang, Rui; He, Mengli; Cui, Meng; Shang, Zhonglin; Wang, Dekai; Zhu, Zhengge

    2015-09-01

    OsANN1 is a member of the annexin protein family in rice. The function of this protein and the mechanisms of its involvement in stress responses and stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here it is reported that OsANN1 confers abiotic stress tolerance by modulating antioxidant accumulation under abiotic stress. OsANN1-knockdown [RNA interference (RNAi)] plants were more sensitive to heat and drought stresses, whereas OsANN1-overexpression (OE) lines showed improved growth with higher expression of OsANN1 under abiotic stress. Overexpression of OsANN1 promoted SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) activities, which regulate H2O2 content and redox homeostasis, suggesting the existence of a feedback mechanism between OsANN1 and H2O2 production under abiotic stress. Higher expression of OsANN1 can provide overall cellular protection against abiotic stress-induced damage, and a significant accumulation of OsANN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) signals was found in the cytosol after heat shock treatment. OsANN1 also has calcium-binding and ATPase activities in vitro, indicating that OsANN1 has multiple functions in rice growth. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays demonstrated that OsANN1 interacts with OsCDPK24. This cross-talk may provide additional layers of regulation in the abiotic stress response. PMID:26085678

  18. Study of a new alternative antioxidant in soybean plants subjected to abiotic stress

    We have recently, demonstrated that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role for soybean plants against oxidative stress produced by cadmium and UV-B radiation. At this moment we propose to investigate if the enzyme has the same capacity against another type of abiotic stress, such as drought, for to demonstrate that heme oxygenase acts as an enzyme of plant antioxidant defense system under several different stress situations, as occur in mammalian tissues. To carry out this objective we propose to study, in leaf, root and nodule of soybean plants, the oxidative stress generation; the behavior of classical antioxidant system; the behavior of HO-1 activity and protein and gene expression; the effect of its reaction products and inhibitors on the oxidative stress parameters; the signaling mechanism that produce HO-1 induction and the immunohistochemistry localization of the enzyme in the different plant tissues. The results obtained let us undoubtedly demonstrate the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant defense system in plants. This finding will allow the increase in the knowledge of the defense mechanisms in interesting economic plants for our country, such as soybean, and against drought, an abiotic stress considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield worldwide. (authors)

  19. The 6-phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Genes Are Responsive to Abiotic Stresses in Rice

    Fu-Yun Hou; Ji Huang; Shan-Lin Yu; Hong-Sheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, E.C. 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH, EC 1.1.1.44) are both key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The OsG6PDH1 and Os6PGDH1 genes encoding cytosolic G6PDH and cytosolic 6PGDH were isoiated from rice (Oryza satlva L.). We have shown that Os6PGDH1 gene was up-regulated by salt stress. Here we reported the isolation and characterization of Os6PGDH2 from rice, which encode the plastidic counterpart of 6PGDH. Genomic organization analysis indicated that OsG6PDH1 and OsG6PDH2 genes contain multiple introns, whereas two Os6PGDH1 and Os6PGDH2 genes have no introns in their translated regions. In a step towards understanding the functions of the pentose phosphate pathway in plants in response to various abiotic stresses, the expressions of four genes in the rice seedlings treated by drought, cold, high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. The results show that OsG6PDH1 and OsG6PDH2 are not markedly regulated by the abiotic stresses detected. However, the transcript levels of both Os6PGDH1 and Os6PGDH2 are up-regulated in rice seedlings under drought, cold, high salinity and ABA treatments. Meanwhile,the enzyme activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in the rice seedlings treated by various ablotlc stresses were investigated.Like the mRNA expression patterns, G6PDH activity remains constant but the 6PGDH increases steadily during the treatments. Taken together, we suggest that the pentose phosphate pathway may play an important role in rice responses to abiotlc stresses and the second key enzyme of PPP, 6PGDH, may function as a regulator controlling the efficiency of the pathway under abiotic stresses.

  20. Cullin-RING Ubiquitin Ligase Family in Plant Abiotic Stress Pathways

    Liquan Guo; Cynthia D.Nezames; Lianxi Sheng; Xingwang Deng; Ning Wei

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key mechanism that plants use to generate adaptive responses in coping with various environmental stresses.Cullin-RING (CRL) complexes represent a predominant group of ubiquitin E3 ligases in this system.In this review,we focus on the CRL E3s that have been implicated in abiotic stress signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.By comparing and analyzing these cases,we hope to gain a better understanding on how CRL complexes work under various settings in an attempt to decipher the clues about the regulatory mechanism of CRL E3s.

  1. Nicotiana tabacum Tsip1-Interacting Ferredoxin 1 Affects Biotic and Abiotic Stress Resistance

    Huh, Sung Un; Lee, In-Ju; Ham, Byung-Kook; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Tsip1, a Zn finger protein that was isolated as a direct interactor with tobacco stress-induced 1 (Tsi1), plays an important role in both biotic and abiotic stress signaling. To further understand Tsip1 function, we searched for more Tsip1-interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening using a tobacco cDNA library. Screening identified a new Tsip1-interacting protein, Nicotiana tabacum Tsip1-interacting ferredoxin 1 (NtTfd1), and binding specificity was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo...

  2. Microbial Stress Tolerance for Biofuels: Systems Biology

    This book provides comprehensive up-to-date understanding and frontier research addressing mechanisms of microbial stress tolerance involved in biofuels using a systems biology approach. It ties closely with the cutting edge technology with a focus on the challenging subject of biofuels. The develo...

  3. Genome wide identification of C1-2i zinc finger proteins and their response to abiotic stress in hexaploid wheat.

    Cheuk, Arnaud; Houde, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The C1-2i wheat Q-type C2H2 zinc finger protein (ZFP) transcription factor subclass has been reported to play important roles in plant stress responses. This subclass of ZFPs has not been studied in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and we aimed to identify all members of this subclass and evaluate their responses to different abiotic stresses causing oxidative stress. Exploiting the recently published wheat draft genome sequence, we identified 53 members (including homoeologs from A, B and D genomes) of the C1-2i wheat Q-type C2H2 ZFPs (TaZFPs) representing 21 genes. Evolution analysis revealed that 9 TaZFPs members are directly inherited from the parents Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, while 15 diverged through neoploidization events. This TaZFP subclass is responsive to the oxidative stress generator H2O2 and to high light, drought stress and flooding. Most TaZFPs are responsive to H2O2 (37/53), high light (44/53), flooding (31/53) or drought (37/53); 32 TaZFPs were up-regulated by at least 3 stresses and 16 were responsive to all stresses tested. A large number of these TaZFPs were physically mapped on different wheat draft genome sequences with known markers useful for QTL mapping. Our results show that the C1-2i subclass of TaZFPs is associated with responses to different abiotic stresses and that most TaZFPs (30/53 or 57 %) are located on group 5 chromosomes known to be involved in environment adaptation. Detailed characterization of these novel wheat TaZFPs and their association to QTL or eQTL may help to design wheat cultivars with improved tolerance to abiotic stress. PMID:26638714

  4. Improved Growth and Stress Tolerance in the Arabidopsis oxt1 Mutant Triggered by Altered Adenine Metabolism

    Suchada Sukrong; Kil-Young Yun; Patrizia Stadler; Charan Kumar; Tony Facciuolo; Barbara A.Moffatt; Deane L.Falcone

    2012-01-01

    Plants perceive and respond to environmental stresses with complex mechanisms that are often associated with the activation of antioxidant defenses.A genetic screen aimed at isolating oxidative stress-tolerant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana has identified oxt1,a line that exhibits improved tolerance to oxidative stress and elevated temperature but displays no apparent deleterious growth effects under non-stress conditions.Oxt1 harbors a mutation that arises from the altered expression of a gene encoding adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APT1),an enzyme that converts adenine to adenosine monophosphate (AMP),indicating a link between purine metabolism,whole-plant growth responses,and stress acclimation.The oxt1 mutation results in decreased APT1 expression that leads to reduced enzymatic activity.Correspondingly,oxt1 plants possess elevated levels of adenine.Decreased APT enzyme activity directly correlates with stress resistance in transgenic lines that ectopically express APT1.The metabolic alteration in oxt1 plants also alters the expression of several antioxidant defense genes and the response of these genes to oxidative challenge.Finally,it is shown that manipulation of adenine levels can induce stress tolerance to wild-type plants.Collectively,these results show that alterations in cellular adenine levels can trigger stress tolerance and improve growth,leading to increases in plant biomass.The results also suggest that adenine might play a part in the signals that modulate responses to abiotic stress and plant growth.

  5. Molecular Analysis of Rice CIPKs Involved in Both Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses

    CHEN Xi-feng; Gu Zhi-min; LIU Feng; MA Bo-jun; ZHANG Hong-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Plant calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins have been proposed as important Ca2+ sensors and specifically interact with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) in plant-specific calcium signaling.Here,we identified and isolated 15 CIPK genes in a japonica rice variety Nipponbare based on the predicted sequences of rice CIPK gene family.Gene structure analysis showed that these 15 genes were divided into intron-less and intron-rich groups,and OsCIPK3 and OsCIPK24 exhibited alternative splicing in their mature process.The phylogenetic analyses indicated that rice CIPKs shared an ancestor with Arabidopsis and poplar CIPKs.Analyses of gene expression showed that these OsCIPK genes were differentially induced by biotic stresses such as bacterial blight and abiotic stresses (heavy metal such as Hg2+,high salinity,cold and ABA).Interestingly,five OsCIPK genes,OsCIPK1,2,10,11 and 12,were transcriptionally up-regulated after bacterial blight infection whereas four OsCIPK genes,OsCIPK2,10,11 and 14,were induced by all treatments,indicating that some of OsCIPK genes are involved in multiple stress response pathways in plants.Our finding suggests that CIPKs play a key role in both biotic and abiotic stress responses.

  6. Development of abiotic-stress resistant warm season trufgrasses by proton-beam irradiation

    Seo, Y. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Jeong, S. H. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The direct use of mutation is a valuable approach to generate genetic variation in crop species by altering agronomically useful major traits. The proton beam, as a mutagen, was applied to improve resistance traits of Zoysia grass under various abiotic stresses. Proton beam was irradiated to mature dry seeds of Zenith (Zoysia grass), which is well-adapted to Korean climate, using a proton- accelerator with seven different doses (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400 Gy). Individual seedling of M1 plant was transplanted from the seed bed and allowed to reach appropriate plant mass. Clones that showed superior growth were chosen and transplanted to pots for further clone propagation and field evaluation. Growth characteristics of turfgrass, such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, number of tiller were evaluated ninety days after sowing. Although large variation within each dose, noticeable differences were found among different irradiated doses. Most of the mutant clones derived from the irradiation treatment showed more vigorous growth than the control plants. RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) methods were conducted to analyze genomic variations associated with proton beam irradiation. In order to establish selection criteria for selection of salt-stress resistance plants, an in vitro method that is able to select salt-stress resistant mutants in liquid media without ambient disturbances. Total 647 predominance clones that were considered as abiotic stress resistant mutants were transplanted to the field for further evaluation.

  7. Development of abiotic-stress resistant warm season trufgrasses by proton-beam irradiation

    The direct use of mutation is a valuable approach to generate genetic variation in crop species by altering agronomically useful major traits. The proton beam, as a mutagen, was applied to improve resistance traits of Zoysia grass under various abiotic stresses. Proton beam was irradiated to mature dry seeds of Zenith (Zoysia grass), which is well-adapted to Korean climate, using a proton- accelerator with seven different doses (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400 Gy). Individual seedling of M1 plant was transplanted from the seed bed and allowed to reach appropriate plant mass. Clones that showed superior growth were chosen and transplanted to pots for further clone propagation and field evaluation. Growth characteristics of turfgrass, such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, number of tiller were evaluated ninety days after sowing. Although large variation within each dose, noticeable differences were found among different irradiated doses. Most of the mutant clones derived from the irradiation treatment showed more vigorous growth than the control plants. RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) methods were conducted to analyze genomic variations associated with proton beam irradiation. In order to establish selection criteria for selection of salt-stress resistance plants, an in vitro method that is able to select salt-stress resistant mutants in liquid media without ambient disturbances. Total 647 predominance clones that were considered as abiotic stress resistant mutants were transplanted to the field for further evaluation

  8. Upgrading root physiology for stress tolerance by ectomycorrhizas: insights from metabolite and transcriptional profiling into reprogramming for stress anticipation.

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; Janz, Dennis; Jiang, Xiangning; Göbel, Cornelia; Wildhagen, Henning; Tan, Yupeng; Rennenberg, Heinz; Feussner, Ivo; Polle, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EMs) alleviate stress tolerance of host plants, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate the basis of EM-induced physiological changes and their involvement in stress adaptation, we investigated metabolic and transcriptional profiles in EM and non-EM roots of gray poplar (Populus x canescens) in the presence and absence of osmotic stress imposed by excess salinity. Colonization with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus increased root cell volumes, a response associated with carbohydrate accumulation. The stress-related hormones abscisic acid and salicylic acid were increased, whereas jasmonic acid and auxin were decreased in EM compared with non-EM roots. Auxin-responsive reporter plants showed that auxin decreased in the vascular system. The phytohormone changes in EMs are in contrast to those in arbuscular mycorrhizas, suggesting that EMs and arbuscular mycorrhizas recruit different signaling pathways to influence plant stress responses. Transcriptome analyses on a whole genome poplar microarray revealed activation of genes related to abiotic and biotic stress responses as well as of genes involved in vesicle trafficking and suppression of auxin-related pathways. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated EM-related genes whose transcript abundances were independent of salt stress and a set of salt stress-related genes that were common to EM non-salt-stressed and non-EM salt-stressed plants. Salt-exposed EM roots showed stronger accumulation of myoinositol, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid and higher K(+)-to-Na(+) ratio than stressed non-EM roots. In conclusion, EMs activated stress-related genes and signaling pathways, apparently leading to priming of pathways conferring abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:19812185

  9. Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization.

    Schützendübel, Andres; Polle, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizae. Based on their chemical and physical properties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this reaction is typical for transition metals such as iron or copper, (b) blocking of essential functional groups in biomolecules, this reaction has mainly been reported for non-redox-reactive heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury, (c) displacement of essential metal ions from biomolecules; the latter reaction occurs with different kinds of heavy metals. Transition metals cause oxidative injury in plant tissue, but a literature survey did not provide evidence that this stress could be alleviated by increased levels of antioxidative systems. The reason may be that transition metals initiate hydroxyl radical production, which can not be controlled by antioxidants. Exposure of plants to non-redox reactive metals also resulted in oxidative stress as indicated by lipid peroxidation, H(2)O(2) accumulation, and an oxidative burst. Cadmium and some other metals caused a transient depletion of GSH and an inhibition of antioxidative enzymes, especially of glutathione reductase. Assessment of antioxidative capacities by metabolic modelling suggested that the reported diminution of antioxidants was sufficient to cause H(2)O(2) accumulation. The depletion of GSH is apparently a critical step in cadmium sensitivity since plants with improved capacities for GSH synthesis displayed higher Cd tolerance. Available data suggest that cadmium, when not detoxified rapidly enough, may trigger, via the disturbance of the redox control of the cell, a sequence of reactions leading to growth inhibition, stimulation of secondary metabolism, lignification, and finally cell death. This view is in contrast to the idea that

  10. Isolation of a WRKY30 gene from Muscadinia rotundifolia (Michx) and validation of its function under biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Jiang, Wenming; Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Yali; Yin, Ling; Lu, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in many plant processes, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, Muscadinia rotundifolia MrWRKY30 dramatically accumulated in grapevine leaves in response to inoculation of Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing grapevine downy mildew disease. Similar responses were also found on grapevines treated with exogenous SA/JA/ET. Ectopic expression of MrWRKY30 in Arabidopsis thaliana "COL0" enhanced its resistance to downy mildew pathogen Peronospora parasitica. Pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, including AtPR1, AtPR4, AtPR5, and AtPDF1.2, were significantly upregulated in transgenic A. thaliana after P. parasitica inoculation. In the mean time, two critical genes in SA and JA signaling pathways, AtEDS5 and AtJAR1, were abundantly expressed as well, indicating that MrWRKY30 may enhance disease resistance of A. thaliana through SA and JA defense system. The transgenic A. thaliana plants also enhanced tolerance to cold stress accompanied with upregulation of AtCBF1, AtCBF3, AtICE1, and AtCOR47. MrWRKY30 might protect A. thaliana from cold damage by activating the AtCBF-mediated signaling pathway to induce the downstream AtCOR47 gene. Interestingly, the transgenic seedlings had a negative effect on salt tolerance. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that antioxidant enzyme genes AtAPX (ascorbate peroxidase), AtCAT (catalase), and AtGST (glutathione-S-transferase) were suppressed in transgenic plants, which may lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated sensitivity to salt stress. PMID:25643917

  11. Towards the Identification of New Genes Involved in ABA-Dependent Abiotic Stresses Using Arabidopsis Suppressor Mutants of abh1 Hypersensitivity to ABA during Seed Germination

    Iwona Szarejko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid plays a pivotal role in the abiotic stress response in plants. Although great progress has been achieved explaining the complexity of the stress and ABA signaling cascade, there are still many questions to answer. Mutants are a valuable tool in the identification of new genes or new alleles of already known genes and in elucidating their role in signaling pathways. We applied a suppressor mutation approach in order to find new components of ABA and abiotic stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Using the abh1 (ABA hypersensitive 1 insertional mutant as a parental line for EMS mutagenesis, we selected several mutants with suppressed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Here, we present the response to ABA and a wide range of abiotic stresses during the seed germination and young seedling development of two suppressor mutants—soa2 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 2 and soa3 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 3. Generally, both mutants displayed a suppression of the hypersensitivity of abh1 to ABA, NaCl and mannitol during germination. Both mutants showed a higher level of tolerance than Columbia-0 (Col-0—the parental line of abh1 in high concentrations of glucose. Additionally, soa2 exhibited better root growth than Col-0 in the presence of high ABA concentrations. soa2 and soa3 were drought tolerant and both had about 50% fewer stomata per mm2 than the wild-type but the same number as their parental line—abh1. Taking into account that suppressor mutants had the same genetic background as their parental line—abh1, it was necessary to backcross abh1 with Landsberg erecta four times for the map-based cloning approach. Mapping populations, derived from the cross of abh1 in the Landsberg erecta background with each suppressor mutant, were created. Map based cloning in order to identify the suppressor genes is in progress.

  12. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    Tao Xu

    Full Text Available Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa, the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress.

  13. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress. PMID:24800811

  14. Increase of starch accumulation in the duckweed Lemna minor under abiotic stress

    K. SOWJANYA SREE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses often result in suppression of photosynthesis and plant growth. Using the duckweed species Lemna minor and subjecting these plants to abiotic stress viz., (1 application of heavy metals, (2 application of salt (NaCl, and (3 lack of phosphate, we showed that photosynthesis was inhibited to a lesser degree than plant growth. This became evident by detecting the accumulation of starch under these conditions: (1 Cadmium ions and other heavy metals induced the accumulation of starch after 4 days of treatment at concentrations when growth was almost completely suppressed (e. g. 80 %. (2 Application of NaCl at a concentration of 150 mM also resulted in accumulation of starch but the highest level could be observed only after 7 days. (3 Depletion of phosphate in the growth medium had similar effects leading to starch accumulation after 14 days of treatment. Starch can accumulate to approximately 50% of dry mass under the three different conditions. We suggest the following common molecular mechanism: The stress factor suppresses growth more effectively than photosynthesis. The resulting surplus of carbohydrates is then stored as starch. This hypothesis has biotechnological relevance since stressors may be applied for increasing starch accumulation in duckweed and thus could be used to optimize bioethanol production from this aquatic crop.

  15. Rice phospholipase A superfamily: organization, phylogenetic and expression analysis during abiotic stresses and development.

    Amarjeet Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phospholipase A (PLA is an important group of enzymes responsible for phospholipid hydrolysis in lipid signaling. PLAs have been implicated in abiotic stress signaling and developmental events in various plants species. Genome-wide analysis of PLA superfamily has been carried out in dicot plant Arabidopsis. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of PLAs has not been presented yet in crop plant rice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis identified a total of 31 PLA encoding genes in the rice genome, which are divided into three classes; phospholipase A(1 (PLA(1, patatin like phospholipases (pPLA and low molecular weight secretory phospholipase A(2 (sPLA(2 based on their sequences and phylogeny. A subset of 10 rice PLAs exhibited chromosomal duplication, emphasizing the role of duplication in the expansion of this gene family in rice. Microarray expression profiling revealed a number of PLA members expressing differentially and significantly under abiotic stresses and reproductive development. Comparative expression analysis with Arabidopsis PLAs revealed a high degree of functional conservation between the orthologs in two plant species, which also indicated the vital role of PLAs in stress signaling and plant development across different plant species. Moreover, sub-cellular localization of a few candidates suggests their differential localization and functional role in the lipid signaling. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The comprehensive analysis and expression profiling would provide a critical platform for the functional characterization of the candidate PLA genes in crop plants.

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants under abiotic stress.

    Sinha, Alok Krishna; Jaggi, Monika; Raghuram, Badmi; Tuteja, Narendra

    2011-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is evolutionarily conserved signal transduction module involved in transducing extracellular signals to the nucleus for appropriate cellular adjustment. This cascade consists essentially of three components, a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), a MAPK kinase (MAPKK) and a MAPK connected to each other by the event of phosphorylation. These kinases play various roles in intra- and extra-cellular signaling in plants by transferring the information from sensors to responses. Signaling through MAP kinase cascade can lead to cellular responses including cell division, differentiation as well as responses to various stresses. MAPK signaling has also been associated with hormonal responses. In plants, MAP kinases are represented by multigene families and are involved in efficient transmission of specific stimuli and also involved in the regulation of the antioxidant defense system in response to stress signaling. In the current review we summarize and investigate the participation of MAPKs as possible mediators of various abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:21512321

  17. Identification and Characterization of Proteins Associated with Plant Tolerance to Heat Stress

    Bingru Huang; Chenping Xu

    2008-01-01

    Heat stress is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth and productivity in many areas of the world. Understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to heat stress would facilitate the development of heat-tolerant cultivars for improving productivity in warm climatic regions. Protein metabolism involving protein synthesis and degradation is one of the most sensitive processes to heat stress. Changes in the level and expression pattern of some proteins may play an important role in plant adaptation to heat stress. The identification of stress-responsive proteins and pathways has been facilitated by an increasing number of tools and resources, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the rapidly expanding nucleotide and amino acid sequence databases. Heat stress may induce or enhance protein expression or cause protein degradation. The induction of heat-responsive proteins, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs), plays a key role in plant tolerance to heat stress. Protein degradation involving various proteases is also important in regulating plant responses to heat stress. This review provides an overview of recent research on proteomic profiling for the identification of heat-responsive proteins associated with heat tolerance, heat induction and characteristics of HSPs, and protein degradation in relation to plant responses to heat stress.

  18. Overexpression of stress-inducible OsBURP16, the β subunit of polygalacturonase 1, decreases pectin content and cell adhesion and increases abiotic stress sensitivity in rice.

    Liu, Huanhuan; Ma, Yan; Chen, Na; Guo, Siyi; Liu, Huili; Guo, Xiaoyu; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yunyuan

    2014-05-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG), one of the hydrolases responsible for cell wall pectin degradation, is involved in organ consenescence and biotic stress in plants. PG1 is composed of a catalytic subunit, PG2, and a non-catalytic PG1β subunit. OsBURP16 belongs to the PG1β-like subfamily of BURP-family genes and encodes one putative PG1β subunit precursor in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Transcription of OsBURP16 is induced by cold, salinity and drought stresses, as well as by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Analysis of plant survival rates, relative ion leakage rates, accumulation levels of H2 O2 and water loss rates of leaves showed that overexpression of OsBURP16 enhanced sensitivity to cold, salinity and drought stresses compared with controls. Young leaves of Ubi::OsBURP16 transgenic plants showed reduced cell adhesion and increased cuticular transpiration rate. Mechanical strength measurement of Ubi::OsBURP16 plants showed that reduced force was required to break leaves as compared with wild type. Transgenic rice showed enhanced PG activity and reduced pectin content. All these results suggested that overexpression of OsBURP16 caused pectin degradation and affected cell wall integrity as well as transpiration rate, which decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. PMID:24237159

  19. Heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a Dps family gene) protects Escherichia coli from nutrient limitation and abiotic stresses

    This study presents first hand data on the cloning and heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a dps family gene) in combating nutrients limitation and multiple abiotic stresses. The Escherichia coli transformed with pGEX-5X-2-all3940 construct when subjected to iron, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus limitation and carbofuron, copper, UV-B, heat, salt and cadmium stress registered significant increase in growth over the cells transformed with empty vector under iron (0%), carbon (0.05%), nitrogen (3.7 mM) and phosphorus (2 mM) limitation and carbofuron (0.025 mg ml-1), CuCl2 (1 mM), UV-B (10 min), heat (47 oC), NaCl (6% w/v) and CdCl2 (4 mM) stress. Enhanced expression of all3940 gene measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different time points under above mentioned treatments clearly demonstrates its role in tolerance against aforesaid abiotic stresses. This study opens the gate for developing transgenic cyanobacteria capable of growing successfully under above mentioned stresses.

  20. Some Effects of Abiotic Stress on Infection of Dyer's Woad (Isatis tinctoria L. by Puccinia thlaspeos C. Schub.: Implications for Biological Control

    Elizabeth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The rust pathogen, Puccinia thlaspeos, is being studied as a potential biocontrol agent for the noxious weed dyer’s woad. Although its disease etiology is well understood, very little has been learned about the effect of environmental stresses on infection. Approach: Dyer’s woad plants were exposed to different levels of oxidative stress, salinity stress, osmotic stress, dehydration, and cold stress before being inoculated with the rust pathogen. Rust infections were subsequently detected in asymptomatic tissue using rust-selective primers with the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Mild abiotic stress appears to enable dyer’s woad plants to develop cross-tolerance to the rust pathogen. Plants exposed to the mildest level of salinity were only 60% infected. Those exposed to the lowest osmotic stress were only 50% infected while plants exposed to the shortest period of dehydration, or cold stress were both only 70% infected. Control plants were 100% infected for all experiments. On the other hand, exposing plants to mild oxidative stress did not lower infection while the highest level of oxidative stress significantly lowered infection to 55%. Conclusion: Crosstolerance to multiple stresses often a desirable trait for plants of economic importance, is a cause for concern in biocontrol of weeds because of its potential to adversely impact the efficacy of mycoherbicides.

  1. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and -susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Katam, Ramesh; Sakata, Katsumi; Suravajhala, Prashanth;

    2016-01-01

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse...... drought tolerance characteristics were subjected to WS, and their leaf proteome was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis complemented with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Ninety-six protein spots were differentially abundant to water stress in both cultivars that corresponded to 60 non......, more studies involving the effects of drought stress to determine the molecular changes will enhance our understanding of the key metabolic pathways involved in the combined stresses. The changes associated with the biotic and abiotic interactions within the peanut will be used to determine the...

  2. Potentiality of Soybean Proteomics in Untying the Mechanism of Flood and Drought Stress Tolerance

    Zahed Hossain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissecting molecular pathways at protein level is essential for comprehensive understanding of plant stress response mechanism. Like other legume crops, soybean, the world’s most widely grown seed legume and an inexpensive source of protein and vegetable oil, is also extremely sensitive to abiotic stressors including flood and drought. Irrespective of the kind and severity of the water stress, soybean exhibits a tight control over the carbon metabolism to meet the cells required energy demand for alleviating stress effects. The present review summarizes the major proteomic findings related to changes in soybean proteomes in response to flood and drought stresses to get a clear insight into the complex mechanisms of stress tolerance. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of different protein extraction protocols and challenges and future prospects of soybean proteome study are discussed in detail to comprehend the underlying mechanism of water stress acclimation.

  3. Ecological relevance of strigolactones in nutrient uptake and other abiotic stresses, and in plant-microbe interactions below ground

    Andreo Jimenez, B.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Lopez-Raez, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are exposed to ever changing and often unfavourable environmental conditions, which cause both abiotic and biotic stresses. They have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to flexibly adapt themselves to these stress conditions. To achieve such adaptation, they need to control and coord

  4. Microarray Meta-Analysis Focused on the Response of Genes Involved in Redox Homeostasis to Diverse Abiotic Stresses in Rice

    de Abreu Neto, Joao B.; Frei, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a wide range of abiotic stresses (AS), which often occur in combination. Because physiological investigations typically focus on one stress, our understanding of unspecific stress responses remains limited. The plant redox homeostasis, i.e., the production and removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), may be involved in many environmental stress conditions. Therefore, this study intended to identify genes, which are activated in diverse AS, focusing on ROS-related pathwa...

