WorldWideScience

Sample records for abiotic natural gas

  1. Enhanced Prognosis for Abiotic Natural Gas and Petroleum Resources

    Herndon, J M

    2006-01-01

    The prognosis for potential resources of abiotic natural gas and petroleum depends critically upon the nature and circumstances of Earth formation. Until recently, that prognosis has been considered solely within the framework of the so-called "standard model of solar system formation", which is incorrect and leads to the contradiction of terrestrial planets having insufficiently massive cores. By contrast, that prognosis is considerably enhanced (i) by the new vision I have disclosed of Earth formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant; (ii) by core formation contemporaneous with raining out from within a giant gaseous protoplanet rather than through subsequent whole-Earth re-melting after loss of gases; (iii) by the consequences of whole-Earth decompression dynamics, which obviates the unfounded assumption of mantle convection, and; (iv) by the process of mantle decompression thermal-tsunami. The latter, in addition to accounting for much of the heat leaving the Earth's surface, for the geothermal gradient observ...

  2. Natural gas

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  3. Abiotic gas: atypical but not rare

    Etiope, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Schoell, M.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic gaseous hydrocarbons comprise a fascinating, but poorly understood, group of Earth fl uids generated by magmatic and gas–water–rock reactions that do not directly involve organic matter. At least nine different inorganic mechanisms, including Fischer-Tropsch type reactions, occur over a wide range of temperatures. Trace amounts (typically parts per million by volume) are formed in volcanic and geothermal fl uids, but considerable amounts of methane, reaching 80–90 vol%,...

  4. Natural gas

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO2 emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise.

  5. Natural gas

    This article presents some general data about natural gas: 1 - political-economical data (resources, production costs, French imports, European pipelines network, development of gas-fueled vehicles, taxes, financial incentives..); 2 - standard and regulatory context (specification of reference gases, pollution regulations and emission standards for vehicles, certification of vehicles equipment); 3 - overview of the market of natural gas-fueled vehicles. (J.S.)

  6. Natural Gas Transport

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  7. Natural Gas Transport

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  8. Natural gas marketing II

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  9. Natural gas in India

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  10. Abiotic Nitrous Oxide Production in Natural and Artificial Seawater

    Ochoa, H.; Stanton, C. L.; Cavazos, A. R.; Ostrom, N. E.; Glass, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean contributes approximately one third of global sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. While nitrification is thought to be the dominant pathway for marine N2O production, mechanisms remain unresolved. Previous studies have carried the implicit assumption that marine N2O originates directly from enzymatic sources. However, abiotic production of N2O is possible via chemical reactions between nitrogenous intermediates and redox active trace metals in seawater. In this study, we investigated N2O production and isotopic composition in treatments with and without added hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitric oxide (NO), intermediates in microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and Fe(III). Addition of substrates to sterile artificial seawater was compared with filtered and unfiltered seawater from Sapelo Island, coastal Georgia, USA. N2O production was observed immediately after addition of Fe(III) in the presence of NH2OH at pH 8 in sterile artificial seawater. Highest N2O production was observed in the presence of Fe(III), NO, and NH2OH. The isotopomer site preference of abiotically produced N2O was consistent with previous studies (31 ± 2 ‰). Higher abiotic N2O production was observed in sterile artificial seawater (salinity: 35 ppt) than filtered Sapelo Island seawater (salinity: 25 ppt) whereas diluted sterile artificial seawater (18 ppt) showed lowest N2O production, suggesting that higher salinity promotes enhanced abiotic N2O production. Addition of Fe(III) to unfiltered Sapelo Island seawater stimulated N2O production. The presence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), which lack known N2O producing enzymes, in Sapelo Island seawater was confirmed by successful amplification of the archaeal amoA gene, whereas ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which contain N2O-producing enzymes were undetected. Given the few Fe-containing proteins present in AOA, it is likely that Fe(III) addition promoted N2O production via an abiotic vs. enzymatic N2O mechanism

  11. Natural Gas Basics

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  12. Natural gas annual 1994

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  13. Natural gas annual 1995

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  14. Natural gas annual 1991

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  15. Natural gas annual 1995

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  16. Natural Gas Basics

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  17. Natural gas annual 1993

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  18. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  19. Natural gas annual 1991

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  20. Natural gas annual 1997

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  1. Natural gas annual 1997

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  2. Natural gas in Mexico

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  3. Natural gas and sustainability

    The evaluation of energy sources in terms of sustainable development has to include ecological, economic and social aspects. Natural gas as a piped energy source is shown by such an evaluation to be an important option among the sustainable means of satisfying the demand for energy. Apart from the problem of CO2 emissions, where interesting solutions are also being defined, the use of natural gas brings no drawbacks in terms of sustainable development. Anyway, natural gas has the most favorable greenhouse-gas balance among all fossil energy sources

  4. Nitrogenous gas emissions induced by abiotic nitrite reactions with soil organic matter of a Norway spruce forest

    Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry; Schloter, Michael; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    As an important intermediate of the nitrogen cycle, nitrite is highly reactive to soil organic matter (SOM) in forest soils under acidic conditions. However, there is little knowledge about how much its abiotic reactions with SOM contribute to nitrogen (N) gas emissions of forest soils till now. In this study, we provide data on N gas (N2O, NO, NO2) emissions from abiotic nitrite reactions with different fractions of soil organic matter in spruce forest soil, as well as the mechanisms involved. Soil samples were taken from the Oh layer at the TERENO-Wüstebach catchment, Germany, where Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominates. SOM was fractionated into dissolved organic matter (DOM), fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA) and humin (HN) according to their solubility. The dynamics of simultaneous NOx and N2O emissions were analyzed with a dynamic flow-through chamber system, coupled to an infrared laser absorption analyzer for N2O and a chemo-luminescence analyzer for NOx (NO and NO2), which allowed emission measurements with high time resolution. The 15N labelling technique was used for tracing the fate of nitrite-N towards establishment of a total N balance. When nitrite was added to the soil fractions, a large amount of NOx was immediately emitted, mostly in the form of NO. N2O emission was delayed by approximately 0.5-1 h. The NO and N2O emission pattern could be almost perfectly fitted with the Hill equation. The N2O formation rates increased significantly in the following order: DOM, FA, HA and HN, while the total amounts of the gases emitted increased significantly in the opposite order. These results revealed that abiotic reactions of nitrite with SOM in spruce forest soil play an important role in N gas emissions, while the chemical nature of the different SOM fractions determines the rate and amount of N gas emissions.

  5. A significant abiotic pathway for the formation of unknown nitrogen in nature

    Jokic, A.; Schulten, H.-R.; Cutler, J. N.; Schnitzer, M.; Huang, P. M.

    2004-03-01

    The global nitrogen cycle is of prime importance in natural ecosystems. However, the origin and nature of up to one-half of total soil N remains obscure despite all attempts at elucidation. Our data provide, for the first time, unequivocal evidence that the promoting action of Mn (IV) oxide on the Maillard reaction (sugar-amino acid condensation) under ambient conditions results in the abiotic formation of heterocyclic N compounds, which are often referred to as unknown nitrogen, and of amides which are apparently the dominant N moieties in nature. The information presented is of fundamental significance in understanding the role of mineral colloids in abiotic transformations of organic N moieties, the incorporation of N in the organic matrix of fossil fuels, and the global N cycle.

  6. The natural gas market

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  7. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  8. Oil and natural gas

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft3, of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  9. Natural gas industry regulations

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework

  10. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Graf, Frank [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). DVGW-Forschungsstelle; Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut; Sametschek, Christian; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult AM G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    With some delay, the year 2012 has directed the energy-policy debate in Germany on important, fundamental aspects for the energy supply in Germany and thus on the competitiveness of the German economy: How can the costs for the energy policy turnaround be controlled? What are the impacts of the expansions of reserves and resources of petroleum and natural gas by means of the exploration of tight petroleum deposits and shale gas? How can the secure energy supply be guaranteed despite the forced expansion of volatile renewable energy sources? What might be the role of natural gas?.

  11. Natural gas storage

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  12. Natural gas deregulation

    With the aim of establishing realistic options for deregulation in the natural gas industry, this paper first considers the structural evolution of this industry and evidences how it differs from the petroleum industry with which it exhibits some essential characteristics in common. This comparison is made in order to stress that, contrary to popular belief, that which is without doubt good for the petroleum industry is not necessarily so also for the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with separate analyses of the natural gas markets in the principal industrialized countries. Arguments are provided to show that the 'soft' deregulation option for the natural gas industry is not feasible, and that 'total' deregulation instead, backed by the passing of a suitable package of anti-trust laws 'unbundling' the industry's four major activities, i.e., production, storage, primary and secondary distribution, is the preferable option. The old concept of guaranteed supplies for minor users of natural gas should give way to the laws of supply and demand governing inter-fuel competition ensured through the strict supervision of vigilance committees

  13. Natural gas prices

    Since the 1970s, many electric utilities and industrial boiler fuel users have invested in dual fuel use capability which has allowed them to choose between natural gas, residual fuel oil, and in some instances, coal as boiler fuels. The immediate reason for this investment was the need for security of supply. Wellhead regulation of natural gas prices had resulted in shortages during the 1970s. Because many industrial users were given lowest priority in pipeline curtailments, these shortages affected most severely boiler fuel consumption of natural gas. In addition, foreign supply disruptions during the 1970s called into question the ready availability of oil. Many boiler fuel users of oil responded by increasing their ability to diversify to other sources of energy. Even though widespread investment in dual fuel use capability by boiler fuel users was initially motivated by a need for security of supply, perhaps the most important consequence of this investment was greater substitutability between natural gas and resid and a more competitive boiler fuel market. By the early 1980s, most boiler fuel users were able to switch from one fuel to another and often did for savings measured in pennies per MMBtu. Boiler fuel consumption became the marginal use of both natural gas and resid, with coal a looming threat on the horizon to both fuels

  14. Natural gas's hottest spot

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  15. The Natural Gas Industry

    Broadman, Harry G.

    1985-01-01

    The move to deregulate natural gas field markets is likely to stimulate changes in the way the downstream segments of the industry are regulated. In particular, because the uncertainty endemic to freer upstream markets will emerge for the first time in the contemporary gas industry, the relative merits of having pipelines perform different economic functions will be altered. Producers and distributors will also, in varying degrees, face greater price uncertainty than before. This will lead to...

  16. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  17. Natural gas : nirvana

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  18. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  19. Chemical Reactivity Probes for Assessing Abiotic Natural Attenuation by Reducing Iron Minerals.

    Fan, Dimin; Bradley, Miranda J; Hinkle, Adrian W; Johnson, Richard L; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2016-02-16

    Increasing recognition that abiotic natural attenuation (NA) of chlorinated solvents can be important has created demand for improved methods to characterize the redox properties of the aquifer materials that are responsible for abiotic NA. This study explores one promising approach: using chemical reactivity probes (CRPs) to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of contaminant reduction by reducing iron minerals. Assays of thermodynamic CRPs were developed to determine the reduction potentials (ECRP) of suspended minerals by spectrophotometric determination of equilibrium CRP speciation and calculations using the Nernst equation. ECRP varied as expected with mineral type, mineral loading, and Fe(II) concentration. Comparison of ECRP with reduction potentials measured potentiometrically using a Pt electrode (EPt) showed that ECRP was 100-150 mV more negative than EPt. When EPt was measured with small additions of CRPs, the systematic difference between EPt and ECRP was eliminated, suggesting that these CRPs are effective mediators of electron transfer between mineral and electrode surfaces. Model contaminants (4-chloronitrobenzene, 2-chloroacetophenone, and carbon tetrachloride) were used as kinetic CRPs. The reduction rate constants of kinetic CRPs correlated well with the ECRP for mineral suspensions. Using the rate constants compiled from literature for contaminants and relative mineral reduction potentials based on ECRP measurements, qualitatively consistent trends were obtained, suggesting that CRP-based assays may be useful for estimating abiotic NA rates of contaminants in groundwater. PMID:26814150

  20. Natural gas purchasing strategies

    Issues regarding natural gas purchasing strategies are discussed under five major headings: (1) price influences, (2) historical Alberta and NYMEX prices, (3) risk versus reward, (4) pricing mechanisms, and (5) purchasing strategies. The effects of each of these factors are considered

  1. Natural gas annual 1992

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  2. Natural Gas Price Rises

    2007-01-01

    @@ As was projected in the third-quarter monetary policy implementation report published by the People's Bank of China on November 15th, 2006, the residents' consumption price index in China would reach 1.5% in 2006. Prices of consumer commodities such as water, power and natural gas would rise and the pressure of inflation would persist in the future.

  3. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  4. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  6. Markets for natural gas development

    This paper analyses the role of markets in the development of natural gas industry in different countries: the role of marketing in the development of natural gas uses in the residential and tertiary sectors in Italy; the valorization of natural gas in the fertilizers industry in Algeria; the cogeneration and the development of power networks in Spain; the development of natural gas air conditioning in Greece; two examples of new gas uses in Tunisia: development of a combined cycle plant and natural gas conversion of electric and refuse fuel potter furnaces; and an application of natural gas in the phosphate industry in Morocco. (J.S.)

  7. Natural gas technology

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  8. Natural gas: the future of shale gas

    This paper describes the increasing role of natural gas in the energy mix in Canada. It is suggested that there is at least 100 years supply of natural gas at the current production levels. Natural gas is clean, versatile, affordable, reliable and safe. Availability of large quantities of shale gas has resulted in resource estimates to grow significantly and rapidly and new technologies have enabled economics.

  9. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas powered bus

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  12. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    Prieur, A

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  16. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  17. Nonconventional natural gas resources

    None

    1979-03-01

    It is concluded that it is impossible at this time to forecast the volume of natural gas dissolved in water that can be economically recovered. The investigation to southern Louisiana, both onshore and offshore was confined. Estimates of the dissolved methane content are based upon information on temperatures, pressures, sandstone thicknesses, sandstone porosities, salinity, and the solubility of methane. The salinity of waters encountered in wells was estimated from wireline logs, and in turn used to reduce the estimated content of dissolved gas. The reductions range from 51 to 61 percent of the solubility of methane in fresh water. The assessment does not include gas dissolved in water contained in shale beds. A series of maps display the information used in the computation. Methane solubility values were multiplied by porosity--feet values for each 1000-foot interval. The total dissolved methane in the resource base is estimated to be 6,143 trillion cubic feet (Tcf); assumptions on the effect of salinity reduce this to 3,264 Tcf. This figure does not include methane beneath the Texas coast. Very preliminary estimates of the recoverable proportion of dissolved gas in the highly ''geopressured'' zones range from 1 to over 20 percent. Not all of the resource base estimates of 3,264 Tcf occurs in the highly geopressured zone, and the proportions individually allocatable within the resource base to the highly ''geopressured'' zone, to the intermediate-pressure zone, and to the normal or ''hydropressure'' zone cannotbe estimated readily. The environmental aspects of recovery of dissolved gas are also presented. The review is necessarily generalized, since it could not be based on actual experience. The problems include subsidence of land surface and possibly increased seismic activity. Fluid withdrawal might result in subsidence of the land surface, as well as activation of growth faults, with adjustments

  18. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. What drives natural gas prices?

    Stephen P. A. Brown; Yücel, Mine K.

    2007-01-01

    For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past five years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with crude oil prices but with considerable independent movement. Natural gas market analysts generally emphasize weather and inventories as drivers o...

  1. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  2. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Turkey and natural gas

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  6. Green gas in the natural gas network

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk

  7. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company... other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental...

  8. Finland's leading natural gas company

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  9. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  10. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Natural gas ferries in Norway

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the emergence of natural gas powered ferries in Norway and their diffusion as a means to reaching the goals of reducing NOx emissions. Though experiences with natural gas powered ferries have been good, there is little sign that there will be any further prioritizing of these over diesel ferries. I will analyze natural gas powered ferries in a sustainable development perspective, as an environmentally friendly alternative. Further, the values, policies and institution...

  13. A Texas natural gas model

    The Railroad Commission of Texas, through its Gas Services Division, is responsible for the safety and economic regulation of natural gas downstream of the wellhead, including the gathering, processing, storage, transmission and distribution of natural gas. This responsibility requires an understanding of the movement of natural gas in Texas, which was the objective of a recently completed project of the Gas Services Division. The authors goal was to trace a molecule of gas from wellhead to burner tip and identify the incremental value added by each of the components along the path. The authors developed a Texas Natural Gas Model that relates the components of the path so that flow within individual segments of the industry, or between segments of the industry, can be analyzed. The Model links information on wellhead production and prices, marketing costs (reflecting gathering, processing, and compression), transmission costs, and end user consumption and costs. End user information is presented for the primary Texas local distribution companies (LDC) and electric utilities, as well as on an aggregate basis for industrial consumption. LDC costs are further subdivided into the city gate gas costs and average delivered cost to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The Model also quantifies by pipeline the significant amount of gas that leaves the state through the interstate pipeline system. The Texas Natural Gas Model provides a comprehensive volume and value balance of the natural gas system within Texas, recognizing the relationship between all segments of the industry

  14. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  15. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Bring money and natural gas

    The budding natural gas markets in East Europe attract a great deal of interest from natural gas industries in the Western countries. Dutch companies, institutions and the government, too, are active in this market. So far the results have not been spectacular. An analysis is made of the present situation and the Dutch approach

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  18. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  19. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  1. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  2. North American Natural Gas Markets

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  3. North American Natural Gas Markets

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  4. The European natural gas market

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  5. Natural gas and crude oil

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  6. Canadian natural gas price debate

    Sunoco Inc. is a subsidiary of Suncor Energy, one of Canada's largest integrated energy companies having total assets of $2.8 billion. As one of the major energy suppliers in the country, Sunoco Inc has a substantial stake in the emerging trends in the natural gas industry, including the Canadian natural gas price debate. Traditionally, natural gas prices have been determined by the number of pipeline expansions, weather, energy supply and demand, and storage levels. In addition to all these traditional factors which still apply today, the present day natural gas industry also has to deal with deregulation, open competition and the global energy situation, all of which also have an impact on prices. How to face up to these challenges is the subject of this discourse. tabs., figs

  7. Natural gas transportation and distribution

    An overview of the Canadian natural gas industry is provided, with a focus on transportation and distribution services and markets. The western Canada basin has the largest established reserves of marketable gas of any North American Basin, an estimated 95 trillion ft3 or 20-25 years of supply at current levels of production. In British Columbia alone, ultimate potential gas reserves are estimated at 38-50 trillion ft3. The basin remains relatively undeveloped and drilling and exploration activities are increasing. Gas supplies are adequate to serve new and existing markets, and output is about evenly split between domestic and export consumption. Growth in demand is expected from increasing residential and commercial use of gas; areas of potential growth include gas-fired cogeneration and increased use of natural gas for powering vehicles. Ongoing expansion of gas delivery infrastructure is enhancing the reliability and efficiency of gas service. In the past 20 years, the length of Canada's transmission pipelines has doubled to over 40,000 miles while distribution lines have tripled to over 100,000 miles. The gas delivery network is managed by computerized systems that allow nearly instant response to changes in demand. Issues that could alter the industry's outlook are discussed in the areas of gas marketing, deregulation, competition, and prices

  8. Natural gas and energy security

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  9. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  10. Natural gas in India

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  11. Natural gas demand in Turkey

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    On average, energy demand of Turkey is mounting by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. Among primary energy sources, natural gas is the fastest growing one in Turkey. Gas consumption started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters) in 1987 and reached approximately 35 bcm in 2007. Turkish natural gas usage is projected to further increase remarkably in coming years. The present paper focuses the characteristics of this demand and estimates short and long-run price and income elastici...

  12. French natural gas industry statistics

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  13. Natural radionuclides on natural gas pipeline scales

    Not well known as the scales observed in the petroleum industry, scales are found on gas pipelines. Its formation process is different from that of scales from the petroleum industry; redox reaction between substances existing in the natural gas and the pipeline walls gives rise to scales, sometimes called as lack powder. The differences between the petroleum industry scales and this kind of scales go further than only the formation process and color. While in the traditional scale barium sulfate and calcium carbonate are the main chemical component, iron and iron sulfite are here the main constituents. Also, the associated natural radionuclides are different, instead radium isotopes 210Pb is the principal radionuclide observed. Since the use of natural gas is ecologically more favorable than diesel or gasoline, a large pipeline network (3,000 km) was built in order to increase the percentage of the natural gas in the Brazilian energetic matrix from the actual 2.5% to 10% during the next years. To reduce the pipeline internal corrosion and, therefore, the scale production, pigging operation are carried out on semester or yearly basis. During this operation, black powder residues are generated and collected. In order to verify the existence of 210Pb, and also of 226Ra and 228Ra, on such kind of deposits, 15 samples were obtained and analyzed for these radionuclides. 210Pb concentrations up to 5 kBq/kg were found, but, generally, 226Ra and 228Ra were much lower than the 210Pb concentration. As expected, iron and iron sulfite were the main chemical constituents observed. (author)

  14. Natural gas and deregulation

    The gas market is progressively moving towards new organizations under the effect of the deregulation initiated in the United States, the United Kingdom and transposed to other countries, particularly in Europe, at least for the member countries of the European union. Within the framework provided by this overall trend, Cedigaz proposes this study in order to describe the main developments affecting these markets on account of deregulation. This report is structured on the basis of three main topics (market organization, marketing modes, pricing) which appear to be the most cogent in terms of deregulation. This grouping by major topics accordingly offers a relatively synthetic view of the main trends which could be observed on the European market, for example. Our analysis is largely based on the example of the American market and, to a lesser extent, on the British situation. Whenever possible, concrete examples are provided for a closer understanding of this complex subject. On the whole, deregulation is not a frozen process, but has to adapt permanently to developments in a market stage-managed by politics, the regulator and the industrial players. This obviously means a dynamic and constantly evolving process, making it a highly complex process. This report aims to shed some light on the subject. (author)

  15. The price of natural gas

    Natural gas used to be a relatively cheap primary energy source, always at a discount to crude oil (on a comparative British thermal unit basis). It gradually evolved into a major resource during the 20th century - reaching a 24 per cent share of global primary energy in 1999. In the year 2000, natural gas prices in the USA rose to unheard-of highs of 10/million US dollars Btu, ushering in a new era, with natural gas at a 120 per cent premium to crude oil. This clearly was a watershed for gas, somehow similar to the 1973-74 watershed for oil prices. And similarly, any return to the status quo-ante looks rather improbable, although a number of experts (alongside the International Energy Agency) still believe the 2000 price 'spike' to have been ''only transitory''. The consequences of higher gas prices (at a level equal to crude oil prices on a Btu basis) will be multifaceted and momentous, altering habits and uses in downstream industries and economic sectors, as well as providing added income for major gas-exporters, such as Russia, Canada and Algeria. Another potential consequence of the 2000 watershed might be to propel US standard prices (such as the 'Henry Hub' spot) to international status and gas price-setter, as the 'WTI spot' became an 'international benchmark' for crude oils in the post-1993 era. For the time being, the equality of gas and oil prices has become the new norm; but, in the longer term, a discount of crude oil relative to natural gas might be envisaged, as the latter is a cleaner fuel and emits less carbon dioxide when used. (author)

  16. Natural gas monthly, February 1997

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

  17. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  18. Phylogenetic Evidence against Evolutionary Stasis and Natural Abiotic Reservoirs of Influenza A Virus▿

    Worobey, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Zhang et al. (G. Zhang, D. Shoham, D. Gilichinsky, S. Davydov, J. D. Castello, and S. O. Rogers, J. Virol. 80:12229-12235, 2006) have claimed to have recovered influenza A virus RNA from Siberian lake ice, postulating that ice might represent an important abiotic reservoir for the persistence and reemergence of this medically important pathogen. A rigorous phylogenetic analysis of these influenza A virus hemagglutinin gene sequences, however, indicates that they originated from a laboratory r...

  19. Natural gas in Latin America

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  20. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  1. Natural gas: new energy vector?