  5. Abiotic stressors and stress responses: What commonalities appear between species across biological organization levels?

    Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning. - Highlights: • Responses to chemical and thermal stressors are reviewed across organization levels. • Common responses between taxa are evident at the molecular and cellular scales. • At individual level, energy allocation connects species-specific stress responses. • Commonality decreases at higher levels due to increasing environmental complexity. - The commonality of stress responses to chemical and thermal stressors among taxa is evident at the molecular and cellular scales but remains unclear at higher levels of organization

  6. Alfalfa Cellulose synthase gene expression under abiotic stress: a Hitchhiker's guide to RT-qPCR normalization.

    Gea Guerriero

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress represents a serious threat affecting both plant fitness and productivity. One of the promptest responses that plants trigger following abiotic stress is the differential expression of key genes, which enable to face the adverse conditions. It is accepted and shown that the cell wall senses and broadcasts the stress signal to the interior of the cell, by triggering a cascade of reactions leading to resistance. Therefore the study of wall-related genes is particularly relevant to understand the metabolic remodeling triggered by plants in response to exogenous stresses. Despite the agricultural and economical relevance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., no study, to our knowledge, has addressed specifically the wall-related gene expression changes in response to exogenous stresses in this important crop, by monitoring the dynamics of wall biosynthetic gene expression. We here identify and analyze the expression profiles of nine cellulose synthases, together with other wall-related genes, in stems of alfalfa plants subjected to different abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salt stress at various time points (e.g. 0, 24, 72 and 96 h. We identify 2 main responses for specific groups of genes, i.e. a salt/heat-induced and a cold/heat-repressed group of genes. Prior to this analysis we identified appropriate reference genes for expression analyses in alfalfa, by evaluating the stability of 10 candidates across different tissues (namely leaves, stems, roots, under the different abiotic stresses and time points chosen. The results obtained confirm an active role played by the cell wall in response to exogenous stimuli and constitute a step forward in delineating the complex pathways regulating the response of plants to abiotic stresses.

  7. Dominant Repression by Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB44 Causes Oxidative Damage and Hypersensitivity to Abiotic Stress

    Helene Persak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance—the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  8. Evaluation of abiotic stresses of temperate estuaries by using resident zooplankton: A community vs. population approach

    Paul, Sourav; Wooldridge, Tris; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-03-01

    By using permanently resident zooplankton, we assessed the ecological level (i.e. community and or population) that provides more in-depth indication of the stress related to salinity and temperature fluctuations in temperate estuaries. In the semi-arid warm temperate South Africa, the Gamtoos estuary experiences a full salinity gradient maintained by irregular but relatively frequent freshwater pulses, whereas the Kromme estuary is euhaline throughout its extent and receives only occasional freshwater inputs when the storage reservoir six km upstream overtops. Changes in the species evenness index of Pielou and the abundances of estuarine resident zooplankton species were modelled against salinity and temperature variations of respective estuaries. In the Gamtoos estuary, response of individual populations provided more in-depth information regarding zooplankton variability. However the most abundant resident zooplankton i.e. Acartia longipatella a copepod was not the best predictor of the salinity and temperature fluctuations. Conversely, the Kromme estuary study provided insights into the potential vulnerability of the resident estuarine zooplankton community to cold. Further, the population level study exposed responses of specific species against salinity changes. We discuss the pros and cons of designing ecological indicators of abiotic stress based on specific species, targeted to specific ecological level, and needs of considering the frequency and magnitude of fresh water inflow in an estuary. A suggestion is to use specific taxonomic group(s) (e.g. Copepods) to better understand the abiotic stress factors of specific set of estuaries (e.g. freshwater rich/starved) until a 'one size fits all' indicator is found for temperate estuaries.

  9. MATH-domain family shows response towards abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and rice

    Hemant Ritturaj Kushwaha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Response to stress represents a highly complex mechanism in plants involving a plethora of genes and gene families. It has been established that plants use some common set of genes and gene families for both biotic and abiotic stress responses leading to cross-talk phenomena. One such family, Meprin And TRAF Homology (MATH domain containing protein (MDCP, has been known to be involved in biotic stress response. In this study, we present genome-wide identification of various members of MDCP family from both Arabidopsis and rice. A large number of members identified in Arabidopsis and rice show the expansion and diversification of family in both the species. Localization of MDCP genes on the chromosomes of both Arabidopsis and rice show their presence in a few specific clusters on various chromosomes such as chromosome III in Arabidopsis and chromosome X in rice. For the functional analysis of MDCP genes, we used publicly available data for plant growth and development as well as biotic stresses and found differential expression of various members of the family. Further, we narrowed down 11 potential candidate genes in rice which showed high expression in various tissues and development stages as well biotic stress conditions. The expression analysis of these 11 genes in rice using qRT-PCR under drought and salinity stress identified OsM4 and OsMB11 to be highly expressed in both the stress conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that OsM4 and OsMB11 can be used as the potential candidates for generating stress resilient crops.

  10. Ethylene-inhibiting compound 1-MCP delays leaf senescence in cotton plants under abiotic stress conditions

    CHEN Yuan; J T Cothren; CHEN De-hua; Amir M H Ibrahim; Leonardo Lombardini

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants produce more ethylene when subjected to abiotic stresses, such as high temperatures and drought, which result in premature leaf senescence, reduced photosynthetic efifciency, and thus decreased yield. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the ethylene-inhibiting compound 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment of cotton plants can delay leaf senescence under high temperature, drought, and the aging process in control ed environ-mental conditions. Potted cotton plants were exposed to 1-MCP treatment at the early square stage of development. The protective effect of 1-MCP against membrane damage was found on older compared to younger leaves, indicating 1-MCP could lower the stress level caused by aging. Application of 1-MCP resulted in reduction of lipid peroxidation, membrane leakage, soluble sugar content, and increased chlorophyl content, in contrast to the untreated plants under heat stress, suggesting that 1-MCP treatment of cotton plants may also have the potential to reduce the effect of heat stress in terms of delayed senescence. Application of 1-MCP caused reductions of lipid peroxidation, membrane leakage, and soluble sugar content, together with increases in water use efifciency (WUE), water potential, chlorophyl content, and lfuorescence quantum efifciency, compared to the untreated plants under drought, suggesting that 1-MCP treatment of cotton plants may also have the ability to reduce the level of stress under drought conditions. In conclusion, 1-MCP treatment of cotton should have the potential to delay senescence under heat and drought stress, and the aging process. Additional y, 1-MCP is more effective under stress than under non-stress conditions.

  11. The α-Crystallin Domain Containing Genes: Identification, Phylogeny and Expression Profiling in Abiotic Stress, Phytohormone Response and Development in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum

    Asosii Paul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The α-crystallin domain (ACD is an ancient domain conserved among all kingdoms. Plant ACD proteins have roles in abiotic stresses, transcriptional regulation, inhibiting virus movement and DNA demethylation. An exhaustive in-silico analysis using Hidden Markof Model-based conserved motif search of the tomato proteome yielded a total of 50 ACD proteins that belonged to 4 groups, sub-divided further into18 classes. One of these groups belongs to the small heat shock protein (sHSP class of proteins, molecular chaperones implicated in heat tolerance. Both tandem and segmental duplication events appear to have shaped the expansion of this gene family with purifying selection being the primary driving force for evolution. The expression profiling of the Acd genes in two different heat stress regimes suggested that their transcripts are differentially regulated with roles in acclimation and adaptive response during recovery. The co-expression of various genes in response to different abiotic stresses (heat, low temperature, dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress and phytohormones (abscisic acid and salicylic acid suggested possible cross-talk between various members to combat a myriad of stresses. Further, several genes were highly expressed in fruit, root and flower tissues as compared to leaf signifying their importance in plant development too. Evaluation of the expression of this gene family in field grown tissues highlighted the prominent role they have in providing thermo-tolerance during daily temperature variations. The function of three putative sHSPs was established as holdase chaperones as evidenced by protection to malate-dehydrogenase against heat induced protein-aggregation. This study provides insights into the characterization of the Acd genes in tomato and forms the basis for further functional validation in-planta.

  12. Elevatated CO2 alleviates heat stress tolerance in wheat

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2014-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd Wolle...... crop performance under various climatic stresses.......Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  13. Differential expression of seven conserved microRNAs in response to abiotic stress and their regulatory network in Helianthus annuus

    Ebrahimi Khaksefidi, Reyhaneh; Mirlohi, Shirin; Khalaji, Fahimeh; Fakhari, Zahra; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Rafiei, Fariba; Budak, Hikmet; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses affect plant development and production through alternation of the gene expression pattern. Gene expression itself is under the control of different regulators such as miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs). MiRNAs are known to play important roles in regulation of stress responses via interacting with their target mRNAs. Here, for the first time, seven conserved miRNAs, associated with drought, heat, salt and cadmium stresses were characterized in sunflower. The e...

  14. EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY DROUGHT TOLERANT BACILLUS SPP. AND EFFECT ON SOIL AGGREGATION UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

    Sandhya Vardharajula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS of microbial origin with novel functionality, reproducible physico-chemical properties, are important class of polymeric materials. EPS are believed to protect bacterial cells from dessication, produce biofilms, thus enhancing the cells chances of bacterial colonizing special ecological niches. In rhizosphere, EPS are known to be useful to improve the moisture-holding capacity. Three Bacillus spp. strains identified by 16s rDNA sequence analysis as B. amyloliquefaciens strain HYD-B17; B. licheniformis strain HYTAPB18; B. subtilis strain RMPB44 were studied for the ability to tolerate matric stress and produce EPS under different water potentials. EPS production in all the three Bacillus spp strains increased with increasing water stress indicating correlation between drought stress tolerance and EPS production. Among the isolates, strain HYD-17 showed highest production of EPS. The exopolysaccharide composition of the three strains was further analyzed by HPLC. Drought stress influenced the ratio of sugars in EPS and glucose was found as major sugar in strains HYTAPB18 and RMPB44 whereas raffinose was major sugar found in strain HYD-B17. Inoculation of EPS producing Bacillus spp. strains in soil resulted in good soil aggregation under drought stress conditions at different incubation periods. This study shows that exposure to water stress conditions affects the composition and ratios of sugars in EPS produced by Bacillus spp. strains HYD-B17, HYTAPB18 and RMPB44 influencing abiotic stress tolerance of the microorganisms.

  15. Divergent DNA Methylation Patterns Associated with Abiotic Stress in Hevea brasiliensis

    Thomas K. Uthup; Mlnlmol Ravindran; K. Bini; Saha Thakurdas

    2011-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism for gene-expression regulation and development in plants.Here,we report for the first time the identification of DNA methylation patterns and their putative relationship with abiotic stress in the tree crop Hevea brasiliensis (source of 99% of natural rubber in the world).Regulatory sequences of four major genes involved in the mevalonate pathway (rubber biosynthesis pathway) and one general defense-related gene of three high-yielding popular rubber clones grown at two different agroclimatic conditions were analyzed for the presence of methylation.We found several significant variations in the methylation pattern at core DNA binding motifs within all the five genes.Several consistent clone-specific and location-specific methylation patterns were identified.The differences in methylation pattern observed at certain pivotal cis-regulatory sites indicate the direct impact of stress on the genome and support the hypothesis of site-specific stress-induced DNA methylation.It is assumed that some of the methylation patterns observed may be involved in the stress-responsive mechanism in plants by which they adapt to extreme conditions.The study also provide clues towards the existence of highly divergent phenotypic characters among Hevea clones despite their very similar genetic make-up.Altogether,the observations from this study prove beyond doubt that there exist epigenetic variations in Hevea and environmental factors play a significant role in the induction of site-specific epigenetic mutations in its genome.

  16. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  17. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR during development and abiotic stress in Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Niu, Jin-Zhi; Dou, Wei; Ding, Tian-Bo; Yang, Li-Hong; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is preferred for gene expression analysis in living organisms. Currently, it is a valuable tool for biological and ecological studies as it provides a relatively straightforward way to assess the relevance of transcriptional regulation under developmental and stress tolerance conditions. However, studies have shown that some commonly used reference genes varied among different experimental treatments, thus, systematic evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of arthropods. The aim of this study is to identify the suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments involving various developmental stages and/or under abiotic stresses in citrus red mite Panonychus citri, a key pest in citrus orchards worldwide. GeNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper software analysis indicates that elongation factor-1 alpha (ELF1A), RNA polymerase II largest subunit, alpha tublin, and glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) are the most stable reference genes in various developmental stages, meanwhile, ELF1A and GAPDH were the most stable reference genes under various abiotic stresses. Furthermore, this study will serve as a resource to screen reference genes for gene expression studies in any other spider mite species. PMID:22203483

  18. Comprehensive expression profiling of rice tetraspanin genes reveals diverse roles during development and abiotic stress

    Balaji eM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanin family is comprised of evolutionarily conserved integral membrane proteins. The incredible ability of tetraspanins to form ‘micro domain complexes’ and their preferential targeting to membranes emphasizes their active association with signal recognition and communication with neighboring cells, thus acting as key modulators of signaling cascades. In animals, tetraspanins are associated with multitude of cellular processes. Unlike animals, the biological relevance of tetraspanins in plants has not been well investigated. In Arabidopsis tetraspanins are known to contribute in important plant development processes such as leaf morphogenesis, root and floral organ formation. In the present study we investigated the genomic organization, chromosomal distribution, phylogeny and domain structure of 15 rice tetraspanin proteins (OsTETs. OsTET proteins had similar domain structure and signature ‘GCCK/R’ motif as reported in Arabidopsis. Comprehensive expression profiling of OsTET genes suggested their possible involvement during rice development. While OsTET9 and 10 accumulated predominantly in flowers, OsTET5, 8 and 12 were preferentially expressed in root tissues. Noticeably, seven OsTETs exhibited more than 2-fold up regulation at early stages of flag leaf senescence in rice. Furthermore, several OsTETs were differentially regulated in rice seedlings exposed to abiotic stresses, exogenous treatment of hormones and nutrient deprivation. Transient subcellular localization studies of eight OsTET proteins in tobacco epidermal cells showed that these proteins localized in plasma membrane. The present study provides valuable insights into the possible roles of tetraspanins in regulating development and defining response to abiotic stresses in rice. Targeted proteomic studies would be useful in identification of their interacting partners under different conditions and ultimately their biological function in plants

  19. Abiotic stress modifies the synthesis of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in phytoplankton species.

    Häubner, Norbert; Sylvander, Peter; Vuori, Kristiina; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-08-01

    We performed laboratory experiments to investi-gate whether the synthesis of the antioxidants α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and β-carotene in phytoplankton depends on changes in abiotic factors. Cultures of Nodularia spumigena, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Prorocentrum cordatum, and Rhodomonas salina were incubated at different tempe-ratures, photon flux densities and salinities for 48 h. We found that abiotic stress, within natural ecological ranges, affects the synthesis of the two antioxidants in different ways in different species. In most cases antioxidant production was stimulated by increased abiotic stress. In P. tricornutum KAC 37 and D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591, both good producers of this compound, α-tocopherol accumulation was negatively affected by environmentally induced higher photosystem II efficiency (Fv /Fm ). On the other hand, β-carotene accumulation was positively affected by higher Fv /Fm in N. spumigena KAC 7, P. tricornutum KAC 37, D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591 and R. salina SCCAP K-0294. These different patterns in the synthesis of the two compounds may be explained by their different locations and functions in the cell. While α-tocopherol is heavily involved in the protection of prevention of lipid peroxidation in membranes, β-carotene performs immediate photo-oxidative protection in the antennae complex of photosystem II. Overall, our results suggest a high variability in the antioxidant pool of natural aquatic ecosystems, which can be subject to short-term temperature, photon flux density and salinity fluctuations. The antioxidant levels in natural phytoplankton communities depend on species composition, the physiological condition of the species, and their respective strategies to deal with reactive oxygen species. Since α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as well as many other nonenzymatic antioxidants, are exclusively produced by photo-synthetic organisms, and are required by higher

  20. Metal resistance or tolerance? Acidophiles confront high metal loads via both abiotic and biotic mechanisms

    Mark eDopson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All metals are toxic at high concentrations and consequently their intracellular concentrations must be regulated. Acidophilic microorganisms have an optimum growth pH < 3 and proliferate in natural and anthropogenic low pH environments. Some acidophiles are involved in the catalysis of sulfide mineral dissolution, resulting in high concentrations of metals in solution. Acidophiles are often described as highly metal resistant via mechanisms such as multiple and/or more efficient active resistance systems than are present in neutrophiles. However, this is not the case for all acidophiles and we contend that their growth in high metal concentrations is partially due to an intrinsic tolerance as a consequence of the environment in which they live. In this perspective, we highlight metal tolerance via complexation of free metals by sulfate ions and passive tolerance to metal influx via an internal positive cytoplasmic transmembrane potential. These tolerance mechanisms have been largely ignored in past studies of acidophile growth in the presence of metals and should be taken into account.

  1. Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Histidine kinases Gene Expression in Zea mays L. cv. SC. 704

    Javadmanesh, Susan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available UV-B radiation and osmotic stress (like drought and salinity have a significant effect on physiology, morphology, biochemistry and molecular biology. To cope with such stimuli, plants must be able to effectively sense, respond to and adapt to changes in their biological activities. Hence, signal transduction pathways play important role in response to environmental stimuli. In this study, the expression of three Histidine Kinases including ZmHK1, ZmHK2 and ZmHK3a was studied in maize plants exposed to 8 days drought, salinity and UV-B stresses applying transcript approach. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses of ZmHKs showed up-regulation of ZmHK1 and ZmHK3 agenes after 8 days exposure to applied stresses except salinity in leaves, although, their regulation was more prominent during drought stress. Astonishingly, exposure to these stresses showed down-regulation of all genes in maize roots. However, the ZmHK1 behavior was quite different from two other homologues and showed up-regulation in combined stresses. We suggest that ZmHK1 and ZmHK3a, as cytokinin transmembrane receptors, sense osmolarity changes in cells caused by dehydration. Our data supports the involvement of ZmHK homologues under these stresses in maize and provides a gene expression dynamics during the stress which will be valuable for further studies of the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in maize.

  2. Progress in research of dehydrin response to abiotic stress%非生物胁迫下植物脱水素的研究进展

    马杰; 刘翠芳; 李灵之; 向建华; 陈信波

    2012-01-01

    脱水素是LEA蛋白中的一类,广泛存在于植物的各个组织器官及植物胚胎发育后期.脱水素是植物在受低温、干旱和高盐等非生物逆境胁迫时合成的一类高亲水性保护蛋白,具有保护核酸、胞内蛋白和膜结构免受损害的功能.许多研究已经证实在非生物胁迫下,植物脱水素的表达与积累和植物抗逆性之间存在着紧密的联系.对脱水素的结构、亚细胞定位、基因表达模式及非生物胁迫下脱水素作用的最新研究成果进行了综述.%Dehydrins, known as a group of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, are present in all plant organs and during late embryogenesis. Dehydrins have extremely hydrophilicity and are produced to protect plants from structural and molecular damage caused by abiotic stresses like low temperature, drought and salt stress. The positive correlation between the accumulation of dehydrin and abiotic stress tolerance in plants was reported. This review summarized the current knowledge about the structural characters, sub-cellular localization and gene expression of dehydrins and the functions in plant stress tolerance.

  3. Characterization of reference genes for RT-qPCR in the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in response to abiotic stress and desiccation/rehydration

    Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Bei; Yang, Honglan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wood, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant bryophyte of the biological soil crusts found in the Gurbantunggut desert. The extreme desert environment is characterized by prolonged drought, temperature extremes, high radiation and frequent cycles of hydration and dehydration. S. caninervis is an ideal organism for the identification and characterization of genes related to abiotic stress tolerance. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) expression analysis is a powerful analytical technique that requires the use of stable reference genes. Using available S. caninervis transcriptome data, we selected 15 candidate reference genes and analyzed their relative expression stabilities in S. caninervis gametophores exposed to a range of abiotic stresses or a hydration-desiccation-rehydration cycle. The programs geNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder were used to assess and rank the expression stability of the 15 candidate genes. The stability ranking results of reference genes under each specific experimental condition showed high consistency using different algorithms. For abiotic stress treatments, the combination of two genes (α-TUB2 and CDPK) were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the hydration-desiccation-rehydration process, the combination of two genes (α-TUB1 and CDPK) were sufficient for accurate normalization. 18S was among the least stable genes in all of the experimental sets and was unsuitable as reference gene in S. caninervis. This is the first systematic investigation and comparison of reference gene selection for RT-qPCR work in S. caninervis. This research will facilitate gene expression studies in S. caninervis, related moss species from the Syntrichia complex and other mosses. PMID:25699066

  4. QlicRice: a web interface for abiotic stress responsive QTL and loci interaction channels in rice.

    Smita, Shuchi; Lenka, Sangram Keshari; Katiyar, Amit; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Preece, Justin; Bansal, Kailash Chander

    2011-01-01

    The QlicRice database is designed to host publicly accessible, abiotic stress responsive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rice (Oryza sativa) and their corresponding sequenced gene loci. It provides a platform for the data mining of abiotic stress responsive QTLs, as well as browsing and annotating associated traits, their location on a sequenced genome, mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and tissue and growth stage-specific expressions on the whole genome. Information on QTLs related to abiotic stresses and their corresponding loci from a genomic perspective has not yet been integrated on an accessible, user-friendly platform. QlicRice offers client-responsive architecture to retrieve meaningful biological information--integrated and named 'Qlic Search'--embedded in a query phrase autocomplete feature, coupled with multiple search options that include trait names, genes and QTL IDs. A comprehensive physical and genetic map and vital statistics have been provided in a graphical manner for deciphering the position of QTLs on different chromosomes. A convenient and intuitive user interface have been designed to help users retrieve associations to agronomically important QTLs on abiotic stress response in rice. Database URL: http://nabg.iasri.res.in:8080/qlic-rice/. PMID:21965557

  5. MicroRNA Regulation of Abiotic Stress Response in 7B-1 Male-Sterile Tomato Mutant

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, I.; Dalmay, T.; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-13. ISSN 1940-3372 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 7B-1 mutant * abiotic stress * miRNAs Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.933, year: 2014

  6. Oil palm EgCBF3 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants through modulation of the ethylene signaling pathway.

    Ebrahimi, Mortaza; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2016-09-01

    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27513726

  7. Expression of Echmr gene from Eichhornia offers multiple stress tolerance to Cd sensitive Escherichia coli Δgsh mutants.

    Thapa, G; Das, D; Gunupuru, L R

    2016-09-01

    The detoxification of heavy metals frequently involves conjugation to glutathione prior to compartmentalization and eflux in higher plants. We have expressed a heavy metal stress responsive (Echmr) gene from water hyacinth, which conferred tolerance to Cd sensitive Escherichia coli Δgsh mutants against heavy metals and abiotic stresses. The recombinant E. coli Δgsh mutant cells showed better growth recovery and survival than control cells under Cd (200 μM), Pb(200 μM), heat shock (50 °C), cold stress at 4 °C for 4 h, and UV-B (20 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of Echmr gene revealed by northern analysis during above stresses further advocates its role in multi-stress tolerance. Heterologous expression of EcHMR from Eichhornia rescued Cd(2+) sensitive E. coli mutants from Cd(2+) toxicity and induced better recovery post abiotic stresses. This may suggests a possible role of Echmr in Cd(II) and desiccation tolerance in plants for enhanced stress response. PMID:27457806

  8. Betacyanin biosynthetic genes and enzymes are differentially induced by (abiotic stress in Amaranthus hypochondriacus.

    Gabriela Casique-Arroyo

    Full Text Available An analysis of key genes and enzymes of the betacyanin biosynthetic pathway in Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Ah was performed. Complete cDNA sequence of Ah genes coding for cyclo-DOPA 5-O glucosyltransferase (AhcDOPA5-GT, two 4, 5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase isoforms (AhDODA-1 and AhDODA-2, respectively, and a betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (AhB5-GT, plus the partial sequence of an orthologue of the cytochrome P-450 R gene (CYP76AD1 were obtained. With the exception AhDODA-2, which had a closer phylogenetic relationship to DODA-like genes in anthocyanin-synthesizing plants, all genes analyzed closely resembled those reported in related Caryophyllales species. The measurement of basal gene expression levels, in addition to the DOPA oxidase tyrosinase (DOT activity, in different tissues of three Ah genotypes having contrasting pigmentation levels (green to red-purple was determined. Additional analyses were performed in Ah plants subjected to salt and drought stress and to two different insect herbivory regimes. Basal pigmentation accumulation in leaves, stems and roots of betacyanic plants correlated with higher expression levels of AhDODA-1 and AhB5-GT, whereas DOT activity levels coincided with pigment accumulation in stems and roots and with the acyanic nature of green plants, respectively, but not with pigmentation in leaves. Although the abiotic stress treatments tested produced changes in pigment levels in different tissues, pigment accumulation was the highest in leaves and stems of drought stressed betacyanic plants, respectively. However, tissue pigment accumulation in stressed Ah plants did not always correlate with betacyanin biosynthetic gene expression levels and/or DOT activity. This effect was tissue- and genotype-dependent, and further suggested that other unexamined factors were influencing pigment content in stressed Ah. The results obtained from the insect herbivory assays, particularly in acyanic plants, also support the

  9. Osmotic stress represses strigolactone biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus roots: exploring the interaction between strigolactones and ABA under abiotic stress

    Liu, Junwei

    2015-02-26

    Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.

  10. Influence of brassinosteroids on plant cell alternative respiration pathway and antioxidant systems activity under abiotic stress conditions

    Derevyanchuk M. V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the brassinosteroids (BRs influence on the plant alternative respiration pathway and antioxidant systems to regulate the ROS (reactive oxygen species production under optimal and abiotic stress conditions. Methods. Respiration measurement experiments were done with the polarographic technique. Original methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant systems activity. Results. Treatment with BRs increased the inten- sity of plant alternative respiration pathway under control and stress conditions. BRs had no effect on alternative respiration of the BR-insensitive bri1–6 plants. Brassinosteroids also increased the activity of a range of antioxidant systems under osmotic stress. Conclusions. BRs are involved in the regulation of alternative respiration pathway and antioxidant systems activity in plant cells under optimal and abiotic stress conditions.

  11. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    Jia, Fengjuan, E-mail: jfj.5566@163.com; Qi, Shengdong, E-mail: zisexanwu@163.com; Li, Hui, E-mail: 332453593@qq.com; Liu, Pu, E-mail: banbaokezhan@163.com; Li, Pengcheng, E-mail: lpcsdau@163.com; Wu, Changai, E-mail: cawu@sdau.edu.cn; Zheng, Chengchao, E-mail: cczheng@sdau.edu.cn; Huang, Jinguang, E-mail: jghuang@sdau.edu.cn

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

  12. Sequential path analysis for determining interrelationships between yield and related traits in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. under normal and abiotic stress conditions

    Bayat Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield. Abbreviation: aerial part fresh weight without leaves weight (APFW, aerial part dry weight without leaves weight (APDW, biomass (BIO, coefficient of variation (CV, dry weight of root (DWR, flowering date (FD, fresh weight of leaf (FWL, fresh weight of root (FWR, harvest index (HI, leaf area index (LAI, dry leaf yield per plant (DLYP, number of leaf (NL, plant height (PH, randomized complete block design (RCBD, standard deviation (Std.

  13. Transplastomic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing multiple defence genes encoding protease inhibitors and chitinase display broad-spectrum resistance against insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses.

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Jane, Wann-Neng; He, Yong; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2014-05-01

    Plastid engineering provides several advantages for the next generation of transgenic technology, including the convenient use of transgene stacking and the generation of high expression levels of foreign proteins. With the goal of generating transplastomic plants with multiresistance against both phytopathogens and insects, a construct containing a monocistronic patterned gene stack was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plastids harbouring sweet potato sporamin, taro cystatin and chitinase from Paecilomyces javanicus. Transplastomic lines were screened and characterized by Southern/Northern/Western blot analysis for the confirmation of transgene integration and respective expression level. Immunogold localization analyses confirmed the high level of accumulation proteins that were specifically expressed in leaf and root plastids. Subsequent functional bioassays confirmed that the gene stacks conferred a high level of resistance against both insects and phytopathogens. Specifically, larva of Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua either died or exhibited growth retardation after ingesting transplastomic plant leaves. In addition, the inhibitory effects on both leaf spot diseases caused by Alternaria alternata and soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum were markedly observed. Moreover, tolerance to abiotic stresses such as salt/osmotic stress was highly enhanced. The results confirmed that the simultaneous expression of sporamin, cystatin and chitinase conferred a broad spectrum of resistance. Conversely, the expression of single transgenes was not capable of conferring such resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an efficacious stacked combination of plastid-expressed defence genes which resulted in an engineered tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:24479648

  14. Polyamine Accumulation in Transgenic Tomato Enhances the Tolerance to High Temperature Stress

    Lin Cheng; Yijing Zou; Shuli Ding; Jiajing Zhang; Xiaolin Yu; Jiashu Cao; Gang Lu

    2009-01-01

    Polyamines play an important role in plant response to abiotic stress. S-adenosyl-I-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is one of the key regulatory enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyamines. In order to better understand the effect of regulation of polyamine biosynthesis on the tolerance of high-temperature stress in tomato, SAMDC Cdna isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was introduced into tomato genome by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens through leaf disc transformation. Transgene and expression was confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses, respectively. Transgenic plants expressing yeast SAMDC produced 1.7- to 2.4-fold higher levels of spermidine and spermine than wild-type plants under high temperature stress, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and the protection of membrane lipid peroxidation was also observed. This subsequently improved the efficiency of CO2 assimilation and protected the plants from high temperature stress, which indicated that the transgenic tomato presented an enhanced tolerance to high temperature stress (38℃) compared with wild-type plants, Our results demonstrated clearly that increasing polyamine biosynthesis in plants may be a means of creating high temperature-tolerant germplasm.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with A. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress

    Vargas-Ortiz Erandi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a grain amaranth, is a C4 plant noted by its ability to tolerate stressful conditions and produce highly nutritious seeds. These possess an optimal amino acid balance and constitute a rich source of health-promoting peptides. Although several recent studies, mostly involving subtractive hybridization strategies, have contributed to increase the relatively low number of grain amaranth expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains limited, particularly regarding tissue-specific and biotic stress-related genes. Thus, a large scale transcriptome analysis was performed to generate stem- and (abiotic stress-responsive gene expression profiles in grain amaranth. Results A total of 2,700,168 raw reads were obtained from six 454 pyrosequencing runs, which were assembled into 21,207 high quality sequences (20,408 isotigs + 799 contigs. The average sequence length was 1,064 bp and 930 bp for isotigs and contigs, respectively. Only 5,113 singletons were recovered after quality control. Contigs/isotigs were further incorporated into 15,667 isogroups. All unique sequences were queried against the nr, TAIR, UniRef100, UniRef50 and Amaranthaceae EST databases for annotation. Functional GO annotation was performed with all contigs/isotigs that produced significant hits with the TAIR database. Only 8,260 sequences were found to be homologous when the transcriptomes of A. tuberculatus and A. hypochondriacus were compared, most of which were associated with basic house-keeping processes. Digital expression analysis identified 1,971 differentially expressed genes in response to at least one of four stress treatments tested. These included several multiple-stress-inducible genes that could represent potential candidates for use in the engineering of stress-resistant plants. The transcriptomic data generated from pigmented stems shared similarity with findings reported in developing

  16. Mutational Analysis to Dissect Oxidative and Abiotic Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    A forward genetics approach was used to identify mutants more tolerant to oxidative stress. Chemically and T-DNA-mutagenized collections of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines were screened for survivors under conditions that trigger oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death (PCD). The fungal AAL-toxin triggers PCD through perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism in AAL-toxin-sensitive plants. While Arabidopsis is relatively insensitive to the toxin, the loh2 mutant is sensitive to AAL-toxin due to knockout of a gene involved in sphingolipid metabolism. EMS mutagenesis of loh2 resulted in second-site mutants that are more tolerant than loh2 to the toxin. Nine of these mutants, named atr (AAL-toxin-resistant), were characterized towards their response to oxidative stress-induced cell death. Either application of the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole, leading to H2O2 accumulation was used, or paraquat, leading to superoxide radicals generation. Some mutants were more tolerant to aminotriazole, paraquat, or both herbicides. In another approach, T-DNA mutagenized wild type seeds were germinated on plant growth media supplemented with aminotriazole and one survivor was recovered. Atr1, atr7 and atr9, with tolerance to both aminotriazole and paraquat, were studied in more details. They showed tolerance to paraquat at seedling stage as well as at rosette leaf stage. Atr1 was subjected to microarray analyses at seedling stage under conditions that trigger cell death in loh2 and no visible damage in atr1. While most of the genes showed similar expression pattern in both mutants, some genes were specifically regulated in loh2 or atr1. These specifically regulated genes are potential targets for further functional studies. Downregulation of genes related to cell wall extension and cell growth in both mutants is consistent with the observed AT-induced growth inhibition in both mutants. It indicates that AT-induced oxidative stress influences two different processes: growth

  17. A bi-functional xyloglucan galactosyltransferase is an indispensable salt stress tolerance determinant in arabidop

    Li, Wenbo

    2013-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that substantially limits crop production worldwide. To identify salt stress tolerance determinants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants that are hypersensitive to salt stress and designated these mutants as short root in salt medium (rsa). One of these mutants, rsa3-1, is hypersensitive to NaCl and LiCl but not to CsCl or to general osmotic stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulate in rsa3-1 plants under salt stress. Gene expression profiling with Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed that RSA3 controls expression of many genes including genes encoding proteins for ROS detoxification under salt stress. Map-based cloning showed that RSA3 encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase, which is allelic to a gene previously named MUR3/KAM1. The RSA3/ MUR3/KAM1-encoded xylogluscan galactosyltransferase regulates actin microfilament organization (and thereby contributes to endomembrane distribution) and is also involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In rsa3-1, actin cannot assemble and form bundles as it does in the wild-type but instead aggregates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, addition of phalloidin, which prevents actin depolymerization, can rescue salt hypersensitivity of rsa3-1. Together, these results suggest that RSA3/MUR3/KAM1 along with other cell wall-associated proteins plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by maintaining the proper organization of actin microfilaments in order to minimize damage caused by excessive ROS. © 2013 The Author.

  18. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards. PMID:24307931

  19. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors respond to abiotic stress in Brassica napus L.

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola, each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12 and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12 and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3 were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides

  20. Early selection of kabuli chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L. tolerant to osmotic water stress

    Kamel Ben Mbarek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight " kabuli " chickpea genotypes Beja1, Amdoun1, Nayer, Kasseb, Bochra, FLP96-114C, FLP88-42C and Chetoui were germinated, in two in vitro culture media, particularly, agar and filter paper Watman n°2 and under tree osmotic water pressures (OWP: -0,33; -4 and -8 bars induced by PEG8000. On filter paper, germination appeared more accelerated with a higher rate compared to the agar media. Osmotic water stress has negatively affected the seeds germination and the seedlings vegetative development parameters. Osmotic water pressure - 8 bars completely inhibited seeds germination on filter paper media. On the other hand, on agar media, it caused a feeble germination rate and a stunting of the seedlings. A broad genotypic variability of the chickpea cultivars was revealed toward the osmotic water stress. Tolerance index to osmotic water stress revealed three groups of cultivars: (1 Nayer and Kasseb are tolerant, (2 Bochra, FLIP88-42C and Chetoui are fairly tolerant and (3 Amdoun1, Beja1 and FLIP96-114C are sensitive to this abiotic stress.

  1. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress cond...

  2. A rice stress-responsive NAC gene enhances tolerance of transgenic wheat to drought and salt stresses.

    Saad, Abu Sefyan I; Li, Xu; Li, He-Ping; Huang, Tao; Gao, Chun-Sheng; Guo, Mao-Wei; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2013-04-01

    Drought and salinity are the primary factors limiting wheat production worldwide. It has been shown that a rice stress-responsive transcription factor encoded by the rice NAC1 gene (SNAC1) plays an important role in drought stress tolerance. Therefore, we introduced the SNAC1 gene under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter into an elite Chinese wheat variety Yangmai12. Plants expressing SNAC1 displayed significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salinity in multiple generations, and contained higher levels of water and chlorophyll in their leaves, as compared to wild type. In addition, the fresh and dry weights of the roots of these plants were also increased, and the plants had increased sensitivities to abscisic acid (ABA), which inhibited root and shoot growth. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions revealed that the expressions of genes involved in abiotic stress/ABA signaling, such as wheat 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase, sucrose phosphate synthase, type 2C protein phosphatases and regulatory components of ABA receptor, were effectively regulated by the alien SNAC1 gene. These results indicated high and functional expression of the rice SNAC1 gene in wheat. And our study provided a promising approach to improve the tolerances of wheat cultivars to drought and salinity through genetic engineering. PMID:23415326

  3. Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mode Based Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Brassinolide and Other Plant Hormones Involved in Abiotic Stresses

    Deepak M. Kasote; Ritesh Ghosh; Jun Young Chung; Jonggeun Kim; Inhwan Bae; Hanhong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones are the key regulators of adaptive stress response. Abiotic stresses such as drought and salt are known to affect the growth and productivity of plants. It is well known that the levels of plant hormones such as zeatin (ZA), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and brassinolide (BR) fluctuate upon abiotic stress exposure. At present, there is not any single suitable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneous analysis of BR a...

  4. Identification of Synchronized Role of Transcription Factors, Genes, and Enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana under Four Abiotic Stress Responsive Pathways

    Samsad Razzaque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray datasets are widely used resources to predict and characterize functional entities of the whole genomics. The study initiated here aims to identify overexpressed stress responsive genes using microarray datasets applying in silico approaches. The target also extended to build a protein-protein interaction model of regulatory genes with their upstream and downstream connection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Four microarray datasets generated treating abiotic stresses like salinity, cold, drought, and abscisic acid (ABA were chosen. Retrieved datasets were firstly filtered based on their expression comparing to control. Filtered datasets were then used to create an expression hub. Extensive literature mining helped to identify the regulatory molecules from the expression hub. The study brought out 42 genes/TF/enzymes as the role player during abiotic stress response. Further bioinformatics study and also literature mining revealed that thirty genes from those forty-two were highly correlated in all four datasets and only eight from those thirty genes were determined as highly responsive to the above abiotic stresses. Later their protein-protein interaction (PPI, conserved sequences, protein domains, and GO biasness were studied. Some web based tools and software like String database, Gene Ontology, InterProScan, NCBI BLASTn suite, etc. helped to extend the study arena.

  5. Germination of stress-tolerant Eucalyptus pollen.

    Heslop-Harrison, J; Heslop-Harrison, Y

    1985-02-01

    Earlier reports have indicated that the pollen of Eucalyptus is mechanically robust and unusually resistant to the osmotic stress imposed by immersion in water. We have investigated some of the features of the germination mechanism in the pollen of E. rhodantha with a view to clarifying the role of pollen-wall specializations in determining this resistance. Cultured in vitro, the pollen showed erratic germination, with a scatter of germination times up to 24 h. This was associated with variation between individual grains in the rate of hydration and dispersal of the pectins of the oncus, the thickened outer component of the intine present at each aperture. The oncus is itself differentiated, with a refractive outer layer lying within a sporopollenin operculum and itself overlying the protein-bearing layer of the intine. The outer layer, interpreted as a compacted pectin, undergoes only slow dissolution in aqueous media after the lifting of the operculum, and it is this that apparently protects the grain from the effects of short-term osmotic stress. The rate of dissolution varies between grains, possibly as a consequence of minor differences in developmental rate in the final stages of differentiation in the anther, and this contributes to the wider scatter of germination times. The dehydrated pollen gave one-third of the potential germination after 24 h exposure to 60 degrees C, and a small proportion survived 24 h at 70 degrees C. This degree of heat tolerance must primarily reflect properties of the protoplast of the vegetative cell, not examined in the present study; but the wall specializations may well provide a guard against extreme desiccation, and it is noteworthy that the function of the germination mechanism is not prejudiced by exposure to high temperatures. PMID:4019590

  6. [Expression profiles of AtWRKY25, AtWRKY26 and AtWRKY33 under abiotic stresses.].

    Fu, Qian-Tang; Yu, Di-Qiu

    2010-08-01

    The transcription factor WRKY family is one type of key regulatory components of plant development and defense against stress factors. The expression profiles of three AtWRKY genes under abiotic stresses were analyzed by Northern blotting analysis. The expression of AtWRKY25, AtWRKY26, and AtWRKY33 changed during stress treatments including thermal factors, NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA) and osmotic stress, and significantly under NaCl and cold treatments, suggesting a specific role of the three AtWRKYs in adaptation to environmental stresses in plants. We also found that the three AtWRKY genes showed distinct expression patterns under thermal stresses. AtWRKY25 and AtWRKY26 were gradually induced during heat and cold treatments, whereas AtWRKY33 was suppressed by heat treatment and induced rapidly during cold stress, indicating that the three AtWRKYs may play different roles in response to temperature factors. In addition, we analyzed the sequence of the promoters with bioinformatics approach, and some cis-elements involved in abiotic stresses and hormonal responses were revealed. The results provided important information for studying biological functions of three AtWRKY genes. PMID:20709683

  7. Emerging Importance of Helicases in Plant Stress Tolerance: Characterization of Oryza sativa Repair Helicase XPB2 Promoter and Its Functional Validation in Tobacco under Multiple Stresses.

    Raikwar, Shailendra; Srivastava, Vineet K; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Genetic material always remains at the risk of spontaneous or induced damage which challenges the normal functioning of DNA molecule, thus, DNA repair is vital to protect the organisms against genetic damage. Helicases, the unique molecular motors, are emerged as prospective molecules to engineer stress tolerance in plants and are involved in nucleic acid metabolism including DNA repair. The repair helicase, XPB is an evolutionary conserved protein present in different organisms, including plants. Availability of few efficient promoters for gene expression in plants provoked us to study the promoter of XPB for better understanding of gene regulation under stress conditions. Here, we report the in silico analysis of novel stress inducible promoter of Oryza sativa XPB2 (OsXPB2). The in vivo validation of functionality/activity of OsXPB2 promoter under abiotic and hormonal stress conditions was performed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in tobacco leaves using OsXPB2::GUS chimeric construct. The present research revealed that OsXPB2 promoter contains cis-elements accounting for various abiotic stresses (salt, dehydration, or cold) and hormone (Auxin, ABA, or MeJA) induced GUS expression/activity in the promoter-reporter assay. The promoter region of OsXPB2 contains CACG, GTAACG, CACGTG, CGTCA CCGCCGCGCT cis acting-elements which are reported to be salt, dehydration, cold, MeJA, or ABA responsive, respectively. Functional analysis was done by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay using agroinfiltration in tobacco leaves, followed by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses. The results revealed high induction of GUS activity under multiple abiotic stresses as compared to mock treated control. The present findings suggest that OsXPB2 promoter is a multi-stress inducible promoter and has potential applications in sustainable crop production under abiotic stresses by regulating desirable pattern of gene expression. PMID:26734018

  8. A maize phytochrome-interacting factor 3 improves drought and salt stress tolerance in rice.

    Gao, Yong; Jiang, Wei; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Ning; Zhang, Changquan; Li, Hua; Lu, Yi; Wu, Meiqin; Tao, Xiaoyi; Deng, Dexiang; Chen, Jianmin

    2015-03-01

    Phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3) activates light-responsive transcriptional network genes in coordination with the circadian clock and plant hormones to modulate plant growth and development. However, little is known of the roles PIF3 plays in the responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, the cloning and functional characterization of the ZmPIF3 gene encoding a maize PIF3 protein is reported. Subcellular localization revealed the presence of ZmPIF3 in the cell nucleus. Expression patterns revealed that ZmPIF3 is expressed strongly in leaves. This expression responds to polyethylene glycol, NaCl stress, and abscisic acid application, but not to cold stress. ZmPIF3 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter was introduced into rice. No difference in growth and development between ZmPIF3 transgenic and wild-type plants was observed under normal growth conditions. However, ZmPIF3 transgenic plants were more tolerant to dehydration and salt stresses. ZmPIF3 transgenic plants had increased relative water content, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as significantly enhanced cell membrane stability under stress conditions. The over-expression of ZmPIF3 increased the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as Rab16D, DREB2A, OSE2, PP2C, Rab21, BZ8 and P5CS, as detected by real-time PCR analysis. Taken together, these results improve our understanding of the role ZmPIF3 plays in abiotic stresses signaling pathways; our findings also indicate that ZmPIF3 regulates the plant response to drought and salt stresses. PMID:25636202

  9. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Showler, Allan T.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar). The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop i...

  10. A stress-associated NAC transcription factor (SlNAC35) from tomato plays a positive role in biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Song; Ma, Xiaocui; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fanying; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-09-01

    The NAC transcription factor family participates in responses to various kinds of environmental stimuli in plants. Responses of NAC genes to abiotic stresses have been widely studied, but their functions in response to biotic stress are little reported in plants, especially in crops. In the present study, we examined the functions of a novel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NAC protein (SlNAC35) in abiotic and biotic stress resistance by using transgenic tobacco. Expression analysis found that SlNAC35 expression was induced by drought stress, salt stress, bacterial pathogen, and signaling molecules, suggesting its involvement in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. Moreover, transgenic lines exhibited a greater number of lateral roots and longer root length compared with Vec lines (empty vector lines) after drought and salt treatment. These results indicate that overexpression of SlNAC35 promoted root growth and development under drought and salt stresses. Higher expressions of NtARF1, NtARF2 and NtARF8 were observed under drought and salt stresses in transgenic lines, suggesting that overexpression of SlNAC35 promoted growth and development of roots in transgenic lines possibly by involving auxin signaling and by regulating NtARF expression. In addition, SlNAC35 overexpression improved resistance to bacterial pathogen in transgenic tobacco, and reactive oxygen species may be in the upstream of salicylic acid (SA) signaling in transgenic tobacco during defense response. PMID:26991441

  11. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant. RESULTS: The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  12. Rice Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Gene Family and Its Role in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Response

    Jai S. Rohila; Yinong Yang

    2007-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MARK) cascade is an important signaling module that transduces extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. An increasing body of evidence has shown that the MAPK-mediated cellular signaling is crucial to plant growth and development, as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a total of 17 MARK genes have been identified from the rice genome. Expression profiling, biochemical characterization and/or functional analysis were carried out with many members of the rice MARK gene family, especially those associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this review, the phylogenetic relationship and classification of rice MARK genes are discussed to facilitate a simple nomenclature and standard annotation of the rice MARK gene family. Functional data relating to biotic and abiotic stress responses are reviewed for each MARK group and show that despite overlapping in functionality, there is a certain level of functional specificity among different rice MAP kinases. The future challenges are to functionally characterize each MARK, to identify their downstream substrates and upstream kinases, and to genetically manipulate the MARK signaling pathway in rice crops for the improvement of agronomically important traits.

  13. The tomato DWD motif-containing protein DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress responses

    Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato

  14. The tomato DWD motif-containing protein DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress responses

    Miao, Min [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Zhu, Yunye [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Qiao, Maiju [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Xiaofeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhao, Wei [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Xiao, Fangming [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: liuyongsheng1122@hfut.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato.

  15. A Rice Immunophilin Gene, OsFKBP16-3, Confers Tolerance to Environmental Stress in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding.

  16. A Rice Immunophilin Gene, OsFKBP16-3, Confers Tolerance to Environmental Stress in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Park, Hyun Ji; Lee, Sang Sook; You, Young Nim; Yoon, Dae Hwa; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-01-01

    The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding. PMID:23485991

  17. Research on mutant barley population under biotic and abiotic stress condition

    Barley is one of the most important cereals with 8.5 million tons production, 3.5 million hectares of sowing area and 2.2 ton/ha yield in Turkey which is also one of the gene centres of barley. Barley is grown in every regions of Turkey where climatic conditions are available for the crop. But barley is the predominant crop in the driest land areas throughout the Anatolian plateau. Winters on that plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of -30 deg C can occur in the mountainous areas in the east, and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 deg C. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures above 30 deg C. Annual precipitation averages about 300 to 400 milimeters and rains mainly in winter. Because of all of these prerequisite conditions, winter barley dominates in Turkey, which indirectly refers to water economy. According to the above mentioned reasons the objectives of this investigation were: a) Improvement of drought resistance, lodding resistance and high yielding barley varieties by mutation breeding in Central Anatolian Region. b ) Determination and selection of abiotic stress such as salt resistance and biotic stress such as net blotch (Drestera teress). In our barley mutation breeding programme under Central Anatolian conditions well adapted Tokak 157/37 variety has been used. We applied 50, 150, 250 Gy gamma ray doses. Selection began at M2 generation. Agronomical characters including earliness, straw length, lodging resistance and disease resistance are monitored in the field and greenhouse. Mutant lines have been tested for salt resistance in the hydrophonic culture which contains 180 mMol and 220 mMol NaCl concentrations. Biotic stress characters such as net blotch, (Drechslera teres) resistance are tested in the greenhouse. Some parameters have been obtained after harvest. Preliminary yield trial and advanced yield trial are started after M4 generations. In M6 generation, we had some

  18. Raising mutants and transgenic Oryza sativa L. for salinity stress tolerance using gamma radiation and RNAi tools

    Plant breeding efforts are being undertaken at warfoot at various National and International Laboratories to yield salinity tolerant genotypes. Random mutations, an approach that causes changes in nucleotide sequences, resulting in expression of genes conferring tolerance against stress has been utilized for generating gene pool for salinity tolerance. In our laboratory, mutations were induced in salt-sensitive rice variety - IR64 using mutagenic gamma radiations. Seeds for M3 populations were obtained and screened for salt stress sensitive/tolerant lines. Out of 1200 lines 23 putative salinity-tolerant have been identified and further multiplied in order to obtain M4 lines for screening at microplot levels. Details pertaining to these lines and their characterization will be presented. Employing contemporary tools of genetic engineering - development of novel stress- tolerant plants had so far been attempted by transfer of genes encoding protective protein or enzymes involved in stress responses and adaptation. Since the first step in the stress response is the perception of stress stimulus, we have aimed to clone and characterize an osmosensor or stress receptor gene from rice (Oryza sativa L cv IR64). This putative osmosensor (OsHkl) is actually a member of two component system inducible by various abiotic stresses like high and low temperature, salinity, drought as well as exogenous application of stress hormone ABA. We have raised transgenic indica rice plants which are altered in expression (either overexpression or underexpression) for this gene to understand the role of this putative osmosensor in salinity stress response. This understanding will be given another leap forward by the analysis of similar transgenic lines which have been created for the SOS2 gene - believed to play an important role as a component of the the initial signal transduction machinery of plants. The observations and detailed analysis pertaining to these mutants and transgenic plants

  19. The AKR gene family and modifying sex ratios in palms through abiotic stress responsiveness.

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Poopear, Supannee; Jomchai, Nukoon; Uthaipaisanwong, Pichahpuk; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Sonthirod, Chutima; Ukoskit, Kittipat; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-05-01

    Sex ratio (SR), the ratio of female inflorescences to total inflorescences, is one of the main yield components of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The SR quantitative trait locus (QTL) was recently identified on linkage (LG) 8 with a phenotype variance explained (PVE) of 11.3 %. The use of both genetic and physical mapping is one strategy for uncovering the genetic basis of the traits. Here, we report the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and fosmid libraries, and their use for physical mapping in oil palm. Combined, the libraries consist of more than 200,000 clones, representing 6.35 genome equivalents. Physical mapping at the SR locus was implemented by incorporating the published oil palm genome sequence and positive BAC/fosmid clones as identified by colony PCR screening. Based on the previously published sequences, the interval (about 184 kb) was comprised of 19 contigs of the known sequences (~117 kb, 64 %). After, combining the 454 pyrosequences of 15 positive clones and the previously published sequences, the known sequences were revealed to cover about 82 % of the interval (~150 kb), and were used for identifying the new markers by designing 35 gene-based and 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR)-amplified primers. As a result, a putative aldo-keto reductase gene (named EgAKR1) was revealed to be a promising candidate for sex ratio determination, via controlling female inflorescence number (11 % of PVE). This was predicted from the two newly identified polymorphic marker loci (mEgSSRsr8-21LB and mEgAKR1-9) designing from EgAKR1. The functions of AKR gene families in other plant species and our promoter analysis suggested that EgAKR1 may contribute to the sex ratio through abiotic stress responsiveness. PMID:25504196

  20. Research on mutant barley population under biotic and abiotic stress condition

    Barley is one of the most important cereal with 8,5 million tons production, 3,5 million hectares of sowing area in Turkey which is also one of the gene centres of barley. Barley is grown in every regions of Turkey where climatic conditions are available for the crop. But barley is the predominant crop in the driest land areas throughout the Anatolian plateau. Winters on that plateau are especially severe. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures above 30 degree C. Annual precipitation averages about 300 to 400 millimeters and rains mainly in winter. Because of all of these prerequisite conditions, winter barley dominates in Turkey, which indirectly refers to water economy. According to the above mentioned reasons the objectives of this investigation were: 1) Improvement of drought resistance, loading resistance and high yielding barley varieties by mutation breeding in Central Anatolian Region. 2) Determination and selection of abiotic stress such as salt resistance In our barley mutation breeding programme under Central Anatolian conditions well adapted Tokak 157/37 variety has been used. We applied 250 Gy-300 Gy gamma ray doses . Selection began at M2 generation. Agronomical characters including earliness, straw length, lodging resistance and disease resistance are monitored in the field and greenhouse. Mutant lines have been tested for salt resistance in the hydrophonic culture which contains 180 mMol and 220 mMol NaCl concentrations. Preliminary yield trial and advanced yield trial are started after M4 generations. In M6 generation, we had some desirable lines those are 25-30 days earlier than its parents, so these lines escape from drought period. Some lines that have grown in the hydrophonic cultures, contains 180mMol NaCl still surviving.

  1. Jasmonates: emerging players in controlling temperature stress tolerance

    Manvi eSharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedentary life of plants has forced them to live in an environment that is characterized by the presence of numerous challenges in terms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Phytohormones play essential roles in mediating plant physiology and alleviating various environmental perturbations. Jasmonates are a group of oxylipin compounds occurring ubiquitously in the plant kingdom that play pivotal roles in response to developmental and environmental cues. Jasmonates (JAs have been shown to participate in unison with key factors of other signal transduction pathway, including those involved in response to abiotic stress. Recent findings have furnished large body of information suggesting the role of jasmonates in cold and heat stress. JAs have been shown to regulate C-repeat binding factor (CBF pathway during cold stress. The interaction between the integrants of JA signaling and components of CBF pathway demonstrates a complex relationship between the two. JAs have also been shown to counteract chilling stress by inducing ROS avoidance enzymes. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest the positive regulation of thermotolerance by JA. The present review provides insights into biosynthesis, signal transduction pathway of jasmonic acid and their role in response to temperature stress.

  2. Rice heterotrimeric G-protein gamma subunits (RGG1 and RGG2) are differentially regulated under abiotic stress

    Yadav, Dinesh Kumar; Islam, S. M. Shahinul; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (α, β and γ subunits) are primarily involved in diverse signaling processes by transducing signals from an activated transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) to appropriate downstream effectors within cells. The role of α and β G-protein subunits in salinity and heat stress has been reported but the regulation of γ subunit of plant G-proteins in response to abiotic stress has not heretofore been described. In the present study we report the isolation of full-l...