    Energy history has been characterized by a cyclic irruption of energetic paradigms. This situation induces transformations with great economical and social impacts. A new energetic paradigm comes to scene as a result of several simultaneous acting and feedback factors: primary energy availability, technology innovation in energy conversion systems and environmental, economical and social policies even more restrictive. This paper examines the natural gas as a new energy vector in a world context and justifies the natural gas a fundamental component in the world energy matrix for the next decades

  2. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Natural gas market in Europe

    The natural gas market is opened to competition since August 2000. The economical impact of this new situation remains moderate in 2001 because the conditions of competition are not fulfilled everywhere. In France, for instance, the European directive on markets deregulation has not been transposed yet and the conditions of access of third parties to the national gas network have not been clearly defined. In this context of uncertainties, several questions remain unanswered. This study draws out a precise status of the situation of the 7 main European gas markets. It comprises also an analysis of the behaviour and strategy of the 18 main actors of this sector. (J.S.)

  4. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  5. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  6. A natural monopoly in natural gas transmission

    In this article, we test for subadditivity in the cost structure associated with transporting natural gas by Trans-Canada Pipelines Ltd. and measure for possible cost savings from increased competition that could be realized by removing the monopoly status granted by the National Energy Board. In measuring subadditivity, we apply both the Baumol et al. (Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industry Structure (1982)) and the Evans and Heckman (Am. Econ. Rev. 764 (1984) 613) procedures. Our results show evidence of subadditivity in the cost structure, and consequently, the possible benefits from increased competition resulting from splitting up the monopoly could be offset by the sacrifice of scale efficiencies

  7. The natural gas for vehicles

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  8. Natural gas prices and competitiveness

    The evolution of natural gas price in Hungary from 1992 to 1998 is discussed, in the framework of harmonization challenges for joining the European Union. The price trends are broken down by industrial, general and household usage. The Hungarian prices are compared with those in other European countries. The price strategy for market competitiveness is discussed. (R.P.)

  9. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  10. Natural gas and electricity convergence

    Convergence between the gas and electricity industries was described as a means for creating an increasingly more efficient energy market where prices and fundamental relationships exist between gas and electricity. Convergence creates new opportunities for producers and consumers. Convergence will likely lead to the disaggregation of the electricity and gas industry into segments such as: (1) power generation and production, (2) transmission wires and pipelines, (3) wholesale merchants, (4) distribution wires and pipelines, and (5) retail marketing, services and administration. The de-integration of integrated utilities has already begun in the U.S. energy markets and retail open access is accelerating. This retail competition will create very demanding customers and the changing risk profile will create new issues for stakeholders. The pace of reform for the telecommunications, airlines, natural gas and electricity industries was graphically illustrated to serve as an example of what to expect. The different paths that the industry might take to deregulation (aggressively embrace reform, or defensively blocking it), and the likely consequences of each reaction were also described. A map indicating where U.S. electric and natural gas utility merger and acquisition activities have taken place between 1994-1997, was included. Another map showing the physical asset positions of the Enron grid, one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the U.S., with increasing international operations, including an electric power transmission and distribution arm, was also provided as an illustration of a fully integrated energy market company of the future. 9 figs

  11. Technology characterization: liquified natural gas

    None

    1976-12-01

    A technology characterization for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was made. The scope of work was confined to a literature review of LNG processes including natural gas production, liquefaction, and revaporization. The work was divided into five major categories as follows: (1) status of LNG projects, (2) general process description, (3) environmental aspects, (4) safety, and (5) economics. Each of these categories forms a major heading for this report. In addition, an LNG reference system of 250 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) is included in the report at Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne) request. Information concerning this system was derived from other LNG systems in the literature. The report does not include an assessment of the market potential for the product gas or its end use. Published cost estimates in the literature have been identified but the original cost estimates have not been provided. Plant layouts, conceptual designs, and socioeconomic analysis are not provided.

  12. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  13. Natural Gas Prices on Three Continents

    Mihály Ormos; Péter Erdős

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the pricing formation of natural gas markets on three different continents (Europe, Asia and North America). We find that natural gas markets showed a strong relationship with the crude oil market between 1992 and 2001 and natural gas prices tended to thermal parity with crude oil prices. From 2002 natural gas markets exhibited a less pronounced relationship with the crude oil market and major natural gas markets were severely underpriced compared to crude oil. A globally integ...

  14. Natural Gas Distribution Regulation Natural Gas Distribution Regulation

    Fernando Salas

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises. This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises.

  15. Natural Gas Distribution Regulation Natural Gas Distribution Regulation

    Fernando Salas; Benjamín Contreras

    1995-01-01

    This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affecting the provision of natural gas distribution services in Mexico. As such, it describes the mechanisms proposed in order to ensure economic efficiency in the undertaking of such activity, i.e., competition policies, rate regulation, delimination of licensed geographic regions and design of auction procedures for the granting of distribution franchises. This document discusses the economic content of a set of Ruling affectin...

  16. Natural gas industry competitiveness study

    A national study on the competitiveness of the natural gas industry was undertaken by the BC Oil and Gas Commission in cooperation with, and with the encouragement of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). The objective of the study was to compare the cost competitiveness of natural gas exploration , production, gathering and processing in British Columbia to the costs of the same processes in Alberta. The study was carried out by building an 'expected case' for each gas producing area in British Columbia and Alberta by averaging past events in such specific areas as pool sizes, production profiles, loads, drilling success rates, gas compositions, land, drilling, exploration and production/gathering costs, third party production/gathering and processing fees and abandonment costs; by constructing a cash flow model for each case, calculating unit cost, and ranking cases. The report provides the details of the methodology, displays the results of the investigation in graphical form, comments on the results factoring in also labour costs and cost differences due to resource characteristics, identifies some trends such as an increase in the proportion of connections to smaller plants, and provides suggestions for improvements

  17. Natural gas supply - a producer's perspective

    The supply of natural gas from the producers standpoint is discussed. The following factors in the marketing demand for natural gas are considered to be important: gas demand is growing, U.S. gas resource base is large, chronic gas bubble has shrunk, and North American supply is more resilient than expected

  18. PANORAMA OF NATURAL GAS EXPLORATION IN CHINA

    Song Yan; Li Xianqi; Fang Dequan

    1997-01-01

    @@ According to the anticipation of the International Energy Convention,natural gas will be an important substitute energy in the next century,and thus natural gas industry development has become a world trend.China not only has abundant natural gas resources, but also is one of the earliest countries to make use of gas in the world.After a prolonged wavering and slow development, China's natural gas industry has acquired rapid development since the 1980's.

  19. Western Pacific liquefied natural gas

    This presentation addressed issues facing WestPac Terminals' proposed construction of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal and associated facilities on the Ridley Island on the coast of British Columbia. WestPac Terminals Inc. has expertise in natural gas supply and demand, transportation, LNG and economic optimization. Although a review of proposals for receiving terminals in North America has demonstrated the urgency and attractiveness of LNG imports, west coast terminals are not proceeding, largely due to lack of support by local communities. WestPac's proposal includes a deep enough port to accommodate the largest LNG tankers; a port en route to west coast terminal locations to serve as a transshipment hub; sufficient space for LNG storage tanks and natural gas liquids extraction; sea, rail, air and highway access. Other solutions include selecting locations where communities are pro-development where LNG terminals can provide direct financial benefits to the community, and using existing infrastructure to minimize socio-economic impacts. The advantages of developing LNG at the proposed site were discussed in terms of serving energy markets and provincial benefits. LNG source and cost issues were reviewed along with existing markets and required infrastructure for LNG market development. tabs., figs

  20. Yemen : A Natural Gas Incentive Framework

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Yemen is planning to export gas through Yemen Liquefied Natural Gas (YLNG) starting from 2009. Yemen is also aiming to develop the domestic gas market, in particular gas-to-power. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export revenue and domestic gas sales are expected to partially offset the decline in crude oil revenue from currently producing fields. The development of a gas sector has the potenti...

  1. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  2. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  3. EPA's Natural Gas Extraction -- Hydraulic Fracturing Website

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's clean energy future. The U.S. has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in...

  4. Globalization of the Natural Gas Industry

    This document deals with the foreseeable evolution of natural gas demand in the next 15 years. Natural gas consumption is growing faster than any other fossil fuel and, according to ENRON, the natural consumption growth will continue. The environmental aspect of natural gas use for power generation is presented, showing that gas use reduces pollution emissions (when compared with coal). On top of that, it appears that the conversion efficiency of gas is much higher than the conversion efficiency of coal steam. Eventually, natural gas resources should meet energy demand for decades. (TEC)

  5. REVIEW OF NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES

    2009-01-01

    High pressure pipelines are the most common way of natural gas transport from a gas field to a processing plant and further to consumers. In case when the distance between natural gas production and consumption regions is more than 4000 kilometers, and due to necessity of natural gas supply diversification, gas liquefaction and its transport by ships is being applied. The final choice of liquefaction process depends on the project variables, the development level of new or upgrading of alread...

  6. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    Aolin Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experiences and domestic situation in natural gas sector. On this basis, we presented the following proposals and implement approaches to ultimately achieving the market-oriented reform of natural gas pricing in China. First, the ex-factory prices for those residential gas users will be adjusted, which should be differentiated from those for the non-residential gas users. Second, the present natural gas pricing mechanism should be perfected with pipeline fees and gas storage fees being both added. Third, an integrated natural gas pricing system should be improved with differential prices implemented. Fourth, natural gas spot transaction should be promoted and energy measurement in gas metering and pricing should also be put into practice.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  9. Petroleum and natural gas geopolitics

    Giraud, A.; Boy de la Tour, X.

    1987-01-01

    The main historical points of the petroleum industry in the world are reviewed in the first part of this book. The historical and nowadays evolution of the production and trade of petroleum and natural gas are then analysed precisely from zone to zone with particular emphasis on the production costs, the relative forces evaluation, the economic agent behaviour, the trade strategies and the influence of the technical development in the processes of mining, extraction, refining, transportation and utilization. The rapid evolution of last years petroleum market is demonstrating very well the importance of the geopolitic factors. Some prospective evaluations are given at last.

  10. Natural gas industry R and D

    The last three decades have witnessed significant developments in engineering relative to the distribution and use of natural gas. This paper reviews these developments which, in natural gas distribution, include - polyethylene conduits, the use of radar to trace buried conduits, telemetering, innovative pressure reducing techniques and equipment, optimized retrofitting of buried pipelines, leak detection techniques, and energy recovery systems applied to pressure reducing operations. Relative to the efficient combustion and new uses of natural gas, the paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the design of compact wall mounted gas fired boilers for building space heating, gas fuelled space heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, and natural gas fed fuel cells

  11. Prediction of natural gas consumption

    Distributors of natural gas need to predict future consumption in order to purchase a sufficient supply on contract. Distributors that offer their customers equal payment plans need to predict the consumption of each customer 12 months in advance. Estimates of previous consumption are often used for months when meters are inaccessible, or bimonthly-read meters. Existing methods of predicting natural gas consumption, and a proposed new method for each local region are discussed. The proposed model distinguishes the consumption load factors from summer to other seasons by attempting to adjust them by introducing two parameters. The problem is then reduced to a quadratic programming problem. However, since it is not necessary to use both parameters simultaneously, the problem can be solved with a simple iterative procedure. Results show that the new model can improve the two-equation model to a certain scale. The adjustment to heat load factor can reduce the error of prediction markedly while that to base load factor influences the error marginally. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  12. New opportunities for natural gas

    This paper reports that the prospect of extremely low gas prices - approaching $1.00 per million Btu (MMBtu) on a seasonal basis - is frightening many producers. The presence of large gas inventories only serves to intensify these fears. Threats of declining market conditions stir the question: How should producers react to these prices? On the score, the experts advise: One of the first rules of playing the power game is that all bad news must be accepted calmly as if one already knew and didn't much care. Although stated jokingly, there is a kernel of truth to the suggestion. Having thought through the adversities involved in the worst case scenario - and for natural gas producers and other industry participants, those adversities are formidable - companies may be better prepared to adapt to the worst case, should it happen to materialize. Here, the bad news is that CERA foresees serious near-term perils that could route the industry toward that worst case. The good news is that long-term prospects provide a cause for optimism

  13. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    Aolin Hu; Qing Dong

    2015-01-01

    Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experie...

  14. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  15. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  16. Australian natural gas market outlook

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  17. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... the transportation, storage, and further handling of oil or natural gas for transportation to...

  18. Natural Gas Prices on Three Continents

    Mihály Ormos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the pricing formation of natural gas markets on three different continents (Europe, Asia and North America. We find that natural gas markets showed a strong relationship with the crude oil market between 1992 and 2001 and natural gas prices tended to thermal parity with crude oil prices. From 2002 natural gas markets exhibited a less pronounced relationship with the crude oil market and major natural gas markets were severely underpriced compared to crude oil. A globally integrated natural gas market, comparable to the global oil market, has not evolved. The main natural gas markets, however, exhibit some level of integration, especially over a longer time. The European market exhibits the strongest levels of integration, while the North American market exhibits the weakest.

  19. Natural gas: redistributing the economic surplus

    The natural gas has a limited role in the Brazilian energy balance. This role in industrial countries and some developing countries is much more important. Historically this contrasting situation can be explained by the limited natural gas reserves Brazil used to have. Since the oil crisis however the Brazilian natural gas reserves increased substantially without a similar increase in the role of natural gas in the energy balance. The existing institutional arrangement generates a struggle for the economic rent generated by natural gas production and consumption that seems to be at the core of this question. Our paper estimates the economic rent generated by natural gas in Brazil and its distribution among producers and consumers: it points toward a new institutional arrangement that could arguably, generate a new role for the natural gas in the Brazilian energy balance. (author)

  20. Pricing of natural gas in Kazakhstan

    Two state companies are in charge of natural gas supply in Kazakhstan. They buy, transport and sell natural gas and have monopolized the industry and provoked increase of gas prices. Ministry of Oil and gas Industry proposed demonopolization. The restructuring that took place caused new distribution of tasks in the gas industry. A more competitive environment was created leading to normalization of the natural gas prices. All economic subjects were granted the right to acquire gas regardless the type of ownership. Measures implemented for reorganization of gas companies contributed to the reduction of gas transport costs and prices by 50% and to decrease of gas prices in the southern regions by 50%. Despite these measures gas prices for household sector are still unchanged and are below the import prices, the main reason being the low average household income

  1. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida... Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, (collectively,...

  2. Natural gas vehicles: An option for Europe

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe.

  3. Natural gas vehicles. An option for Europe

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe. (author)

  4. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  5. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  7. Biotic and abiotic oxidation and reduction of iron at circumneutral pH are inseparable processes under natural conditions

    Ionescu, Danny; Heim, Christine; Polerecky, L.; Thiel, Volker; de Beer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction of iron can occur through abiotic (chemical) and biotic (microbial) processes. Abiotic iron oxidation is a function of pH and O2 concentration. Biotic iron oxidation is carried out by a diverse group of bacteria, using O2 or NO3 as terminal electron acceptors. At circumneutra

  8. Future impact on natural gas pipelines

    Croom, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The future for natural gas pipelines is forecast by examining the sources and uses of energy today and projecting respective changes. No significant changes are expected over the next 20 yr in natural gas usage, but regionally, some demand shift could impact certain gas transmission facilities. The conclusion is that natural gas will continue to displace oil in some stationary uses, while coal will displace natural gas in some power plant and feedstock applications. Although these shifts will result in some regional construction activity, they will probably not necessitate major arterial increases to the pipeline network. However, significant changes in supply sources may have a major impact on pipeline planning and construction.

  9. Potential recoverable natural gas resources in China

    Liu Chenglin; Zhu Jie; Che Changbo; Liu Guangdi

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas resources in China are abundant. The undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources in China are estimated to be 19.27×1012 m3. Natural gas is mainly distributed in the middle and west China and offshore areas of China. The Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, East China Sea Basin, Tsaidam Basin, Yinggehai Basin, and Qiongdongnan Basin are the main gas-beating basins. The natural gas resources are not distributed evenly and are under-explored in China. The deeper horizons in east China, foreland basins and craton paleo-uplifts in the middle and west China, and the offshore basins are the main exploration areas in the future.

  10. Development of natural gas ocean transportation chain by means of natural gas hydrate (NGH)

    Recent studies in Japan have suggested that natural gas hydrate (NGH) transportation of natural gas is more economical than liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation systems for small, medium and remote gas fields. Researchers in Japan have built a 600 kg per day NGH production and pelletizing plant and regasification facility. This paper discussed feasibility studies conducted in southeast Asia to determine the unit's commercialization potential with large natural gas-related businesses including shipping companies and electric power utilities. The total supply chain was compared with the corresponding liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) supply chains. The study also examined natural gas reserves, energy policies, the positioning of natural gas supplies, and future forecasts of natural gas demand. A conceptual design for an NGH supply chain in Indonesia was presented. Results of the study have demonstrated that the NGH chain is an appropriate and economically feasible transportation method for many areas in southeast Asia. 8 refs., 10 figs

  11. Natural gas applications in waste management

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs

  12. Guidelines For Evaluation Of Natural Gas Projects

    This paper is objected to give guidelines for natural gas projects appraisal These guidelines are summarized in modeling of natural gas demand forecast and energy pricing policies for different gas consumers mainly in the manufacturing, mining, transport, trade and agriculture sectors. Analysis of the results is made through sensitivity analysis and decision support system ( DSS )

  13. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  14. Market development in the natural gas market

    Options for the liberalization of the Dutch natural gas market have been investigated. Three models are compared and assessed for the impacts on the economic performance, the national interests and the so-called public tasks. The results of the report can be used to base the proposals for a new Natural Gas Act, which is expected to be sent to the Dutch parliament in the spring of 1999. The three liberalization models are specified according to the different phases in the industrial column of natural gas. Except for transport (limited possibilities) and distribution (monopolistic character and thus not suitable for market development), market development is possible in all the phases of the column. The models are the cooperation model (equal position for the natural gas trade company Gasunie and the natural gas distribution companies, and management of the natural gas infrastructure and the Dutch gas reserves by means of mutual tuning, cooperation and coordination), the EZ-model (price mechanism for the tariffs for natural gas, and access to the natural gas network through negotiated third party access (TPA) with indicative prices and conditions), and the market model (optimal use of market development options to stimulate the economic performance, introduction of price mechanism options, access through regulated TPA with tariffs, based on long-term marginal costs, role of the government limited to a favorable policy with respect to access to the network, competition and security of the interests which arise from the exploitation of the Dutch natural gas fields). 26 refs

  15. North America natural gas supply trends

    The paper explores (a) how much natural gas is used in North America, (b) where these supplies of gas come from, and (c) the prognosis for long-term gas supply availability in North America. Natural gas use is growing at 2.6% per year in the US and supplies in the US and Canada are growing 1.4 and 5%, respectively. More basins holding natural gas resources are proving up and developing new reserves using the latest technology and efficiency improvements which ensures longer, more reliable, flexible gas supplies for growing markets throughout the country. As more natural gas and MTBE are used in motor vehicles, (1) pollution problems from motor vehicles will decrease, (2) less oil needs to be imported, (3) more gas production leads to domestic energy jobs being created in the US in more geographic regions, and (4) the domestic economy will benefit

  16. Natural gas integration in South America

    The South America Gas Trade study, a project of the Canadian Energy Research Institute, was discussed. The ongoing study involves an examination of natural gas reserves, exploration, and development in the onshore and offshore basins in South America. An analysis of various pipeline options is also part of the project, using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The forces driving natural gas development, (distribution of gas reserves, fuel substitution in the residential sector, focus on energy efficiency and cost control, potential export revenue growth, fuel substitution in electric power generation, development of co-generation capacity, and the impact of natural gas utilization on crude oil demand) and the legal, fiscal and regulatory regimes which govern the development of natural gas in each South American country were reviewed. figs

  17. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    1990-12-18

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  19. Natural gas leakage of Mizhi gas reservoir in Ordos Basin, recorded by natural gas fluid inclusion

    2007-01-01

    Abundant natural gas inclusions were found in calcite veins filled in fractures of Central Fault Belt across the centre of Ordos Basin. Time of the calcite veins and characteristics of natural gas fluid inclusion were investigated by means of dating of thermolum luminescence (TL) and analyzing stable isotope of fluid inclusion. Results show that natural gas inclusion formed at 130―140℃ with salinity of 5.5 wt%―6.0 wt% NaCl. It indicates that natural gas inclusion is a kind of thermal hydrocarbon fluid formed within the basin. Method of opening inclusion by heating was used to analyze composition of fluid inclusion online, of which the maximal hydrocarbon gas content of fluid inclusion contained in veins is 2.4219 m3/t rock and the maximal C1/Σci ratio is 91%. Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was used to analyze chemistry of individual fluid inclusion in which the maximal hydrocarbon gas content is 91.6% compared with little inorganic composition. Isotope analysis results of calcite veins show that they were deposited in fresh water, in which the δ13CPDB of calcite veins is from -5.75‰ to 15.23‰ andδ18OSMOW of calcite veins is from 21.33‰ to 21.67‰. Isotope results show thatδ13C1 PDB of natural gas fluid inclusion is from -21.36‰ to -29.06‰ and δDSMOW of that is from -70.89‰ to -111.03‰. It indicates that the gas of fluid inclusion formed from coal source rocks and it is the same as that of natural gas of Mizhi gas reservoir. Results of TL dating show that time of calcite vein is (32.4±3.42)×104 a, which is thought to be formation time of gas inclusion. It indicated that natural gas inclusion contained in calcite veins recorded natural gas leakage from Mizhi gas reservoir through the Central Fault Belt due to Himalayan tectonic movement.

  20. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Natural gas worldwide trends in 2003

    2003 was a very successful year for natural gas. The global economic recovery was favourable to the development of the natural gas industry, driving world marketed production to 2686 billion cubic meters (Bcm), a 3.3% increase over 2002, and a result which fits well into prospects for future gas growth. Natural gas production grew at sustained rates in almost all the areas. Stimulated by export markets dynamism and developments on local markets, all regions benefited from new opportunities to reinforce the position of gas. (author)

  2. Natural gas for New Brunswick: First report

    The development of the gas field off Sable Island and the imminent construction of a gas pipeline which will deliver natural gas to New Brunswick has prompted a thorough examination of energy-related issues in the province. This report presents the findings of the provincial energy committee which examined the implications of the arrival of natural gas to the province. The committee held a series of public hearings and consultations, and also received written submissions. After a historical perspective on natural gas as an energy source in the province and a review of the gas industry participants and their interests, the report discusses such issues as gas pipeline economics, local distribution company operations, infrastructure development, the regulatory framework, energy market competition, regional price equity, development of in-province gas sources, pipeline access, pipeline laterals and expansions, establishment of gas distribution franchises, municipal involvement in gas development, the impact of gas industry development on electric utility restructuring, and the environmental benefits of natural gas. Finally, recommendations are made regarding how natural gas should be regulated and distributed

  3. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today's natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Natural gas vehicles in Europe: Commercialization prospects

    This paper tables numerous statistical data to evidence that whereas the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel for private and public vehicles is growing in Asia, North and South America, in Europe this trend is currently being followed only in Italy. However, with the relatively recent expansion of the European Communities' natural gas distribution network, coupled with growing interest in this fuel as a cost effective and environmentally compatible alternative to petroleum, the demand for natural gas automotive fuels is expected to increase even in this continent. The trucking industry in particular should derive significant benefits from the switch to natural gas

  6. Canadian natural gas and climate change

    The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) has expressed concerns regarding how the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be met. It also has concerns regarding the possible economic impacts of required measures to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The CGA argued that since the initial negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly, meaning that if the agreement were to come into force, Canada would have to reduce emissions by about 29 per cent below the currently-projected 2008-2012 level. The report states that 28 per cent of Canada's energy needs are met by natural gas. Excluding energy use in transportation, natural gas contributes more than 40 per cent to Canada's energy portfolio. More than half of Canadian households rely on pipeline services and distribution companies to deliver natural gas for household use. The manufacturing sector relies on natural gas for more than half of its energy needs. Natural gas is a major energy source for the iron/steel, petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries. Natural gas is a cleaner-burning fuel than coal or crude oil, and its use results in fewer environmental impacts than other fossil fuels. Vehicles powered by natural gas produce 20 - 30 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions than vehicles powered by gasoline. Pipelines are also a more efficient way of transporting and distributing natural gas than marine transport, railways or trucks. The CGA recommends that policy development should emphasize the environmental benefits of natural gas and recognize its role as a bridge fuel to a cleaner energy-based economy. It also recommends that policies should be developed to encourage the use of natural gas in electricity generation to lower greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen that cause smog

  7. Natural gas is more than gas power plants

    Through the Statpipe gas line at Karmoey, Norway supplies 20% of the natural gas on the European market. The pipeline is 'leaking' a little bit of gas to the local communities at Karmoey and Haugesund. These communities have replaced 65% of their oil consumption with natural gas, which is a fine contribution to a better environment. The supplier of the natural gas, Gasnor ASA in this case, claims an energy efficiency of 90% at the end user because the gas burns directly and the loss in the pipeline is minimal. The efficiency of natural gas utilisation is twice that of the planned gas power stations in West-Norway, subtracting the losses in the electrical network. Gasnor ASA competes with oil suppliers and, if necessary, with electric utilities. The county hospital at Haugesund is quoted as an example. The hospital has two large boilers with dual fuel burners. They have been using natural gas since 1998 because it was worth while both economically and environmentally. The use of natural gas in the transport sector would be very important, but the necessary infrastructure is very little developed. For instance, five diesel-powered ferries on the Boknafjord emit as much NOx as the planned gas power plant at Kaarstoe

  8. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  11. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  12. Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads to new insights on the formation of petroleum and natural gas deposits. This article highlights the impact and implications of those discoveries, especially as they relate to petroleum and natural gas exploration in India and throughout the world. From the reasoning developed here, the generality of the considerations involved, the understanding developed with respect to the East African Rift System, and the experience garnered from the larger and older Siberian Traps, the prognosis and potential for the region beneath the Deccan Traps of India to eventually become a m...