  3. TaASR1, a transcription factor gene in wheat, confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Hu, Wei; Huang, Chao; Deng, Xiaomin; Zhou, Shiyi; Chen, Lihong; Li, Yin; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Zhanbing; Yuan, Qianqian; Wang, Yan; Cai, Rui; Liang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-08-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins are reported to be involved in abiotic stresses. However, it is not known whether ASR genes confer drought stress tolerance by utilizing the antioxidant system. In this study, a wheat ASR gene, TaASR1, was cloned and characterized. TaASR1 transcripts increased after treatments with PEG6000, ABA and H(2)O(2). Overexpression of TaASR1 in tobacco resulted in increased drought/osmotic tolerance, which was demonstrated that transgenic lines had lesser malondialdehyde (MDA), ion leakage (IL) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), but higher relative water content (RWC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities than wild type (WT) under drought stress. Overexpression of TaASR1 in tobacco also enhanced the expression of ROS-related and stress-responsive genes under osmotic stress. In addition, transgenic lines exhibited improved tolerance to oxidative stress by retaining more effective antioxidant system. Finally, TaASR1 was localized in the cell nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results showed that TaASR1 functions as a positive factor under drought/osmotic stress, involved in the regulation of ROS homeostasis by activating antioxidant system and transcription of stress-associated genes. PMID:23356734

  4. Abiotic stresses affect differently the intron splicing and expression of chloroplast genes in coffee plants (Coffea arabica) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Nguyen Dinh, Sy; Sai, Than Zaw Tun; Nawaz, Ghazala; Lee, Kwanuk; Kang, Hunseung

    2016-08-20

    Despite the increasing understanding of the regulation of chloroplast gene expression in plants, the importance of intron splicing and processing of chloroplast RNA transcripts under stress conditions is largely unknown. Here, to understand how abiotic stresses affect the intron splicing and expression patterns of chloroplast genes in dicots and monocots, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the intron splicing and expression patterns of chloroplast genes in the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) as a dicot and rice (Oryza sativa) as a monocot under abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, or combined drought and heat stresses. The photosynthetic activity of both coffee plants and rice seedlings was significantly reduced under all stress conditions tested. Analysis of the transcript levels of chloroplast genes revealed that the splicing of tRNAs and mRNAs in coffee plants and rice seedlings were significantly affected by abiotic stresses. Notably, abiotic stresses affected differently the splicing of chloroplast tRNAs and mRNAs in coffee plants and rice seedlings. The transcript levels of most chloroplast genes were markedly downregulated in both coffee plants and rice seedlings upon stress treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that coffee and rice plants respond to abiotic stresses via regulating the intron splicing and expression of different sets of chloroplast genes. PMID:27448724

  5. Role of miRNAs and siRNAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2012-02-01

    Small, non-coding RNAs are a distinct class of regulatory RNAs in plants and animals that control a variety of biological processes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved through a series of pathways. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs control the expression of cognate target genes by binding to reverse complementary sequences, resulting in cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNAs. siRNAs have a similar structure, function, and biogenesis as miRNAs but are derived from long double-stranded RNAs and can often direct DNA methylation at target sequences. Besides their roles in growth and development and maintenance of genome integrity, small RNAs are also important components in plant stress responses. One way in which plants respond to environmental stress is by modifying their gene expression through the activity of small RNAs. Thus, understanding how small RNAs regulate gene expression will enable researchers to explore the role of small RNAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses. This review focuses on the regulatory roles of plant small RNAs in the adaptive response to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant gene regulation in response to abiotic stress. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. A novel stress-associated protein 'AtSAP10' from Arabidopsis thaliana confers tolerance to nickel, manganese, zinc, and high temperature stress.

    Anirudha R Dixit

    Full Text Available We describe here the functional characterization of a novel AtSAP10, a member of the Stress Associated Protein (SAP gene family, from Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia. AtSAP10 contains an A20 and AN1 zinc-finger domain at the N- and C-terminal, respectively. Arabidopsis SAP10 showed differential regulation by various abiotic stresses such as heavy metals and metalloids (Ni, Cd, Mn, Zn, and As, high and low temperatures, cold, and ABA. Overexpression of AtSAP10 in Arabidopsis conferred strong tolerance to heavy metals such as Ni, Mn, and Zn and to high temperature stress. AtSAP10 transgenic plants under these stress conditions grew green and healthy, attained several-fold more biomass, and had longer roots as compared to wild type plants. Further, while these transgenic plants accumulated significantly greater amounts of Ni and Mn in both shoots and root tissues, there was no significant difference in the accumulation of Zn. AtSAP10 promoter-GUS fusion studies revealed a root and floral organ-specific expression of AtSAP10. Overexpression of AtSAP10-GFP fusion protein showed the localization in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Taken together, these results showed that AtSAP10 is a potentially useful candidate gene for engineering tolerance to heavy metals and to abiotic stress in cultivated plants.

  7. The cowpea RING ubiquitin ligase VuDRIP interacts with transcription factor VuDREB2A for regulating abiotic stress responses.

    Sadhukhan, Ayan; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2014-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important grain legume cultivated in drought-prone parts of the world, having higher tolerance to heat and drought than many other crops. The transcription factor, Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding protein 2A (DREB2A), controls expression of many genes involved in osmotic and heat stress responses of plants. In Arabidopsis, DREB2A-interacting proteins (DRIPs), which function as E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19), regulate the stability of DREB2A by targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation. In this study, we cloned the cowpea ortholog of DRIP (VuDRIP) using PCR based methods. The 1614 bp long VuDRIP mRNA encoded a protein of 433 amino acids having a C3HC4-type Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain in the N-terminus and a C-terminal conserved region, similar to Arabidopsis DRIP1 and DRIP2. We found VuDRIP up-regulation in response to various abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) two-hybrid analysis, VuDRIP was identified as a VuDREB2A-interacting protein. The results indicate negative regulation of VuDREB2A by ubiquitin ligases in cowpea similar to Arabidopsis along with their other unknown roles in stress and hormone signaling pathways. PMID:25090086

  8. Application of stress susceptibility index for drought tolerance screening of tomato populations

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation comprised 41 tomato genotypes originating from the population of domestic and domesticated genotypes collected in Serbia and belonging to the tomato collection of the Institute of Vegetable Crop Science, Smederevska Palanka. The aim of collection screening was to choose the genotypes tolerant to drought during plant intensive growth stage, whereby the process of selection would set out to obtain the recombinant genotypes for this abiotic factor. The screening criteria were established for genotype divergence in plant height and shoot-root ratio under conditions of optimal irrigation regime and drought. Divergence was estimated using cluster analysis with Euclidean distance as a measure of distance, with a complete gene attachment to grouping. Drought tolerance is expressed by the stress susceptibility index (SSI. Various results were obtained based on the screening of genotypes grown under optimal and dry conditions. As a measure of stress susceptibility, based on SSI, genotypes having different drought tolerance level were determined. On the grounds of the analyses carried out, 10 genotypes were segregated (G102, G104, G107, G109, G110, G119, G125, G126, G128 and G141 to represent a basis to obtain the recombinant genotypes and to initiate the selection for drought resistance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31005 i br. TR 31059

  9. Native isolate of Trichoderma: a biocontrol agent with unique stress tolerance properties.

    Mishra, N; Khan, S S; Sundari, S Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Species of Trichoderma are widely recognized for their biocontrol abilities, but seldom studied collectively, for their plant growth promotion, abiotic stress tolerance and bioremediation properties. Our study is a concentrated effort to establish the potential of native isolate Trichoderma harzianum KSNM (T103) to tolerate biotic (root pathogens) and abiotic stresses [high salt (100-1000 mM); heavy metal (chromium, nickel and zinc: 1-10 mM); pesticides: malathion (100-600 ppm), carbofuran (100-600 ppb)], along with its ability to support plant growth. In vitro growth promotion assays with T103 treated Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo and Hordeum vulgare confirmed 'non-species specific' growth promotion effects of T103. At lower metal concentration, T103 treatment was found to completely negate the impact of metal stress [60 % increase in radicle length (RL) with no significant decrease in %germination (%G)]. Even at 10 mM metal, T103 inoculation gave 80 % increase in %G and >50 % increase in RL. In vitro experiments confirmed high metal reduction capacity (47 %-Cr, 35 %-Ni and 42 %-Zn) of T103 at concentrations as high as 4 mM. At maximum residual concentrations of malathion (440 ppm) and carbofuran (100 ppb) reported in agricultural soils, T103 maintained 80 and 100 % survivability, respectively. T103 treatment has improved %G and RL in all three hosts challenged with pesticide. Isolate T103 was found to effectively suppress growth of three major root pathogens: Macrophomina phaseolina (65.83 %) followed by Sclerotium rolfsii (19.33 %) and Fusarium oxysporum (19.18 %). In the light of these observations, native T. harzianum (T103) seems to be a competent biocontrol agent for tropical agricultural soils contaminated with residual pesticides and heavy metals. PMID:27339311

  10. Involvement of rice histone deacetylase HDA705 in seed germination and in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.

    Zhao, Jinhui; Li, Mingzhi; Gu, Dachuan; Liu, Xuncheng; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Duan, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation play crucial roles in the modification of chromatin structure and regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) assist to maintain the balance of chromatin acetylation status. Previous studies showed that plant HDACs are key regulators involved in response to development and stresses. In this study, we examined the expression pattern and function of HDA705, a member of the RPD3/HDA1-type HDAC in rice. Overexpression of HDA705 in rice decreased ABA and salt stress resistance during seed germination. Delayed seed germination of HDA705 overexpression lines was associated with down-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes and up-regulation of ABA biosynthetic genes. Moreover, overexpression of HDA705 in rice enhanced osmotic stress resistance during the seedling stage. Our findings demonstrate that HDA705 may play a role in regulating seed germination and the response to abiotic stresses in rice. PMID:26772883

  11. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related Stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot

    McGrann, Graham R. D.; STEED, ANDREW; BURT, CHRISTOPHER; Goddard, Rachel; LACHAUX, CLEA; Bansal, Anuradha; CORBITT, MARGARET; GORNIAK, KALINA; Nicholson, Paul; James K.M. Brown

    2014-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but ha...

  12. Breeding approaches in simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance of maize in tropical environments

    Denić M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, due to the influence of abiotic and biotic stress factors, maize production faces serious constraints. Among the agro-ecological conditions, the main constraints are: lack and poor distribution of rainfall; low soil fertility; diseases (maize streak virus, downy mildew, leaf blights, rusts, gray leaf spot, stem/cob rots and pests (borers and storage pests. Among the socio-economic production constraints are: poor economy, serious shortage of trained manpower; insufficient management expertise, lack of use of improved varieties and poor cultivation practices. To develop desirable varieties, and thus consequently alleviate some of these constraints, appropriate breeding approaches and field-based methodologies in selection for multiple stress tolerance, were implemented. These approaches are mainly based on: a Crossing selected genotypes with more desirable stress tolerant and other agronomic traits; b Using the disease/pest spreader row method, combined with testing and selection of created progenies under strong to intermediate pressure of drought and low soil fertility in nurseries; and c Evaluation of the varieties developed in multi-location trials under low and "normal" inputs. These approaches provide testing and selection of large number of progenies, which is required for simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance. Data obtained revealed that remarkable improvement of the traits under selection was achieved. Biggest progress was obtained in selection for maize streak virus and downy mildew resistance, flintiness and earliness. In the case of drought stress, statistical analyses revealed significant negative correlation between yield and anthesis-silking interval, and between yield and days to silk, but positive correlation between yield and grain weight per ear.

  13. Differential expression of seven conserved microRNAs in response to abiotic stress and their regulatory network in Helianthus annuus.

    Ebrahimi Khaksefidi, Reyhaneh; Mirlohi, Shirin; Khalaji, Fahimeh; Fakhari, Zahra; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Rafiei, Fariba; Budak, Hikmet; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses affect plant development and production through alternation of the gene expression pattern. Gene expression itself is under the control of different regulators such as miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs). MiRNAs are known to play important roles in regulation of stress responses via interacting with their target mRNAs. Here, for the first time, seven conserved miRNAs, associated with drought, heat, salt and cadmium stresses were characterized in sunflower. The expression profiles of miRNAs and their targets were comparatively analyzed between leaves and roots of plants grown under the mentioned stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis of target genes revealed that they are involved in several important pathways such as auxin and ethylene signaling, RNA mediated silencing and DNA methylation processes. Gene regulatory network highlighted the existence of cross-talks between these stress-responsive miRNAs and the other stress responsive genes in sunflower. Based on network analysis, we suggest that some of these miRNAs in sunflower such as miR172 and miR403 may play critical roles in epigenetic responses to stress. It seems that depending on the stress type, theses miRNAs target several pathways and cellular processes to help sunflower to cope with drought, heat, salt and cadmium stress conditions in a tissue-associated manner. PMID:26442054

  14. Monitoring expression profiles of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes under abiotic stresses using cDNA Microarray Analysis (abstract)

    Transcript regulation in response to cold, drought, high salinity and ABA application was investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L., Nipponbare) with microarray analysis including approx. 1700 independent DNA elements derived from three cDNA libraries constructed from 15-day old rice seedlings stressed with drought, cold and high salinity. A total of 141 non-redundant genes were identified, whose expression ratios were more than three-fold compared with the control genes for at least one of stress treatments in microarray analysis. However, after RNA gel blot analysis, a total of 73 genes were identified, among them the transcripts of 36, 62, 57 and 43 genes were found increased after cold, drought, high salinity and ABA application, respectively. Sixteen of these identified genes have been reported previously to be stress inducible in rice, while 57 of which are novel that have not been reported earlier as stress responsive in rice. We observed a strong association in the expression patterns of stress responsive genes and found 15 stress inducible genes that responded to all four treatments. Based on Venn diagram analysis, 56 genes were induced by both drought and high salinity, whereas 22 genes were upregulated by both cold and high salinity stress. Similarly 43 genes were induced by both drought stress and ABA application, while only 17 genes were identified as cold and ABA inducible genes. These results indicated the existence of greater cross talk between drought, ABA and high salinity stress signaling processes than those between cold and ABA, and cold and high salinity stress signaling pathways. The cold, drought, high salinity and ABA inducible genes were classified into four gene groups from their expression profiles. Analysis of data enabled us to identify a number of promoters and possible cis-acting DNA elements of several genes induced by a variety of abiotic stresses by combining expression data with genomic sequence data of rice. Comparative analysis of

  15. Overexpression of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic gene DWF4 in Brassica napus simultaneously increases seed yield and stress tolerance.

    Sahni, Sangita; Prasad, Bishun D; Liu, Qing; Grbic, Vojislava; Sharpe, Andrew; Singh, Surinder P; Krishna, Priti

    2016-01-01

    As a resource allocation strategy, plant growth and defense responses are generally mutually antagonistic. Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates many aspects of plant development and stress responses, however, genetic evidence of its integrated effects on plant growth and stress tolerance is lacking. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic gene AtDWF4 in the oilseed plant Brassica napus and scored growth and stress response phenotypes. The transgenic B. napus plants, in comparison to wild type, displayed increased seed yield leading to increased overall oil content per plant, higher root biomass and root length, significantly better tolerance to dehydration and heat stress, and enhanced resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Transcriptome analysis supported the integrated effects of BR on growth and stress responses; in addition to BR responses associated with growth, a predominant plant defense signature, likely mediated by BES1/BZR1, was evident in the transgenic plants. These results establish that BR can interactively and simultaneously enhance abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and plant productivity. The ability to confer pleiotropic beneficial effects that are associated with different agronomic traits suggests that BR-related genes may be important targets for simultaneously increasing plant productivity and performance under stress conditions. PMID:27324083

  16. Comprehensive genomic analysis and expression profiling of phospholipase C gene family during abiotic stresses and development in rice.

    Amarjeet Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phospholipase C (PLC is one of the major lipid hydrolysing enzymes, implicated in lipid mediated signaling. PLCs have been found to play a significant role in abiotic stress triggered signaling and developmental processes in various plant species. Genome wide identification and expression analysis have been carried out for this gene family in Arabidopsis, yet not much has been accomplished in crop plant rice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An exhaustive in-silico exploration of rice genome using various online databases and tools resulted in the identification of nine PLC encoding genes. Based on sequence, motif and phylogenetic analysis rice PLC gene family could be divided into phosphatidylinositol-specific PLCs (PI-PLCs and phosphatidylcholine- PLCs (PC-PLC or NPC classes with four and five members, respectively. A comparative analysis revealed that PLCs are conserved in Arabidopsis (dicots and rice (monocot at gene structure and protein level but they might have evolved through a separate evolutionary path. Transcript profiling using gene chip microarray and quantitative RT-PCR showed that most of the PLC members expressed significantly and differentially under abiotic stresses (salt, cold and drought and during various developmental stages with condition/stage specific and overlapping expression. This finding suggested an important role of different rice PLC members in abiotic stress triggered signaling and plant development, which was also supported by the presence of relevant cis-regulatory elements in their promoters. Sub-cellular localization of few selected PLC members in Nicotiana benthamiana and onion epidermal cells has provided a clue about their site of action and functional behaviour. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome wide identification, structural and expression analysis and knowledge of sub-cellular localization of PLC gene family envisage the functional characterization of these genes in crop plants in near

  17. Social stress, obesity and glucose tolerance: a psychobiological investigation

    Sanghez, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Social stress, obesity and glucose tolerance: a psychobiological investigation Stress has been associated with changes in eating behavior and food preferences (Dallman et al. 2003). In humans psychosocial and socio-economical challenges have been related with neuroendocrine-autonomic dysregulation followed by visceral obesity and increased in body mass index (BMI) (Van Strien et al. 1986, Rosmond, Dallman and Björntorp 1998). The chronic activation of stress response system, leads to an i...

  18. Isolation of high salinity stress tolerant genes from Pisum sativum by random overexpression in Escherichia coli and their functional validation.

    Joshi, Amita; Dang, Hung Quang; Vaid, Neha; Tuteja, Narendra

    2009-05-01

    Salinity stress is one of the major factors which reduce crop plants growth and productivity resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. Therefore, it would be fruitful to isolate and functionally identify new salinity stress-induced genes for understanding the mechanism and developing salinity stress tolerant plants. Based on functional gene screening assay, we have isolated few salinity tolerant genes out of one million Escherichia coli (SOLR) transformants containing pea cDNAs. Sequence analysis of three of these genes revealed homology to Ribosomal-L30E (RPL30E), Chlorophyll-a/b-binding protein (Chla/bBP) and FIDDLEHEAD (FDH). The salinity tolerance of these genes in bacteria was further confirmed by using another strain of E. coli (DH5alpha) transformants. The homology based computational modeling of these proteins suggested the high degree of conservation with the conserved domains of their homologous partners. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of these cDNAs (except the FDH) was upregulated in pea plants in response to NaCl stress. We observed that there was no significant effect of Li(+) ion on the expression level of these genes, while an increase in response to K(+) ion was observed. Overall, this study provides an evidence for a novel function of these genes in high salinity stress tolerance. The PsFDH showed constitutive expression in planta suggesting that it can be used as constitutively expressed marker gene for salinity stress tolerance in plants. This study brings new direction in identifying novel function of unidentified genes in abiotic stress tolerance without previous knowledge of the genome sequence. PMID:19816097

  19. Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on the competitive ability of multiple herbicide resistant wild oat (Avena fatua.

    Erik A Lehnhoff

    Full Text Available Ecological theory predicts that fitness costs of herbicide resistance should lead to the reduced relative abundance of resistant populations upon the cessation of herbicide use. This greenhouse research investigated the potential fitness costs of two multiple herbicide resistant (MHR wild oat (Avena fatua populations, an economically important weed that affects cereal and pulse crop production in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We compared the competitive ability of two MHR and two herbicide susceptible (HS A. fatua populations along a gradient of biotic and abiotic stresses The biotic stress was imposed by three levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum competition (0, 4, and 8 individuals pot(-1 and an abiotic stress by three nitrogen (N fertilization rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models and results showed that the biomass of all A. fatua populations decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at all N rates. Similarly, A. fatua relative growth rate (RGR decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at the medium and high N rates but there was no response with 0 N. There were no differences between the levels of biomass or RGR of HS and MHR populations in response to T. aestivum competition. Overall, the results indicate that MHR does not confer growth-related fitness costs in these A. fatua populations, and that their relative abundance will not be diminished with respect to HS populations in the absence of herbicide treatment.

  20. X1-homologous genes family as central components in biotic and abiotic stresses response in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Zhang, Zhongbao; Chen, Yajuan; Zhao, Dan; Li, Ruifen; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Jiewei; Wei, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    X1-homologous genes (XHS) encode plant specific proteins containing three basic domains (XH, XS, zf-XS). In spite of their physiological importance, systematic analyses of ZmXHS genes have not yet been explored. In this study, we isolated and characterized ten ZmXHS genes in a whole-of-genome analysis of the maize genome. A total of ten members of this family were identified in maize genome. The ten ZmXHS genes were distributed on seven maize chromosomes. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed that most ZmXHS proteins share all the three conserved domains. Putative cis-elements involved in abiotic stress responsive, phytohormone, pollen-specific and quantitative, seed development and germination, light and circadian rhythms regulation, Ca(2+)-responsive, root hair cell-specific, and CO(2)-responsive transcriptional activation were observed in the promoters of ZmXHS genes. Yeast hybrid assay revealed that the XH domain of ZmXHS5 was necessary for interaction with itself and ZmXHS2. Microarray data showed that the ZmXHS genes had tissue-specific expression patterns in the maize developmental steps and biotic stresses response. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results indicated that, except ZmXHS9, the other nine ZmXHS genes were induced in the seedling leaves by at least one of the four abiotic stresses applied. PMID:24676795

  1. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

    Cristina de Paula Santos Martins

    Full Text Available The family of aquaporins (AQPs, or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs, tonoplast (TIPs, NOD26-like (NIPs, small basic (SIPs and unclassified X (XIPs intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  2. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs) based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus. PMID:26397813

  3. 褪黑素与植物抗逆性研究进展%Advances in Melatonin and Its Roles in Abiotic Stress Resistance in Plants

    姜超强; 祖朝龙

    2015-01-01

    褪黑素广泛存在于植物体内,对植物生长和发育方面有着重要的作用。其中,最为人们关注的是褪黑素在植物抵御干旱、高盐、极端温度和氧化胁迫等不良影响中所发挥的重要功能。随着人们对褪黑素研究的深入,褪黑素在植物体中发挥的作用和功能也更加明确,国内外在褪黑素与植物抗逆性关系的研究也取得了丰硕的成果。主要从植物体中褪黑素的合成途径、褪黑素在植物抗性反应中的作用以及内源褪黑素含量与逆境等方面进行了综述,并提出今后的研究方向。可以归纳为:植物体内褪黑素的合成机制与动物体内相似,但是确切的生物合成途径和具体的合成位点尚未明确;外源褪黑素处理能够增强植物抵御逆境的能力;逆境胁迫能够促进植物自身合成褪黑素,过表达褪黑素合成相关基因能够增加植物体内褪黑素的含量。%Evidence has confirmed that the presence of melatonin in plants is universal. Melatonin has importance roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The most frequently mentioned functions of melatonin are related to abiotic stresses such as drought, salt stress, extreme temperature, and oxidative stresses. Nowadays, with understanding deepening of melatonin, studies about the effect of melatonin on abiotic stresses resistance in plants have made plentiful and substantial achievements. This review mainly focuses on the biosynthesis pathway of melatonin, exogenously applied melatonin affects stress tolerance and melatonin levels in plants under stress conditions, and also proposes the potential subjects of melatonin in plant. The findings are as follows, although it has been suggested that plant melatonin is synthesized via similar biosynthetic pathways to those in animals, the exact biosynthetic pathway and the specific sites remain unclear. Evidence indicates that exogenously applied melatonin can also

  4. Microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to inhibitors and stress

    Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Shihui

    2014-07-29

    The present invention provides genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced tolerance to stress and/or inhibitors such as sodium acetate and vanillin. The enhanced tolerance can be achieved by increasing the expression of a protein of the Sm-like superfamily such as a bacterial Hfq protein and a fungal Sm or Lsm protein. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using the genetically modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  5. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling analysis of ZmPIN, ZmPILS, ZmLAX and ZmABCB auxin transporter gene families in maize (Zea mays L. under various abiotic stresses.

    Runqing Yue

    Full Text Available The auxin influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux 1 (AUX/LAX, efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN (together with PIN-like proteins and efflux/conditional P-glycoprotein (ABCB are major protein families involved in auxin polar transport. However, how they function in responses to exogenous auxin and abiotic stresses in maize is largely unknown. In this work, the latest updated maize (Zea mays L. reference genome sequence was used to characterize and analyze the ZmLAX, ZmPIN, ZmPILS and ZmABCB family genes from maize. The results showed that five ZmLAXs, fifteen ZmPINs, nine ZmPILSs and thirty-five ZmABCBs were mapped on all ten maize chromosomes. Highly diversified gene structures, nonconservative transmembrane helices and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested the possibility of function diversification for these genes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of ZmLAX, ZmPIN, ZmPILS and ZmABCB genes under exogenous auxin and different environmental stresses. The expression levels of most ZmPIN, ZmPILS, ZmLAX and ZmABCB genes were induced in shoots and were reduced in roots by various abiotic stresses (drought, salt and cold stresses. The opposite expression response patterns indicated the dynamic auxin transport between shoots and roots under abiotic stresses. Analysis of the expression patterns of ZmPIN, ZmPILS, ZmLAX and ZmABCB genes under drought, salt and cold treatment may help us to understand the possible roles of maize auxin transporter genes in responses and tolerance to environmental stresses.

  6. The molecular impacts of abiotic stress factors on photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and higher plants

    Lohscheider, Jens Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    During photosynthesis, the physical energy of sunlight is used for the production of biomass, consuming atmospheric CO2 and water and at the same time releasing molecular oxygen. This process is tightly regulated and its efficiency is strongly dependent on external abiotic and biotic factors influencing the status of the photosynthetic machinery, and thus, all downstream molecular processes. Light plays a central role because variations of light intensity and quality are frequent in most habi...

  7. Differential Regulation of Genes Coding for Organelle and Cytosolic ClpATPases under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Wheat.

    Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K; Dalal, Monika; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bansal, Kailash C

    2016-01-01

    A sub-group of class I Caseinolytic proteases (Clps) function as molecular chaperone and confer thermotolerance to plants. We identified class I Clp family consisting of five ClpB/HSP100, two ClpC, and two ClpD genes from bread wheat. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes were highly conserved across grass genomes. Subcellular localization prediction revealed that TaClpC and TaClpD subgroup proteins and TaClpB1 proteins are potentially targeted to chloroplast, while TaClpB5 to mitochondria, and TaClpB2, TaClpB3, and TaClpB4 to cytoplasm. Spatio-temporal expression pattern analysis revealed that four TaClpB and TaClpD2 genes are expressed in majority of all tissues and developmental stages of wheat. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of expression levels of Clp genes in seven wheat genotypes under different abiotic stresses revealed that genes coding for the cytosolic Clps namely TaClpB2 and TaClpB3 were upregulated under heat, salt and oxidative stress but were downregulated by cold stress in most genotypes. In contrast, genes coding for the chloroplastic Clps TaClpC1, TaClpC2, and TaClpD1 genes were significantly upregulated by mainly by cold stress in most genotypes, while TaClpD2 gene was upregulated >2 fold by salt stress in DBW16. The TaClpB5 gene coding for mitochondrial Clp was upregulated in all genotypes under heat, salt and oxidative stresses. In addition, we found that biotic stresses also upregulated TaClpB4 and TaClpD1. Among biotic stresses, Tilletia caries induced TaClpB2, TaClpB3, TaClpC1, and TaClpD1. Differential expression pattern under different abiotic and biotic stresses and predicted differential cellular localization of Clps suggest their non-redundant organelle and stress-specific roles. Our results also suggest the potential role of Clps in cold, salt and biotic stress responses in addition to the previously established role in thermotolerance of wheat. PMID:27446158

  8. Whole transcriptome analysis of transgenic barley with altered cytokinin homeostasis and increased tolerance to drought stress.

    Vojta, Petr; Kokáš, Filip; Husičková, Alexandra; Grúz, Jiří; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Marchetti, Cintia F; Jiskrová, Eva; Ježilová, Eliška; Mik, Václav; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinin plant hormones have been shown to play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we expand upon the findings of Pospíšilová et al. [30] regarding preparation of novel transgenic barley lines overexpressing cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis under the control of mild root-specific promotor of maize β-glycosidase. These lines showed drought-tolerant phenotype mainly due to alteration of root architecture and stronger lignification of root tissue. A detailed transcriptomic analysis of roots of transgenic plants subjected to revitalization after drought stress revealed attenuated response through the HvHK3 cytokinin receptor and up-regulation of two transcription factors implicated in stress responses and abscisic acid sensitivity. Increased expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway as well as of genes encoding arogenate dehydratase/lyase participating in phenylalanine synthesis was found in roots during revitalization. Although more precursors of lignin synthesis were present in roots after drought stress, final lignin accumulation did not change compared to that in plants grown under optimal conditions. Changes in transcriptome indicated a higher auxin turnover in transgenic roots. The same analysis in leaves revealed that genes encoding putative enzymes responsible for production of jasmonates and other volatile compounds were up-regulated. Although transgenic barley leaves showed lower chlorophyll content and down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis than did wild-type plants when cultivated under optimal conditions, they did show a tendency to return to initial photochemical activities faster than did wild-type leaves when re-watered after severe drought stress. In contrast to optimal conditions, comparative transcriptomic analysis of revitalized leaves displayed up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in photosynthesis, and especially

  9. Validation of potential reference genes for qPCR in maize across abiotic stresses, hormone treatments, and tissue types.

    Yueai Lin

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG, phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins, and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α, tubulin beta (β-TUB, cyclophilin (CYP, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, GLU1(beta-glucosidase, and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9 were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1α, β-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types.

  10. Genome-wide characterization and analysis of bZIP transcription factor gene family related to abiotic stress in cassava.

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Hubiao; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Zuo, Jiao; Peng, Ming; Li, Kaimian

    2016-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family plays crucial roles in various aspects of biological processes. Currently, no information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important tropical crop cassava. Herein, 77 bZIP genes were identified from cassava. Evolutionary analysis indicated that MebZIPs could be divided into 10 subfamilies, which was further supported by conserved motif and gene structure analyses. Global expression analysis suggested that MebZIPs showed similar or distinct expression patterns in different tissues between cultivated variety and wild subspecies. Transcriptome analysis of three cassava genotypes revealed that many MebZIP genes were activated by drought in the root of W14 subspecies, indicating the involvement of these genes in the strong resistance of cassava to drought. Expression analysis of selected MebZIP genes in response to osmotic, salt, cold, ABA, and H2O2 suggested that they might participate in distinct signaling pathways. Our systematic analysis of MebZIPs reveals constitutive, tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MebZIP genes for further functional characterization in planta, yields new insights into transcriptional regulation of MebZIP genes, and lays a foundation for understanding of bZIP-mediated abiotic stress response. PMID:26947924

  11. Emmental Cheese Environment Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance.

    Valérie Gagnaire

    Full Text Available Dairy propionibacteria are actinomycetales found in various fermented food products. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is generally recognized as safe and used both as probiotic and as cheese starter. Its probiotic efficacy tightly depends on its tolerance towards digestive stresses, which can be largely modulated by the ingested delivery vehicle. Indeed, tolerance of this bacterium is enhanced when it is consumed within a fermented dairy product, compared to a dried probiotic preparation. We investigated both stress tolerance and protein neosynthesis upon growth in i chemically defined or ii aqueous phase of Emmental cheeses. Although the same final population level was reached in both media, a slower growth and an enhanced survival of CIRM BIA 1 strain of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was observed in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium. This was accompanied by differences in substrates used and products released as well as overexpression of various early stress adaptation proteins in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium, implied in protein folding, in aspartate catabolism, in biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, in pyruvate metabolism in citrate cycle, in the propionate metabolism, as well as in oxidoreductases. All these changes led to a higher digestive stress tolerance after growth in Emmental juice. Mechanisms of stress adaptation were induced in this environment, in accordance with enhanced survival. This opens perspectives for the use of hard and semi-hard cheeses as delivery vehicle for probiotics with enhanced efficacy.

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana glyoxalase 2-1 is required during abiotic stress but is not essential under normal plant growth.

    Sriram Devanathan

    Full Text Available The glyoxalase pathway, which consists of the two enzymes, GLYOXALASE 1 (GLX 1 (E.C.: 4.4.1.5 and 2 (E.C.3.1.2.6, has a vital role in chemical detoxification. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are at least four different isoforms of glyoxalase 2, two of which, GLX2-1 and GLX2-4 have not been characterized in detail. Here, the functional role of Arabidopsis thaliana GLX2-1 is investigated. Glx2-1 loss-of-function mutants and plants that constitutively over-express GLX2-1 resemble wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Insilico analysis of publicly available microarray datasets with ATTEDII, Mapman and Genevestigator indicate potential role(s in stress response and acclimation. Results presented here demonstrate that GLX2-1 gene expression is up-regulated in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana by salt and anoxia stress, and by excess L-Threonine. Additionally, a mutation in GLX2-1 inhibits growth and survival during abiotic stresses. Metabolic profiling studies show alterations in the levels of sugars and amino acids during threonine stress in the plants. Elevated levels of polyamines, which are known stress markers, are also observed. Overall our results suggest that Arabidopsis thaliana GLX2-1 is not essential during normal plant life, but is required during specific stress conditions.

  13. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance.

    Jia, Fengjuan; Qi, Shengdong; Li, Hui; Liu, Pu; Li, Pengcheng; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao; Huang, Jinguang

    2014-11-28

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis. PMID:25450686

  14. Heat shock factors in carrot: genome-wide identification, classification, and expression profiles response to abiotic stress.

    Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guang-Long; Ma, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Heat shock factors (HSFs) play key roles in the response to abiotic stress in eukaryotes. In this study, 35 DcHSFs were identified from carrot (Daucus carota L.) based on the carrot genome database. All 35 DcHSFs were divided into three classes (A, B, and C) according to the structure and phylogenetic relationships of four different plants, namely, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Brassica rapa, and Oryza sativa. Comparative analysis of algae, gymnosperms, and angiosperms indicated that the numbers of HSF transcription factors were related to the plant's evolution. The expression profiles of five DcHsf genes (DcHsf 01, DcHsf 02, DcHsf 09, DcHsf 10, and DcHsf 16), which selected from each subfamily (A, B, and C), were detected by quantitative real-time PCR under abiotic stresses (cold, heat, high salinity, and drought) in two carrot cultivars, D. carota L. cvs. Kurodagosun and Junchuanhong. The expression levels of DcHsfs were markedly increased by heat stress, except that of DcHsf 10, which was down regulated. The expression profiles of different DcHsfs in the same class also differed under various stress treatments. The expression profiles of these DcHsfs were also different in tissues of two carrot cultivars. This study is the first to identify and characterize the DcHSF family transcription factors in plants of Apiaceae using whole-genome analysis. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the DcHSF family transcription factors' structure, function, and evolution in carrot. PMID:25403331

  15. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    Regina S Redman

    Full Text Available Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization.These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  16. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change

    Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  17. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Juan Francisco Jiménez-Bremont

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18 from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl and osmotic (glucose and mannitol stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl and osmotic (274 mM mannitol stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively. Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions.

  18. A comprehensive overview of recent advances in drought stress tolerance research in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Rashid Mehmood Rana; Shoaib ur Rehman; Junaid Ahmed; Muhammad Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is an important food crop grown worldwide and used as staple food in many countries. Its production is affected by several factors including abiotic stresses and drought is one of the most damaging and frequently occurring abiotic stresses. Several efforts have been made to address and cope with it at morphological, physiological and molecular levels, have been summarized. Different morphological and physiological traits identified through successive efforts include osmotic adjustment, ...

  19. Heavy-metal responsive genes in maize: identification and comparison of their expression upon various forms of abiotic stress

    To identify genes involved in defense against heavy-metal stresses, a cDNA library originating from mercuric chloride-treated maize (Zea mays L. cv. INRA 258) leaves was constructed and analysed by differential screening using cDNAs derived from treated and untreated plants. Transcriptionally activated cDNA clones, designated CHEM (chemically-activated), were isolated and characterized. They represent various known proteins, such as glycine-rich proteins, pathogenesis-related proteins, chaperones and membrane proteins. The expression of the genes encoding these proteins was studied in maize subjected to other forms of abiotic stress. Expression of glycine-rich proteins was greatly enhanced by heat stress, and also stimulated by NaCl, polluted rainwater, wounding and cold stress. Pathogenesis-related proteins were strongly induced by ultraviolet light and to a lesser extent by NaCl, polluted rainwater and wounding. Heat-shock protein was mainly induced by heat and cold, and ubiquitin by wounding. Expression of the membrane channel protein was stimulated by heat stress, NaCl, polluted rainwater and ultraviolet-light irradiation. (author)

  20. Emerging importance of helicases in plant stress tolerance: characterization of Oryza sativa repair helicase XPB2 promoter and its functional validation in tobacco under multiple stresses

    Shailendra eRaikwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic material always remains at the risk of spontaneous or induced damage which challenges the normal functioning of DNA molecule, thus, DNA repair is vital to protect the organisms against genetic damage. DNA hHelicases, the unique molecular motors, are emerged as potentialprospective molecules to engineer stress tolerance in plants and are involved in a variety of DNA nucleic acid metabolismc processes including DNA repair. The DNA repair helicase, OsXPB2 is an evolutionary conserved protein present in different organisms, including plants. Availability of few efficient promoters for gene expression in plants provoked us to study the promoter of XPB for better understanding of gene regulation under stress The analysis of promoter sequence from plant genome is important in understanding the gene regulation. Hereconditions. Here, we report the in silico analysis of novel stress inducible promoter of rice Oryza sativa OsXPB2 (OsXPB2. gene is reported. The in vivo validation of functionality/activity of novel stress inducible promoter of rice OsXPB2 gene promoter under abiotic and hormonal stress conditions was performed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in tobacco leaves using OsXPB2::GUS chimeric construct. Our resultsThe present research revealed that OsXPB2 promoter contains cis-elements accounting for various abiotic stresses (salt, dehydration or cold and hormone (Auxin, ABA or MeJA induced GUS expression/activity in the promoter-reporter assay. The promoter region of OsXPB2 contains CACG, GTAACG, CACGTG, CGTCA CCGCCGCGCT cis acting-elements which are reported to be salt, dehydration, cold, MeJA or ABA responsive, respectively. Functional analysis was done by Agrobacterium-transient assays using agroinfiltration in tobacco leaves, followed by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses. The results revealed high induction of GUS activity under multiple abiotic stresses as compared to mock treated control. The present

  1. Screening of tropical maize for salt stress tolerance

    Carlos Daniel Giaveno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since salinity is a common stress factor in agricultural areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate thefeasibility of morphological and physiological traits as selection criteria of maize genotypes under salt stress. The experimentswere carried out in the stages of germination and early seedling growth. Root and shoot weight, leaf area, root and leaf waterpotential, photochemical efficiency and growth rate were measured during salt stress and stress recovery. Our resultsindicated the presence of genetic variability for germination, but no association between germination and early seedlinggrowth under salt stress. Traits associated with seedling vigor, such as seedling weight and growth rate, and photochemicalefficiency under stress conditions can be used as selection criteria for salt-tolerant maize in breeding programs.

  2. Melatonin induces the transcripts of CBF/DREB1s and their involvement in both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

    Shi, Haitao; Qian, Yongqiang; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a naturally occurring small molecule that acts as an important secondary messenger in plant stress responses. However, the mechanism underlying the melatonin-mediated signaling pathway in plant stress responses has not been established. C-repeat-binding factors (CBFs)/Drought response element Binding 1 factors (DREB1s) encode transcription factors that play important roles in plant stress responses. This study has determined that endogenous melatonin and transcripts level of CBFs (AtCBF1, AtCBF2, and AtCBF3) in Arabidopsis leaves were significantly induced by salt, drought, and cold stresses and by pathogen Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection. Moreover, both exogenous melatonin treatment and overexpression of CBFs conferred enhanced resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Notably, AtCBFs and exogenous melatonin treatment positively regulated the mRNA expression of several stress-responsive genes (COR15A, RD22, and KIN1) and accumulation of soluble sugars content such as sucrose in Arabidopsis under control and stress conditions. Additionally, exogenous sucrose also conferred improved resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Taken together, this study indicates that AtCBFs confer enhanced resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses, and AtCBF-mediated signaling pathway and sugar accumulation may be involved in melatonin-mediated stress response in Arabidopsis, at least partially. PMID:26182834

  3. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in soybean tissues under various abiotic stress conditions.

    Dung Tien Le

    Full Text Available Quantitative RT-PCR can be a very sensitive and powerful technique for measuring differential gene expression. Changes in gene expression induced by abiotic stresses are complex and multifaceted, which make determining stably expressed genes for data normalization difficult. To identify the most suitable reference genes for abiotic stress studies in soybean, 13 candidate genes collected from literature were evaluated for stability of expression under dehydration, high salinity, cold and ABA (abscisic acid treatments using delta CT and geNorm approaches. Validation of reference genes indicated that the best reference genes are tissue- and stress-dependent. With respect to dehydration treatment, the Fbox/ABC, Fbox/60s gene pairs were found to have the highest expression stability in the root and shoot tissues of soybean seedlings, respectively. Fbox and 60s genes are the most suitable reference genes across dehydrated root and shoot tissues. Under salt stress the ELF1b/IDE and Fbox/ELF1b are the most stably expressed gene pairs in roots and shoots, respectively, while 60s/Fbox is the best gene pair in both tissues. For studying cold stress in roots or shoots, IDE/60s and Fbox/Act27 are good reference gene pairs, respectively. With regard to gene expression analysis under ABA treatment in either roots, shoots or across these tissues, 60s/ELF1b, ELF1b/Fbox and 60s/ELF1b are the most suitable reference genes, respectively. The expression of ELF1b/60s, 60s/Fbox and 60s/Fbox genes was most stable in roots, shoots and both tissues, respectively, under various stresses studied. Among the genes tested, 60s was found to be the best reference gene in different tissues and under various stress conditions. The highly ranked reference genes identified from this study were proved to be capable of detecting subtle differences in expression rates that otherwise would be missed if a less stable reference gene was used.

  4. Elicitation with abiotic stresses improves pro-health constituents, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts.

    Świeca, Michał

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality. The health-relevant and nutritional quality of sprouts was improved by elicitation of 2-day-old sprouts with oxidative, osmotic, ion-osmotic and temperature stresses. Among the sprouts studied, those obtained by elicitation with osmotic (600 mM mannitol) and ion-osmotic (300 mM NaCl) shocks had the highest total phenolic content levels: 6.52 and 6.56 mg/g flour, respectively. Oxidative stress significantly enhanced the levels of (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A marked elevation of the chlorogenic and gallic acid contents was also determined for sprouts induced at 4 °C and 40 °C. The elevated phenolic content was translated into the antioxidant potential of sprouts, especially the ability to reduce lipid oxidation. A marked elevation of this ability was determined for seedlings treated with 20 mM, 200 mM H2O2 (oxidative stress) and 600 mM mannitol (osmotic stress); about a 12-fold, 8-fold and 9.5-fold increase in respect to control sprouts. The highest ability to quench free radicals was observed in sprouts induced by osmotic stress (IC50- 4.91 and 5.12 mg/ml for 200 mM and 600 mM mannitol, respectively). The highest total antioxidant activity indexes were determined for sprouts elicited with 20 mM H2O2 and 600 mM mannitol: 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. All studied growth conditions, except induction at 40 °C, caused a significant elevation of resistant starch levels which was also affected in a subsequent reduction of starch digestibility. Improvement of sprout quality by elicitation with abiotic stresses is a cheap and easy biotechnology and it seems to be an alternative to conventional techniques applied to improve the health promoting phytochemical levels and bioactivity of low-processed food. PMID:26150746

  5. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min, E-mail: wmtian9110@126.com

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli.

  6. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H2O2, Cu2+ and Zn2+, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H2O2. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli

  7. Normalization for Relative Quantification of mRNA and microRNA in Soybean Exposed to Various Abiotic Stresses

    Zhou, Yonggang; Chen, Huan; Dong, Yuanyuan; Wang, Nan; Li, Xiaowei; Jameel, Aysha; Yang, He; Zhang, Min; Chen, Kai; Wang, Fawei; Li, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Plant microRNAs are small non-coding, endogenic RNA molecule (containing 20–24 nucleotides) produced from miRNA precursors (pri-miRNA and pre-miRNA). Evidence suggests that up and down regulation of the miRNA targets the mRNA genes involved in resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique to analyze variations in mRNA levels. Normalizing the data using reference genes is essential for the analysis of reliable RT-qPCR data. In this study, two groups of candidate reference mRNAs and miRNAs in soybean leaves and roots treated with various abiotic stresses (PEG-simulated drought, salinity, alkalinity, salinity+alkalinity, and abscisic acid) were analyzed by RT-qPCR. We analyzed the most appropriate reference mRNA/miRNAs using the geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper algorithms. According to the results, Act and EF1b were the most suitable reference mRNAs in leaf and root samples, for mRNA and miRNA precursor data normalization. The most suitable reference miRNAs found in leaf and root samples were 166a and 167a for mature miRNA data normalization. Hence the best combinations of reference mRNAs for mRNA and miRNA precursor data normalization were EF1a + Act or EF1b + Act in leaf samples, and EF1a + EF1b or 60s + EF1b in root samples. For mature miRNA data normalization, the most suitable combinations of reference miRNAs were 166a + 167d in leaf samples, and 171a + 156a or 167a + 171a in root samples. We identified potential reference mRNA/miRNAs for accurate RT-qPCR data normalization for mature miRNA, miRNA precursors, and their targeted mRNAs. Our results promote miRNA-based studies on soybean plants exposed to abiotic stress conditions. PMID:27176476

  8. Overexpression of Rice Sphingosine-1-Phoshpate Lyase Gene OsSPL1 in Transgenic Tobacco Reduces Salt and Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Huijuan Zhang; Jing Zhai; Jibo Mo; Dayong Li; Fengming Song

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids,including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P),have been shown to function as signaling mediators to regulate diverse aspects of plant growth,development,and stress response.In this study,we performed functional analysis of a rice (Oryza sativa) S1P lyase gene OsSPL1 in transgenic tobacco plants and explored its possible involvement in abiotic stress response.Overexpression of OsSPL1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in enhanced sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA),and decreased tolerance to salt and oxidative stress,when compared with the wild type.Furthermore,the expression levels of some selected stress-related genes in OsSPL1-overexpressing plants were reduced after application of salt or oxidative stress,indicating that the altered responsiveness of stress-related genes may be responsible for the reduced tolerance in OsSPL1-overexpressing tobacco plants under salt and oxidative stress.Our results suggest that rice OsSPL1 plays an important role in abiotic stress responses.

  9. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  10. The Arabidopsis transcriptional regulator DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation in rice.

    Sato, Hikaru; Todaka, Daisuke; Kudo, Madoka; Mizoi, Junya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Zhao, Yu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2016-08-01

    The enhancement of heat stress tolerance in crops is an important challenge for food security to facilitate adaptation to global warming. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the transcriptional regulator DNA polymerase II subunit B3-1 (DPB3-1)/nuclear factor Y subunit C10 (NF-YC10) has been reported as a positive regulator of Dehydration-responsive element binding protein 2A (DREB2A), and the overexpression of DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation. Here, we show that DPB3-1 interacts with DREB2A homologues in rice and soya bean. Transactivation analyses with Arabidopsis and rice mesophyll protoplasts indicate that DPB3-1 and its rice homologue OsDPB3-2 function as positive regulators of DREB2A homologues. Overexpression of DPB3-1 did not affect plant growth or yield in rice under nonstress conditions. Moreover, DPB3-1-overexpressing rice showed enhanced heat stress tolerance. Microarray analysis revealed that many heat stress-inducible genes were up-regulated in DPB3-1-overexpressing rice under heat stress conditions. However, the overexpression of DPB3-1 using a constitutive promoter had almost no effect on the expression of these genes under nonstress conditions. This may be because DPB3-1 is a coactivator and thus lacks inherent transcriptional activity. We conclude that DPB3-1, a coactivator that functions specifically under abiotic stress conditions, could be utilized to increase heat stress tolerance in crops without negative effects on vegetative and reproductive growth. PMID:26841113

  11. Metabolomic approach for improving ethanol stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Ohta, Erika; Nakayama, Yasumune; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for brewing and ethanol production. The ethanol sensitivity of yeast cells is still a serious problem during ethanol fermentation, and a variety of genetic approaches (e.g., random mutant screening under selective pressure of ethanol) have been developed to improve ethanol tolerance. In this study, we developed a strategy for improving ethanol tolerance of yeast cells based on metabolomics as a high-resolution quantitative phenotypic analysis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify 36 compounds on 14 mutant strains including knockout strains for transcription factor and metabolic enzyme genes. A strong relation between metabolome of these mutants and their ethanol tolerance was observed. Data mining of the metabolomic analysis showed that several compounds (such as trehalose, valine, inositol and proline) contributed highly to ethanol tolerance. Our approach successfully detected well-known ethanol stress related metabolites such as trehalose and proline thus, to further prove our strategy, we focused on valine and inositol as the most promising target metabolites in our study. Our results show that simultaneous deletion of LEU4 and LEU9 (leading to accumulation of valine) or INM1 and INM2 (leading to reduction of inositol) significantly enhanced ethanol tolerance. This study shows the potential of the metabolomic approach to identify target genes for strain improvement of S. cerevisiae with higher ethanol tolerance. PMID:26344121

  12. Overexpression of GhWRKY27a reduces tolerance to drought stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Yan, Yan; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Fang; Wang, Chen; Liu, Shuchang; Guo, Xingqi

    2015-01-01

    WRKY proteins constitute transcriptional regulators involved in various biological processes, especially in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, in contrast to other well-characterized WRKY groups, the functions of group III WRKY transcription factors are poorly understood in the economically important crop cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). In this study, a group III WRKY gene from cotton, GhWRKY27a, was isolated and characterized. Our data indicated that GhWRKY27a localized to the nucleus and that GhWRKY27a expression could be strongly induced by abiotic stresses, pathogen infection, and multiple defense-related signaling molecules. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhWRKY27a enhanced tolerance to drought stress in cotton. In contrast, GhWRKY27a overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana markedly reduced plant tolerance to drought stress, as determined through physiological analyses of leaf water loss, survival rates, and the stomatal aperture. This susceptibility was coupled with reduced stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid and decreased expression of stress-related genes. In addition, GhWRKY27a-overexpressing plants exhibited reduced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic lines exhibiting more severe disease symptoms, accompanied by attenuated expression of defense-related genes in N. benthamiana. Taken together, these findings indicated that GhWRKY27a functions in negative responses to drought tolerance and in resistance to R. solani infection. PMID:26483697

  13. Overexpression of GhWRKY27a reduces tolerance to drought stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana

    Yan Yan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins constitute transcriptional regulators involved in various biological processes, especially in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, in contrast to other well-characterized WRKY groups, the functions of group III WRKY transcription factors are poorly understood in the economically important crop cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. In this study, a group III WRKY gene from cotton, GhWRKY27a, was isolated and characterized. Our data indicated that GhWRKY27a localized to the nucleus and that GhWRKY27a expression could be strongly induced by abiotic stresses, pathogen infection, and multiple defense-related signaling molecules. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS of GhWRKY27a enhanced tolerance to drought stress in cotton. In contrast, GhWRKY27a overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana markedly reduced plant tolerance to drought stress, as determined through physiological analyses of leaf water loss, survival rates and the stomatal aperture. This susceptibility was coupled with reduced stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid and decreased expression of stress-related genes. In addition, GhWRKY27a-overexpressing plants exhibited reduced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic lines exhibiting more severe disease symptoms, accompanied by attenuated expression of defense-related genes in Nicotiana benthamiana. Taken together, these findings indicated that GhWRKY27a functions in negative responses to drought tolerance and in resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection.

  14. The negative effect of starvation and the positive effect of mild thermal stress on thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Scharf, Inon; Wexler, Yonatan; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Presman, Shira; Simson, Eddie; Rosenstein, Shai

    2016-04-01

    The thermal tolerance of a terrestrial insect species can vary as a result of differences in population origin, developmental stage, age, and sex, as well as via phenotypic plasticity induced in response to changes in the abiotic environment. Here, we studied the effects of both starvation and mild cold and heat shocks on the thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Starvation led to impaired cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time, and this effect, which was stronger in males than females, persisted for longer than 2 days but less than 7 days. Heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time, was not affected by starvation. Our results highlight the difficulty faced by insects when encountering multiple stressors simultaneously and indicate physiological trade-offs. Both mild cold and heat shocks led to improved heat tolerance in both sexes. It could be that both mild shocks lead to the expression of heat shock proteins, enhancing heat tolerance in the short run. Cold tolerance was not affected by previous mild cold shock, suggesting that such a cold shock, as a single event, causes little stress and hence elicits only weak physiological reaction. However, previous mild heat stress led to improved cold tolerance but only in males. Our results point to both hardening and cross-tolerance between cold and heat shocks.

  15. Wheat chloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter confers heat and abiotic stress inducible expression in transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Neetika Khurana

    Full Text Available The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs have been found to play a critical role in physiological stress conditions in protecting proteins from irreversible aggregation. To characterize the hloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter in detail, deletion analysis of the promoter is carried out and analysed via transgenics in Arabidopsis. In the present study, complete assessment of the importance of CCAAT-box elements along with Heat shock elements (HSEs in the promoter of sHSP26 was performed. Moreover, the importance of 5' untranslated region (UTR has also been established in the promoter via Arabidopsis transgenics. An intense GUS expression was observed after heat stress in the transgenics harbouring a full-length promoter, confirming the heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Transgenic plants without UTR showed reduced GUS expression when compared to transgenic plants with UTR as was confirmed at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and GUS histochemical assays, thus suggesting the possible involvement of some regulatory elements present in the UTR in heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Promoter activity was also checked under different abiotic stresses and revealed differential expression in different deletion constructs. Promoter analysis based on histochemical assay, real-time qPCR and fluorimetric analysis revealed that HSEs alone could not transcribe GUS gene significantly in sHSP26 promoter and CCAAT box elements contribute synergistically to the transcription. Our results also provide insight into the importance of 5`UTR of sHsp26 promoter thus emphasizing the probable role of imperfect CCAAT-box element or some novel cis-element with respect to heat stress.

  16. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signalling

    Mehanathan eMuthamilarasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY and S. viridis (SvWRKY, respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analysed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY, followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY. Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signalling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signalling.

  17. Polyamines under Abiotic Stress: Metabolic Crossroads and Hormonal Crosstalks in Plants.

    Bitrián, Marta; Zarza, Xavier; Altabella, Teresa; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Alcázar, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Polyamines are essential compounds for cell survival and have key roles in plant stress protection. Current evidence points to the occurrence of intricate cross-talks between polyamines, stress hormones and other metabolic pathways required for their function. In this review we integrate the polyamine metabolic pathway in the context of its immediate metabolic network which is required to understand the multiple ways by which polyamines can maintain their homeostasis and participate in plant stress responses. PMID:24957645

  18. Polyamines under Abiotic Stress: Metabolic Crossroads and Hormonal Crosstalks in Plants

    Marta Bitrián

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines are essential compounds for cell survival and have key roles in plant stress protection. Current evidence points to the occurrence of intricate cross-talks between polyamines, stress hormones and other metabolic pathways required for their function. In this review we integrate the polyamine metabolic pathway in the context of its immediate metabolic network which is required to understand the multiple ways by which polyamines can maintain their homeostasis and participate in plant stress responses.

  19. Stress for Stress Tolerance? A Fundamentally New Approach in Mammalian Embryology

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Vajta, Gabor; Molnár, Miklós;

    2010-01-01

    parthenogenetically activated oocytes. Although cellular and subcellular mechanisms supposedly contributing in these processes require further research, the new principle, i.e. to improve the stress tolerance by a defined sublethal stress may outline a completely new strategy in mammalian embryology, as well as...

  20. Expression analysis of a novel pyridoxal kinase messenger RNA splice variant, PKL, in oil rape suffering abiotic stress and phytohormones.

    Yu, Shunwu; Luo, Lijun

    2008-12-01

    Pyridoxal kinase is key enzyme for the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the biologically active form of vitamin B6, in the salvage pathway. A pyridoxal kinase gene, BnPKL (GenBank accession No. DQ463962), was isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) following water stress through rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends. The results showed that the gene had two splice variants: PKL and PKL2. PKL, the long cDNA, encodes a 334 amino acid protein with a complete ATP-binding site, pyridoxal kinase-binding site and dimer interface site of a pyridoxal kinase, while PKL2, the short cDNA, lacked a partial domain. Southern blot showed that there were two copies in Brassica napus. The expression of BnPKL cDNA could rescue the mutant phenotype of Escherichia coli defective in pyridoxal kinase. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the relative abundance of two transcripts are modulated by development and environmental stresses. Abscisic acid and NaCl were inclined to decrease PKL expression, but H2O2 and cold temperatures induced the PKL expression. In addition, the PKL expression could be transiently induced by jasmonate acid at an early stage, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonate acid enhanced the PKL expression in roots. Our results demonstrated that BnPKL was a pyridoxal kinase involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:19089298

  1. Expression analysis of a novel pyridoxal kinase messenger RNA splice variant, PKL, in oil rape suffering abiotic stress and phytohormones

    2008-01-01

    Pyridoxal kinase is key enzyme for the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the biologically active form of vitamin B6, in the salvage pathway. A pyridoxal kinase gene, BnPKL (GenBank accession No. DQ463962), was isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) following water stress through rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends. The results showed that the gene had two splice variants: PKL and PKL2. PKL, the long cDNA, encodes a 334 amino acid protein with a complete ATP-binding site, pyridoxai kinase-binding site and dimer interface site of a pyridoxal kinase, while PKL2, the short cDNA, lacked a partial domain. Southern blot showed that there were two copies in Brassica napus. The expression of BnPKL cDNA could rescue the mutant phenotype of Escherichia coil defective in pyridoxai kinase. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the relative abundance of two transcripts are modulated by development and environmental stresses.Abscisic acid and NaCI were inclined to decrease PKL expression, but HO and cold temperatures induced the PKL expression. In addition, the PKL expression could be transiently induced by jasmonate acid at an early stage, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonate acid enhanced the PKL expression in roots. Our results demonstrated that BnPKL was a pyridoxal kinase involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  2. Characterization and subcellular localization of two 14-3-3 genes and their response to abiotic stress in wheat.