  13. The economy of natural gas; De economie van het gas

    Scholtens, B. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-03-08

    The Dutch government uses the benefits of natural gas especially for public consumption expenditures. Re-establishment of a natural gas fund would lead to productive investment and create a more prosperous Dutch economy [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid gebruikt de aardgasbaten nu met name voor consumptieve overheidsbestedingen. Heroprichting van een aardgasfonds zou tot productieve investeringen leiden en Nederland welvarender maken.

  14. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Ask, T.Oe.; Einang, P.M.; Stenersen, D. [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  15. Natural gas : a highly lucrative commodity

    Exploration and production of natural gas has become highly profitable as natural gas is becoming a leading future commodity. With new technology, high demand and environmental benefits, natural gas is the preferred choice over petroleum as the leading source of energy to heat home and businesses. Canada is the world's third largest producer of natural gas with its Sable Offshore Energy Project being the fourth largest producing natural gas basin in North America. The basin will produce high quality sweet natural gas from 28 production wells over the course of the next 20 to 25 years. The gas will be transported to markets through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and into the Northeastern United States via the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline. The 1051 kilometer underground gas pipeline is currently running laterals to Halifax, Nova Scotia and Saint John, New Brunswick. Market studies are being conducted to determine if additional lines are needed to serve Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island and northern New Brunswick. A recent survey identified the following 5 reasons to convert to natural gas: (1) it is safe, (2) it is reliable, (3) it is easy to use, (4) it is cleaner burning and environmentally friendly compared to other energy sources, and (5) it saves the consumer money

  16. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports

  17. Development Trends and Prospect of China Natural Gas Industry%Development Trends and Prospect of China Natural Gas Industry

    Sun Hui; Li Wei; Yanq Yi; Zhuang Tao

    2011-01-01

    China natural gas industry maintained a vigorous deveJopment trend in 2010. Either domestic natural gas production or natural gas import has witnessed a significant increase; natural gas pipelines and other infrastructure have been upgraded; natural gas consumption has kept rising, and consumption mix has been optimized increasingly; natural gas price reform has taken big step.

  18. Deregulation of natural gas in Georgia

    The Natural Gas Competition and Deregulation Act of 1997 in Georgia is discussed. New legislation passed the Natural Gas Consumer Relief Act in 2002 legislative session to provide additional protection and increase competition. This Act and its impacts are discussed in detail. Additional commission responsibilities are summarized. (R.P.)

  19. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994

  20. Dutch natural gas. From export to flexport

    Based on a simulation of different seasonal patterns of supply and demand an indication is given of the resulting need for large-scale natural gas storage. Because of that the Netherlands will maintain its position as a flexible supplier of natural gas in the European market

  1. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  2. Natural gas foothold in world energy market

    In this article, the expansion of natural gas from the '50s to the early '80s is analyzed. Following its positive success in industrial, residential and thermoelectric uses, natural gas still has new market spaces to win both in conventional and technical and process innovation-oriented industries

  3. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  4. The Natural Gas Industry in Transition

    George H. Lawrence; Michael I. German

    1983-01-01

    After 25 years of field price regulation, the U.S. natural gas industry is moving to a deregulated field market. This transition period has been made more difficult because of the international recession, depressed oil prices, and statutory restraints on gas use that were originally designed under assumptions of declining gas supply.

  5. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A)

  6. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  7. Unconventional fuel uses of natural gas

    Most of the natural gas used in the US today is used for residential and commercial heating and for small-scale industrial processes. Some is used by utility companies to generate electricity. Because it costs more to use than coal per unit of energy, natural gas is used primarily as a premium fuel for convenience. In spite of its higher cost, there are potential applications for natural gas in unconventional fuel uses. Some of these use include conversion of methane to chemicals and transportation fuels, partial oxidation of methane to produce methanol or synthesis gas, production of ethane for production of ethylene, and methane as a fuel for magnetohydrodynamics

  8. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  9. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    Sadegh, Negar

    Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines as...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  10. Produce synthesis gas by steam reforming natural gas

    Marsch, H.D.; Herbort, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    For production of synthesis gas from natural gas the steam reforming process is still the most economical. It generates synthesis gas for ammonia and methanol production as well as hydrogen, oxo gas and town gas. After desulfurization, the natural gas is mixed with steam and fed to the reforming furnace where decomposition of hydrocarbons takes place in the presence of a nickel-containing catalyst. Synthesis gas that must be free of CO and CO/sub 2/ is further treated in a CO shift conversion, a CO/sub 2/ scrubbing unit and a methanation unit. The discussion covers the following topics - reforming furnace; the outlet manifold system; secondary reformer; reformed gas cooling. Many design details of equipment used are given.

  11. Natural gas - Market and environmental needs

    The paper discusses the natural gas market and environmental needs with topics as follow: Importance of the North Sea region; sustainable development on the balance between economic use and environmental protection; role of natural gas in meeting energy demand: market needs, technologies, environmental aspects. According to the author, natural gas causes minimal pollutants because it contains virtually no pollutant-forming substances such as heavy metals, sulphur, chlorine or fluorine. No solid residues exist in the combustion space such as ash, slag, dust or soot, and the formation of thermal NOx through natural gas combustion has decreased to a very large extent as a result of technical advances. Natural gas can make a significant contribution towards reducing CO2 emissions due to its very high hydrogen content. 12 figs

  12. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  13. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  14. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... Deepwater Port License Application. The application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port... appeared in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), see PRIVACY ACT. You may view...

  15. Promoting Competition in the Natural Gas Industry

    OECD

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas is a key source of energy for OECD countries, both in its own right and as an input into the production of electricity. Regulatory reform in this sector shares both important similarities and important differences with regulatory reform in other network industries. Like other network industries, regulatory reform in natural gas involves promoting competition in the competitive segments of the industry (particularly competition between gas producers), the development of a robust re...

  16. Natural gas exports and macroeconomic performance

    Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada's leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as the energy producing province of Canada

  17. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  18. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  19. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  20. Natural gas consumption and economic growth: Are we ready to natural gas price liberalization in Iran?

    This paper examines the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in Iran within a multivariate production model. We also investigate the effects of natural gas price on its consumption and economic growth using a demand side model. The paper employs bounds test approach to level relationship over the period of 1972–007. We find evidence of bidirectional positive relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in short-run and long-run, based on the production model. The findings also suggest that real GDP growth and natural gas have positive and negative impacts on gross fixed capital formation, respectively. Employment, however, was found to have negative but insignificant impact on gross fixed capital formation. Moreover, the estimation results of demand side model suggest that natural gas price has negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption only in the long-run, though there is insignificant impact on economic growth. These results imply that the Iranian government's decision for natural gas price liberalization has the adverse effects on economic growth and policy makers should be cautious in doing this policy. - Highlights: • Iran has been considered as a major natural gas producer in the world. • This paper examines the relationship between gas consumption and growth in Iran. • Positive impact of gas consumption on growth has been obtained. • The paper finds that gas consumption and income reinforce each other in Iran. • Natural gas price has also negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption in Iran

  1. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing

    This publication by the National Energy Board is part of a continuing program of assessing applications for long-term natural gas export licences. The market-based procedure used by the Board is based on the premise that the marketplace will generally operate in a way that will ensure that Canadian requirements for natural gas will be met at fair market prices. The market--based procedure consists of a public hearing and a monitoring component. The monitoring component involves the on-going assessment of Canadian energy markets to provide analyses of major energy commodities on either an individual or integrated commodity basis. This report is the result of the most recent assessment . It identifies factors that affect natural gas prices and describes the functioning of regional markets in Canada. It provides an overview of the energy demand, including recent trends, reviews the North American gas supply and markets, the natural gas pricing dynamics in Canada, and a regional analysis of markets, prices and dynamics in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. In general, demand growth outstripped growth in supply, but natural gas producers throughout North America have been responding to the current high price environment with aggressive drilling programs. The Board anticipates that in time, there will be a supply and demand response and accompanying relief in natural gas prices. A review of the annual weighted average border price paid for Alberta gas indicates that domestic gas users paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices converged, suggesting that Canadians have had access to natural gas at prices no less favourable than export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems such as NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had significant impact on the pricing of natural gas. These systems, by providing timely information to market participants. enables them to manage price

  2. Annual survey 2013 - Natural gas in the World 2013

    The 2013 Edition of 'Natural Gas in the World' by CEDIGAZ is built on CEDIGAZ's unique natural gas statistical database. This 170-page study, published since 1983, provides an in-depth analysis of the latest developments in the gas markets along with the most complete set of statistical data on the whole gas chain covering close to 130 countries. Topics covered by Natural Gas in the World 2013 include: proved natural gas reserves; unconventional gas status in the world; gross and marketed natural gas production; the international gas trade; existing and planned underground gas storage facilities in the world; natural gas consumption; natural gas prices

  3. The continuing natural gas revolution

    This was the keynote address of the Conference, delivered by the Chairman of the National Energy Board of Canada. Consistent with the Conference theme, the speaker reviewed the major issues and trends seen in the industry today, setting the stage for more detailed discussion of these challenges by other speakers. Among major issues identified were the possibility of further-developing downstream gas deregulation, gas/electricity convergence, changing marketing techniques, the industry's ability to respond to an expanding consumer market, adopt new procedures and technology and reduce supply costs, as well as as assure ongoing profitability at modest gas prices. 11 figs

  4. European natural gas supplies in year 2010

    This article attempts to forecast european (Western and Eastern) natural gas demand an gas supplies up to 2010. It shows that at such a horizon both Norway and North Africa will have substantially increased their gas exports supplied to the European markets while the largest increase in terms of additional volumes will comes the former USSR, essentially from Russia. According to this analysis, Russia would be able to produce the required volumes even without putting into production the Yamal Peninsula fields, while the Russian Barentz Sea gas reserves (namely Stockmanovskoye) could be developed by 2005 or even earlier. During the period 1995-2005 only very limited gas exports to Europe would be required from the Middle East gas sources but the first gas pipeline between this region and Europe could begin to operate around 2010. Later on additional Middle East gas will be required in order to keep Europe's gas supplies in line with the demand. (author)

  5. Natural gas in Norway - Possibilities and limitations

    Norway is rich in gas resources. In recent years, gas sales from the Norwegian continental shelf have been in the order of 25 to 30 billion Sm3/yr and are expected to increase strongly the next 10 to 15 years. However, a scattered population, a difficult topography, long distances between large potential consumers and where the gas is brought ashore, make it difficult to utilize the gas commercially in this country. Moreover, the gas will have to compete with a highly developed hydro-electric network. This report evaluates possibilities and hindrances in the establishment of a home market for natural gas in Norway. The low population density implies that using gas for preheating of water, heating of rooms etc will not become important except, perhaps, locally, where gas may be available for other reasons. As a source of energy and raw material in many industrial processes, natural gas can become important in some coastal areas and in central parts of eastern Norway. Discussions are in progress on gas power stations for electricity production. This has aroused some controversy because of environmental problems, and for political acceptance gas power will have to replace coal power. As a fuel, gas may be of interest for domestic ferries and for busses. A lack of capital under financial risk and gas prices limit the market development. Although tax policy is presently favourable to gas power, the risk taken by private investors in converting to natural gas is increased by their not knowing for how long the gas will be exempt from environmental tax. 74 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  6. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  7. Method and system for natural gas utilization

    The invention relates to an method on reducing the emission of carbon oxides during methanol production. (a) A first part of the natural feeding gas is to be converted to synthesis gas consisting of CO, H2, CO2, H2O and non-converted natural gas. (b) A second part of the natural feeding gas is to be combusted for the generation of heat used in the conversion process by means of which the volumes of CO2 and H2O are formed. (c) The synthesis gas from (a) is to be converted to a product gas flow consisting of methanol and non-converted synthesis gas. (d) The product gas flow from (c) is to be cooled, and methanol is to be separated. (e) A first part of the non-converted gas from the separation step (d) is to be combined with the synthesis gas from (a). (f) A second part of the non-converted gas from the separation step (d) together with CO2 and H2O from step (b) is to be led to a shift reactor for making the equilibrium of CO, H2, CO, and H2O. (g) CO from step (f) is to be converted with methanol from step (d) for production of acetic acid. 1 fig

  8. Ecological problems of natural gas cleansing

    Full text: Chemical-technology approaches allowing to intensification the prevention processes of gas hydrates formation at motion of gas-liquid stream of natural gas in system natural gas well - gas wire have been worked up. Technological regimes of treatment of gas stream have been determined. Linear correlation dependences inhibitor electrolytes contained hydrated ions with different ion radii and charges of subgroups of alkali elements with one - type electron configuration were obtained. Important physico-chemical parameters of electrolytes have been determined: activity; coefficients of activity, viscosity, diffusion; density; heat capacity; heat conductivity; surface tension and freezing-point. The features of continuous influence of inhibitory factors on process of gas flow at low temperatures and relatively high pressure differences ΔP have been studied by using of technological installation modulating the system natural gas well - gas wire. The dependences of gas quantity flowing from installation on ΔP at low temperatures have been studied with consideration of real states of process of gas - liquid phase flowing. Obtained experimental data for non-inhibitory and inhibitory processes have been compared under the same conditions. It was established that more high intensification of prevention process of gas hydrates formation is observed at the same thermodynamic conditions due to continuous treatment of gas by methanol and polyvinyl alcohol, which are absorbed into the bentonite, by glycigol, absorbed into the silica gel, and by calcium chloride. Vibration conjugate process of gas hydrates formation and break-up taking place in gas-liquid system with using of membrane electrode of electrochemical cell has been found. Periodic vibrations of membrane potential have been found at treatment of natural gas by methanol at low temperatures. Periodic character of vibration effect is determined by conjugate variations of equilibrium concentrations of components

  9. The geopolitics of natural gas in Asia

    Over the last few years, natural gas has been the fastest-growing component of primary world energy consumption. This study seeks to examine the recent efforts by the Islamic Republic of Iran, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia to develop their natural gas resources and capture a large share of the Asian market, particularly in Turkey, India, China, Japan and South Korea. Counter-efforts by rivals, such as the Russian Federation and the Caspian Basin states, are analysed. Finally, international ventures to transport natural gas from producers to consumers, including the Dolphin Project, the Trans-Caspian Pipeline and Blue Stream, are discussed. (author)

  10. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  11. Natural gas commoditization - evolution and trends

    This presentation dealt with issues of deregulation in the natural gas industry. The commoditization process, the effect of deregulation as reflected by changes in the percentage distribution of market participation by profession in NYMEX in 1994 and for the first quarter of 1998, the natural gas supply and demand from 1990 to 1996, and natural gas market activities (i.e. swaps, EFPs, spreads, transportation look-alikes, triggers) were reviewed. An Alberta supply and demand forecast for the winter heating season of 1998-1999 and its impact on prices was also provided. tabs., figs

  12. SCHEMES OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL GAS HYDRATES

    李淑霞; 陈月明; 杜庆军

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are a kind of nonpolluting and high quality energy resources for future, the reserves of which are about twice of the carbon of the current fossil energy (petroleum, natural gas and coal) on the earth. And it will be the most important energy for the 21st century. The energy balance and numerical simulation are applied to study the schemes of the natural gas hydrates production in this paper,and it is considered that both depressurization and thermal stimulation are effective methods for exploiting natural gas hydrates, and that the gas production of the thermal stimulation is higher than that of the depressurization. But thermal stimulation is non-economic because it requires large amounts of energy.Therefore the combination of the two methods is a preferable method for the current development of the natural gas hydrates. The main factors which influence the production of natural gas hydrates are: the temperature of injected water, the injection rate, the initial saturation of the hydrates and the initial temperature of the reservoir which is the most important factor.

  13. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market

  14. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  15. Regulating natural gas pipeline efficiency

    Proponents of gas pipeline capacity assignment---sometimes referred to as capacity brokering---would like a policy that would allow holders of gas pipeline capacity contact, usually firm transportation, to resell that capacity for short periods of time when it is not needed. In this paper the authors review the current U.S. policy towards capacity assignment in the context of FERC regulation of interstate pipelines and compare the U.S. debate with Canada's approach. The authors offer a modest proposal to institute a capacity assignment program experiment

  16. Natural gas in France: main results in 2008

    This document briefly presents and comments the main data about natural gas in France: gas consumption, natural gas-based electricity production, refineries, energetic final consumption of natural gas, non-energetic final consumption of natural gas, gas imports and suppliers (countries), national production, and stocks

  17. Natural gas production verification tests

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO2)/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO2/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  18. The new East Coast natural gas market

    Market demand for natural gas in Canada's Maritime provinces was discussed. The Atlantic market represents the largest potential region, currently without access to natural gas in Canada or the United States. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines and the Sable Offshore Energy partners have made great efforts to introduce and market natural gas as well as to provide pipeline transportation services in the Maritimes and New England markets. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines is a partnership project with Westcoast Energy, Mobil Oil, and Duke Energy. Theirs is the first pipeline project to deliver gas, but it will certainly not be the last gas project in the region. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines now has 180,000 MMBtu/day of phased-in Canadian load committed to firm service agreements for delivery in the first 24 months of operation. In addition to these firm service agreements, an additional 60,000 MMBtu/day is signed for future lateral extensions to service emerging markets. figs

  19. A Comparative Study of Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview

    Muhammad Khan Memon; Saleem Qadir Tunio; Khalil Rehman Memon; Arshad Ahmed Lashari

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fuel and being produced by many countries of the world in the commercial quantities. Increasing natural gas price and new development in the technologies, liquefied natural gas industry is economically attractive in the major gas exporting countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is an important energy source and continued to contribute the growth of natural gas industry. The new advance LNG technology is used for natural gas transportation for long di...

  20. Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

  1. Is natural gas really the answer?. Targeting natural gas in US climate change mitigation policy

    Since use of natural gas emits less carbon dioxide (CO2) than other fossil fuels and CO2 is an important greenhouse gas, policies to encourage greater natural gas use are often touted as one strategy to reduce global warming. This analysis examines the impacts of lower natural gas prices, brought about by government initiatives or market forces, on greenhouse gas emissions. The most surprising result is that lower gas prices appear to have little impact on US greenhouse gas emission trends. However, lower gas prices and commensurate overall lower fossil energy costs do defer energy conservation efforts, stimulate more energy use economy-wide, and may displace cleaner renewable sources of energy. These results argue for a careful examination of attributes needed to align policy options intended to increase efficient gas use and those intended to lower overall greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  2. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  3. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry

  4. Solar power into natural gas grid

    Koenemann, Detlef

    2011-07-01

    If a 100 % renewable energy supply is to be successful, then enormous storage capacities will be required to balance out fluctuations in energy availability. Such a massive storage already exists in many countries, however: the natural gas grid. (orig.)

  5. Natural gas 1992: Issues and trends

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1991 and 1992, focusing on trends in production, consumption, and pricing of natural gas and how they reflect the regulatory and legislative changes of the past decade (Chapter 1). Also presented are details of FERC Order 636 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992, as well as pertinent provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Chapter 2). In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: Trends in wellhead prices and natural gas supply activities (Chapter 3); Recent rate design changes for interstate pipeline companies (Chapter 4); Benefits to consumers from the more competitive marketplace (Chapter 5); Pipeline capacity expansions during the past 2 years (Chapter 6); Increasing role of the natural gas futures market (Chapter 7)

  6. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  7. Switzerland - natural gas as a motor fuel

    This article takes a look at the history, the present situation and the future of the use of natural gas as a motor fuel in Switzerland. In recent years, the number of filling stations in Switzerland and in Europe that offer natural gas has rapidly increased. Mineral oil tax legislation has, according to the author, expressed a clear commitment to more environmentally friendly fuels. The Swiss network of filling stations is discussed, as are the financial and political prerequisites for the furthering of the use of natural gas as a fuel. The situation in Europe and the rest of the world is also reviewed. As far as vehicles are concerned, three generations of natural gas engine technology for cars are briefly reviewed. Also, the technologies used in heavy vehicles and buses are examined. Environmental aspects and the use of biogas are discussed.

  8. More natural gas from Russia, but when?

    The fourth article in a series about changes in the European natural gas market focuses on Russia, a country with gigantic potential reserves (216,000 billion m3) and a production unequalled in the world (780.4 billion m3 in 1992 in the Russian Federation), but also with enormous economic and technical problems. The question is what role Russia is able to play in the European natural gas supply. Attention is paid to the organizational structure in former Soviet Union regarding the natural gas industry, the environmental effects of exploration and exploitation, the need for foreign capital, and the disappointing progress of the 1991 Energy Charter. On a short term the infrastructure must be improved. Also the conflicts on the price of natural gas transport between the transfer countries Ukraine, Slovenia and Czechoslovakia and the West-European clients must be solved. 1 fig., 7 ills., 2 tabs

  9. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  10. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  11. FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment

    Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development

  12. Methane leakage in natural gas operations

    The world gas industry is efficient in conservation of natural gas within its systems. As the influence of methane as an infra-red absorbent gas has been more widely recognized, the considerations of methane's greenhouse effect has become vitally important to gas companies around the world. The industry is universally environmentally conscious. natural gas transmission and distribution companies want to maintain their image as suppliers of clean fuel. Further reductions in methane leakage --- particularly in older distribution systems --- can, should and will be pursued. Unfortunately, there has been little exchange of views on methane leakages between commentators on environmental matters and gas companies and organizations. There is absolutely no need for the industry to avoid the issue of greenhouse gases. Without industry involvement, the environmental debate concerning fossil fuels could lead to selective interpretation of scientific views and available evidence. Companies and authorities would be presented with confusing, contradictory evidence on which to base policy approaches and regulations

  13. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas

    Jarvie Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: The functions [(CH4*(C3H8] and [(C2H62] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84 in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200°C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions.

  14. The eligibility of the natural gas consumers

    The eligible consumers are allowed to chose freely their natural gas producers and negotiate the prices and the supply modalities. In this context this information paper presents the legislative and regulation framework of the natural gas consumers eligibility, a definition of the possible eligible consumers and a list at the 30 january 2004. It provides also recommendations and answers to the more often asked questions on the administrative procedures and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  15. Development options for Canadian natural gas

    Haughey, D.J.; Varangu, K.

    1982-01-01

    This work provides a methodology for, and preliminary economic examination of, alternative development options for Western Canadian natural gas. Four development options are addressed: pipeline exports to the U.S., domestic pipeline expansion to the Maritimes, liquefied natural gas exports to Japan, and methanol manufacturing in Alberta. Each option was evaluated in terms of the costs and benefits which accrue as producer returns, project sponsor returns, and government returns.

  16. Analysis of Natural Gas Vehicle Industry : none

    Li, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A vehicle powered by natural gas is becoming a prevalent trend and direction in automobile manufacturing. The thesis is aiming at analyzing the natural gas vehicle industry from its environmental effectiveness, economic effectiveness, recent status and its development in the near future with statistical data. And also it will find out the potential problems and relevant technologies. Investigation and literature research method are mainly used to fully collect the correct information and d...