    Meng, Xiaodan; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yaying; Xiao, Ruixia; Liu, Hailun; Wang, Xinguo; Ren, Jiangping; Li, Yongchun; Niu, Hongbin; Wang, Xiang; Yin, Jun

    2014-02-01

    In order to investigate biological functions of the 14-3-3 genes and their response to abiotic stress, two cDNAs (designated as Ta14R1 and Ta14R2) encoding putative 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from wheat by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) technique. The cDNA of Ta14R1 is 999bp and encodes a protein of 262 amino acids, while the cDNA of Ta14R2 is 897bp in length and encodes a protein of 261 amino acids. Transient expression assays using Ta14R1/Ta14R2-GFP fusion constructs indicated that Ta14R1 and Ta14R2 were located in cytoplasm and cell membrane but not in chloroplasts. Real-time quantitative (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ta14R1 and Ta14R2 were differentially expressed in wheat tissues and significantly up-regulated in roots and shoots 1d after germination, indicating they may play a role in process of seed germination. The expression of the two genes in roots and leaves were significantly induced by plant hormone ABA, as well as heat, cold and drought treatments, suggesting that the two 14-3-3 genes in wheat may be involved in ABA dependent stress-responding pathway and response to heat, cold and drought stress. PMID:24941745

  3. Improvement of Arabidopsis Biomass and Cold, Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance by Modified Circadian Clock-Associated PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORs.

    Nakamichi, Norihito; Takao, Saori; Kudo, Toru; Kiba, Takatoshi; Wang, Yin; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    Plant circadian clocks control the timing of a variety of genetic, metabolic and physiological processes. Recent studies revealed a possible molecular mechanism for circadian clock regulation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) genes, including TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), encode clock-associated transcriptional repressors that act redundantly. Disruption of multiple PRR genes results in drastic phenotypes, including increased biomass and abiotic stress tolerance, whereas PRR single mutants show subtle phenotypic differences due to genetic redundancy. In this study, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of engineered PRR5 (PRR5-VP), which functions as a transcriptional activator, can increase biomass and abiotic stress tolerance, similar to prr multiple mutants. Concomitant analyses of relative growth rate, flowering time and photosynthetic activity suggested that increased biomass of PRR5-VP plants is mostly due to late flowering, rather than to alterations in photosynthetic activity or growth rate. In addition, genome-wide gene expression profiling revealed that genes related to cold stress and water deprivation responses were up-regulated in PRR5-VP plants. PRR5-VP plants were more resistant to cold, drought and salinity stress than the wild type, whereas ft tsf and gi, well-known late flowering and increased biomass mutants, were not. These findings suggest that attenuation of PRR function by a single transformation of PRR-VP is a valuable method for increasing biomass as well as abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Because the PRR gene family is conserved in vascular plants, PRR-VP may regulate biomass and stress responses in many plants, but especially in long-day annual plants. PMID:27012548

  4. Genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance that translate to crop yield stability

    Mickelbart, Michael V; Hasegawa, Paul M; Bailey, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Crop yield reduction as a consequence of increasingly severe climatic events threatens global food security. Genetic loci that ensure productivity in challenging environments exist within the germplasm of crops, their wild relatives and species that are adapted to extreme environments. Selective bre

  5. Roles of dehydrin genes in wheat tolerance to drought stress.

    Hassan, Nemat M; El-Bastawisy, Zeinab M; El-Sayed, Ahamed K; Ebeed, Heba T; Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M

    2015-03-01

    Physiological parameters and expression levels of drought related genes were analyzed in early vegetative stage of two bread wheat cultivars (Sids and Gmiza) differ in drought tolerance capacity. Both cultivars were imposed to gradual water depletion started on day 17 till day 32 after sowing. Sids, the more tolerant cultivar to drought showed higher fresh and dry weights than the drought sensitive genotype, Gmiza. Under water stress, Sids had higher membrane stability index (MSI), lower accumulated H2O2 and higher activity of the antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) than Gmiza. On the other hand, the differential expression patterns of the genes dhn, wcor and dreb were observed due to water deficit intensity according to cultivar's tolerance to drought. The DNA sequence alignment of dun showed high similarity of about 80-92% identities with other related plants. The most striking overall observed trend was the highly induction in the expression of dun, wcor and dreb in leaves of the tolerant genotype, Sids under severe water stress. PMID:25750752

  6. Transgenic rice expressing a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plasma membrane gene MePMP3-2 exhibits enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Yu, Y; Cui, Y C; Ren, C; Rocha, P S C F; Peng, M; Xu, G Y; Wang, M L; Xia, X J

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteolipid 3 (PMP3) is a class of small hydrophobic proteins found in many organisms including higher plants. Some plant PMP3 genes have been shown to respond to abiotic stresses and to participate in the processes of plant stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MePMP3-2 gene and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by expressing it in rice (Oryza sativa L.). MePMP3-2 encodes a 77-amino acid protein belonging to a subgroup of plant PMP3s that have long hydrophylic C-terminal tails of unknown function. In silico analysis and co-localization studies indicated that MePMP3-2 is a plasma membrane protein with two transmembrane domains, similar to other PMP3s. In cassava leaves, MePMP3-2 expression was up-regulated by salt and drought stresses. Heterologous constitutive expression of MePMP3-2 in rice did not alter plant growth and development but increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. In addition, under stress conditions MePMP3-2 transgenic plants accumulated less malondialdehyde, had increased levels of proline, and exhibited greater up-regulation of the stress-related genes OsProT and OsP5CS, but led to only minor changes in OsDREB2A and OsLEA3 expression. These findings indicate that MePMP3-2 may play an important role in salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic rice. PMID:26909954

  7. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR in orchardgrass subjected to various abiotic stresses.

    Huang, Linkai; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xinquan; Ji, Yang; Zeng, Bing; Xu, Bin; Yin, Guohua; Lee, Samantha; Yan, Yanhong; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan

    2014-12-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful tool for the measurement of gene expression; however, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The objective of the present study was to identify the stable reference genes in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), a principal cool-season forage grass in the world. Ten candidate reference genes were selected in this study including ATP-binding [ABC], actin [ACTIN], cyclophilin [CYP2], glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], beta-amylase 4 [BAM4], zeitlupe [ZTL], MAP Kinase 4 [MPK4], ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [UBC], S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [SAMDC], and translationally controlled tumor protein [TCTP]. The candidate genes were assessed in orchardgrass leaves and roots under conditions of drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. We used GeNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and RefFinder for qRT-PCR normalization and validation to determine that the expression of these reference genes was stress-dependent. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were found to be the most stably expressed genes for drought stress while ACTIN, TCTP, and ABC were the most stable under salt stress. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were all found to be good reference genes for studying heat stress. Likewise, CYP2, MPK4, and ABC were most suitable to study waterlogging, and ACTIN, CYP2, and MPK4 were determined as the three best reference genes for ABA studies. Our study identified and validated the possible reference genes in orchardgrass that may be used for quantification of target gene expression under various abiotic stresses. PMID:25307767

  8. When bad guys become good ones: the key role of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in the plant responses to abiotic stress

    Fernanda Dos Santos Farnese

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment of plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and their ability to respond to these stresses is highly flexible and finely balanced through the interaction between signaling molecules. In this review, we highlight the integrated action between reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, particularly nitric oxide (NO, involved in the acclimation to different abiotic stresses. Under stressful conditions, the biosynthesis transport and the metabolism of ROS and NO influence plant response mechanisms. The enzymes involved in ROS and NO synthesis and scavenging can be found in different cells compartments and their temporal and spatial locations are determinant for signaling mechanisms. Both ROS and NO are involved in long distances signaling (ROS wave and GSNO transport, promoting an acquired systemic acclimation to abiotic stresses. The mechanisms of abiotic stresses response triggered by ROS and NO involve some general steps, as the enhancement of antioxidant systems, but also stress-specific mechanisms, according to the stress type (drought, hypoxia, heavy metals, etc, and demand the interaction with other signaling molecules, such as MAPK, plant hormones and calcium. The transduction of ROS and NO bioactivity involves post-translational modifications of proteins, particularly S-glutathionylation for ROS, and S-nitrosylation for NO. These changes may alter the activity, stability, and interaction with other molecules or subcellular location of proteins, changing the entire cell dynamics and contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis. However, despite the recent advances about the roles of ROS and NO in signaling cascades, many challenges remain, and future studies focusing on the signaling of these molecules in planta are still necessary.

  9. When Bad Guys Become Good Ones: The Key Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in the Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Farnese, Fernanda S.; Menezes-Silva, Paulo E.; Gusman, Grasielle S.; Oliveira, Juraci A.

    2016-01-01

    The natural environment of plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and their ability to respond to these stresses is highly flexible and finely balanced through the interaction between signaling molecules. In this review, we highlight the integrated action between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), particularly nitric oxide (NO), involved in the acclimation to different abiotic stresses. Under stressful conditions, the biosynthesis transport and the metabolism of ROS and NO influence plant response mechanisms. The enzymes involved in ROS and NO synthesis and scavenging can be found in different cells compartments and their temporal and spatial locations are determinant for signaling mechanisms. Both ROS and NO are involved in long distances signaling (ROS wave and GSNO transport), promoting an acquired systemic acclimation to abiotic stresses. The mechanisms of abiotic stresses response triggered by ROS and NO involve some general steps, as the enhancement of antioxidant systems, but also stress-specific mechanisms, according to the stress type (drought, hypoxia, heavy metals, etc.), and demand the interaction with other signaling molecules, such as MAPK, plant hormones, and calcium. The transduction of ROS and NO bioactivity involves post-translational modifications of proteins, particularly S-glutathionylation for ROS, and S-nitrosylation for NO. These changes may alter the activity, stability, and interaction with other molecules or subcellular location of proteins, changing the entire cell dynamics and contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis. However, despite the recent advances about the roles of ROS and NO in signaling cascades, many challenges remain, and future studies focusing on the signaling of these molecules in planta are still necessary. PMID:27148300

  10. When Bad Guys Become Good Ones: The Key Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in the Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress.

    Farnese, Fernanda S; Menezes-Silva, Paulo E; Gusman, Grasielle S; Oliveira, Juraci A

    2016-01-01

    The natural environment of plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and their ability to respond to these stresses is highly flexible and finely balanced through the interaction between signaling molecules. In this review, we highlight the integrated action between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), particularly nitric oxide (NO), involved in the acclimation to different abiotic stresses. Under stressful conditions, the biosynthesis transport and the metabolism of ROS and NO influence plant response mechanisms. The enzymes involved in ROS and NO synthesis and scavenging can be found in different cells compartments and their temporal and spatial locations are determinant for signaling mechanisms. Both ROS and NO are involved in long distances signaling (ROS wave and GSNO transport), promoting an acquired systemic acclimation to abiotic stresses. The mechanisms of abiotic stresses response triggered by ROS and NO involve some general steps, as the enhancement of antioxidant systems, but also stress-specific mechanisms, according to the stress type (drought, hypoxia, heavy metals, etc.), and demand the interaction with other signaling molecules, such as MAPK, plant hormones, and calcium. The transduction of ROS and NO bioactivity involves post-translational modifications of proteins, particularly S-glutathionylation for ROS, and S-nitrosylation for NO. These changes may alter the activity, stability, and interaction with other molecules or subcellular location of proteins, changing the entire cell dynamics and contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis. However, despite the recent advances about the roles of ROS and NO in signaling cascades, many challenges remain, and future studies focusing on the signaling of these molecules in planta are still necessary. PMID:27148300

  11. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Altinkut A.; Kazan K.; Gozukirmizi N.

    2003-01-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA) was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive), which w...

  12. Overexpression of GmHsp90s, a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 gene family cloning from soybean, decrease damage of abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Jinyan Xu

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is one of the most conserved and abundant molecular chaperones and is an essential component of the protective stress response; however, its roles in abiotic stress responses in soybean (Glycine max remain obscure. Here, 12 GmHsp90 genes from soybean were identified and found to be expressed and to function differentially under abiotic stresses. The 12 GmHsp90 genes were isolated and named GmHsp90A1-GmHsp90A6, GmHsp90B1, GmHsp90B2, GmHsp90C1.1, GmHsp90C1.2, GmHsp90C2.1 and GmHsp90C2.2 based on their characteristics and high homology to other Hsp90s according to a new nomenclature system. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that all the genes exhibited higher transcript levels in leaves and could be strongly induced under heat, osmotic and salt stress but not cold stress. Overexpression of five typical genes (GmHsp90A2, GmHsp90A4, GmHsp90B1, GmHsp90C1.1 and GmHsp90C2.1 in Arabidopsis thaliana provided useful evidences that GmHsp90 genes can decrease damage of abiotic stresses. In addition, an abnormal accumulation of proline was detected in some transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggested overexpressing GmHsp90s may affect the synthesis and response system of proline. Our work represents a systematic determination of soybean genes encoding Hsp90s, and provides useful evidence that GmHsp90 genes function differently in response to abiotic stresses and may affect the synthesis and response system of proline.

  13. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  14. Priming of pathogenesis related-proteins and enzymes related to oxidative stress by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on rice plants upon abiotic and biotic stress challenge.

    García-Cristobal, J; García-Villaraco, A; Ramos, B; Gutierrez-Mañero, J; Lucas, J A

    2015-09-01

    Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were tested to evaluate their capacity to prime rice seedlings against stress challenge (salt and Xanthomonas campestris infection). As is accepted that plants respond to biotic and abiotic stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), enzyme activities related to oxidative stress (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1)) as well as the pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) ß-1,3-glucanase (PR2, EC 3.2.1.6) and chitinase (PR3, EC 3.2.1.14) were measured at 3 time points after stress challenge. In addition, photosynthetic parameters related with fluorescence emission of photosystem II (F0, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and NPQ) were also measured although they were barely affected. Both strains were able to protect rice seedlings against salt stress. AMG272 reduced the salt symptoms over 47% with regard to control, and L81 over 90%. Upon pathogen challenge, 90% protection was achieved by both strains. All enzyme activities related to oxidative stress were modified by the two PGPR, especially APX and SOD upon salinity stress challenge, and APX and GR upon pathogen presence. Both bacteria induced chitinase activity 24 and 48 h after pathogen inoculation, and L81 induced ß-1,3-Glucanase activity 48 h after pathogen inoculation, evidencing the priming effect. These results indicate that these strains could be used as bio-fortifying agents in biotechnological inoculants in order to reduce the effects of different stresses, and indirectly reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:26439659

  15. Bread wheat selection against abiotic and biotic stresses in highland Balochistan, Pakistan

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) lines were screened in multi-location trials in highland Balochistan, Pakistan from 1982 (F2) to 1990 (fixed lines). Objective of the study was to select and evaluate desirable genotypes for winter planting, Of 816 entries, only four successfully passed through the observation nurseries and yield trials. After nine years of testing only genotype ICW81.1471 was selected for wide-scale agronomic testing. Although the yield potential of this genotype was not significantly higher than that of the local check, it had the important advantage of possessing good resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West) The results showed that exposure of segregating population to the prevailing environmental stresses of cold and drought was an effective selection procedure for identifying genotypes which are resistant to such stresses. Effective selection can be made for other desirable attributes such as disease and pest resistance, plant height and time to maturity. (author)

  16. New Approaches for Crop Genetic Adaptation to the Abiotic Stresses Predicted with Climate Change

    Robert Redden

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic variation is predicted with climate change this century. In many cropping regions, the crop environment will tend to be warmer with more irregular rainfall and spikes in stress levels will be more severe. The challenge is not only to raise agricultural production for an expanding population, but to achieve this under more adverse environmental conditions. It is now possible to systematically explore the genetic variation in historic local landraces by using GPS locators and w...

  17. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.; E.I. Gordeeva; V.S. Arbuzova; E.K. Khlestkina

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the...

  18. A consortium of rhizobacterial strains and biochemical growth elicitors improve cold and drought stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Kakar, K U; Ren, X-L; Nawaz, Z; Cui, Z-Q; Li, B; Xie, G-L; Hassan, M A; Ali, E; Sun, G-C

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, a consortium of two rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Bk7 and Brevibacillus laterosporus B4, termed 'BB', biochemical elicitors salicylic acid and β-aminobutyric acid (SB) and their mixture (BBSB) were investigated for cold and drought stress tolerance in rice plants. After withholding water for 16 days, rice plants treated with BBSB showed 100% survival, improved seedling height (35.4 cm), shoot number (6.12), and showed minimum symptoms of chlorosis (19%), wilting (4%), necrosis (6%) and rolling of leaves. Similarly, BB inoculation enhanced plant growth and reduced overall symptoms in rice seedlings subjected to 0 ± 5 °C for 24 h. Our results imply several mechanisms underlying BB- and BBSB-elicited stress tolerance. In contrast to the control, both treatments significantly decreased leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage, and increased leaf proline and cholorophyll content. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased 3.0- and 3.6-fold, respectively. Moreover, expression of OsMYB3R-2, OsDIL, OsDREB1A and OsCDPK13 genes was significantly up-regulated, suggesting that these genes play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance of rice. In addition, bacterial strains Bk7 and B4 were able to produce high amounts of IAA and siderophores, and colonise the plant roots, while only strain Bk7 exhibited the capability to form biofilms and solubilise inorganic phosphate. This study indicates that the BB and BBSB bio-formulations can be used to confer induced systematic tolerance and improve the health of rice plants subject to chilling and drought stress. PMID:26681628

  19. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  20. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

    Xu, Qian; Xu, Xiao; Shi, Yang; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis) and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera) as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C) in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars. PMID:25003197

  1. Differential adaptation of two varieties of common bean to abiotic stress: II. Acclimation of photosynthesis.

    Wentworth, Mark; Murchie, Erik H; Gray, Julie E; Villegas, Daniel; Pastenes, Claudio; Pinto, Manuel; Horton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of two contrasting varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) have been determined. These varieties, Arroz and Orfeo, differ in their productivity under stress conditions, resistance to drought stress, and have distinctly different stomatal behaviour. When grown under conditions of high irradiance and high temperature, both varieties displayed evidence of photosynthetic acclimation at the chloroplast level-there was an increase in chlorophyll a/b ratio, a decreased content of Lhcb proteins, and an increased xanthophyll cycle pool size. Both varieties also showed reduced chlorophyll content on a leaf area basis and a decrease in leaf area. Both varieties showed an increase in leaf thickness but only Arroz showed the characteristic elongated palisade cells in the high light-grown plants; Orfeo instead had a larger number of smaller, rounded cells. Differences were found in stomatal development: whereas Arroz showed very little change in stomatal density, Orfeo exhibited a large increase, particularly on the upper leaf surface. It is suggested that these differences in leaf cell structure and stomatal density give rise to altered rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Whereas, Arroz had the same photosynthetic rate in plants grown at both low and high irradiance, Orfeo showed a higher photosynthetic capacity at high irradiance. It is suggested that the higher yield of Orfeo compared with Arroz under stress conditions can be explained, in part, by these cellular differences. PMID:16415331

  2. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot.

    McGrann, Graham R D; Steed, Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Goddard, Rachel; Lachaux, Clea; Bansal, Anuradha; Corbitt, Margaret; Gorniak, Kalina; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K M

    2015-02-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but had no effect on disease symptoms caused by Fusarium culmorum, Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot), Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (powdery mildew) or Magnaporthe oryzae (blast). The HvSNAC1 transcript was weakly induced in the RLS-susceptible cv. Golden Promise during the latter stages of R. collo-cygni symptom development when infected leaves were senescing. Potential mechanisms controlling HvSNAC1-mediated resistance to RLS were investigated. Gene expression analysis revealed no difference in the constitutive levels of antioxidant transcripts in either of the over-expression lines compared with cv. Golden Promise, nor was any difference in stomatal conductance or sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death observed. Over-expression of HvSNAC1 delayed dark-induced leaf senescence. It is proposed that mechanisms controlled by HvSNAC1 that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stress and that inhibit senescence also confer resistance to R. collo-cygni and suppress RLS symptoms. This provides further evidence for an association between abiotic stress and senescence in barley and the development of RLS. PMID:25040333

  3. Complete genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. CGR1, bacterium tolerant to wide abiotic conditions isolated from the Atacama Desert.

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Cabrera, Pablo; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Aravena, Pamela; Latorre, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica; González, Mauricio

    2015-12-20

    Microbacterium sp. CGR1 (RGM2230) is an isolate from the Atacama Desert that displays a wide pH, salinity and temperature tolerance. This strain exhibits riboflavin overproducer features and traits for developing an environmental arsenic biosensor. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which represents the first genome of the genus Microbacterium sequenced and assembled in a single contig. The genome contains 3,634,864bp, 3299 protein-coding genes, 45 tRNAs, six copies of 5S-16S-23S rRNA and a high genome average GC-content of 68.04%. PMID:26521698

  4. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (Pcopper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. PMID:27259355

  5. Nitrogen Assimilation, Abiotic Stress and Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: The Full Circle of Reductants.

    Esposito, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) is well-known as the main regulatory enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) in living organisms. Namely, in Planta, different G6PDH isoforms may occur, generally localized in cytosol and plastids/chloroplasts. These enzymes are differently regulated by distinct mechanisms, still far from being defined in detail. In the last decades, a pivotal function for plant G6PDHs during the assimilation of nitrogen, providing reductants for enzymes involved in nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation, has been described. More recently, several studies have suggested a main role of G6PDH to counteract different stress conditions, among these salinity and drought, with the involvement of an ABA depending signal. In the last few years, this recognized vision has been greatly widened, due to studies clearly showing the non-conventional subcellular localization of the different G6PDHs, and the peculiar regulation of the different isoforms. The whole body of these considerations suggests a central question: how do the plant cells distribute the reductants coming from G6PDH and balance their equilibrium? This review explores the present knowledge about these mechanisms, in order to propose a scheme of distribution of reductants produced by G6PDH during nitrogen assimilation and stress. PMID:27187489

  6. Photosynthetic response to fluctuating environments and photoprotective strategies under abiotic stress.

    Yamori, Wataru

    2016-05-01

    Plants in natural environments must cope with diverse, highly dynamic, and unpredictable conditions. They have mechanisms to enhance the capture of light energy when light intensity is low, but they can also slow down photosynthetic electron transport to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and consequent damage to the photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Plants need a highly responsive regulatory system to balance the photosynthetic light reactions with downstream metabolism. Various mechanisms of regulation of photosynthetic electron transport under stress have been proposed, however the data have been obtained mainly under environmentally stable and controlled conditions. Thus, our understanding of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis under dramatically fluctuating natural environments remains limited. In this review, first I describe the magnitude of environmental fluctuations under natural conditions. Next, I examine the effects of fluctuations in light intensity, CO2 concentration, leaf temperature, and relative humidity on dynamic photosynthesis. Finally, I summarize photoprotective strategies that allow plants to maintain the photosynthesis under stressful fluctuating environments. The present work clearly showed that fluctuation in various environmental factors resulted in reductions in photosynthetic rate in a stepwise manner at every environmental fluctuation, leading to the conclusion that fluctuating environments would have a large impact on photosynthesis. PMID:27023791

  7. CaPUB1, a Hot Pepper U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Confers Enhanced Cold Stress Tolerance and Decreased Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Min, Hye Jo; Jung, Ye Jin; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought and low temperature critically restrict plant growth, reproduction, and productivity. Higher plants have developed various defense strategies against these unfavorable conditions. CaPUB1 (Capsicum annuum Putative U-box protein 1) is a hot pepper U-box E3 Ub ligase. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that constitutively expressed CaPUB1 exhibited drought-sensitive phenotypes, suggesting that it functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response. In this study, CaPUB1 was over-expressed in rice (Oryza sativa L.), and the phenotypic properties of transgenic rice plants were examined in terms of their drought and cold stress tolerance. Ubi:CaPUB1 T3 transgenic rice plants displayed phenotypes hypersensitive to dehydration, suggesting that its role in the negative regulation of drought stress response is conserved in dicot Arabidopsis and monocot rice plants. In contrast, Ubi:CaPUB1 progeny exhibited phenotypes markedly tolerant to prolonged low temperature (4°C) treatment, compared to those of wild-type plants, as determined by survival rates, electrolyte leakage, and total chlorophyll content. Cold stress-induced marker genes, including DREB1A, DREB1B, DREB1C, and Cytochrome P450, were more up-regulated by cold treatment in Ubi:CaPUB1 plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that CaPUB1 serves as both a negative regulator of the drought stress response and a positive regulator of the cold stress response in transgenic rice plants. This raises the possibility that CaPUB1 participates in the cross-talk between drought and low-temperature signaling pathways. PMID:26674966

  8. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  9. Stress Inducible Expression of AtDREB1A Transcription Factor in Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Conferred Tolerance to Soil-Moisture Deficit Stress.

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan P; Dobaria, Jentilal R

    2016-01-01

    Peanut, an important oilseed crop, is gaining priority for the development of drought tolerant genotypes in recent times, since the area under drought is constantly on the rise. To achieve this, one of the important strategies is to genetically engineer the ruling peanut varieties using transcription factor regulating the expression of several downstream, abiotic-stress responsive gene(s). In this study, eight independent transgenic peanut (cv. GG20) lines were developed using AtDREB1A gene, encoding for a transcription factor, through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The transgene insertion was confirmed in (T0) using PCR and Dot-blot analysis, while copy-number(s) was ascertained using Southern-blot analysis. The inheritance of AtDREB1A gene in individual transgenic plants (T1 and T2) was confirmed using PCR. In homozygous transgenic plants (T2), under soil-moisture deficit stress, elevated level of AtDREB1A transgene expression was observed by RT-PCR assay. The transgenic plants at 45-d or reproductive growth stage showed tolerance to severe soil-moisture deficit stress. Physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, osmotic potential, relative water content, electrolytic leakage, and total-chlorophyll content were found positively correlated with growth-related traits without any morphological abnormality, when compared to wild-type. qPCR analysis revealed consistent increase in expression of AtDREB1A gene under progressive soil-moisture deficit stress in two homozygous transgenic plants. The transgene expression showed significant correlation with improved physio-biochemical traits. The improvement of drought-stress tolerance in combination with improved growth-related traits is very essential criterion for a premium peanut cultivar like GG20, so that marginal farmers of India can incur the economic benefits during seasonal drought and water scarcity. PMID:27446163

  10. Correlation between arginine decarboxylase expression during abiotic stress and polyamine content in Withania somnifera

    Neha G. Wasnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   In plants, polyamines are generally synthesized by the ornithine decarboxylase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC through polyamine pathway. In the current study, attempt was made to clone and characterize a gene encoding arginine decarboxylase from Withania somnifera. A full-length ADC cDNA (WsADC with the longest open reading frame of 828 nucleotides, encoding a 275 amino acids polypeptide was developed by primer walking. WsADC mRNA was expressed in organs such as flower when tested for different plant organs like leaf, root, callus, stem and whole plantlet. Expression level of WsADC in different tissues of ashwagandha was spatially regulated. Transcripts of WsADC in ashwgandha shoots were induced either transiently in response to various abiotc stresses. Treatment of ashwgandha shoots on chilling and wounding remarkably induced accumulation of WsADC mRNA whereas UV light down- regulated the mRNA expression levels. This is the first direct evidence of a function of polyamines in the chilling, wounding

  11. Comprehensive Genomic Analysis and Expression Profiling of the NOX Gene Families under Abiotic Stresses and Hormones in Plants.

    Chang, Yan-Li; Li, Wen-Yan; Miao, Hai; Yang, Shuai-Qi; Li, Ri; Wang, Xiang; Li, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are key producers of reactive oxygen species under both normal and stress conditions in plants and they form functional subfamilies. Studies of these subfamilies indicated that they show considerable evolutionary selection. We performed a comparative genomic analysis that identified 50 ferric reduction oxidases (FRO) and 77 NOX gene homologs from 20 species representing the eight major plant lineages within the supergroup Plantae: glaucophytes, rhodophytes, chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots, and eudicots. Phylogenetic and structural analysis classified these FRO and NOX genes into four well-conserved groups represented as NOX, FRO I, FRO II, and FRO III. Further analysis of NOXs of phylogenetic and exon/intron structures showed that single intron loss and gain had occurred, yielding the diversified gene structures during the evolution of NOXs family genes and which were classified into four conserved subfamilies which are represented as Sub.I, Sub.II, Sub.III, and Sub.IV. Additionally, both available global microarray data analysis and quantitative real-time PCR experiments revealed that the NOX genes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) have different expression patterns in different developmental stages, various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments. Finally, coexpression network analysis of NOX genes in Arabidopsis and rice revealed that NOXs have significantly correlated expression profiles with genes which are involved in plants metabolic and resistance progresses. All these results suggest that NOX family underscores the functional diversity and divergence in plants. This finding will facilitate further studies of the NOX family and provide valuable information for functional validation of this family in plants. PMID:26907500

  12. Reflectants Application for Increasing Wheat Plant Tolerance Against Salt Stress

    M.S. Gaballah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot trial was executed on two wheat varieties (Sakha 69 and Giza 168 grown in clay soil under saline conditions at the greenhouse of National Research Centre, for improving salinity tolerance of wheat plant and reducing moisture loss through transpiration by spraying plants twice with two types of reflectants (magnesium carbonate and kaolinite, during plant growth. Salinity stress had a drastic effect on plant growth and yield, however reflectant treatments improved growth and yield characters under salinity stress. The use of reflectants also reduced water loss and limited the potential for evaporative leaf cooling. Reflectants lowered Na/K ratio compared to untreated plants. On the other hand the use of reflectants did not show any significant accumulation or decrease in proline content compared to untreated plants. Also, reflectant application has no effect on carbohydrate reserves.