  17. Conveyance of natural gas. Organization and regulation

    This International Energy Agency (IEA) study deals with the conveyance of natural gas. The socio-economic factors are given as well as the different organization and regulations modes of natural gas conveyance and storage in the IEA countries and in central and eastern Europe. The main questions forming the subject of discussions in the IEA countries are analyzed too. (O.L.). 50 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Natural Gas Extraction, Earthquakes and House Prices

    Hans R. A. Koster; Jos N. van Ommeren

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural gas is strongly increasing around the world. Long-run negative external effects of extraction are understudied and often ignored in social) cost-benefit analyses. One important example is that natural gas extraction leads to soil subsidence and subsequent induced earthquakes that may occur only after a couple of decades. We show that induced earthquakes that are noticeable to residents generate substantial non-monetary economic effects, as measured by their effects o...

  19. Flexibility in natural gas supply and demand

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    "In most IEA Member countries, natural gas demand varies strongly during the year, according to temperature. Flexibility is needed to cover seasonal swings and variations in gas demand, especially for household customers. It is also needed to maintain short-term supply security in the case of a disruption of a supply source. Over the years, gas companies have devised a variety of flexibility tools, such as supply swing, storage and interruptible contracts. This enabled them to balance supply ...

  20. Latvian natural gas system and its development

    The data presented in the paper evidence that natural gas consumption decreased from 2.91 billion m3 in 1991 to 0.95 in 1994, while in the period 1997-1999 it was levelled at about 1.3 billion m3. It is expected that there will be a gradual increase in natural gas consumption from 1.32 billion m:3 in 2001 to 1.95 billion m3 in 2005 mainly due to to development of co-generation stations and significant growth in the industrial sector. All the gas consumed in Latvia is imported from Russia during the summer period and injected into the Incukalns Underground Gas Storage for winter needs, in particular, for Latvian consumers as well as, partly, for Estonia and North-West of Russia. Latvia processes unique geological conditions for creation of a system of natural underground gas storage in the future with an active total volume of up to 50 billion m3. By integration of the Latvian underground gas storage system in the joint Russian - European gas transmission system, Latvia could become a major seasonal regulator of natural gas for Western regions of Russia and for Baltic Sea countries: Lithuania, Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. (author)

  1. Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry

    During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each other and which avenues they take to become leaders. Many new opportunities for entry into the market have also been created. As a result, the tide of competition has not only turned against the financially strong giants of the past, but it has also turned against new entrants who are fast, flexible and market driven. Natural gas utilities companies have responded by improving their operational efficiencies through process re-engineering, organizational re-alignment, restructuring and strategic alliances or mergers. Deregulation of the electricity industry is expected to increase competitive pressures on the natural gas industry, thus causing even more of a decrease in natural gas prices. In the future, natural gas utilities must be able to improve their effectiveness by accurately forecasting demand and optimizing their own supply and delivery systems in such a way that costs are minimized without compromising the reliability of supply. The new frontier of competitiveness will ensure that structural changes in the industry are characterized by an effective management of the supply-demand relationship and the optimization of risks inherently a part of gas delivery

  2. Northeast natural gas market outlook

    This power point presentation included several charts and graphs depicting the major pipeline projects, including the Alliance Pipeline, to move gas from the U.S. midwest (14.5 Bcfd) to the northeast (11.6 Bcfd). Alliance is expected to add 1.6 Bcfd of capacity and supplies could ultimately expand to 4 Bcfd. The addition of the Vector Pipeline could create excess capacity to eastern Canada. The major cause for increased power demand is power generation. For example, proposed gas combined cycle plants in Ontario equal 3.2 GW about 720 MMcfd at 90 per cent capacity, while environmental regulations have put 9.4 GW of coal at risk in Michigan. It was noted that U.S. northeast market growth is not likely to absorb all the proposed pipeline capacity, but potential capacity additions to the New England market are very significant compared to the market size. tabs., figs

  3. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  4. Similarities of natural gas and hydrogen

    The future prospects for the development of the uses of hydrogen confirms the importance of this fuel for now and in the long term, but concrete action needs to be taken to reduce the emission of gases in order to reduce the greenhouse effect and to sustain a durable economic development. Technological advancements in fuel cells will improve electricity production and will be of added benefit to transport in industrial applications. Hydrocarbons are the principal source of matter needed for the production of hydrogen. Natural gas consists primarily of pure methane. The hydrocarbons possess the largest ratio of hydrogen-carbon by molecule less carbon dioxide in the process of conversion. Natural gas has been the first choice of all fuels due to it's weak environmental impact. Natural gas and hydrogen have many similarities for utilization of storage. In the long term as natural gas provisioning will be reduced, the infrastructures for natural gas could be reconverted, with adaptations for hydrogen. This paper details the similarities of natural gas and hydrogen and their perspective associates

  5. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  6. The - compromised? - future of natural gas

    Will natural gas be the main loser of the January 2009 crisis between Ukraine and Russia? The demonstration is made that the European Union is not free from the risk of a severe supply disruption. This is a bad news considering that the power generation is the growth vector of natural gas. Even if the gas black-out cannot exist, the power black-out still can happen. As soon as the Russian-Ukrainian conflict has occurred, the other energy sources (nuclear and renewable) have been called for help in Europe while coal is in the expectation. Since some time now, gas has to face several trend changes. First, uncertainty is increasing considering its growth prospects. The new version of the gas pluri-annual indicative plan (PIP Gaz) would foresee a stagnation of gas consumption up to 2020 (consequence of the French environmental policy), while the previous plan had foreseen a 2.1% annual growth rate between 2005 and 2015. Second, the direct indexing of gas prices on oil prices can have undesirable effects. Finally, the u-turn of the USA with respect to liquefied natural gas (LNG) may penalize its development. What answers should the European Union give in front of these uncertainties? Have the companies modified their strategy? Is the future of gas still fine? These are the questions debated during a round table organized by the BIP, the French Bulletin of Petroleum Industry. (J.S.)

  7. Understanding the North American natural gas market

    Canada's energy future is largely dependent on natural gas: (1) natural gas meets more than 25 per cent of the country's primary energy demand, (2) it represents the most environmentally friendly fossil fuel, (3) it is the fastest growing fuel of choice for electricity generation and distributed energy initiatives, (4) the development of Canadian Tar Sands depend on natural gas fuels, and (5) it is a key element in efforts to lower emissions of motor vehicles. This paper was prepared to assist the reader in understanding the dynamics forming the basis of the natural gas markets in Canada. Enormous stresses affect Canada's energy systems, such as meeting demands for affordable, reliable energy, and meeting stringent standards of environmental performance. The Canadian Gas Association, along with industry and governments, is of the opinion that stresses can be mitigated with the right steps. Background information on the key drivers of the natural gas markets in Canada was provided in section one of the paper. It demonstrated that the natural gas industry in Canada is tied to the North American marketplace. The principal sources of demand and sources of supply were examined. A brief overview of the changes that took place in the natural gas industry over the last 20 years was provided in an effort to avoid the mistakes of the past. A specific look at deregulation, free trade and price movements was presented. Section two was devoted to market outlooks and integrated perspectives, describing the composite picture of outlooks for demand and supply to 2020. It is felt that demand growth will fall into the 1.9 per cent range per year. The key implications for business and policy were discussed in Section three. Three major implication groups emerged: economic competitiveness of natural gas dependent industries; environment due to the fuel choices driven by gas market dynamics; and implications for consumers. Policy directions were outlined in Section four. The Canadian

  8. Norwegian Natural Gas. Liberalization of the European Gas Market

    Leading abstract. This book focuses on issues that are important for Norway as a major gas exporter and to the development of a liberalized European market. Chapter 2 explains main features of the European gas market. Natural gas is sold in regional markets with independent pricing structure and particularities. In Europe, this has led to large investments for the producers and long-term contracts. The strong market growth and EU's actions to liberalize the market may change this. The organization of the Norwegian gas production and sale is discussed, as well as the reorganization taking place in 2001. Pricing mechanisms are discussed in Chapter 3, both in the ''old'' / existing structure and how a liberalization of the market may change price formation. The increased importance of energy taxation in EU countries is covered in Chapter 4. Even though natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, the use of natural gas may be taxed far harder in the future. The report discusses price effects of such a development. Chapter 5 discusses whether or not a gas producer, like Norway, necessarily must earn a resource rent. With the use of economic theory for exhaustible resources it is shown how prices to consumers may increase at the same time as prices to producers drop, where the difference is made up by higher gas taxes to the consuming countries. Transportation of natural gas involves considerable scale advantages and there are often scope advantages from production, storage and sale, as well. Chapter 6 discusses how competition and regulation may influence the functioning and social efficiency of the market, and the concentration of market power. When companies become large, they may exploit market power, supported by the authorities of their respective countries. Chapter 7 focuses on regulatory challenges for the EU, and how the transporters may change between conflicting and cooperation with the EU. Chapter 8 focuses on schedules for

  9. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE GAS... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural...

  10. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    2013-08-01

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013... authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033, Forrestal...

  11. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    2013-06-11

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013... INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING (USA) INC 13-44-NG CITIGROUP... natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix...

  12. Natural gas utilization study: offshore Newfoundland, 1998

    This study is designed to quantify the natural gas resources of Newfoundland, identify production and transportation options and outline the terms of reference for a follow-up study. Phase One of the study (i.e. this one) is considered a scoping study, whereas Phase Two will be devoted to a comprehensive examination of all critical issues. The ultimate objective is to create a development strategy for natural gas in Newfoundland. Current estimates of the natural gas resource base for the Province is 61.9 Tcf. Of the discovered resources (8.2 Tcf in total) 4.2 Tcf, to perhaps 5.2 Tcf, are in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. In the near term, the resources of the Jeanne d'Arc represent the best opportunity for development, although a preliminary analysis of stand-alone gas development in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin does not show a positive rate of return on the cost/price assumptions used in the study. Chapters 1 and 2 of the report contain background on natural gas resources throughout the world, and a summary and conclusions with regard to the study of Newfoundland natural gas resources. Chapters 3 to 6 contain a detailed assessment of the resource endowment in Newfoundland and Labrador, an overview of natural gas production and transportation systems, and the results of a preliminary economic analysis of natural gas potential in Newfoundland taking into account resource size, timing, development and operating costs, prices and fiscal systems. Chapter 7 provides the terms of reference for Phase Two of the study

  13. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas

    The study, 'Assesment of greenhouse gas emission from natural gas' by independent consultants Energetics Pty Ltd, shows that natural gas has significantly fewer greenhouses gas emissions than either black or brown cola for the defined life cycle stages. The life cycle emissions from natural gas use by an Australian Major User are approximately 50% less than the emissions from Victorian brown coal and approximately 38% less than the emissions from Australian average black coal. Australian Best Practice gas fired electricity generation is estimated to emit between 514 and 658 kg CO2e/MWh. By comparison, Australian Best Practice coal-fired electricity generation is estimated to emit between 907 and 1,246 kg CO2e/MWh for black and brown coal respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian Best Practice gas-fired electricity generation using combined cycle gas turbines (including full fuel cycle emissions) vary from 41% to 46% of the emissions from brown coal-fired electricity generation and 57% to 64% of emissions from black coal-fired electricity generation. Greenhouse gas emissions from direct gas supply water heating range from 1,470 to 2,042 kilograms per annum. This compares with emissions of 1,922 to 2,499 kg for electric heating from gas-fired electricity generation and 3,975 to 5,393 kg for coal-fired electricity generation. The implications for greenhouse policy nationally are also discussed, emphasising the need to review national energy policy, currently tied to 'fuel neutrality' doctrine

  14. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  15. Research into the transmission of natural gas by gas pipeline

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is the press release of the talk given at the `Gaz de France scientific meeting with the press` by P. Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France company, on October 7, 1998. The aim of this talk concerns the new French and European supply link for bringing natural gas from the Norwegian North Sea fields. This new supply link is the first direct link between Norway and France and the NorFra gas pipeline which brings natural gas from the North Sea to France is the longest offshore pipeline in the world. The `Artere des Hauts de France` pipeline (the largest diameter gas pipeline ever laid in France) is devoted to the transfer of natural gas from Dunkerque to the Gournay-sur-Aronde underground storage site. This paper describes successively: the French European gas supply hub, the NorFra project, the Artere des Hauts de France pipeline, the network performance research, the safety and quality guaranties, the reduction of overland natural gas transmission costs (improvement of pipe-laying techniques and optimization of line route and welding operations), the specific techniques used for road and river crossing (micro-tunnel digging, river-crossing ditches) and for anchoring (buoyancy compensation). Finally, the environmental impact of the laying operations is briefly described. (J.S.)

  16. Natural gas profile: the baking industry

    1975-11-01

    The U.S. baking industry contains three segments: bakeries which produce perishable products (SIC 2051); bakeries for dry bakery products, such as cookies and crackers (SIC 2052), and retail bakeries which bake and sell (SIC 5462). Data are presented on the number of establishments and employment in each segment, natural gas consumption for each segment in each U.S. state, natural gas prices in various U.S. regions, fuel conservation possibilities in the baking industry, FEA policy on curtailment of gas supplies, and the economic impact of such possible curtailments. (LCL)

  17. Proposals for China's Natural Gas Industry

    Hua Ben

    2010-01-01

    @@ Demand,supply and consumption of natural gas in China Increased natural gas demand due to economic development,energy and environmental impact In China,the available energy resource is rich in coal and lack in oil and gas.Because of this special fuel pattern,the increasing energy demand needed to sustain the rapid economic development in the past 30 years relies heavily on the coal supply.This makes coal contributing for over70% of the primary energy consumed and leads to SO2 and NOx emission exceeding 70% of the environmental carrying capacity which causes ecological degradation.

  18. A free market without natural gas? European Gas Strategies 1997

    The Netherlands strongly advocates the liberalization of the European natural gas market, as has been established again during the international conference 'European Gas Strategies '97', which was held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, at the end of February 1997. At the meeting of the European Energy Council on May 27, 1997, the Dutch proposals for a European Gas Directive will be discussed. In this brief overview of the conference als attention is paid to the most exciting development, the opening of the Interconnector (a gas pipeline between Bacton in the UK and Zeebrugge in Belgium)

  19. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  20. Natural gas cooling: Part of the solution

    This paper reviews and compares the efficiencies and performance of a number of gas cooling systems with a comparable electric cooling system. The results show that gas cooling systems compare favorably with the electric equivalents, offering a new dimension to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. The paper goes on to compare the air quality benefits of natural gas to coal or oil-burning fuel systems which are used to generate the electricity for the electric cooling systems. Finally, the paper discusses the regulatory bias that the author feels exists towards the use of natural gas and the need for modification in the existing regulations to provide a 'level-playing field' for the gas cooling industry

  1. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  2. Canadian natural gas : market review and outlook

    This annual working paper provides summaries of trends within the North American natural gas industry and also reviews Canadian gas exports. It is designed to promote dialogue between industry and the government and to obtain feedback on natural gas issues. The main section of the report consists of graphs, with limited text comments on the side. It provides a structured look at supply and demand for the year 2000 as well as for the near term (2001) and long-term (2010). The sources of information included private consultants, industry associations and federal agencies in Canada and the United States. It was shown that gas demand had grown steadily in North America since 1997, at about 2.5 per cent annually, and then fell 3.4 per cent in 1998 and remained low in 1999, below 1997 demand. This was due mainly to mild winters. In 2000, the demand for natural gas increased again to 5 per cent as a result of a colder winter and increased gas use for power generation. The report also stated that the combination of various factors including low storage balances due to previously low drilling years and high oil prices, were responsible for natural gas price increases in 2000. The tight supply/demand balance was exacerbated by restraints in pipeline capacity. Producers and pipeline groups are now looking seriously at developing the large gas deposits in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta which were previously considered to be uneconomic. It was noted that in the near term, storage must be rebuilt to normal levels. Storage balances will be a good indicator of the relative strengths of gas production and demand growth. It was forecasted that Canada to U.S. gas exports should continue to increase in 2001 as a large new export pipeline was completed in 2000, but there is considerable uncertainty for the medium to longer-term. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Feeling the pressure from natural gas

    The European directive establishing a competitive internal natural gas market will be the most important, though not the only, factor in advancing the rapid and far reaching changes which Europe's natural gas sector is undergoing. The knock-on effects which these changes will have on the chemical industry are examined. The benefits of opening up the gas market will be more consumer choice and a more efficient and globally competitive EU gas industry. But for the chemical industry it raises strategic issues surrounding gas procurement such as price risks and security of supply. These are especially acute where gas is used not just as a fuel but also as a feedstock. As the electricity market is progressively deregulated, independent power generation using combined heat and power could be an attractive choice in the chemical industry with the possibility of selling surplus electricity on the spot market. Other changes in the gas sector could arise from the environmental targets agreed in Kyoto which are likely to lead to an increase in fuel taxation, and the development of a spot market in gas as the link between oil and gas prices becomes less direct. (UK)

  4. Market brief : natural gas in Turkey

    Turkey may soon become an important transit route to Europe for natural gas imported from the Caucasus, Iran, and other Middle Eastern countries. This market brief provided an overview of Turkey's natural gas market and industry, and examined investment and business opportunities for Canadian businesses. Consumption of natural gas in Turkey has grown by 14.8 per cent annually in the last decade. Transmission equipment expenditures total approximately $400 million annually. It is expected that the demand for environmental and engineering services for natural gas-related industries will grow by 15 per cent annually over the next decade. There are currently several opportunities for Canadian suppliers of equipment, engineering, and construction services. Turkey's expected full European Union (EU) membership will require Turkey to adopt EU environmental and emissions standards. Potential investors in Turkey require operating licences from Turkey's Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA). All state procurement is by tender, while BOTAS, the state-owned gas company dominates both imports and the transmission of gas. Market entry considerations were also presented. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing

    The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market in terms of fuel consumption and energy conversion. Given that the transmission and distribution monopolistic activities are very similar to the natural gas transportation through pipelines, economic regulation related to the natural gas network should be coherent with the transmission counterpart. This paper shows the application of the main wheeling charge methods, such as MW/gas-mile, invested related asset cost (IRAC) and Aumman-Shapley allocation, to both transmission and gas network. Stead-state equations are developed to adequate the various pricing methods. Some examples clarify the results, in terms of investments for thermal generation plants and end consumers, when combined pricing methods are used for transmission and gas networks. The paper also shows that the synergies between gas and electricity industry should be adequately considered, otherwise wrong economic signals are sent to the market players. (author)

  6. Securing growth markets for natural gas

    The Industry Development Strategy 2000-2005 (IDS) identifies the major growth markets for natural gas, as the industry readies itself for the challenges of the new millenium. An integral part of this process is to examine the key barriers to market expansion, and to devise strategies that both The Australian Gas Association (AGA) and the wider industry can pursue to underpin improvement in overall gas consumption. This is the task of the IDS which examines the opportunities confronting the industry over the next five year period. The significant growth prospects of the gas industry both in the short term (2000-2005) and long term (2005-2015) are indicated in two comprehensive and independent studies. The first, Australian Energy Market Developments and Projections to 2014-15, was released earlier this year by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (the ABARE Energy Report). The second, Natural Gas Consumption in Australia to 2015-Prospects by State, Industry and Sector, was commissioned by the AGA, and was completed by the National Institute of Economic and Industry Research in September 1999 (NIEIR Report). Both reports indicate that in terms of consumption levels, in the period up to 2015 the gas industry is forecast to more than double its current size. Natural gas is also projected to increase its primary energy share ranking from third to second place

  7. 2013 - The Natural Gas Year in Review

    Natural gas consumption only rose by 1.3%, down from an average growth of 2.8% per year in the previous decade. Natural gas still suffers in particular from severe competition with coal in the power generation sector. Inside the EU-28, actual consumption was estimated down 1.9% to 460 Billion cubic metres (Bcm). This poor performance brought European consumption to levels not seen in more than 15 years. In the US, rising gas prices compared to 2012 has often made coal more competitive and penalized gas consumption in the power generation sector, causing it to fall by 10.5%. Global growth in natural gas has been increasingly constrained by supply. In 2013, the growth in gas production slowed substantially to 0.8%, bringing the total volume to 3377 Bcm. As before, the gas supply shortfall was due to the decline of mature and conventional fields, and an insufficient renewal of reserves. The lack of upstream investment is especially acute in emerging markets, due to a lack of a favourable regulatory and fiscal climate. The moderation of natural gas supply and investment has also been increasingly driven by geopolitical challenges. Deterioration of security, internal conflicts and resulting damage to infrastructures have caused some production outages and supply disruptions in some countries. In 2013, marketed production fell especially heavily in Africa (Algeria, Nigeria, Libya and Egypt). With the exception of Europe, other regions posted positive production gains. The largest of them were recorded in the CIS (+ 2.7%) and the Middle East (+ 3.4%). International gas trade increased significantly by 2.1% to 1048 Bcm, due to the growing dependence of consumer markets on increasingly distant production sources, sometimes located in economically and politically unstable areas. The rise in the international gas trade was only driven by inter-regional pipeline gas exports from the CIS to Europe (+ 15%) and China (+ 36%). Geopolitical risks are having an ever

  8. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs

  9. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  10. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  11. Revolution in the natural gas industry?

    The demand for cleaner automotive fuels has created an opening for converting natural gas to liquid transport fuels and blending agents using Fischer-Tropsch technology. While the technology is well established, it is not yet clear whether the conversion can compete with crude oil refining or with pipelines and liquefied natural gas. Although all the oil giants are interested in the technology, the only commercial-sized plant in the world was the Shell plant in Malaya which had capacity of 12,000 bpd, but the profitability of the plant came from the wax by-products. The plant has been closed since a fire and explosion in 1997. The process chain is described. The gas-to-liquid activities and achievements of Saol, Exxon and Texaco are reported. It was concluded that although there are still some problems to be ironed-out, there is a promising future for gas-to-liquid conversion. (UK)

  12. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  13. Challenges for the future of natural gas

    This paper reports on the closure talk from P. Gadonneix, president of Gaz de France (GdF) company, who draws out the perspectives of development of the French national company in the context of an increasing natural gas demand with new competition and with an evolution of the European regulations: perspectives of demand and production, the dependency of Europe, the competition with other energy sources, the European deregulation of natural gas market, the strategy of Gaz de France, the relation with consumers, the development of distribution systems, the promotion of new products, the environmental qualities of natural gas and the development of clean technologies, the construction of new pipelines within the national territory, the partnerships of GdF with other national companies, the socio-economical actions of GdF (employment etc..). (J.S.)

  14. The uncertain future role of natural gas

    Although the future role of natural gas in the U.S. energy picture is not certain, it is probably no less certain, and quite possibly more certain, that other energy fuels available in the Untied States in the next 20 to 30 years. We know this because natural gas ranks high among energy fuels when it is evaluated against the key criteria that will determine its competitiveness in the national energy fuels marketplace. Those key criteria are the size of the recoverable resource, the economics of both extraction and use, and public acceptance with respect to environmental, safety, and siting matters. This paper discusses each of these points separately and then summarizes the future contribution of natural gas in the U. S. energy mix

  15. Electricity/natural gas competition in Quebec

    The evolution of energy market shares (electricity, natural gas and oil products) in Quebec's residential and commercial sectors in the 1980s shows that energy source relative prices have influenced consumer behavior as expected. A set of comparisons from space and water heating markets in these sectors with regard to prices paid by consumers and costs incurred by society in general is presented. For the residential sector, it is seen that consumers pay only a fraction of the cost for electric space and water heating; the same service could be provided at smaller cost by natural gas. For the commercial sector, the electricity and natural gas tariffs convey the appropriate message with respect to the cost incurred in providing the service. 6 refs., 7 tabs

  16. Natural gas and production of electricity

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  17. Natural Gas Policy: The Unresolved Issues

    Lyon, Thomas P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes the restructuring of the natural gas industry which has been going on for several years. It gives the background to the current attempts at restructuring and describes Stanford University's 9th study by the Energy Modeling Forum on North American gas markets which is the analytical basis for this paper. It then describes the tension between the two regulatory objectives, economic efficiency and satisfyingpublic policy concerns regarding the distribution of economic surplus...

  18. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

  20. Economics of natural gas conversion processes

    This paper examines the potential profitability of a selected group of possible natural gas conversion processes from the perspective of a manufacturing entity that has access to substantial low cost natural gas reserves, capital to invest, and no allegiance to any particular product. The analysis uses the revenues and costs of conventional methanol technology as a framework to evaluate the economics of the alternative technologies. Capital requirements and the potential to enhance cash margins are the primary focus of the analysis. The basis of the analysis is a world-scale conventional methanol plant that converts 3.2 Mm3 per day (120 MMSCFD) of natural gas into 3510 metric tonnes (3869 shorts tons) per day of methanol. Capital and operating costs are for an arbitrary remote location where natural gas is available at 0.47 US dollars per GJ (0.50 US dollars per MMBtu). Other costs include ocean freight to deliver the product to market at a US Gulf Coast location. Payout time, which is the ratio of the total capital investment to cash margin (revenue less total operating expenses), is the economic indicator for the analysis. Under these conditions, the payout time for the methanol plant is seven years. The payout time for the alternative natural gas conversion technologies is generally much higher, which indicates that they currently are not candidates for commercialization without consideration of special incentives. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the effects of process yields on the economics of two potential technologies, oxidative coupling to ethylene and direct conversion to methanol. This analysis suggests areas for research focus that might improve the profitability of natural gas conversion. 29 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  1. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    2012-02-29

    ... Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012.... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY MARKETING L.P... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural...

  2. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas

  3. European natural gas supplies and markets

    During the past 15 years a remarkable shift in the composition of the world hydrocarbon reserves has taken place. Although the natural gas reserves in the early 1970s equaled only half the energy content of the oil reserves, today the proven reserves for the two fuels are about equivalent. This development can be explained by the fact that the addition of reserves has exceeded the consumption of gas, whereas the situation has been the reverse for oil. It is highly probable that this shift in the resource base in favor of gas will lead to increased use of this fuel in the next century. This paper briefly reviews the supply and demand situation for gas in Europe and identify some of the more important issues that will determine whether or not a revitalization of gas will come about in the European energy market

  4. On modelling the market for natural gas

    Mathiesen, Lars

    2001-12-01

    Several features may separately or in combination influence conduct and performance of an industry, e.g. the numbers of sellers or buyers, the degree of economies of scale in production and distribution, the temporal and spatial dimensions, etc. Our main focus is on how to model market power. In particular, we demonstrate the rather different solutions obtained from the price-taking behavior versus the oligopolistic Coumot behavior. We also consider two approaches to model the transportation of natural gas. Finally, there is a brief review of previous modeling efforts of the European natural gas industry. (author)

  5. On modelling the market for natural gas

    Several features may separately or in combination influence conduct and performance of an industry, e.g. the numbers of sellers or buyers, the degree of economies of scale in production and distribution, the temporal and spatial dimensions, etc. Our main focus is on how to model market power. In particular, we demonstrate the rather different solutions obtained from the price-taking behavior versus the oligopolistic Coumot behavior. We also consider two approaches to model the transportation of natural gas. Finally, there is a brief review of previous modeling efforts of the European natural gas industry. (author)

  6. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  7. Building alliances for natural gas development

    NOVA Corporation of Alberta is a widely held company operating internationally from headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. NOVA adds value to energy through producing, marketing and transporting natural gas and upgrading natural gas and other hydrocarbons into chemicals and plastics. In 1992, NOVA generated $3 billion in revenue and $164 million in net income. Assets at the end of 1992 totalled $6.2 billion. Shares trade on the Toronto, Montreal, Alberta, New york and London stock exchanges, and on Swiss stock exchanges in Geneva, Zurich and Basle. Worldwide, NOVA employs over 6000 people

  8. Natural gas utilization study : offshore Newfoundland

    A study was conducted to quantify the natural gas resources of Newfoundland and to identify production and transportation options. The objective was to create a development strategy for natural gas which is growing in global importance as an energy source and as a feedstock for the downstream industry. The growth is driven by general economic expansion and the fact that natural gas is far less polluting than its main fossil fuel alternatives of oil and coal. New use is dominated by the power generation sector. The natural gas industry is also evolving rapidly as new reserves are established and pipelines are being constructed. Proven world reserves of natural gas now stand in excess of 5000 Tcf, 70 per cent of which is in the Russian Federation (CIS) and Middle East regions. Production and consumption, however, is dominated by the industrialized countries of North America and western Europe. This difference between markets and reserves has major implications including the need to develop cost effective long-distance transportation technologies and delivery systems or to relocate downstream industries closer to the reserves. In Newfoundland, the estimated reserves total 61.9 Tcf, including 8.2 Tcf of discovered reserves and 53.7 Tcf of undiscovered reserves. Of the discovered reserves, 4.2 Tcf is on the Labrador Shelf and 4.0 Tcf is in the the Jeanne d'Arc Basin on the Grand Banks. The Hibernia development could play a major role in the development of the natural gas resources of fields within a radius of 50 km around the platform. The general conclusion from the first phase of this study is that Newfoundland's natural gas resources are valuable and potentially capable of supporting significant industrial activities. The undiscovered potential holds significant promise for both the Newfoundland offshore and onshore areas. Phase Two of the study will deal with the development and implementation of a Strategic Plan for Newfoundland's natural gas resources. A series of

  9. Natural gas from extraction to consumption

    The steps followed by the natural gas considered since its very source of production until it reaches the consumer, either as raw material or energetic, has not been well understood by people dealing with it. The present paper lead us to a clearer understanding of this activity, let us better evaluate a more realistic approach of either the producer's or the consumer's roles, bringing benefits to both sides and making possible a larger participation of natural gas in the energetic context of our country. (author)

  10. Market screening of natural gas reformers

    This report presents results from the project: Market screening of natural gas reformers. The project objective was to screen the natural gas reformers available on the international market. The technology is developing rapidly, and the results from this project will assist in determining the focus for the future Danish activities and in setting up ambitious and realistic targets. The reformer screening is partly based on AAU and Dantherm's experiences from previous studies, and the screening has been further extended with a number of activities, including seminars and contact with some of the most interesting suppliers. (BA)

  11. Determination of radon in natural gas pipelines

    The aim of this study was to develop the methodology for collection and analysis of radon from a natural gas pipeline. Activated charcoal was used as collection media. Two methods were designed for collecting radon gas samples from onshore and offshore production sites. For onshore sites a continuous gas sampling method from the pipeline was developed. In case of offshore sites, a batch sampling method was designed. Gamma spectroscopy was utilized to determine the concentration of radon by analysis of radon daughters on the charcoal. (author)

  12. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas

    Jarvie Daniel; Mango Frank D; Herriman Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at ther...

  13. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  14. Reform Trend of China Natural Gas Price Policy

    Du Wei; Liu Xinping

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas price policy reform lags behind refined oil price reform comparatively, and current natural gas price policy could not adapt to the new situation of large scale import of foreign natural gas. Natural gas price reform could refer to the reform mode of refined oil price.

  15. Some economic aspects of the European natural gas market

    The thesis consists of five papers with following titles: Optimal utilization of natural gas. Computation of the resource rent for Norwegian natural gas; The relationship between the price of natural gas and crude oil - some aspects of efficient contracts; Bargaining and international trade - the case of Norwegian natural gas; On bilateral monopoly - a Nash-Wicksell Approach; Bertrand games and duopoly

  16. 77 FR 69781 - Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency

    2012-11-21

    ... Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, Order No. 720, 73 FR 73494 (Dec. 2...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 152 Enhanced Natural Gas Market... regulations under the natural gas market transparency provisions of section 23 of the Natural Gas Act...

  17. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  18. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply

  19. Progress in studies of natural gas conversion in China

    Yu Changchun; Shen Shikong

    2008-01-01

    Progress in natural gas conversion in China is presented in this paper, including processes of natural gas to synthesis gas (syngas), syngas to liquid hydrocarbons, oxygenates synthesis, methanol to olefins (MTO), methane to aromatics and oxidative coupling of methane (OCM).

  20. The Bolivian natural gas crisis and the future of natural gas industry in Brazil; Crise do gas boliviano e o futuro da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Almeida, Edmar de

    2007-07-01

    The recent Bolivian natural crisis exhibits the worst scenery for the Brazilian natural gas industry. The government and PETROBRAS strategies for guaranteeing the gas supply undoubtedly failed. Independent of the discussion on the existence of other possible strategies, today the distributors and the consumers does not know how the PETROBRAS and government will guarantee the supply for the years to come. An also the agents do not know which will be the gas price in the future, as both the Bolivia but also the Natural Gas Industry in Brazil alternatives will be highly expensive.

  1. Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services

    The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation's largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses

  2. Natural gas annual 1992. Volume 2

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies.

  3. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  4. NGTC`s natural gas heat pumps

    Binet, M. [Natural Gas Technologies Centre, Boucherville, PQ (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    An overview of natural gas heat pumps and cooling systems evaluation projects carried out by the Natural Gas Technologies Centre (NGTC) in Boucherville, Quebec, was presented. Technological description of three natural gas engine-driven technologies were provided, as well as the results of laboratory and field tests. The residential sector was covered by the 3-ton York Triathlon heat pump, the commercial sector by the 10-ton Trico natural gas engine-driven condensing unit, and the institutional sector by 25-ton Carrier engine-driven rooftops. The York Triathlon heat pump showed a good performance at the given conditions, with an average COP of 1.29 in cooling mode and of 1.03 in heating mode. The Trico unit was fully instrumented at NGTC; performance testing will be carried out later in 1996. The Carrier rooftops showed performance levels below those of the manufacturer`s suggested characteristics, although user satisfaction with the comfort provided by the units was high. 7 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000

  6. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    2010-08-31

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval... Safety Administration (PHMSA) issues federal safety standards for siting liquefied natural gas (LNG...) NFPA 59A: Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas. That...

  7. Natural gas retailing: writing the last chapter of natural gas deregulation

    Under the Agreement on Natural Gas Markets and Prices of October 1985, the Canadian federal government agreed to deregulate the price of natural gas and to allow a competitive gas market to develop. Several beneficial changes that have occurred as a result of the deregulation were described, including the Industrial Gas Users Association's (IGUA) view on the marketing and sale of natural gas by local gas distributor's (LDC) and the sale within the LDC franchise. IGUA's support for the separation between LDC distribution and LDC sales and marketing activities as the last step in deregulation process, was explained. Several arguments for the opposing view were also discussed. Recommendations were made for effective separation of LDC distribution and LDC sales/marketing activities

  8. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  9. Normalization of natural gas composition data measured by gas chromatography

    The composition of natural gas determined by gas chromatography is routinely used as the basis for calculating physico-chemical properties of the gas. Since the data measured by gas chromatography have particular statistical properties, the methods used to determine the composition can make use of a priori assumptions about the statistical model for the data. We discuss a generalized approach to determining the composition, and show that there are particular statistical models for the data for which the generalized approach reduces to the widely used method of post-normalization. We also show that the post-normalization approach provides reasonable estimates of the composition for cases where it cannot be shown to arise rigorously from the statistical structure of the data

  10. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  11. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  12. C.I.S. natural gas-1

    This paper reports that in the countries that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.), with their vast resources and a considerable existing production base, prospects are good for further growth of the region's exportable gas surplus. Investment fundamentals are stronger for gas than for any other energy resources in the area. But the pipeline infrastructure to move large amounts of gas will need extensive refurbishment to ensure export reliability and growth. Given the potential in terms of production and markets, significant amounts of outside investment in oil, natural gas, and NGL infrastructure will likely increase dramatically in these countries in the near future. These are some of the major conclusions of Enron Corp.'s recent investigations in the C.I.S. and other former Soviet republics

  13. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. What Drives Natural Gas Consumption in Europe? Analysis and Projections

    Özge Dilaver; Zafer Dilaver; Hunt, Lester C.

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas is an important fuel source for Europe and it is expected to remain so in the near future. The market power of suppliers is an important structural element of the European natural gas market and long-term investment and contracts necessitate reliable projections of natural gas demand. This research attempts to address this need. It investigates the impact of income, real natural gas prices and the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) on OECD-Europe natural gas consumption by appl...

  15. Natural gas in the World 2014

    This document summarizes the key findings of the 160-page 2014 edition of CEDIGAZ's flagship survey 'Natural Gas in the World': Worldwide proved natural gas reserves grew by 0.5% (981 bcm) in 2013. On January 1, 2014, reserves were estimated by Cedigaz to stand at 200,576 bcm, compared to 199,595 bcm for the previous year. Out of the seven regions in our regional breakdown, only North America and the C.I.S. have seen an increase in their reserves base in 2013. The strongest gain, both in absolute terms (+739 bcm) and as a percentage (+6.8%), was recorded in North America, reflecting the growth of unconventional gas reserves, both in the U.S. and Canada. The C.I.S. also posted a solid 669 bcm increase, representing a 1% rise. OPEC countries control about half of the world's gas reserves (47%) whereas C.I.S. countries account for almost one-third (33%). Proved unconventional gas reserves are concentrated in North America, especially in the U.S., which held in particular 3.7 tcm of proven shale gas reserves. Outside North America, large coal bed methane (CBM) reserves also exist in Australia and China. Marketed production was up by only 1% from 2012, reaching 3394 bcm, compared to the average growth rate for the last ten years (2.5%/year). This slowdown is partly explained by growing coal-togas competition on the demand side and a gas supply shortfall on the supply side, especially in emerging markets, where the lack of upstream investment is acute. The highest production increases were recorded in the Middle East (+3.1%) and the C.I.S. (+2.6%), which compensated for output losses in Europe (-2.3%) and Africa (-6.6%). In 2013, the two leading regional producing markets, North America and the C.I.S., accounted for 26% and 24% of global production respectively, followed by the Middle East (17%) and Asia Oceania (15%). In 2013, growth in unconventional gas production was driven by North America, China and Australia. North America no longer accounts

  16. Natural gas Market perspectives for Mediterranean Countries

    The share of natural gas in the total energy consumption of the Mediterranean basin is still relatively low at about 18% of the total energy budget, compared with the world's 20%. In fact, though, this average figure hides very large disparities. The total production for the whole basin cam to 93.4 billion cubic meters in 1990, while consumption reached 134.7 billion. So it can be seen that the Mediterranean basin still runs an overall production deficit, covering only 69% of its own consumption requirements with its marketed production in 1990. Gas strategies are evolving rapidly, both in the exporting and importing countries of the region. In the importing countries, the policy is relatively simple, the aim being to procure their supplies at lowest cost and under the best safety conditions. In the exporting countries, though, the search for long-term stability of receipts is being seen more and more as an adjunct to the policy of increasing the volume of trade and improving the internal value of their gas resources, in a context of a narrower range of choices and very acute economic constraints in the short and medium terms. An inventory of gas requirements in the larger countries of the Mediterranean shows how large the natural gas market growth potential is. Our analysis of existing and firmly committed gas transport infrastructure projects (LNG lines, gas pipelines) shows that the current decade may be marked by unprecedented development of gas transfers among Mediterranean countries. Not all of the cooperation opportunities may be seized, however, because of the financing bottleneck. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  18. Status and Development of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Wu Kangyu; Ma An

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently, the world's proven reserves of natural gas are increasing and are likely to exceed those of oil within the future one or two decades.Natural gas has efficient and clean-burning characteristics. Many countries attach importance to the natural gas utilization. Now China is the fifth largest oil producing country and produced 147 million tons of crude oil in 1994. As natural gas once was regarded as a useless by-product of oil production, so the output of natural gas is low in comparison with that of crude oil. China is now the twentifourth natural gas producing country based on gas output and produced 16. 67 billion cubic meters natural gas in 1994. Natural gas consumption occupies only two percent of total energy consumption in China. With the growth of economy and improvement of exploration and development technologies,it is sure that the output and utilization of natural gas will develop greatly before 2000 in China.

  19. Natural Gas Liberalisation and Deregulation - The German Gas Industry's View

    In Europe, the process of creating a single energy market is under way. The 1998 Gas Directive established an important date for the European gas industry. On 10 August 1998, ''Directive 98/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas'' came into force. It had to be transposed into national law by the EU member states within two years, i.e. by 10 August 2000. The Directive is a cornerstone in establishing a competitive gas market in the European Union. It is the outcome of several years of negotiations and can be regarded as a compromise between the various interests. On the whole, it leaves EU member states with sufficient scope for adequately taking account of national characteristics in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity. The process of transposing the Gas Directive into the national law of individual EU member states is being closely followed by the European Commission. While acknowledging all the progress made in the single market process, the Commission still detects shortcomings in the implementation of the Gas Directive on the road to an actual single market. This is seen as a justification for new initiatives and intervention, even though the new political framework for the gas industry has not yet been tested in practice and been able to prove itself on a broad scale for any length of time. In the debate on liberalisation, tried-and-tested instruments of secure and market-oriented gas supply on the European continent long-term supply contracts with take-or-pay clauses and competitive oil-indexed gas prices have also come under scrutiny. However, even under the conditions of liberalisation, security of supply has to be achieved mainly by a balanced mix of supply sources and by long-term supply contracts, including competitive pricing as ensured by so-called oil indexing. In the further liberalisation of west European gas industries, it will be essential to ensure

  20. The natural gas industry in Portugal

    This article makes a synthesis of the evolution of the natural gas sector in Portugal since the end of the 1990's. The aim of the energy policy of Portugal was the creation of a liberalized energy market capable to ensure the security of the energy supplies and to encourage the energy efficiency in order to reduce the environmental impact. The success of the introduction of natural gas in Portugal perfectly fulfills these goals. Since 1997, the natural gas consumption has increased significantly. The start-up of the methane terminal of Sines allows the diversification of the supply sources and contributes to the growth of the offer. The opening of the market is under development. It will allow the main consumers to select their supplier among those present on the Portuguese market. GALP company should keep its leader position and its daughter company 'Gas du Portugal' should reach 300 MW of power generation capacities by 2005 with the development of multi-energy services. The creation of an Iberian energy market between Spain and Portugal should speed up in 2004 leading to deep modifications in the energy sector of southern Europe. (J.S.)

  1. Supply ships powered by liquid natural gas

    The Norwegian Government has signed an agreement with three Norwegian companies to build two new supply ships that will use cooled liquid natural gas as a fuel (LNG). The new ships will supply the offshore installations in the North Sea. The greatest advantage for the environment is the fact that the emission of nitrogen oxides is reduced by 85 per cent compared to conventional diesel power. The emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 20 to 30 per cent. For Norway to be able to fulfil its international environmental commitments the authorities must make it possible for all coastal traffic to use natural gas for fuel in the future. The cost of reducing the NOx emissions directly by using the new gas-powered ships is several times smaller than the cost of obtaining the same reduction on the land bases. If all the Norwegian coastal traffic converted from diesel to natural gas, this would have fulfilled 70 per cent of the country's commitment according to the Gothenburg Protocol

  2. Rapidly Estimating Natural Gas Compressibility Factor

    Alireza Bahadori; Saeid Mokhatab; Brian F. Towler

    2007-01-01

    Natural gases containing sour components exhibit different gas compressibility factor (Z) behavior than do sweet gases. Therefore, a new accurate method should be developed to account for these differences. Several methods are available today for calculating the Z-factor from an equation of state. However, these equations are more complex than the foregoing correlations, involving a large number of parameters, which require more complicated and longer computations. The aim of this study is to develop a simplified calculation method for a rapid estimating Z-factor for sour natural gases containing as much as 90% total acid gas. In this article, two new correlations are first presented for calculating the pseudo-critical pressure and temperature of the gas mixture as a function of the gas specific gravity. Then, a simple correlation on the basis of the standard gas compressibility factor chart is introduced for a quick estimation of sweet gases' compressibility factor as a function of reduced pressure and temperature. Finally, a new corrective term related to the mole fractions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide is developed.

  3. US natural gas: reformation or regression?

    The future of the natural gas industry in the USA is discussed. After a period of difficulty and change, growth of about 40% is expected (according to the US government's Energy Information Administration (EIA)) over the next 10-15 years, although this may not be achievable in view of the strong competition and the stringent environmental regulation. Oil prices will be a significant factor, as will yet another mild winter. The paper discusses reserves, imports and exports, gas prices, demand and competition. (UK)

  4. Natural gas: modernization of brazilian energy matrix; Gas natural: modernizacao da matriz energetica brasileira

    Alonso, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2001-01-01

    This paper suggest innovator strategies considering the identified development opportunities for the energetic and industrial sector in the government program that can be able to be stimulated by the use of natural gas.

  5. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    Reinstein, David; Benítez, Daniel A. Benítez; Todd M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  6. Ambitious Blueprint of CNPC for Natural Gas Distribution Business

    2008-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),China's leading company in natural gas production and transportation, has made ambitious plans to increase its portfolio in the urban natural gas distribution sector. The company will use its dominance in the upstream business,which is gas production and supplies, to further develop its gas retail operation and accelerate construction of gas pipeline network nationwide.

  7. Green gas. Gas of natural gas quality from biomass. Update of the 2004 study

    In 2004 a study was published on green gas. Green gas is defined as a gaseous energy carrier from renewable biomass with a similar quality as natural gas. As a result of new developments in the field of co-digestion/fermentation the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs asked it's agency SenterNovem to update the 2004 study. The aim of the update is (1) to gain insight into operational aspects of green gas projects, e.g. reliability, efficiency and maintenance aspects; (2) stimulate the production of green gas, taking into account the economics of green gas projects, calculation of the financial gap of green gas production, efficient use of biogas (conversion to electricity or directly input into the natural gas distribution systems, and aspects with regard to commercialization and the market; and (3) the potential of green gas

  8. Gas as a growth factor for the emerging economies: Natural gas resources Worldwide. Gas: alternative fuels

    All the qualities of gas - available, affordable, efficient, acceptable and reliable - make this energy a cornerstone both for the development of emerging countries and for new economic activities. Another advantage is that gas is available everywhere in a gaseous and/or liquid form, according to the particular infrastructure (gas pipeline, gas tankers). Moreover, gas can be consumed in different sectors - residential, commercial or industrial - and for different uses - electricity generation or clean fuel for transportation. A first part of this paper presents the natural gas resources Worldwide (Cedigaz data) while a second part reviews the development around the world of the use of gas - liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas - as alternative fuels

  9. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  10. SCADA Architecture for Natural Gas plant

    Turc Traian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Natural Gas Plant SCADA architecture. The main purpose of SCADA system is remote monitoring and controlling of any industrial plant. The SCADA hardware architecture is based on multi-dropping system allowing connecting a large number of different fiels devices. The SCADA Server gathers data from gas plant and stores data to a MtSQL database. The SCADA server is connected to other SCADA client application offers a intuitive and user-friendly HMI. The main benefit of using SCADA is real time displaying of gas plant state. The main contriobution of the authors consists in designing SCADA architecture based on multi-dropping system and Human Machine Interface.

  11. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  12. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society.

  13. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  14. Measuring the quantities of natural gas in energy units

    For natural gas metered on wholesale market the conversion of volumes measured under working conditions to standard conditions is compulsory. The exactness class of measurement means must be better or at least equal to the one specified by applicable norms to each measurement mean and represents the minimal contractual condition. Measurement means used to natural gas metering on wholesale market must be in compliance with metrological legislation in force. The regulation establishes measurement conditions for quantities of natural gas dealt on wholesale market between companies within natural gas sector in compliance with the following contracts: - Natural gas sale-purchase for eligible consumers frame-contract; -Natural gas acquisition frame-contract; - Natural gas underground storage frame-contract; - Natural gas transport frame-contract; - Natural gas distribution frame-contract. The paper has the following content: 1. Natural gas market in Romania in the year 2004; 2. Rules regarding measurement of the quantities of natural gas; 2.1. Regulation on measuring quantities of natural gas dealt on wholesale market; 2.2. Regulation on measuring quantities of natural gas dealt for captive consumers; 2.3. Technical agreement regarding the operation of natural gas commercial transfer stations; 3. Measurement points; 4. Measurement means; 5. Conversion of natural gas volumes from flowing conditions to standard conditions; 6. Costs related to measurement uncertainties; 7. Why is the measurement in energy units necessary?; 8. What the measurement of the quantities of natural gas in energy units presumes; 9. Advantages of measurement of the quantities of natural gas in energy units ; 10. Examples of natural gas energy balances

  15. North American natural gas market outlook

    A series of graphs were used to provide an overview of the projected natural gas productive capacity for the United States in 1999. It is expected to decline by 2 to 4 per cent. This is due in part to rapid decline rates in the OCS. Additional deepwater supplies are also likely to offset declines on the shelf in 1999. The most likely scenario would be for some decline in prices for the non-heating season, but prices could be strong for the heating season. Another graph showed how power generation accounts for 20 per cent of total gas consumption in the U.S. It was noted that the future for coal generation will have a significant impact on power and natural gas markets. By September 2002, NOx will be a major challenge for many units. An even greater challenge will be the control of fine particulates for which full compliance will be mandatory by 2008. It was also illustrated that strong gas demand growth will put pressure on prices. 1 tab., 7 figs

  16. Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines

    This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

  17. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Kristýna Hádková; Viktor Tekáč; Karel Ciahotný; Zdeněk Beňo; Veronika Vrbová

    2015-01-01

    Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adju...

  18. China: Striding into the Era of Natural Gas

    Li Zhanbin; Li Chunhui

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the earliest country discovered natural gas in the ancient time in the world, the production and sales of natural gas in China started booming only in the recent years. China's natural gas production in 1949 was only 10million cubic meters. The production exceeded 10 billion cubic meters (BCM) in 1979, and reached 25.2 BCM in 1999. Despite the inspiring increase of China's natural gas production, comparing with the 24% average proportion of international natural gas in energy consumption constitution, China's gas consumption only accounts for 3% of the total energy consumption. Global average gas consumption per capita is 403 cubic meters, whereas Chinese average is only 25 cubic meters.

  19. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  20. Canadian natural gas winter 2006-07 outlook

    This paper provided an outline of the Canadian natural gas commodity market and a forecast for Canadian natural gas supply and prices for the 2007 winter heating season. Since 2001, steady demand growth and slow supply growth have contributed to higher North American natural gas commodity prices. The loss of natural gas supply due to hurricanes pushed North American natural gas commodity prices to record levels in 2005. Canadian natural gas production levels currently exceed domestic gas consumption. In 2005, Canada produced 16.5 billion cubic feet per day of marketable natural gas. Approximately 45 per cent was consumed domestically, and the remainder was exported to the United States. Despite high levels of drilling activity, production of natural gas from western Canada has flattened out since 2001. In 2006, natural gas prices in Canada declined due to the restoration of United States Gulf Coast natural gas production; the absence of any major hurricanes; and a mild winter which left abundant stocks in natural gas storage. Weather events, storage levels, and high crude oil prices are key factors that may influence natural gas markets and prices for 2007. However, short-term price forecasts have indicated that an average-sized residential household in Canada could pay up to $200 less for natural gas in the 2006-2007 heating season than in the 2005-2006 heating season. 2 figs

  1. Norway as a Major Natural Gas Exporter

    As the EU Single market is expanded and deepened, substantial economic growth is expected to take place in a number of countries. Without significant technological breakthroughs in the use of energy, this growth must be followed by demand for more energy. Few alternatives are commercially available. If renewable energy sources are not developed in a much larger scale than before, non-renewable fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) must cover most of the growth. In Europe, natural gas is ''the winner''. According to forecasts, European gas demand shall increase some 75 per cent over the next two decades. The sources for supply that shall meet this demand are limited to a few large production areas and fields, many of them at locations far from the market. Russia is and will remain the key supplier, but Norway will also be important. These two countries will dominate gas exports to Northern Europe. The author discusses challenges Norway is facing in this new period for the Norwegian gas industry

  2. World future prospects of natural gas industry and research programs on natural gas led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)

    This paper gives a general overview on future prospects of world natural gas industry till 2020. In a first part, statistical data on energy demand, natural gas resources, natural gas and liquefied natural gas production and transport, supply, trade, costs and prices are offered. In the second part, the paper describes briefly research programs led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) in several fields: exploration and underground storage, production and transport, treatment and liquefaction, gas uses. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  4. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  5. Papers of the Canadian Institute's forum on natural gas purchasing strategies : critical information for natural gas consumers in a time of diminishing natural gas supplies and higher prices

    This conference provided insight into how to prosper in an increasingly complex natural gas marketplace. The presentations from key industry players offered valuable information on natural gas purchasing strategies that are working in the current volatile price environment. Diminishing natural gas supplies in North America mean that higher prices and volatility will continue. Other market challenges stem from potential cost increases in gas transportation, unbundling of natural gas services, and the changing energy marketing environment. The main factors that will affect prices for the winter of 2004 were outlined along with risk management and the best pricing strategies for businesses. The key strategies for managing the risks associated with natural gas purchase contracts were also reviewed, along with the issue of converging natural gas and electricity markets and the impact on energy consumers. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

  7. Flex fuel polygeneration: Integrating renewable natural gas

    Kieffer, Matthew

    Flex Fuel Polygeneration (FFPG) is the use of multiple primary energy sources for the production of multiple energy carriers to achieve increased market opportunities. FFPG allows for adjustments in energy supply to meet market fluctuations and increase resiliency to contingencies such as weather disruptions, technological changes, and variations in supply of energy resources. In this study a FFPG plant is examined that uses a combination of the primary energy sources natural gas and renewable natural gas (RNG) derived from MSW and livestock manure and converts them into energy carriers of electricity and fuels through anaerobic digestion (AD), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), and gas turbine cycles. Previous techno-economic analyses of conventional energy production plants are combined to obtain equipment and operating costs, and then the 20-year NPVs of the FFPG plant designs are evaluated by static and stochastic simulations. The effects of changing operating parameters are investigated, as well as the number of anaerobic digestion plants on the 20-year NPV of the FTS and FFPG systems.

  8. World trade in liquefied natural gas

    Anderson, P. J.; Daniels, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Descriptions of LNG projects make it evident that significant activity is continuing on the development of base-load LNG projects to serve all three major gas markets: Europe, Japan, and the United States. These activities have resulted in the development of an international LNG trade of approximately 48.2 billion m/sup 3//y. This represents nearly one-third of the current level of pipeline import/exports of natural gas. By 1982, when all of the projects considered to be firm or under construction are implemented, LNG trade will have grown to a level of 53.7 billion m/sup 3//y. With the implementation of the probable projects by the mid-1980's, this level could increase to more than 112.55 billion m/sup 3//y. Assuming that the 102.2 billion m/sup 3//y of pipeline import/export projects currently proposed and under construction are implemented in the same period, LNG's relatively more rapid growth will have increased to 48% of the amount of natural gas traded by pipeline.

  9. Oil and natural gas industry issues

    The authors provide a quick overview of the oil and natural gas industry, explaining its significance to the energy sector. The Canadian economy is driven by energy, which greatly improves our quality of life. They represent a secure supply of energy for North America, in support of commercial, industrial and household consumers. The economic impact of upstream oil and gas, pipeline and distribution sectors was examined using a graph which provided number of jobs per sector, investment, and payments to governments. A second graph depicting energy shares by region was shown. The exports and imports of natural gas and oil for 1997 are discussed. The authors discuss some of the constraints faced by the industry in their attempt to contribute to the economy and energy supply, such as climate change policy, federal-provincial regulatory effectiveness and efficiency, access to land and resources, the innovation strategy of the country, the competitiveness of Canadian tax policy, and consumer awareness or role of industry, markets and regulation. The findings of two Ipsos-Reid surveys are discussed. The first concerns the understanding of the public and their views of the issue of climate change, while the second deals with landowners and general public on pipelines. A brief section discusses policy development principles, and the authors conclude the presentation with three questions for the Ministers. What processes need to be established to address the issues? What timelines and delivery dates can we commit to? What are the follow up steps to bring this about? figs

  10. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14C, 222Rn and 3He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222Rn to 226Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226Ra and 3H in order to allow the use of the 222Rn and 3He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Abundant Shale Gas Resources: Long-Term Implications for U.S. Natural Gas Markets

    Stephen P. A. Brown; Krupnick, Alan

    2010-01-01

    According to recent assessments, the United States has considerably more recoverable natural gas in shale formations than was previously thought. Such a development raises expectations that U.S. energy consumption will shift toward natural gas. To examine how the apparent abundance of natural gas and projected growth of its use might affect natural gas prices, production, and consumption, we use NEMS-RFF to model a number of scenarios—reflecting different perspectives on natural gas availabil...

  12. Remote sensing of leaf responses to leaking underground natural gas

    Smith, Karon Lesley

    2002-01-01

    Detection of leaking gas pipelines is important for safety, economic and environmental reasons. Remote sensing of vegetation offers the potential to identify gas leakage. The research aim was to determine the effects of elevated soil concentrations of natural gas on overlying vegetation. Pot-scale investigations were carried out to determine whether changes in spectral characteristics were specific to natural gas or were a generic response to soil-oxygen displacement. Natural gas, argon, ...

  13. [Natural gas rate design and transportation issues

    This paper is presented from an industrial user viewpoint with regards to natural gas distribution and pricing. The author reviews the problems with rate structures at local distributing companies and gas utility companies which resort to charging high prices to industrial users while subsidizing residential users. He goes on then to discuss the lack of innovation amount LDCs to meet the needs of the industrial sector. Secondly it analyses the regulation and price structure of the pipeline industry which drastically affects all gas prices. The paper specifically discusses 'equivalent margin rates' which are being used by many states to control transportation rates. The author feels that these margin rates are inappropriate in that it transfers much of the LDC's exploration and development costs to the pipeline company which transfers it on to the consumer. He feels that the transportation rates should exclude all costs that are clearly not incurred by an LDC to provide transportation service. The paper concludes with recommendations to regulators regarding the need for regulatory reform of deregulation of the gas industry with regards to profit-taking and the transportation industry with regards to developing capacity assignment programs

  14. Regulatory issues of natural gas distribution; Aspectos regulatorios acerca da distribuicao de gas natural

    Leite, Fabio Augusto C.C.M.; Costa, Hirdan Katarina de M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    In these past few years, natural gas in Brazil has arised as one of the alternatives for the energetic crisis suffered by the country. Such situation was one of the motives for its expansion, rising, after that, the importance of the regulation of its distribution. The regulation of canalized natural gas distribution can be found in the Federal Constitution, after Constitutional Amendment n. 05/95, in the article n. 25, para. 2nd, which say that belongs to the Federal States the concession or direct exercise of canalized natural gas services, now clearly classified as a public service. In order of these events, its imperative the analysis of natural gas distribution's public service, because it belongs to the Federal States. According to this situation, the study of the new regulatory function of the Administration and the tracing of action for the regulatory state agencies are the main goals of this work. As so, the present research aims to focus the reflexes from the actual dimension of natural gas distribution, specially referring to its regulatory statements, the limitations of state agencies, the National Petroleum Agency and the market where distribution belongs, and particularly the open access of new agents. (author)

  15. Synthetic Natural Gas. Large-scale introduction of green natural gas in existing gas grids

    Attention is paid to definitions, SNG production technology, motivation for green gas, potential and application, green gas and SNG implementation, availability and import of biomass, the economy of SNG production, and the SNG development trajectory

  16. Practical Results of Forecasting for the Natural Gas Market

    Potocnik, Primoz; Govekar, Edvard

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas consumption forecasting is required to balance the supply and consumption of natural gas. Companies and natural gas distributors are motivated to forecast their consumption by the economic incentive model that dictates the cash flow rules corresponding to the forecasting accuracy. The rules are quite challenging but enable the company to gain positive cash flow by forecasting accurately their short-term natural gas consumption. In this chapter, some practical forecasting results f...

  17. A Review of Turkish Natural Gas Distribution Market

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, natural gas consumption started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters) in 1987 and reached approximately 35 bcm in 2007. Turkish natural gas usage is projected to further increase remarkably in coming years. In 2001, a reform process was started to create and strengthen a competitive natural gas market. However, the reform has not worked out as expected so far. The present article discusses the application of auctions in Turkish natural gas distribution zones. After presenting a short s...

  18. Numerical Monitoring of Natural Gas Distribution Discrepancy Using CFD Simulator

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a new method for numerical monitoring of discrepancies in natural gas supply to consumers, who receive gas from gas distribution loops. This method serves to resolve the vital problem of commercial natural gas accounting under the conditions of deficient field measurements of gas supply volumes. Numerical monitoring makes it possible to obtain computational estimates of actual gas deliveries over given time spans and to estimate their difference from corresponding values r...

  19. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  20. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  1. Key numbered-data of the French natural gas industry

    The third edition of this folder contains the numbered data relative to the activity of the French natural gas industry in 1998 according to the information available in June 15, 1999. Consumption, sales and supplies data are presented for both natural gas and LPG fuel together with a map of the French natural gas transportation network. (J.S.)

  2. 76 FR 18213 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    2011-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 23, 2011, Corning Natural Gas Corporation submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978...

  3. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural...

  4. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an...

  5. NATURAL GAS STORAGE ROLE IN ENERGY SAFETY ASSURANCE IN POLAND

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2008-01-01

    : In the paper author considers possibility of natural gas storage in natural underground stores in large scale. The author presents natural gas stores in Poland with their technical and economical features and chances of their extension. He also presents influence of large scale gas storage on energy safety assurance.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  7. 75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. On October 14, 2010, Liberty Natural Gas, LLC (Liberty) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7 of the Natural Gas Act and section 157 of the...

  8. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM)...

  9. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase...

  10. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the...

  11. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  12. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  13. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  14. Natural gas and oil technology partnership support

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Natural Gas and Oil Technology Partnership expedites development and transfer of advanced technologies through technical interactions and collaborations between the national laboratories and the petroleum industry - majors, independents, service companies, and universities. The Partnership combines the expertise, equipment, facilities, and technologies of the Department of Energy`s national laboratories with those of the US petroleum industry. The laboratories utilize unique capabilities developed through energy and defense R&D including electronics, instrumentation, materials, computer hardware and software, engineering, systems analysis, physics, and expert systems. Industry contributes specialized knowledge and resources and prioritizes Partnership activities.

  15. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  16. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  17. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  18. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  19. Natural gas: energy, environment, development and externalities; Gas natural: energia, meio-ambiente, desenvolvimento e externalidades

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Natural gas is a major source of non-renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix, and the noticeable increase in demand for this energy. This can be checked with the expansion of investments in Brazil and in the state of Bahia for the various sectors. The environmental benefits of natural gas highlight the advantages of using this input to the other fossil fuels. This paper discusses the availability of natural gas in Brazil and how it occurs its participation in the national energy matrix. This issue of the vulnerability of the market by the conflict between the growing demand from various industries and the need for order of thermal. It indicates scenarios and future prospects, and limiting factors for their growth. (author)

  20. Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas

    Dando, P. R.; Hovland, M.

    1992-10-01

    It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent. Under suitable temperature-pressure conditions gas hydrates may be formed close to or at the seabed Black suphide-rich sediments and mats of sulphur oxidizing bacteria are frequently observed close to the sediments surface at seep sites, including a sharp oxic/anoxic boundary. Animal species associated with these gas seeps include both species which obtain nutrition from symbiotic methane-oxidizing bacteria and species with symbolic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. It is suspected that at some microseepage an enhanced biomass of meiofauna and macrofauna is supported by a food chain based on free-living and symbiotic sulphur-oxidizing and methane-oxidizing bacteria. The most common seep-related features of sea floor topography are local depressions including pockmark craters. Winnowing of the sediment during their creation leads to an accumulation of larger detritis in the depressions. Where the deprssions overlies salt diapirs they may be filled with hypersaline solutions. In some areas dome-shaped features are associated with seepage and these may be colonized by coral reefs. Other reefs, "hard-grounds", columnar and disc-shaped protrusions, all formed of carbonate-cemented sediments, are common on the sea floor in seep areas. Much of the carbonate appears to be derived from carbon dioxide formed as a result of methane oxidation. The resulting hard-bottoms on the sea floor are often colonized by species not found on the neighboring soft-bottoms. As a result seep areas may be characterized by the presence of a rich epifauna.

  1. Recompression of natural gas during pipeline repair

    Rotink, M.H.; Koppens, B.G. [N. V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Gasunie is working to minimize the company's emission of greenhouse gases and set up a so-called (carbon) footprint reduction programme. Recompression of natural gas is a part of that programme, being the better alternative for flaring or venting when a pipeline must be emptied. To fully utilize the recompression concept, a unique recompression unit was designed to make recompression as easy as possible, what was considered to be of vital importance for successful implementation. The unit came into operation in 2006 and Gasunie has integrated recompression in its regular workflow. 30 gas evacuation jobs have since been done with recompression which resulted in a recompressed volume of 13.3 million m{sup 3}(n). This volume represents 238,000 t of CO{sub 2}-equivalents that are prevented of flowing into the atmosphere and a revenue of 3.7 million Euro from the gas that is saved from beingwasted by flaring or venting. The revenue is based on a commodity price of 0.28 Euro/m{sup 3}. The unit did cost 1.5 million Euro, so the return on investment is obvious. If all gas evacuation jobs are considered, there is still some recompression potential left. A limiting factor of recompression is the time it takes. In some cases the time to recompress exceeds the allowable down time of the pipeline. Therefore a second unit is delivered to Gasunie in 2010. With this extra capacity more gas can be recompressed. Gasunie has put in serious effort to get the recompression concept working in all its aspects and is therefore very pleased with the results so far. This is underlined by the fact that a second unit is bought. With recompression Gasunie has found a way to reduce greenhouse emissions in a cost effective way, or even better, in a cost saving way.

  2. North American natural gas pipeline and supply update

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which presented an update of North American natural gas supply. Some of the graphs depicted the following: (1) natural gas consumption in the United States, (2) U.S. imports of Canadian natural gas, (3) natural gas prices differential: Henry Hub versus Empress, (4) natural gas production in the U.S., and (5) Baker Hughes active rig count, U.S. gas rigs. First Energy's view of U.S. natural gas supply is that the estimate of 50.0 Bcf/d for U.S. domestic production is looking too high. The first quarter 1999 exit production rates are behind expectations. U.S. domestic natural gas expenditure budgets are still down by more than 40 per cent compared to 1998 levels. The impact that this will have on prices was discussed. 21 figs

  3. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  4. Natural gas market assessment. Canadian natural gas market mechanisms: Recent experiences and developments

    The increase in natural gas demand and the associated expansions of most of the pipeline systems serving western Canada have reduced the excess deliverability or excess productive capacity that existed at the time of deregulation of the natural gas industry in 1985. Based on an industry survey, the responses of natural gas buyers and sellers to recent supply difficulties are described. Specific production, transportation, and contractual difficulties were encountered in winter 1992/93 as production was stretched to meet record levels of demand during periods of very cold temperatures and as short-term spot prices reached very high levels. Problems at this time included wellhead freezeups, pipeline outages, and inadequate contract terms and conditions. Methods used to maintain gas flows to end users are reviewed, including a discussion of force majeure, spot gas purchases, storage, supply curtailment, and special loan arrangements. In 1992/93, in most instances where the responsibility fell on the end-user to solve the supply problem, the difficulty was shifted to local distribution companies who have traditionally had more experience with such situations. No cases were identified where either a firm or interruptible end-user was forced to curtail gas consumption because of inadequate supply. New market mechanisms are emerging that will enable buyers and sellers of western Canadian gas to avoid many of the problems encountered in 1992/93. These include prearranged backstopping arrangements, short-term spot markets, access to other gas basins, standardized gas contracts, electronic trading, and price risk management tools. 11 figs

  5. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  6. Regional Cooperation Towards Trans-country Natural Gas Market

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2009-01-01

    India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose ...

  7. Tariffs for natural gas, electricity and cogeneration

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs

  8. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  9. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  10. Reformed natural gas. Appendix; Reformeret naturgas. Appendiks

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

  11. Field tests and commercialization of natural gas leak detectors

    Choi, D.S.; Jeon, J.S.; Kim, K.D.; Cho, Y.A. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives - (1) fields test of industrial gas leak detection monitoring system. (2) commericialization of residential gas leak detector. Contents - (1) five sets of gas leak detection monitoring system were installed at natural gas transmition facilities and tested long term stability and their performance. (2) improved residential gas leak detector was commercialised. Expected benefits and application fields - (1) contribution to the improvement of domestic gas sensor technology. (2) localization of fabrication technology for gas leak detectors. 23 refs., 126 figs., 37 tabs.

  12. The efficiency of natural gas futures markets

    Recent experience with the emergence of futures markets for natural gas has led to many questions about the drivers and functioning of these markets. Most often, however, studies lack strong statistical support. The objective of this article is to use some classical statistical tests to check whether futures markets for natural gas (NG) are efficient or not. The problem of NG market efficiency is closely linked to the debate on the value of NG. More precisely, if futures markets were really efficient, then: 1) spot prices would reflect the existence of a market assessment, which is proof that speculation and the manipulation of prices are absent; 2) as a consequence, spot prices could give clear signals about the value of NG; and 3) historical series on spot prices could serve as ''clean'' benchmarks in the pricing of NG in long-term contracts. On the whole, since the major share of NG is sold to power producers, the efficiency of futures markets implies that spot prices for NG are driven increasingly by power prices. On the other hand, if futures markets for natural gas fail the efficiency tests, this will reflect: 1) a lack of liquidity in futures markets and/or possibilities of an excess return in the short term; 2) a pass-through of the seasonality of power demand in the gas market; 3) the existence of a transitory process, before spot markets become efficient and give clear signals about the value of NG. Using monthly data on three segments of the futures markets, our findings show that efficiency is almost completely rejected on both the International Petroleum Exchange in London (UK market) and the New York Mercantile Exchange (US market). On the NYMEX, the principle of ''co-movement'' between spot and forward prices seems to be respected. However, the autocorrelation functions of the first differences in the price changes show no randomness of price fluctuations for three segments out of four. Further, both the NYMEX and the IPE fail, with regard to the

  13. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    2013-04-10

    ... Irving Oil Commercial Order granting blanket GP. authority to export natural gas to Canada. 3214 01/02/13... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed.... INC 12-113-LNG MAIN PASS ENERGY HUB, LLC 12-114-LNG IRVING OIL COMMERCIAL GP 12-164-NG XPRESS...

  14. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  15. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of “cooling down” liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  16. Natural Gas Versus Nuclear New Build Versus Life Extension

    Proven natural gas reserves and production in the USA have continued to increase in recent years. This is due to the exploration of shale formations and the expanded use of hydraulic fracking technology. Looking forward, we can expect that high crude oil prices will sustain natural gas production at current levels (approximately 25% of natural gas production in the USA is a by-product of crude oil drilling), and the natural gas liquid cuts are priced with crude oil. Continued drilling in the near term for natural gas is required by lease obligations and by commitments to investors

  17. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  18. Does increased extraction of natural gas reduce carbon emissions?

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C

    2003-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more “clean” natural gas may drive out “dirty” coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is use...

  19. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  20. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with the presence of Anopheles arabiensis immatures and their abundance in naturally occurring and man-made aquatic habitats

    Gouagna Louis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. Methods In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Results Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3–0.7] was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5–0.8]. Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. Conclusions If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex

  1. Natural gas participation on brazilian demand supply of liquefied petroleum gas

    Natural Gas Liquids Production, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) among them, has undergone a continuous growth and technological development until the first half of the eighties. This paper presents the natural gas processing activity development in Brazil, in the last 20 years, and the increasing share of LPG produced from natural gas in the supply of LPG domestic market. Possibilities of achieving greater shares are discussed, based on economics of natural gas processing projects. Worldwide gas processing installed capacity and LPG pricing tendencies, and their influence in the construction of new Natural Gas Processing Units in Brazil, are also discussed. (author)

  2. Sustainability and energy security : the squeeze on natural gas

    This paper outlines the impact of environmental policy on natural gas demand and describes alternative energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass and clean coal that can increase energy supplies. This briefing also establishes the short-, medium-, and long-term consequences of current natural gas realities. It also outlines the driving forces in Canada and the United States behind the demand for natural gas. The impact of policy formation and the phase-out of coal in Ontario are addressed along with natural gas supply prospects and the prospects and obstacles for riskier incremental supplies such as liquefied natural gas, natural gas from coal, and frontier natural gas. It was concluded that strong demand and tight supply are the factors that have driven up natural gas prices. Continued high natural gas prices in the short term will likely motivate conservation strategies at the personal household level as well as in the business and industrial sectors. Although wind power is seen as a clean, competitively prices alternative to natural gas-fired electricity generation, its contribution is not expected to change the supply and demand equilibrium. Initiatives such as the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline, the Alaskan Pipeline and drilling in the Atlantic may help balance natural gas supply and demand in the mid-term. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Legislative competence relative to natural gas; Competencia legislativa atinente ao gas natural

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para Habilitacao em Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    The expansion of the gas industry in our country in the actual days, allied to the constitutional authorization for the private initiative acting in this sector provides the establishment of precise rules to the consequent market consolidation. In spite of the exigencies, one realises that the law no. 9.487/97, often denominated as Oil Law, does not rule in its fullness the specifics situations concerned to the natural gas. Despite the elaboration of the natural gas Law is a target of the governmental politics, overcoming the question pondered, there is not, until now, a detailed study of the legislative competency regimen relative to the natural gas. This very work, notably, gathers relevance in front of the State shape adopted in our country and the federative pact historically built; while aiming the complex distribution of legislative power made to each one of the political entities, there is need to establish the limits of performance to the sort of the coming gas Law, under penalty its arising with an unconstitutionality defect confronting to the federative pact. In the sense of clarifying the probably doubts around the subject and allowing that power comes closer to the people are our considerations proposed for. (author)

  4. PetroChina, Wuhan City Signs Natural Gas Supply Contract

    Wang Keyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ In mid-November 200 1, PetroChina and Wuhan City, the capital of Hubei Province, signed a contract for natural gas sales and transmission via ZhongxianWuhan pipeline to provide natural gas for the city that is the largest gas consumer of the pipeline. The contract is in line with the "take or pay" clause of the international convention on natural gas marketing.