  13. Progress on Stress Tolerance Promoters in Plants%植物逆境胁迫耐受性启动子的研究进展

    张晶红; 那杰

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses, including drought, extreme temperature, damage and many diseases, seri-ously affected plants growth and yield. Stress-tolerance promoter could accept signals induced by stress condi-tions, and activate the expression of stress responsive gene in plants, enabling plants to perceive and adapt to adversity. In this article, current research on cloning and function of stress-tolerance promoters were reviewed, including drought-resistant, salt-tolerance, high-temperature-resistant, damage-tolerance, cold-resistant, dis-ease-resistant and insect-resistant promoters.%逆境胁迫如干旱、极端温度、损伤等非生物胁迫和病虫害等生物胁迫严重影响植物的生长发育及产量。逆境胁迫耐受性启动子能够接受逆境条件下的诱导信号,激活植物体内胁迫应答基因的表达,使植物感知并适应逆境。本文对逆境胁迫耐受性启动子的克隆及功能研究情况进行综合分析,主要包括抗旱、耐盐、耐高温、抗冻、耐损伤、抗病和抗虫基因启动子。

  14. OsCYP21-4, a novel Golgi-resident cyclophilin, increases oxidative stress tolerance in rice

    Hye Sun eCho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OsCYP21-4 is a rice cyclophilin protein that binds to cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant drug. CYP21-4s in Arabidopsis and rice were previously shown to function as mitochondrial cyclophilins, as determined by TargetP analysis. In the current study, we found that OsCYP21-4-GFP localized to the Golgi, rather than mitochondria, in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was confirmed based on its co-localization with cis Golgi α-ManI-mCherry protein. OsCYP21-4 transcript levels increased in response to treatments with various abiotic stresses and the phytohormone abscisic acid, revealing its stress-responsiveness. CYP21-4 homologs do not possess key peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity/cyclosporine A (CsA binding residues, and recombinant OsCYP21-4 protein did not convert the synthetic substrate Suc-AAPF-pNA via cis- trans- isomerization in vitro. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing OsCYP21-4 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity and hydrogen peroxide treatment, along with increased peroxidase activity. These results demonstrate that OsCYP21-4 is a novel Golgi-localized cyclophilin that plays a role in oxidative stress tolerance, possibly by regulating peroxidase activity.

  15. Contribution of genetic diversity for improvement of some abiotic stresses in wheat (abstract)

    Wheat improvement has predominantly been accomplished through conventional plant breeding methodologies. This approach shall continue to be the predominant procedure in the future. Genetic diversity is crucial for crop improvement and in the Triticeae family it resides in the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools. These gene pools can be utilize for wheat improvement by producing genetic stocks where the alien gene pools can be combined with durum and bread wheat cultivars via interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Adopting the interspecific route strategies has led to the production of several genetic stocks, which are elucidated here. The categories include the amphiploids of the A, B, and D genomes with durum cultivars (AAAABB, AABBBB, AABBDD) and new AADD tetraploids. Tertiary gene pool species (more complex to utilize) are a potent resource for gene pyramiding, which contribute towards stress durability and addresses sustainable agricultural aspects. The conventional classical protocols of introgressing alien genetic diversity into wheat are complex, and long-term in generating farmer usable products. The gene transfer procedures are further complicated when the stress trait has multigenic control associated with several alien chromosomes. Our current approach has incorporated a novel strategy for promoting alien chromosome introgression involving wheat/alien homeologous as well as non-homeologous chromosomes. The protocol comprises of hybridizing the Phph based amphiploid with the phph Chinese Spring wheat genetic stock to yield heterozygote Phph derivatives. From selfing of the heterozygotes or from their derived haploids via wheat/maize crosses the ph derivatives are identified by a PCR diagnostic. The ph seedlings form the reservoir of wheat/alien chromosome translocations which are identified by Giemsa C-banding / fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Plants with translocations are step-wise advanced by backcrosses to elite wheat cultivars

  16. Comparative Functional Analysis of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Zinc Finger-Containing Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Proteins in Response to Abiotic Stresses

    XU, TAO; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of Ta...

  17. The rice RCN11 gene encodes β1,2-xylosyltransferase and is required for plant responses to abiotic stresses and phytohormones.

    Takano, Sho; Matsuda, Shuichi; Funabiki, Atsushi; Furukawa, Jun-ichi; Yamauchi, Takaki; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Nakazono, Mikio; Shinohara, Yasuro; Takamure, Itsuro; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2015-07-01

    Seed germination rates and plant development and growth under abiotic stress are important aspects of crop productivity. Here, our characterization of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant reduced culm number11 (rcn11) showed that RCN11 controls growth of plants exposed to abnormal temperature, salinity and drought conditions. RCN11 also mediates root aerenchyma formation under oxygen-deficient conditions and ABA sensitivity during seed germination. Molecular studies showed that the rcn11 mutation resulted from a 966-bp deletion that caused loss of function of β1,2-xylosyltransferase (OsXylT). This enzyme is located in the Golgi apparatus where it catalyzes the transfer of xylose from UDP-xylose to the core β-linked mannose of N-glycans. RCN11/OsXylT promoter activity was observed in the basal part of the shoot containing the shoot and axillary meristems and in the base of crown roots. The level of RCN11/OsXylT expression was regulated by multiple phytohormones and various abiotic stresses suggesting that plant specific N-glycosylation is regulated by multiple signals in rice plants. The present study is the first to demonstrate that rice β1,2-linked xylose residues on N-glycans are critical for seed germination and plant development and growth under conditions of abiotic stress. PMID:26025522

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    genes could be induced profusely by abiotic and biotic stresses such as heat, drought, salt, Botrytis cinerea, and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), indicating their potential roles in mediating the response of tomato plants to environment stresses. In conclusion, these results provide valuable information for elucidating the evolutionary relationship of Hsp20 gene family and functional characterization of the SlHsp20 gene family in the future. PMID:27582749

  19. Piriformospora indica: Potential and Significance in Plant Stress Tolerance.

    Gill, Sarvajeet S; Gill, Ritu; Trivedi, Dipesh K; Anjum, Naser A; Sharma, Krishna K; Ansari, Mohammed W; Ansari, Abid A; Johri, Atul K; Prasad, Ram; Pereira, Eduarda; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus which exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating plant hormone-signaling pathway during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect, including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants to overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator, and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P. indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production. PMID:27047458

  20. Bax Inhibitor-1, a Conserved Cell Death Suppressor, Is a Key Molecular Switch Downstream from a Variety of Biotic and Abiotic Stress Signals in Plants

    Naohide Watanabe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In Nature plants are constantly challenged by a variety of environmental stresses that could lead to disruptions in cellular homeostasis. Programmed cell death (PCD is a fundamental cellular process that is often associated with defense responses to pathogens, during development and in response to abiotic stresses in fungi, animals and plants. Although there are many characteristics shared between different types of PCD events, it remains unknown whether a common mechanism drives various types of PCD in eukaryotes. One candidate regulator for such a mechanism is Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1, an evolutionary conserved, endoplasmic reticulum (ER-resident protein that represents an ancient cell death regulator that potentially regulates PCD in all eukaryotes. Recent findings strongly suggested that BI-1 plays an important role in the conserved ER stress response pathway to modulate cell death induction in response to multiple types of cell death signals. As ER stress signaling pathways has been suggested to play important roles not only in the control of ER homeostasis but also in other biological processes such as the response to pathogens and abiotic stress in plants, BI-1 might function to control the convergence point that modulates the level of the “pro-survival and pro-death” signals under multiple stress conditions.

  1. A maize calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, ZmCPK4, positively regulated abscisic acid signaling and enhanced drought stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Yang; Kong, Xiangpei; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dequan

    2013-10-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play essential roles in calcium-mediated signal transductions in plant response to abiotic stress. Several members have been identified to be regulators for plants response to abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we isolated a subgroup I CDPK gene, ZmCPK4, from maize. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the ZmCPK4 transcripts were induced by various stresses and signal molecules. Transient and stable expression of the ZmCPK4-GFP fusion proteins revealed ZmCPK4 localized to the membrane. Moreover, overexpression of ZmCPK4 in the transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced ABA sensitivity in seed germination, seedling growth and stomatal movement. The transgenic plants also enhanced drought stress tolerance. Taken together, the results suggest that ZmCPK4 might be involved in ABA-mediated regulation of stomatal closure in response to drought stress. PMID:23911729

  2. Cloning and functional characterization of two abiotic stress-responsive Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEHs).

    Xu, Huanhuan; Liang, Mingxiang; Xu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Kang, Jian; Zhao, Qingxin; Zhao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Two fructan hydrolases were previously reported to exist in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and one native fructan-β-fructosidase (1-FEH) was purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE, but no corresponding cDNA was cloned. Here, we cloned two full-length 1-FEH cDNA sequences from Jerusalem artichoke, named Ht1-FEH I and Ht1-FEH II, which showed high levels of identity with chicory 1-FEH I and 1-FEH II. Functional characterization of the corresponding recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris X-33 demonstrated that both Ht1-FEHs had high levels of hydrolase activity towards β(2,1)-linked fructans, but low or no activity towards β(2,6)-linked levan and sucrose. Like other plant FEHs, the activities of the recombinant Ht1-FEHs were greatly inhibited by sucrose. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Ht1-FEH I transcripts accumulated to high levels in the developing leaves and stems of artichoke, whereas the expression levels of Ht1-FEH II increased in tubers during tuber sprouting, which implies that the two Ht1-FEHs play different roles. The levels of both Ht1-FEH I and II transcript were significantly increased in the stems of NaCl-treated plants. NaCl treatment also induced transcription of both Ht1-FEHs in the tubers, while PEG treatments slightly inhibited the expression of Ht1-FEH II in tubers. Analysis of sugar-metabolizing enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentration via HPLC showed that the enzyme activities of 1-FEHs were increased but the fructose content was decreased under NaCl and PEG treatments. Given that FEH hydrolyzes fructan to yield Fru, we discuss possible explanations for the inconsistency between 1-FEH activity and fructan dynamics in artichokes subjected to abiotic stress. PMID:25522837

  3. Brassica napus L. Homeodomain Leucine-Zipper Gene BnHB6 Responds to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses

    Shun-Wu YU; Li-Da ZHANG; Kai-Jing ZUO; Dong-Qin TANG; Xiao-Fen SUN; Ke-Xuan TANG

    2005-01-01

    Ahomeodomain leucine-zipper(HD-Zip) gene BnHB6 (GenBank accession No. AY336103) was isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) following drought treatment through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of BnHB6 was 1 611 bp and contained a 936-bp open reading frame encoding 311 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that BnHB6 belonged to the HD-Zip I subfamily.High-stringency Southern boltting analysis showed that BnHB6 appeared in rape as a single copy but had homologous genes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that BnHB6 was expressed in several tissues tested under control conditions, but that expression was significantly upregulated in shoots by mannitol, NaCl, cold treatment, anaerobic culture, wounding, H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA) treatments, but not by ultraviolet treatment. Further RTPCR analysis revealed that BnHB6 was a late-responsive gene, the expression of which was not activated by NaCl, cold treatment, H2O2, ABA, and SA at an early time point (20 min) of treatment in the shoot. However, after a certain period of treatment, the induced expression culminated and then declined until the next peak occurred. Tissue-specific analysis revealed that BnHB6 was expressed at certain levels in the roots, shoots, and flowers, and the roots were found to respond to the osmotic stimuli more rapidly than shoots to increase the expression of BnHB6. The present study implies that BnHB6 plays a positive role as a regulator of biotic and abiotic stresses on growth during seedling establishment.

  4. Cloning of genes and developing transgenic crops with enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought (abstract)

    Abiotic stresses represent the most limiting factors affecting agricultural productivity. In India more than 60% of total cultivated land is still rainfed and crops experience frequent droughts. Thus, we need to develop transgenic crops tolerant to drought, and other related abiotic stress factors such as salinity, low and high temperature stresses. At the National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR), we have initiated a programme on developing transgenic crops tolerant to a range of abiotic stresses. The major emphasis is on developing transgenic potato, tomato, mustard, rice and wheat. While, transgenic plants of potato. tomato and mustard have already been generated with osmotin gene and are at different stages of testing, other key genes imparting tolerance to abiotic stresses are being isolated from different species for producing transgenic rice and wheat cultivars tolerant to multiple stresses. Genes that have been isolated in our laboratory include ascorbate peroxidase gene (TaApx) and genes encoding transcription factor, CBFs (TaCBF2 and TaCBP3) from a drought tolerant wheat cultivar (C306), Lea1 cDNA from Brassica species, codA from Arthrobacter globiformis, and otsBA operon from E. coli. Apart from these stress-related genes, we have isolated a few stress-inducible promoters for deploying them in gene stacking in developing transgenic crops with enhanced tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. The results will be presented. (author)

  5. Gene Networks in Plant Ozone Stress Response and Tolerance

    Agnieszka Ludwikow; Jan Sadowski

    2008-01-01

    For many plant species ozone stress has become much more severe in the last decade. The accumulating evidence for the significant effects of ozone pollutant on crop and forest yield situate ozone as one of the most important environmental stress factors that limits plant productivity woddwide. Today, transcdptomic approaches seem to give the best coverage of genome level responses. Therefore, microarray serves as an invaluable tool for global gene expression analyses, unravelling new information about gene pathways, in-species and crose-species gene expression comparison, and for the characterization of unknown relationships between genes. In this review we summadze the recent progress in the transcdptomics of ozone to demonstrate the benefits that can be harvested from the application of integrative and systematic analytical approaches to study ozone stress response. We focused our consideration on microarray analyses identifying gene networks responsible for response and tolerance to elevated ozone concentration. From these analyses it is now possible to notice how plant ozone defense responses depend on the interplay between many complex signaling pathways and metabolite signals.

  6. Evaluation of drought tolerance in new Bulgarian sweet corn genotypes with using stress tolerance indices

    Shtereva Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two inbred lines and their heterotic F1 hybrid of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf. were evaluated to assess their reaction for PEG-mediated water stress at the seedling stage in terms of various physiological and biochemical traits. Water potentials were: zero as control and -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 and -1.5 MPa as treatments. Stress- determining parameters such as proline content, malondiadehyde, and hydrogen peroxide were measured. In water stress, the germination was inversely proportional to the Polyethylene glycol concentrations in all three genotypes; roots and shoots length, fresh and dry weight decreased with an increasing of polyethylene glycol concentration. Malondiadehyde, proline, and hydrogen peroxide were found to be increased at different osmotic gradients in comparison to control. The data observed in the experiments revealed that the line C-6 might be used as a very promising parent to breed and select new drought tolerant sweet corn hybrids. Such a suggestion needs to be further explored by involving a larger set of sweet corn lines and hybrids.

  7. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  8. Ectopic expression of a grapevine transcription factor VvWRKY11 contributes to osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Liu, Huaying; Yang, Wenlong; Liu, Dongcheng; Han, Yuepeng; Zhang, Aimin; Li, Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    Plant WRKY transcriptional factors play an important role in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a WRKY transcription factor was isolated from grapevine. This transcription factor showed 66% and 58% identity at the DNA and amino acid sequence levels, respectively, with Arabidopsis AtWRKY11 genes, and was therefore designated VvWRKY11. Phylogenetic analysis and structure comparison indicated that VvWRKY11 protein belongs to group IIc. The VvWRKY11 protein was shown to be located in the nucleus based on green fluorescent protein analysis. Yeast one-hybrid analysis further indicated that VvWRKY11 protein binds specifically to the W-box element. The expression profile of VvWRKY11 in response to treatment with phytohormone salicylic acid or pathogen Plasmopara viticola is rapid and transient. Transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing VvWRKY11 showed higher tolerance to water stress induced by mannitol than wild-type plants. These results clearly demonstrated that the VvWRKY11 gene is involved in the response to dehydration stress. In addition, the role of VvWRKY11 protein in regulating the expression of two stress response genes, AtRD29A and AtRD29B, is also discussed. PMID:20354906

  9. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)

    Maqshoof Ahmad; Zahir, Zahir A.; Farheen Nazli; Fareeha Akram; Muhammad Arshad; Muhammad Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas contain...

  10. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-06-30

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  11. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Rapeseed Genotypes under Non Stress and Drought Stress Conditions

    Amir Hossein SHIRANI RAD; ABBASIAN, Abouzar

    2011-01-01

    Drought is a wide spread problem seriously influencing rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) production, mostly in dryland regions. This study was conducted to determine drought tolerance genotypes with superiority in different stressed environments. Twenty three rapeseed genotypes were tested in a split plot design based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications in two years (2008- 2009 and 2009-2010) at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Karaj, Iran. Seven drought resist...

  12. EgRBP42 encoding an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is responsive to abiotic stresses.

    Yeap, Wan-Chin; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2012-10-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated as regulatory proteins involved in the post-transcriptional processes of gene expression in plants under various stress conditions. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a gene, designated as EgRBP42, encoding a member of the plant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-like RBP family from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). EgRBP42 consists of two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a glycine-rich domain at the C-terminus. The upstream region of EgRBP42 has multiple light-responsive, stress-responsive regulatory elements and regulatory elements associated with flower development. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of EgRBP42 showed that EgRBP42 was expressed in oil palm tissues tested, including leaf, shoot apical meristem, root, female inflorescence, male inflorescence and mesocarp with the lowest transcript level in the roots. EgRBP42 protein interacted with transcripts associated with transcription, translation and stress responses using pull-down assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The accumulation of EgRBP42 and its interacting transcripts were induced by abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, submergence, cold and heat stresses in leaf discs. Collectively, the data suggested that EgRBP42 is a RBP, which responds to various abiotic stresses and could be advantageous for oil palm under stress conditions. Key message EgRBP42 may be involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes important for plant stress response and adaptation. PMID:22699852

  13. Tolerance, arsenic uptake, and oxidative stress in Acacia farnesiana under arsenate-stress.

    Alcantara-Martinez, Nemi; Guizar, Sandra; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Anicacio-Acevedo, Blanca E; Buendia-Gonzalez, Leticia; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania

    2016-07-01

    Acacia farnesiana is a shrub widely distributed in soils heavily polluted with arsenic in Mexico. However, the mechanisms by which this species tolerates the phytotoxic effects of arsenic are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the tolerance and bioaccumulation of As by A. farnesiana seedlings exposed to high doses of arsenate (AsV) and the role of peroxidases (POX) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) in alleviating As-stress. For that, long-period tests were performed in vitro under different AsV treatments. A. farnesiana showed a remarkable tolerance to AsV, achieving a half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of about 2.8 mM. Bioaccumulation reached about 940 and 4380 mg As·kg(-1) of dry weight in shoots and roots, respectively, exposed for 60 days to 0.58 mM AsV. Seedlings exposed to such conditions registered a growth delay during the first 15 days, when the fastest As uptake rate (117 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) occurred, coinciding with both the highest rate of lipid peroxidation and the strongest up-regulation of enzyme activities. GST activity showed a strong correlation with the As bioaccumulated, suggesting its role in imparting AsV tolerance. This study demonstrated that besides tolerance to AsV, A. farnesiana bioaccumulates considerable amounts of As, suggesting that it may be useful for phytostabilization purposes. PMID:26618535

  14. Evaluation of Agronomic Traits in Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines of KDML105 Containing Drought Tolerance QTL under Drought Stress

    Vaiphot KANJOO; Kanchana PUNYAWAEW; Jonaliza L. SIANGLIW; Suwat JEARAKONGMAN; Apichart VANAVICHIT; Theerayut TOOJINDA

    2012-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic constraint to rice production in rainfed lowland and insufficiently irrigated areas.The improvement of drought tolerant varieties is one of the strategies to reduce the negative effects of drought.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for primary and secondary traits related to drought toleranco (DT) on chromosomes 1,3,4,8 and 9 that determined from double haploid lines derived from a cross between CT9993 and IR62266 were introgressed and dissected into small pieces in the genetic background of Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105) to develop chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) population.The CSSLs were evaluated at the reproductive stage for their agronomic performance and yield components under drought stress,and results were compared with irrigated condition.The flowering of CSSL lines was 6 to 7 d earlier than KDML105.The mean values of grain yields in the CSSLs were higher than KDML105 under drought and irrigated conditions.At irrigated condition,the grain yields of introgression lines carrying DT-QTLs from chromosomes 4 and 8 were higher than that of KDML105,whereas other traits showed little difference with KDML105.Analysis indicated that grain yield has positive correlation with plant height,tiller and panicle number per plant,and total grain weight per plant under drought stress while negatively correlated with days to flowering.As mentioned above,CSSLs showing good adaptation under drought stress can be used as genetic materials to improve drought tolerance in Thai rainfed lowland rice breeding program,and as materials to dissect genes underlying drought tolerance.

  15. The ubiquitous distribution of late embryogenesis abundant proteins across cell compartments in Arabidopsis offers tailored protection against abiotic stress.

    Candat, Adrien; Paszkiewicz, Gaël; Neveu, Martine; Gautier, Romain; Logan, David C; Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Macherel, David

    2014-07-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are hydrophilic, mostly intrinsically disordered proteins, which play major roles in desiccation tolerance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 51 genes encoding LEA proteins clustered into nine families have been inventoried. To increase our understanding of the yet enigmatic functions of these gene families, we report the subcellular location of each protein. Experimental data highlight the limits of in silico predictions for analysis of subcellular localization. Thirty-six LEA proteins localized to the cytosol, with most being able to diffuse into the nucleus. Three proteins were exclusively localized in plastids or mitochondria, while two others were found dually targeted to these organelles. Targeting cleavage sites could be determined for five of these proteins. Three proteins were found to be endoplasmic reticulum (ER) residents, two were vacuolar, and two were secreted. A single protein was identified in pexophagosomes. While most LEA protein families have a unique subcellular localization, members of the LEA_4 family are widely distributed (cytosol, mitochondria, plastid, ER, and pexophagosome) but share the presence of the class A α-helix motif. They are thus expected to establish interactions with various cellular membranes under stress conditions. The broad subcellular distribution of LEA proteins highlights the requirement for each cellular compartment to be provided with protective mechanisms to cope with desiccation or cold stress. PMID:25005920

  16. Identification of crowding stress tolerance co-expression networks involved in sweet corn yield

    Tolerance to crowding stress has played a crucial role in improving agronomic productivity in field corn; however, commercial sweet corn hybrids vary greatly in crowding stress tolerance. The objectives were to 1) explore transcriptional changes among sweet corn hybrids with differential yield under...

  17. Cloning and analysis of expression patterns and transcriptional regulation of RghBNG in response to plant growth regulators and abiotic stresses in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    Zhou, Yanqing; Zhang, Yonghua; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jingyun; Wang, Wanshen; Duan, Hongying; Chen, Juanjuan

    2015-01-01

    RghBNG, a gene of unknown function, was cloned from Rehmannia glutinosa by reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of RghBNG was 548 bp with a282-bp open reading frame. It encoded a polypeptide of 93 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 10.5 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 9.25. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that RghBNG had no homology to any known plant genes, whereas the RghBNG polypeptide was highly similar to other plant proteins and possessed one conserved B12D protein family functional domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RghBNG encoded for a dicot protein. RghBNG spatial and temporal expression patterns and responses to abiotic stresses and plant growth regulators were investigated by qRT-PCR. RghBNG transcripts were detected in roots, stems, leaves, petals, receptacles, stamens and pistils with the highest and lowest levels respectively observed in petals and leaves of mature plants. Additionally, RghBNG transcripts were detected at three developmental stages of roots, stems and leaves; the highest levels were observed in roots at seedling stage; Transcript levels changed to varying degrees in different tissues and stages; We also studied the effects of abiotic stress and plant growth regulators in roots and leaves. RghBNG expression was significantly increased (p < 0.01) by chromium, gibberellic acid and NaCl, with the highest levels induced by chromium stress; In contrast, 6-benzyladenine reduced expression. These results strongly suggest that RghBNG is involved in R. glutinosa growth, development and response to plant growth regulators and abiotic stresses. PMID:25674509

  18. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. PMID:27372277

  19. Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles.

    Salme Timmusk

    Full Text Available Water is the key resource limiting world agricultural production. Although an impressive number of research reports have been published on plant drought tolerance enhancement via genetic modifications during the last few years, progress has been slower than expected. We suggest a feasible alternative strategy by application of rhizospheric bacteria coevolved with plant roots in harsh environments over millions of years, and harboring adaptive traits improving plant fitness under biotic and abiotic stresses. We show the effect of bacterial priming on wheat drought stress tolerance enhancement, resulting in up to 78% greater plant biomass and five-fold higher survivorship under severe drought. We monitored emissions of seven stress-related volatiles from bacterially-primed drought-stressed wheat seedlings, and demonstrated that three of these volatiles are likely promising candidates for a rapid non-invasive technique to assess crop drought stress and its mitigation in early phases of stress development. We conclude that gauging stress by elicited volatiles provides an effectual platform for rapid screening of potent bacterial strains and that priming with isolates of rhizospheric bacteria from harsh environments is a promising, novel way to improve plant water use efficiency. These new advancements importantly contribute towards solving food security issues in changing climates.

  20. Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles.

    Timmusk, Salme; Abd El-Daim, Islam A; Copolovici, Lucian; Tanilas, Triin; Kännaste, Astrid; Behers, Lawrence; Nevo, Eviatar; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Stenström, Elna; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Water is the key resource limiting world agricultural production. Although an impressive number of research reports have been published on plant drought tolerance enhancement via genetic modifications during the last few years, progress has been slower than expected. We suggest a feasible alternative strategy by application of rhizospheric bacteria coevolved with plant roots in harsh environments over millions of years, and harboring adaptive traits improving plant fitness under biotic and abiotic stresses. We show the effect of bacterial priming on wheat drought stress tolerance enhancement, resulting in up to 78% greater plant biomass and five-fold higher survivorship under severe drought. We monitored emissions of seven stress-related volatiles from bacterially-primed drought-stressed wheat seedlings, and demonstrated that three of these volatiles are likely promising candidates for a rapid non-invasive technique to assess crop drought stress and its mitigation in early phases of stress development. We conclude that gauging stress by elicited volatiles provides an effectual platform for rapid screening of potent bacterial strains and that priming with isolates of rhizospheric bacteria from harsh environments is a promising, novel way to improve plant water use efficiency. These new advancements importantly contribute towards solving food security issues in changing climates. PMID:24811199

  1. Abiotic stress leads to somatic and heritable changes in homologous recombination frequency, point mutation frequency and microsatellite stability in Arabidopsis plants

    In earlier studies, we showed that abiotic stresses, such as ionizing radiation, heavy metals, temperature and water, trigger an increase in homologous recombination frequency (HRF). We also demonstrated that many of these stresses led to inheritance of high-frequency homologous recombination, HRF. Although an increase in recombination frequency is an important indicator of genome rearrangements, it only represents a minor portion of possible stress-induced mutations. Here, we analyzed the influence of heat, cold, drought, flood and UVC abiotic stresses on two major types of mutations in the genome, point mutations and small deletions/insertions. We used two transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana, one allowing an analysis of reversions in a stop codon-containing inactivated β-glucuronidase transgene and another one allowing an analysis of repeat stability in a microsatellite-interrupted β-glucuronidase transgene. The transgenic Arabidopsis line carrying the β-glucuronidase-based homologous recombination substrate was used as a positive control. We showed that the majority of stresses increased the frequency of point mutations, homologous recombination and microsatellite instability in somatic cells, with the frequency of homologous recombination being affected the most. The analysis of transgenerational changes showed an increase in HRF to be the most prominent effect observed in progeny. Significant changes in recombination frequency were observed upon exposure to all types of stress except drought, whereas changes in microsatellite instability were observed upon exposure to UVC, heat and cold. The frequency of point mutations in the progeny of stress-exposed plants was the least affected; an increase in mutation frequency was observed only in the progeny of plants exposed to UVC. We thus conclude that transgenerational changes in genome stability in response to stress primarily involve an increase in recombination frequency.