  5. The cost of natural gas shortages in Ireland

    Leahy, Eimear; Devitt, Conor; Lyons, Seán; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic implications of disruptions of one to ninety days to the supply of natural gas in Ireland. We assess the impact of a hypothetical gas supply disruption in both winter and summer in 2008 (with observed market characteristics) and in 2020 (with projected market characteristics). The cost of a natural gas outage includes the cost of natural gas being unavailable for heating and other purposes in the industrial and commercial sectors, lost consumer surplus in ...

  6. The perspectives of the natural gas in Mexico; Las perspecivas del gas natural en Mexico

    Vazquez S, Luis [DIAVAZ S.A de C.V, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    As never before in the last year we have suffered the increases in the cost of the natural gas. For those who are not aware, the prices have gone from 2.48 dollars per million BTU a year ago to 9.57 last month. The truth is that we are facing a true world-wide energy crisis. From one year to date the prices of all the energy sources have increased an average superior to 30%, including increases in Diesel oil, LP Gas, Natural Gas, Turbine fuel. The causes are many and very varied, from efficiency decisions, as in the case of the electrical Generation that has chosen to incline definitively to the natural gas, confusing de-regulations as in the case of California, increases of demand beyond the anticipated by economic activity, changes of consumption pattern, etc.. This demonstrates the well focussed and the opportunity of this Seminar, since there is no doubt that it has become imperative a single and efficient criterium on this so limited resource. In Mexico, the situation is very similar. Recently a measurement has been implemented that tries to palliate the conjunctural effects of this crisis and PEMEX has put to the disposition of the users a contract at fixed price, for three years and by a specific amount. [Spanish] Como nunca antes en el ultimo ano hemos resentido los incrementos en el gasto del gas natural. Para quien no este al tanto los precios han pasado de 2.48 dolares por millon de BTU hace un ano a 9.57 el mes pasado. La verdad es que os estamos enfrentando a una verdadera crisis energetica mundial. De un ano para aca todos los energeticos han aumentado un promedio superior al 30%, incluyendo aumentos en Diesel, Gas LP, Gas Natural, Turbosina. Las causas son muchas y muy variadas, desde decisiones de eficiencia, como en el caso de la Generacion electrica que ha optado por inclinarse definitivamente por el gas natural, desregulaciones confusas como en el caso de California, incrementos de demanda mas alla de lo previsto por actividad economica, cambios

  7. Israel-New natural gas producer in the Mediterranean

    In 2009 and 2010, major offshore natural gas reserves were discovered near the State of Israel. This article examines Israel's newly discovered natural gas reserves and the implications of this discovery for Israel, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean region. The article will discuss Israel's energy security approach; the role of natural gas in Israel's energy consumption patterns; the organization of Israel's natural gas sector; regional political and security implications of the natural gas discoveries; the prospects for export, and the outlook for various natural gas markets. These new discoveries significantly improve Israel's energy security. They may also spur Israel to develop technologies related to utilization of natural gas in a variety of sectors, such as transportation. The discoveries may contribute to the emergence of a number of maritime border delimitation conflicts in the Eastern Mediterranean. At current volumes, the Israeli discoveries will not be a game-changer for gas markets in southern Europe or liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. However, they will lead to expanded natural gas consumption in the region. In addition, offshore exploration efforts in Israel and in neighboring countries are intensifying. Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. - Highlights: → In 2009 and 2010, major natural gas deposits were discovered offshore of Israel's port city of Haifa. → They will satisfy a large portion of Israel's domestic energy consumption needs for a number of decades. → The gas discoveries have created an opportunity to fundamentally change the country's energy policies. → Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. → Israel could become a supplier of natural gas to neighbors in the Middle East region, such as Jordan.

  8. Israel-New natural gas producer in the Mediterranean

    Shaffer, Brenda, E-mail: bshaffer@univ.haifa.ac.il [School of Political Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2011-09-15

    In 2009 and 2010, major offshore natural gas reserves were discovered near the State of Israel. This article examines Israel's newly discovered natural gas reserves and the implications of this discovery for Israel, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean region. The article will discuss Israel's energy security approach; the role of natural gas in Israel's energy consumption patterns; the organization of Israel's natural gas sector; regional political and security implications of the natural gas discoveries; the prospects for export, and the outlook for various natural gas markets. These new discoveries significantly improve Israel's energy security. They may also spur Israel to develop technologies related to utilization of natural gas in a variety of sectors, such as transportation. The discoveries may contribute to the emergence of a number of maritime border delimitation conflicts in the Eastern Mediterranean. At current volumes, the Israeli discoveries will not be a game-changer for gas markets in southern Europe or liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. However, they will lead to expanded natural gas consumption in the region. In addition, offshore exploration efforts in Israel and in neighboring countries are intensifying. Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. - Highlights: > In 2009 and 2010, major natural gas deposits were discovered offshore of Israel's port city of Haifa. > They will satisfy a large portion of Israel's domestic energy consumption needs for a number of decades. > The gas discoveries have created an opportunity to fundamentally change the country's energy policies. > Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. > Israel could become a supplier of natural gas to neighbors in the Middle East region, such as Jordan.

  9. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  10. Natural gas in Europe: Development prospects

    Today, natural gas covers 16% of primary energy demand in Europe. Consumption of this fuel is set at about 380 billion cubic meters to which we can add about 700 billion consumed in the ex-COMECON countries. Europe's consumption alone is forecasted by many to rise to 500 billion cubic meters at the turn of the century and to 600 billion by the year 2010. It is expected that the power plant sector will account for one-third of this rise in consumption. Even if domestic production of this fuel is maximized and foreign suppliers maintain their production trends, the expected demand increases in industriali--ed countries can be sufficiently satisfied only by recourse to new suppliers located in the far reaches of the globe

  11. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  12. Vulnerability of Natural Gas Supply in the Asian Gas Market

    2009-01-01

    Gas supply interruptions, increasing gas prices, transportation and distribution bottlenecks, and a growing reliance on imports over longer distances have renewed interest on gas vulnerability in Asia. Japan, Korea and Taiwan are heavily reliant on LNG imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. Countries like Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. This paper examines the relative vulnerability of eight gas-i...

  13. NewSituation of China Natural Gas Industry

    Xu Bo; Wu Jie

    2015-01-01

    China natural gas industry is at a turning point. Growth of mid-long term natural gas consumption may maintain at about 10%, supply is sufficient or even “over-sufficient”, natural gas price will be determined by competition, oil and gas pipeline facilities will be opened fairly, and private enterprises will play important roles in natural gas exploration, development, storage, transportation, and trade. It can been foreseen that China natural gas industry is very likely to take a turn in next 10 years, and a modern natural gas market with consumption about 500 billion cubic meters will come into being characterized by complete supervision system, diversified market, steady supply, fairly opened pipelines, transparent trading mechanism, and competitive prices.

  14. Liberalization of natural gas supply prices in Spain

    This paper constitutes a follow-up to the one published in this journal in 2004 (no. 562). In this update we describe the new regulations introduced in the Spanish natural gas sector and analyse the behaviour of the market since then. From this study we can deduce that the liberalization of the Spanish natural gas market has led to an oligopoly of suppliers of natural gas. As the Government has liberalized final prices of natural gas, distributors have been able to increase the margin between final prices and the average import price paid for this gas. (author)

  15. Natural Gas in the World 2012

    On 1 January 2012, proved natural gas reserves grew by 1.7% over revised reserves of 2011 and were estimated at 199.6 trillion cubic meters (bcm), according to CEDIGAZ. The Commonwealth of Independent states (CIS) made the largest contribution to this growth, essentially as a result of reserves additions/re-evaluation by Russia. The Middle East also showed a significant increase (+ 565 bcm), led by Iran and Saudi Arabia. In North America, shale gas reserves continue to post a sustained growth. Whereas 72% of oil reserves are held by OPEC members, the bulk of gas reserves are distributed between OPEC countries, with 47.6% of the world total, and in the C.I.S. with 32.4%. These two economic blocks thus share responsibility for closing the future world gas balance. World production increased significantly in 2011 to adapt to the expansion of gas demand in a large number of markets, with the exception of Europe, where demand collapsed. World gross production increased 2% in 2011 to 4127 bcm, of which 449.5 bcm was reinjected, 126.5 bcm was flared and 253 bcm was lost through shrinkage. World marketed production climbed 2.8% to reach a new record level of 3299 bcm in 2011. This growth corresponds to the average recorded in the past-ten years. The Middle East recorded the strongest production growth in volume terms (+ 44 bcm), overtaking Asia Oceania to become the third largest producing regional market. North America and the CIS bolstered their standing as the leading producing regions, accounting for 25.6% and 24.9% of global output respectively. For the second consecutive year, the large majority of the volumetric growth in gas supply was led by three countries: the US, Qatar and Russia. In addition, China and Iran improved their rankings. Production of shale gas in the US pursued an exponential growth in 2011, under the impetus of the Haynesville and Marcellus fields. Shale gas represent 30% of the country's gas output today. The interest for unconventional resources

  16. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  17. Development of Competitive Natural Gas Markets in the United States

    Juris, Andrej

    1998-01-01

    The United States has the world's largest natural gas market. Fifteen years of deregulation have delivered significant gains to consumers in the form of lower prices and more services. The experience shows that liberalizing wholesale gas prices and the bulk supply of natural gas frees market forces in segments where competition is feasible. But regulators must focus on improving the regula...

  18. China Ranks 15th for 2001 Natural Gas Production

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas output totaled 30.302 billion cubic meters in 2001, an 11 percent increase as compared with the previous year. However, China ranked 15th in the world for its natural gas production last year while Malaysia jumped to the 12th place in the ranking since the country saw a considerable increase in gas production.

  19. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  20. The natural gas ducts and the ICMS; Os dutos de gas natural e o ICMS

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Gomes, Carlos Roberto de Miranda [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36

    2005-07-01

    With the advent of the Constitutional Emendation no. 9/95 operated it the open of the industry of the oil and the natural gas for companies others that came to be contracted by the State. Ahead of the insertion of new players, the regulation of the sector was given for the Law (no. 9.478/97), as well for legal acts edited for the National Agency of the Oil - ANP. Meanwhile, the Oil norm little disciplined the industry of the natural gas that, for its peculiarities, imposes specific rules. In this context, the transport of the natural gas by means of ducts become prominent for the lack of debates on the correct form to classify them. The present work has for target to analyze the legal types instituted by the Law and for the ANP acts for the ducts, as form of if having a correct understanding of the matter. Thus, will reveal as each one of the adopted classifications can cause (or not) the incidence of the ICMS, or either, as the legal regimen of the gas-lines is correlated with the tax. (author)

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from High Demand, Natural Gas-Intensive Energy Scenarios

    D.G. Victor

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scen...

  2. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit

  3. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Kristýna Hádková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas. Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adjustment of natural gas to get LNG, a reduction of CO2 is needed. There is a danger of the carbon dioxide freezing during the gas cooling. This work deals with the testing of adsorption removal of CO2 from natural gas. The aim of these measurements was to find a suitable adsorbent for CO2 removal from natural gas. Two different types of adsorbents were tested: activated carbon and molecular sieve. The adsorption properties of the selected adsorbents were tested and compared. The breakthrough curves for CO2 for both adsorbents were measured. The conditions of the testing were estimated according to conditions at a gas regulation station — 4.0MPa pressure and 8 °C temperature. Natural gas was simulated by model gas mixture during the tests. The breakthrough volume was set as the gas volume passing through the adsorber up to the CO2 concentration of 300 ml/m3 in the exhaust gas. The thermal and pressure desorption of CO2 from saturated adsorbents were also tested after the adsorption.

  4. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural...

  5. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  6. Development of Natural Gas Chemical Engineering in China

    Yuan Qingmin

    1996-01-01

    @@ The equivalent ratio of natural gas to oil has reached 0.73:1 worldwide by 1994. The Chinese output of natural gas and oil ranks the 22nd and 5th respectively in the world's oil and gas production. The quantity equivalent ratio of gas to oil in China is only 0.11:1, which can not meet the needs of future economic development. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the discovery and expansion of natural gas reserves in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Xinjiang and Hainan Provinces and offshore area have brought about a solid foundation for the rapid development of the country's natural gas industry. It is sure that a new era of the development of China's natural gas chemical engineering is coming.

  7. Radon measurements over a natural-gas contaminated aquifer

    Radon and thoron concentrations in soil pores in a gas production region of the Anzoategui State, Venezuela, were determined by active and passive methods. In this region, water wells are contaminated by natural gas and gas leaks exist in the nearby river. Based on soil gas Radon data surface hydrocarbon seeps were identified. Radon and thoron concentration maps show anomalously high values near the river gas leaks decreasing in the direction of water wells where natural gas is also detected. The area where the highest concentrations of 222Rn were detected seems to indicate the surface projection of the aquifer contaminated with natural gas. The Radon/Thoron ratio revealed a micro-localized anomaly, indicating the area where the gas comes from deep layers of the subsoil. The radon map determined by the passive method showed a marked positive anomaly around abandoned gas wells. The high anomalous Radon concentration localized near the trails of ascending gas bubbles at the river indicates the zone trough where natural gases are ascending with greater ease, associated with a deep geological fault, being this the main source of methane penetration into the aquifer. It is suggested that the source of the natural gas may be due to leaks at deep sites along the structure of some of the abandoned wells located at the North-East of the studied area. - Highlights: ► High Radon/Thoron ratios were localized near the natural-gas emanations in a river. ► Natural gases are ascending trough a deep geological fault. ► Apparently, the radon anomaly shows the site where natural gas enters the aquifer. ► Natural gas source may be related to leaks in the structure of abandoned gas wells

  8. Forecasting the growth of Chinese natural gas consumption

    Li, Junchen; Dong, Xiucheng; Shangguan, Jianxin; Höök, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural gas in China is still relatively immature, as gas production only supplies a low percentage of the domestic energy system. In contrast, the Chinese economy mainly relies on coal with a 67% share of the total primary energy supply. The environmental impact from this high coal dependence is significant and planners have sought for cleaner energy sources. Natural gas is both cleaner and generally more efficient than coal and gas consumption is rising quickly due to these facts...

  9. Natural Gas in China: Market evolution and strategy

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, Chinas natural gas consumption increased by 23.8% and attained 69.5 billion cubic metres (bcm) (NBS 2008). Thanks to this rapid increase, China became one of the world's top 10 countries in terms of natural gas consumption. Moreover, according to the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2008, China will become the top natural gas consuming country in the Asia-Pacific region, overtaking Japan by 2015.

  10. Economic balance sheet of a natural gas vehicle fleet

    Natural gas fuels for vehicles bear an important and variable additional cost which corresponds to the cost for compression. This short paper gives a cost-benefit comparative estimation of the m3 of natural gas cost when the FUELMAKER and the CIRRUS compressors are used, respectively. A comparative economic estimation between petrol and natural gas for vehicles is given for two Renault vehicles. (J.S.)

  11. ELECROGASDYNAMIC GENERATOR-EXPANDER FOR NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIERS

    Бумагин, Г. И.; Бородин, Д. В.; Зиновьева, А. В.; Роханский, А. Е.; Рогальский, Е. И.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with various ways of obtaining liquefied natural gas (LNG) in liquefiers of different cold producing elements such as an expansion valve, a vortex tube and a turboexpander. It provides a brief analysis of their efficiency, advantages and disadvantages. The electrogasdynamic generator-expander as a cold producing element in natural gas liquefiers is proposed. Utilizing energy of compressed pipe-line natural gas should be taken into account. The circuits of the new stage and the...

  12. An Econometric Analysis of the Market for Natural Gas Futures

    W. David Walls

    1995-01-01

    This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the, market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of futures markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the, natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegration techniques. The fut...

  13. Final Environmental Impact Statement: Ferron Natural Gas Project

    United States Department of the Interior; Bureau of Land Management, Utah; USDA Forest Service; Utah Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining

    1999-01-01

    Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Chandler and Associates, LLC, and Texaco Exploration and Production, Inc. propose to develop two separate areas northeast and southwest of Price, Utah and extract natural gas. Questar Pipeline Company proposes to develop a new natural gas transmission pipeline as part of the Proposed Action. With the pipeline corridor, the Proposed Action encompasses a total of about 111 ,781 acres. The developments would involve drilling a maximum of 285 natural gas wells on F...

  14. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; James J. Winebrake; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural g...

  15. Market development in the United Kingdom's natural gas industry

    Juris, Andrej

    1998-01-01

    The author shows how, in the United Kingdom, government and industry participants have responded to challenges created by opening the natural gas industry to competition. He concludes that, as a result of cooperation between the government and industry participants, appropriate mechanisms can be established for operating and balancing system and for trading natural gas and transportation capacity. The deintegrated natural gas industry in the United Kingdom is off to a promising start after a ...

  16. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  17. New Market Order Grows out of Natural Gas New Policy

    2007-01-01

    @@ Natural gas new deal: more rationality in market The most important implication of the "Policy for the Natural Gas Utilization" is to set up an intangible "barrier" between suppliers and irrational consumers so as to check the unreasonable demand in the natural gas market and attain the purpose of "puttinq good material in the most suitable place and standardizing the market demand order with limited resources.

  18. Land based use of natural gas - distribution solutions

    The report presents results from the project ''Landbasert bruk av naturgass - distribusjonsloesninger'' (Land based use of natural gas - distribution solutions). It describes the aims of the project, the political external conditions for the use of natural gas, some environmental profits by changing from petroleum and coal to natural gas, the Norwegian infrastructure, the optimisation of energy transport, strategic consequences of the introduction of LNG and the practical consequences of the Enova strategy

  19. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This fact sheet summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  20. Driving on Natural Gas, Greening the Gasunie Fleet

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Driving on CNG is preferable to conventional fuels because of diversification of the energy mix, local availability of natural gas, the financial benefit and the transition function towards (sustain-able) biogas and emission reduction. Furthermore, the CNG technology is expected to be safer than conventional fuels, mainly because of the physical properties of natural gas. Compared to conventional fuels, driving on natural gas emits less CO2 (compared to gasoline), NOx and PM (compared to dies...

  1. Aggregate impacts of recent U.S. natural gas trends

    Arora, Vipin

    2013-01-01

    Predictions about the macroeconomic impacts of recent U.S. natural gas trends vary widely. I re-evaluate the possible effects on U.S. economic activity using a standard general equilibrium model. Within this framework I show that increases in natural gas supply result in small-to-moderate economic gains, even with unemployment or under-utilized capital. Subsequent rises in economy-wide productivity are the key to magnifying the economic impacts of greater natural gas supply and resources. ...

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  3. Comparison of three methods for natural gas dehydration

    Michal Netusil; Pavel Ditl

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares three methods for natural gas dehydration that are widely applied in industry:(1) absorption by triethylene glycol,(2)adsorption on solid desiccants and (3) condensation.A comparison is made according to their energy demand and suitability for use.The energy calculations are performed on a model where 105 Nm3/h water saturated natural gas is processed at 30 ℃.The pressure of the gas varies from 7 to 20 MPa.The required outlet concentration of water in natural gas is equivalent to the dew point temperature of - 10 ℃ at gas pressure of 4 MPa.

  4. Distribution forms for biogas and natural gas in Sweden

    Since biogas and natural gas basically have the same characteristics, they can be distributed in the same system. In the parts of the country where there is an extensive natural gas distribution network, the infrastructure for natural gas can be used for distribution of biogas. In order to increase the use of renewable energy, it is a political ambition to increase the share of biogas in the natural gas network, and, in the long run, entirely replace natural gas with biogas. Much of biogas production in the country is, however, not reached by the existing natural gas network, and this is also the case for a large part of the potential for future biogas production. In these areas the gas is transported in more or less extensive local gas distribution networks and by truck in compressed or liquid form. Transport of compressed and liquefied gas is efficient in some cases and development of these systems is an ongoing process. A number of facilities are planned for production of large quantities of biogas, several hundred GWh/year, through digestion and gasification processes. These plants will be located either in conjunction with major gas consumers or in the vicinity of the existing natural gas grid. The potential for biogas production is, however, present throughout the country and in order to meet market demand biogas requires efficient distribution systems

  5. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  6. Investments in natural gas - an empirical analysis with emphasis on the shale gas revolution

    Lorentzen, Pål Holmefjord

    2015-01-01

    The main objective in this thesis is to investigate how various factors are influencing investments in the US natural gas industry. The thesis puts a special emphasis on the “Shale Gas Revolution” that struck the US natural gas market in 2006/2007 and how it has affected investments in natural gas. The yearly growth rate in shale gas production from 2007-2013 was 31 %. The analysis is based on data from the period 1990-2013. The thesis gives an overview of the US natural gas market and its p...

  7. Elements of Market Power in the Natural Gas Pipeline Industry

    Broadman, Harry G.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of the distortions that have beset natural gas markets in the wake of partial wellhead deregulation under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA)-the most visible problem being the existence of increased prices amid a glut of deliverable supplies-concern has mounted about whether the natural gas pipeline industry will perform in a socially efficient manner in the long run when field prices are completely decontrolled. In addition to transporting natural gas from the field to the...

  8. Debunking the myths: Natural gas and SO2 allowance solutions

    During the decade of the 1990's and beyond, natural gas is expected to be the fuel of choice for a significant portion of new generation capacity. Natural gas already enjoys a greater than 50% market share as a fuel source in the non-regulated cogeneration and Independent Power Producer market. With the new administration in Washington, increased environmental focus will likely increase the attractiveness of natural gas based capacity expansions. While these various issues may appear to contribute to making this decade, the decade for natural gas, there are a number of challenges that must be met if the natural gas and power generation industries are going to satisfy the ever increasing needs of the marketplace. These challenges include: (1) myths of natural gas supply availability, (2) transportation and operational coordination issues, (3) uncertainty of price and reliability, and (4) natural gas for NOx and SO2 compliance. The author believes that these challenges are actively being met and that there are existing solutions already being offered and incorporated into contracts by natural gas suppliers. The focus of this paper is how electric utilities need to become comfortable with the new natural gas industry and how services can be structured to meet these challenges of serving the electric market requirements

  9. Natural Gas and U.S. Economic Activity

    Arora, Vipin; Lieskovsky, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical work has shown that real natural gas prices have a small to negligible impact on total U.S. industrial production and most of its sub-indices. We first show that these results still hold with a sample that runs through mid-2012 and uses a different natural gas price. Concerns about the joint determination of the real natural gas price and U.S. economic activity lead us to reassess these results using a multivariate framework. Our model shows that natural gas does affect U.S...

  10. Juridical consequences of liberalization. Part 2. Natural Gas Law and reorganization of the gas utility

    The liberalization of the natural gas market in Europe has all kinds of juridical aspects. Not only with respect to new legislation (Natural Gas Law and Mining Law), but also changes in juridical structures of natural gas companies, caused by privatization or splitting up in a mains management company and a distribution company. In a series of articles lawyers of the Energy Working Group of Houthoff Buruma in The Hague, Netherlands, discuss the developments at the natural gas market. In this first part, attention will be paid to actual developments with respect to the new Natural Gas Law and the Mining Law in the Netherlands

  11. Indicators of security of natural gas supply in Asia

    Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource and a global commodity. The demand for it has significantly increased. Japan, Korea and Taiwan heavily rely on liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. On the other hand, countries like Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. Gas supply interruptions, volatile gas prices, transportation and distribution bottlenecks, and a growing reliance on imports over longer distances have renewed interest on gas security in Asia. This paper examines the relative vulnerability to natural gas supply disruptions of seven gas-importing countries in Asia for year 2008. Based on four indicators of security of gas supply, a composite gas supply security index is estimated as an overall indication of gas vulnerability for our sample countries. The results demonstrate that there are differences in the values of the overall indicator of gas vulnerability among countries and the assessment is useful in developing an effective strategy of natural gas supply security in countries in the Asian region. (author)

  12. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Abdullah Tanriverdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  13. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  14. U.S. natural gas pipeline flow and demand trends

    It is no surprise that regional natural gas supply and demand patterns in North America are constantly changing. A consensus of forecasters agree that the natural gas resource base is larger than envisaged in the early 1980s due to advances in exploration and production technology. In addition, on the demand side more gas will be burned by US power generators to meet growth in electricity. Gas consumption is up in the commercial sector, and natural gas is correctly seen as environmentally protective. But how much more natural gas does the US need? This paper reports that new pipeline projects are springing up all over the nation --- 43 to be exact, with most of them connecting gas deliverability out of basins west of the Mississippi to new markets along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts

  15. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi [Sonatrach Commercialisation, Algiers (Algeria)

    2006-06-15

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  16. A Comparative Study of Liquefied Natural Gas: An Overview

    Muhammad Khan Memon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is the world’s fastest growing fuel and being produced by many countries of the world in the commercial quantities. Increasing natural gas price and new development in the technologies, liquefied natural gas industry is economically attractive in the major gas exporting countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG is an important energy source and continued to contribute the growth of natural gas industry. The new advance LNG technology is used for natural gas transportation for long distances. LNG can be transported by the large insulated cryogenic tankers at affordable cost. This study presents an overview of LNG liquidation facilities from natural gas as feed gas to LNG storage and transport. The main objective of the study is to highlight the current data for reviewers on LNG world market, mainly on LNG production, supply, demand, price and new development of LNG plants. The technology is growing gradually with increasing number of LNG consuming countries in overall the world. In the near future, LNG price may be affected by the advanced shale gas production in the United States of America and China. Australia becomes the world second largest exporter of LNG market after Qatar. Australia will increase LNG supply by 15 Bcf/day from 2014 and accounting for 25% of world LNG production by 2030. Global LNG production forecast will be reached 540 Bcm by 2020 and LNG trade will be reached 425 Mtpa by 2025. New countries are interested to enter in the LNG world market as importers and exporters.

  17. Pressure Fluctuations in Natural Gas Networks caused by Gas-Electric Coupling

    Chertkov, Misha; Fisher, Michael; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Misra, Sidhant

    2015-01-01

    The development of hydraulic fracturing technology has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States, driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in several electrical inter-connections. Gas-fired generators have the capability to ramp quickly and are often utilized by grid operators to balance intermittency caused by wind generation. The time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas consumption rates...

  18. Multi-criteria evaluation of natural gas resources

    Geologically estimated natural gas resources are 500 Tcm. With the advance in geological science increase of estimated resources is expected. Natural gas reserves in 2000 have been proved to be around 165 Tcm. As it is known the reserves are subject to two constraints, namely: capital invested in the exploration and drilling technologies used to discover new reserves. The natural gas scarcity factor, i.e. ratio between available reserves and natural gas consumption, is around 300 years for the last 50 years. The new discovery of natural gas reserves has given rise to a new energy strategy based on natural gas. Natural gas utilization is constantly increasing in the last 50 years. With new technologies for deep drilling, we have come to know that there are enormous gas resources available at relatively low price. These new discoveries together wth high demand for the environment saving have introduced a new energy strategy on the world scale. This paper presents an evaluation of the potential natural gas utilization in energy sector. As the criteria in this analysis resource, economic, environmental, social and technological indicators are used. Among the potential options of gas utilization following systems are considered: Gas turbine power plant, combine cycle plant, CHP power plant, steam turbine gas-fired power plant, fuel cell power plant. Multi-criteria method was used for the assessment of potential options with priority given to the Resource, Economic and Social Indicators. Results obtained are presented in graphical form representing priority list of potential options under specific constraints in the priority of natural gas utilization strategy in energy sector. (author)

  19. Canadian natural gas market dynamics and pricing : an update

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report discusses natural gas price formation and describes the current functioning of regional gas markets in Canada. This EMA also describes the factors affecting the price of natural gas in Canada and examines natural gas markets on a region-by region basis. It is shown that as part of an integrated North American market, prices of natural gas in Canada reflect supply and demand factors in both Canada and the United States. During the low oil price period of 1997/1998, high demand for natural gas outpaced the supply because of low drilling and production activity by producers. In response to the increased demand and lower levels of supply, the price of natural gas increased significantly in 1999 and 2000. This was followed by a period of market adjustment. The importance of electronic trading systems for enhancing price discovery was also discussed with reference to how spot and futures markets allow market participants to manage price volatility. It was determined that Canadians have had access to natural gas on terms and conditions equal to export customers, and at equal pricing. In early November 2000, natural gas prices in North American began to rise due to low levels of natural gas in storage. The price shocks were felt unevenly across the North American market. In response to the high prices, consumers conserved energy use, and many industrial users switched to cheaper fuels. By the spring 2001, demand continued to decrease at a time when production was high. These factors contributed to the downward pressure on gas prices. This EMA discusses the structure of market transactions and market adjustment mechanisms. It is presented in the context of the approaching 2002/2003 winter season where the tightening between natural gas supply and demand is expected to result in price volatility. 28 figs

  20. Market prospective of natural gas 2010-2025; Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025

    Diaz Bautista, Alejandro; Doniz Gonzalez, Virginia; Navarrete Barbosa, Juan Ignacio [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The Ministry of Energy, in compliance to Article 109 of the Natural Gas Regulations, publishes the Prospective natural gas market 2010-2025, which contains the most current information about the historical evolution and growth prospects of the domestic market country's natural gas and its role in the international context. This foresight is attached to the lines of action established in the National Energy Strategy, ratified by Congress in April 2010 in regard to strengthening the transportation infrastructure of natural gas, in order to ensure the supply of this fuel, therefore remains congruence with the instruments of power sector planning. The first one concerns the international panorama of natural gas in the different producing and consuming regions around the world. Chapter two provides a current perspective of those actions in the sector within the regulatory framework for natural gas in Mexico. The third chapter details the issues that occurred in the natural gas market during the period 1999-2009 and the fourth chapter discusses the expected evolution of demand and domestic supply of natural gas by 2025. [Spanish] La Secretaria de Energia, en el cumplimiento al Articulo 109 del Reglamento de Gas Natural, publica la Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025, la cual contiene la informacion mas actualizada acerca de la evolucion historica y las expectativas de crecimiento del mercado interno de gas natural del pais y su papel en el contexto internacional. Esta Prospectiva se apega a las lineas de accion establecidas en la Estrategia Nacional de Energia, ratificada por el Congreso en abril de 2010, en lo relativo a fortalecer la infraestructura de transporte de gas natural, con el fin de asegurar el suministro de este combustible, por lo cual se mantiene congruencia con los instrumentos de planeacion del sector energetico. La Prospectiva esta integrada por cuatro capitulos. El primero se refiere al panorama internacional del gas natural en las

  1. Corporate renewal in the natural gas industry

    The changes occurring at the gas-related operating companies of Nova Corporation of Alberta are reviewed. These companies include Nova Gas Transmission, Alberta's major gas pipeline company, which moved 3.8 trillion ft3 of gas in 1993; Nova Gas Services, a provider of gas management services to customers in Canada, USA, and Mexico; and Novacorp International, a joint venture investor in gas pipeline developments and consulting. The changes were made in response to increased competition in the gas transport industry following the deregulation process that started in the mid-1980s. A strategic direction based on growth rather than cost-cutting was chosen in order to make the Nova companies dominant players in North American gas supply. Nova's confidence in being able to implement such a strategy is based on four factors: abundant supply of gas and high potential for growth in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin; steadily growing demand for gas; the development of a market-responsive industry; and the emergence of a truly North American market that includes Mexico. Business transformation teams were established with the task of finding out the right business design to meet customer needs and to provide exceptional service. Detailed plans for implementing the transformation are being completed, and a performance measurement system with clear targets has been developed to measure the success of the transformation

  2. The international natural gas market : the role for developing countries

    In the year 2000, natural gas accounted for 24 per cent of global energy consumption. This is expected to rise to 27 per cent in 2020 because natural gas has many advantages over other fossil fuels. It is abundant, there are 60 years of reserves, plus it is a clean fuel that is being used increasingly for electric power generation. The main focus of this paper is to assess the role that will be played by developing countries in the natural gas industry in terms of natural gas supply on a global scale in the coming 20 years. A review is presented of the current status of companies involved in gas production, gas marketing, and gas distribution via pipeline. Industrialized countries currently hold 47 per cent of the world reserves of natural gas, but they produce 73 per cent of commercialized gas and they consume 85 per cent. In contrast, developing countries hold the remaining 53 per cent of the world reserves of natural gas, produce 27 per cent, but only consume 15 per cent. Six of the 12 top world gas producers are developing countries. These include Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, and Mexico. Of these 6, only Algeria, Indonesia and Malaysia export natural gas. A large proportion of recent gas discoveries have occurred in developing countries such as Nigeria, Congo, Algeria, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Trinity and Tobago. This paper also presented an analysis of risks facing international developers is presented. The risks include those associated with gas market volatility and pipelines in developing countries. 3 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Why natural gas for CO2 and climate control?

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have suggested that increased use of natural gas is a possible strategy for reducing the potential for global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes as much to global warming as all other greenhouse gases combined. During combustion, natural gas generates less CO2 per unit of energy produced than either coal or oil. On the basis of the amount of CO2 emitted, the potential for global warming could be reduced by substituting natural gas to coal or oil. However, since natural gas is primarily methane, a potent greenhouse gas, these emissions could reduce natural gas's inherent advantage of lower CO2 emissions. To address this issue and compare the fuels on an equivalent basis, it is necessary to account for emissions of all greenhouse gases throughout the fuel cycle of each fuel and to determine the impact of these gases on global warming. Gas Research Institute and EPA jointly funded a study to quantify methane emissions from the natural gas industry so that this information could be used as input to address the issue of the fuel switching strategy. The study found that the natural gas industry emitted 1.4% of natural gas production (314 Bscf of methane) to the atmosphere in 1992. Today, due to voluntary reductions from the gas industry, the percent leaked is even less. This 1992 amount has been analyzed over a broad range of global warming potentials, and the conclusion that fuel switching to natural gas reduces the potential for global warming is supported. The results of this study are presented in this paper

  4. Natural gas prices in the North American market

    The current high cost of natural gas is discussed, explaining it primarily in terms of high demand for electricity, coupled with a desire for cleaner-burning fuels, and more stringent environmental standards. The supply and demand equation is the key to natural gas prices, affected to some degree by considerations of gas available in storage, transportation costs, and the cost of other available energy choices such as coal, oil, nuclear and renewable energy sources. The emergence of a continent-wide market for natural gas is an another factor which, combined with a strong economy, makes it attractive for natural gas explorers and producers to increase drilling and production to record levels. According to estimates released by the National Energy Board, there is about 555 trillion cubic feet of remaining recoverable natural gas available in Canada, sufficient to meet demands at today's production levels for about 85 years. It should be noted, however, that much of this gas is found in deeper formations and in more distant frontier areas such as offshore Atlantic Canada, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon, making it more expensive to produce and to deliver it to markets. This suggests that natural gas prices are likely to remain high for some time, since these deeper and more distant natural gas formations are not economic at lower prices. 5 figs

  5. Assessing climate benefits of natural gas and coal electricity generation

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Myhrvold, Nathan; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-04-01

    A transition from a system of coal electricity generation to near-zero emission electricity generation will be central to any effort to mitigate climate change. Natural gas is increasingly seen as a 'bridge fuel' for transitions form coal to near-zero emission energy sources. However, various studies use different metrics to estimate the climate impact of natural gas utilization, and led to differing conclusions. Thus, there is a need to identify the key factors affecting the climate effects of natural gas and coal electricity production, and to present these climate effects in as clear and transparent a way as possible. Here, we identify power plant efficiency and methane leakage rate as the key factors that explain most of the variance in greenhouse gas emissions by natural gas and coal power plants. We then develop a power plant GHG emission model, apply available life-cycle parameters to calculate associated CO2 and CH4 emissions and assess climate effects. Simple underlying physical changes can be obscured by abstract evaluation metrics, thus we base our discussion on temperature changes over time. We find that, during the period of plant operation, if there is substantial natural gas leakage, natural gas plants can produce greater near-term warming than a coal plant with the same power output. If leakage rates can be made to be low and efficiency high, natural gas plants can produce some reduction in near-term warming. However, without carbon capture and storage natural gas power plants cannot achieve the deep reductions that would be required to avoid substantial contribution to additional global warming. Achieving climate benefits from the use of natural gas depends on building high-efficiency natural gas plants, controlling methane leakage, and on developing a policy environment that assures a transition to future lower-emission technologies. For more information please see http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/9/11/114022/article .

  6. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  7. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good

  8. 77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets

    2012-08-27

    ... Conferences) ( http://elibrary.ferc.gov/idmws/common/opennat.asp?fileID=13023450 ); 77 FR 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012-16997.pdf ). \\2\\ Coordination between Natural Gas... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental...

  9. Policies for technical innovations to promote natural gas market development

    Short-term and long-term perspectives of the natural gas market worldwide are discussed, covering demand and supply trends. Technologies determining the future of the natural gas market, and R and D needs for implementing future technological challenges are considered. (R.P.)

  10. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  11. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  12. Statistics of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    This report, presents financial and operating information of all major interstate natural gas pipeline companies that operated in the United States during 1991. This report is used by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), State utility commissions, other government agencies, and the general public. The information is taken from FERC Form 2, ''Annual Report of Major Natural Gas Companies,'' as filed with FERC

  13. 75 FR 80486 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing December 15, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation resubmitted marked and clean...

  14. Rapid Growth in China Natural Gas Demand and Production

    Li Min

    2003-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas production will exceed 35 billion cubic meters in 2003,more than 7 percent up from last year,according to the estimation by the related department. There are now more than 60 enterprises engaged in natural gas production in China.

  15. Future considerations: Imperial finds new promise in natural gas

    Martin, J

    After decades of having natural gas a minor part of its operations, Imperial Oil has reevaluated the importance of that resource within the company's strategy. A comprehensive business review of the industry was conducted in 1987 and prompted Imperial's subsidiary, Esso Resources Canada, to adopt the goal of becoming an industry leader in natural gas reserves, production, and marketing. Imperial's natural gas business started in 1921, when it assumed control of the company whose Turner Valley gas find sparked an oil rush in 1914. By the early 1940s, when Turner Valley was still Canada's only major oil field, Imperial was considering the manufacture of synthetic oil from natural gas, but then it discovered the first well of the Leduc oil boom in 1947. Imperial built the first gas conservation plant in Canada in 1950, but largely left other companies to develop gas fields. The deregulated gas market of the mid-1980s saw Imperial buying its first major acquisition in over 20 years, Sulpetro Ltd.; this boosted Imperial's annual gas production and its reserves by a third. A further purchase of Ocelot Industries increased overall gas production by another 20%. Imperial also made substantial gas finds in the Mackenzie Delta, and the company's holdings at Obed (Alberta) will add 8% to gas production.

  16. Future considerations: Imperial finds new promise in natural gas

    After decades of having natural gas a minor part of its operations, Imperial Oil has reevaluated the importance of that resource within the company's strategy. A comprehensive business review of the industry was conducted in 1987 and prompted Imperial's subsidiary, Esso Resources Canada, to adopt the goal of becoming an industry leader in natural gas reserves, production, and marketing. Imperial's natural gas business started in 1921, when it assumed control of the company whose Turner Valley gas find sparked an oil rush in 1914. By the early 1940s, when Turner Valley was still Canada's only major oil field, Imperial was considering the manufacture of synthetic oil from natural gas, but then it discovered the first well of the Leduc oil boom in 1947. Imperial built the first gas conservation plant in Canada in 1950, but largely left other companies to develop gas fields. The deregulated gas market of the mid-1980s saw Imperial buying its first major acquisition in over 20 years, Sulpetro Ltd.; this boosted Imperial's annual gas production and its reserves by a third. A further purchase of Ocelot Industries increased overall gas production by another 20%. Imperial also made substantial gas finds in the Mackenzie Delta, and the company's holdings at Obed (Alberta) will add 8% to gas production

  17. Natural gas: a crucial role in national energy policy

    Developing Australia's natural gas market is a central consideration in the Council of Australian Governments' current Energy Market review and national energy policy. In its submission the Australian gas Association emphasised that given the significant economic, regional, environmental and energy-choice benefits of natural gas, a priority outcome of the national energy policy must be the continued development and expansion of Australia's natural gas industry. The review provides an opportunity for Australia to establish a more environmentally sustainable energy mix, meeting our growing demand for energy, while maintaining the industrial competitiveness and standard of living

  18. Current Status and Prospects of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Shi Xin

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Overview and Current Status of Utilization of China's Natural Gas Resources Natural gas as a green fuel with low carbon content can comply with the trend in the epoch for development of non carbonaceous energy source, and has a lot of advantages such as its abundance in resources, convenience in applica tion and cost competitiveness. The application of natural gas as a premium fuel has become a focus pursued aggres sively by international players, and the perspectives for gas demand growth will be better than that for oil globally.

  19. Globalization of the natural gas industry

    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes

  20. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  1. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    None

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  2. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico

  3. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico

  4. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico

  5. Natural gas central to world's future energy mix

    Continued growth in demand for natural gas is one of three pillars around which the energy mix of the future will take shape and upon which energy strategies should be based. The others are consumption efficiency and growth of renewable energy sources. This paper evaluates world energy supply and demand and includes an analysis of world pipeline gas, electricity, and LNG trends. The paper discusses the natural gas resource, proved reserves, reserves growth, gas prices and demand, country demand trends, world energy use, gas pipeline construction, power generation, electricity consumption and prices, and global carbon emissions

  6. The EROI of Conventional Canadian Natural Gas Production

    Jon Freise

    2011-01-01

    Canada was the world’s third largest natural gas producer in 2008, with 98% of its gas being produced by conventional, tight gas, and coal bed methane wells in Western Canada. Natural gas production in Western Canada peaked in 2001 and remained nearly flat until 2006 despite more than quadrupling the drilling rate. Canada seems to be one of many counter examples to the idea that oil and gas production can rise with sufficient investment. This study calculated the Energy Return on Energy Inves...

  7. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    None

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  8. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    None

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  9. Power industry and the environment IV. Natural gas

    A total of 26 contributions to the conference are presented, two of them in a Supplement. Seven contributions have been inputted in INIS, viz.: Natural gas: an environmentally friendly and energy saving fuel; Pollutants from the combustion of fuels; Consequences of increasing the consumption of gaseous fuels in national economy; Conversion of energy sources to gas consumption: effects on air quality; Experience of the Czech National Energy Inspectorate from the conversion of energy sources in the North-Bohemian region to gas fuel; Environmental consequences of gas fuel uses in towns; Natural gas: evaluation, control, and improvement of its environmental impacts; and Cogeneration units. (J.B.)

  10. Development of Purification Technology of Natural Gas in Sichuan

    Chen Genliang

    1995-01-01

    @@ Sichuan is an important base of natural gas production in China. Its output is about 70×108 m3/a which makes up over 40% of that in whole country. The composition of natural gas from various fields in Sichuan is different. Most of the gas contains H2S which reaches its summit of above 490 g/m3. It also contains CO2. According to the criterion, H2S conent in natural gas should be lower than 20 mg/m3, about 70%of the gas produced in Sichuan has to be purified before it comes into use for commercial purpose. Therefore it is of great significance for our natural gas industry to develop the purification technology.

  11. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  12. The voice of Canada's oil and natural gas industry : oil and natural gas

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 150 members of the oil and gas industry, which together are responsible for approximately 95 per cent of the oil and natural gas produced in Canada. The upstream sector comprises companies that explore for, develop and produce petroleum resources, while the downstream sector involves companies that refine and market the resources. CAPP works closely with governments of 11 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories and with public groups to represent upstream producers active across the country. The enhancement of the economic well-being and sustainability of the upstream petroleum industry is the mission of the CAPP. The main priorities of the CAPP are: Environment, Health and Safety Stewardship, reasonable and timely access to resources, competitiveness of the Canadian industry on a global basis, the secure and efficient access to markets, and open and constructive public, government and media affairs. Some of the issues dealt with by the CAPP are sour gas, flaring, venting and industry-landowner relations, improved safety performance, federal issues such as corporate taxes and environmental issues, Aboriginal and First Nations issues, transportation costs for natural gas on major pipelines, and oil and sands bitumen issues, to name a few. The board of the CAPP is made up of 32 members. The work is carried out by hundreds of volunteers from member companies who provide their time and expertise for various committees and working groups, as well as a staff of approximately 40 people to assist them. The members provide the entire funding for CAPP, which is located in Calgary, Alberta. The document concluded with a few facts concerning the petroleum industry in general. 12 figs

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  14. Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector

    Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's

  15. Does natural gas increase the indoor radon levels?

    The natural gas is naturally occurring hydrocarbon consists mainly of methane and includes varying amounts of other hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and other impurities such as: nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. It is used domestically and industrially as a preferable energy source compared to coal and oil. Because natural gas is found in deep underground natural formations or associated with other underground hydrocarbon reservoirs, there is a potential to contain radon as a contaminant. This work was designated to measure indoor radon concentrations in dwellings supplied with natural gas compared with those not supplied with it, where radon level was estimated using solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39). The results showed that radon concentration was significantly higher in dwellings supplied with natural gas, where it was 252.30 versus 136.19 Bqm-3 in dwelling not supplied with natural gas (P < 0.001). The mean values of radon exhalation rate was 0.02 ± 6.34 · 10-4 Bq · m-2 · h-1 in dwellings supplied with natural gas and 0.01 +- 0.008 Bq · m-2 · h-1 in dwellings lacking it. In addition, a significant difference was observed in the mean annual effective doses (4.33 and 2.34 mSv · y-1, respectively) between both groups. Conclusively, the data indicate that natural gas may represent a potential source of indoor radon

  16. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  17. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry : 1996

    Statistics regarding Canada's crude oil and natural gas industry for 1996 were presented. Data presentation was in tabular form, the topics being exploration and development, synthetic crude oil reserves, crude oil production and movements by source, natural gas production, drilling completions, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, and total sales of natural gas by province. Some of the noteworthy highlights for 1996 were: (1) 14,600 new wells were drilled, the highest number ever recorded, (2) capital investment was over $13 billion, (3) 148 companies were involved in mergers and acquisitions, (4) value of marketable production of oil, natural gas and natural gas by-products topped $30 billion, (5) Empress pipelines began operations of the first new major oil pipeline from Western Canada in 45 years, (6) the Hibernia offshore crude oil facility was completed, (7) Sable Island offshore energy projects applications were filed, and (8) the development of the Terra Nova, Whitehorse and Hebron fields was announced. 8 tabs

  18. The prospects for liquefied natural gas development in the US

    The objective of our paper is to analyze the prospects for LNG development in the US. In particular, we discuss LNG investment projects with respect to natural gas supply and demand, existing transmission infrastructure, and competing pipeline projects. At the same time potential competition between natural gas and coal in power generation is taken into account. We conclude that in the mid-term, LNG will assume an essential role in meeting US demand because of stagnating and declining domestic production in North America accompanied by an expected increase in demand for natural gas. Additional net imports will be required in the western US (mainly southern California), the Southeast, and in the Northeast - three areas of the nation that lack adequate supply. When accounting for the current status of existing natural gas infrastructure and forthcoming investments, we conclude that there should be little concern about sufficient investment incentives and supply security in the US competitive natural gas market. (author)

  19. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.