  2. Quantifying the Impact of Physical Activity on Stress Tolerance in College Students

    Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Bigham, Lauren E.; Welle, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Stress experience by millennial college students can be crippling. While stress is a universal and unavoidable phenomenon for college students, the variance in ability to handle stress can be attributed to stress tolerance (Welle & Graf, 2011). Research is needed to identify effective tools that increase college students' ability to…

  3. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod s

  4. Effects of salt stress on wild type and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana: Model plant to engineer tolerance towards salinity

    Khalatbari Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental constraints impairing plant distribution and yield is believed to be salt stress. Additionally, engineered abiotic stress resistance or/and tolerance is considered as an indispensable target in order to enhance plant productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on physiological and morphological of wild type (Columbia-0 and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under different NaCl concentrations. These salt treatments, including control condition, 50mM and 100mM NaCl were imposed on the plants. Each salt treatment was replicated three times in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement. Wild type and mutant A.thaliana plants were subjected to the abiotic stress (salinity for up to 11 days to evaluate the parameters of growth, development and water relations. As a result, the performance of wild type plants was stronger than vte4 mutant under different salt treatments. Under control condition, rosette dry weight, maximum quantum efficiency (PSII and specific leaf area obtained the highest values of 13.85 mg, considered, wild type A.thaliana recorded higher value of 0.82 gW/gFW for relative water content (RWC under 50mM NaCl whereas mutant plants gained the value of 0.78 gW/gFW under the same condition. However, root mass fraction indicated an increase for both wild type and vte4 mutant plants after 11 days of salt stress onset. The reduction of water potential was observed for wild type and mutant A.thaliana where it scored -1.3 MPa and -1.4, respectively. As a conclusion, these findings implied that under different salt treatments morphological and physiological responses of wild type and vte4 mutant were affected in which wild type plants showed more tolerance. Lack of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ -TMT gene in vte4 seemed to impair defence mechanism of this mutant against salinity.

  5. Transcriptome profiling and physiological studies reveal a major role for aromatic amino acids in mercury stress tolerance in rice seedlings.

    Yun-An Chen

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants.

  6. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale. PMID:27625663

  7. More than 400 million years of evolution and some plants still can't make it on their own: Plant stress tolerance via fungal symbiosis

    Rodriguez, R.; Redman, R.

    2008-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems are thought to be symbiotic with mycorrhizal and/or endophytic fungi. Collectively, these fungi express different symbiotic lifestyles ranging from parasitism to mutualism. Analysis of Colletotrichum species indicates that individual isolates can express either parasitic or mutualistic lifestyles depending on the host genotype colonized. The endophyte colonization pattern and lifestyle expression indicate that plants can be discerned as either disease, non-disease, or non-hosts. Fitness benefits conferred by fungi expressing mutualistic lifestyles include biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, growth enhancement, and increased reproductive success. Analysis of plant-endophyte associations in high stress habitats revealed that at least some fungal endophytes confer habitat-specific stress tolerance to host plants. Without the habitat-adapted fungal endophytes, the plants are unable to survive in their native habitats. Moreover, the endophytes have a broad host range encompassing both monocots and eudicots, and confer habitat-specific stress tolerance to both plant groups. ?? The Author [2008]. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology]. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide analyses of the bZIP family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana.

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Lianzhe; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Juhua; Li, Meiying; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in multiple biological processes. However, less information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important fruit crop banana. In this study, 121 bZIP transcription factor genes were identified in the banana genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MabZIPs were classified into 11 subfamilies. The majority of MabZIP genes in the same subfamily shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis of two banana genotypes revealed the differential expression patterns of MabZIP genes in different organs, in various stages of fruit development and ripening, and in responses to abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salt. Interaction networks and co-expression assays showed that group A MabZIP-mediated networks participated in various stress signaling, which was strongly activated in Musa ABB Pisang Awak. This study provided new insights into the complicated transcriptional control of MabZIP genes and provided robust tissue-specific, development-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MabZIP genes for potential applications in the genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:27445085

  9. Changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana Proteome Implicate cAMP in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses and Changes in Energy Metabolism

    Alqurashi, May

    2016-06-01

    The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis.

  10. GpDSR7, a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Gene in Grimmia pilifera Is Involved in Tolerance to Drought Stress in Arabidopsis.

    Li, Mengmeng; Li, Yihao; Zhao, Junyi; Liu, Hai; Jia, Shenghua; Li, Jie; Zhao, Heping; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2016-01-01

    The growth and development of plants under drought stress depends mainly on the expression levels of various genes and modification of proteins. To clarify the molecular mechanism of drought-tolerance of plants, suppression subtractive hybridisation cDNA libraries were screened to identify drought-stress-responsive unigenes in Grimmia pilifera, and a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, GpDSR7, was identified among the 240 responsive unigenes. GpDSR7 expression was induced by various abiotic stresses, particularly by drought. GpDSR7 displayed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and was exclusively localised on the ER membrane in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. GpDSR7-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a high water content and survival ratio under drought stress. Moreover, the expression levels of some marker genes involved in drought stress were higher in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that GpDSR7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in tolerance to drought stress at the protein modification level. PMID:27228205

  11. Identification of mutants with tolerance to rhizospheric stresses and inheritance and QTL mapping of related root traits in soybean

    A sample of soybean accessions (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) from Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe and Middle-Lower Changjiang Valleys was evaluated for their tolerance to rhizospheric stresses; namely; drought, aluminium toxicity and low phosphorus. Fifteen accessions with Rank 1 abiotic stress tolerance were screened out. Drought tolerance was found to be significantly (0.01) correlated with the relative values of total root length (RL), root volume (RV) and dry root weight (DW) per plant. The same relationship was found for aluminium toxicity tolerance with the stressed to unstressed ratios of number of lateral roots, tap RL, total RT, RV and DW. Segregation analysis indicated that between the two parents of the RIL population Kefeng 1xNannong 1138-2 (Rank 1xRank 4), the relative values of DW, total RL and RV were respectively controlled by two major genes (linked together for the latter two traits with recombination value 4.30% and 1.93%, respectively) plus modifiers with their major gene heritability values 62.26∼91.81%. Between the two parents of the RIL population BogaoxNG94- 156 (Rank 4xRank 2), the ratio values of lateral root number (RN), tap RL, total RL and DW were controlled by three major genes plus modifiers with their major gene heritability values being 80.22∼91.81%, while the ratio value of RV was controlled by three major genes with a heritability value of 93.44%. The Kefeng 1xNannong 1138-2 RIL population was also used for mapping QTLs of relative DW, RL and RV related to drought tolerance. Five, three, and five QTLs located on Linkage group N6-C2, N8-D1b+W, N11-E and N18-K for each of the three traits, respectively, were identified. Each of them appeared to have one locus (Dw1, Rl1, and Rv1) with relatively large effect in comparison with their other loci, and the above three loci were closely linked to one another on the linkage group N6-C2. The results between segregation analysis and QTL mapping appeared to be consistent, therefore could be used for

  12. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  13. Overexpression of cold-inducible wheat galactinol synthase confers tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic rice

    Shimosaka, Etsuo; Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2015-01-01

    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is considered to be a key regulator of the biosynthesis of Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). Accumulation of RFOs has been reported to play a role in protection against abiotic stresses. We identified two cDNAs encoding galactinol synthase from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which we designated as TaGolS1 and TaGolS2. Expression of the two TaGolS genes was induced by cold stress but not by drought, heat stress or ABA treatment in wheat. We generated transgeni...

  14. Enhancement of drought stress tolerance in crops by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Vurukonda, Sai Shiva Krishna Prasad; Vardharajula, Sandhya; Shrivastava, Manjari; SkZ, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Drought is one of the major constraints on agricultural productivity worldwide and is likely to further increase. Several adaptations and mitigation strategies are required to cope with drought stress. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could play a significant role in alleviation of drought stress in plants. These beneficial microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere/endo-rhizosphere of plants and impart drought tolerance by producing exopolysaccharides (EPS), phytohormones, 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, volatile compounds, inducing accumulation of osmolytes, antioxidants, upregulation or down regulation of stress responsive genes and alteration in root morphology in acquisition of drought tolerance. The term Induced Systemic Tolerance (IST) was coined for physical and chemical changes induced by microorganisms in plants which results in enhanced tolerance to drought stresses. In the present review we elaborate on the role of PGPR in helping plants to cope with drought stress. PMID:26856449

  15. Interaction of Brassinosteroids and Polyamines Enhances Copper Stress Tolerance in Raphanus Sativus

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Oral, H. Volkan; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the p...

  16. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

    Shelden, Megan C.; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice) and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive), yet they are more salt-toleran...

  17. Airborne signals from salt-stressed Arabidopsis plants trigger salinity tolerance in neighboring plants

    Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms to overcome their sessile nature. One remarkable strategy is the inter-plant communication mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Quantity and quality of plant VOCs are intricately regulated by biotic and abiotic stresses, and the alterations facilitate plant community to optimize their growth, development, and endogenous physiology to environmental fluctuations. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana plants that experience high ...

  18. Screening and Validation of Housekeeping Genes of the Root and Cotyledon of Cunninghamia lanceolata under Abiotic Stresses by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Bao, Wenlong; Qu, Yanli; Shan, Xiaoyi; Wan, Yinglang

    2016-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs) as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ) with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants. PMID:27483238

  19. Screening and Validation of Housekeeping Genes of the Root and Cotyledon of Cunninghamia lanceolata under Abiotic Stresses by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Wenlong Bao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants.

  20. A cellulose synthase-like protein is required for osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Zhu, Jianhua

    2010-04-16

    Osmotic stress imposed by soil salinity and drought stress significantly affects plant growth and development, but osmotic stress sensing and tolerance mechanisms are not well understood. Forward genetic screens using a root-bending assay have previously identified salt overly sensitive (sos) mutants of Arabidopsis that fall into five loci, SOS1 to SOS5. These loci are required for the regulation of ion homeostasis or cell expansion under salt stress, but do not play a major role in plant tolerance to the osmotic stress component of soil salinity or drought. Here we report an additional sos mutant, sos6-1, which defines a locus essential for osmotic stress tolerance. sos6-1 plants are hypersensitive to salt stress and osmotic stress imposed by mannitol or polyethylene glycol in culture media or by water deficit in the soil. SOS6 encodes a cellulose synthase-like protein, AtCSLD5. Only modest differences in cell wall chemical composition could be detected, but we found that sos6-1 mutant plants accumulate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under osmotic stress and are hypersensitive to the oxidative stress reagent methyl viologen. The results suggest that SOS6/AtCSLD5 is not required for normal plant growth and development but has a critical role in osmotic stress tolerance and this function likely involves its regulation of ROS under stress. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Light and abiotic stresses regulate the expression of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase and levels of ascorbic acid in two kiwifruit genotypes via light-responsive and stress-inducible cis-elements in their promoters.

    Li, Juan; Liang, Dong; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) plays an essential role in plants by protecting cells against oxidative damage. GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) is the first committed gene for AsA synthesis. Our research examined AsA levels, regulation of GGP gene expression, and how these are related to abiotic stresses in two species of Actinidia (kiwifruit). When leaves were subjected to continuous darkness or light, ABA or MeJA, heat, or a hypoxic environment, we found some correlation between the relative levels of GGP mRNA and AsA concentrations. In transformed tobacco plants, activity of the GGP promoter was induced by all of these treatments. However, the degree of inducibility in the two kiwifruit species differed among the GGP promoter deletions. We deduced that the G-box motif, a light-responsive element, may have an important function in regulating GGP transcripts under various light conditions in both A. deliciosa and A. eriantha. Other elements such as ABRE, the CGTCA motif, and HSE might also control the promoter activities of GGP in kiwifruit. Altogether, these data suggest that GGP expression in the two kiwifruit species is regulated by light or abiotic stress via the relative cis-elements in their promoters. Furthermore, GGP has a critical role in modulating AsA concentrations in kiwifruit species under abiotic stresses. PMID:23775440

  2. Pathogen-induced Caenorhabditis elegans developmental plasticity has a hormetic effect on the resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses

    Leroy Magali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic plasticity, i.e. the capacity to change the phenotype in response to changes in the environment without alteration of the genotype, is important for coping with unstable environments. In spite of the ample evidence that microorganisms are a major environmental component playing a significant role in eukaryotic organisms health and disease, there is not much information about the effect of microorganism-induced developmental phenotypic plasticity on adult animals’ stress resistance and longevity. Results We examined the consequences of development of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae fed with different bacterial strains on stress resistance and lifespan of adult nematodes. Bacterial strains used in this study were either pathogenic or innocuous to nematodes. Exposure to the pathogen during development did not affect larval survival. However, the development of nematodes on the pathogenic bacterial strains increased lifespan of adult nematodes exposed to the same or a different pathogen. A longer nematode lifespan, developed on pathogens and exposed to pathogens as adults, did not result from an enhanced capacity to kill bacteria, but is likely due to an increased tolerance to the damage inflicted by the pathogenic bacteria. We observed that adult nematodes developed on a pathogen induce higher level of expression of the hsp-16.2 gene and have higher resistance to heat shock than nematodes developed on an innocuous strain. Therefore, the increased resistance to pathogens could be, at least partially, due to the early induction of the heat shock response in nematodes developed on pathogens. The lifespan increase is controlled by the DBL-1 transforming growth factor beta-like, DAF-2/DAF-16 insulin-like, and p38 MAP kinase pathways. Therefore, the observed modulation of adult nematode lifespans by developmental exposure to a pathogen is likely a genetically controlled response. Conclusions Our study shows that development

  3. Water deficit stress tolerance in maize conferred by expression of an isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene driven by a stress- and maturation-induced promoter.

    Décima Oneto, Cecilia; Otegui, María Elena; Baroli, Irene; Beznec, Ailin; Faccio, Paula; Bossio, Ezequiel; Blumwald, Eduardo; Lewi, Dalia

    2016-02-20

    Senescence can be delayed in transgenic plants overexpressing the enzyme isopentenyltransferase (IPT) due to stress-induced increased levels of endogenous cytokinins. This trait leads to sustained photosynthetic activity and improved tolerance to abiotic stress. The aim of this study was to generate and characterize transgenic plants of maize (Zea mays L.) transformed with the IPT gene sequence under the regulation of SARK promoter (protein kinase receptor-associated senescence). Three independent transgenic events and their segregating null controls were evaluated in two watering regimes (WW: well watered; WD: water deficit) imposed for two weeks around anthesis. Our results show that the WD treatment induced IPT expression with the concomitant increase in cytokinin levels, which prolonged the persistence of total green leaf area, and maintained normal photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance. These trends were accompanied by a minor decrease in number of grains per plant, individual grain weight and plant grain yield as compared to WW plants. Plants expressing the IPT gene under WD had PGR, anthesis and silking dates and biomass levels similar to WW plants. Our results demonstrate that expression of the IPT gene under the regulation of the SARK promoter helps improve productivity under WD conditions in C4 plants like maize. PMID:26784988

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the maize (Zea may L.) CPP-like gene family and expression profiling under abiotic stress.

    Song, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Wu, F C; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine-rich polycomb-like (CPP) proteins are members of a small family of transcription factors, which have been identified and characterized in Arabidopsis, rice, and soybean. In this study, we investigated CPP-like genes in the maize genome. The results revealed 13 putative CPP-like genes, which were found to encode 17 distinct transcripts and were distributed unequally on 7 of 10 maize chromosomes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships showed that Arabidopsis, rice, and maize CPP-like transcription factors can be grouped into two subfamilies. We also used real-time RT-PCR to evaluate changes in the transcript levels of ZmCPP genes in response to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought stresses). These findings provide an overview of the evolution of the ZmCPP gene family, which will aid in the functional characterization of CPP-like genes in maize growth and development. PMID:27525875

  5. Simultaneous determination of shikimic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes. PMID:26966898

  6. Ky-2, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Enhances High-Salinity Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Sako, Kaori; Kim, Jong-Myong; Matsui, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kotaro; Tanaka, Maho; Kobayashi, Makoto; Saito, Kazuki; Nishino, Norikazu; Kusano, Miyako; Taji, Teruaki; Yoshida, Minoru; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-04-01

    Adaptation to environmental stress requires genome-wide changes in gene expression. Histone modifications are involved in gene regulation, but the role of histone modifications under environmental stress is not well understood. To reveal the relationship between histone modification and environmental stress, we assessed the effects of inhibitors of histone modification enzymes during salinity stress. Treatment with Ky-2, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhanced high-salinity stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. We confirmed that Ky-2 possessed inhibition activity towards histone deacetylases by immunoblot analysis. To investigate how Ky-2 improved salt stress tolerance, we performed transcriptome and metabolome analysis. These data showed that the expression of salt-responsive genes and salt stress-related metabolites were increased by Ky-2 treatment under salinity stress. A mutant deficient inAtSOS1(Arabidopis thaliana SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE 1), which encodes an Na(+)/H(+)antiporter and was among the up-regulated genes, lost the salinity stress tolerance conferred by Ky-2. We confirmed that acetylation of histone H4 atAtSOS1was increased by Ky-2 treatment. Moreover, Ky-2 treatment decreased the intracellular Na(+)accumulation under salinity stress, suggesting that enhancement of SOS1-dependent Na(+)efflux contributes to increased high-salinity stress tolerance caused by Ky-2 treatment. PMID:26657894

  7. SALT STRESS TOLERANCE AND STRESS PROTEINS IN WHEAT (Tritium Aestivum L.

    R. Johnsi Rani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique properties of living organisms is growth. Growth is a complex phenomenon and represents the end result of metabolic pathways bringing about an overall irreversible change. Growth is the final morphological expression of various metabolic activities taking place in the plant. Salt stress influences all these metabolic activities and hence influences growth also. Salt stress is caused by concentrations greater than the required for optimum growth of a typical crop plant. If excessive amounts of salt enter into the plant, salt will eventually rise to toxic levels and reduce the photosynthetic leaf area of the plant that cannot sustain growth. Because of the importance of wheat in Indian Agricultural Economy and in order to understand the processes that give rise to tolerance of salt and to identify the salt stress proteins into salt stress effect on plant growth was studied using different salt solutions like copper sulphate, cadmium chloride and zinc sulphate with different concentrations like 200µM, 150 µM and100 µM.

  8. The Role of Plant bZIP Transcription Factors in Abiotic Stress%植物bZIP转录因子在非生物胁迫中的作用

    冉静; 邹杰; 刘爱玲; 陈信波

    2012-01-01

    The abiotic stress factors, drought, salt and extreme temperature, have seriously impact on plant growth. The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, which were identified in various plants, have been proved to be involved in responding process to various abiotic stresses. The role of plant bZIP transcription factors in the response to abiotic stress and its latest advances were reviewed.%非生物胁迫因子如干旱、高温、低温和盐碱等严重影响着植物的生长发育,碱性亮氨酸拉链( bZIP)类转录因子与非生物逆境胁迫响应有密切关联.综述了植物bZIP类转录因子在应答非生物逆境胁迫中的作用及研究进展.

  9. Study of the tolerance of Hippochaete ramosissimum to Cu stress

    LIU; Dengyi; LI; Ying; CHU; Ling; WANG; Guanglin; WANG; Lil

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the tolerance of Hippochaete ramosissimum and the changes in physiological metabolism following exposure to copper using pot experiments and analyzing plant physiology and biochemistry. The results showed that Cu tolerance in Hippochaete ramosissimum varied significantly between different populations; the tolerance of plants living in Cu polluted areas for extended periods of time exceeded that of plants living in unpolluted areas.SOD and POD activities in highly Cu tolerant plants increased noticeably following exposure to Cu. This indicates that maintaining and increasing the two kinds of protective enzyme activities are the primary foundations of plant tolerance. However, no change in CAT activity was demonstrated following Cu exposure. In summary, there existed considerable differences in physiological metabolism between different populations of Hippochaete ramosissimum following exposure to Cu.

  10. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    Yan-Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature.

  11. Gene mining in halophytes: functional identification of stress tolerance genes in Lepidium crassifolium.

    Rigó, Gábor; Valkai, Ildikó; Faragó, Dóra; Kiss, Edina; Van Houdt, Sara; Van de Steene, Nancy; Hannah, Matthew A; Szabados, László

    2016-09-01

    Extremophile plants are valuable sources of genes conferring tolerance traits, which can be explored to improve stress tolerance of crops. Lepidium crassifolium is a halophytic relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and displays tolerance to salt, osmotic and oxidative stresses. We have employed the modified Conditional cDNA Overexpression System to transfer a cDNA library from L. crassifolium to the glycophyte A. thaliana. By screening for salt, osmotic and oxidative stress tolerance through in vitro growth assays and non-destructive chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, 20 Arabidopsis lines were identified with superior performance under restrictive conditions. Several cDNA inserts were cloned and confirmed to be responsible for the enhanced tolerance by analysing independent transgenic lines. Examples include full-length cDNAs encoding proteins with high homologies to GDSL-lipase/esterase or acyl CoA-binding protein or proteins without known function, which could confer tolerance to one or several stress conditions. Our results confirm that random gene transfer from stress tolerant to sensitive plant species is a valuable tool to discover novel genes with potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:27343166

  12. Evaluation of stress tolerance and fermentative behavior of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Cíntia Lacerda Ramos; Whasley Ferreira Duarte; Ana Luiza Freire; Disney Ribeiro Dias; Elis Cristina Araújo Eleutherio; Rosane Freitas Schwan

    2013-01-01

    Sixty six indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were evaluated in stressful conditions (temperature, osmolarity, sulphite and ethanol tolerance) and also ability to flocculate. Eighteen strains showed tolerant characteristics to these stressful conditions, growing at 42 °C, in 0.04% sulphite, 1 mol L−1 NaCl and 12% ethanol. No flocculent characteristics were observed. These strains were evaluated according to their fermentative performance in sugar cane juice. The conversion factors of ...

  13. AsHSP17, a creeping bentgrass small heat shock protein modulates plant photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling to attenuate plant response to abiotic stress.

    Sun, Xinbo; Sun, Chunyu; Li, Zhigang; Hu, Qian; Han, Liebao; Luo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that accumulate in response to heat and other abiotic stressors. Small HSPs (sHSPs) belong to the most ubiquitous HSP subgroup with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 42 kDa. We have cloned a new sHSP gene, AsHSP17 from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and studied its role in plant response to environmental stress. AsHSP17 encodes a protein of 17 kDa. Its expression was strongly induced by heat in both leaf and root tissues, and by salt and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing AsHSP17 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to heat and salt stress accompanied by reduced leaf chlorophyll content and decreased photosynthesis under both normal and stressed conditions compared to wild type. Overexpression of AsHSP17 also led to hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and salinity during germination and post-germinative growth. Gene expression analysis indicated that AsHSP17 modulates expression of photosynthesis-related genes and regulates ABA biosynthesis, metabolism and ABA signalling as well as ABA-independent stress signalling. Our results suggest that AsHSP17 may function as a protein chaperone to negatively regulate plant responses to adverse environmental stresses through modulating photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:26610288

  14. Constitutive Expression of Rice MicroRNA528 Alters Plant Development and Enhances Tolerance to Salinity Stress and Nitrogen Starvation in Creeping Bentgrass.

    Yuan, Shuangrong; Li, Zhigang; Li, Dayong; Yuan, Ning; Hu, Qian; Luo, Hong

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNA528 (miR528) is a conserved monocot-specific small RNA that has the potential of mediating multiple stress responses. So far, however, experimental functional studies of miR528 are lacking. Here, we report that overexpression of a rice (Oryza sativa) miR528 (Osa-miR528) in transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) alters plant development and improves plant salt stress and nitrogen (N) deficiency tolerance. Morphologically, miR528-overexpressing transgenic plants display shortened internodes, increased tiller number, and upright growth. Improved salt stress resistance is associated with increased water retention, cell membrane integrity, chlorophyll content, capacity for maintaining potassium homeostasis, CATALASE activity, and reduced ASCORBIC ACID OXIDASE (AAO) activity; while enhanced tolerance to N deficiency is associated with increased biomass, total N accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis, nitrite reductase activity, and reduced AAO activity. In addition, AsAAO and COPPER ION BINDING PROTEIN1 are identified as two putative targets of miR528 in creeping bentgrass. Both of them respond to salinity and N starvation and are significantly down-regulated in miR528-overexpressing transgenics. Our data establish a key role that miR528 plays in modulating plant growth and development and in the plant response to salinity and N deficiency and indicate the potential of manipulating miR528 in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. PMID:26224802

  15. Molecular Characterization of MaCCS, a Novel Copper Chaperone Gene Involved in Abiotic and Hormonal Stress Responses in Musa acuminata cv. Tianbaojiao.

    Feng, Xin; Chen, Fanglan; Liu, Weihua; Thu, Min Kyaw; Zhang, Zihao; Chen, Yukun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lin, Yuling; Wang, Tianchi; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu/ZnSODs) play important roles in improving banana resistance to adverse conditions, but their activities depend on the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) delivering copper to them. However, little is known about CCS in monocots and under stress conditions. Here, a novel CCS gene (MaCCS) was obtained from a banana using reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. Sequence analyses showed that MaCCS has typical CCS domains and a conserved gene structure like other plant CCSs. Alternative transcription start sites (ATSSs) and alternative polyadenylation contribute to the mRNA diversity of MaCCS. ATSSs in MaCCS resulted in one open reading frame containing two in-frame start codons to form two protein versions, which is supported by the MaCCS subcellular localization of in both cytosol and chloroplasts. Furthermore, MaCCS promoter was found to contain many cis-elements associated with abiotic and hormonal responses. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that MaCCS was expressed in all tested tissues (leaves, pseudostems and roots). In addition, MaCCS expression was significantly induced by light, heat, drought, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid, but inhibited by relatively high concentrations of CuSO₄ and under cold treatment, which suggests that MaCCS is involved in abiotic and hormonal responses. PMID:27023517

  16. Upgrading Root Physiology for Stress Tolerance by Ectomycorrhizas: Insights from Metabolite and Transcriptional Profiling into Reprogramming for Stress Anticipation

    Luo, Z.-B.; Janz, D.; Jiang, X.; Göbel, C.(Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, associated to 2); Wildhagen, H.; Tan, Y.; Rennenberg, H.; Feussner, I.; Polle, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EMs) alleviate stress tolerance of host plants, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate the basis of EM-induced physiological changes and their involvement in stress adaptation, we investigated metabolic and transcriptional profiles in EM and non-EM roots of gray poplar (Populus x canescens) in the presence and absence of osmotic stress imposed by excess salinity. Colonization with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus increased root cell vol...

  17. Development of Alfalfa Tolerant to Salinity Stress Using Organogenesis Technique

    M.M. Noaman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using Organogenesis culture to evaluate salt tolerance of cultivated alfalfa plants (Medicago sativum L. was studied and related to the response obtained by callus culture. The research was carried out in the tissue Culture Lab, Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food Systems, UAE University during seasons 2000/2001 including two Lab Experiments: 1 Callus Initiation and shoot formation and 2 Evaluation of in vitro callus and plantlets under salinity stress. Seeds of alfalfa were sown in pots, then leaves of the seedlings were separated to blades and petioles and placed in jars containing 50 ml of the modified MS medium. For callus induction and shoot formation, modified Murshig and Skoog and B5 were used in addition to two growth regulators being 2,4-D and BA In order to evaluate the salt response of the in vitro callus and plantlets, the induced calli and formed shoots in Experiment I were taken and placed on modified Murshig and Skoog mineral salts and B5. Sodium Chloride (NaCl at four doses (0, 3000, 6000 and 9000 ppm were used in jars. The results of this study indicates that the best concentration of 2.4-D and BA to obtain higher number and weight of callus and also higher values of shoot weights can be obtained from the concentration of 2 mg L-1 in both cases. Increasing of NaCl salt concentration in the media causes significant reduction in the seedling weight but positively correlated with Na and negatively correlated with K concentration in the seedling tissues. NaCl salt concentration of 6000 ppm was high enough to induce harmful effect on the seedling fresh weight, whereas number of generated shoots formed roots was dramatically affected by increasing NaCl concentration up to 3000 ppm and there was no shoots formed roots established afterwards. The results obtained in this study suggest that Organogenesis technique may be useful for rapid evaluation and screening of alfalfa segregant populations in a

  18. “Omics” of Maize Stress Response for Sustainable Food Production: Opportunities and Challenges

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed b